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Sample records for lutjanus perciformes lutjanidae

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Crook, David; Saunders, Thor; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the complete mitochondrial genome of the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii. It was assembled from approximately 1.4 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genome was 16,596 bp in length consisting of 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA, 12S and 16S rRNA as well as two non-coding regions. The A+T base content (52.8%) is similar to other teleosts.

  2. Parasites of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Alagoas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida; Carvalho, Bruno Ferreira Lyra; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on a sample of sixty mutton snappers (Lutjanus analis) that were caught on the coast of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The parasite diversity and infection levels were low. The ectoparasite Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Isopoda: Aegidae), and larvae of two endoparasites, Trypanorhyncha gen. sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), were detected. The significance of these parasites is discussed in the context of their transmission pathways and potential impact.

  3. Parasites of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Alagoas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida; Carvalho, Bruno Ferreira Lyra; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on a sample of sixty mutton snappers (Lutjanus analis) that were caught on the coast of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The parasite diversity and infection levels were low. The ectoparasite Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Isopoda: Aegidae), and larvae of two endoparasites, Trypanorhyncha gen. sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), were detected. The significance of these parasites is discussed in the context of their transmission pathways and potential impact. PMID:25054505

  4. Oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian Snapper Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C A F; Oliveira, P G V; Oliveira, C H B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P

    2016-02-01

    Lutjanid species exhibit multiple spawning behaviour during an extended spawning season in warm months, asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. Although early studies have contributed to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of many species within the group, they have not considered aspects about the number of cortical alveoli oocyte stage throughout maturity phases along spawning season. The latter aspect is also considered very important to confirm indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. In the present study, were analyzed 154 Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei female gonads obtained from artisanal fisheries in Pernambuco State (Brazil) between October 2010 and March 2011. Were measured oocyte size frequency distribution for maturity phases (developing, spawning capable and actively spawning), and oocyte development stage (unyolked oocytes, cortical alveoli, primary, secondary and tertiary vitellogenic oocytes and hydrated oocytes), and also the oocyte stage frequency during spawning season. The frequency of cortical alveoli oocyte stage was constantly found in the spawning period (>37%), showing slight variation throughout maturity phases. The absence of gap in the oocyte size frequency distribution between primary and secondary oocyte growth stages during spawning season is a strong indicator of continuous oocyte recruitment from reserve stocks. In addition, co-occurrence of tertiary vitellogenic oocytes, hydrated oocytes, post-ovulatory follicles and yellow-brown bodies in the histological sections of ovaries reinforce indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. PMID:26909631

  5. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area.

  6. Helminth parasites of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the reef Santiaguillo, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Jiménez-Badillo, Lourdes; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2014-12-01

    A total of 21 helminth species were recovered from 52 specimens of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus , captured in the reef Santiaguillo, Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, State of Veracruz, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. These helminths included 9 trematodes (7 adults and 2 metacercariae), 4 nematodes (3 adults and 1 larva), 4 acanthocephalans (1 adult and 3 juvenile), 2 cestodes (both larvae), and 2 monogeneans. Sixteen of the 21 species are new host records; 7 are common species with a prevalence >40% and mean intensity >4.1. The monogenean Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus was the most-prevalent parasite with a prevalence of 78.8%, followed by the intestinal plerocercoids of Tetraphyllidea with a prevalence of 59.6%. The richness (S = 21), and diversity (Shannon index H = 2.17) in the component community, as well as in the infracommunity level (S = 5.1 ± 2.2, H = 0.92 ± 0.4), was similar to those found in other marine fish of temperate and tropical latitudes. The present study suggests that the composition of the parasite community is associated with the host feeding habits because 18/21 of the recorded species are trophically transmitted.

  7. Oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian Snapper Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C A F; Oliveira, P G V; Oliveira, C H B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P

    2016-02-01

    Lutjanid species exhibit multiple spawning behaviour during an extended spawning season in warm months, asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. Although early studies have contributed to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of many species within the group, they have not considered aspects about the number of cortical alveoli oocyte stage throughout maturity phases along spawning season. The latter aspect is also considered very important to confirm indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. In the present study, were analyzed 154 Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei female gonads obtained from artisanal fisheries in Pernambuco State (Brazil) between October 2010 and March 2011. Were measured oocyte size frequency distribution for maturity phases (developing, spawning capable and actively spawning), and oocyte development stage (unyolked oocytes, cortical alveoli, primary, secondary and tertiary vitellogenic oocytes and hydrated oocytes), and also the oocyte stage frequency during spawning season. The frequency of cortical alveoli oocyte stage was constantly found in the spawning period (>37%), showing slight variation throughout maturity phases. The absence of gap in the oocyte size frequency distribution between primary and secondary oocyte growth stages during spawning season is a strong indicator of continuous oocyte recruitment from reserve stocks. In addition, co-occurrence of tertiary vitellogenic oocytes, hydrated oocytes, post-ovulatory follicles and yellow-brown bodies in the histological sections of ovaries reinforce indeterminate fecundity hypothesis.

  8. Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Simone F; Duarte, Yalan F; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2010-09-01

    The mutton snapper Lutjanus analis is an overexploited species of economic importance for the Northeast region of Brazil. To determine the reproductive aspects of the mutton snapper, biological data were sampled from Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará States, between 7 and 200m depth, from February 1997 to December 1999, performed in the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone Study Program (REVIZEE-NE Program). Data on total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and gutted weight (GW) were measured. The gonads were collected and fixed in FAACC for histological analysis on maturational stage and calculation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). A total of 135 fishes were collected; from these, 74 were females and 61 were males. Females were between 28.0 and 69.0cm (TL) and the males between 35.0 and 75.0cm (TL). Mutton snapper are gonochorists, and the spawning season, determined by the maturity stages frequency and the GSI, occurred between November and April, with peak spawning in March. The mature females' minimum length was 28.0cm fork length, smaller than the minimum maturation length previously reported for the species in Cuba. The exploitation status of the species and the biological traits enhances the importance of establishing spatial and seasonal protection measures such as protected areas both in nursery and spawning sites. PMID:20737838

  9. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species.

  10. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  11. Mitogenomes of genus Pristipomoides, Lutjanus and Pterocaesio confirm Caesionidae nests in Lutjanidae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Bai, Qin; Yan, Tao; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Goldbanded jobfish (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: Etelinae: Pristipomoides multidens) was sequenced using long-PCR amplification (Accession No.: KF430626). The mitochondrial genome is highly homologous to those of other teleosts. Consensus tree based on phylogeny analysis of nucleotide sequences using the protein-coding regions combined sequences (apart from ND6) in 11 species supports the fact that Pristipomoides multidens of Etelinae and the cluster of Subfamily Lutjaninae remain the sister relationship, consistent with the traditional taxonomy, while the fusiliers (Pterocaesio tile) of family Caesionidae nested within the genus Lutjanus of family Lutjanidae and showed more closely relationship with the non-reddish snappers cluster including L. russellii and L. argentimaculatus. Conclusively, this mitogenomic phylogeny indicates that the Caesionidae is a synonym of family Lutjanidae. Given the morphologic and feeding diversity, we hypothesize that the variation of feeding systems of genus Lutjanus may drive the speciation of snappers and fusiliers.

  12. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  13. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene.

  14. A new species of Trichosomoididae (Nematoda) from skin of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), on the Texas-Louisiana shelf, northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Ray, Candis L; Cook, Melissa; Grace, Mark A; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Eggs and larvae of Huffmanela oleumimica n. sp. infect red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860), were collected from the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (28°16'36.58″N, 93°03'51.08″W) and are herein described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs in skin comprised fields (1-5 × 1-12 mm; 250 eggs/mm(2)) of variously oriented eggs deposited in dense patches or in scribble-like tracks. Eggs had clear (larvae indistinct, principally vitelline material), amber (developing larvae present) or brown (fully developed larvae present; little, or no, vitelline material) shells and measured 46-54 μm (x = 50; SD ± 1.6; n = 213) long, 23-33 (27 ± 1.4; 213) wide, 2-3 (3 ± 0.5; 213) in eggshell thickness, 18-25 (21 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass width, and 36-42 (39 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass length with protruding polar plugs 5-9 (7 ± 0.6; 213) long and 5-8 (6 ± 0.5; 213) wide. Fully developed larvae were 160-201 (176 ± 7.9) long and 7-8 (7 ± 0.5) wide, had transverse cuticular ridges, and were emerging from some eggs within and beneath epidermis. The new species differs from its congeners by having eggs <65 μm in total length and that have a brown eggshell when fully developed, an envelope throughout development, and irregularly-dispersed eggshell spines plus a larva >110 μm long with transverse cuticular ridges. The eggs lack a spindle-shaped envelope, polar filaments, and eggshell ridges. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela from a snapper (Lutjanidae) or from the Gulf of Mexico. A table of egg and larval characteristics, hosts, and localities for Huffmanela spp. is provided.

  15. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (LutjanidaePerciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  16. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) parasitising the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae): species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) off northern Australia, with a redescription of Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) and descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-01-01

    Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus).

  17. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  18. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Osteichthyes: Lutjanidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Lutjanidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: Philometra argentimaculati sp. n. and Philometra fulvi sp. n. from the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) and blacktail snapper Lutjanus fulvus (Foerster), respectively. P. argentimaculati is mainly characterised by the body length of male 2.56-3.07 mm, needle-like spicules 183-228 μm long, length of the gubernaculum at 90-120 μm, distal end of the gubernaculum with lamellar structures without a dorsal protuberance and by the dorsally non-interrupted male caudal mound. P. fulvi differs from all Philometra spp. with described males in the rectangular shape of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and is noted for the length of needle-like spicules 123-138 μm, that of the gubernaculum 69-93 μm and for the presence of a dorsal protuberance and lamella-like structures on the gubernaculum distal end. These are the first nominal species of philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the region of the Indian Ocean. A necessity of further detailed studies on philometrids parasitising marine fishes worlwide is stressed.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of South China Sea snappers (genus Lutjanus; family Lutjanidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of intra- and interspecies were elucidated based on complete cytochrome b (cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequences from 12 recognized species of genus Lutjanus Bloch in the South China Sea (SCS). Using the combined data set of consensus cyt b and COII gene sequences, interspecific relationships for all 12 recognized species in SCS were consistent with Allen's morphology-based identifications, with strong correlation between the molecular and morphological characteristics. Monophyly of eight species (L. malabaricus, L. russellii, L. stellatus, L. bohar, L. johnii, L. sebae, L. fulvus, and L. fulviflamma) was strongly supported; however, the pairs L. vitta/L. ophuysenii and L. erythropterus/L. argentimaculatus were more similar than expected We inferred that L. malabaricus exists in SCS, and the introgression caused by hybridization is the reason for the unexpectedly high homogeneity.

  20. Batch fecundity of Lutjanus carponotatus (Lutjanidae) and implications of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.; Russ, G. R.; Kritzer, J. P.

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated body size to fecundity relationships of a reef fish species targeted by line fishing, and examines the potential benefits of increased batch fecundity in no-take reserves compared to fished areas around the Palm, Whitsunday and Keppel Island Groups, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Lutjanus carponotatus batch fecundity increased with fork length in a non-linear relationship that was best described by a power function. Batch fecundity differed by more than 100-fold among individuals, with a range from 7,074 to 748,957 eggs in fish ranging from 184 to 305 mm fork length. Furthermore, egg diameter increased with fish size. Based on underwater visual census, the potential batch fecundity per unit area in all three island groups ranged from 1.0 to 4.2 times greater in the no-take reserves than in the fished areas between 2001 and 2004. In 2002, a mean 2.3-fold difference in biomass between no-take reserves and fished areas converted to a mean 2.5-fold difference in batch fecundity per unit area. Greater batch fecundity, longer spawning seasons and potentially greater larval survival due to larger egg size from bigger individuals might significantly enhance the potential benefits of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef.

  1. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  2. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  3. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M

    2012-04-26

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  4. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts.

  5. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts. PMID:21497672

  6. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage. PMID:26299125

  7. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage.

  8. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  9. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-01-01

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct. PMID:27394598

  10. Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Lutjanidae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-01-01

    Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. and Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. are described from the gills of Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål), respectively, in the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. differs from all other members of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 by its unique male copulatory organ, a straight tube with a bulbous base and without an accessory piece. Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. differs from its congeners by having a copulatory organ with a bulbous base, a meandering copulatory tube with clockwise coil having less than one complete ring, and a slender accessory piece along the middle length of the copulatory tube. All species of Euryhaliotrema are listed and divided to three groups based on morpholgy of the male copulatory organ.

  11. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  12. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host.

  13. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  14. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  15. Cryopreservation of mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) sperm.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Eduardo G; Oliveira, Idili R; Serralheiro, Pedro C Da Silva; Cerqueira, Vinicius R

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2) , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10%) and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min-1) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g) collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05) was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2) with DMSO ( 10%) and cooling rate of -60°C.min-1 ( P < 0.05) . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper.

  16. High levels of genetic connectivity among populations of yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus (Lutjanidae-Perciformes), in the western South Atlantic revealed through multilocus analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Veneza, Ivana; Sampaio, Iracilda; Araripe, Juliana; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, five loci (mitochondrial and nuclear) were sequenced to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of populations of the yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, found along the coast of the western South Atlantic. O. chrysurus is a lutjanid species that is commonly associated with coral reefs and exhibits an ample geographic distribution, and it can therefore be considered a good model for the investigation of phylogeographic patterns and genetic connectivity in marine environments. The results reflected a marked congruence between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers as well as intense gene flow among the analyzed populations, which represent a single genetic stock along the entire coast of Brazil between the states of Pará and Espírito Santo. Our data also showed high levels of genetic diversity in the species (mainly mtDNA), as well a major historic population expansion, which most likely coincided with the sea level oscillations at the end of the Pleistocene. In addition, this species is intensively exploited by commercial fisheries, and data on the genetic structure of its populations will be essential for the development of effective conservation and management plans.

  17. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus).

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Lin, L; Li, C H; Xu, S N; Liu, Y; Zhou, Y B

    2014-07-24

    We isolated and characterized 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci in Lutjanus erythropterus using a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. We found between 2 and 8 alleles per locus, with a mean of 4.85. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.065 to 0.867 and from 0.085 to 0.832, respectively, with means of 0.461 and 0.529, respectively. Allele frequencies in three loci were found to deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Evidence for null alleles was found for three loci. These markers will be useful for distinguishing released captive-bred L. erythropterus individuals from wild individuals.

  18. DNA barcoding, phylogenetic relationships and speciation of snappers (genus Lutjanus).

    PubMed

    Wang, ZhongDuo; Guo, YuSong; Tan, Wei; Li, Lu; Tang, EnPu; Liu, ChuWu; Liu, Yun

    2010-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 13 snapper species from the South China Sea have been established using the combined DNA sequences of three full-length mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and CYTB) and two partial nuclear genes (RAG1, RAG2). The 13 species (genus Lutjanus) were selected after DNA barcoding 72 individuals, representing 20 species. Our study suggests that although DNA barcoding aims to develop species identification systems, it may also be useful in the construction of phylogenies by aiding the selection of taxa. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene data has an advantage over an individual dataset because of its higher resolving power.

  19. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P<0.05) was achieved by combining extender with pH 8.2 with 10% concentration of dimethylsulfoxide and cooling rate 60°C -min, 1 minute of equilibration time and 1:3 (v/v) dilution ratio. The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates >60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  20. Ultrastructure of novel thrombocytes in the dog snapper Lutjanus jocu.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, C; Matos, P; Rocha, S; Matos, E; Oliveira, E; Al-Quraishy, S; Casal, G

    2014-04-01

    Myxosporean cysts containing spores of Henneguya sp. were observed in the gills of the dog snapper Lutjanus jocu. Adjacent to the cysts were capillaries, allowing observation of peripheral blood cells. Numerous white blood cells displaying uncommon cytoplasmic projections were observed amongst the erythrocytes. Their morphology allowed them to be identified as thrombocytes (TCs). Each TC displayed 18-26 cytoplasmic projections, most of which were in close proximity to erythrocytes. At their apical end, each cytoplasmic projection presented an ellipsoidal vacuole (c. 0·6 µm × 0·3 µm) from which a secretory tubule, 0·3-0·4 µm long and c. 120 nm in total diameter, extended towards the periphery of the TC plasmalemma and fused with the cellular membrane. From this opening, contents of vacuoles were apparently released into the lumen of the capillaries. Other vacuoles with similar features, and containing an electron-lucent matrix, were observed in the cytoplasm of the TC. This is the first description of fish TC with these ultrastructural features and organization, which suggest that they perform a secretory function.

  1. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, K. W.; Berumen, M. L.; Mateo, I.; Elsdon, T. S.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas.

  2. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit. PMID:26299123

  3. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  4. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  5. The complete mitogenome of the snakehead Channa argus (Perciformes: Channoidei): genome characterization and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialian; Yang, Guang

    2011-08-01

    To better understand the phylogenetic status of the snakehead, Channa argus, we determined its complete mitogenome sequence using long-polymerase chain reaction and the direct sequencing method. The complete mitogenome sequence was 16,559 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop), the gene composition/order of which was identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. This was the first report of the mitogenome sequence in suborder Channoidei. Phylogenetic relationships of 14 perciform suborders based on mitogenome sequences were reconstructed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The results strongly supported the monophyly of Perciformes and the snakehead, as a representative species of suborder Channoidei, formed the most basal branch having sister relationship with the clade containing all other analyzed perciform fishes. The further phylogenetic analyses of six channid species, based on cytochrome b gene, suggested that two channid genera constituted reciprocally monophyletic clades. In addition, the relaxed molecular clock method was used to estimate divergence dates among major suborders of Perciformes and major species in Channoidei.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens (Perciformes, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Oh, Dae-Ju; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-A; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Park, Soo-Yeong; Jung, Yong-Hwan

    2007-08-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome for the rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens (Perciformes, Siganidae). This mitochondrial genome, consisting of 16,491 base pairs (bp), included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a noncoding control region similar those found in other vertebrates; the gene order was identical to that of typical vertebrates. Most of the genes of S. fuscescens were encoded on the H-strand, while the ND6 and eight tRNA (Gln, Ala, Asn, Cys, Tyr, Ser [UCN], Glu, and Pro) genes were encoded on the L-strand. The reading frames of ATPase 8 and 6 and those of ND4L and ND4 overlapped by ten and seven nucleotides, respectively. All mitochondrial protein-coding genes began with an ATG start codon, except for CO1, which started with GTG. Open reading frames of S. fuscescens ended with TAA (ND1, CO1, ATPase 8, ND4L, ND5 and ND6), and the remainder had incomplete stop codons, either TA (ATPase 6 and CO3) or T (ND2, CO2, ND3, ND4, and Cytb). The origin of L-strand replication in S. fuscescens was located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY) and was 34 nucleotides in length. A major noncoding region between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes (828 bp) was considered to be the control region (D-loop). Within this sequence, we identified a conserved sequence block characteristic of this region. The rabbitfish was grouped with Siganus canaliculatus in most parsimony analyses, which showed 100% bootstrap support for their divergence. These findings are useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships and identification within the suborder Acanthuroidei.

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for Lutjanus erythropterus.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Li, C H; Xu, S N; Liu, Y; Xiao, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We isolated and characterized 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus) using a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. We found three to 15 alleles per locus, with a mean of 6.68. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.087 to 0.978 and from 0.125 to 0.904, respectively, with averages of 0.576 and 0.650, respectively. Only three loci showed significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. Four loci showed evidence for null alleles. These markers will be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure and gene flow of L. erythropterus.

  8. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals <7 cm were associated with both the estuary (mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  9. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru.

    PubMed

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  10. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru

    PubMed Central

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  11. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P < 0.05) between species and families. This finding may mean that FSA levels are species and family dependent, something that could be investigated in future studies. As fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  12. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration.

  13. Diet shifts of Caribbean grunts (Haemulidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) and the relation with nursery-to-coral reef migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2003-08-01

    The spatial size distribution of grunts and snappers have previously indicated the separation of juveniles in nursery habitats from the adults on the coral reef. This implies life cycle migrations from nursery habitats (such as seagrass beds and mangroves) to the coral reef. If diet shifts are related to such migrations, then the diets of these fish must change before or around the fish size at which such migrations take place. A wide size range of juveniles of two grunt species ( Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon flavolineatum) and of two snapper species ( Lutjanus apodus and Ocyurus chrysurus) were caught in seagrass beds and mangroves, and their gut contents identified and quantified. Regression analysis between fish size and dietary importance of small crustaceans showed a negative relationship in all four species. Positive relations were found for H. sciurus, L. apodus and O. chrysurus between fish length and the dietary importance of decapods, and for L. apodusand O. chrysurus between fish length and prey fish importance. Critical changes in the fish diets with fish size were examined by application of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The CCA yielded three clusters of size-classes of fishes with similar diets, and application of a Mantel test showed that each of these clusters had significantly different diets, and that each cluster diet was significantly specialised. The size at which a fish species 'switched' from one cluster to another was compared with size-at-maturity data and with the typical size at which these species migrate from the nursery habitats to the coral reef. H. sciurus and H. flavolineatum may be prompted to migrate from the nursery habitats to coral reef habitats because of dietary changes, or because of the development of the gonads. For L. apodus and O. chrysurus, a dietary changeover forms a more likely explanation for nursery-to-reef migrations than does sexual maturation because these species reach maturity at sizes much larger

  14. Development of digestive enzyme activity in spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) larvae.

    PubMed

    Moguel-Hernández, I; Peña, R; Nolasco-Soria, H; Dumas, S; Zavala-Leal, I

    2014-06-01

    We describe digestive enzyme activity during the larval development of spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, pepsin, amylase, lipase, and acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated using spectrophotometric techniques from hatching through 30 days. The spotted rose snapper larvae present the same pattern of digestive enzyme activity previously reported for other species in which pancreatic (i.e., trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, and lipase) and intestinal (i.e., acid and alkaline phosphatases and leucine aminopeptidase) enzymatic activities are present from hatching allowing the larvae to digest and absorb nutrients in the yolk-sac and live prey by the time of first feeding. The digestive and absorption capacity of the spotted rose snapper increases during the larval development. A significant increase in individual activity of all enzymes occurs at 20 DAH, and around 25 DAH, the juvenile-type of digestion is observed with the appearance of pepsin secreted by the stomach, suggesting that maturation of the digestive function occurs around 20-25 DAH. Our results are in agreement with a previous suggestion that early weaning may be possible from 20 DAH. However, the patterns of enzymatic activities reported in our study should be considered during the formulation of an artificial diet for early weaning of the spotted rose snapper.

  15. Is there a cryptic species of the golden snapper (Lutjanus johnii)?

    PubMed

    Adibah, A B; Darlina, M N

    2014-10-07

    For centuries, morphology-based fish identification has been applied without molecular evaluation. Many studies showed that specimens with a similar morphology are frequently found to be quite genetically distinct. One of the fish species that still remains taxonomically problematic is a commercial snapper species, Lutjanus johnii. Because of morphological ambiguities among local fish taxonomists in Malaysia, we examined the ability of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to genetically examine the taxonomic status of L. johnii. A 626-base pair COI region was successfully amplified and aligned with conspecific sequences that were retrieved from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree obtained showed two major clusters; the first cluster consists of L. johnii from Straits of Malacca, Thailand, Australia, and China while the second cluster comprises L. johnii from China and India. The latter group showed sequence divergence greater than 3.5%. After observing this, we suspected that there might be a cryptic species between the South China Sea and Indian Ocean. This is the first molecular report concerning the commercial species of snapper, L. johnii, in Malaysia, which had only gained provisional recognition from morphological examination.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of lymphocyte cell kinase from humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Cai, J; Wang, B; Tang, J-F; Jian, J-C; Wu, Z-H; Gan, Z; Lu, Y-S

    2016-07-01

    Lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK) belongs to the Src family of tyrosine kinases, which involves in the proliferation control of lymphocytes. In this study, we cloned the LCK gene of humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus) (designed as LsLCK). Sequence analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of LsLCK was 2279 bp, contained a 1506-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. The deduced amino acid possessed the typical structural features of known LCK proteins, including four Src homology (SH) domains arranged as the SH1 domain followed by a regulatory C-terminal tail (COOH-domain), SH2 and SH3 adapter domains and SH4 domain which required for membrane attachment and CD4/CD8 binding. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that LsLCK transcripts were expressed mainly in thymus, spleen and head kidney in healthy fish. Moreover, the mRNA expressions in these tissues were significantly up-regulated after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that LsLCK protein localized distinctly in cytoplasm of cell in thymus, spleen and head kidney. Taken together, these findings indicated that LsLCK may play an important role in the immune response of humphead snapper against bacterial infection.

  17. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    PubMed

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of lymphocyte cell kinase from humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Cai, J; Wang, B; Tang, J-F; Jian, J-C; Wu, Z-H; Gan, Z; Lu, Y-S

    2016-07-01

    Lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK) belongs to the Src family of tyrosine kinases, which involves in the proliferation control of lymphocytes. In this study, we cloned the LCK gene of humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus) (designed as LsLCK). Sequence analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of LsLCK was 2279 bp, contained a 1506-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. The deduced amino acid possessed the typical structural features of known LCK proteins, including four Src homology (SH) domains arranged as the SH1 domain followed by a regulatory C-terminal tail (COOH-domain), SH2 and SH3 adapter domains and SH4 domain which required for membrane attachment and CD4/CD8 binding. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that LsLCK transcripts were expressed mainly in thymus, spleen and head kidney in healthy fish. Moreover, the mRNA expressions in these tissues were significantly up-regulated after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that LsLCK protein localized distinctly in cytoplasm of cell in thymus, spleen and head kidney. Taken together, these findings indicated that LsLCK may play an important role in the immune response of humphead snapper against bacterial infection. PMID:26660470

  19. Recruitment and ontogenetic habitat shifts of the yellow snapper (Lutjanus argentiventris) in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Dominguez-Guerrero, Isaí; Cota-Nieto, José; Plomozo-Lugo, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    We examined recruitment and ontogenetic habitat shifts of the yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris in the Gulf of California, by conducting surveys and collections in multiple mangrove sites and major marine coastal habitats from 1998 to 2007. Over 1,167 juvenile individuals were collected and 516 otoliths were aged to describe the temporal pattern of the settlement. L. argentiventris recruits in mangroves, where juveniles remain until they are approximately 100 mm in length or 300-days-old. Back-calculated settlement dates and underwater surveys indicated a major recruitment peak during September and October, around 8 days before and after the full moon. The majority of mangrove sites in the Gulf of California had a similar L. argentiventris average size at the beginning of the settlement season for the cohort of 2003; although there were significant differences in individual sizes at the end of the nursery stage. When sub-adults leave mangroves, they live in shallow rocky reefs and later become abundant in deeper rocky reefs. The density of migratory individuals (10-20 cm SL) decreased exponentially as the distance between a reef and a nearby mangrove site increased. This finding has important implications for local fishery regulations and coastal management plans.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of longfin yellowtail S. rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuozhi; Li, Yufang; Liang, Peiwen; Li, Min

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae) was obtained in this study. The entire genome was sequenced via primer walking after long PCRs. The size of the genome was 16,530 bp in length, containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. The genome composition and gene order were similar to most vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes (excepted for ND6 and eight tRNA genes) were encoded on the heavy strand. The complete mitogenome of S. rivoliana could provide a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics. PMID:25714153

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Peiwen; Chen, Sen; Guo, Yihui; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae) is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical oceans and seas of the world. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. ciliaris from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence was 16,570 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. There were 10 regions of gene overlaps totaling 30 bp and 12 intergenic spacer regions totaling 67 bp. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.32% for A, 26.77% for T, 16.16% for G, 28.75% for C with a slight AT bias of 55.09%.

  2. Complete mitogenome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae): indication of potential interbreeding in rabbitfishes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Tingbao

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,505 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The genome organization is similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which is commonly found in fishes. The high similarity of mitochondrial genome between S. vulpinus and S. unimaculatus indicate that natural interbreeding might exist in breeding season.

  3. Molecular characterization of eight Indian Snakehead species (Pisces: Perciformes Channidae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ajaz Ali; Haniffa, M A; Divya, P R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Milton, M James; Kumar, Raj; Paray, Bilal Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    Murrels (Perciformes; Channidei; Channidae) are unique group of freshwater air breathing fishes having a confined distribution to African and Asian continents. The phylogenetic relationship among eight Channid species viz. Channa aurantimaculata, Channa bleheri, Channa diplogramma, Channa gachua, Channa marulius, Channa punctatus, Channa stewartii and Channa striatus were investigated using RAPD markers. Eight random oligodecamers viz. OPAC03, OPAC05, OPAC07, OPAC09, OPAC19, OPA10, OPA11 and OPA16 were used to generate the RAPD profile. Estimates of Nei's (Genetics, 89:583-590, 1978) unbiased genetic distance (D) demonstrated sufficient genetic divergence to discriminate the samples of different species and the values ranged from 0.3292 to 0.800 The present RAPD analyses strongly substantiate the view of earlier morphological and osteological studies of Channid species, the closer association among species in "gachua" and "marulius" groups.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of longfin yellowtail S. rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuozhi; Li, Yufang; Liang, Peiwen; Li, Min

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae) was obtained in this study. The entire genome was sequenced via primer walking after long PCRs. The size of the genome was 16,530 bp in length, containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. The genome composition and gene order were similar to most vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes (excepted for ND6 and eight tRNA genes) were encoded on the heavy strand. The complete mitogenome of S. rivoliana could provide a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.

  5. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability. PMID:27247777

  6. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability.

  7. Spatial variation in otolith chemistry of Lutjanus apodus at Turneffe Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaro, P. M.; Usseglio, P.; Fryer, B. J.; Sale, P. F.

    2006-05-01

    Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster) were collected from several mangroves and coral reefs at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, in order to investigate whether elemental concentrations from the otolith edge could be used as a means to identify the habitat (mangrove or coral reef) and site (9 mangrove sites and 6 reef sites) from which they were collected. Results of a two factor nested MANOVA (sites nested within habitat) indicated significant differences in elemental concentrations between habitats (i.e., mangrove versus reef) as well as among sites. When separate Linear Discriminant Function Analyses (LDFA) were used to assess whether the spatial variability in otolith chemistry was sufficient to differentiate individuals to their respective habitats or sites, the results indicated that fish were classified (jackknife procedure) with a moderate to poor degree of accuracy (i.e., on average, 67% and 40% of the individuals were correctly classified to the habitat and site from which they were collected, respectively). Using a partial Mantel test we did not find a significant correlation between the differences in otolith elemental concentrations between sites and the distance between sites, while controlling the effect of habitat type (mangrove or reef). This suggests that for mangrove and reef sites at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, the overlap in terms of L. apodus otolith elemental concentrations is too high for investigations of fish movement. Finally, by comparing previously published Haemulon flavolineatum otolith chemistry to that of L. apodus we assessed whether these species showed similar habitat and/or site specific patterns in their otolith chemistry. Although both species were collected from the same sites our results indicated little similarity in their elemental concentrations, thus suggesting that habitat and site elemental signatures are species specific.

  8. Iron bioavailability in larvae yellow snapper (Lutjanus argentiventris): cloning and expression analysis of ferritin-H.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo-Valadez, Carlos; Macias, Ma Esther; Angulo, Miriam; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe

    2014-04-01

    Ferritin is a major intracellular iron storage protein in higher vertebrates and plays an important role in iron metabolism. In this study, ferritin H subunit was cloned from the larvae of yellow snapper, Lutjanus argentiventris, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) following in silico transcriptome analysis. The full-length cDNAs of the LaFeH was 1231 bp in length encoding 177 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass (MW) about 20.82 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.79. Amino acid alignment revealed that LaFeH shared high similarity with other known ferritins. It shared high degree identity to the ferritin H subunits of Lates calcarifer (99%), Takifugu rubripes (97%) and Dicentrarchus labrax (97%), and low identity to that of human (82%) and mouse (84%). By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of LaFeH was found to be higher expressed in head-kidney, eye, heart and brain. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of LaFeH was measured by real-time PCR in larvae exposed with graded levels of iron (6.8 μg/ml and 13.6 μg/ml (Fe2x and Fe4x, respectively) and an iron chelation assay. Results showed that the expression of the LaFeH mRNA increased gradually with Fe2x in water. The LaFeH gene expression declined with increasing iron exposure levels at Fe4x. Finally, we can observe a high expression of LaFeH gene in larvae exposed to iron chelation therapy at 2 h; however this increase was gradually decreasing over time. In summary, the LaFeH gene expression for larvae yellow snapper showed a dose-depend increase following the iron treatment. These data indicated that iron bioavailability regulates LaFeH at transcriptional level in larvae yellow snapper. Further studies are necessary to ascertain their role in the immune response in teleost fish.

  9. Protection against Vibrio alginolyticus in crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus immunized with a DNA vaccine containing the ompW gene.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang-Hu; Lu, Yi-Shan; Jian, Ji-Chang; Wang, Bei; Huang, Yu-Cong; Tang, Ju-Fen; Ding, Yu; Wu, Zao-He

    2013-09-24

    The outer membrane proteins of Vibrio alginolyticus play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. In the present study, the ompW gene was cloned, expressed and purified. A DNA vaccine was constructed by inserting the ompW gene into a pcDNA plasmid. Crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus (Bloch) were injected intramuscularly with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-ompW. The expression of the DNA vaccine was detected in gill, head kidney, heart, liver, spleen and injection site muscle of crimson snapper by RT-PCR 7 and 28 d post-vaccination. The ELISA results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine produced an observable antibody response in all sera of the vaccinated fish. In addition, crimson snapper immunized with the DNA vaccine showed a relative percentage survival (RPS) of 92.53%, indicating effective protection against V. alginolyticus infection.

  10. Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, order Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Rod S; Shears, Margaret A; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Fletcher, Garth L

    2011-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced by many species of teleost fish that inhabit potentially lethal ice-laden seawater and afford them protection from freezing. To date type I AFPs have been fully characterized in two teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes. In this study, we report the isolation and complete characterization of a type I AFP present in fish from a third order: cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), order Perciformes (family Labridae). This protein was purified from blood plasma and found to belong to what is now known as classical type I AFP with their small size (mass 4095.16 Da), alanine richness (> 57 mol%), high α-helicity (> 99%) with the ability to undergo reversible thermal denaturation, 11 amino acid (ThrX(10)) repeat regions within the primary structure, the capacity to impart a hexagonal bipyramidal shaping to ice crystals and the conservation of an ice-binding site found in many of the other type I AFPs. Partial de novo sequencing of the plasma AFP accounted for approximately half of the peptide mass. Sequencing of a combined liver and skin cDNA library indicated that the protein is produced without a signal sequence. In addition the translated product of the AFP cDNA suggests that it codes for the AFP isolated from plasma. These results further solidify the hypothesis that type I AFPs are multiphyletic in origin and suggest that they represent remarkable examples of convergent evolution within three orders of teleost fish. PMID:21819541

  11. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG) n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers. PMID:24949234

  12. Organization and characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Razorbelly scad Alepes kleinii (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zou, Keshu

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Alepes kleinii (Perciformes: Carangidae) was determined in this study. The entire sequence was 16,571 bp in length which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization and gene order were similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 28.0% of A, 28.5% of C, 27.0% of T, and 16.5% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. Apart from the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Three types of initiation codons were detected in the open reading frames of the protein-coding genes, including codon ATA which was rarely detected in Carangidae species. The complete mitogenome sequence data of A. kleinii could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the masked spinefoot Siganus puellus (Perciformes, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Yan, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Ming; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the masked spinefoot Siganus puellus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,504 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Gene organization and gene order are similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 28.6% of A, 29.5% of C, 25.6% of T and 16.3% of G. The overall mean genetic distances of 13 protein-coding genes among three Siganus species with known complete mitogenome ranges from 0.076 (COXII) to 0.154 (ATP6), higher than the divergence (0.107) of control region, which implies that ATP6 gene may be more appropriate for population genetic structure analyses of Siganus species.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG) n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers.

  15. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  16. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor 1 (Ls-NCCRP1) from red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Wang, Bei; Huang, Yucong; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCCs) are kinds of natural killer cell mediated innate immune responses in teleosts. The nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 (NCCRP-1) is an important cell surface protein on NCC, which serves crucial functions in target cell recognition and cytotoxicity activation. In the present study, a nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein NCCRP-1 (Ls-NCCRP1) was cloned from red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus. The Ls-NCCRP1 cDNA is composed of 986bp with a 43bp of 5'-UTR, 702bp open reading frame (ORF) and 241bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 233 amino acids (GenBank accession no: ADK32635). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ls-NCCRP1 showed highest similarity to sea bream NCCRP-1. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Ls-NCCRP1 had relatively high expression level in the head kidney, spleen and liver. After Vibrio alginolyticus infection, transcripts of Ls-NCCRP1 increased and reached its peak at 4h p.i. These results indicated that Ls-NCCRP1 may play an important role in innate immune response to bacteria.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of high mobility group box1 (Ls-HMGB1) from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia; Xia, Hongli; Huang, Yucong; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2014-10-01

    High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a kind of chromatin-associated nonhistone protein important for nucleosome formation, transcriptional regulation and inflammation. However, the reports about HMGB1 of marine fish were still limited. Here, we cloned and characterized a HMGB1 gene from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus (Ls-HMGB1). The Ls-HMGB1 cDNA composed of 1199 bp with a 70 bp of 5'-UTR, 630 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 499 bp 3'-UTR, encoded a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (GenBank Accession No: KJ783442). Sequence alignment of Ls-HMGB1 showed the highest similarity of 91% with Sciaenops ocellatus HMGB1 protein. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ls-HMGB1 had relatively high expression level in skin, kidney and heart. After Vibrio harveyi and poly I:C stimulation, transcripts of Ls-HMGB1 were significantly increased and reached to peak at 18 h p.i. The L. sanguineus interleukin-6 (Ls-IL6) transcription in HK leukocytes was significantly induced by recombinant LsHMGB1 (rLsHMGB1). These results indicated that Ls-HMGB1 may play an important role in immune response of L. sanguineus during pathogen challenge.

  19. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers. PMID:26569232

  20. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  1. Expression of myostatin in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus during larval and juvenile development under cultured conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Velarde, J; Ibarra-Castro, L; Rodríguez-Ibarra, E; Sifuentes-Romero, I; Hernández-Cornejo, R; García-Gasca, A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the developmental expression pattern of myostatin (mstn) in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus under culture conditions is presented. The full coding sequence of mstn from L. guttatus was isolated from muscle tissue, obtaining 1134 nucleotides which encode a peptide of 377 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this sequence corresponds to mstn-1. mstn expression was detected in embryonic stages, and maintained at low levels until 28 days post-hatch, when it showed a significant increase, coinciding with the onset of metamorphosis. After that, expression was fluctuating, coinciding probably with periods of rapid and slow muscle growth or individual growth rates. mstn expression was also analysed by body mass with higher levels detected in smaller animals, irrespective of age. mstn was also expressed in other tissues from L. guttatus, presenting higher levels in brain, eye and gill. In brain for instance, two variants of mstn were isolated, both coding sequences were identical to muscle, except that one of them contained a 75 nucleotide deletion in exon 1, maintaining the reading frame but deleting two conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this brain variant was also mstn-1. The function of this variant is not clear and needs further investigation. These results indicate that mstn-1 participates in different physiological processes other than muscle growth in fishes.

  2. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-11-12

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers.

  3. Historical and contemporary evidence of a mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. T.; Carcamo, R.; Rhodes, K. L.; Roberts, C. M.; Requena, N.

    2008-06-01

    Scientific information on reef fish spawning aggregation fisheries is sparse in light of numerous regional declines and extirpations from overexploitation. Fisher interviews of the small-scale commercial mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) spawning aggregation fishery at Gladden Spit, Belize, suggests a historic decadal decline. The reported trend is supported by analysis of inter-seasonal catch and effort and yield (2000 2002) that reveals a 59% decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and a 22% decrease in mean landings per boat. Declining population-level trends are also supported by a significant decrease in inter-annual median lengths of mutton snappers (2000 2006). These findings demonstrate the need for additional life history information that includes length-associated age and details on growth to provide clearer support of the effects on, and responses by, populations following fishing. In view of the historical changes to mutton snapper CPUE and landings at Gladden Spit and the fishery-associated declines in fish spawning aggregations observed globally, a precautionary approach to spawning aggregation management is warranted that provides full protection from fishing to enhance population persistence. The findings also highlight the need for substantially greater enforcement and long-term fisheries monitoring under a comprehensive regional management strategy.

  4. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens).

    PubMed

    Davis, William T; Drymon, J Marcus; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka's niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research.

  5. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William T.; Drymon, J. Marcus; Powers, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka’s niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  6. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens).

    PubMed

    Davis, William T; Drymon, J Marcus; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka's niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  7. Hysterothylacium winteri sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a parasite of Chilean rock cod, Eleginops maclovinus (Perciformes: Eleginopidae), from South Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, Patricio; Soto, María Soledad

    2004-03-01

    Hysterothylacium winteri sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) was collected from the intestine of a marine-estuarine fish, Eleginops maclovinus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Eleginopsidae), from Abtao in the Gulf of Ancud, Chile. Sixteen (51.6%) out of 31 fish were infected; the intensity was 1-10 (mean 4) worms/host. The new species belongs to the group of congeners possessing one double pair of postanal papillae. By possessing a lateral pair of phasmids situated near the tip of tail, H. winteri most closely resembles Hysterothylacium habena. The new species can be distinguished by the lip flanges forming broadly rounded points and the equal, short spicules (320-400 microm long) representing 0.9-1.7% of body length. PMID:15139378

  8. A new species of Gobius (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Mediterranean Sea and the redescription of Gobius bucchichi.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, M; Šanda, R

    2016-03-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Gobius (Gobiidae, Perciformes), Gobius incognitus sp. nov. is described from the Mediterranean Sea, and its most morphologically similar species Gobius bucchichi is redescribed. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by: scales in lateral series 51-59; predorsal scales 25-35; opercle scaled in adults with 10-16 scales present; pectoral fin with ray count 18-20 and free tips on upper rays well developed and on the first ray longer than two thirds of the entire ray length; pelvic disc complete and with well-developed anterior membrane without lateral lobes; anterior oculoscapular canal with pore α at rear of orbit; oculoscapular row x(1) not extending forwards to pore β; suborbital row d discontinuous with large gap below suborbital rows 3 and 4; eye diameter 1·08-1·32 in snout length; by pigment rows on cheek and pigmentation on pectoral-fin base. PMID:26822387

  9. Anatomical and surface morphology of Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. (Nematoda: Hedruridae) from the common marinewater fish Lutjanus synagris in Damietta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M M; Awad, E R; Taha, R G

    2014-08-01

    The description and tegumental ultrastructure of nematode Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. collected from marine Lane Snapper fish Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 collected at Manzala Lake, Damietta, Egypt was studied by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The new species is mainly characterized by that the buccal capsule is surrounded by four pseudolapia; one small and three larger pseudolapia, each one bears a number of papillae arranged irregularly on its surface and the presence of one pair of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal ones in males.

  10. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that

  11. Population model for Amyloodinium ocellatum infecting the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the red snapper Lutjanus campechanus.

    PubMed

    Masson, Ignacio; Lotz, Jeffrey M; Blaylock, Reginald B

    2013-10-11

    The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum, a major pathogen in warm water mariculture, has a trophont, a tomont and a dinospore life history stage. This paper presents a population model for A. ocellatum infecting spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and red snapper Lutjanus campechanus and evaluates the relative effect of each vital rate on the A. ocellatum population growth rate. The vital rates were estimated by incubating trophonts in vitro and tracking their development through the successive life history stages at 25°C and 33 ppt. The A. ocellatum population growth rate was 1.90 d-1 for spotted seatrout and 1.92 d-1 for red snapper. Highest elasticity values (0.24 and 0.23 in spotted seatrout and red snapper, respectively) corresponded to transitions from the dinospore to the trophont stage, the trophont stage to the tomont stage and the tomont stage back to the dinospore stage in both host species (self-loops not included). A 50% change in vital rates showed that the mean number of dinospores produced by a tomont had the largest effect on the A. ocellatum population growth rate (15%), followed by the dinospore infection rate (14%), the tomont sporulation rate (12%) and the dinospore mortality rate (10%) in both host species. A comparison of modeled and experimental vital rate threshold values revealed a 2.5- (spotted seatrout) or a 2.6-fold (red snapper) difference in the values for dinospore mortality, which is the smallest difference among all the modeled and experimental vital rates. Therefore, measures that increase dinospore mortality have a greater likelihood of influencing the outcome of an epidemic. PMID:24113247

  12. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M.

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Regional variation in mercury and stable isotopes of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Zapp Sluis, Michelle; Boswell, Kevin M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wells, R J David; Soulen, Brianne; Cowan, James H

    2013-02-01

    The presence of total mercury (Hg) in fish tissue and the potential associated health risks has become a global concern in marine ecosystems. Few studies have examined basin-scale variation in Hg accumulation in marine ecosystems, and determining if Hg concentrations in fish tissue vary across marine ecosystems is a key monitoring question. The present study evaluated Hg concentrations in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) tissue across three regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, USA) and between two habitat types (oil and gas platforms and nonplatforms) within each region. Nitrogen (δ(15)N), carbon (δ(13)C), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes were used to investigate ecological differences that may affect Hg concentrations among regions and between habitats. Mercury concentrations in red snapper tissue were positively correlated with fish total length. Regional differences in Hg concentrations were significant, with fish collected from Alabama having the highest concentrations and fish collected from Louisiana having the lowest. No significant difference existed in Hg concentrations between habitats, suggesting that association with platforms may not be a significant factor contributing to red snapper Hg concentrations. While δ(15)N did not differ significantly among the three regions, Texas red snapper were more enriched in δ(34)S and depleted in δ(13)C compared with Alabama and Louisiana red snapper. Although the majority of red snapper collected in the present study had Hg concentrations below safe consumption guidelines, regional differences suggest that spatially explicit monitoring programs may be important for basin-wide assessments.

  14. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  15. Population model for Amyloodinium ocellatum infecting the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the red snapper Lutjanus campechanus.

    PubMed

    Masson, Ignacio; Lotz, Jeffrey M; Blaylock, Reginald B

    2013-10-11

    The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum, a major pathogen in warm water mariculture, has a trophont, a tomont and a dinospore life history stage. This paper presents a population model for A. ocellatum infecting spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and red snapper Lutjanus campechanus and evaluates the relative effect of each vital rate on the A. ocellatum population growth rate. The vital rates were estimated by incubating trophonts in vitro and tracking their development through the successive life history stages at 25°C and 33 ppt. The A. ocellatum population growth rate was 1.90 d-1 for spotted seatrout and 1.92 d-1 for red snapper. Highest elasticity values (0.24 and 0.23 in spotted seatrout and red snapper, respectively) corresponded to transitions from the dinospore to the trophont stage, the trophont stage to the tomont stage and the tomont stage back to the dinospore stage in both host species (self-loops not included). A 50% change in vital rates showed that the mean number of dinospores produced by a tomont had the largest effect on the A. ocellatum population growth rate (15%), followed by the dinospore infection rate (14%), the tomont sporulation rate (12%) and the dinospore mortality rate (10%) in both host species. A comparison of modeled and experimental vital rate threshold values revealed a 2.5- (spotted seatrout) or a 2.6-fold (red snapper) difference in the values for dinospore mortality, which is the smallest difference among all the modeled and experimental vital rates. Therefore, measures that increase dinospore mortality have a greater likelihood of influencing the outcome of an epidemic.

  16. Identification and characterization of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 3 from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia; Xia, Hongli; Huang, Yucong; Tang, Jufen; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe; Lu, Yishan

    2015-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 3(TRAF3) is a key regulator in TNFR and Toll-like receptor (TLRs)/RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signal pathway. Here, a TRAF3 gene (Ls-TRAF3, GenBank Accession No: KJ789921) is cloned from humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus). The Ls-TRAF3 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1788 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 595 amino acids. The deduced amino acid of Ls-TRAF3 possesses a RING finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers, a coiled-coil and a MATH domain. Ls-TRAF3 protein shares high identities with other known TRAF3 proteins. In healthy fish, Ls-TRAF3 transcripts were broadly expressed in all examined tissues with highest expression levels in spleen, liver and head kidney. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ls-TRAF3 could be induced by bacteria or viral PAMP poly I:C stimulation in vivo. Here, we also showed Ls-TRAF3 that, positively regulated IRF3 and Mx upon poly I:C stimuli, whereas prevented production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 after LPS injection. Moreover, over-expression of wide type (WT) Ls-TRAF3 and truncated forms, including ΔZinc finger 1, ΔZinc finger 2 and Δcoiled-coil suppressed NF-κB activity significantly, whereas the inhibitory effect of NF-κB was partially impaired when the RING finger or MATH domain deletion, suggesting the latter was more important for downstream signal transduction. Taken together, these results implicated that Ls-TRAF3 might play regulatory roles in immune response to pathogen invasion.

  17. Humoral immune response and TLR9 gene expression in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) experimentally exposed to Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo, Carlos; Ascencio, Felipe

    2015-02-01

    Aquaculture production of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru is growing rapidly in Mexico, especially in Gulf of California. As it is a relatively new aquaculture species there are few reports evaluating its immune response to pathogens. The Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas veronii is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. For the purpose of this study, juvenile Pacific red snapper specimens were intraperitoneally injected with low doses of A. veronii (1 × 10(6) CFU ml(-1)). Changes in humoral immune parameters (total protein, myeloperoxidase, lisozyme and antiprotease activities and IgM levels), as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and TLR9 gene expression were evaluated 24 and 48 h after injection. Overall, the results showed an enhanced in humoral immune parameters and SOD and CAT activities in fish infected with A. veronii compared with control group at 24 or 48 h. By real time PCR assays, the basal mRNA transcripts of TLR9 showed that were highly expressed in intestine and leucocytes compared to skin, head kidney, liver and gill. Then, the mRNA expression levels of TLR9 in head kidney, skin, liver and intestine were analyzed in non-infected and experimentally infected fish 24 and 48 h after injection. A. veronii up-regulated the expression of TLR9 at 24 or 48 h of exposure in all samples analyzed except in liver. Interestingly, intestine produced the greatest increase in transcript levels upon exposure (48 h) to A. veronii. Taken together, our results suggest that low doses of A. veronii infection inducing humoral immune system and TLR9 immune gene in Pacific red snapper that can be useful in the health control of this species.

  18. Regional variation in mercury and stable isotopes of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Zapp Sluis, Michelle; Boswell, Kevin M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wells, R J David; Soulen, Brianne; Cowan, James H

    2013-02-01

    The presence of total mercury (Hg) in fish tissue and the potential associated health risks has become a global concern in marine ecosystems. Few studies have examined basin-scale variation in Hg accumulation in marine ecosystems, and determining if Hg concentrations in fish tissue vary across marine ecosystems is a key monitoring question. The present study evaluated Hg concentrations in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) tissue across three regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, USA) and between two habitat types (oil and gas platforms and nonplatforms) within each region. Nitrogen (δ(15)N), carbon (δ(13)C), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes were used to investigate ecological differences that may affect Hg concentrations among regions and between habitats. Mercury concentrations in red snapper tissue were positively correlated with fish total length. Regional differences in Hg concentrations were significant, with fish collected from Alabama having the highest concentrations and fish collected from Louisiana having the lowest. No significant difference existed in Hg concentrations between habitats, suggesting that association with platforms may not be a significant factor contributing to red snapper Hg concentrations. While δ(15)N did not differ significantly among the three regions, Texas red snapper were more enriched in δ(34)S and depleted in δ(13)C compared with Alabama and Louisiana red snapper. Although the majority of red snapper collected in the present study had Hg concentrations below safe consumption guidelines, regional differences suggest that spatially explicit monitoring programs may be important for basin-wide assessments. PMID:23180665

  19. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. PMID:26454477

  20. Genetic population structure of red snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coiodes) in Brunei and Sabah.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Zohrah H; Abdul Rahman, Khadijah H; Ying, Teo Y; Taha, Hussein H; Muhd Taha, Nurqistina H

    2008-09-01

    The genetic population structure of red snapper Lutjanus malabaricus and orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coiodes in Brunei and Sabah was investigated using allozyme electrophoresis. Samples were collected from three sites in Brunei for E. coiodes and from three sites in Brunei and Sabah for L. malabaricus. A total of 22 loci and 16 loci were scored, respectively. The index of fixation (F(ST) ) for the E. coiodes population was 0.176 but, in general, it lacked within-population structuring. The F(ST) was particularly high between Brunei Bay/Jerudong and Brunei Bay/ Kuala Belait, suggesting genetic subdivision on a small spatial scale. Isolation of Brunei Bay from the South China Sea may constrain the movement of adult fishes and larval dispersal, thereby reducing homogeneity among subpopulations. All variable loci for E. coiodes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for MDH* and GTDHP* (P < 0.01), in which two subpopulations showed an excess of heterozygotes (P < 0.01). The study on the L. malabaricus population showed a heterozygote deficit of approximately 60% in variable loci (F(ST) genetic variation within population = 0.45; P < 0.05); however, the mean observed heterozygosity for the population far exceeded L. malabaricus populations in Australia and Indonesia. A F(ST) value of 0.076 revealed moderate genetic differentiation among subpopulations of L. malabaricus. The genotypes were likely to be drawn from the same distribution in Jerudong and Kuala Belait. This study infers that sustainable management of snapper and grouper resources in Brunei waters must take into account the presence of a single stock and two stocks, respectively.

  1. Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 gene transcripts during Vibrio harveyi infection of humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Pang, Huanying; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) and inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene of humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus, were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique with the primers designed from the known expressed sequence tags (ESTs) identified from the subtracted cDNA library of the head kidney of humphead snapper. BLAST program analysis indicated that both HSC70 and HSP70 shared high homology with their counterparts in other species. However, the homology between HSC70 and HSP70 is only 82.5% identity. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining method, and the results suggested that both HSC70 and HSP70 could be used for phylogenetic analysis at order levels. The expression profiles of HSC70 and HSP70 were measured by fluorescent real-time RT-PCR after Vibrio harveyi infection. Our results suggested that both HSC70 and HSP70 could be induced by V. harveyi challenge. However, the expression pattern of HSP70 showed some differences compared with that of HSC70. Original level of HSP70 in head kidney was lower than that of HSC70. The expression of HSP70 could increase faster and last longer than that of HSC70 and maintain a high level from the time point of 6-15 h. Our results suggested that the rapid transcriptional upregulation of HSC70 and HSP70 in response to V. harveyi infection might be important for the survival of humphead snapper.

  2. Expression pattern of heat-shock cognate 70 gene of humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus (Cuvier), infected by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Z; Wu, Z H; Yang, S P; Pang, H Y; Jian, J C; Lu, Y S

    2011-10-01

    The heat-shock cognate 70 (HSC70) gene of humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus, designated as ByHSC70, was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) with the primers designed from the known expressed sequence tag (EST) identified from the subtracted cDNA library of the head kidney of humphead snapper. The full-length cDNA of ByHSC70 is 2313 bp, containing a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 96 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 267 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1950 bp encoding a polypeptide of 650 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.21 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point (pI) of 5.08. ByHSC70 contained three classical HSP70 family signatures. BLAST analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of ByHSC70 had the highest similarity of 99% when compared with other HSC70s. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of ByHSC70 gene in eight kinds of tissues/organs of humphead snapper after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. There was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of ByHSC70 in head kidney, spleen and thymus after bacterial challenge, and the expression of mRNA reached a maximum level at 9, 6 and 24 h post-infection and then returned to control levels after 15, 24 and 36 h, respectively. Our results suggest that HSC70 is an important component in the immune system of humphead snapper, its their rapid transcriptional upregulation in response to V. harveyi infection might be important for survival of humphead snapper.

  3. Expression pattern of heat shock protein 90 gene of humphead snapper Lutjanus sanguineus during pathogenic Vibrio harveyi stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Z; Dai, L P; Wu, Z H; Jian, J C; Lu, Y S

    2011-07-01

    The full-length cDNA of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) of humphead snapper Lutjanus sanguineus, designated as rsHSP90, was cloned by rapid amplification of complementary (c)DNA ends (RACE) techniques with the primers designed from the known expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence identified from the subtracted cDNA library of the head kidney of L. sanguineus. Sequence analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of rsHSP90 was 2745 bp, containing a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 99 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 471 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2175 bp encoding a polypeptide of 725 amino acids. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence, the theoretical molecular mass of rsHSP90 was calculated to be 83·18 kDa with an isoelectric point of 4·79. Moreover, five classical HSP90 family signatures were found in the amino acids sequence of rsHSP90 by PredictProtein. Basic local-alignment search-tool (BLAST) analysis revealed that the amino acids sequence of rsHSP90 had the highest similarity of 97% when compared with other HSP90s. Fluorescent real-time quantitative reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was used to examine the expression pattern of rsHSP90 in eight kinds of tissues and organs of L. sanguineus challenged with Vibrio harveyi. There was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of rsHSP90 in head kidney, spleen and thymus after bacterial challenge and the expression of messenger (m)RNA reached the maximum level at the time points of 9, 15 and 24 h, respectively. The up-regulated mRNA expression of rsHSP90 in L. sanguineus after bacterial challenge indicated that rsHSP90 was inducible and might be involved in immune response.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  6. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression, and characterization of heat shock protein 10 gene from humphead snapper Lutjanus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Dai, Liping; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan

    2011-09-01

    Heat shock protein 10 (HSP10) gene of humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus), designated as ByHSP10, was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques with the primers designed from the known EST sequence identified from the subtracted cDNA library of the head kidney of humphead snapper. Sequence analysis showed the full length cDNA of ByHSP10 was 529bp, containing a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 51bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 181bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 297bp encoding a polypeptide of 99 amino acids. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the theoretical molecular mass of ByHSP10 was calculated to be 10.92kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.46. Moreover, chaperonins hsp10/cpn10 signature was found in the amino acids sequence of ByHSP10 by PredictProtein. BLAST analysis revealed that the amino acids of ByHSP10 had the highest homology of 88% compared with other HSP10s. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of ByHSP10 gene in eight kinds of tissues of humphead snapper after the challenge with Vibrio harveyi. There was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of ByHSP10 in head kidney, spleen and thymus after bacteria challenge. The expression of mRNA reached the maximum level at the time point of 9h, 6h and 24h, respectively and then returned to control level in 36h. The up-regulated mRNA expression of ByHSP10 in humphead snapper after bacteria challenge indicated that the HSP10 gene was inducible and might be involved in immune response. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the ORF nucleotide sequences of HSP10 for 30 species. The relatonships among them were generally in agreement with the traditional taxonomy which suggested that HSP10 genes could aid in the system classification research.

  7. A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) from the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Doo Nam

    2015-10-01

    A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), parasitic in the branchial cavities of the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Korea is described. The new species is most closely related to A. tangi Venmathi Maran, Moon & Adday, 2014, but differs from it by the following combination of characters in the adult female: the U-shaped rostrum, the distal margin of the anal somite lacks patches of spinules, the proximal segment of the maxilliped is without seta, and the maxilliped claw is armed with long and small naked setae. This is the tenth species of the genus and a key is provided to distinguish all nominal species.

  8. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. PMID:25979611

  9. Nervous and sensory system correlates of an epibenthic evolutionary radiation in antarctic notothenioid fishes, genus Trematomus (Perciformes; Nototheniidae).

    PubMed

    Lannoo, M J; Eastman, J T

    2000-07-01

    The perciform suborder Notothenioidei consists of 120 species, with 94 confined to the Antarctic Region of the Southern Ocean. On the Antarctic shelf, this phyletic radiation has been accompanied by a substantial morphological and ecological diversification towards a pelagic existence. For example, the primarily benthic genus Trematomus contains an epibenthic radiation that includes T. loennbergii, T. lepidorhinus, and T. eulepidotus. By comparing these epibenthic species with three congeneric benthic species (T. scotti, T. pennellii, and T. bernacchii) we tested three null hypotheses regarding brain variation in Antarctic trematomids: 1) that there is no difference in brain morphology among the six species; 2) that phylogenetic and ecological factors do not influence brain morphology; and 3) that peripheral sensory structures do not influence brain morphology. We rejected each of these hypotheses, leading us to conclude that Trematomus brains vary interspecifically, between benthic and epibenthic species, and with a species' depth distribution. Further, we conclude that brain variation is correlated with differences in peripheral sensory systems and motor activity. Specifically, epibenthic Trematomus have larger percentages of their brain volume devoted to lateral line mechanoreceptive and motor (cerebellar) structures. Species living at greater depths have low ratios of cones:rods in the retina and larger olfactory structures.

  10. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) and phylogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zehui; Chai, Xuejun; Wang, Yuebin; Zhu, Yunhai; Zhu, Dongfa

    2016-09-01

    The giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) is an important economic fish distributing in the East China Sea, South China Sea, and Japan southern coast. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. japonica was firstly determined. It is 16 496 bp-length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that N. japonica, A. amoyensis, and other seven fish first clustered into the Argyrosominae clade. It is consistent with the taxonomic status. Then, the Argyrosominae, Pseudosciaeninae, and Sciaeniae formed the sister group, while the Johniinae became a separate clade, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the researches of single gene and taxionomic might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phyogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae and the natural resources conservation.

  12. Effects of compressed seasonally changing day-length cycles on spawning performance, production of viable eggs and levels of vitellogenin in plasma in female yellowtail snapper Lutjanus argentiventris.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Tortolero, D A; Campos-Ramos, R; Burgos-Aceves, M A; Pérez-Urbiola, J C; Colado-Durán, G

    2010-12-01

    Reproduction in yellowtail snapper Lutjanus argentiventris took place after compressing the seasonally changing day length into a 3 month period applied during two consecutive winters, with the longest and shortest days in December and February, respectively. During the first winter, there was no clear peak of days of spawning and the production of viable eggs was similar from the longest and throughout the decreasing day lengths until reproduction ceased. The level of plasma vitellogenin rose abruptly to a maximum concentration during the increasing day length and then decreased dramatically before the longest day length. During the second winter, a clear peak in the number of days of spawning and the highest production of viable eggs occurred around the longest day length. These results showed that it is feasible to synchronize day length between winter-induced and natural summer and autumn reproduction to produce eggs and larvae during the year.

  13. Population structure and variation in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast of Florida as determined from mitochondrial DNA control region sequence.

    PubMed

    Garber, Amber F; Tringali, Michael D; Stuck, Kenneth C

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control regions of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) from the Gulf of Mexico (n = 140) and Atlantic coast of Florida (n = 35) were sequenced to generate a prestocking genetic baseline for planned stock enhancement. Intrasample haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.94 to 1.00 and 1.8% to 2.5%, respectively. All population analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that red snapper constitute a single, panmictic population over the sampled range. A ubiquitous, predominant haplotype, shared by 23% of the specimens, appeared to be evolutionarily recent, in contrast to previous findings based on restriction fragment length polymorphism data. Tajima's D values were suggestive of a recent bottleneck. Mismatch distributions from Gulf samples were smooth and unimodal, characteristic of recent population expansion. However, the Atlantic sample exhibited a comparatively broader, possibly multimodal distribution, suggestive of a more stable population history. Additional control-region data may clarify potentially disparate demographic histories of Gulf and Atlantic snapper.

  14. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding an extracellular alkaline serine protease from Vibrio alginolyticus strain HY9901, the causative agent of vibriosis in Lutjanus erythopterus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Cai, S H; Wu, Z H; Jian, J C; Lu, Y S

    2007-08-01

    A 750-bp internal fragment of the alkaline serine protease gene (asp) from the Vibrio alginolyticus strain HY9901 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The flanking sequences of the 5'- and 3'- ends of the asp gene were characterized by reverse and nested PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the asp gene contained an 1893-bp ORF encoding 630 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ASP (alkaline serine protease) precursor showed significant homology with several bacterial alkaline serine proteases. Expression of the asp gene in Escherichia coli and activity tests of the ASP indicated that the N-signal peptide of the ASP precursor was essential to autocatalyse and fold correctly the enzyme to obtain activity. The purified ASP was lethal for Lutjanus erythopterus with an LD(50) of 0.25 microg protein g(-1) body weight.

  15. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abbas; Khalid, Jamil; Rukhsana, Akhtar; Lin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating water system to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, hepatosomatic index and liver lipid deposition of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (average initial wet weight 8.0 ± 0.39 g and total length 3.14 ± 0.3 cm). In the experiment, six fishmeal-based diets were formulated to contain various protein levels (20% to 45% in 5% increments), with dietary energy ranging from 2210.7kJ lOOg to 2250.2kJlOOg dry matter. The protein to energy ratios of diets ranged from 8.58 mg protein kJ-1 to 20.03 mg protein kJ-1. Diets were fed for 90d to triplicate groups of fish stocked in 0.128m3 seawater tanks, 25 individuals each. The daily ration of 2% wet body weight was offered to the fish thrice a day. The fish at the end of the study had more than ten-fold (77.0g) increase in weight compared to the initial (8.0g). Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain of 77.2g and 76.5g, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.65% and 2.62% than those of 67.0 g and 68.3g, and 2.49% and 2.51% of the other diets. The broken-line regression of SGR against dietary protein level yielded an optimum dietary protein requirement of 42.6% (Y=-1.6295 + 0.1114 X 2,P<0.05). Survival remained 100% among groups. Feed conversion ratio decreased from 0.45 for fish fed 20% dietary protein to 0.35 for fish fed 45% dietary protein. Nitrogen intake increased with an increase in dietary protein, which in turn resulted in an increase in nitrogen gain of fish whole body. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher (P<0.05) nitrogen gain (0.27g and 0.26g) than those (0.23g and 025g) fed all other diets. Gross energy intake (GEI) in fish fed 45% protein was lower (600.67kJ) than that (607.97 kJ) of 40% protein diet, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05); GEI ranging from 677.31 kJ to 663.20 kJ at remaining four diets (20% to 35% protein

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (RAG1/2) in red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Lu, Y S; Jian, J C; Wu, Z H

    2012-04-01

    Recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), involved in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. In this paper, the cDNA of RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Results showed the full length of RAG1 cDNA was 3944 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 200 bp, a 3'-UTR of 561 bp and an open reading frame of 3183 bp encoding 1060 amino acids. Three important structural motifs, a RING/U-box domain, a RING/FYVE/PHD-type domain and a RAG Nonamer-binding domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG1 by InterProScan analysis. The full length of RAG2 cDNA was 2200 bp, consisting of a 141 bp 5'-UTR, a 457 bp 3'-UTR and an open reading frame of 1602 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Two important structural motifs, a Galactose oxidase/kelch, beta-propeller domain and a kelch-type beta-propeller domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG2 by InterProScan analysis. BLAST analysis revealed that the RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper shared a high homology with other known RAG1 and RAG2 genes, while the greatest degree of identity was observed with Hippoglossus hippoglossus RAG1 at 82% and Takifugu rubripes RAG2 at 87%, respectively. The differential expressions of RAG1 and RAG2 in various tissues of red snapper were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. The overall expression pattern of the two genes was quite similar. In healthy red snappers, the RAGs transcripts were mainly detected in thymus, following head kidney, spleen, intestine, liver and brain. After vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus 48 h later, the RAGs m

  17. Two new species of Aristocleidus (Monogenea) from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes, Gerreidae) from southwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46-50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38-43 µm, 34-37 µm, and 26-33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico. PMID:26605987

  18. [Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Palomino, Bernabé; González Sansón, Gaspar

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem function. To assess this in four Diplectrum species, we analyzed the stomach contents of 397 individuals caught using shrimp trawling nets off the coasts of Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Main food component of D. eumelum were fish of the Order Pleuronectiformes, followed by shrimps (Metapenaeopsis spp). D. euryplectrum feeds mainly on crustaceans, with stomatopods (Squilla mantoidea) as main food items followed by shrimps and brachyurans. Fish and polychaetes had a low representation in the diet of this species. D. labarum feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fish. The stomatopod Eurysquilla veleronis contributed to with a high diet percentage by weight, followed by shrimps (mostly Solenoceraflorae) and brachyurans, as well as the squid Lolliguncula diomedae. Fishes (Ophidion spp.) were also an important component of the diet of this species. The most common preys of D. rostrum were crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes and fish. The squid Lolliguncula diomedae and fishes of genus Ophidion were also well represented in the diet. Diet breadth index yielded significant differences between species. The number of diet items varied from 16 in D. euryplectrum to 6 in D. eumelum. The average value of overlap (0.247) was not significantly different (p = 0.118) from the expected one for a null model (0.174). The observed variance of the overlap index (0.071) was significantly higher (V = 0.025, p = 0.0004) than the value expected for a null model.

  19. Two new species of Aristocleidus (Monogenea) from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes, Gerreidae) from southwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46–50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38–43 µm, 34–37 µm, and 26–33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico. PMID:26605987

  20. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  1. Monorchiid trematodes of the painted sweetlips, Diagramma labiosum (Perciformes: Haemulidae), from the southern Great Barrier Reef, including a new genus and three new species.

    PubMed

    Searle, Emily L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-07-01

    Five monorchiid species are reported from Diagramma labiosum Macleay (Perciformes: Haemulidae) collected from Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR): two described species, Helicometroides longicollis Yamaguti, 1934 and Diplomonorchis kureh Machida, 2005 and three new species, including one new genus, Asymmetrostoma heronensis n. g., n. sp., Lasiotocus arrhichostoma n. sp. and Proctotrema addisoni n. sp. Helicometroides longicollis and D. kureh were previously reported from the closely related species Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) from Japan. Two further monorchiid species known from D. pictum, Genolopa plectorhynchi (Yamaguti, 1934) and Paraproctotrema fusiforme Yamaguti, 1934, appear to be absent from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Previous reports of two other monorchiids from D. labiosum from the GBR, Paramonorcheides pseudocaranxi Dove & Cribb, 1998 and Helicometroides vitellosus (Durio & Manter, 1968), are shown to have been made in error. The high richness of monorchiids and other trematode families in D. labiosum is consistent with that seen in other haemulids elsewhere.

  2. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of the Falkland Islands mullet, Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae), the sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The perciform notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, representing the monotypic family Eleginopidae, has a non-Antarctic distribution in the Falkland Islands and southern South America. It is the sister group of the five families and 103 species of Antarctic notothenioids that dominate the cold shelf waters of Antarctica. Eleginops is the ideal subject for documenting the ancestral morphology of nervous and sensory systems that have not had historical exposure to the unusual Antarctic thermal and light regimes, and for comparing these systems with those of the phyletically derived Antarctic species. We present a detailed description of the brain and cranial nerves of Eleginops and ask how does the neural and sensory morphology of this non-Antarctic notothenioid differ from that seen in the phyletically derived Antarctic notothenioids? The brain of Eleginops is similar to those of visually oriented temperate and tropical perciforms. The tectum is smaller but it has well-developed olfactory and mechanoreceptive lateral line areas and a large, caudally projecting corpus cerebellum. Eye diameter is about twofold smaller in Eleginops than in many Antarctic species. Eleginops has a duplex (rod and cone) retina with single and occasional twin cones conspicuous centrally. Ocular vascular structures include a large choroid rete mirabile and a small lentiform body; a falciform process and hyaloid arteries are absent. The olfactory rosette is oval with 50-55 lamellae, a large number for notothenioids. The inconspicuous bony canals of the cephalic lateral line system are simple with membranous secondary branches that lack neuromasts. In Antarctic species, the corpus cerebellum is the most variable brain region, ranging in size from large and caudally projecting to small and round. "Stalked" brains showing reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and corpus cerebellum are present in the deep-living artedidraconid Dolloidraco longedorsalis and in most of the deep

  3. Spermatozoal ultrastructures of two marine perciform teleost fishes, the goatfish, Paraupeneus spilurus (Mullidae) and the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Gwo, J-C; Yang, W-T; Kuo, M-C; Takemura, A; Cheng, H-Y

    2004-02-01

    Mature spermatozoa of two perciform teleost fishes, Paraupeneus spilurus (Mullidae) and Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae) from Taiwan were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Despite the fact that spermatozoa of both species are of the primitive type, the results of the present study highlight the potential application of spermatozoal morphology in studies of fish phylogenetic relationships. To our knowledge, the flattened nucleus observed in P. spilurus spermatozoa is reported for the first time. Several features common to Sigandae spermatozoa-the unusual almost parallel situation of the centrioles, the arrangement of mitochondria and the near absence of shallow nuclear fossa-are significantly different from other common teleost sperm types. These unique features may be synapomorphies for the Siganidae and Mullidae and evidently contribute to the study of phylogenetic relationships in teleosts.

  4. Morphological characterisation and phylogenetic relationships of Zschokkella candia n. sp. from the gall-bladder of Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) in the Sea of Crete off Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-11-01

    A new myxosporean parasite, Zschokkella candia n. sp., from the gall-bladder of the wild parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Mature spores are elliptical, with mean dimensions 11.2 ± 0.5 × 7.8 ± 0.1 μm and possess spherical polar capsules with mean diameter of 2.3 ± 0.3 μm. The new species is differentiated from other similar species of the genus based on spore morphology, its coelozoic life-style and molecular data. The phylogenetic tree constructed using maximum likelihood analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence data complements the characterisation of Zschokkella candia n. sp. by defining its phylogenetic position among the species of Zschokkella Auerbach, 1909 sequenced to date. The phylogenetic analysis supports the existing knowledge on the complicated polyphyletic relationships among the members of the genus Zschokkella. PMID:26446543

  5. Cloning and characterization of leptin in a Perciform fish, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis): control of feeding and regulation by nutritional state.

    PubMed

    Won, Eugene T; Baltzegar, David A; Picha, Matthew E; Borski, Russell J

    2012-08-01

    In mammals, leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that regulates energy homeostasis. It is produced predominantly by white adipose tissue and circulates as an endocrine indicator of energy reserves. Teleost leptin has been characterized in a few fish species, but its regulation is not well understood, particularly in response to nutritional status. In this study, we cloned a putative leptin in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and report the first characterization of leptin in a Perciforme, the largest and most diverse order of fish. The striped bass leptin coding sequence was 65% homologous with pufferfish, 52% with Atlantic salmon, and 46% with human. PCR showed that leptin mRNA was exclusively expressed in the liver, and not adipose or other tissues. The leptin coding sequence of striped bass and the more widely cultured hybrid striped bass variety (HSB; Morone chrysops, white bass×M. saxatilis) were identical. We then evaluated whether the metabolic status of HSB might alter leptin gene expression. Juvenile HSB were subjected to 3weeks feed deprivation followed by 3weeks of refeeding. Quantitative PCR showed that fasting for 3weeks reduced hepatic leptin mRNA levels relative to fed controls. Leptin mRNA levels then increased upon refeeding, albeit levels were not completely restored to those seen in control fish fed throughout the experiment. Intraperitoneal injection of human leptin suppressed appetite in HSB. In as much as hepatic HSB leptin mRNA is regulated by nutritional state and has a corresponding anorexigenic effect, our results suggest that leptin may play a role in energy homeostasis in these advanced Perciformes. PMID:22569172

  6. Cloning and characterization of leptin in a Perciform fish, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis): control of feeding and regulation by nutritional state.

    PubMed

    Won, Eugene T; Baltzegar, David A; Picha, Matthew E; Borski, Russell J

    2012-08-01

    In mammals, leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that regulates energy homeostasis. It is produced predominantly by white adipose tissue and circulates as an endocrine indicator of energy reserves. Teleost leptin has been characterized in a few fish species, but its regulation is not well understood, particularly in response to nutritional status. In this study, we cloned a putative leptin in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and report the first characterization of leptin in a Perciforme, the largest and most diverse order of fish. The striped bass leptin coding sequence was 65% homologous with pufferfish, 52% with Atlantic salmon, and 46% with human. PCR showed that leptin mRNA was exclusively expressed in the liver, and not adipose or other tissues. The leptin coding sequence of striped bass and the more widely cultured hybrid striped bass variety (HSB; Morone chrysops, white bass×M. saxatilis) were identical. We then evaluated whether the metabolic status of HSB might alter leptin gene expression. Juvenile HSB were subjected to 3weeks feed deprivation followed by 3weeks of refeeding. Quantitative PCR showed that fasting for 3weeks reduced hepatic leptin mRNA levels relative to fed controls. Leptin mRNA levels then increased upon refeeding, albeit levels were not completely restored to those seen in control fish fed throughout the experiment. Intraperitoneal injection of human leptin suppressed appetite in HSB. In as much as hepatic HSB leptin mRNA is regulated by nutritional state and has a corresponding anorexigenic effect, our results suggest that leptin may play a role in energy homeostasis in these advanced Perciformes.

  7. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol)

    PubMed Central

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD+ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique. PMID:27376338

  8. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 ⁎ (fish length) + 0.32 ⁎ (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504. PMID:27190634

  9. Cloning, expression of Vibrio alginolyticus outer membrane protein-OmpU gene and its potential application as vaccine in crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch.

    PubMed

    Cai, S H; Lu, Y S; Wu, Z H; Jian, J C

    2013-08-01

    The outer membrane proteins of the marine aquatic animal pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus, play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. In this study, the gene encoding an outer membrane protein-OmpU was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the purified recombinant OmpU, and the reaction of the antibody was confirmed by Western blotting using the isolated OmpU and the recombinant OmpU of V. alginolyticus. To analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant OmpU, crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, were immunized by intraperitoneal injection, and antibody response was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that the recombinant OmpU produced an observable antibody response in all sera of the vaccinated fish. The vaccinated fish were challenged by virulent V. alginolyticus and observed to have high resistance to infection. These results indicate that the recombinant OmpU is an effective vaccine candidate against V. alginolyticus in L. erythropterus.

  10. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol).

    PubMed

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD⁺ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique.

  11. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol).

    PubMed

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD⁺ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique. PMID:27376338

  12. Prevalence, mean intensity and site preference of Caligus rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 (Copepoda: Caligidae) on cage cultured crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790) from Bukit Tambun, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leaw, Yoon Yau; Faizah, Shaharom; Anil, Chatterji; Kua, Beng Chu

    2012-07-01

    Snapper had been cultured in Malaysia since 1980 due to the fry availability and the high demand. However, details on the caligids infestation were not properly documented. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, mean intensity and site preference of Caligus rotundigenitalis (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida) a parasitic copepod on cage cultured crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus from Bukit Tambun, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 70 specimens of cultured snapper were examined based on different infestation sites such as head, body as well as operculum. The specimens were separated into three groups according to the size of the fish. C. rotundigenitalis was found to be the only species infesting L. erythropterus with the prevalence and the mean intensity of 81.4% and 5.6±4.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the prevalence of site infestation of the body and inner operculum sites. The prevalence of C. rotundigenitalis was highest on inner operculum of the fish followed by the body and head. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of C. rotundigenitalis over the different infestation sites derived from the three groups. The information obtained from this study can be used for more effective control measures of ectoparasitic copepod infestation in floating cages.

  13. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Rajiv; Yahaya, Zary Shariman

    2016-01-01

    The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 ⁎ (fish length) + 0.32 ⁎ (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504.

  14. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801)*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  15. Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Armando

    2009-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed.

  16. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  17. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid S; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L

    2013-12-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf.

  18. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species.

  19. Contrasting patterns of reef utilization and recruitment of coral trout ( Plectropomus leopardus) and snapper ( Lutjanus carponotatus) at One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsford, M. J.

    2009-03-01

    Patterns of abundance, age structure and recruitment of coral trout ( Plectropomus leopardus) and snapper ( Lutjanus carponotatus) were described in different environments, which varied in benthic cover, in a 12-yr study at One Tree Island. It was hypothesized that both taxa would show strong preferences to different environments and benthic cover and that patterns would be consistent through time. Plectropomus leopardus were abundant on the reef slope and seaward edge of the lagoon, where live coral cover was high, and recruitment was generally low, in all environments. The population was sustained by a trickle of recruits, and total abundance varied little after 10 to 25 yr of protection in a no-take area, suggesting P. leopardus had reached an environment-related carrying capacity. Protogynous P. leopardus recruited to shallow environments at sites with 20% or more hard live coral and age data indicated the abundance of fish on the reef slope was from redistribution. Most recruits of gonochoristic L. carponotatus (<150 mm Standard length, SL) were found in the lagoonal environments, and adults were rare on the reef slope. Abundance of recruit L. carponotatus and P. leopardus did not correlate with percent cover of live and soft coral within environments. Recruits of L. carponotatus were usually rare in all lagoonal environments, but in 2003, many recruits (80 to 120 mm SL) were found in lagoonal environments with low and high hard live coral cover. A substantial proportion of the population (age max 18 yr) was from strong recruitment events. In 2003 and 2004, total abundance of L. carponotatus was supported by 1 year class 51.7 and 41% respectively. The utilization of environments and types of substrata varied among taxa and in some cases among life-history stages. There was also temporal variation in the importance of some environments (e.g. Lagoon Centre).

  20. Dietary administration of microalgae alone or supplemented with Lactobacillus sakei affects immune response and intestinal morphology of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo, Carlos; Estrada, Norma; Murillo, Ylenia; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary microalgae Navicula sp single or in combination with Lactobacillus sakei on growth performance, humoral immune parameters and intestinal morphology in Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru. The experimental fish were grouped into four treatment diets which were a control diet (commercial diet, Control), silage microalgae Navicula sp plus L. sakei (10(6) CFU g(-1), Navicula + L. sakei), lyophilized microalgae (Navicula) and L. sakei (10(6) CFU g(-1), L. sakei). The blood and intestine samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The weight gain showed an additive effect of Navicula + L. sakei at 8 weeks of treatment compared with fish fed control diet. Overall, physiological parameters such as total protein and hemoglobin were increased in fish fed with Navicula and L. sakei diets at 4 and 8 weeks of feeding assay, respectively. There was a significant improvement in immune parameters, principally in myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, total antiproteases activities and IgM in fish fed with Navicula + L. sakei and L. sakei diets at 4 or 8 weeks of treatments. Serum antioxidant capabilities revealed significant increase in phosphatase alkaline, esterase, protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase in groups which received diet supplemented with Navicula + L. sakei and L. sakei diets. Finally, light microscopy observations revealed no effect of experimental diets on microvilli height. Curiously, the presence of vacuoles inside the enterocytes was significant higher in the intestine of L. sakei group after four or six weeks of feeding. Elevated intraepithelial leucocyte levels and melanomacrophages centers were observed in fish fed Navicula or control diets at any time of the experiment. To conclude, the results of the present study demonstrate that the fish that were fed with Navicula + L. sakei or L. sakei diets yielded significantly better immune status and antioxidant capabilities.

  1. Effects of dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucan on the antioxidant and digestive enzyme activities of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) after exposure to lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Villanueva, Laura T; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Macías-Rodríguez, María E; Tovar-Ramírez, Dariel

    2014-06-01

    The effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan, derived from yeast, on growth, antioxidant, and digestive enzyme performance of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru before and after exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was investigated. The β-1,3/1,6-glucan was added to the basal diet at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 %). The treatment lasted 6 weeks, with sampling at regular intervals (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). At the end of this period, the remaining fish from either control or β-glucan-fed fish were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (3 mg kg(-1)) or with sterile physiological saline solution (SS) and then sampled at 0, 24, and 72 h. The results showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth performance after 6 weeks of feeding with β-glucan. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver was significantly higher in diets containing 0.1 % β-glucan in weeks 4 and 6, compared to the control group. β-Glucan supplementation at 0.1 and 0.2 % significantly increased aminopeptidase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activity. At 72 h after injection of LPS, we observed a significant increase in catalase activity in liver from fish fed diets supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2 % β-glucan; SOD activity increased in fish fed with 0.1 % β-glucan in relation to those injected with SS. Feed supplemented with β-1,3/1,6-glucan increased growth, antioxidant activity, and digestive enzyme activity in Pacific red snapper.

  2. Ontogeny changes and weaning effects in gene expression patterns of digestive enzymes and regulatory digestive factors in spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) larvae.

    PubMed

    Moguel-Hernández, I; Peña, R; Andree, K B; Tovar-Ramirez, D; Bonacic, K; Dumas, S; Gisbert, E

    2016-10-01

    The study of digestive physiology is an important issue in species that have been introduced in aquaculture like the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus). The aims of this study were to describe the expression of digestive enzymes (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, α-amylase, lipoprotein lipase, phospholipase A and pepsinogen) and their relation with orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, NPY) and anorexigenic (cholecystokinin, CCK) factors during the larval development and to evaluate the effect of weaning in their expression. The results showed that the transcripts of all the assayed digestive enzymes, with the exception of pepsinogen, and NPY and CCK were already present in L. guttatus from the hatching stage. The expression of all the enzymes was low during the yolk-sac stage (0-2 days after hatching, DAH), whereas after the onset of exogenous feeding at 2 DAH, their expression increased and fluctuated throughout larval development, which followed a similar pattern as in other marine fish species and reflected changes in different types of food items and the progressive maturation of the digestive system. On the other hand, weaning of L. guttatus larvae from live prey onto a microdiet between 25 and 35 DAH significantly affected the relative expression of most pancreatic digestive enzymes during the first weaning days, whereas chymotrypsinogen 2 and lipoprotein lipase remained stable during this period. At the end of co-feeding, larvae showed similar levels of gene expression regardless of the diet (live prey vs. microdiet), which indicated that larvae of L. guttatus were able to adapt their digestive capacities to the microdiet. In contrast, feeding L. guttatus larvae with live feed or microdiet did not affect the expression of CCK and NPY. The relevance of these findings with regard to current larval rearing procedures of L. guttatus is discussed.

  3. Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Armando

    2009-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed. PMID

  4. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P.; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf. PMID:24533325

  5. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of two species of phyletically basal non-Antarctic thornfishes of the Antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes: Bovichtidae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    The predominantly non-Antarctic family Bovichtidae is phyletically basal within the perciform suborder Notothenioidei, the dominant component of the Antarctic fish fauna. In this article we focus on the South Atlantic bovichtids Bovichtus diacanthus, the klipfish from tide pools at Tristan da Cunha, and Cottoperca gobio, the frogmouth from the Patagonian shelf and Falkland Islands. We document the anatomy and histology of the brains, olfactory apparatus, retina, and cephalic lateral line system. We also use the microvascular casting agent Microfil to examine ocular vascular structures. We provide detailed drawings of the brains and cranial nerves of both species. Typical of perciforms, the brains of both species have a well-developed tectum and telencephalon and robust thalamic nuclei. The telencephalon of C. gobio is prominently lobed, with the dorsomedial nucleus more conspicuous than in any other notothenioid. The corpus cerebelli is relatively small and upright and, unlike other notothenioids, has prominent transverse sulci on the dorsal and caudal surfaces. Areas for lateral line mechanoreception (eminentia granularis and crista cerebellaris) are also conspicuous but olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory areas are less prominent. The anterior lateral line nerve complex is larger than the posterior lateral line nerve in B. diacanthus, and in their cephalic lateral line systems both species possess branched membranous tubules (which do not contain neuromasts) with small pores. These are especially complex in B. diacanthus where they become increasingly branched and more highly pored in progressively larger specimens. Superficial neuromasts are sparse. Both species have duplex (cone and rod) retinae that are 1.25-fold thicker and have nearly 5-fold more photoreceptors and than those of most Antarctic notothenioids. Convergence ratios are also high for bovichtids. Bovichtus diacanthus has a yellow intraocular filter in the dorsal aspect of the cornea. Both

  6. The barred grunt Conodon nobilis (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in shallow areas of a tropical bight: spatial and temporal distribution, body growth and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flávia Borges; de Faria, Vanessa Hermann; Turra, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the population biology of Conodon nobilis (Perciformes, Haemulidae) in Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. Monthly trawls were performed from October 2003 through October 2004 in two areas of the bight that are similar to but distant from each other, South and North. For all specimens, the size was measured and the sex and reproductive stage identified. Abundance and size were compared over areas and months. Body growth parameters were parameterized according to the Von Bertalanffy growth function. The stomach contents were identified and quantified. C. nobilis occurred mainly in the North area and showed an erratic pattern of abundance over time. Several cohorts entered in different periods, but very few large and mature individuals were observed. The results indicate a preference for shallow, ocean-influenced habitats and some degree of segregation between young and older individuals. The species showed a distribution consistent with an r-strategist species, with high abundance and a high growth constant ( K = 0.68 year-1 and L max = 34.2 cm). Both the relative length of the digestive tube and the prey items indicated a carnivorous feeding habit; mysids were the main item of the diet throughout the study period, indicating that this grunt is a specialist feeder. Other frequently observed items were amphipods and fish fragments. Ingestion of scales is possibly intentional.

  7. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and protein kinase R than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.

  8. Chronic kisspeptin administration stimulated gonadal development in pre-pubertal male yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; Perciformes) during the breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, Josephine N; Zohar, Yonathan; Biran, Jakob; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Elizur, Abigail

    2013-09-15

    The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season. PMID:23791760

  9. Pseudobacciger cheneyae n. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophalloidea) from Weber's chromis (Chromis weberi Fowler & Bean) (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Derek; Bray, Rodney A; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-06-01

    A new species of digenean, Pseudobacciger cheneyae n. sp., is described from the intestines of Weber's chromis (Chromis weberi Fowler & Bean) from off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. This species differs from the three described species of Pseudobacciger Nahhas & Cable, 1964 [P. cablei Madhavi, 1975, P. harengulae Yamaguti, 1938 and P. manteri Nahhas & Cable, 1964] in combinations of the size of the suckers and the length of the caeca. The host of the present species is a perciform (Family Pomacentridae) which contrasts with previous records of the genus which are almost exclusively from clupeiform fishes. The genus Pseudobacciger is presently recognised within the family Faustulidae (Poche, 1926) but phylogenetic analyses of 28S and ITS2 rDNA show that the new species bears no relationship to species of four other faustulid genera (Antorchis Linton, 1911, Bacciger Nicoll, 1924, Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 and Trigonocryptus Martin, 1958) but that instead it is nested within the Gymnophalloidea (Odhner, 1905) as sister to the Tandanicolidae (Johnston, 1927). This result suggests that the Faustulidae is polyphyletic.

  10. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and protein kinase R than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms. PMID:27656183

  11. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and protein kinase R than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms. PMID:27656183

  12. A new species of Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) parasitic in Pseudopercis numida Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) from southeastern Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiiano M; Felizardo, Nilza N; Luque, José L

    2009-06-01

    Heterosentis brasiliensis n. sp. (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), parasitic in namorado sandperch Pseudopercis numida Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 (Perciformes, Pinguipedidae) from the littoral of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Heterosentis brasiliensis n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having 10 longitudinal rows of hooks in the proboscis, 6 or 7 hooks in each row, 3 or 4 small basal hooks in each row, and spines in the anterior ventral surface of the body. The similar species, Heterosentis heteracanthus (Linstow, 1896) and Heterosentis caballeroi Gupta & Fatma, 1983, also have 10 longitudinal rows of hooks, but H. heteracanthus differs from the new species by possessing trunk spines in the ventral and dorsal body surface. Heterosentis caballeroi differs from H. brasiliensis by the presence of 1 apical and 1 subapical hook in each longitudinal row; the largest apical, subapical, and basal hooks; lemnisci that are smaller than the proboscis receptacles; and a pre-equatorial male reproductive system. This is the first record of a Heterosentis species in a pinguipedid fish and from Brazilian coastal zone.

  13. Two new species of Cryptocephalum n. gen. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the cephalic lateral line of Percichthys trucha (Perciformes: Percichthyidae) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega, Rocío M; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Brugni, Norma L

    2011-04-01

    Two new species of Monogenoidea were found parasitizing the cephalic lateral line canals of Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae). These species are described as members of a newly proposed genus of Dactylogyridae. Cryptocephalum n. gen. is characterized by the site of infection and the combination of the several features: ventral and dorsal anchor/bar complexes, anchors with strongly elongated shaft and recurved point, shaft and point of dorsal anchors protruding laterally from haptor, hooks with 2 subunits and with pair 5 smaller than the others; gonads overlapping; coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings, accessory piece formed by 2 distinct parts, and a tubular, sclerotized ventral vagina. C ryptocephalum petreum n. sp. is characterized by having both anchor pairs protruding laterally from haptor, male copulatory organ with a coil of 2-1/2 rings, accessory piece tweezers-shaped, and sclerotized vaginal vestibule. Cryptocephalum spiralis n. sp. has ventral anchors protruding ventrally and dorsal ones protruding laterally, male copulatory organ with a coil of 1-1/2 rings, the antero-dorsal part of the accessory piece saddle-shaped, vaginal vestibule not present, and coiled vagina. This is the first record of Dactylogyridae species parasitizing the cephalic lateral line of fishes. PMID:21506871

  14. Chronic kisspeptin administration stimulated gonadal development in pre-pubertal male yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; Perciformes) during the breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, Josephine N; Zohar, Yonathan; Biran, Jakob; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Elizur, Abigail

    2013-09-15

    The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season.

  15. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and protein kinase R than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.

  16. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Whitefin trevally Carangoides equula (Perciformes: Carangidae): a novel initiation codon for ATP6 gene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Keshu; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Carangoides equula (Perciformes: Carangidae) was determined. The size of the genome was 16,588 bp and overall base compositions of the sequence were 26.3% of A, 30.3% of C, 25.3% of T and 18.1% of G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The genome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization and gene order was similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. The initiation codon GTG was detected in the open reading frames of ATPase subunit 6, which was novel for ATP6 gene in Carangidae species. The mitogenome of C. equula shared 84.1% and 84.0% sequence similarity with two other Carangoides species Carangoides malabaricus and Carangoides armatus, respectively. The complete mitogenome sequence data of C. equula could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies.

  17. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  18. Refuge-seeking impairments mirror metabolic recovery following fisheries-related stressors in the Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Messmer, Vanessa; Tobin, Andrew J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Clark, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries and marine park management strategies for large predatory reef fish can mean that a large proportion of captured fish are released. Despite being released, these fish may experience high mortality while they traverse the water column to locate suitable refuge to avoid predators, all the while recovering from the stress of capture. The predatory reef fish Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) is frequently released because of a minimum-size or bag limit or by fishers targeting more desirable species. Using L. carponotatus as a model, we tested whether simulated fishing stress (exercise and air exposure) resulted in impairments in reflexes (e.g., response to stimuli) and the ability to identify and use refuge in a laboratory arena and whether any impairments were associated with blood physiology or metabolic recovery. Control fish were consistently responsive to reflex tests and rapidly located and entered refugia in the arena within seconds. Conversely, treatment fish (exhausted and air exposed) were unresponsive to stimuli, took longer to search for refugia, and were more apprehensive to enter the refuge once it was located. Consequently, treatment fish took more than 70 times longer than control fish to enter the coral refuge (26.12 vs. 0.36 min, respectively). The finding that fish exposed to stress were hesitant to use refugia suggests that there was likely cognitive, visual, and/or physiological impairment. Blood lactate, glucose, and hematocrit measures were perturbed at 15 and 30 min after the stressor, relative to controls. However, measurements of oxygen consumption rate revealed that about 50% of metabolic recovery occurred within 30 min after the stressor, coinciding with apparent cognitive/visual/physiological recovery. Recovering the treatment fish in aerated, flow-through chambers for 30 min before introduction to the behavioral arena restored reflexes, and "recovered" fish behaved more similarly to controls. Therefore, we suggest that

  19. Rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrid monogeneans on gills of spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) after transfer to a sea-cage.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Morales-Serna, Francisco N; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2015-06-15

    Finfish mariculture is typically threatened by parasite and disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to identify parasite species of potential risk for this activity. Snappers are valuable food fish worldwide. In the Eastern Pacific, spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus [Steindachner, 1869]) is a firm candidate for sea-cage aquaculture. In the current study, the parasitism of caged L. guttatus by dactylogyrids was evaluated for the first time during a complete farming period. Twenty five thousand juvenile fish produced at the Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, Mazatlan Unit) were reared in a sentinel sea-cage from February to November 2012 in Mazatlan Bay, Mexico. A fish sample (n=15) was obtained every month. Dactylogyrids from the left second gill arch were identified and quantified. A total of 18,704 dactylogyrids distributed in three species, Euryhaliotrema perezponcei García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, E. mehen (Soler-Jiménez, García-Gasca and Fajer-Ávila, 2012), and Haliotrematoides guttati García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) was found, which were able to infect caged L. guttatus since the first month of the farming period. Prevalence of these parasite species was 100% all the time, except for initial low values for E. mehen and H. guttati. The mean intensity of infection of each dactylogyrid species varied significantly between sampling months. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei was the most abundant parasite, reaching the highest mean intensity in May, June and July (154.3, 296.9 and 176.6 parasites/host, respectively). No clear seasonality of infection was observed; however, the influence of the water temperature on the observed infection levels is discussed. There was no mortality, change on behavior or pathological signs. However, given the rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrids, particularly E. perezponcei on L. guttaus reared in a sentinel sea

  20. Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 (Ascaridida: Cucullanidae) from marine perciform fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-10-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Dichelyne) breviculus n. sp., collected from the intestine of the goatee croaker Dendrophysa russelii (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae), the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina (Bloch & Schneider) and the tropical sand goby Acentrogobius caninus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in the South China Sea, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the size of body (2.16-2.96 mm in male), the position of the excretory pore and deirids, the length of the spicules (0.90-1.32 mm, representing 32.4-51.9% of body length), the arrangement of the caudal papillae and the morphology of the tail. In addition, in order to primarily assess the validity of the new species genetically, the specimens of D. breviculus n. sp. collected from the three different hosts were also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions. The molecular analyses support the validity of the new species based on the morphological observations.

  1. Anatomy and histology of the brain and sense organs of the antarctic plunderfish Dolloidraco longedorsalis (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae), with comments on the brain morphology of other artedidraconids and closely related harpagiferids.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2003-03-01

    In the high-latitude shelf waters of Antarctica, fishes in the perciform suborder Notothenioidei dominate the fish fauna and constitute an adaptive radiation and a species flock. The 25 species of notothenioid plunderfishes, comprising four genera of the family Artedidraconidae, contribute substantially to fish species diversity on the high Antarctic shelf. A mental barbel is an autapomorphy for the family. Dolloidraco longedorsalis is the most abundant artedidraconid at depths over 400 m in these waters. In this article we present the anatomy and histology of the brain and special sense organs of Dolloidraco and compare it to the brains of other artedidraconids, closely related harpagiferids, and more generally to other notothenioids. We provide a detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves. The brain of Dolloidraco is simple, without external hypertrophy of sensory or motor regions, but contains several unusual features associated with the ventricular system and CSF, including well-developed circumventricular organs, subependymal expansions, and subarachnoid cisterns; and a ventricle in the corpus cerebellum. The brain of Dolloidraco also contains a lobed chief sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve that is correlated across species with barbel length. The eyes are large and contain a small choroid rete, a structure previously thought to be absent from members of this family. We document the histology of the duplex retina, olfactory apparatus, cutaneous taste buds, and barbel musculature and innervation. We discuss the role of pedomorphy in producing simplified brain morphologies. We consider the possibility that Dolloidraco is a somatosensory specialist-an unusual feature among vertebrates-and decide that this is unlikely.

  2. Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, B.D.; Parrish, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that the introduced blueline snapper (Lutjanus kasmira, Family: Lutjanidae) may adversely affect populations of native fishery species in Hawai'i through competition for spatial or dietary resources, or through predation on young fish. We studied the habitat use patterns of L. kasmira and several native reef fish species using direct observation by SCUBA divers. Habitat use patterns of the yellowtail goatfish (Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, Family: Mullidae) were most similar to those of L. kasmira. Both species were primarily found low in the water column and were closely associated with areas of vertical relief. Individual M. vanicolensis were found higher in the water column when L. kasmirawere present, but L. kasmira were not similarly affected by M. vanicolensis. This finding suggests asymmetrical competition for shelter, in which the dominant L. kasmira displaces M. vanicolensis farther into the water column. This displacement from the protection of the reef could increase the vulnerability of M. vanicolensisto predators and fishers. ?? Springer 2005.

  3. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Ribosomal Genes, Histone H3, and Transposable Rex Elements in the Genome of Atlantic Snappers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Félix da; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-03-01

    Lutjanidae is a family of primarily marine and carnivorous fishes distributed in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, with enormous economic and ecological importance. In order to better clarify the conservative chromosomal evolution of Lutjanidae, we analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 5 repetitive DNA classes in 5 Lutjanus and in 1 Ocyurus species from the Western Atlantic. The ribosomal 18S sites were generally located in a single chromosome pair, except for L. jocu and L. alexandrei where they are found in 2 pairs. In turn, the 5S rDNA sites are unique, terminal and nonsyntenic with the 18S rDNA sites. In 3 species analyzed, H3 hisDNA genes were found in 1 chromosomal pair. However, while L. jocu presented 2 H3 sites, O. chrysurus showed a noteworthy dispersion of this gene in almost all chromosomes of the karyotype. Retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3 do not exhibit any association with the explosive distribution of H3 sequences in O. chrysurus. The low compartmentalization of Rex elements, in addition to the general nondynamic distribution of ribosomal and H3 genes, corroborate the karyotype conservatism in Lutjanidae species, also at the microstructural level. However, some "disturbing evolutionary waves" can break down this conservative scenario, as evidenced by the massive random dispersion of H3 hisDNA in the genome of O. chrysurus. The implication of the genomic expansion of H3 histone genes and their functionality remain unknown, although suggesting that they have higher evolutionary dynamics than previously thought. PMID:26792596

  4. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    SciTech Connect

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  5. [Reproductive behavior of Opistognathus rosenblatti (Perciformes: Opistognathidae) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mauricio; Anguas, Benjamín; González, Pedro G; Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2012-09-01

    The Blue Spotted Jawfish O. rosenblatti, is an endemic species from the Gulf of California, included in the local list of protected species. With few biological reports, this species is appreciated in the aquarium industry due to its coloration and digging behaviour, and has a considerable value. With the aim to generate valuable biological information, eight fishes were caught at Loreto Natural Marine Protected Area. Captured fishes were juveniles, and just three of them were kept in an aquarium conditioned with gravel, pieces of shells and coral as substrata. Temperature and photoperiod conditions were stable, and they were supplied with a variety of live and inert feeds. Fishes reached maturity in eight months, according to literature reports, displaying mature male courtship coloration and upward movements in the water column. Fishes spawned several times over more than two years in captivity. Presences of egg masses, or some evidence of egg shell or larvae, were registered in 50 occasions. Male took care of eggs in his shelter, but never in his mouth. Egg masses had an average of 3 592 eggs, with a hatching rate close to 99%. Eggs were apparently rounded having three diameter measurements with significant differences (1.17mm mean higher diameter, SD=0.054; 1.13mm mean lower diameter, 0.058; 0.99mm mean height, 0.045; n=125). Most of corion eggs had four, rarely six filaments; with a single oil drop (0.30mm mean diameter, 0.021, n=59). Incubation lasted 10.4 days (9-14), depending on water temperature (21.0-25.3 degrees C). Egg hatching occurred after darkness, emerging newly hatched larvae of 4.51mm mean notochord length (0.082, n=30), with reserves exhausted, eyes pigmented and mouth opened, ready to eat. This study represents the first report on this species courtship displaying, spawning and some basic characteristics of eggs masses and larvae in captivity. Also, their flexibility and adaptability of individual behaviour to particular environment conditions, lead to consider worth their commercial culture, as already occur with other species of this family.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Trichiurus nanhaiensis (Perciformes: Trichiuridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Guo, Yusong; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu

    2013-10-01

    The Naihai cutlassfish (Trichiurus nanhaiensis, Wang and Xu, 1992) is an important commercial fish species in South China Sea, while the taxonomy is still controversial. The 17,060 base pair mitochondrial genome sequence of T. nanhaiensis was determined, which shared the features with the other bony fishes for gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, and tRNA structures except for tRNA(pro) gene. The termination-associated sequence, central conserved sequence blocks (CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D), and conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2, CSB-3), as well as tandem repeats were detected in the control region. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. nanhaiensis together with T. lepturus, T. japonicus, and T. brevis formed a clade of Trichiurus based on the complete Cyt b genes and partial CO I genes; meanwhile, the closest relationship was established between T. nanhaiensis and T. lepturus.

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence was determined for the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus, one species of the economically important fish in Carangidae. The entire sequence of the genome was 16,544 bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 27.3% of A, 30.4% of C, 25.3% of T and 17.0% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The mitogenome of Decapterus macarellus had a quite high-sequence similarity (92.5%) with D. macrosoma, which was morphologically close to D. macarellus. The complete mitogenome sequence data of D. macarellus could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nibea coibor (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Binbin; Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Huosheng; Yan, Yunrong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Nibea coibor has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,509 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)) and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D and CSB-C), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-2, CSB-3).

  9. Whole mitogenome of the Japanese scad Decapterus maruadsi (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Chen, Zuozhi; Chen, Tao; Xiong, Dan; Fan, Jiangtao; Liang, Peiwen

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese scad (Decapterus maruadsi) is one of the most commercially important fish species that is popularly harvested in tropical and temperate seas in South East Asian countries. In the present study, we obtained the whole mitochondrial genome sequence of D. maruadsi by overlapped polymerase chain reactions. The entire sequence was 16,541 bp in length, with a gene content (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: the control region and the light strand replication origin) and organization similar to most of the other vertebrates. Overall base composition of the genome was 27.5% of A, 30.2% of C, 25.5% of T and 16.8% of G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The sequence data of D. maruadsi could provide useful information for the studies on conservation genetics and molecular phylogenetics.

  10. High Connectivity in the Deepwater Snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae) across the Indo-Pacific with Isolation of the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Jones, Shelley A.; Kelley, Christopher; Newman, Stephen J.; Sorenson, Laurie; Bowen, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae) and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae) that occur at 100–400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N = 1,222) collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA ΦST = 0.029, microsatellite FST = 0.029) due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60–180 days), interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K–52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (FST) clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner) indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely) receives input from Johnston Atoll to the south. PMID:22216141

  11. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  12. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Michael L.; Myers, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136) from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June). Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL) and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95); W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95); TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79)) (n = 136). Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42. PMID:27761332

  13. Protozoal and epitheliocystis-like infections in the introduced bluestripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Takata, G.; Kent, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The bluestripe snapper, or taape, was introduced into Hawaii in the 1950s and has since become very abundant throughout the archipelago. As part of a health survey of reef fish in Hawaii, we necropsied 120 taape collected from various coastal areas south of Oahu and examined fish histology for extraintestinal organisms. Forty-seven percent of taape were infected with an apicomplexan protozoan compatible with a coccidian. Infection was evident mainly in the spleen and, less commonly, the kidney. Prevalence of this coccidian increased with size of fish, and we saw no significant pathology associated with the organism. Twenty-six percent of taape were also infected with an epitheliocystis-like organism that occurred mainly in the kidney and, less commonly, the spleen. In contrast to the coccidian, fish mounted a notable inflammatory response to the epitheliocystis-like organism, and this inflammation appeared to increase in severity with age. Prevalence of the epitheliocystis-like organism infection increased with age, but infection was not seen in fish greater than 26.5 cm fork length. The high prevalence of coccidial infection in introduced taape prompts the concern that these organisms, along with the epitheliocystis-like organism, have the potential to be transmitted to native reef fish. Given the impact of other introduced microbial organisms on native Hawaiian fauna, there is a clear need to assess whether protozoa and bacteria are endemic to Hawaii, and whether they negatively impact native reef fish that closely associate with taape.

  14. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  15. Luzonichthysseaver, a new species of Anthiinae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from Pohnpei, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Copus, Joshua M; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie A; Pyle, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Luzonichthysseaver, n. sp., is described from two specimens, 42-46 mm standard length (SL) collected from Pohnpei, Micronesia. Collections were made by divers on mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers using hand nets at depths of 90-100 m. Luzonichthysseaver is distinct from all other species of the genus in the characters of lateral line scales, gill rakers, pelvic fin length, caudal concavity and coloration. Of the six species of Luzonichthys, it appears to be morphologically most similar to L.earlei and L.whitleyi. PMID:25941454

  16. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the silver gemfish Rexea solandri (Cuvier, 1832) (Perciformes, Gempylidae).

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The silver gemfish Rexea solandri is an important economic resource but Vulnerable to overfishing in Australian waters. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is described from 1.6 million reads obtained via next generation sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,350 bp comprising 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions. The mitogenome sequence was validated against sequences of PCR fragments and BLAST queries of Genbank. Gene order was equivalent to that found in marine fishes. PMID:24621221

  17. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55–61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45–187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I).

  18. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Patos Lagoon, extreme south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; da Silva, Diego Silva; Wendt, Emília Welter; Monteiro, Cassandra de Moraes; Berne, Maria Elizabeth Aires

    2015-01-01

    This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis) from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2%) and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9%) and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9%) were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. PMID:26648010

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of jade perch, Scortum barcoo (Perciformes: Terapontidae: Scortum).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Li, Kaibin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Weiwei; Mai, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    This is the first documentation of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the jade perch, Scortum barcoo. The 16,843 bp mitogenome containes 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication) as do other vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall base composition of S. barcoo is 27.39% for A, 24.74% for T, 31.14% for C and 16.73% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 52.13%. All protein-coding genes are initiated with ATG except for COX1, which begin with GTG instead. Meanwhile, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes are varied with TAA, TAG, TA, T or AGG. The measure of complete mitogenome sequence of S. barcoo will provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Terapontidae.

  20. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the silver gemfish Rexea solandri (Cuvier, 1832) (Perciformes, Gempylidae).

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The silver gemfish Rexea solandri is an important economic resource but Vulnerable to overfishing in Australian waters. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is described from 1.6 million reads obtained via next generation sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,350 bp comprising 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions. The mitogenome sequence was validated against sequences of PCR fragments and BLAST queries of Genbank. Gene order was equivalent to that found in marine fishes.

  1. Plectranthias alcocki, a new anthiine fish species (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Arabian Sea, off southwest India.

    PubMed

    Bineesh, K K; Akhilesh, K V; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2014-04-04

    A new species of anthiine fish, Plectranthias alcocki n. sp. is described and illustrated based on two specimens, (63.7-72.5 mm SL), recently collected from deep-waters of the Arabian Sea, off Kollam, Kerala, India. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: Dorsal-fin rays X, 15; anal-fin rays III, 7; pectoral-fin rays 14, all unbranched; pelvic-fin rays I, 5; lateral-line complete, the pored lateral-line scales 28; scales above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 1; scales dorsally on head extending to posterior nostrils; no scales on maxilla or chin; gill rakers 5 + 11 (2 + 7 developed); circumpeduncular scales 10; fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.8 (2.6) in head length (HL), longest dorsal-fin soft ray (second)  2.4 (2.7) in head length; body depth 34.4 (35)% SL; head length 46 (49.8)% SL; orbital length 8.6 in SL; margin of preopercle finely serrate, the serrae 33 (28), ventral edge without antrorse spines; dorsal fin continuous and notched; first anal-fin spine 4.9 (5.6) in HL, second anal-fin spine 2.2 (2.6) in HL; pelvic fins relatively short, 4.0-4.3 in SL; the dorsal fin with a black blotch at base of fourth to eighth spines, one at base of the last three spines, and two at base of soft portion of fin, the dark pigment extending onto adjacent body.

  2. Genetic characterization of native and invasive Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) populations in Brazilian hydrographic basins.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Júlio, H F; Oliveira, A V; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Prioli, L M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) from the Paraná, Parnaiba and Araguaia-Tocantins river basins was assessed by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genetic data confirmed the hypothesis of low genetic variability within and among P. squamosissimus populations introduced in the upper Paraná River basin, and indicated that they likely originated from a common ancestor. Moreover, the data demonstrated that, in agreement with available historical records, the P. squamosissimus populations established in the Paraná River basin were derived from a population native to the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented here are of potential future application for the management of the invasive P. squamosissimus populations and for the preservation of the genetic legacy of native fish. PMID:26600490

  3. Genetic divergence among invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Gomes, V N; Júlio, H F; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Boni, T A; Prioli, L M

    2012-06-01

    The genetic divergence among invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus from four Neotropical hydrographic basins was assessed using the hypervariable domain of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Plagioscion squamosissimus is native to the neighbouring hydrographic basins of the Parnaíba and Amazon Rivers, and the latter includes the Araguaia-Tocantins drainage, but it is invasive in other basins due to introductions. The mtDNA nucleotide polymorphism supported the hypothesis that the Amazon and Parnaíba populations constitute the same species and are separated into two independent evolutionary lineages. Absence of nucleotide polymorphism was observed within and among P. squamosissimus populations invasive to the uppper and middle Paraná River basins. Nucleotide divergence was null or low comparing the Paraná invasive populations with the populations native to the Parnaíba River basin, whereas it was significantly high compared to Tocantins populations. These results ascertain that P. squamosissimus populations invasive to the upper Paraná River basin and to the middle Paraná River basin downstream of the Itaipu dam are derived from the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented are potentially useful to assist further studies on P. squamosissimus taxonomic and geographic distribution, development of ecological guidelines for managing populations invasive to the upper Paraná River basin and for preservation of native fish diversity. PMID:22650426

  4. Population biology and diet of Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Perciformes: Pomadasyidae) in Caraguatatuba Bay, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Márcia Regina; Santos, Flávia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Fernandez, Wellington Silva; Lorca, Luana; Turra, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Pomadasys corvinaeformis inhabits sandy and rocky bottoms in coastal waters, and is common in trawl samples taken from beaches. The species is very abundant on the Brazilian coast, and is of high economic and ecological importance. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution, population biology and diet of P. corvinaeformis in Southeastern Brazil. Samples were taken by trawling monthly from August 2003 to October 2004, in two previously selected areas. The Northern area is more exposed to wave activity and is influenced by a river, functioning as a small estuary. In contrast, the Southern area is relatively sheltered from wave energy and influenced to a lesser degree by smaller rivers. The length of the specimens was measured, and the sex and gonadal stage were macroscopically identified. The abundance of this species was compared between areas and among months. The diet was analyzed seasonally by the frequency of occurrence, the percent volume, and the index of alimentary importance. P. corvinaeformis occurred in unequal proportions in the two study areas (86% in the Northern area and 14% in the Southern area) and was found most abundant in May 2004, followed by June 2004. The proportion of mature and in-maturation individuals increased gradually from autumn to summer. Nine major groups of food items were recorded in the diet of P. corvinaeformis, and crustaceans comprised five of the categories: unidentified crustacean fragments, zoea larvae, amphipods, copepods and shrimps. In both, fish stomach and intestine, crustacean fragments were the most frequent item. The second most frequent items were shrimp in the stomach, and amphipods in the intestine (mainly represented by their tubes). These results demonstrate that P. corvinaeformis can be considered a carnivore, with a preference on benthic organisms.

  5. Karyological evidence for interspecific hybridization between Cichla monoculus and C. temensis (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Brinn, Marineide Neves Alves; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Feldberg, Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis (peacock bass or tucunare), and its presumed hybrids, were cytogenetically analyzed. The fish were collected at three distinct sites in the central Amazon basin, namely in the Uatuma (C. monoculus, C. temensis and their natural hybrid), Jau (C. temensis), and Solimoes rivers (C. monoculus). The two species and the natural hybrid showed the same diploid number, 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes. Single NORs were detected in the distal region of the long arm in all three species. However, in C. monoculus, the NOR was found on the second pair of the complement, in C. temensis, on the third pair and in the hybrid two NOR patterns were found, one on the second pair and the other on the third pair of chromosomes. The two species and the hybrid have their constitutive heterochromatin located in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes and an interstitial C-band located on the largest chromosome pair. The great similarity in the chromosome number and morphology, chromosome size class differences, the NOR patterns and C-banding suggested chromosomal stasis during speciation and hybridization of Cichla. PMID:15703041

  6. Life history of the symbiotically luminous cardinalfish Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, A L; Dougan, K E; Koenigbauer, S T; Dunlap, P V

    2016-08-01

    Characteristics of the life history of the coral reef-dwelling cardinalfish Siphamia tubifer, from Okinawa, Japan, were defined. A paternal mouthbrooder, S. tubifer, is unusual in forming a bioluminescent symbiosis with Photobacterium mandapamensis. The examined S. tubifer (n = 1273) ranged in size from 9·5 to 43·5 mm standard length (LS ), and the minimum size at sexual maturity was 22 mm LS . The number of S. tubifer associated during the day among the spines of host urchins was 22·9 ± 16·1 (mean ± s.d.; Diadema setosum) and 3·6 ± 3·2 (Echinothrix calamaris). Diet consisted primarily of crustacean zooplankton. Batch fecundity (number of eggs; FB ) was related to LS by the equations: males (fertilized eggs) FB  = 27·5LS  - 189·46; females (eggs) FB  = 31·3LS  - 392·63. Individual mass (M; g) as a function of LS was described by the equation: M=9·74×10-5LS2·68. Growth, determined from otolith microstructure analysis, was described with the von Bertalanffy growth function with the following coefficients: L∞  = 40·8 mm LS , K = 0·026 day(-1) and t0  = 23·25 days. Planktonic larval duration was estimated to be 30 days. The age of the oldest examined individual was 240 days. The light organ of S. tubifer, which harbours the symbiotic population of P. mandapamensis, increased linearly in diameter as S. tubifer LS increased, and the bacterial population increased logarithmically with S. tubifer LS . These characteristics indicate that once settled, S. tubifer grows quickly, reproduces early and typically survives much less than 1 year in Okinawa. These characteristics are generally similar to other small reef fishes but they indicate that S. tubifer experiences higher mortality. PMID:27329350

  7. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology in hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2004-04-01

    The Channichthyidae, one of five Antarctic notothenioid families, includes 16 species and 11 genera. Most live at depths of 200-800 m and are a major component of fish biomass in many shelf areas. Channichthyids are unique among adult fishes in possessing pale white blood containing a few vestigal erythrocytes and no hemoglobin. Here we describe the brains of seven species and special sense organs of eight species of channichthyids. We emphasize Chionodraco hamatus and C. myersi, compare these species to other channichthyids, and relate our findings to what is known about brains and sense organs of red-blooded notothenioids living sympatrically on the Antarctic shelf. Brains of channichthyids generally resemble those of their bathydraconid sister group. Among channichthyids the telencephalon is slightly regressed, resulting in a stalked appearance, but the tectum, corpus cerebellum, and mechanoreceptive areas are well developed. Interspecific variation is present but slight. The most interesting features of channichthyid brains are not in the nervous tissue but in support structures: the vasculature and the subependymal expansions show considerable elaboration. Channichthyids have large accessory nasal sacs and olfactory lamellae are more numerous than in other notothenioids. The eyes are relatively large and laterally oriented with similar duplex (cone and rod) retinae in all eight species. Twin cones are the qualitatively dominant photoreceptor in histological sections and, unlike bathydraconids, there are no species with rod-dominated retinae. Eyes possess the most extensive system of hyaloid arteries known in teleosts. Unlike the radial pattern seen in red-blooded notothenioids and most other teleosts, channichthyid hyaloid arteries arise from four or five main branches and form a closely spaced anastomosing series of parallel channels. Cephalic lateral line canals are membranous and some exhibit extensions (canaliculi), but canals are more ossified than those of deeper-living bathydraconids. We conclude that, with respect to the anatomy and histology of the neural structures, the brain and sensory systems show little that is remarkable compared to other fishes, and exhibit little diversification within the family. Thus, the unusual habitat and a potentially deleterious mutation resulting in a hemoglobinless phenotype are reflected primarily in expansion of the vasculature in the brain and eye partially compensating for the absence of respiratory pigments. Neural morphology gives the impression that channichthyids are a homogeneous and little diversified group.

  8. Monorchiids (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of chaetodontid fishes (Perciformes): biogeographical patterns in the tropical Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M K A; Adlard, R D; Bray, R A; Sasal, P; Cribb, T H

    2012-06-01

    Species richness and biogeography of the monorchiid genus Hurleytrematoides was studied by the examination of 2834 individuals of 45 species of Chaetodontidae at six major sites in the tropical Indo-West Pacific: Heron Island, Lizard Island, Ningaloo (Western Australia), Palau, New Caledonia and Moorea (French Polynesia). In total, 18 species were distributed among six sites; descriptions are provided for eight new species: H. boucheti n. sp., H. combesi n. sp., H. deblocki n. sp., H. dollfusi n. sp., H. euzeti n. sp., H. kulbickii n. sp., H. pasteuri n. sp., and H. planesi n. sp. Overall richness ranged from zero to five Hurleytrematoides species per chaetodontid species. Seven Hurleytrematoides species were found at only one locality and eleven were found at multiple localities. Only one species, H. morandi, was found at all localities. Individual localities had between six (Moorea) and 10 (Heron Island) species; we attribute Moorea's depauperate parasite fauna to its isolation and distance from the Indo-Philippine centre of biological diversity. Using cluster analysis of 18 species of Hurleytrematoides and 45 species of chaetodontids sampled in the Indo-West Pacific, we show that the localities on the Great Barrier Reef (Heron Island and Lizard Island) and New Caledonia have the most similar chaetodontid and parasite fauna of any locality pairs. Cluster analysis results also show that the similarity of the chaetodontid assemblages at five of the six localities is relatively high and that Ningaloo has the most distinct fauna. Similarity values based on sharing of species of Hurleytrematoides are generally lower than those for their hosts; Moorea, Ningaloo and Palau all have low similarity to New Caledonia and Great Barrier Reef sites. We attribute these distinctions to the differential dispersal capability of the fish and their parasites. Chaetodontids have long-lived mobile pelagic larvae, the dispersal of which would be most affected by prominent biogeographical barriers, such as that between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In contrast, monorchiids have no obvious dispersal stage, and vast distances have the capacity to act as effective barriers to dispersal. We conclude that the present distributions of species of Hurleytrematoides in the Indo-Pacific are driven by historical opportunity and capacity to disperse, and that some disjunct distributions are sculpted by stochasticity. PMID:22154425

  9. Luzonichthys seaver, a new species of Anthiinae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from Pohnpei, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie A; Pyle, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Luzonichthys seaver, n. sp., is described from two specimens, 42-46 mm standard length (SL) collected from Pohnpei, Micronesia. Collections were made by divers on mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers using hand nets at depths of 90-100 m. Luzonichthys seaver is distinct from all other species of the genus in the characters of lateral line scales, gill rakers, pelvic fin length, caudal concavity and coloration. Of the six species of Luzonichthys, it appears to be morphologically most similar to L. earlei and L. whitleyi. PMID:25941454

  10. Fine structure of spermatozoa in the common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Maricchiolo, G; Genovese, L; Laurà, R; Micale, V; Muglia, U

    2004-10-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the fine structure of the sperm of the Sparid fish Pagellus erythrinus L. The spermatozoon of pandora has a spherical head lacking an acrosome, a cone-shaped midpiece and a long tail. The midpiece houses a single mitochondrion. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole which are arranged at right angles to each other. The flagellum is inserted medio-laterally into the head, contains the conventional 9+2 axoneme and possesses one pair of lateral fins. On the basis of its ultrastructural organization, the pandora sperm can be regarded as an evolved form of the primitive spermatozoon found in Teleosts. According to the morphological classification proposed by Mattei (1970), the sperm of pandora belongs to a "type I" designation, like that of the other Sparid fish.

  11. Spermatozoa ultrastructure in Sciaenidae and Polynemidae (Teleostei:Perciformes) with some consideration on Percoidei spermatozoa ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gusmão-Pompiani, P; Oliveira, C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2005-06-01

    Spermatozoa ultrastructure was studied in five marines (Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Larimus breviceps, Cynoscion striatus, Micropogonias furnieri, Menticirrhus americanus, Umbrina coroides, Stellifer rastrifer), and one freshwater (Plagioscion squamosissimus) species of Sciaenidae and one species of Polynemidae (Polydactylus virginicus). The investigation revealed that, in all species, spermatozoa display a round head, a nucleus containing highly condensed, filamentous chromatin clusters, no acrosome, a short midpiece with a short cytoplasmic channel, and a flagellum showing the classic axoneme structure (9+2) and short irregular lateral fins. In Sciaenidae, the spermatozoa are type II, the flagellar axis is parallel to the nucleus, the lateral nuclear fossa is double arched, the centriolar complex is outside the nuclear fossa, the proximal centriole is anterior and perpendicular to the distal centriole, and no more than ten spherical (marine species) or elongate (freshwater species) mitochondria are observed. Polynemidae spermatozoa are of the intermediate type with the flagellar axis eccentric to the hemi-arc-shaped nucleus, and exhibit no nuclear fossa, the centriolar complex close to the upper nuclear end, the proximal centriole lateral and oblique to the distal centriole, and one large ring-shaped mitocondrion. The data available show that no characteristic is exclusively found in the spermatozoa of members of the Sciaenidae family when compared to other Percoidei with type II spermatozoa. However, three characteristics were exclusively found in Polynemidae: (1) the hemi-arched nucleus; the positioning of the centrioles; and (2) the ring-shaped mitocondrion. The interrelationships between Sciaenidae and Polynemidae as well as between these two families and other Percoidei are herein discussed. PMID:15936355

  12. Genetic divergence among invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Gomes, V N; Júlio, H F; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Boni, T A; Prioli, L M

    2012-06-01

    The genetic divergence among invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus from four Neotropical hydrographic basins was assessed using the hypervariable domain of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Plagioscion squamosissimus is native to the neighbouring hydrographic basins of the Parnaíba and Amazon Rivers, and the latter includes the Araguaia-Tocantins drainage, but it is invasive in other basins due to introductions. The mtDNA nucleotide polymorphism supported the hypothesis that the Amazon and Parnaíba populations constitute the same species and are separated into two independent evolutionary lineages. Absence of nucleotide polymorphism was observed within and among P. squamosissimus populations invasive to the uppper and middle Paraná River basins. Nucleotide divergence was null or low comparing the Paraná invasive populations with the populations native to the Parnaíba River basin, whereas it was significantly high compared to Tocantins populations. These results ascertain that P. squamosissimus populations invasive to the upper Paraná River basin and to the middle Paraná River basin downstream of the Itaipu dam are derived from the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented are potentially useful to assist further studies on P. squamosissimus taxonomic and geographic distribution, development of ecological guidelines for managing populations invasive to the upper Paraná River basin and for preservation of native fish diversity.

  13. Gill ectoparasite assemblages of two non-native Cichla populations (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Brazilian reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, F H; Santos, L N; Takemoto, R M

    2011-06-01

    The gills of 41 Cichla piquiti and 39 C. kelberi from Itaipu and Lajes reservoirs, respectively, Brazil, were examined to describe the ectoparasite assemblages of these two non-native peacock-bass populations. All ectoparasite species of the two studied hosts (C. piquiti and C. kelberi) were dominant, but Ascocotyle sp. (metacercariae) was the prevalent (58.53%) and most abundant helminth species in C. piquiti hosts, while Sciadicleithrum ergensi was the dominant species in C. kelberi hosts. Gill ectoparasites of C. piquiti and C. kelberi showed a typical pattern of overdispersion or aggregation, which is commonly reported for many other freshwater fishes. Ectoparasite prevalence and abundance did not vary between host sexes of the two Cichla populations. The prevalence and abundance of Ascocotyle sp. were positively correlated with C. piquiti standard length (SL), but only the abundance of S. ergensi showed a positive correlation with C. kelberi SL. Although environmental differences between reservoirs might also have influenced the results, we anticipated that the presence of a close congener in Itaipu reservoir and the lack of other Cichla species in Lajes reservoir were the key factors to explain the contrasts between C. piquiti and C. kelberi gill ectoparasites. Overall, our results suggest that the trend of parasite species loss through the invasion process may have contributed to the establishment of non-native C. piquiti and C. kelberi populations in Brazilian reservoirs.

  14. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development. PMID:25800987

  15. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae) fishery in Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Héctor M; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Vega, Angel J; Robles, Yolany A

    2015-09-01

    The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippunis) is a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE) over a four-year period (2006-2009). Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1,715 mm (average, 1010.85 mm; n = 10,459). Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD). Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of θ = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus (3.95-4.70). The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (700 - 1400 mm). Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE) per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama.

  16. [Reproductive biology of Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Arellano-Martínez, Marcial

    2012-06-01

    Anisotremus interruptus is a widely distributed and commercially important species in the Eastern Pacific. A multi-year research on the reproduction of this species was carried out in coastal waters of Jalisco, Mexico. For this purpose, monthly samples were gathered with gillnets of different mesh sizes from 1998-2008. A total of 1090 individuals were collected with a total length range between 15.6-61.0cm. Significant differences from expected 1:1 ratio were found for sex ratios in the total sample and for each size class, but not when comparisons among months and years were done. Temporal variations of the gonadosomatic index and proportions of maturation stages suggest that the main reproductive period is from February to May, although some less intensive spawning events were observed in other months. Seven stages of oocytes development were identified. Oocytes in different stages of development were identified in ovaries classified as mature, suggesting an asynchronic type of gonad development. Mean maturation length (L50) was 31.0 for females and 29.7cm for males. The internal organization of testes is of lobular type.

  17. A new species of Hetereleotris (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2014-02-12

    A new species of the genus Hetereleotris is described from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, on the basis of two specimens. Hetereleotris psammophila sp. nov. is unique among the species of the genus Hetereleotris, except for H. diademata, in lacking scales and head pores. The new species differs from the morphologically similar H. diademata in having fewer rays in the second dorsal and anal fins, and in coloration. The habitat preference of the new species for open sand area close to coral reefs in 8-21 m and its nocturnal habits are unusual for species of the genus Hetereleotris.

  18. A new species of Hetereleotris (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Farasan Island (Red Sea).

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2014-07-31

    A new species of the genus Hetereleotris is described from Farasan Island, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, on the basis of a single specimen. Hetereleotris dorsovittata sp. nov is unique among the known sixteen species of Hetereleotris, except for H. diademata and H. psammophila, in the combination of the absence of head canals and lack of squamation. The low count of pectoral-fin rays (14) is only overlap with H. psammophila (14 or 15), whereas all other Hetereleotris species have a higher number of pectoral-fin rays. The new species differs from H. psammophila in having more soft rays in the dorsal and anal fins, by the arrangement of papillae in the preoperculo-mandibular row i and by coloration. The single specimen was collected in the large lagoon at the base of an isolated small coral patch at a depth of 1m. 

  19. Two new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea .

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2014-11-10

    Two new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. guttatus sp. nov. and C. pseudomonospilus sp. nov., are described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops guttatus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,12; anal-fin rays I,10-11; pectoral-fin rays 17, three upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, weakly emarginate, with pelvic frenum reduced; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scale rows 9-10; circumpeduncular scales 10-11; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, with triangular lappet extending from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; dark orange spots on many of the scales below body midline form a longitudinal pattern, each spot covering one scale; two distinct dark spots behind edge of preopercle, and similar pair of spots at pectoral-fin base. Coryogalops pseudomonospilus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,11; anal-fin rays I,10; pectoral-fin rays 16-17, two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, moderately emarginate, with pelvic frenum well-developed; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scales rows 9; circumpeduncular scales 12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without lappet from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; and irregular dark maroon mark covering lower part of the first three membranes between spines of first dorsal fin. The distribution of species restricted to the western Indian Ocean is discussed, and a key to the species of the genus is provided.

  20. [Growth and mortality parameters of Orthopristis ruber (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from Los Frailes Archipelaeo. Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Atenas, Guerrieri; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo Walter; Guevara, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    Orthopristis ruber is a species in high demand in Eastern Venezuela, but production has been decreasing in recent years. For this reason, our objective was to estimate the growth and mortality parameters of this resource. Monthly samples were collected from June 2011 to May 2012, obtaining 2980 specimens in El Tirano and Puerto Abajo. Data on total length (cm), total weight (g), and sex were recorded for each specimen. No sexual dimorphism was shown with respect to length (t(S)=1.113, p>0.05), so one length-weight ratio was established for both sexes (Wt=0.0612*Lt(2.54)); and they both exhibited minor allometric growth. Growth was estimated by analysis of length frequency distributions using FiSAT software. The estimated growth parameters (L.=39.03cm, W.=679.60g, k=0.48/year and t(O) = -0.32 year) showed moderately rapid growth. Length frequency data were adjusted to the von Bertalaniffy model, and indicated an exponential tendency of accelerated growth during the first years of life, followed by slow growth until the fish reached its maximum length. The coefficient of variation of the growth index (theta) demonstrated no differences in growth pattern. The natural mortality rate (M=0.97/year), from fishing (F=1.57/year), and total mortality (Z=2.54/year), were high, as well as the exploitation rate (E=0.62/year). We concluded that O. ruber has been fully exploited by artisanal fishers, and suggest a continuous study on population dynamics, to recommend optimum management techniques for the fishery. PMID:26299124

  1. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  2. Primary male development of two sequentially hermaphroditic groupers, Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Wang, Y-Y; Shan, X-J; Kang, B; Ding, S-X

    2016-04-01

    Gonad ontogeny of the Hong Kong grouper Epinephelus akaara (a bi-directional sex changer) and the yellow grouper Epinephelus awoara (a protogynous hermaphrodite) was examined for the first time from post-larval phase until first sexual maturation, by histology. Approximately 20 specimens of each species were collected randomly every 2-7 weeks from rearing tanks with natural sea water and temperature between June 2013 and June 2014. The paired gonadal primordia (GP) were observed at 6 weeks after hatching (wah) for both species; however, gonia were first observed in GP at 16 wah for E. akaara and at 8 wah for E. awoara. The timings for the appearance of primary-growth stage oocytes (O1) and the completion of ovarian lumen (OL) varied; both at 27 wah for E. akaara, and at 18 and 23 wah for E. awoara respectively. A bisexual-phase gonad with an OL, O1 and scattered spermatogenic cysts (SC) was observed at 27-29 wah for both E. akaara and E. awoara. Sexual differentiation was subsequently observed from the bisexual-phase gonad at 34 wah for E. akaara, and 41 wah for E. awoara, with the appearance of cortical-alveolus stage oocytes (O2) for developing female and the proliferation of SC for developing primary male (i.e. from juvenile directly). Ovaries of mature females contained the vitellogenic stage oocytes (O3) and scattered SC; testes of mature primary males had sperm in sperm sinuses within the gonadal wall and remained O1. Minimum age of first sexual maturation for both female and primary male of E. akaara was at 41 wah; minimum total length (LT ) of female (143 mm) was larger than that of primary male (137 mm L(T)). Minimum age and size of first sexual maturation for female of E. awoara (47 wah and 149 mm L(T), respectively) were larger than those of E. akaara. Developing primary males of E. awoara were found at 41-58 wah, however, mature males were not observed, indicating inconsistency in first sexual maturation for E. awoara. This study provided strong evidences of primary male pathway in E. akaara and E. awoara; the latter is confirmed to be diandric. PMID:26935897

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers. PMID:24938086

  4. DNA barcoding of commercially important Grouper species (Perciformes, Serranidae) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Simon G; Yambot, Apolinario V

    2014-09-19

    Abstract Fish identification is generally challenging because of their unpronounced and overlapping morphological characters which is true in grouper species. In the Philippines, an updated, reliable and accurate inventory of this high value commercial groupers has not been carried out previously. Using molecular tools in the identification and inventory of fish species in the country is confined to few laboratories and experts in the country. In this study, 27 species of the Serranidae family were identified from the grouper samples collected from major fish landing sites and markets in the Philippines. The grouper species were molecularly identified using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences for DNA barcoding. The accuracy of the inferred species-level taxonomy based on COI is supported with high similarity search (98-100%) both in BOLD and BLAST, well-distributed genetic distance values and cohesive clustering in the Neighbor-Joining Tree. Aside from reinforcing the classical methodology of grouper identification in the country, this pioneering study on molecular identification of Philippine groupers constitutes a significant contribution to the DNA barcode library of Philippine marine fishes and to the global barcode entries in general, which can be used when dealing with grouper taxonomy, biodiversity, stock assessment and trade. The results reveal the different localities where the grouper species can be possibly sourced out in the country for trade and aquaculture purposes. Several of the grouper species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. As a tool for conservation ecology, this study signals the implementation of sustainable fisheries management regulation to protect in particular those which are listed under the IUCN. PMID:25238110

  5. Mitochondrial genome of the Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Perciformes: Carangidae): genome characterization and phylogenetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-05-01

    This study presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla, the only member of its genus, as well as its phylogenetic position in Carangidae. The genome is 16,566 bp containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Gene organization is similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Gene overlapping and separating were also observed in M. cordyla mitogenome. The overall base compositions of mitogenome was 28.83% A, 25.81% T, 15.93% G, and 29.43% C. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated sequence of the protein-coding genes of the reported Carangidae mitogenome showed similar results in the neighbour-joining and Bayesian inference trees. Three clades were formed as Subfamilies Caranginae, Seriolinae and Trachinotinae in Carangidae. M. cordyla was most closely related to the species in genus Caranx. PMID:25319290

  6. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms.

  7. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55–61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45–187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). PMID:27667937

  8. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction of the Neotropical Fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Andréa Soares; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (±10,41) of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an extended spawning period. Monthly values of GSI and the condition factor are negatively correlated during the gonadal development cycle of this species. PMID:22919339

  9. Reproductive tactics optimizing the survival of the offspring of Cichlasoma orientale (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Spíndola Linhares, Jussiara Candeira; Resende Manna, Luisa; Mazzoni, Rosana; Ferreira Rezende, Carla; Feitosa Silva, José Roberto

    2014-09-01

    High mortality rates have been observed in Teleost during early developmental stages, as well as great variations in reproductive tactics, which are related to adaptations towards environmental conditions and ecological niches for which different species have a specific response. The objective of this study was to describe reproductive tactics related to the survival of Cichlasoma orientale offspring, including aspects of body size, parental care, fecundity, oocyte size and spawning patterns. Samples were performed monthly from August 2011 to July 2013, in lentic and lotic environments at Curu river basin, Brazilian Northeastern semiarid region. Individual behavior (n = 13) was observed underwater for over 50 hours by ad libitum sampling and focal-animal sampling. Collected individuals (males n = 185, females n = 95) were evaluated regarding the standard length, batch fecundity, oocyte size and spawning pattern. In females with mature ovaries, oocyte groups at different developmental stages were observed, these cells were counted and measured, and fecundity was estimated by the gravimetric method. Our results showed that the species displayed biparental care behavior and, on average, males were larger than females. Based on 46 ovaries, the average batch fecundity was 2,052-849 (range: 254-3 389). Standard length and batch fecundity were positively correlated, but no correlation was found between oocyte size and standard length. The maximum diameter observed in the most developed oocytes was 1.8 mm. The observed distribution of oocyte size classes indicated synchronous oocyte development in three groups: pre- vitellogenic, vitellogenic and mature, showing that C. orientale is a multiple spawner. Differences in the amount of oocytes among the three groups were observed, with the most developed group showing the smallest number of oocytes. The combination of low fecundity and large egg size is characteristic of demersal spawners due to a greater environmental stability. Multiple spawning increases chances of survival mainly because of increased fecundity per reproductive season, and the reduced competition among the offspring. We concluded that C. orientale makes a heavy investment in larval survival in detriment of the offspring number. Survival is favored by the large size of oocytes, large yolk reserve, biparental care and multiple spawning pattern.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and evidence for an adaptive radiation of geophagine cichlids from South America (Perciformes: Labroidei).

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial ND4 gene and the nuclear RAG2 gene were used to derive the most extensive molecular phylogeny to date for the Neotropical cichlid subfamily Geophaginae. Previous hypotheses of relationships were tested in light of these new data and a synthesis of all existing molecular information was provided. Novel phylogenetic findings included support for : (1) a 'Big Clade' containing the genera Geophagus sensu lato, Gymnogeophagus, Mikrogeophagus, Biotodoma, Crenicara, and Dicrossus; (2) a clade including the genera Satanoperca, Apistogramma, Apistogrammoides, and Taeniacara; and (3) corroboration for Kullander's clade Acarichthyini. ND4 demonstrated saturation effects at the third code position and lineage-specific rate heterogeneity, both of which influenced phylogeny reconstruction when only equal weighted parsimony was employed. Both branch lengths and internal branch tests revealed extremely short basal nodes that add support to the idea that geophagine cichlids have experienced an adaptive radiation sensu Schluter that involved ecomorphological specializations and life history diversification.

  11. Comparative ontogeny of the feeding apparatus of sympatric drums (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Deary, Alison L; Hilton, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the feeding apparatus in fishes, including both oral and pharyngeal jaw elements, is closely related to the ecology of a species. During ontogeny, the oral and pharyngeal jaws undergo dramatic changes. To better understand how such ontogenetic changes occur and relate to the feeding ecology of a species, ontogenetic series of four closely related members of the family Sciaenidae (Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion regalis, Micropogonias undulatus, and Leiostomus xanthurus) were examined. Sciaenids were selected because as adults they exhibit considerable specialization of the feeding apparatus correlated with differences in foraging habitats. However, it is not clear when during ontogeny the structural specializations of the feeding apparatus develop, and thereby enable early life history stage (ELHS) sciaenids to partition their foraging habitats. A regression tree was recovered from the analysis and three divergences were identified during ontogeny. There are no measurable differences in elements of the feeding apparatus until the first divergence at 8.4 mm head length (HL), which was attributed to differences in average gill filament length on the second ceratobranchial. The second divergence occurred at 14.1 mm HL and was associated with premaxilla length. The final divergence occurred at 19.8 mm HL and was associated with differences in the toothed area of the fifth certatobranchial. These morphological divergences suggest that ELHS sciaenids may be structurally able to partition their foraging habitats as early as 8.4 mm HL. PMID:26558606

  12. Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciformes: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al, Suliman Y Omar

    2015-01-01

    During a survey the occurrence of Kudoa quraishii Mansour, Harrath, Abd-Elkader, Alwasel, Abdel-Baki et Al Omar, 2014, recently identified in the muscles of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), a species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 infecting oocytes of mature females of the same host fish was found. The new species, for which the name Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. is proposed, infects oocytes that are enlarged with a whitish colour. The parasite develops in vesicular polysporous plasmodia within the oocyte. Infection occurs with a mean prevalence of 20% (7/35) of examined females. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in apical view, having four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores are 2.4-3.6 µm long (mean ± SD 3.1 ± 0.3 µm), 4.3-5.4 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) wide and 3.4-4.3 µm (3.8 ± 0.3 µm) in thickness and long. The smaller size of the new Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequences shows that the highest percentage of similarity of 98.5% was observed with K. ovivora Swearer et Robertson, 1999, reported from oocytes of labroid fish from the Caribbean coasts of Panama. The percentage of similarity was 98% with K. azevedoi Mansour, Thabet, Chourabi, Harrath, Gtari, Al Omar et Ben Hassine, 2013 and 89% with K. quraishii. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU and LSU rDNA data revealed a consistent of the new species with K. azevedoi and K. ovivora. Our findings support the creation of Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. that infects oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta. PMID:25960554

  13. Comparative ontogeny of the feeding apparatus of sympatric drums (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Deary, Alison L; Hilton, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the feeding apparatus in fishes, including both oral and pharyngeal jaw elements, is closely related to the ecology of a species. During ontogeny, the oral and pharyngeal jaws undergo dramatic changes. To better understand how such ontogenetic changes occur and relate to the feeding ecology of a species, ontogenetic series of four closely related members of the family Sciaenidae (Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion regalis, Micropogonias undulatus, and Leiostomus xanthurus) were examined. Sciaenids were selected because as adults they exhibit considerable specialization of the feeding apparatus correlated with differences in foraging habitats. However, it is not clear when during ontogeny the structural specializations of the feeding apparatus develop, and thereby enable early life history stage (ELHS) sciaenids to partition their foraging habitats. A regression tree was recovered from the analysis and three divergences were identified during ontogeny. There are no measurable differences in elements of the feeding apparatus until the first divergence at 8.4 mm head length (HL), which was attributed to differences in average gill filament length on the second ceratobranchial. The second divergence occurred at 14.1 mm HL and was associated with premaxilla length. The final divergence occurred at 19.8 mm HL and was associated with differences in the toothed area of the fifth certatobranchial. These morphological divergences suggest that ELHS sciaenids may be structurally able to partition their foraging habitats as early as 8.4 mm HL.

  14. A new fish species of the subfamily Serraninae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E

    2015-01-19

    A new species of serranine fish is described from the Philippine Islands. A single specimen of a new species, Chelidoperca santosi, captured by fishermen working in Palawan waters was discovered in the public fish market in Iloilo City, Panay, Philippines. Two additional specimens of the new species, also from the Philippines, were subsequently discovered in the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. The new species is currently known only from the Philippines and is characterized by its distinctive coloration with a row of four small dark spots on the snout (two in front of each eye) and two dark spots on the chin (one on each side of the symphysis of the dentaries), a white anal fin with six large yellow spots separated by broad white interspaces and a narrow yellow distal border, caudal fin with narrow yellow bars and a yellowish distal margin and no dark spots, and a combination of meristic and morphological characters. 

  15. Genetic variability of the common Snook Centropomus undecimalis (Perciformes: Centropomidae) in connected marine and riverine environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vidal, Ulises; Lesher-Gordillo, Julia; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido M; Chiappa-Carrara, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis, inhabits riverine and marine areas of Southern Gulf of Mexico, where it is subject to intense use and exploitation. It has been reported that the genetic identification of fish stocks constitutes a valuable tool for wild population management; nevertheless, there is no available information on the genetic identification on fish stocks of this species in the region. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relationship between C. undecimalis captured in marine and freshwater environments of the Gulf of Mexico and the San Pedro River. For this, muscle tissue samples of 79 specimens were obtained from areas located more than 300km apart. The genotype of each individual was determined using seven microsatellite primer pairs. Five primers amplified efficiently presenting between six and 28 alleles per locus. High levels of heterozygosis were observed in samples from both environments. Deviation from HWE due to an excess of heterozygotes was observed. The values of genetic difference indicate an absence of population structure (F(ST) = 0.0075 and R(ST) = (0.016, p = 0.051) and similarity in the allele frequencies, defined by Nei's index (0.805). Data showed the existence of a high gene flow due to the number of migrants (Nm = 18.7). Our results suggest that individuals living in these environments belong to the same genetic population. We suggest the development of management and protection plans for this fish species population in the wild.

  16. Rebuttal to Koeda et al. (2014) on the Red Sea fishes of the perciform genus Pempheris.

    PubMed

    Randall, John E; Victor, Benjamin C; Alpermann, Tilman J; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O; Satapoomin, Ukkrit; Bineesh, K K

    2014-01-01

    Koeda et al. (2014) published a review of fishes of the genus Pempheris of the Red Sea. They concluded that there are four species: P. adusta Bleeker, P. mangula Cuvier, P. nesogallica Cuvier, and a new species, P. tominagai. We show that the first three species they cite are not present in the Red Sea, as follows. 1) P. adusta is a western Pacific species (type locality Ambon), described only from the holotype, and without a dark border on the anal fin. Koeda et al. (2014) mistakenly apply that name to P. flavicycla which is a widespread Indian Ocean species characterized by a prominent broad black border along the anal fin. Koeda et al. (2014) also redescribe P. adusta, using Indian Ocean specimens of P. flavicycla, despite the coloration difference and a 2.5% difference in the mtDNA sequence (COI) between Indian Ocean and W. Pacific populations. 2) P. mangula is a species from the east coast of India (type locality Visakhapatnam), clearly distinct in both gill-raker counts and a 1.1% sequence divergence in COI from its Red Sea relative P. rhomboidea. Pempheris mangula is not found west of India, and Koeda et al. (2014) mistakenly use DNA from Oman and Madagascar to represent P. mangula, instead of genetic material available from the type locality. 3) Pempheris nesogallica (type locality Mauritius) is unknown from the Red Sea. Koeda et al. (2014) separate P. nesogallica from P. rhomboidea (their "P. mangula") by eye size; we fail to find any difference (and they use their purported eye-size difference to erroneously rename one of the two syntypes of P. nesogallica as "P. mangula"). 4) Their new species P. tominagai is referred to as the Indian Ocean sister species of "P. schwenkii of the Pacific"; however, the type locality of P. schwenkii is the Batu Islands off the SW coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. They mistakenly include specimens of a distant South African species as paratypes of P. tominagai. We have determined that P. tominagai is a valid species endemic to the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. They misidentify one lot of P. rhomboidea in the collection of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as their record of P. nesogallica from the Red Sea. They misidentify the specimen in their photograph of Fig. 1B as P. adusta and use it as material for their redescription of the species, but it is now shown to be a paratype of Pempheris bexillon Mooi & Randall, 2014. Additionally, they regard P. malabarica Cuvier as a junior synonym of P. molucca Cuvier, but the name P. molucca is based on a fanciful painting and is unavailable as a nomen dubium. They treat Pempheris russellii Day as a junior synonym of P. mangula; however, it is distinct in having longer pectoral fins, a larger eye, and more gill rakers. Their key to the species of Pempheris of the Red Sea is incorrect. We present a new key and conclude that only three species of Pempheris are presently known from the Red Sea: P. flavicycla, P. rhomboidea, and P. tominagai. PMID:25543938

  17. ATPase 8/6 GENE BASED GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF SNAKEHEAD MURREL, Channa striata (Perciformes, Channidae).

    PubMed

    Baisvar, V S; Kumar, R; Singh, M; Singh, A K; Chauhan, U K; Nagpure, N S; Kushwaha, B

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ATPase 8/6 gene has been used in phylogenetic as well as in phylogeographic studies along with other mtDNA markers. In this study, ATPase gene sequences were used to assess the genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Out of 884 nucleotide positions generated in ATPase 8/6 genes, 76 were polymorphic. The study suggested 23 unique haplotypes from 67 individuals of nine populations collected from different riverine systems of India. The ATPase 8/6 sequence revealed highest haplotype as well as nucleotide diversities in Imphal River population and lowest diversities in Tapti River population. The pattern of genetic diversity and haplotype network indicated distinct mitochondrial lineages for Chaliyar population, whereas mismatch distribution strongly suggested a population expansion in mid pleistocene epoch (0.4 Mya) with distinct genetic structuring in C. striata. The baseline information on genetic variation and the population sub-structuring would facilitate conservation and management of this important snakehead murrel.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the striped scat Selenotoca multifasciata (Perciformes: Scatophagidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhao; Mu, Xingjiang; Li, Hong; Gui, Lang; Zeng, Wengang; Zhang, Junbin

    2016-07-01

    The striped scat Selenotoca multifasciata is an ornamental and commercial fish in Asia. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Selenotoca multifasciata. Its total length is 16,646 bp, and the mitochondrial genome is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding control region. ND6 and eight tRNA genes were encoded on the light strand, whereas the remaining genes located on the heavy strand (H-strand). All the 16 mitochondrial genomes of the suborder Acanthuroidei available in GenBank were employed for phylogenetic analysis, and the result showed a close relationship between Selenotoca multifasciata and Scatophagus argus. This mitochondrial information may benefit relative ecological and phylogenetic studies. PMID:27158788

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black jewfish Protonibea diacanthus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Crook, David; Saunders, Thor; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the complete mitochondrial genome of the black Jewfish Protonibea diacanthus. It was assembled from approximately 1.6 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genome was 16,521 bp in length consisting of 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA, 12S and 16S rRNA as well as two non-coding regions. The A+T base content (52.8%) is similar to other teleosts.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Perciformes, Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Huirong; Xie, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuisheng; Wu, Xichao; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Epinephelus coioides in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,458 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.88% of G, 28.75% of T, 26.58% of A and 15.80% of C. All the protein-coding genes share ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with CTG and COXI with GTG, and four types of inferred termination codons are T (ND2, COXII, ND3, ND4 and Cytb), TA (COXIII), TAA (ND1, ATP8, ND4L, ND5, ATP6 and COXI) and TAG (ND6). There are 10 intergenic spacers, 5 gene overlaps and no tandem repeat sequence. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates.

  1. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Richard L; Kosaki, Randall K

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55-61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45-187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). PMID:27667937

  2. A new species of Percina (Perciformes: Percidae) from the Apalachicola River drainage, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Burkhead, N.M.; Straight, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Percina crypta, the Halloween Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Chattahoochee and Flint River systems in Georgia and Alabama. Percina crypta differs from sympatric Percina nigrofasciata in having narrowly separated dorsal saddles (inter-saddle spaces typically less than or equal to saddle width, compared to frequently wider than saddle width in P. nigrofasciata), in usually possessing a single modified scale between the pelvic bases (compared to two or more in P. nigrofasciata), and in having dark wide bands on pectoral-fin rays (versus pectoral fin clear, or with irregular dark marks or weak tessellations on fin rays in P. nigrofasciata). Phylogenetic relationships of P. crypta to other species of Percina are obscure. Percina crypta occurs in shoal and riffle habitats in the Chattahoochee and Flint River mainstems and in a few tributary systems, with the known extant range comprising four disjunct areas separated by mainstem impoundments and altered river reaches.

  3. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of the Neotropical peacock basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; Nunes, Mario S; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2007-07-01

    To investigate forces influencing diversification in Neotropical fishes, the phylogenetic relationships among species and populations of the cichlid genus Cichla were examined. Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced for 454 individuals of the 5 nominal Cichla species and several putative undescribed species. Phylogenetic analyses support the distinction of two major clades of Cichla. Clade A includes C. temensis and two undescribed species from the lower Amazonas and Xingu Rivers. Clade B includes C. orinocensis, C. monoculus, C. ocellaris. C, intermedia, and an undescribed species from the upper Madeira River. Species boundaries were relatively well-circumscribed for clade B, while incomplete lineage sorting was inferred for clade A. Three probable instances of introgression were observed, including a regional population of C. orinocensis from the Negro River that shows a history of introgression. Biogeographic patterns from Cichla are partially congruent with those seen in several other Neotropical fish clades, and the diversification of Cichla species is inferred to result from both vicariance and sympatric divergence. PMID:17275345

  4. Review of the harvestfishes, genus Peprilus (Perciformes: Stromateidae),
    of the Atlantic coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Caires, Rodrigo; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Currently, seven valid species are recognized in the genus Peprilus. Found from United States to Argentina, Peprilus paru has a complex nomenclatural history, with seven junior synonyms, three from North America and four from South America. As there has been no recent research, it remains unclear whether species representatives in the north-south axis represent different populations of a single species or distinct species. By comparison of type specimens as well as a comprehensive collection of non-type specimens, this paper aims to clarify the taxonomic status of the nominal species listed as junior synonyms of Peprilus paru in the Atlantic side of South America. Based on morphological data and DNA barcoding, Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829 and P. xanthurus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) are resurrected, while Rhombus argentipinnis Cuvier, 1833 and Rhombus orbicularis Guichenot, 1866, are considered to be junior synonyms of P. crenulatus. PMID:27394588

  5. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae), from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai, Guangxi, China in March 2010. These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830), being the first record of this species from Chinese waters. N. marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics: lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique, maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows, pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fin forked, upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  6. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development.

  7. Hamacreadium cribbi n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) (Perciformes: Lethrinidae) from New Caledonian waters.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-10-01

    A new species of Hamacreadium Linton, 1910, H. cribbi n. sp. is described from Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) from the waters off New Caledonia. It is compared with the other species of Hamacreadium reported from lethrinids and is characterised by the size of its eggs which tend to be larger [72-93 (84) vs 54-81 (56) µm long] than those of other species. Other characteristics, such as body size and shape and internal ratios, differentiate H. cribbi from other species; these differences are discussed in detail. PMID:27638731

  8. ATPase 8/6 GENE BASED GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF SNAKEHEAD MURREL, Channa striata (Perciformes, Channidae).

    PubMed

    Baisvar, V S; Kumar, R; Singh, M; Singh, A K; Chauhan, U K; Nagpure, N S; Kushwaha, B

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ATPase 8/6 gene has been used in phylogenetic as well as in phylogeographic studies along with other mtDNA markers. In this study, ATPase gene sequences were used to assess the genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Out of 884 nucleotide positions generated in ATPase 8/6 genes, 76 were polymorphic. The study suggested 23 unique haplotypes from 67 individuals of nine populations collected from different riverine systems of India. The ATPase 8/6 sequence revealed highest haplotype as well as nucleotide diversities in Imphal River population and lowest diversities in Tapti River population. The pattern of genetic diversity and haplotype network indicated distinct mitochondrial lineages for Chaliyar population, whereas mismatch distribution strongly suggested a population expansion in mid pleistocene epoch (0.4 Mya) with distinct genetic structuring in C. striata. The baseline information on genetic variation and the population sub-structuring would facilitate conservation and management of this important snakehead murrel. PMID:27169232

  9. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera]. PMID:27394461

  10. A new fish species of the subfamily Serraninae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E

    2015-01-01

    A new species of serranine fish is described from the Philippine Islands. A single specimen of a new species, Chelidoperca santosi, captured by fishermen working in Palawan waters was discovered in the public fish market in Iloilo City, Panay, Philippines. Two additional specimens of the new species, also from the Philippines, were subsequently discovered in the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. The new species is currently known only from the Philippines and is characterized by its distinctive coloration with a row of four small dark spots on the snout (two in front of each eye) and two dark spots on the chin (one on each side of the symphysis of the dentaries), a white anal fin with six large yellow spots separated by broad white interspaces and a narrow yellow distal border, caudal fin with narrow yellow bars and a yellowish distal margin and no dark spots, and a combination of meristic and morphological characters.  PMID:25661613

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the bigeye scad Selar crumenophthalmus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Chen, Zuozhi; Zou, Keshu

    2016-01-01

    The bigeye scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) is a widely distributed pelagic fish species with highly commercial values. Little information was available about its genetic characteristics. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of S. crumenophthalmus by combining sequences of overlapped fragments amplified by PCR using primers designed for Carangidae species. The entire sequence was 16,610 bp in length, which included a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of light strand replication). The genome was composed of 27.2% A, 29.5% C, 26.5% T and 16.8% G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The complete mitogenome sequence of S. crumenophthalmus could contribute for the studies on phylogenetics, population structure and for developing fisheries management strategies.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixbar grouper Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Du, Fei-Yan; Ye, Le; Wang, Xue-Hui

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we presented the complete mitogenome for the sixbar grouper Epinephelus sexfasciatus. The complete mitogenome of E. sexfasciatus is 16,786 bp in length with the typical mitochondrial gene order and composition in vertebrates. Overall base composition was 28.40% A, 27.93% C, 27.21% T and 16.45% G. The COI gene used GTG and the ATP6 gene used CTG as the start codon. The tRNA-Ser2 lost the dihydrouridine arm and replaced with a simple loop. Both the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods yielded the same tree topology using available mitogenomes of the genus Epinephelus. Epinephelus sexfasciatus was nested to E. akaara. E. awoara and E. fasciatomaculosus, and then combined with E. stictus formed a clade.

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Seriolella porosa (Perciformes: Centrolophidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanpu; Huang, Hai; Li, Jiantao; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Siping; Li, Guangli; Huang, Hongxin; Zhu, Chunhua

    2016-05-01

    We have presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seriolella porosa in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,814 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Seriolella porosa mitochondrial genome was similar to those of most vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand in descending order is 29.75% of T, 29.39% of G, 24.84% of A and 16.02% of C. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all the other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.

  14. Description of the mitochondrial genome of yellowtail scad Atule mate (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-05-01

    The yellowtail scad Atule mate is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical oceans of the Indo-Pacific region. In the present study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. mate from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by PCR. The mitogenome sequence was 16,565 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.4% for A, 27.6% for T, 16.3% for G, and 27.7% for C. Phylogenetic analyses using the protein-coding gene sequences reveal that genus Atule was most closely related to Alepes.

  15. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Shortfin scad Decapterus macrosoma (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Dianrong; Chen, Tao; Fan, Jiangtao; Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Decapterus macrosoma has been obtained with overlapped polymerase chain reaction. The genome was 16,545 bp in length which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization was similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. With the exception of the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The genome was composed of 27.0% A, 30.4% C, 25.4% T and 17.2% G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. Two termination-associated sequence regions (TAS-1 and TAS-2), three central conserved sequence blocks (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) were identified within the control region. The sequence data of D. macrosoma could provide useful information for the studies on molecular systematics and population genetics.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of copperband butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Chaetodontidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Hao

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the copperband butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus from Beibu Bay, China, was determined. It is one of the most common coral reef fish in South China Sea. The total length of C. rostratus mitogenome is 16,538 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region, with the genome organization and gene order being identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall nucleotide composition of the H-strand is 28.05% A, 28.94% T, 16.22% G and 26.79% C, with an A + T bias. This study will provide the first complete mitochondrial genome of Chelmon rostratus as useful information for the application of fish phylogenetic relationship analysis within the butterflyfish species.

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Perciformes: Carangidae): genome characterization and phylogenetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-05-01

    This study presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla, the only member of its genus, as well as its phylogenetic position in Carangidae. The genome is 16,566 bp containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Gene organization is similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Gene overlapping and separating were also observed in M. cordyla mitogenome. The overall base compositions of mitogenome was 28.83% A, 25.81% T, 15.93% G, and 29.43% C. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated sequence of the protein-coding genes of the reported Carangidae mitogenome showed similar results in the neighbour-joining and Bayesian inference trees. Three clades were formed as Subfamilies Caranginae, Seriolinae and Trachinotinae in Carangidae. M. cordyla was most closely related to the species in genus Caranx.

  18. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae) fishery in Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Héctor M; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Vega, Angel J; Robles, Yolany A

    2015-09-01

    The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippunis) is a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE) over a four-year period (2006-2009). Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1,715 mm (average, 1010.85 mm; n = 10,459). Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD). Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of θ = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus (3.95-4.70). The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (700 - 1400 mm). Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE) per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama. PMID:26666127

  19. Identification of putative cathepsin S in mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus and its role in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Lei; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a key enzyme employed in the histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigens, which are presented by processing class II-associated invariant chains and loaded antigen peptides into class II molecules. To date, little is known about the character and function of CTSS in fish. In the present study, we screened and identified a CTSS cDNA sequence from the mangrove red snapper head kidney cDNA library. The full-length CTSS cDNA contained 1339-bp nucleotide acids encoding 337 amino acids. The sequence shared high identity and similarity with other known cathepsins, especially CTSS (about 56-78% and 79-89%, respectively). Like other cathepsins, the deduced peptide consisted of regions with N-terminal signal peptides, propeptides, and mature peptides. A typical ERWNIN motif in L-like cathepsins and three conservative catalytic activity sites forming a catalytic triad active center were respectively identified in the pro-peptide and mature peptide regions of CTSS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mangrove red snapper CTSS was located in the CTSS clade belonging to the L-like cathepsin group, and evolved from the same ancestry. To further characterize the biological activity of the putative CTSS of mangrove snapper, CTSS was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 strains. Like other mammalian CTSS, the recombinant CTSS (rCTSS) had autocatalytic activation properties, can remove pro-peptides, and can release active mature peptides. Active CTSS had the ability to catalyze Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrates in acidic conditions (pH 5.0) and weak alkaline environments (pH 7.5); this activity could be blocked by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. Active CTSS can process recombinant Ii chains (invariant chains) in a stepwise manner in vitro. The results indicate that mangrove red snapper CTSS is a lysosomal cysteine protease family member with a key role in antigen processing in fish.

  20. Condition of larval red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) relative to environmental variability and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. J., Jr.; Filbrun, J. E.; Fang, J.; Ransom, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) spatially and temporally overlapped with the spawning of many fish species, including Red Snapper, one of the most economically important reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico. To investigate potential impacts of the DWHOS on larval Red Snapper, data from a long-term ichthyoplankton survey off the coast of Alabama were used to examine: (1) larval abundances among pre-impact (2007-2009), impact (2010), and post-impact (2011, 2013) periods; (2) proxies for larval condition (size-adjusted morphometric relationships and dry weight) among the same periods; and (3) the effects of background environmental variation on larval condition. We found that larval Red Snapper were in poorer body condition during 2010, 2011, and 2013 as compared to the 2007-2009 period, a trend that was strongly (and negatively) related to variation in Mobile Bay freshwater discharge. However, larvae collected during and after 2010 were in relatively poor condition even after accounting for variation in freshwater discharge and other environmental variables. By contrast, no differences in larval abundance were detected during these survey years. Taken together, larval supply did not change relative to the timing of the DWHOS, but larval condition was negatively impacted. Even small changes in condition can affect larval survival, so these trends may have consequences for recruitment of larvae to juvenile and adult life stages.

  1. Reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Natalia P A; Fernandes, Cezar A F; Albuquerque, Fernanda V; Pedrosa, Vanessa; Hazin, Fábio; Travassos, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    The reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus has been described for coastal regions, and for a long time, this species was considered to be a strictly continental spawner. Recently, this species was observed around a seamount habitat 500 nautical miles Northeast of Brazil, located between South America and Africa. In this study we describe the reproductive biology of Blackfin tuna at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). Male and female gonads were sampled from December 2008 to July 2010, and analyzed macro and microscopically. A total of 361 fish were sampled (247 males and 114 females). Males were more common than females, with a sex ratio of 2.2 male:1 female. The fork length (FL) of all sampled specimens ranged from 38 to 98cm, and larger length classes were more frequent in males. It was possible to distinguish six maturity phases for females: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning, regressing and recovering. Five phases were identified for males: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning and recovering. The gonad index (GI) mean monthly values ranged from 6.6 (SD = 4.1) to 58.4 (SD = 34.7) for females, and from 2.6 (SD = 1.3) to 66.2 (SD = 30.4) for males. For both sexes, the largest GI values were observed at the beginning of the first semester of the year. Size at first maturity was estimated at 48cm FL and 55cm FL for females and males respectively. Approximately 80% of the specimens were adults and considered to be in reproductive conditions. Histological analysis of the ovaries and testes showed that most of the specimens were sexually mature and were reproductively active during all months of the year. However, females with mature ovaries, with large amounts of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles, were mainly found from December to March, thus these months may constitute the main spawning season in SPSPA. Batch fecundity varied between 272025 and 1,140584 oocytes for 56 and 68 cm FL females respectively. Oocyte development and spawning patterns suggest a multiple spawning behavior. The results revealed that Blackfin tuna is using the SPSPA as a spawning ground, similar to other species commonly observed in the same area during the same reproductive season.

  2. Relative yield-per-recruit and management strategies for Cynoscion acoupa (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Orlando José Ferrer; Morales, Isabel Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Acoupa weakfish, Cynoscion acoupa, in Lake Maracaibo is subject to intense commercial fishing by an artisanal fleet, and a recent decrease in fish size observed from landings is of concern. This fishery has not yet been modeled, and its assessment and the establishment of management practices to overcome the current overfished condition are urgently needed. To address this, we used recent and past empirical growth estimates to model relative yield-per-recruit under different lengths at first capture. Our results from relative yield-per-recruit analysis showed evidence that growth and recruitment overfishing occur under current fishing practices in Lake Maracaibo. Particular attention was given to fishing practices in El Tablazo Bay where young, small fish predominate in the commercial catches (mean total length=33.7cm), well below the length at first sexual maturity (-40cm TL) for both sexes. As management strategies, we propose to set a mesh size limit at or above 8.89cm (3.5in), which will reduce fishing mortality of immature fish, increase yield-per-recruit, and will result in an increase of Acoupa weakfish recruitment for the long term in Lake Maracaibo. PMID:23894971

  3. Behavioral and ecological correlates of foureye butterflyfish, Chaetodon capistratus, (Perciformes: Chaetodontidae) infected with Anilocra chaetodontis (Isopoda: Cymothoidae).

    PubMed

    Meadows, Dwayne W; Meadows, Christina M

    2003-06-01

    We observed the behavior and ecology of Chaetodon capistratus infected and uninfected with the ectoparasitic isopod Anilocra chaetodontis to assess whether there may be parasite induced alterations in host biology, host defenses against infection, and/or pathology related to infection. We also examined habitat related differences in infection rates. Infected fish had higher rates of interaction with conspecifics and spent more time in low flow environments (which might improve transmission of juvenile parasites to new hosts). Butterfly fish without isopods were chased more frequently by damselfishes, fed more, and had larger territories. Time spent near conspecifics, and fish condition and gonadosomatic index did not vary between infected and uninfected fish. These results suggest that foureye butterfly fish behavior is altered by the isopod parasite in order for the isopods to more easily gain mates or transmit offspring to new hosts.

  4. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described. PMID:27394550

  5. A new species of the genus Scolopsis Cuvier, 1830 (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) from southern India and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S S; Biswas, Sudeepta; Russell, Barry C; Satpathy, K K; Selvanayagam, M

    2013-01-01

    Scolopsis igcarensis, a new species of monocle bream (family Nemipteridae) from the coastal waters of southern India and Sri Lanka is described. The species is distinguished from other species of the genus Scolopsis by a combination of the following characters: scales on top of head reaching forward to between anterior nostril and snout tip; lower margin of eye below the line from snout tip to upper pectoral fin base; a bony ridge below eye; a white band from behind eye to level of end of dorsal fin base. PMID:24699607

  6. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  7. Temperature sex determination in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., 1758) (Teleostei, Perciformes, Moronidae): critical sensitive ontogenetic phase.

    PubMed

    Koumoundouros, George; Pavlidis, Michalis; Anezaki, Lina; Kokkari, Constantina; Sterioti, Aspasia; Divanach, Pascal; Kentouri, Maroudio

    2002-05-01

    The temperature sex determination (TSD) mechanism in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) was studied in respect to: a) the TSD sensitivity during the different developmental stages; and b) the intrapopulation correlation of sex determination with the growth rate up to the end of the TSD-sensitive period. At the stage of half-epiboly, eggs from the same batch were divided into four groups and subjected to different thermal treatments: a) 15 degrees C (G15 group) and b) 20 degrees C (G20 group) up to the middle of metamorphosis stage; c) 15 degrees C up to the end of yolk-sac larval stage and subsequently to 20 degrees C (G15-5 group); and d) 15 degrees C up to the end of the preflexion stage and then to 20 degrees C (G15-10 group). At the end of the treatments, size grading was applied and four additional populations were established from the upper (L) and lower (S) size portions of the G15 and G20 populations: G15L, G15S, G20L, and G20S. During the following growing phase, all populations were subjected to common rearing conditions. The sex ratios of each population were macroscopically determined at 190-210 mm mean total length. Female incidence was significantly affected (P < 0.05) by the different thermal treatments: 66.1% in the G15, 47.1% in the G15-10, 37.6% in the G15-5, and 18.1% in the G20 group. In addition, sex ratio was correlated with the growth rate of the fish up to the end of the TSD-sensitive period, with the larger fish presenting a significantly higher (P < 0.01) female incidence than the smaller fish in both thermal regimes tested: 73.1% in G15L vs. 57% in G15S, and 36.6% in G20L vs. 22.5% in G20S group. Results provide, for the first time, clear evidence that the sea bass is sensitive to TSD during all different ontogenetic stages up to metamorphosis, and that sex ratio is correlated with the growth rate of the fish well before the differentiation and maturation of the gonads.

  8. [Growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanthus arenatus (Perciformes: Priacanthidae), in the trawl fisheries of northeast Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Toledo, J; Mendoza, J; Marcano, L

    2000-12-01

    We analyzed growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanhus arenatus, captured by the shrimp trawling fishery (1989-1996), in northeastern Venezuela. The growth coefficient (K) and the asymptotic length (L8) were estimated by length-frequency data using the Battacharya method and other routines of the FISAT program. Total mortality (Z) and exploitation (E) rates were obtained by length-converted catch curve analysis, based on length-frequency data, and the Berverton and Holt's yield per recruit model, respectively. The mean growth parameters L and K were estimated as 474.7 mm and 0.69 year(-1), respectively. Mean total mortality was 4.03 and the exploitation rate range was 0.70-0.80. Results indicated that the population is overexploited. PMID:15272462

  9. Nonmonotonic response of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α gene expression after octylphenol exposure of Cichlasoma dimerus (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Regueira, M; Da Cuña, R H; Ferreira, M F; Varela, M L; Lo Nostro, F L

    2014-11-01

    In oviparous vertebrates, vitellogenin (VTG) is mainly produced by the liver in response to estrogen (E2) and its synthesis is traditionally coupled to estrogen receptor alpha induction. Even though VTG is a female-specific protein, chemicals that mimic natural estrogens, known as xenoestrogens, can activate its expression in males causing endocrine disruption to wildlife and humans. Alkylphenols such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) are industrial additives used in the manufacture of a wide variety of plastics and detergents, and can disrupt endocrine functions in exposed animals. For more than a decade, the freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus has been used for ecotoxicological studies in our laboratory. We recently found an up-regulation of VTG gene expression in livers of male fish exposed to OP, from a silent state to values similar to those of E2-induced fish. To better understand the underlying mechanisms behind the action of xenoestrogens, the aim of this study was to analyze the dose-response relationship of C. dimerus VTG and estrogen receptors (ERs) gene expression after waterborne exposure to 0.15, 1.5, 15, and 150μg/L OP for up to 1 month (0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). At the end of the experiment, histological features of exposed fish included active hepatocytes with basophilic cytoplasm and high eosinophilic content in their vascular system due to augmented expression of VTG. In testis, high preponderance of sperm was found in fish exposed to 150μg/L OP. A classic dose-response down-regulation of the expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a "non-gender specific gene" used for comparison, was found with increasing OP concentrations. No VTG and very low levels of ERα were detected in control male livers, but an up-regulation of both genes was found in males exposed to 0.15 or 150μg/L OP. Moreover, VTG transcripts were significant as early as day 3 or day 1 of exposure to these OP concentrations, respectively. Nearly no response was detected in 1.5 and 15μg/L OP exposed-fish. Data was curve-fitted evidencing a nonmonotonic dose-response curve. Interestingly, ERβ2 mRNA expression was augmented above baseline levels only when males were exposed to the lowest OP concentration. We speculate that genomic control of vitellogenesis is under control of multiple steroid receptors with different affinities for ligands. ERβ isoform, only up-regulated with very low concentrations of ligand, would act as a sensors of OP (or E2) to induce ERα and VTG. With high OP concentrations, the expression of ERα isoform is promptly augmented, with the concomitant VTG transactivation. PMID:25146234

  10. Development of the follicle complex and oocyte staging in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus, 1776 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, Harry J

    2012-08-01

    Pelagic egg development in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is described using tiered staging. Based on mitosis and meiosis, there are five periods: Mitosis of Oogonia, Active Meiosis I, Arrested Meiosis I, Active Meiosis II, and Arrested Meiosis II. The Periods are divided into six stages: Mitotic Division of Oogonia, Chromatin Nucleolus, Primary Growth, Secondary Growth, Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation. The Chromatin Nucleolus Stage is divided into four steps: Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, and Early Diplotene. Oocytes in the last step possess one nucleolus, dispersed chromatin with forming lampbrush chromosomes and lack basophilic ooplasm. The Primary Growth Stage, characterized by basophilic ooplasm and absence of yolk in oocytes, is divided into five steps: One-Nucleolus, Multiple Nucleoli, Perinucleolar, Oil Droplets, and Cortical Alveolar. During primary growth, the Balbiani body develops from nuage, enlarges and disperses throughout the ooplasm as both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi develop within it. Secondary growth or vitellogenesis has three steps: Early Secondary Growth, Late Secondary Growth and Full-Grown. The Oocyte Maturation Stage, including ooplasmic and germinal vesicle maturation, has four steps: Eccentric Germinal Vesicle, Germinal Vesicle Migration, Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and Resumption of Meiosis when complete yolk hydration occurs. The period is Arrested Meiosis II. When folliculogenesis is completed, the ovarian follicle, an oocyte and encompassing follicle cells, is surrounded by a basement membrane and developing theca, all forming a follicle complex. After ovulation, a newly defined postovulatory follicle complex remains attached to the germinal epithelium. It is composed of a basement membrane that separates the postovulatory follicle from the postovulatory theca. Arrested Meiosis I encompasses primary and secondary growth (vitellogenesis) and includes most of oocyte maturation until the resumption of meiosis (Active Meiosis II). The last stage, Ovulation, is the emergence of the oocyte from the follicle when it becomes an egg or ovum. PMID:22707292

  11. The novel finding of four distinct prepro-IGF-I E domains in a perciform fish, Sciaenops ocellatus, during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Cynthia K; Pérez-Domínguez, Rafael; Webb, Kenneth A; Holt, G Joan

    2010-10-01

    In fishes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates growth and differentiation but also plays a role in a number of other processes including osmoregulation, metabolism, immune response and reproduction. This study presents the cDNA encoding multiple prepro-IGF-I transcripts obtained from red drum, Sciaenopsocellatus, and examines differential expression in select adult tissues and during ontogeny. Four distinct transcripts were sequenced which were identical in the coding region for the signal (132 bp) and mature (204 bp) peptides but differed in the coding region of the E peptide by the exclusion of 117 (Ea-1), 81 (Ea-2) or 36 (Ea-3) bp compared to the 222 bp present in Ea-4. Analysis of the pertinent portion of the genomic sequence of this gene suggests that the transcripts are a result of alternative splicing. This is the first report of the expression of all four known prepro-IGF-I transcripts in a teleost other than a salmonid. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited 70-95% identity with teleosts and somewhat lower identity to other vertebrates (60-75%). Three of the 4 transcripts (Ea-2, Ea-3, Ea-4) were expressed in the liver, ovary, spleen, gall bladder, brain, red muscle, pancreas and spinal cord of adults. Only the Ea-4 transcript was expressed in adult stomach tissue while no signal was detected in pituitary, retina, intestine, adipose or white muscle. In contrast, all 4 transcripts were expressed throughout ontogeny. The apparent expression of the Ea-1 transcript only during the larval stage may indicate a developmental role for this E peptide in red drum. PMID:20674575

  12. In situ video observations of two manefishes (perciformes: Caristiidae) in the mesopelagic zone of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benfield, M.C.; Caruso, John H.; Sulak, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes direct video observations of two manefishes, likely Paracaristius sp., from the mesopelagic waters of the north-central Gulf of Mexico. One fish was observed with a remotely operated vehicle at a depth of 829 m by an industrial ROV as part of the SERPENT Project. The second was observed at 496 m from a manned submersible. Little is known about the behavior of manefishes because most records result from net-collected material. Our observation demonstrates that manefishes are capable of precise locomotory and posture control using extended, erect fins and that the pelvic fins of these fishes are extended in a parachute-like manner. Moreover, one of the specimens exhibited an unusual vertical, sinusoidal oscillation of its caudal fin. One of the observations took place in association with a physonect siphonophore. These observations may include the deepest published record for a manefish in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Population genetic structure of Cichla pleiozona (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Upper Madera basin (Bolivian Amazon): sex-biased dispersal?

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Ballivian, J P Torrico; Hubert, Nicolas; Rodríguez, J Nuñez; Berrebi, P; Cornejo, S Sirvas; Renno, J-F

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the population structure of the Tucunaré (Cichla pleiozona) in the Bolivian Amazon (Upper Madera) by using nuclear (EPIC-PCR, 67 individuals) and mitochondrial (Control Region, 41 published and 76 new sequences) DNA analyses, in relation with ecological (water quality: muddy, clear and mix) and geographic factors. Our analyses of both markers showed the highest diversity in clear waters (Yata, Middle and Upper Iténez), and the existence of two populations in muddy waters (Sécure and Ichilo) and one in mix waters (Manuripi). On the other hand, mitochondrial analyses identified three populations in clear waters where nuclear analyses identified a panmictic population. The highest diversity observed in the Yata-Iténez system suggests that an aquatic refuge occurred during the past in this area. The possible explanations for the observed discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial markers are discussed, and a sex-biased dispersal seems to be the most plausible hypothesis in the light of the available information and field observations. PMID:20817108

  14. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-01-01

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.  PMID:24943153

  15. A new species of Ergasilus (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from Geophagus altifrons and G. argyrostictus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Taborda, Naraiana Lopes; Paschoal, Fabiano; Luque, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    A new species of ergasilid copepod, Ergasilus xinguensis n. sp., is described from females found on the gills of two cichlid fishes, Geophagus argyrostictus (Kullander, 1991) (type host) and G. altifrons (Heckel, 1840), from the Brazilian Amazon. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the unique combination of the following characteristics: the cephalothorax is not inflated and is slightly constricted, the first antennulary segment bears 3 setae, maxillule with 3 unequal outer setae without minute process medially, maxilla has a large syncoxa with one seta near its basis, first and fourth legs are with a 3-segmented endopod, base of the exopod in leg 2 with a conspicuous bluntly-pointed projection and caudal ramus with two rows of curved conical spinules on ventral surface. The new species is the second member of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 found on cichlids of the genus Geophagus (Heckel). PMID:27447219

  16. Cotylogaster basiri Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 (Aspidobothrea: Aspidogastridae) in Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus, 1766) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae): first report from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, M; Silveira, E F; Périco, E

    2016-07-11

    Up until now, there have been few studies of the helminth fauna of Brazilian populations of Pogonias cromis. In North America, P. cromis is known to be a definitive host of Cotylogaster basiri, although there have been no reports of any species of Cotylogaster infecting fish in Brazil. During necropsies of marine fish obtained from professional fisherman in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, specimens of C. basiri were found in the intestine and rectum of P. cromis. In comparison with previous studies, differences were found in relation to the number of lobes in the buccal disc and the development of the biocellate larvae in the eggs of C. basiri. This is the first report of C. basiri in P. cromis from Brazil, contributing to the understanding of the helminth fauna of this fish from the coastal zone of Brazil.

  17. Feeding of introduced species of Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Volta Grande reservoir, River Grande (MG/SP).

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-11-01

    Both species studied, Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus, fed mainly on fish, the first on Cichla spp., Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Tilapia rendalli, and the second, Cichla monoculus, on Cichla spp. Both diets indicated a strong correlation among the food items. Remarkable ontogenetic change was noted in both species diet: the young fed on crustaceans and insects while the adults fed mainly on fishes. The species studied, which are highly adapted to a brief life span, cause serious damage to the fish communities by predation, competition, and cascade effects throughout the whole trophic chain. PMID:15744419

  18. [Reproduction, distribution and abundance of the fish Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Perciformes: Mullidae), in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Santiago, Eduardo; Ramírez-Gutiérrrez, José Martín; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Tapia-García, Margarito

    2006-12-01

    As result of its biological and ecological strategies, Pseudupeneus grandisquamis is a dominant species in the demersal community of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Our main objective was to understand these strategies with respect to distribution, abundance and reproduction. We analyzed 5,175 individuals representing partial collections from five oceanographic expeditions between 1989 and 1990. It is a typical demersal marine species, with a wide distribution on the continental shelf. The highest abundance of P. grandisquamis occurs in March and November, around the 40 m isobath, facing the Superior-Inferior lake systems and Mar Muerto Lagoon. Reproduction occurred during all of the months studied, particularly from August to October, corresponding to the rainy season, when the salinity and temperature is lower. The presence of juveniles, principally in November and March, suggests a long period of recruitment; they are distributed mainly in the Superior-Inferior Lagoons, which serves as a nursery area where they remain until they are adults. The total female to male sex ratio was nearly 1:1 throughout the year. The maximum total length was 213 mm and the size at first maturity was 138 mm TL. The high abundance and reproduction occur when the gulf has a high level of ecological production, in accordance with the dynamics of the system, where the influence of coastal lagoons is important. Protection strategies for the area above the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec are recommended for the estuary processes and for the reproduction and rearing of a large number of species, including P. grandisquamis.

  19. Evaluation of cytochrome b mtDNA sequences in genetic diversity studies of Channa marulius (Channidae: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Habib, Maria; Lakra, W S; Mohindra, Vindhya; Khare, Praveen; Barman, A S; Singh, Akanksha; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Khan, Asif A

    2011-02-01

    Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b gene sequence of mtDNA for determining the genetic variation in wild populations of C. marulius. Genomic DNA extracted from C. marulius samples (n = 23) belonging to 3 distant rivers; Mahanadi, Teesta and Yamuna was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp Cytochrome b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes with haplotype diversity value of 0.763 and nucleotide diversity value of 0.0128. Single population specific haplotype was observed in Mahanadi and Yamuna samples and 3 haplotypes in Teesta samples. The analysis of data demonstrated the suitability of partial Cytochrome b sequence in determining the genetic diversity in C. marulius population. PMID:20443065

  20. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-03-31

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described.

  1. Feeding of introduced species of Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Volta Grande reservoir, River Grande (MG/SP).

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-11-01

    Both species studied, Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus, fed mainly on fish, the first on Cichla spp., Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Tilapia rendalli, and the second, Cichla monoculus, on Cichla spp. Both diets indicated a strong correlation among the food items. Remarkable ontogenetic change was noted in both species diet: the young fed on crustaceans and insects while the adults fed mainly on fishes. The species studied, which are highly adapted to a brief life span, cause serious damage to the fish communities by predation, competition, and cascade effects throughout the whole trophic chain.

  2. Pogonophryne neyelovi , a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Shandikov, Gennadiy A; Eakin, Richard R

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues descriptions of new deep-water Antarctic barbeled plunderfishes of the poorly known and the most speciose notothenioid genus Pogonophryne. It is based on a comprehensive collection obtained by the authors in 2009-2010 during an Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) fishing trip. A new species, the hopbeard plunderfish Pogonophryne neyelovi, the twenty-second species of the genus, is described. The new species belongs to dorsally-spotted short-barbeled species forming the "Pogonophryne mentella" group. Pogonophryne neyelovi sp. n. is characterized by the following combination of characters: a very short and small mental barbel with an ovaloid and short terminal expansion covered by flattened scale-like processes that are mostly bluntly palmate; a moderately protruding lower jaw; a high second dorsal fin almost uniformly black and lacking a sharply elevated anterior lobe; pectoral fins striped anteriorly and uniformly light posteriorly; the anal and pelvic fins light; the dorsal surface of the head and the area anterior to the first dorsal fin covered with large, irregular dark brown blotches and spots; the ventral surface of the head, breast and belly without sharp dark markings. The new species is compared to the closest species Pogonophryne brevibarbata, Pogonophryne tronio, and Pogonophryne ventrimaculata. English vernacular names are proposed for all species of the genus.

  3. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  4. Actinobdella inequinnulata (Annelida: Hirudinida:Rhynchobdellida:Glossiphoniidae) from White Crappie, Pomoxis annularis (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in Arkansas, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of 4 (25%) white crappie, Pomoxis annularis from the Ouachita River, Dallas County, Arkansas, was found to be infested with 8 glossiphoniid leeches, Actinobdella inequiannulata Moore, 1901. Leeches were removed from within the oeprculum on gills and gill arches. This leech i...

  5. [Distribution and abundance of Katsuwonus pelamis larvae (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the Gulf of Mexico, 1982-1992].

    PubMed

    Guevara-Rascado, Ma de Lourdes; Cerecedo-Escudero, José Luis; Sánchez-Regalado, Ramón

    2008-09-01

    The epipelagic fish known as skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) is considered inside the "little tuna" group. The species is distributed in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Despite its fisheries importance in Mexico, there is little knowledge about the species in the region. The information from 18 oceanographic cruises inside the Mexican exclusive economic zone in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, was analyzed for the period 1982 to 1992. Plankton was collected in a paired 60 cm mouth bongo net sampler with 0.333 mm mesh nets in oblique tows. The maximum abundance was in spring and summer; 1986 had the largest population (4 881.8544 X 10(9) larvae) and 1983 the lowest density (566.3748 X 10(9)). The skipjack has suitable conditions for reproduction in this area, and the southwestern region is the most productive. The spawning was greater in the summer. The annual biomass was estimated in 2 513 to 21 659 tons, the high value corresponded to 1986, with potential yields between 7 472 and 10 071 tons. A local fishery seems viable but needs further evidence. PMID:19419048

  6. Low Genetic and Morphometric Intraspecific Divergence in Peripheral Copadichromis Populations (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Lake Malawi Basin

    PubMed Central

    Anseeuw, Dieter; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Busselen, Paul; Verheyen, Erik; Snoeks, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral isolated populations may undergo rapid divergence from the main population due to various factors such as a bottleneck or a founder effect followed by genetic drift or local selection pressures. Recent populations of two economically important Copadichromis species in Lake Malombe, a satellite lake of Lake Malawi, were neither genetically nor morphometrically distinct from their source populations in the main lake. Evidence was found for a founder effect which had a different impact on the genetic composition of the two species. In addition, the increased fishing pressure in Lake Malombe may have led to a reduction of the body sizes of both species. PMID:21716858

  7. A comprehensive description and evolutionary analysis of 22 grouper (perciformes, epinephelidae) mitochondrial genomes with emphasis on two novel genome organizations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuan; Qu, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes' control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus Epinephelus, and Aethaloperca to genus Cephalopholis. PMID:23951357

  8. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World's Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  9. Digestive tract morphology of the Neotropical piscivorous fish Cichla kelberi (Perciformes: Cichlidae) introduced into an oligotrophic Brazilian reservoir.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2011-09-01

    Despite being one of the most well-known cichlid fish of importance to artisanal and sport fishing, and among the largest fishes in the Neotropics, data on digestive tract anatomy of peacock basses (Cichla spp.) are largely lacking, especially for non-native populations. In this paper, we describe for the first time the digestive tract morphology of Cichla kelberi, a voracious piscivore that was introduced in the 1950s into an oligotrophic and physically low-complex impoundment in Brazil. Peacock basses were collected between 1994 and 2002 in Lajes Reservoir, through gillnets (25 to 55mm mesh; 20-50 x 2m), seines (10 x 2.5m; 8.0mm mesh), cast nets and angling. All the fishes were kept on ice in the field and then transferred to the laboratory, where they were identified, measured, weighed and dissected for digestive tract analyses. The Index of Relative Importance-IRI was calculated for diet characterization while linear and non-linear regressions were performed to assess growth patterns of four morphological characters related to feeding (e.g. mouth width, mouth height, stomach length and intestine length) and the number of gill rakers during the C. kelberi ontogeny. Most digestive tract structures were directly related to the piscivorous diet of C. kelberi, indicating that peacock bass is a diurnal, bathypelagic and gape-size limited predator that feeds largely on shallow-water prey species within the littoral zone. Mouth width and height grew allometrically (b > 1) with the size of peacock bass, broadening the size range in which prey can be eaten, but especially for predators smaller than -400mm of total length. Differently, stomach and intestine lengths increased isometrically (b = 1), which could constrain prey consumption for adult C. kelberi, especially those at advanced stages of gonadal maturation. The presence of longer-drawn, sharp and furcated gill rakers in C. kelberi may be related to increased prey retention in the resource-limited Lajes Reservoir, but further studies are necessary whether such features are randomly triggered by genetic or phenotypic anomalies, or effectively bring ecological advantages to the predator. In addition to contribute to improve the current biological knowledge on peacock basses, our results can be also useful to further comparisons on whether those morphological features related to feeding will change with transitions on prey consumption by C. kelberi and/or with the particular conditions of the invaded ecosystem.

  10. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir.

  11. Overlapping patterns of morphometric and genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean goby Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in Tunisian lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Randa; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hassine, Nesrine; Arculeo, Marco; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and morphological variations of Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 were studied in samples collected from three Tunisian lagoons. The morphological analysis included 18 morphometric measurements and was based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), whereas the genetic analysis was based on the 16S-rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes. Both analyses differentiated the populations and demonstrated consistently a well-supported differentiation between the western Mediterranean samples (Bizerta and Tunis South lagoons) and the eastern Mediterranean sample (El Bibane lagoon). The observed differentiation could be explained in terms of the geographic isolation of the various populations and the influence of environmental factors, which differ greatly between the different sites. The molecular results revealed that the populations are characterised by unique haplotypes which are well defined in relation to limited gene flow and restricted dispersal abilities. Additionally, it seems that local selective pressures have modelled biometrical variation. Morphological results can reflect a differential habitat use revealed in the cephalic features and a different response to hydrodynamic constraints developed in dissimilar dorsal and pelvic fin lengths.

  12. Diversity within the Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) species group, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Baker, Winston H; Blanton, Rebecca E; Johnston, Carol E

    2013-01-01

    The Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae, was described from the Mobile River basin, Chattahoochee, and Savannah rivers in Alabama and Georgia, USA, by Hubbs and Bailey (1940). At that time the authors recognized significant variation in the Black Warrior River population, and noted that with further study this form may be recognized as a separate taxon. An examination of variation in morphology and mitochondrial DNA supported this observation, and highlighted additional species-level variation, resulting in descriptions of a total of four new species: Micropterus cahabae, new sp., restricted to the Cahaba River system; Micropterus tallapoosae, new sp., restricted to the Tallapoosa River system; Micropterus warriorensis, new sp., from the Black Warrior River system; and Micropterus chattahoochae, new sp., from the Chattahoochee River system. Micropterus coosae is restricted to the Coosa River system. The new species differ from each other and from M. coosae by a combination of pigmentation and scale count characteristics, development of the tooth patch, and divergence within the ND2 gene. While two of these species are relatively common in upland streams within their ranges, M. warriorensis, M. cahabae and M. chattahoochae are uncommon and may warrant protection.

  13. Three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in a perciform fish (Sparus aurata): complementary deoxyribonucleic acid characterization and brain localization.

    PubMed

    Gothilf, Y; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; Sagrillo, C A; Selmanoff, M; Chen, T T; Kah, O; Elizur, A; Zohar, Y

    1996-09-01

    Three forms of GnRH-salmon (sGnRH), seabream (sb-GnRH), and chicken (cGnRH-II)-have been described in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) brain, and the cDNA encoding the sbGnRH precursor was recently isolated. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding the sGnRH and cGnRH-II were isolated and characterized, and the neurons producing the three GnRHs were localized in the seabream brain. Fragments of sGnRH and cGnRH-II cDNAs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and used as probes to isolate the full-length cDNAs from a brain cDNA library. The cDNA encoding the cGnRH-II precursor is 573 nucleotides (nt) long, and the cDNA encoding the sGnRH precursor is 1971 nt in length with an unusually long 5' untranslated region. Specific single-strand DNA probes for in situ detection of mRNA were designed according to nonconserved regions among the three GnRH c-DNAs. Localization of GnRH mRNA-producing cells in the brain revealed five distinct populations of cells: sGnRH-producing cells in the ventromedial olfactory bulbs and the terminal nerve, sbGnRH-producing cells in the preoptic area and the ventral thalamus, and cGnRH-II-producing cells in the midbrain tegmentum. The discrete sites of expression of the three forms of GnRH indicate that only sbGnRH is directly involved in the control of gonadotropin secretion. PMID:8862782

  14. First cytogenetic report in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 (Perciformes, Cichlidae) from northeastern Brazil with inferences on chromosomal evolution of Cichlasomatini

    PubMed Central

    Argôlo, Leandro A.; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though genetic aspects of some cichlids have been widely studied over the last decades, little is known about the genomic structure of Cichlidae when compared to the large number of species in the family. In this paper, the first chromosomal data for Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 are presented and discussed based on cytotaxonomic and karyoevolutionary inferences on Cichlasomatini. All individuals shared a diploid number of 2n=48 distributed as 10sm+28st+10a and Ag-NORs on short arms of a submetacentric pair. Heterochromatin was detected at pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and at terminal sites of a few pairs. GC-rich regions were observed on short arms of two biarmed pairs, including the pair bearing Ag-NORs. Double-FISH with ribosomal probes revealed 18S rDNA clusters coincident with GC-rich regions in two biarmed pairs and 5S rDNA at interstitial location of an acrocentric pair. Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense shares some symplesiomorphic traits described in Cichlidae (2n=48 and pericentromeric C-bands) while other chromosomal features diverge from the common trend reported in Cichlasomatini, such as multiple 18S rDNA sites combined with high FN values. Finally, the present results are useful to support taxonomic identification once species-specific markers have been provided in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense. PMID:26753082

  15. Redescription of Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, 1835 (Pisces: Perciformes, Labridae), a valid endemic Red Sea wrasse.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Alpermann, Tilman J; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    The labrid fish Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, originally described from the Red Sea, has long been regarded as a junior synonym of C. fasciatus (Bloch). Herein, both nominal species are redescribed, based on examination of the types and additional material from the Red Sea (for C. quinquecinctus) and the Indo-West Pacific (for C. fasciatus). Rüppell's description of Cheilinus quinquecinctus was originally based on three syntypes, and the most representative adult specimen is designated as the lectotype. We show that Cheilinus quinquecinctus is restricted to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, and it differs from the similar C. fasciatus in having modally fewer gill rakers on the first gill arch, a total of 13-16 (mean 13.9, usually 13 or 14 ) (vs. 13-16, mean 14.7, usually 14 or 15), in developing a ragged posterior margin of the caudal fin with age (versus only upper and lower caudal-fin lobes developing with age), and in its color pattern. The phylogenetic analysis of the COI barcoding region accords with the species status of C. quinquecinctus with the placement of the two sister species in two divergent and reciprocally monophyletic evolutionary lineages. A full description of C. quinquecinctus and diagnosis of C. fasciatus is provided here for comparison. In addition, the data include a table of the results of the meristic and morphological examination of type and additional specimens of both species from throughout their distribution ranges as well as a table of gill-raker counts of all examined specimens. Underwater color photographs are provided for comparison of juveniles, females and males of both species. PMID:27615897

  16. Redescription of Parapercis okamurai Kamohara, 1960 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), based on specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2014-01-01

    A rare species of sandperch, Parapercis okamurai, is redescribed based on 2 types and 15 specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan. The species is unique in having cycloid scales on the parietal, opercle and subopercle, except for few large ctenoid scale that covers the base of the opercular spine; body color yellowish dorsally, with 10 or 11 faint yellow bands on lateral body and pale ventrally; and black spots on inner side of upper pectoral fin base. It can also be distinguished from congeners by having a combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays V, 23; anal-fin rays I, 19; pectoral-fin rays 18; pored lateral-line scales 59-64; medial predorsal scales 9-10; transverse scale rows 4.5-5.5/14-15; circumpeduncular scales 20-21; gill raker4-5+9-10=13-16; -4 pairs of canine teeth at front of lower jaw; 2-4 rows of teeth on vomer; 2 rows of teeth on palatines; scales on cheek moderately large, each half embedded; and body color yellowish dorsally and a prominent ocellus at upper caudal-fin base. PMID:25283124

  17. Molecular systematics and taxonomic status of three latitudinally widespread nototheniid (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) fishes from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Miya, Tshoanelo; Gon, Ofer; Mwale, Monica; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the three nototheniids, Lepidonotothen squamifrons, L. larseni and Gobionotothen marionensis from different localities in the Southern Ocean is re-evaluated at the DNA level. DNA sequence divergences and phylogenetic relationship were estimated using a combined mitochondrial (mtDNA, ND2 and COI) dataset and data for one nuclear gene (S7 intron 1). Phylogenies of both datasets had Lepidonotothen kempi nested within L. squamifrons lineage, with low sequence divergences (0% to 0.4%) between the two nominal species suggesting that they are populations of one species. Therefore, these results do not support the previous splitting of L. squamifrons into different species. Similarly, the L. larseni specimens also represented a single genetic unit (0.3% to 0.6%) with low geographic variation between Atlantic and Indian Ocean specimens, which does not support the splitting of this species into geographically restricted species. The mtDNA phylogeny clearly separated individuals of G. acuta from Kerguelen, Heard and MacDonald Islands from G. marionensis individuals into different clades, with sequence divergence of 2.9% between these clades supporting they are different species. PMID:27395508

  18. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Timi, Juan Tomás; Luque, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  19. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-05-30

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal. 

  20. Niche partitioning of feeding microhabitats produces a unique function for herbivorous rabbitfishes (Perciformes, Siganidae) on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-03-01

    Niche theory predicts that coexisting species minimise competition by evolving morphological or behavioural specialisations that allow them to spread out along resource axes such as space, diet and temporal activity. These specialisations define how a species interacts with its environment and, by extension, determine its functional role. Here, we examine the feeding niche of three species of coral reef-dwelling rabbitfishes (Siganidae, Siganus). By comparing aspects of their feeding behaviour (bite location, bite rate, foraging distance) with that of representative species from two other abundant herbivorous fish families, the parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarus) and surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae, Acanthurus), we examine whether rabbitfishes have a feeding niche distinct from other members of the herbivore guild. Measurements of the penetration of the fishes' snouts and bodies into reef concavities when feeding revealed that rabbitfish fed to a greater degree from reef crevices and interstices than other herbivores. There was just a 40 % overlap in the penetration-depth niche between rabbitfish and surgeonfish and a 45 % overlap between rabbitfish and parrotfish, compared with the almost complete niche overlap (95 %) recorded for parrotfish and surgeonfish along this spatial niche axis. Aspects of the morphology of rabbitfish which may contribute to this niche segregation include a comparatively longer, narrower snout and narrower head. Our results suggest that sympatric coexistence of rabbitfish and other reef herbivores is facilitated by segregation along a spatial (and potentially dietary) axis. This segregation results in a unique functional role for rabbitfishes among roving herbivores that of "crevice-browser": a group that specifically feeds on crevice-dwelling algal or benthic organisms. This functional trait may have implications for reef ecosystem processes in terms of controlling the successional development of crevice-based algal communities, reducing their potential to trigger macroalgal outbreaks.

  1. Genome Sequencing of the Perciform Fish Larimichthys crocea Provides Insights into Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Stress Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiong; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Li, Ting; Ding, Yang; Nie, Li; Li, Qiuhua; Dong, Wei-ren; Jiang, Liang; Sun, Bing; Zhang, XinHui; Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Hai-Qi; Xie, ShangBo; Zhu, YaBing; Jiang, XuanTing; Wang, Xianhui; Mu, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for investigating the response mechanisms to environmental stress. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation and response of L. crocea to environmental stress, we sequenced and assembled the genome of L. crocea using a bacterial artificial chromosome and whole-genome shotgun hierarchical strategy. The final genome assembly was 679 Mb, with a contig N50 of 63.11 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.03 Mb, containing 25,401 protein-coding genes. Gene families underlying adaptive behaviours, such as vision-related crystallins, olfactory receptors, and auditory sense-related genes, were significantly expanded in the genome of L. crocea relative to those of other vertebrates. Transcriptome analyses of the hypoxia-exposed L. crocea brain revealed new aspects of neuro-endocrine-immune/metabolism regulatory networks that may help the fish to avoid cerebral inflammatory injury and maintain energy balance under hypoxia. Proteomics data demonstrate that skin mucus of the air-exposed L. crocea had a complex composition, with an unexpectedly high number of proteins (3,209), suggesting its multiple protective mechanisms involved in antioxidant functions, oxygen transport, immune defence, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Our results reveal the molecular and genetic basis of fish adaptation and response to hypoxia and air exposure. The data generated by this study will provide valuable resources for the genetic improvement of stress resistance and yield potential in L. crocea. PMID:25835551

  2. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as “snakeheads”, are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  3. Comparative morphology and cytology of the male sperm-transmission organs in viviparous species of clinid fishes (Clinidae: Teleostei, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev; Gon, Ofer; Holdengreber, Vered; Delarea, Yakob

    2006-12-01

    This work comprises the first comparative study of the morphology and cytology of the sperm transmission organs in males of 14 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei, Teleostei). The form and dimensions of these organs differ among the various species studied. The organs are composed of intra-abdominal ampullae, into which the sperm ducts and urinary bladder anchor, and an external protruding intromittent papilla used for insemination. The form of the ampullae differs among the various species, from pear-shaped to horseshoe-shaped. It increases in dimensions with increasing length of the male. In all the species this organ is covered by a connective-tissue tunic that encompasses both circular and longitudinal striated muscle bundles. The lumina of the ampullae harbor the epididymis, a strongly convoluted and plicated duct, which becomes filled with spermatozeugmata during reproduction. From here, the epididymis continues into the protruding intromittent papillae, where its folds gradually straighten at the apical part of the intromittent organ. The form and dimensions of this copulatory organ also differ in the various species. Papillae bearing taste buds are found on the apical parts of the intromittent organ, and it is probable that these, together with the difference in forms of the organ, help to prevent interspecific copulation.

  4. Shape changes and growth trajectories in the early stages of three species of the genus Diplodus (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Loy, A; Bertelletti, M; Costa, C; Ferlin, L; Cataudella, S

    2001-10-01

    The larvae of three species of the genus Diplodus (Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and D. puntazzo) colonize shallow waters along the Mediterranean coasts and, after a short period spent in the water column, they settle. For all three species this habitat transition is characterized by important shape changes mostly related to swimming capacity and feeding behavior. In this study, geometric morphometrics are used to characterize shape changes during the early juvenile life of specimens collected in a single locality in order to compare growth curves and allometric relationships. Size-related shape changes proved to be similar for all three species and are consistent with the ecological transition. A nonparametric smoothing technique (Loess) was used to fit the scatter of shape on size. The graphical representation (of most size-related shape variability) of this fitting technique shows how major shape changes are rapid for small sizes and slow down successively. The approach allows for the visualization of allometry and the fitting technique might help in defining the allometric growth pattern, thus contributing to the study of the autoecology of the species and in establishing terms for comparison with other ecologically or phylogenetically related species. PMID:11599013

  5. Comparative Mitogenomics of the Genus Odontobutis (Perciformes: Gobioidei: Odontobutidae) Revealed Conserved Gene Rearrangement and High Sequence Variations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihong; Yang, Xuefen; Bercsenyi, Miklos; Wu, Junjie; Yu, Yongyao; Wei, Kaijian; Fan, Qixue; Yang, Ruibin

    2015-01-01

    To understand the molecular evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) in the genus Odontobutis, the mitogenome of Odontobutis yaluensis was sequenced and compared with those of another four Odontobutis species. Our results displayed similar mitogenome features among species in genome organization, base composition, codon usage, and gene rearrangement. The identical gene rearrangement of trnS-trnL-trnH tRNA cluster observed in mitogenomes of these five closely related freshwater sleepers suggests that this unique gene order is conserved within Odontobutis. Additionally, the present gene order and the positions of associated intergenic spacers of these Odontobutis mitogenomes indicate that this unusual gene rearrangement results from tandem duplication and random loss of large-scale gene regions. Moreover, these mitogenomes exhibit a high level of sequence variation, mainly due to the differences of corresponding intergenic sequences in gene rearrangement regions and the heterogeneity of tandem repeats in the control regions. Phylogenetic analyses support Odontobutis species with shared gene rearrangement forming a monophyletic group, and the interspecific phylogenetic relationships are associated with structural differences among their mitogenomes. The present study contributes to understanding the evolutionary patterns of Odontobutidae species. PMID:26492246

  6. Methylation status and chromatin structure of the myostatin gene promoter region in the sea perch Lateolabrax japonicus (Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Abbas, E M; Takayanagi, A; Shimizu, N; Kato, M

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of the growth and development of skeletal muscle mass. In fish, myostatin is expressed in several organs in addition to skeletal muscle. To understand the mechanisms regulating myostatin gene expression in the sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, we examined the methylation status of the myostatin gene promoter region in several tissues (liver, eye, kidney, brain, and heart) isolated from adult specimens. The frequency of methylated cytosines was very low in all tissues, regardless of the level of myostatin expression, suggesting that DNA methylation is not involved in the tissue-specific regulation of myostatin expression. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA obtained from micrococcal nuclease-treated nuclei showed that chromatin digestion occurs in tissues where the myostatin gene is actively transcribed and that the myostatin gene is protected from micrococcal nuclease in tissues where myostatin is not expressed. The chromatin structure in the myostatin gene region appears to regulate its expression without DNA methylation. PMID:22183947

  7. Developmental and Microbiological Analysis of the Inception of Bioluminescent Symbiosis in the Marine Fish Nuchequula nuchalis (Perciformes: Leiognathidae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Paul V.; Davis, Kimberly M.; Tomiyama, Shinichi; Fujino, Misato; Fukui, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Many marine fish harbor luminous bacteria as bioluminescent symbionts. Despite the diversity, abundance, and ecological importance of these fish and their apparent dependence on luminous bacteria for survival and reproduction, little is known about developmental and microbiological events surrounding the inception of their symbioses. To gain insight on these issues, we examined wild-caught larvae of the leiognathid fish Nuchequula nuchalis, a species that harbors Photobacterium leiognathi as its symbiont, for the presence, developmental state, and microbiological status of the fish's internal, supraesophageal light organ. Nascent light organs were evident in the smallest specimens obtained, flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in notochord length (NL), a developmental stage at which the stomach had not yet differentiated and the nascent gasbladder had not established an interface with the light organ. Light organs of certain of the specimens in this size range apparently lacked bacteria, whereas light organs of other specimens of 6.5 mm in NL and of all larger specimens harbored large populations of bacteria, representatives of which were identified as P. leiognathi. Bacteria identified as Vibrio harveyi were also present in the light organ of one larval specimen. Light organ populations were composed typically of two or three genetically distinct strain types of P. leiognathi, similar to the situation in adult fish, and the same strain type was only rarely found in light organs of different larval, juvenile, or adult specimens. Light organs of larvae carried a smaller proportion of strains merodiploid for the lux-rib operon, 79 of 249 strains, than those of adults (75 of 91 strains). These results indicate that light organs of N. nuchalis flexion and postflexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.7 mm in NL are at an early stage of development and that inception of the symbiosis apparently occurs in flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in NL. Ontogeny of the light organ therefore apparently precedes acquisition of the symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, bacterial populations in larval light organs near inception of the symbiosis are genetically diverse, like those of adult fish. PMID:18978090

  8. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Robles-Basto, Cindy M; Mena-herrera, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T0) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T15, T30 and T45), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T15 and T30 (p<0.05). High values of K were found in the R and RGH treatments during the initial days of the experiment, which may have been a consequence of the better nutritional status affecting both weight gain and growth in body length, as a result of the additive effects of 17-MT and GH. The fish in groups not treated with 17-MT and treated with 17-MT and added GH showed greater increases in WG per day, higher K values and lower FCRs than fish in the other groups, which suggests that greater feed efficiency occurred in the hormone-treated fish. Fish in the RGH treatment showed the most growth, suggesting a possible interaction between 17-MT and injected GH.

  9. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World’s Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  10. Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña Messina, Emilio; Tapia Varela, Raul; Velázquez Abunader, José Iván; Orbe Mendoza, Alma Araceli; Velazco Arce, Javier Marcial de Jesús Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Tilapia production has increased in Aguamilpa Reservoir, in Nayarit, Mexico, in the last few years and represents a good economic activity for rural communities and the country. We determined growth parameters, mortality and reproductive aspects for 2413 specimens of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus in this reservoir. Samples were taken monthly from July 2000 through June 2001, of which 1 371 were males and 1 042 were females. Standard length (SL) and total weight (TW) were measured in each organism. The SL/TW relationships through power models for sexes were determined. The growth parameters L infinity k, and t0 of the von Bertalanffy equation were estimated using frequency distribution of length through ELEFAN-I computer program. Finally the reproductive cycle and size of first maturity were established using morph chromatic maturity scale. The results suggested that the males and females had negative allometric growth (b < 3). Significant differences were found between SL/TW model for the sexes, suggesting separate models for males and females. Results indicate that there are no differences in growth rates between sexes; the proposed parameters were L infinity = 43.33 cm standard length, k = 0.36/year and t0 = -0.43 years. Natural and fishing mortality coefficients were 0.83/year and 1.10/year, respectively. The estimated exploitation rate (0.57/year) suggested that during the study period the fishery showed signs of overfishing. Blue tilapia reproduces year-round; the highest activity occurs from January through May and size of first maturity was 23 cm SL. We conclude that it is necessary to establish a minimum catch size in this reservoir based on the reproductive behavior of this species.

  11. Repetitive DNAs highlight the role of chromosomal fusions in the karyotype evolution of Dascyllus species (Pomacentridae, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Maneechot, Nuntiya; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod

    2016-04-01

    The Dascyllus genus consists of 11 species spread over vast regions of the Indo-Pacific, showing remarkable reductions in the diploid chromosome numbers (2n). The present study analyzed the karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics of D. trimaculatus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50), D. carneus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) and D. aruanus (2n = 30; 18m + 2st + 10a; NF = 50) from the Thailand Gulf (Pacific Ocean) and D. melanurus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) from the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean), employing conventional cytogenetic analyses and the chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs, using 18S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and (CA)15, (GA)15, and (CAA)10 microsatellites as probes. The C-positive heterochromatin was found in the centromeric regions of most chromosomal pairs and 18S rDNA phenotypes were single in all species. However, in D. aruanus (2n = 30), which harbors nine metacentric pairs; the 5S rDNA sites were located in the centromeric region of the shortest one. The mapping of the telomeric sequences in D. aruanus revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) in the centromeric region of four metacentric pairs, with one of these pairs also displaying an additional ITS in the long arms. Distinct chromosomal markers confirmed the reduction of the 2n by chromosomal fusions, highlighting the precise characterization of these rearrangements by the cytogenetic mapping of the repetitive DNAs.

  12. Relative yield-per-recruit and management strategies for Cynoscion acoupa (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Orlando José Ferrer; Morales, Isabel Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Acoupa weakfish, Cynoscion acoupa, in Lake Maracaibo is subject to intense commercial fishing by an artisanal fleet, and a recent decrease in fish size observed from landings is of concern. This fishery has not yet been modeled, and its assessment and the establishment of management practices to overcome the current overfished condition are urgently needed. To address this, we used recent and past empirical growth estimates to model relative yield-per-recruit under different lengths at first capture. Our results from relative yield-per-recruit analysis showed evidence that growth and recruitment overfishing occur under current fishing practices in Lake Maracaibo. Particular attention was given to fishing practices in El Tablazo Bay where young, small fish predominate in the commercial catches (mean total length=33.7cm), well below the length at first sexual maturity (-40cm TL) for both sexes. As management strategies, we propose to set a mesh size limit at or above 8.89cm (3.5in), which will reduce fishing mortality of immature fish, increase yield-per-recruit, and will result in an increase of Acoupa weakfish recruitment for the long term in Lake Maracaibo.

  13. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir. PMID:25271458

  14. Parasite communities of European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Percidae) from Lake Łebsko (Central Coast, Poland).

    PubMed

    Morozińska-Gogol, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Communities of parasites of European perch from lake Łebsko were studied and compared with similar communities from the Polish coastal zone. Parasites comprised 18 autogenic and 5 allogenic species. Most individual parasites belonged to allogenic species and were in larval stages. The majority of specimens were eye parasites with Tylodelphys clavata as the eudominant species. The dominant species, Acanthocephalus lucii, belongs to the intestine parasite community. Three marine species were found: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Echinorchynhus gadi. The results indicate that the parasite fauna consists mostly of freshwater species, common in various types of European waters, while marine species were rarely observed. PMID:24171303

  15. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Anisakid Nematode Larvae from the Sandperches Pseudopercis numida and Pinguipes brasilianus (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, C S; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-08-01

    Morphological and genetic data on the larvae of Anisakidae parasitizing the sandperches Pseudopercis numida and Pinguipes brasilianus were recorded from Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°S, 42°W). Twenty-five specimens of P. numida and 25 specimens of P. brasilianus were necropsied. The 352 larvae collected included 1 Anisakis sp., 344 Hysterothylacium sp., and 7 Raphidascaris sp. We present mtDNA sequence data for Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp., and we sequenced the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. The morphological and genetic profiles confirmed the identification of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860). Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. were not identified to the species level due to the absence of similar sequences for adult parasites. The mtDNA sequence of Hysterothylacium sp. from P. numida showed a high similarity to the sequence of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum. However, a phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of different clades under the same name as the larval H. deardorffoverstreetorum. Pseudopercis numida is a new host record for A. typica. PMID:25885554

  16. Endohelminths in Cichla piquiti (Perciformes, Cichlidae) from the Paraná River, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Lidiane; Zago, Aline Cristina; Zocoller-Seno, Maria Conceição; Veríssimo-Silveira, Rosicleire; Ninhaus-Silveira, Alexandre; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2013-01-01

    Fifty specimens of Cichla piquiti were collected from the Paraná River downstream of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Power Station in Brazil and surveyed for endohelminth parasites. All fish were parasitised by at least one helminth species (overall prevalence [P] = 100%). Eight parasite taxa were present: the nematode Procamallanus (Procamallanus) peraccuratus in the intestines; third-stage larvae of the anisakids Contracaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in the visceral cavity, mesentery and serosa of the stomach and intestines and on the liver and spleen; the trematodes Austrodiplostomum compactum in the eye (metacercariae) and Genarchella genarchella in the stomach; and the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus, Proteocephalus microscopicus, and Sciadocephalus megalodiscus in the intestines. Hysterothylacium sp. larvae (P = 86%) and P. microscopicus (P = 74%) were the most prevalent parasites. Anisakids were more prevalent and abundant in the dry season. A negative correlation between the abundances of Hysterothylacium sp. and P. microscopicus was observed, suggesting a competitive/antagonistic relationship between these parasites. Cichla piquiti represents a new host for four parasite species. These new records significantly increase the list of parasites of C. piquiti, contributing to the knowledge of the host-parasite relationship and the geographical distribution of these helminths. PMID:24473871

  17. [Variations of the infracommuity during the ontogeny of Chromis cyanea (Perciformes: Pomcentride) in the North coast of Havana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fernández Osorio, Ramón Alexis; Corrada Wong, Raúl Igor; Armenteros, Maickel

    2015-09-01

    The infracommunty or parasites or unromis cyanea (Pisces: Pomacentridae) was studied along the ontogenetic development in the North coast of Havana, Cuba. The objectives were: a- to prove that the core species appears before the strange and stochastic species and they are responsible for the structure in the infracommunity, b- to determine if there is a relationship among the ecological describers of the parasitic infracommunity with the total length. A total of 278 specimens of C. cyanea were captured during the dry season (April) of 2010. The body size range was from 1.5 to 11.5 cm including juvenile and adults. We collected 2 861 parasite specimens belonging to 20 taxa: Crustacea (5), Nematoda (5), Trematoda (4), Cestoda (2), Monogenea (2), Turbellaria (1) and Ciliophora (1). The taxa Tetraphyllidea and Anilocra chromis constituted the core of the parasitic infracommunity. The sequence of appearance and persistence of these taxa during the ontogenetic development, supported the hypothesis of the core species. The changes in the infracommunity, from 6 cm body size, could be the result of an accumulative effect combined with changes of the diet that caused the ingestion of new parasite infective stages. We concluded that the ontogenetic development of C. cyanea constitutes an important variable in the formation of the parasitic infracommunity.

  18. Feeding ecology of the American freshwater goby Ctenogobius shufeldti (Gobiidae, Perciformes) in a sub-tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Contente, R F; Stefanoni, M F; Spach, H L

    2012-05-01

    The feeding ecology of the American freshwater goby Ctenogobius shufeldti in a low salinity salt-marsh habitat in the Paranaguá Bay estuarine complex (Brazil) was assessed through the gut analysis of 632 individuals. The effects of a set of abiotic factors (type of sediment, salinity, temperature and estuarine reach), season and body size on dietary composition were analysed. Seasonal and size-related changes in feeding strategy, feeding intensity and trophic level were assessed. The effects of gape and body size on prey size use were also analysed. The results showed that C. shufeldti is a typical omnivorous, generalized benthic predator of low trophic levels throughout the seasons and size classes, feeding on 56 dietary items; tanaids, chlorophyte algae, ostracods, gastropods, detritus and benthic diatoms made up the bulk of its diet. The tanaid Kalliapseudes schubarti was the main prey item in both numerical and volumetric terms. The gut fullness was persistently high across the seasons. As expected for a typical generalized, opportunistic omnivorous feeder: (1) seasonal and spatial-temporal variability of abiotic factors had a significant effect on diet structure, (2) season accounted for most of the dietary variation and (3) diet composition and the size of prey consumed did not vary across the size classes.

  19. Evaluation of cytochrome b mtDNA sequences in genetic diversity studies of Channa marulius (Channidae: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Habib, Maria; Lakra, W S; Mohindra, Vindhya; Khare, Praveen; Barman, A S; Singh, Akanksha; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Khan, Asif A

    2011-02-01

    Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b gene sequence of mtDNA for determining the genetic variation in wild populations of C. marulius. Genomic DNA extracted from C. marulius samples (n = 23) belonging to 3 distant rivers; Mahanadi, Teesta and Yamuna was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp Cytochrome b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes with haplotype diversity value of 0.763 and nucleotide diversity value of 0.0128. Single population specific haplotype was observed in Mahanadi and Yamuna samples and 3 haplotypes in Teesta samples. The analysis of data demonstrated the suitability of partial Cytochrome b sequence in determining the genetic diversity in C. marulius population.

  20. A Comprehensive Description and Evolutionary Analysis of 22 Grouper (Perciformes, Epinephelidae) Mitochondrial Genomes with Emphasis on Two Novel Genome Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes’ control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus Epinephelus, and Aethaloperca to genus Cephalopholis. PMID:23951357

  1. Description of a new weakfish, Cynoscion nortoni, from Ecuador with a note on the distribution of Umbrina bussingi (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Béarez, P

    2001-07-01

    A new sciaenid was found at a fish market on the Ecuadorian coast. Cynoscion nortoni, described from 11 specimens, is characterised by a relatively large eye, a long head and pectoral fin, a high dorsal fin-ray count and a dark, steel grey colour on its dorsum. The specimens were captured over the continental shelf with a long line at depths between 100 and 200 meters. Another deep water species, Umbrina bussingi, is recorded for the first time from southern Colombia. PMID:15260154

  2. Genetic structure of Scomber japonicus (Perciformes: Scombridae) along the coast of China revealed by complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuxia; Cheng, Qiqun; Rogers, Sean M

    2014-09-18

    Abstract The phylogeography history and contemporary agents of selection for many marine fisheries, characterized by widespread species distributions in the face of significant harvest, remains poorly understood. Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) are a widespread species in the Indo-Pacific and represent one of the top five commercially fished species in the world, yet their phylogeographic history remains unknown. We characterized the genetic diversity, structure and demographic history of S. japonicus throughout adjacent Chinese seas (from the Yellow Sea to the South China Sea). Using 220 individuals from 11 sites, we inferred 55 distinct haplotypes from complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Haplotype diversity ranged from 0.505 to 0.967 and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.00056 to 0.01042. Genetic differentiation (Fst) statistics suggested that the highest level of differentiation existed between the SanYa and SanSha localities (Fst = 0.86977), while the lowest levels of differentiation occurred between the DongGang and ShiDao localities (Fst ∼ 0). Kimura's genetic distances ranged from 0.001 to 0.011 within and from 0.001 to 0.018 between populations. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, Neighbor-joining and median-joining network analyses identified significant phylogeographic structure with two localities (SanYa, Hainan of the South China Sea and LianYunGang, Jiangsu of the East China Sea) explaining most of the genetic variation observed, while the remaining populations were poorly differentiated.

  3. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained

  4. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  5. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  6. Projecting Range Limits with Coupled Thermal Tolerance - Climate Change Models: An Example Based on Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. East Coast

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Kimball, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species. PMID:23284974

  7. B-cell activating CpG ODN 1668 enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) exposed to Vibrio parahaemolitycus.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Reyna, Tomás; Angulo, Carlos; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Velázquez-Lizárraga, Esteban; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2016-09-01

    B-class CpG ODN 1668 is known to possess clear immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential ability of CpG ODN 1668 to enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Four different treatments were evaluated in Pacific red snapper: (1) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668, (2) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668 and V. parahaemolyticus, (3) exposure only to V. parahaemolyticus and (4) PBS. Samples were taken at 24, 72, 168 and 240 h of stimulation/infection. The results show that intraperitoneal injection of CpG-ODN 1668 enhanced the anti-protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in serum. CpG ODN 1668 upregulated TLR9 and IgM gene expression in head-kidney, intestine and skin, with higher expression in head-kidney. A higher correlation was observed between TLR9 and IgM in head-kidney and intestine. Finally, no histopathological damages were observed in fish stimulated with CpG ODN 1668. In contrast, melanomacrophages-like structures were present in higher numbers in infected fish. Taken together, these results indicate that CpG ODN 1668 activates innate immune response and upregulate the TLR9 and IgM-mediated immune response. These results may be exploited for the control of Vibriosis in farmed Pacific red snapper.

  8. Projecting range limits with coupled thermal tolerance - climate change models: an example based on gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. east coast.

    PubMed

    Hare, Jonathan A; Wuenschel, Mark J; Kimball, Matthew E

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species.

  9. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-07-02

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  10. A new species of Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) from the channel bull blenny Cottoperca gobio (Günther) (Perciformes: Bovichtidae) on the Patagonian shelf off Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A; Arredondo, Nathalia J; Kuchta, Roman; Incorvaia, Inés S

    2015-03-01

    Bothriocephalus timii n. sp. is the first tapeworm species reported from a bovichtid fish. The new species was commonly found (prevalence 85%) in the intestine of Cottoperca gobio (Günther) collected on the Patagonian shelf off Argentina. It is characterised by a strobila with segments and proglottides usually longer than wide, having posterolateral wing-like expansions with a medial notch on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces; a scolex with an apical disk; elongate bothria opening posteriorly, with laterally and longitudinally extended convex lappets; testes 42-185 in number, in one layer, arranged in two lateral continuous bands along the strobila; an elongate cirrus-sac, situated obliquely, with the proximal part curved anteriolaterally; and an ovary which is usually butterfly-shaped. The new species is morphologically similar to B. bengalensis Devi, 1975 from Carangoides plagiotaeniata Bleeker, B. branchiostegi Yamaguti, 1952 from Branchiostegus japonicus Houttuyn, B. carangis Yamaguti, 1968 from C. ferdau Forsskål and B. gadellus Blend & Dronen, 2003 from Gadella imberbis (Vaillant) based on the presence of posterolateral wing-like expansions with a medial notch on dorsal and ventral surfaces of segments and proglottides along the strobila. Bothriocephalus timii n. sp. differs from B. bengalensis, B. branchiostegi and B. carangis in the absence of a vaginal sphincter and from B. gadellus in the number of testes and the size of scolex. Unpublished molecular data suggest that B. timii is most closely related to B. australis Kuchta, Scholz & Justine, 2009 from Platycephalus spp. and B. scorpii (Müller, 1776) from Myoxocephalus scorpius (Linnaeus). The genus Indobothrium Sedova & Gulyaev, 2009 is herein considered a junior synonym of Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808.

  11. Accumulation of cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor gene in the ovary of a pregnant viviparous fish, Neoditrema ransonnetii (Perciformes, Embiotocidae).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazuki; Saito, Erina; Iwasaki, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Nozawa, Aoi; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), a member of the group of type III protein tyrosine kinase receptors, is expressed primarily by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. In order to describe the distribution of macrophages at the maternal-fetal interface in Neoditrema ransonnetii, a viviparous fish species, M-CSFR cDNA was sequenced. Two sequences were obtained: NrM-CSFR1 (4381 bp, encoding 980 amino acids), and NrM-CSFR2 (3573 bp, encoding 1016 amino acids). Both the genes were expressed in the ovary of pregnant females. In situ hybridization revealed that a number of cells that were positive for NrM-CSFR1 and/or NrM-CSFR2 populated the ovigerous lamellae of the ovary during pregnancy. Following parturition, M-CSFR-positive cells disappeared from the subepithelial region of ovigerous lamellae, and were localized in perivascular tissues. These results suggest the role of M-CSFR-positive cells, which appear to be macrophages, in N. ransonnetii during pregnancy.

  12. Site fidelity, size, and morphology may differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish, Bathygobius cocosensis (Perciformes-Gobiidae), in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Malard, Lucie A.; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal zone is a transitional environment that undergoes daily environmental fluctuations as tides rise and fall. Relatively few fish species are adapted to endure the physiological pressures of this environment. This study focused on Bathygobius cocosensis (Gobiidae), a common intertidal fish in New South Wales, Australia. We investigated whether shore height impacted site fidelity, survival probability, fish size, and morphological traits with respect to tidal height. Mark-recapture methods were used over a five month period to determine if individuals in high shore pools had greater site fidelity; fish in high tide pools were more than twice as likely to be recaptured in their original pool than fish from low tide pools. High pool individuals were, on average, smaller with larger eyes and longer snouts relative to their size as compared to low pool individuals. We discuss several mechanisms that could cause the observed pattern in morphological variation. Ultimately, this study suggests that within species behaviour and morphology differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish. PMID:27547568

  13. Description of a new species of Priolepis (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, a new record of Priolepis compita, and a distributional range extension of Trimma fishelsoni.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-08-11

    A new species of Reefgoby, Priolepis melanops, is described from Al Lith, central Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea, on the basis of a single adult specimen. It is a distinctive species, and can distinguish from its congeners by the following characters: dorsal-fin rays VI + I,9, no elongate spines in first dorsal fin; anal-fin rays I,8; pectoral-fin rays 14-15, all unbranched; longitudinal scale series 25; no scales on the head or predorsal midline, sides of the nape scaled; a developed transverse pattern of the sensory papillae below the eye; fifth pelvic-fin ray unbranched, its length 47% length of fourth ray; body and most of head brownish orange, densely covered with melanophores; snout, lips, chin and chest black; iris black; fins translucent with narrow black stripe along base of each dorsal fin. Placement of the new species in Priolepis is based on the presence of characteristics currently associated with Priolepis rather than with Trimma. An individual of Priolepis compita Winterbottom was photographed in very shallow water on a reef flat at Sharm el Sheikh, at the entrance of the Gulf of Aqaba, and represents a new record for the Red Sea. The endemic Red Sea species Trimma filamentosus Winterbottom and T. fishelsoni Goren, previously know as far south as Jeddah, were collected at Al Lith, central Saudi Arabia, and represents the southernmost record for both species. Variation of P. compita and T. fishelsoni is noted and the cephalic sensory system of the latter is described for the first time. In addition, we report that records of Trimma tevegae Cohen & Davis from the Red Sea are based on misidentification. A key to distinguish the species of Priolepis and Trimma known from the Red Sea is provided.

  14. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region.

  15. Functional Categorization of Transcriptome in the Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene and Phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Lemgruber, Renato de Souza Pinto; Marshall, Nislanha Ana dos Anjos; Ghelfi, Andrea; Fagundes, Daniel Barros; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the transcriptome alterations, through cDNA libraries, associated with the combined effects of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (0.5 µg/L) and phenanthrene (50 µg/L), present in crude oil, on specimens of Symphysodon aequifasciatus (discus fish) after 48 h of exposure. The cDNA libraries were constructed according to the SOLiD™ SAGE™ protocol for sequencing in the SOLiD v.3 Plus sequencer. The results were analyzed by bioinformatics and differentially expressed genes were categorized using the gene ontology program. The functional categories (terms) found in the gene ontology and the gene network generated using STRING software were used to predict the adverse effects of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in the liver. In the present study, 27,127 genes (compared to Danio rerio database) were identified. Considering only those genes with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 and greater than or equal to two-fold change in expression across libraries, we found 804 genes, 438 down-regulated (54%) and 366 up-regulated (46%), in the experimental group compared to the control. Out of this total, 327 genes were successfully categorized, 174 down-regulated and 153 up-regulated, using gene ontology. Using String, the gene network was composed by 199 nodes, 124 of them resulting in 274 interactions. The results showed that even an acute exposure of 48 h caused metabolic change in response to environmental contaminants, resulting in changes of cell integrity, in oxidation-reduction processes, in the immune response and disturbances of intracellular signaling of discus fish. Also the gene network has showed no central interplay cluster, exhibiting instead interconnected clusters interactions and connected sub-networks. These findings highlight that even an acute sublethal exposure of PAHs can cause metabolism changes that may affect survival of discus. Our findings using SOLiD coupled with SAGE-method resulted in a powerful and reliable means for gene expression analysis in discus, a non-model Amazonian fish. PMID:24312524

  16. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  17. N-Methyltaurine N-acyl amidated bile acids and deoxycholic acid in the bile of angelfish (Pomacanthidae): a novel bile acid profile in Perciform fish.

    PubMed

    Satoh Née Okihara, Rika; Saito, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroaki; Ohsaki, Ayumi; Iida, Takashi; Asahina, Kiyoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R

    2014-02-01

    Two novel N-acyl amidated bile acids, N-methyltaurine conjugated cholic acid and N-methyltaurine conjugated deoxycholic acid, were found to be major biliary bile acids in two species of angelfish the regal (Pygoplites diacanthus) and the blue-girdled (Pomacanthus navarchus) angelfish. The identification was based on their having MS and NMR spectra identical to those of synthetic standards. A survey of biliary bile acids of 10 additional species of angelfish found 7 with N-methyltaurine conjugation. In all 12 species, conjugated deoxycholic acid (known to be formed by bacterial 7-dehydroxylation of cholic acid) was a major bile acid. In all previous studies of biliary bile acids in fish, deoxycholic acid has been present in only trace proportions. In addition, bile acid conjugation with N-methyltaurine has not been detected previously in any known vertebrate. N-methyltaurine conjugated bile acids are resistant to bacterial deconjugation and dehydroxylation, and such resistance to bacterial enzymes should aid in the maintenance of high concentrations of bile acids during lipid digestion. Our findings suggest that these species of angelfish have a novel microbiome in their intestine containing anaerobic bacteria, and describe the presence of N-methyltaurine conjugated bile acids that are resistant to bacterial attack.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae): absence of the typical conserved motif in the origin of the light-strand replication.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Shi, Ge; Xu, Tianjun; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Yueyan; Wang, Rixin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus was determined first. The genome was 16,500 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light-strand replication); the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 25.5%, C 30.7%, A 27.5%, and G 16.3%, with a slight AT bias of 53%. Within the control region, the discrete and conserved sequence blocks were identified. Motif 5'-ACCGG-3' rather than 5'-GCCGG-3' was detected in the origin of light-strand replication (O(L)) of red drum, which is rare in the mitogenomes of Sciaenidae species. These results would play an important role in elucidating sequence-function relationships of the O(L). PMID:22409755

  19. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  20. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  1. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships.

  2. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  3. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. PMID:26314044

  4. Review of the Acanthopagrus latus complex (Perciformes: Sparidae) with descriptions of three new species from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Y

    2013-07-01

    Acanthopagrus latus, long considered a single valid Indo-West Pacific Ocean species, characterized by having yellow pelvic, anal and caudal fins, is reviewed and separated into A. latus (east Asian shelf) and Acanthopagrus longispinnis (Bengal Bay), and three new species: Acanthopagrus morrisoni sp. nov. (north-western Australia), Acanthopagrus arabicus sp. nov. [Middle East (except for the Red Sea) to coasts of Iran and Pakistan, and western Indian coast] and Acanthopagrus sheim sp. nov. (The Gulf). Although A. latus as redefined considerably varies in morphology and colouration, it can be recognized as a discrete east Asian endemic, with the following nominal species being junior synonyms: Chrysophrys auripes, Chrysophrys xanthopoda, Chrysophrys rubroptera and Sparus chrysopterus. Chrysophrys novaecaledoniae, known only from the holotype (type locality: Nouméa, New Caledonia), is a questionable junior synonym of A. latus, the lack of subsequent collections suggesting that the type locality is erroneous. Acanthopagrus longispinnis is differentiated from the other species in the complex by consistently having 12 dorsal-fin spines and a much larger second anal-fin spine, 21-26% (mean 23%) of standard length (LS ) (v. 14-24%, mean 18-21% in the other four species). Acanthopagrus morrisoni sp. nov. has the entire caudal fin yellow with a wide black posterior margin (persisting in preserved specimens) and consistently 3 ½ scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line. Acanthopagrus sheim sp. nov. has the pelvic, anal and lower caudal fins vivid yellow, with two (rarely three) small black blotches on the lower inter-radial membranes between the spinous and soft dorsal-fin rays. Acanthopagrus arabicus sp. nov. consistently has 4 ½ scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line, whereas A. latus always has black streaks proximally on the inter-radial membranes between the yellow anal-fin rays. A neotype and lectotye, respectively, are designated for A. latus and A. longispinnis. The p-distance (net nucleotide substitutions per site) of partial mitochondrial 16s ribosomal RNA genes (538 bp) among the above species (except A. longispinnis) and three other congeners (Acanthopagrus berda, Acanthopagrus pacificus and Acanthopagrus bifasciatus) strongly indicates that each is a distinct species. A key is provided for the 20 species of Acanthopagrus currently known from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. PMID:23808693

  5. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E.; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25–28 gill rakers, and 37–38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  6. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus.

  7. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity. PMID:21180920

  8. Evaluation of Melanotaenia duboulayi (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae), Hypseleotris galli (Perciformes: Eleotridae), and larvicide VectoLex WG (Bacillus sphaericus) for integrated control of Culex annulirostris.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Timothy P; Brown, Michael D; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2006-09-01

    Australian freshwater fish species Melanotaenia duboulayi and Hypseleotris galii were selected for a small plot field evaluation of an integrated pest management strategy using native fish and VectoLex WG (Bacillus sphaericus) for the control of Culex annulirostris Skuse, the principal freshwater vector of arbovirus Ross River virus in Australia. When tested alone, the level of control afforded by M. duboulayi and H. galii was highly dependent on the prerelease density of mosquito larvae; and even when stocking rates as high as 10 g per pond (>30 kg/ha) were used, larval abundance was too high to attain adequate control from fish alone. In contrast, treatment with VectoLex WG at 500 g/ha resulted in 100% mortality of Cx. annulirostris immatures, but no residual activity was evident. The delayed reduction of Cx. annulirostris immatures in ponds stocked with fish alone, and the recolonization by Cx. annulirostris in ponds after treatment with B. sphaericus, did not occur when both treatments were combined.

  9. Investigation into the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the Marajó Archipelago waters using Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado da; Pessoa, Carla Mariana Ferreira; Rodrigues, Claudia Antonia Campos; Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Costa, Edmar Tavares da; Guimarães, Adriana Costa; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining water quality within tolerable limits is a basic need of the riverside communities in the Amazon. Using endemic aquatic organisms as biological models is useful for monitoring the environment. In this study, potential cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in Plagioscion squamosissimus (commonly known as silver croaker) from the Marajó Archipelago were evaluated using a flow cytometry assay and a survey of micronuclei (MN) frequency as well as other nuclear abnormalities (NA). P. squamosissimus specimens were collected at four locations in the Marajó Archipelago. Blood samples from these fish were used in the flow cytometry assay and piscine micronucleus test, and the resulting data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). We did not observe a difference in the erythrocyte cell cycle distribution among the samples (P=0.9992), which suggests the absence of cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The piscine micronucleus test exhibited differences in the samples from São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV), and those from Anajás produced the highest mutagenicity indices. The MN frequencies were low for all groups, but the groups exhibited significantly different frequencies (P=0.0033). Reniform nuclei, nuclei with extensions, and lobed nuclei were combined and considered NA. The frequency differences for these NA were significant among sampling sites (P <0.0001). This report is the first to use flow cytometry in fish to evaluate cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The micronucleus test results indicate the presence of pollutants that can change the genetic material of the fish studied. We also demonstrate that the Amazonian fish P. squamosissimus is important not only as a comestible species but also as an adequate model for biomonitoring in aquatic environments. PMID:27290641

  10. Description of a new species of Priolepis (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, a new record of Priolepis compita, and a distributional range extension of Trimma fishelsoni.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Reefgoby, Priolepis melanops, is described from Al Lith, central Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea, on the basis of a single adult specimen. It is a distinctive species, and can distinguish from its congeners by the following characters: dorsal-fin rays VI + I,9, no elongate spines in first dorsal fin; anal-fin rays I,8; pectoral-fin rays 14-15, all unbranched; longitudinal scale series 25; no scales on the head or predorsal midline, sides of the nape scaled; a developed transverse pattern of the sensory papillae below the eye; fifth pelvic-fin ray unbranched, its length 47% length of fourth ray; body and most of head brownish orange, densely covered with melanophores; snout, lips, chin and chest black; iris black; fins translucent with narrow black stripe along base of each dorsal fin. Placement of the new species in Priolepis is based on the presence of characteristics currently associated with Priolepis rather than with Trimma. An individual of Priolepis compita Winterbottom was photographed in very shallow water on a reef flat at Sharm el Sheikh, at the entrance of the Gulf of Aqaba, and represents a new record for the Red Sea. The endemic Red Sea species Trimma filamentosus Winterbottom and T. fishelsoni Goren, previously know as far south as Jeddah, were collected at Al Lith, central Saudi Arabia, and represents the southernmost record for both species. Variation of P. compita and T. fishelsoni is noted and the cephalic sensory system of the latter is described for the first time. In addition, we report that records of Trimma tevegae Cohen & Davis from the Red Sea are based on misidentification. A key to distinguish the species of Priolepis and Trimma known from the Red Sea is provided. PMID:27515653

  11. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity.

  12. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurdalila, A’wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  13. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam.

  14. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases. PMID:27386247

  15. Transcriptome of the Deep-Sea Black Scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo (Perciformes: Trichiuridae): Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns and Candidate Genes Associated to Depth Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Stefanni, Sergio; Bettencourt, Raul; Pinheiro, Miguel; Moro, Gianluca De; Bongiorni, Lucia; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes. PMID:25309900

  16. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-01-01

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.   PMID:25284671

  17. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  18. Life-history- and ecosystem-driven variation in composition and residence pattern of seabream species (Perciformes: Sparidae) in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Species composition and length-frequency distributions of six sparid fish species were investigated in two central Mediterranean coastal lagoons off the western coast of Italy: Fogliano and Caprolace. In the former, the sparid fauna was dominated by the gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata), whereas in Caprolace, species composition was more homogeneous across all six species. Size structure varied considerably among species: S. aurata, Diplodus puntazzo and Diplodus vulgaris had a single-cohort structure in both lagoons, whereas in Diplodus annularis and Diplodus sargus at least two cohorts were identified. In Lithognathus mormyrus inter-lagoon variation was detected, with a single-cohort structure in Fogliano and a two-cohort structure in Caprolace. While inter-specific differences can be explained by variation in life-history strategies among species, intra-specific variation in L. mormyrus is likely to be determined by the known differences between the two habitats: Fogliano being a more confined lagoon, and Caprolace more extensively influenced by the sea. PMID:16266729

  19. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  20. Unusual dispersion of histone repeats on the whole chromosomal complement and their colocalization with ribosomal genes in Rachycentron canadum (Rachycentridae, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Costa, Gideão W W F; Cioffi, Marcelo B; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Molina, Wagner F

    2014-01-01

    Rachycentron canadum, the only representative of the family Rachycentridae, has been the focus of biotechnological interest due to its significant potential in marine fish farming. The chromosome set of this species has been widely investigated with respect to the location of genes and multigene families. A FISH analysis was performed using 4 multigene families as probes, represented by 5S and 18S ribosomal genes and histones H2B-H2A and H3. Earlier data suggested that differential replication of heterochromatin could be partially associated with functional genes. Indeed, our results showed that the DNA contained in heterochromatic regions of R. canadum contains 5S and 18S ribosomal genes as well as the gene sequences of histones H2B-H2A and H3, which were colocalized. The distribution of H3 sequences in all heterochromatic regions, except in 13q, could indicate an important evolutionary role for this class of repetitive sequences. Besides, the presence of chromosome regions bearing multifunctional repetitive sequences formed by H2B-H2A/H3/18S rDNA and H2B-H2A/H3/5S rDNA clusters was demonstrated for the first time in fishes. The implications of differential histone gene extension and its functionality in the karyotype of R. canadum remain unknown. PMID:25341625

  1. First record of the Indo-Pacific areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Shevy B S; Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2016-01-25

    The number of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (Galil et al. 2014). In 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015); Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Fricke et al. 2015); Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (Stern et al. 2015); Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Capapé et al. 2015); and Cryptocentrus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell, 1830) (Rothman & Goren 2015). Among the ca. 100 alien fish species reported from the Mediterranean to date (Galil & Goren 2014), five Indo-Pacific species belong to the genus Epinephelus Bloch, 1793: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775), Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1804) Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (Golani et al. 2013a) and Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015). Additional alien Epinephelus species reported from the Mediterranean are excluded for various reasons (Golani et al. 2013b). Here we report the finding of a sixth Indo-Pacific species of this genus along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

  2. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657

  3. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-08-26

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.  

  4. [Length, body weight and sex of the golden Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae), of the littoral of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Madrid, J V; Beltrán-Pimienta, R

    2001-01-01

    Dolphin fish population data were recorded from landings in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja Califonia Sur, Mexico, in 1997. Of 3,211 organisms, only 2,812 produced complete biometric data. The maximal length and weight were 192 cm and 30 kg. The three sampling sites and the climatic periods also were associated with different size (P < 0.05). The covariate analysis of weight and length relationships indicated significative differences (P < 0.05) for total data and by sex. Condition factor was higher throughout the study period in Mazatlán, and the variation was higher, in the spring. The sexual ratio was in Mazatlán constant, while there were more males in Nayarit in the fall and the spring and in Los Cabos in the spring. There may be population differences, between the central mexican Pacific Coast and the Peninsula of Baja data. PMID:12189824

  5. Application of otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination and species identification of five goby species (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in the northern Chinese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Cao, Liang; Liu, Jinhu; Zhao, Bo; Shan, Xiujuan; Dou, Shuozeng

    2014-09-01

    We tested the use of otolith shape analysis to discriminate between species and stocks of five goby species ( Ctenotrypauchen chinensis, Odontamblyopus lacepedii, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, and Acanthogobius hasta) found in northern Chinese coastal waters. The five species were well differentiated with high overall classification success using shape indices (83.7%), elliptic Fourier coefficients (98.6%), or the combination of both methods (94.9%). However, shape analysis alone was only moderately successful at discriminating among the four stocks (Liaodong Bay, LD; Bohai Bay, BH; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary HRE, and Jiaozhou Bay, JZ stocks) of A. hasta (50%-54%) and C. stigmatias (65.7%-75.8%). For these two species, shape analysis was moderately successful at discriminating the HRE or JZ stocks from other stocks, but failed to effectively identify the LD and BH stocks. A large number of otoliths were misclassified between the HRE and JZ stocks, which are geographically well separated. The classification success for stock discrimination was higher using elliptic Fourier coefficients alone (70.2%) or in combination with shape indices (75.8%) than using only shape indices (65.7%) in C. stigmatias whereas there was little difference among the three methods for A. hasta. Our results supported the common belief that otolith shape analysis is generally more effective for interspecific identification than intraspecific discrimination. Moreover, compared with shape indices analysis, Fourier analysis improves classification success during inter- and intra-species discrimination by otolith shape analysis, although this did not necessarily always occur in all fish species.

  6. [Length, body weight and sex of the golden Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae), of the littoral of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Madrid, J V; Beltrán-Pimienta, R

    2001-01-01

    Dolphin fish population data were recorded from landings in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja Califonia Sur, Mexico, in 1997. Of 3,211 organisms, only 2,812 produced complete biometric data. The maximal length and weight were 192 cm and 30 kg. The three sampling sites and the climatic periods also were associated with different size (P < 0.05). The covariate analysis of weight and length relationships indicated significative differences (P < 0.05) for total data and by sex. Condition factor was higher throughout the study period in Mazatlán, and the variation was higher, in the spring. The sexual ratio was in Mazatlán constant, while there were more males in Nayarit in the fall and the spring and in Los Cabos in the spring. There may be population differences, between the central mexican Pacific Coast and the Peninsula of Baja data.

  7. A redescription of Sundanonchus behuri (Agrawal & Singh, 1982) n. comb. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridea: Sundanonchidae) from the gills of the freshwater Gangetic leaffish, Nandus nandus (Perciformes: Nandidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amit; Agrawal, Nirupama; Pandey, Keshava C

    2009-03-01

    Urocleidus behuri [Agrawal N., Singh H.S., On a known and three unknown monogenetic Urocleidus Mueller, 1934. Pranikee 1982; 3: 22-34], described from Nandus nandus in India, is reassigned to Sundanonchus Lim & Furtado [ Lim L.H., Furtado J.I., Sundanonchus g.n. (Monogenea, Tetraonchoididae) from two Malaysian freshwater fishes. Fol Parasitol 1985; 32: 11-19]. Sundanonchus triradicatus Lim & Furtado [Lim L.H., Furtado J.I., Sundanonchus g.n. (Monogenea, Tetraonchoididae) from two Malaysian freshwater fishes. Fol Parasitol 1985; 32: 11-19] is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of U. behuri and a new nomenclatural combination, Sundanonchus behuri is proposed. This article provides a redescription of this new combination, S. behuri [ Agrawal N., Singh H.S., On a known and three unknown monogenetic Urocleidus Mueller, 1934. Pranikee 1982; 3: 22-34], including the previously undescribed egg morphology, based on newly collected specimens from N. nandus in India-a new geographical record.

  8. Site fidelity, size, and morphology may differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish, Bathygobius cocosensis (Perciformes-Gobiidae), in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Malard, Lucie A; McGuigan, Katrina; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal zone is a transitional environment that undergoes daily environmental fluctuations as tides rise and fall. Relatively few fish species are adapted to endure the physiological pressures of this environment. This study focused on Bathygobius cocosensis (Gobiidae), a common intertidal fish in New South Wales, Australia. We investigated whether shore height impacted site fidelity, survival probability, fish size, and morphological traits with respect to tidal height. Mark-recapture methods were used over a five month period to determine if individuals in high shore pools had greater site fidelity; fish in high tide pools were more than twice as likely to be recaptured in their original pool than fish from low tide pools. High pool individuals were, on average, smaller with larger eyes and longer snouts relative to their size as compared to low pool individuals. We discuss several mechanisms that could cause the observed pattern in morphological variation. Ultimately, this study suggests that within species behaviour and morphology differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish. PMID:27547568

  9. The metazoan parasite communities of the Argentinean sandperch Pseudopercis semifasciata (Pisces: Perciformes) and their use to elucidate the stock structure of the host.

    PubMed

    Timi, J T; Lanfranchi, A L

    2009-09-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags allowed the identification of 3 stocks of Argentinean sandperch, Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier), in the Argentine Sea. A total of 100 specimens caught in 3 zones: Villa Gesell (37 degrees 15'S, 57 degrees 23'W; n=20), Miramar (38 degrees 03'S, 57 degrees 30'W-38 degrees 44'S, 58 degrees 44'W; n=30) and Península Valdes (42 degrees 00'-42 degrees 45'S; n=50), were examined and 28 parasite species were found, 15 of them being new host records. Both univariate and multivariate analyses identified discrete stocks in each zone. The observed differences were not related to the host size or sex. Each locality was characterized by its own indicator species. Villa Gesell was typified by unidentified cestode plerocercoids, Corynosoma cetaceum and Hysterothylacium sp., Miramar by Heterosentis sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. and Península Valdes by A. simplex s.l. Fishes from both northern localities shared gnathiid pranizae, Corynosoma australe and Grillotia sp. as indicators, whereas Miramar and Península Valdes shared only Trifur tortuosus. The most distant localities showed no indicator species in common. Discriminant analyses of parasite assemblages agreed with populational comparisons in identifying the same set of biological tags, whereas some differences in the identity of indicator species were obtained by similarity analysis. However, the 3 approaches were congruent in identifying Grillotia sp., C. australe and C. cetaceum as indicators of northern localities, and A. simplex s.l. as related to Patagonian waters. Differences among zones could be enhanced by the sedentary habits, limited dispersal and high site fidelity of P. semifasciata, and their spawning in rocky outcrops, which are isolated environments. PMID:19627631

  10. Investigation into the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the Marajó Archipelago waters using Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado da; Pessoa, Carla Mariana Ferreira; Rodrigues, Claudia Antonia Campos; Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Costa, Edmar Tavares da; Guimarães, Adriana Costa; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining water quality within tolerable limits is a basic need of the riverside communities in the Amazon. Using endemic aquatic organisms as biological models is useful for monitoring the environment. In this study, potential cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in Plagioscion squamosissimus (commonly known as silver croaker) from the Marajó Archipelago were evaluated using a flow cytometry assay and a survey of micronuclei (MN) frequency as well as other nuclear abnormalities (NA). P. squamosissimus specimens were collected at four locations in the Marajó Archipelago. Blood samples from these fish were used in the flow cytometry assay and piscine micronucleus test, and the resulting data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). We did not observe a difference in the erythrocyte cell cycle distribution among the samples (P=0.9992), which suggests the absence of cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The piscine micronucleus test exhibited differences in the samples from São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV), and those from Anajás produced the highest mutagenicity indices. The MN frequencies were low for all groups, but the groups exhibited significantly different frequencies (P=0.0033). Reniform nuclei, nuclei with extensions, and lobed nuclei were combined and considered NA. The frequency differences for these NA were significant among sampling sites (P <0.0001). This report is the first to use flow cytometry in fish to evaluate cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The micronucleus test results indicate the presence of pollutants that can change the genetic material of the fish studied. We also demonstrate that the Amazonian fish P. squamosissimus is important not only as a comestible species but also as an adequate model for biomonitoring in aquatic environments.

  11. Description of three new species of the genus Herichthys (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from eastern Mexico, with redescription of H. labridens, H. steindachneri, and H. pantostictus.

    PubMed

    De La Maza-Benignos, Mauricio; Lozano-Vilano, Ma De Lourdes

    2013-11-06

    Three new species of the genus Herichthys are described on the basis of chromatic, morphometric, and meristic characters. Herichthys pratinus sp. nov. from the Rio Salto in San Luis Potosi is characterized by a steep and shallow predorsal profile, a concavity before the eye, and adult males with a prominent forehead forming a nuchal hump, DXV-XVI, 10-11; and AV, 8-9. Herichthys pame sp. nov. from the Rio Tamasopo in San Luis Potosi is characterized by a gradual and acute predorsal contour, lack of concavity before the eye, and mouth angled slightly downward. Herichthys. molango sp. nov. from Laguna Azteca, Hidalgo is distinguished by small eyes and a slender (slightly broader than long), well-spaced, and indented lower pharyngeal plate with 2 rows of 8-9 medium-sized, lightly pigmented molars flanking the midline. We also provide redescriptions for three species of Herichthys, H. pantostictus, H. labridens, and H. steindachneri and a review of H. bartoni.

  12. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  13. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  14. First record of the Indo-Pacific areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Shevy B S; Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The number of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (Galil et al. 2014). In 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015); Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Fricke et al. 2015); Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (Stern et al. 2015); Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Capapé et al. 2015); and Cryptocentrus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell, 1830) (Rothman & Goren 2015). Among the ca. 100 alien fish species reported from the Mediterranean to date (Galil & Goren 2014), five Indo-Pacific species belong to the genus Epinephelus Bloch, 1793: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775), Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1804) Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (Golani et al. 2013a) and Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015). Additional alien Epinephelus species reported from the Mediterranean are excluded for various reasons (Golani et al. 2013b). Here we report the finding of a sixth Indo-Pacific species of this genus along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. PMID:27395890

  15. Diplectanids infesting the gills of the barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Perciformes: Centropomidae), with the proposal of Laticola n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae).

    PubMed

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun; Jianying, Zhang; Suhua, Shi; Agrawal, N

    2006-02-01

    Four species of the Monogenoidea, Laticola lingaoensis n. sp., L. latesi (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. [previously Pseudorhabdosynochus latesi (Tripathi, 1957) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986], L. paralatesi (Nagibina, 1976) n. comb. [previously Diplectanum paralatesi Nagibina, 1976] and Diplectanum penangi Liang & Leong, 1991, are reported from the gills of Lates calcarifer (Centropomidae) from the South China Sea (new geographical records for L. latesi and D. penangi). Collections from off Bathurst Island, Northern Territory, Australia, represent a new geographic record for L. paralatesi; Chilka Lake, Orissa, India, is established as the type-locality for L. latesi. Laticola n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for species with a spoon-shaped copulatory organ with two to four concentric incomplete ridges in the base. Laticola lingaoensis, the type-species of Laticola, is described, and L. latesi and L. paralatesi are redescribed based on specimens from the South China Sea. Pseudorhabdosynochus monosquamodiscusi Balasuriya & Leong, 1995 and Pseudorhabdosynochus yangjiangenesis Wu & Li, 2005 are considered junior subjective synonyms of L. latesi and L. paralatesi, respectively.

  16. Polylabris lingaoensis sp. n. and Polylabris cf. mamaevi Ogawa et Egusa, 1980 (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from perciform fishes in the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Jun, Pan

    2007-03-01

    Polylabris lingaoensis sp. n. is described from the gills of the bald glassy, Ambassis gymnocephalus (Chandidae), from the Gulf of Tonkin (South China Sea), near Lingao, Hainan Province, China. The new species is characterized by a midventral vaginal pore, comparatively few (5-7) testes, and 2 parallel rows each comprised of 30-43 microcotylid clamps in the haptor. Polylabris lingaoensis is the only member of the genus known to parasitize a chandid host. Polylabris cf. mamaevi is described from the gills of the mottled spinefoot, Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae), from the South China Sea, which represents new host and locality records for the helminth. The gill parasites from S. fuscescens are tentatively assigned to P. mamaevi pending new collections and restudy of microcotylid species from siganid fishes.

  17. Rhabdosynochus Spp. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) infecting the gill lamellae of snooks, Centropomus spp. (Perciformes: Centropomidae), in Florida, and redescription of the type species, R. rhabdosynochus.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Fajer-Avila, Emma J; Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-10-01

    Examination of the gill lamellae of 3 species of Centropomus spp. (Centropomidae) from 9 localities around the southern coast of Florida revealed 3 species of Rhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae). The common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, was infected with Rhabdosynochus rhabdosynochus (30 of 37 infected; prevalence 81%), Rhabdosynochus hargisi (9 of 37; 24%), and Rhabdosynochus hudsoni (20 of 37; 46%); the fat snook, Centropomus parallelus, with R. rhabdosynochus (12 of 22; 55%) and R. hudsoni (8 of 22; 36%) (new host records for both); and the tarpon snook, Centropomus pectinatus, with R. hudsoni (3 of 4; 75%) (new host record). Snooks infected with R. rhabdosynochus were collected only from tidal waters of salinity ≤10.4 ppt, where the parasite dominated the monogenoidean community. Rhabdosynochus hargisi and R. hudsoni showed greater salinity tolerance; the former dominated where salinity was ≥28.8 ppt. Thus, salinity appears to be a determinate factor in partitioning the monogenoidean community, while water depth and temperature and host population (as defined by collection locality) did not appear to affect occurrence of Rhabdosynochus spp. on snooks in Florida. With the exception of Tampa Bay for R. hargisi , each locality represented a new geographic record for the respective diplectanid. The type species, R. rhabdosynochus, is redescribed based on specimens collected from its type host, C. undecimalis. PMID:20496964

  18. REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF YELLOW PERCH (PERCA FLAVESCENS): ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDOCRINOLOGICAL CUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of reproductive processes in yellow perch is fundamental for intensive culture of this commercially important, freshwater, perciform fish. This paper describes the annual reproductive cycle of female and male perch. It...

  19. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown. PMID:23327466

  20. Description of Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) and redescription of P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Serranidae) in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bijian; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-03-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. is reported and described from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea off the town of Nan'ao, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. P. justinei n. sp. is characterised by the presence of a male copulatory organ (MCO) composed of a moderately quadriloculate organ, a short cone and a long, variable internal tube, and a sclerotised vagina comprising anterior 'trumpet' with a characteristic sclerotised ring, slightly medially curved canal, heavily sclerotised principal chamber and star-shaped lateral structure with accessory chambers. It is differentiated from the most similar species, P. caledonicus Justine, 2005, by the absence of a thinly sclerotised posterior tube of the MCO and by the size and morphology of the sclerotised vagina. P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) is redescribed based on specimens collected from the same species of host and locality as P. justinei n. sp. In comparison with the original description by Young [Young, P. C. (1969). Journal of Helminthology, 43, 223-254] and the redescription by Justine [Justine, J.-L. (2005a). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 1-37; (2005b). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 39-45] based on old museum material, the new specimens of P. vagampullum clearly showed the internal anatomy of the terminal genitalia, especially the sclerotised vagina, consisting of a distal, cylindrical canal with an anterior 'trumpet' continuing as an unsclerotised, curved, bulb-shaped vaginal pore, a conical principal chamber and a star-shaped lateral structure with an accessory chambers leading to the seminal receptacle via a fine, unsclerotised duct.

  1. The influence of cage farming on infection of the corvine fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) with metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from the Chavantes reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, I P; Franceschini, L; Zica, É O P; Carvalho, E D; Silva, R J

    2014-09-01

    The development of cage fish farms has been associated with an increase in parasitic diseases. Organic matter resulting from feed waste and faeces attracts animals such as birds and invertebrates that can act as hosts for parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cage farming on Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae infections of Plagioscion squamosissimus collected close to a cage farm in the Chavantes reservoir (Paranapanema River). Thirty-seven fish were collected in an area close to cages (CF), and 28 in an area not influenced by cages (CT). All specimens were weighed, measured and the eyes removed for morphological analyses of metacercariae. The prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and condition factor were calculated. The prevalence (CF = 86.4%, CT = 57.1%), mean infection intensity (CF = 20.31 ± 1.13, CT = 4.29 ± 7.14) and mean abundance (CF = 17.70 ± 6.27, CT = 2.35 ± 0.77) were higher in the CF (P< 0.05) group. There were no significant correlations (P> 0.05) between the mean abundance and standard length or the total weight and condition factor in either group (P> 0.05). Fish farms may interfere with the life cycle of A. compactum, leading to more infections with P. squamosissimus. This could be due to an increase in the number of host animals that are attracted by the availability of food resources derived from fish farms.

  2. Mitochondrial COI and nuclear RAG1 DNA sequences and analyses of specimens of the three morphologically established species in the genus Trichopsis (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) reveal new/cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Senapin, Saengchan; Kowasupat, Chanon; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Kühne, Jens; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2015-01-01

    Air-breathing fish species of the genus Trichopsis have been reported in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is only in Thailand that all three recognized species (Trichopsis vittata, Trichopsis schalleri and Trichopsis pumila), as judged by distinct external features, are found. Cambodia and Lao PDR harbor two species each. The present work involves first-time DNA sequencing and analysis based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (RAG1) DNA of numerous specimens of these species and specimens of a controversial Phetchaburi (Thailand) fish population with a mixed outward appearance. In addition to confirming the morphologically clear-cut taxonomic division of the three fish species, our DNA results show that whereas the T. pumila populations form one single species, there are cryptic species in the T. vittata and T. schalleri populations and possibly a new one in the latter. Members of the putative Phetchaburi fish population have been proven to be hybrids between T. pumila and T. vittata. In addition, a new the phylogenetic tree indicating ancestral relationships is also presented. This study should generate further research to find new/cryptic species of the genus Trichopsis in all countries harboring the fish. PMID:25853058

  3. The taxonomic status of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) with a redescription of this species from the south china sea based on morphology and DNA barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.

  4. Diplectanids (Monogenea) parasitic on the gills of the coralgroupers Plectropomus laevis and P. leopardus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with the description of five new species and the erection of Echinoplectanum n. g.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Euzet, Louis

    2006-07-01

    Echinoplectanum n. g. is erected for diplectanids which have a male copulatory organ comprising a tubular sclerotised penis with a muscular reservoir at its proximal extremity and an protrusible cirrus, often with spiny ridges, at its distal extremity, and a female copulatory organ comprising a sclerotised vaginal sac, often with two thin tubes. All species have similar squamodiscs made of rows of rodlets, with the central rows forming closed circles, and haptoral parts with a similar shape but different measurements; they are distinguished on the basis of the size and morphology of the male copulatory organ and sclerotised vagina. Five new species are included in Echinoplectanum and are all parasites of coralgroupers, Plectropomus spp., off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Two are from P. laevis (Lacépède): E. laeve n. sp. (type-species) has a large elongate penis, 53[Formula: see text]m in length, a cirrus with spiny ridges and a spherical vagina with two long thin tubes; and E. chauvetorum n. sp. has a large elongate penis, 51[Formula: see text]m in length, a cirrus with thin spiny ridges, and a pear-shaped vagina with two short thin tubes. Three species are from P. leopardus (Lacépède): E. leopardi n. sp. has an elongate penis, 36[Formula: see text]m in length, an unspiny cirrus and a triangular vagina; E. pudicum n. sp. has a very small elongate penis 14[Formula: see text]m in length and no visible vagina; and E. rarum n. sp. has a short thick penis 18[Formula: see text]m in length and a ring-shaped vagina with two thin tubes. In addition, Diplectanum plectropomi Young, 1969, from P. maculatus off Western Australia, and D. echinophallus Euzet & Oliver, 1965 from Epinephelus marginatus in the Mediterranean Sea and Senegal, West Africa, both herein redescribed from the type-specimens, are transferred to Echinoplectanum, as E. plectropomi n. comb. and E. echinophallus n. comb., respectively. Six of the seven species of Echinoplectanum are parasitic in members of Plectropomus from the South West Pacific, but one (E. echinophallus) is a parasite of Epinephelus marginatus and has been recorded only from the Mediterranean and East Atlantic; it is suggested that Echinoplectanum is associated with Plectropomus, a basal genus among the epinephelines, and that host-switching to Epinephelus marginatus occurred, whose distribution extends from Europe to the Indian Ocean. Morphological characteristics of the copulatory organs suggest that a "chastity belt versus spiny penis" sperm competition pattern prevails in Echinoplectanum spp.

  5. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown.

  6. Chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs in Gobionellus oceanicus and G. stomatus (Gobiidae; Perciformes): A shared XX/XY system and an unusual distribution of 5S rDNA sites on the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Lima-Filho, Paulo A; Amorim, Karlla D J; Cioffi, Marcelo B; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Molina, Wagner F

    2014-01-01

    With nearly 2,000 species, Gobiidae is the most specious family of the vertebrates. This high level of speciation is accompanied by conspicuous karyotypic modifications, where the role of repetitive sequences remains largely unknown. This study analyzed the karyotype of 2 species of the genus Gobionellus and mapped 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes and (CA)15 microsatellite sequences onto their chromosomes. G. oceanicus (2n = 56; ♂ 12 metacentrics (m) + 4 submetacentrics (sm) + 1 subtelocentric (st) + 39 acrocentrics (a); ♀ 12m + 4sm + 2st + 38a) and G. stomatus (2n = 56; ♂ 20m + 14sm + 1st + 21a; ♀ 20m + 14sm + 2st + 20a) possess the highest diploid chromosome number among the Gobiidae and have different karyotypes. Both species share an XX/XY sex chromosome system with a large subtelocentric X and a small acrocentric Y chromosome which is rich in (CA)15 sequences and bears 5S rRNA sites. Although coding and noncoding repetitive DNA sequences may be involved in the genesis or differentiation of the sex chromosomes, the exclusive presence of 5S rDNA sites on the Y, but not on the X chromosome of both species, represents a novelty in fishes. In summary, the karyotypic differences, as well as new data on the sex chromosome systems in these 2 Gobiidae species, confirm the high chromosomal dynamism observed in this family.

  7. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the latter by a concavity in the lateral profile of the snout in adults, deep body and high soft dorsal-fin ray count. Comparison of the CO1 genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding also resulted in significant genetic divergences between the new species, P. unicolor and their closest sampled congeners. Some behavioural observations are also presented for the species treated, including aggressive interactions between individuals of the new species, the likes of which have not previously been recorded among species of Plectorhinchus. PMID:26250161

  8. Description of a new species of Trimma (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, with a discussion of the generic separation of Trimma and Priolepis, with discussion of sensory papillae terminology.

    PubMed

    Hoese, Douglass F; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Pygmygoby, Trimma quadrimaculatum, n. sp., is described from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea on the basis of 16 adult specimens. It is small-sized species, with the largest examined specimen reaching only 16.8 mm SL. The new species has characteristics of both Priolepis and Trimma, and easily may be confused with Priolepis randalli and Trimma mendelssohni; it can distinguish from other species by combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays D VI + I,8; anal-fin rays I,7; longitudinal scale series 23-25; median predorsal scales 6-8 (usually 7 or 8); head naked; a pair of modified elongate papillae on nape; fifth pelvic-fin ray with 2 dichotomous branches; body with broad, irregular, brown bars, last bar posteriorly on caudal peduncle extending basally on to rays of caudal fin; head with three dark brown bars below eye; four subcutaneous dark brown spots ventrally on posterior half of body; and basal quarter of second and third membranes of first dorsal fin with diffuse dark blotch. Placement of the new species in Trimma is based on the presence of more characteristics currently associated with Trimma than with Priolepis. The generic separation of the two genera is discussed, suggesting that further work is needed to clarify the separation of these two genera. PMID:26624195

  9. Monogenoideans (Platyhelminthes) from the gill lamellae of the spotted sea trout, Cynoscion nebulosus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae), from the western coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with redescription of Diplectanum bilobatus Hargis 1955 (Diplectanidae).

    PubMed

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Rodríguez, R E del Rio; Tun, M del C Rosado

    2013-08-01

    The gill lamellae ectoparasites of the spotted sea trout, Cynoscion nebulosus (Sciaenidae), in the western coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, revealed three species of Monogenoidea: Cynoscionicola heteracantha (Manter 1938) Price, 1962 (Microcotylidae); Choricotyle cynoscioni (MacCallum, 1917) Llewellyn, 1941 (Diclidophoridae); and Diplectanum bilobatus Hargis, 1955 (Diplectanidae). Brief comments about the current taxonomic status as well as supplemental observations of all these monogenoids originally described and/or reported from the same host fish species found in the USA are provided. New illustrations, prevalence and mean intensity of infection, as well morphological and biometric data based on new specimens are shown. C. heteracantha and C. cynoscioni collected in this study represent the second and first records of the species of these genera for the Atlantic coast of Mexico. The specimens of D. bilobatus are provisionally retained within Diplectanum until an emendation of the genus and a formal revision of all named species of this monogenoidean genus are undertaken.

  10. Morphological re-description and molecular characterization of Kudoa pagrusi (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting the heart muscles of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, 100 samples of different sizes of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus were collected from the Egyptian water along the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and examined for the prevalence of myxosporidian parasites in general and Kudoa spp. in particular. Fish samples were thoroughly externally examined. After dissection, all the internal organs were removed and examined. A total of 60 out of 100 fish specimens were found to be infected with Kudoa stages. Parasitic infection was restricted to the heart muscles of the examined fish. None of the other organs was found to be infected. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) heavily infested the different parts of the heart muscles. Each plasmodium measured 1.2-2.5 (1.53 ± 0.2) mm × 0.63-0.80 (0.65 ± 0.2) mm. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in the apical view showing four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores were 5.0-7.1 (5.7 ± 0.2) μm long × 5.4-8.5 (6.1 ± 0.3) μm wide. On the basis of spore morphology, the present species was identified as Kudoa pagrusi. Morphometric characterization revealed that the relatively small size of this Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the highest percentage of identity was observed with K. scomberomori and followed by K. shiomitsui, K. hypoepicarclialis, K. amamiensis, and K. kenti. The kudoid spores showed morphometric variations to some extents but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the SSU rDNA gene sequences closest to those of K. scomberomori and K. shiomitsui recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The present findings support the identification of an ancestral marine origin of the present Kudoa species. PMID:27146899

  11. Rediscovery of Sagittalarva inornata n. gen., n. comb. (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Labridae), a long-lost deepwater fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean: a case study of a forensic approach to taxonomy using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Victor, Benjamin C; Alfaro, Michael E; Sorenson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Some of the more valuable contributions of a standardized DNA sequence database (the DNA barcode) are matching specimens of different life stages and confirming the species identity of individuals from distant locations. These applications can facilitate the detective work required to solve difficult taxonomic problems. In this case, a match was made between the COI mtDNA sequence of an adult male wrasse recently caught at the tip of Baja California in Mexico in deep water (30-100m) and sequences from a series of unusual larvae collected about 3500 km to the south, in the open ocean over the Galápagos Rift hydrothermal vents in 1985. The Baja adults fit the recent description of Halichoeres raisneri Baldwin & McCosker, 2001 from the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. However, another deepwater labrid is known from the same site and depth in Baja; it is the type locality for the century-old holotype and only specimen of the Cape Wrasse Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890 (later as Pseudojuloides inornatus). Deepwater video images from the tip of Baja show wrasses identical to H. raisneri photographed in Galápagos but who also fit the description of Pseudojulis inornatus. This coincidence led to a closer investigation of the holotype with x-ray, which revealed unanticipated caniniform teeth (vs. incisiform in Pseudojuloides) and an error in the fin-ray count in the original description, both of which mistakenly separated Halichoeres raisneri. The two species now match in markings, meristics, and morphology as well as overlapping range and are therefore synonymized. Phenetic and phylogenetic trees using mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences show the species is not close to any other lineage and does not group with the other julidine labrids of the New World or the Pseudojuloides or Halichoeres of the Indo-Pacific. The distinctive larval morphology, long, thin, and flattened with a sharply pointed black-tipped snout, resembles no other described labrid larvae and, without an available genus, the new genus Sagittalarva Victor, n. gen. and the new combination Sagittalarva inornata (Gilbert, 1890), n. gen., n. comb. are described.

  12. Description of a new species of Trimma (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, with a discussion of the generic separation of Trimma and Priolepis, with discussion of sensory papillae terminology.

    PubMed

    Hoese, Douglass F; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2015-10-06

    A new species of Pygmygoby, Trimma quadrimaculatum, n. sp., is described from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea on the basis of 16 adult specimens. It is small-sized species, with the largest examined specimen reaching only 16.8 mm SL. The new species has characteristics of both Priolepis and Trimma, and easily may be confused with Priolepis randalli and Trimma mendelssohni; it can distinguish from other species by combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays D VI + I,8; anal-fin rays I,7; longitudinal scale series 23-25; median predorsal scales 6-8 (usually 7 or 8); head naked; a pair of modified elongate papillae on nape; fifth pelvic-fin ray with 2 dichotomous branches; body with broad, irregular, brown bars, last bar posteriorly on caudal peduncle extending basally on to rays of caudal fin; head with three dark brown bars below eye; four subcutaneous dark brown spots ventrally on posterior half of body; and basal quarter of second and third membranes of first dorsal fin with diffuse dark blotch. Placement of the new species in Trimma is based on the presence of more characteristics currently associated with Trimma than with Priolepis. The generic separation of the two genera is discussed, suggesting that further work is needed to clarify the separation of these two genera.

  13. Rediscovery of Sagittalarva inornata n. gen., n. comb. (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Labridae), a long-lost deepwater fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean: a case study of a forensic approach to taxonomy using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Victor, Benjamin C; Alfaro, Michael E; Sorenson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Some of the more valuable contributions of a standardized DNA sequence database (the DNA barcode) are matching specimens of different life stages and confirming the species identity of individuals from distant locations. These applications can facilitate the detective work required to solve difficult taxonomic problems. In this case, a match was made between the COI mtDNA sequence of an adult male wrasse recently caught at the tip of Baja California in Mexico in deep water (30-100m) and sequences from a series of unusual larvae collected about 3500 km to the south, in the open ocean over the Galápagos Rift hydrothermal vents in 1985. The Baja adults fit the recent description of Halichoeres raisneri Baldwin & McCosker, 2001 from the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. However, another deepwater labrid is known from the same site and depth in Baja; it is the type locality for the century-old holotype and only specimen of the Cape Wrasse Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890 (later as Pseudojuloides inornatus). Deepwater video images from the tip of Baja show wrasses identical to H. raisneri photographed in Galápagos but who also fit the description of Pseudojulis inornatus. This coincidence led to a closer investigation of the holotype with x-ray, which revealed unanticipated caniniform teeth (vs. incisiform in Pseudojuloides) and an error in the fin-ray count in the original description, both of which mistakenly separated Halichoeres raisneri. The two species now match in markings, meristics, and morphology as well as overlapping range and are therefore synonymized. Phenetic and phylogenetic trees using mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences show the species is not close to any other lineage and does not group with the other julidine labrids of the New World or the Pseudojuloides or Halichoeres of the Indo-Pacific. The distinctive larval morphology, long, thin, and flattened with a sharply pointed black-tipped snout, resembles no other described labrid larvae and, without an available genus, the new genus Sagittalarva Victor, n. gen. and the new combination Sagittalarva inornata (Gilbert, 1890), n. gen., n. comb. are described. PMID:26312357

  14. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Ehuonaga, `ula`ula red snapper Etelis carbunculus. koa`e longtail snapper Etelis coruscans. ta`ape blue stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  15. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution. PMID:22983803

  16. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    PubMed

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology.

  17. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  18. A Study of Some Problems in Network Information Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Sudeep Uday

    2013-01-01

    Red snapper, "Lutjanus campechanus," were sampled with hook and line at natural (n = 33) and artificial (n = 27) reef sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico from 2009-2011. Stomachs (n = 708) were extracted and their contents preserved for gut content analysis, and muscle tissue samples (n = 200) were dissected and frozen for stable…

  19. Fisheries Management of Red Snapper in the Gulf of Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joy N.; Snyder, Stephanie M.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian R.; McMullin, Steve L.

    2009-01-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico, the overfished population of red snapper ("Lutjanus campechanus") is a major source of revenue resulting in a dichotomy between maintaining the health of the fishery and meeting the demands of the local economies. In order to govern marine fisheries the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 was…

  20. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... jobfish Aphareus rutilans. Uku white papio, ulua au gray jobfish Aprion virescens. kea giant trevally.... Ehuonaga, `ula`ula red snapper Etelis carbunculus. koa`e longtail snapper Etelis coruscans. ta`ape blue stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka...

  1. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... jobfish Aphareus rutilans. Uku white papio, ulua au gray jobfish Aprion virescens. kea giant trevally.... Ehuonaga, `ula`ula red snapper Etelis carbunculus. koa`e longtail snapper Etelis coruscans. ta`ape blue stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka...

  2. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... jobfish Aphareus rutilans. Uku white papio, ulua au gray jobfish Aprion virescens. kea giant trevally.... Ehuonaga, `ula`ula red snapper Etelis carbunculus. koa`e longtail snapper Etelis coruscans. ta`ape blue stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka...

  3. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... jobfish Aphareus rutilans. Uku white papio, ulua au gray jobfish Aprion virescens. kea giant trevally.... Ehuonaga, `ula`ula red snapper Etelis carbunculus. koa`e longtail snapper Etelis coruscans. ta`ape blue stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka...

  4. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade.

  5. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. PMID:26920274

  6. [Description of the female of a new Didymoizoidae: Gonapodasmius microovatus spec. nov].

    PubMed

    Reimer, L W

    1980-02-01

    In Megalaspis cordyla (L.) (Perciformes, Carangidae) from the Gulf of Aden Gonapodasmius microovatus spec. nov., a trematode of the family Didymozoidae is parasitizing in the body cavity. The only preserved specimen is a mature female. Description and differential diagnose is given together with a key of determination for the genus, also a review of the geographical distribution and the fish hosts of the species of the genus Gonapodasmius. PMID:7377627

  7. Observations on cucullanid nematodes from freshwater fishes in Mexico, including Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n.

    PubMed

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    1999-01-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n., is described from the intestine of three species of fishes, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) (Mugilidae, Perciformes) (type host), Ictalurus balsanus (Jordan et Snyder) (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) and Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Cichlidae, Perciformes), from three rivers (La Maquina River, Veracruz; Chontalcoatlán River, Guerrero and Santiago River, Nayarit) in central Mexico. This species is characterised by the absence of a ventral sucker in the male (subgenus Dichelyne) and it differs from its congeners mainly in possessing very unequal and dissimilar spicules (left 0.465-0.768 mm and right 293-548 mm long), an asymmetrical gubernaculum, and two intestinal caeca. Another cucullanid nematode, Cucullanus caballeroi Petter, 1977, is reported from Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Eleotridae, Perciformes) from the La Palma and La Maquina Rivers and Balzapote stream, Veracruz, being briefly described and illustrated; this represents a new host record. Findings of D. mexicanus and C. caballeroi represent a new record of cucullanid nematodes from fishes in Mexican fresh waters.

  8. Location of volatile odor sources by ghost crabOcypode quadrata (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Wellins, C A; Rittschof, D; Wachowiak, M

    1989-04-01

    The ghost crab,Ocypode quadrata, was tested in the field for its ability to locate sources of volatile cues. The pure compound skatole, 3-methylindole, was a potent attractant. Crabs also located sources of complex odors such as dead fish,Lutjanus campechanus, dead mole crabs,Emerita talpoida; and peeled bananas. Ghost crabs possess concealed and reduced antennules that may not be the primary olfactory organs. Chemosensory hairs borne on the dactyls may be the primary detection system.

  9. Prediction and verification of possible reef-fish spawning aggregation sites in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Boomhower, J; Romero, M; Posada, J; Kobara, S; Heyman, W

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to predict and verify possible spawning aggregation sites and times in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela, based on physical reef characteristics and the knowledge of experienced local fishermen. Three possible aggregation sites were selected for monitoring based on satellite images, low-cost bathymetric mapping and interviews with experienced local fishermen. Abundances and sizes of 18 species that are known to form reproductive aggregations were monitored at these sites using underwater visual census for 7 days after each full moon from February to August, 2007. While spawning events were not observed, possible indirect evidence of spawning aggregations was found for Lutjanus analis at Cayo Sal and Boca de Sebastopol, Lutjanus apodus at Cayo Sal, Lutjanus cyanopterus at Cayo Sal and Piedra La Guasa and Epinephelus guttatus at Bajo California and Cayo de Agua. Additionally, indirect evidence was identified for the past existence of a spawning aggregation of Epinephelus striatus in the northern part of the archipelago, which may have been eliminated by overfishing c.15 years ago. Bathymetric mapping showed that the shelf edge at sites monitored in this study was shallower than at spawning aggregation sites in other parts of the Caribbean, and that sites were not proximal to deep water. While this study does not prove the existence or locations of spawning aggregations of reef fishes in the archipelago, it does add insight to a growing understanding of generalities in the relationship between seafloor characteristics and the locations of transient reef-fish spawning aggregations in the Caribbean.

  10. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries.

    PubMed

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M

    2016-07-01

    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves. PMID:27237742

  11. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries.

    PubMed

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M

    2016-07-01

    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves.

  12. Chemical biology of the mutualistic relationships of sea anemones with fish and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich

    2009-12-15

    Fish species of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) as well as various crustaceans seek protection from predators among the tentacles of sea anemones, where they live essentially unharmed from stinging by the host's nematocysts. The mucous coats of anemonefish and crustaceans have been suggested as mechanisms that prevent the discharge of the nematocysts upon contact. Whereas some fish species seem to produce their own protecting mucous coating, others may acquire mucus from the sea anemone during an acclimation period, as crustaceans do. Whether the natural or acquired mucus layers contain components that inhibit nematocyst discharge or simply lack compounds stimulating the stinging cell's exocytosis is still unknown. PMID:19268681

  13. [Vertical distribution of acanthocephalans of the order Echinorhynchida in Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Baldanova, D R

    2008-01-01

    Vertical distribution of acanthocephalans of the order Echinorhynchida is studied in Lake Baikal. Four species and subspecies from cottid fishes (Perciformes: Cottoidei) were examined, namely Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis (Linstow, 1901), Metechinorhynchus salmonis salmonis (Muller, 1780), M.s. baicalensis Bogolepova, 1957, M. truttae (Schrank, 1788). In the littoral (0-5 m) and sublittoral (5-100 m) areas all these species and subspecies were occurred, white in the profundal (100-300 m) and abyssal (900-1600 m) areas only Metechinorhynchus salmonis baisalensis has been found. PMID:18727364

  14. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial genome in great snakehead, Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Pathak, Abhinav; Lal, Kuldeep K; Jena, J K

    2015-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of mitogenome of the great snakehead, Channa marulius (Channidae), was determined and found to be 16,569 base pairs in length. The content and arrangement of different genes on the mitogenome was found similar to other typical teleosts. The overall base composition of the L-strand was found to be T (19.1%), C (31.5%), A (34.8%) and G (14.6%). The control region was 915 nt long and without any repetitive region. The mitogenome sequence data would be useful for studying phylogenetic relationship of C. marulius with other perciform species.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus, Coryphaenidae) growth hormone-encoding cDNA.

    PubMed

    Peduel, A D; Elizur, A; Knibb, W

    1994-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the preprotein growth hormone from the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA was derived by reverse transcription of RNA from the pituitary of a young fish using the method known as Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). An oligonucleotide primer corresponding to the 5' region of Pagrus major and the universal RACE primer enabled amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The dolphinfish and yellow-tail, Seriola quineqeradiata, are both members of the sub-order Percoidei (Perciforme) and their GH sequences show a high level of homology. PMID:7703505

  16. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  17. Shipboard assessment of hearing sensitivity of tropical fishes immediately after exposure to seismic air gun emissions at Scott Reef.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Mardi C; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the potential effects of emissions from an air gun array on hearing of tropical reef fish using AEP thresholds measured in the field. Over 7 days, 51 Chromis viridis,47 Lutjanus kasmira, 20 Myripristis murdjan, and 10 Sargocentron spiniferum were tested. AEP thresholds were determined before and after exposure to emissions from one or two passes of an airgun array. Temporary threshold shift resulting from sound exposure was not found in any species,even when cumulative sound exposure levels reached 190 dB re 1 μPa2-s.

  18. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  19. Two anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from Nemipterus furcosus.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2005-10-01

    One new and one known species of the ascaridoid family Anisakidae are reported from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia: Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from the intestine of the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae, Perciformes) and Hysterothylacium cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) from the intestine of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Istiophoridae, Perciformes). R. nemipteri is characterised mainly by the shape (wider than long) of the lips, the length of the spicules (225-399 microm, which represent 2.7-4.2% of the body length), the number (22-33) of caudal pre-anal papillae, the position of the vulva (at 16-20% of the body length), and the presence of cuticular spines on the tip of the female tail. Specimens of H. cenaticum from New Caledonia generally exhibited smaller body measurements than those originally described from Australian waters; the deirids and eggs are described for the first time. Maricostula Bruce and Cannon, 1989 is considered a junior synonym of Hysterothylacium, to which three species are transferred as H. cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb., H. makairi (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. PMID:16167119

  20. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in striped bass, Morone saxatilis: molecular characterization and processing during oocyte growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Williams, V N; Reading, B J; Hiramatsu, N; Amano, H; Glassbrook, N; Hara, A; Sullivan, C V

    2014-04-01

    The multiple vitellogenin (Vtg) system of striped bass, a perciform species spawning nearly neutrally buoyant eggs in freshwater, was investigated. Vitellogenin cDNA cloning, Western blotting of yolk proteins (YPs) using Vtg and YP type-specific antisera, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of the YPs revealed the complex mechanisms of yolk formation and maturation in this species. It was discovered that striped bass possesses a tripartite Vtg system (VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC) in which all three forms of Vtg make a substantial contribution to the yolk. The production of Vtg-derived YPs is generally similar to that described for other perciforms. However, novel amino-terminal labeling of oocyte YPs prior to MS/MS identified multiple alternative sites for cleavage of these proteins from their parent Vtg, revealing a YP mixture far more complex than reported previously. This approach also revealed that the major YP product of each form of striped bass Vtg, lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), undergoes limited degradation to smaller polypeptides during oocyte maturation, unlike the case in marine fishes spawning buoyant eggs in which LvHAa undergoes extensive proteolysis to osmotically active free amino acids. These differences likely reflect the lesser need for hydration of pelagic eggs spawned in freshwater. The detailed characterization of Vtgs and their proteolytic fate(s) during oocyte growth and maturation establishes striped bass as a freshwater model for investigating teleost multiple Vtg systems. PMID:24005815

  1. Convergent Aspects of Acoustic Communication in Darters, Sculpins, and Gobies.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Malavasi, Stefano; Holt, Daniel E; Noel, Patricia; Lugli, Marco; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    Darters (Perciformes, Percidae), sculpins (Perciformes, Cottidae), and gobioids (Gobiiformes, Gobioidei) exhibit convergent life history traits, including a benthic lifestyle and a cavity nesting spawning mode. Soniferous species within these taxa produce pulsed and/or tonal sounds with peak frequencies below 200 Hz (with some exceptions), primarily in agonistic and/or reproductive contexts. The reduced or absent swim bladders found in these taxa limit or prevent both hearing enhancement via pressure sensitivity and acoustic amplification of the contracting sonic muscles, which are associated with the skull and pectoral girdle. While such anatomies constrain communication to low frequency channels, optimization of the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio in low frequency channels is evident for some gobies, as measured by habitat soundscape frequency windows, nest cavity sound amplification, and audiograms. Similar S/N considerations are applicable to many darter and sculpin systems. This chapter reviews the currently documented diversity of sound production in darters, sculpins, and gobioids within a phylogenetic context, examines the efficacy of signal transmission from senders to receivers (sound production mechanisms, audiograms, and masking challenges), and evaluates the potential functional significance of sound attributes in relation to territorial and reproductive behaviours. PMID:26515312

  2. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in striped bass, Morone saxatilis: molecular characterization and processing during oocyte growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Williams, V N; Reading, B J; Hiramatsu, N; Amano, H; Glassbrook, N; Hara, A; Sullivan, C V

    2014-04-01

    The multiple vitellogenin (Vtg) system of striped bass, a perciform species spawning nearly neutrally buoyant eggs in freshwater, was investigated. Vitellogenin cDNA cloning, Western blotting of yolk proteins (YPs) using Vtg and YP type-specific antisera, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of the YPs revealed the complex mechanisms of yolk formation and maturation in this species. It was discovered that striped bass possesses a tripartite Vtg system (VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC) in which all three forms of Vtg make a substantial contribution to the yolk. The production of Vtg-derived YPs is generally similar to that described for other perciforms. However, novel amino-terminal labeling of oocyte YPs prior to MS/MS identified multiple alternative sites for cleavage of these proteins from their parent Vtg, revealing a YP mixture far more complex than reported previously. This approach also revealed that the major YP product of each form of striped bass Vtg, lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), undergoes limited degradation to smaller polypeptides during oocyte maturation, unlike the case in marine fishes spawning buoyant eggs in which LvHAa undergoes extensive proteolysis to osmotically active free amino acids. These differences likely reflect the lesser need for hydration of pelagic eggs spawned in freshwater. The detailed characterization of Vtgs and their proteolytic fate(s) during oocyte growth and maturation establishes striped bass as a freshwater model for investigating teleost multiple Vtg systems.

  3. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Iraq, with the erection of two new species and the first description of the male of Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer H; Abed, Jasim M; Shaker, Sara J

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): Philometra iraqiensis n. sp. (females) from the abdominal cavity and ovary of the Klunzinger's mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), P. megalaspidis n. sp. (females) from the ovary of the torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Carangidae), Philometra sp. 1 (females) from the ovary of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae), Philometra sp. 2 (females) from the ovary of the bartail flathead Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus) (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) and Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new species are characterised mainly by the body length, the length and structure of the oesophagus and caudal end and by the family of their fish hosts. The male and the gravid female of P. eleutheronemae are described for the first time; the finding of this species in Iraqi waters represents the first record of this nematode in the region of the Arabian (=Persian) Gulf. PMID:26790678

  4. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Iraq, with the erection of two new species and the first description of the male of Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer H; Abed, Jasim M; Shaker, Sara J

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): Philometra iraqiensis n. sp. (females) from the abdominal cavity and ovary of the Klunzinger's mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), P. megalaspidis n. sp. (females) from the ovary of the torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Carangidae), Philometra sp. 1 (females) from the ovary of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae), Philometra sp. 2 (females) from the ovary of the bartail flathead Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus) (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) and Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new species are characterised mainly by the body length, the length and structure of the oesophagus and caudal end and by the family of their fish hosts. The male and the gravid female of P. eleutheronemae are described for the first time; the finding of this species in Iraqi waters represents the first record of this nematode in the region of the Arabian (=Persian) Gulf.

  5. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs.

  6. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-01-01

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system. PMID:24782001

  7. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  8. Seasonal abundance and composition of finfish and shellfish seeds inmangroves of Gangolli estuary, off south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, K M; Thomas, Sujitha; Dineshbabu, A R; PrathibhaRohit; Sridhara, B; Nataraja, G D

    2015-11-01

    The composition and seasonal abundance of the fin and shellfish seeds in mangrove areas of Gangoli estuary were studied for one year from January to December, 2013. Monthly day time sampling was conducted with a rectangular dragnet of 75 m2 length having 5 mm mesh size. The mean monthly density was highest in January (Avg. of 12,996/haul) and lowest during May (Avg. of 859/haul). Thirty species of fish, four species of shrimps and two species of crabs belonging to 26 families were recorded during the study. Ambasis sp., Feneropenaeus indicus, Etroplus suratensis,Leognathus sp., Liza sp., Stolephorus vaganensis, Hemiramphus sp., Terapon sp. and Gerres sp. were the most abundant species/taxa. A total of 10 commercially important species comprising F. indicus, Etroplus suratensis, Liza sp., Gerres sp.,Siganus sp., Lutjanus russei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Sillago sp. and Penaeus monodon constituted 8.5% (April, 2013) to 93.7% (October, 2013) with an average of 37.2% of the total fish and shellfish seeds. Higher Species diversity (H') and Species richness (D) was recorded during January. The result of the present investigation gives an insight of the abundance and seasonality of commercially important fish and shellfish seeds, which may facilitate the brackishwater fish farmers to exploitthe seeds more pragmatically for their culture practice. PMID:26688975

  9. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations.

  10. Control of parasites in cultured marine finfishes in Southeast Asia--an overview.

    PubMed

    Seng, L T

    1997-10-01

    Mariculture in Southeast Asia began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly during the 1980s, with the commercial hatchery production of the seabass Lates calcarifer. Other important cultured species were Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus malabaricus, Lutjanus johni, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Intensification in the polyculture of these species and the large-scale international movement of fingerlings or juveniles, as well as the rapid expansion and concentration of fish farms, have caused severe problems resulting from parasitic infections. Infections in maricultured fish are predominantly caused by monoxenous parasites, in particular the capsalid and diplectanid monogeneans. Heteroxenous blood parasites also successfully maintained transmission in the culture system despite their requirement for an intermediate host. Prophylactic chemical treatments helped to reduce parasitic infection but did not eliminate them and once introduced into the floating netcage culture system, these parasites managed to maintain their transmission successfully. Despite the current lack of information regarding the biology of many parasites affecting cultured marine fishes, it nevertheless is possible to develop methodologies to produce an integrated health management system specifically designed to the needs of the mariculture practiced in the Southeast Asian region. This system is important and should include a sequence of prophylaxes, adequate nutrition, sanitation, immunization and an effective system of marketing for farmed fishes.

  11. Growth and secondary production of an eventual reef fish during mangrove residency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunce, Craig H.; Serafy, Joseph E.

    2008-08-01

    Hierarchical data frameworks have been proposed to determine the relative value of fish habitats. Although conceptually accurate, judgments as to which habitat is more "essential" are limited by a lack of available information. This work provides much needed growth and production rates for gray snapper ( Lutjanus griseus), an ontogenetic habitat shifting reef fish, during mangrove residency. Ages were estimated using modal progression analysis of length-frequency distributions coupled with a biologically-realistic spawning date. Growth estimates place age-1 L. griseus at 155 mm (TL), age-2 at 243, and age-3 at 302 mm. These size-at-age estimates are consistent with otolith-based studies and are a natural extension of linear growth models for early juveniles. Lutjanus griseus primarily use southeastern Florida mangrove shoreline habitats for approximately 2 years between 0.86 and 2.84 years of age. Corresponding production:biomass ratios for these cohorts were 1.51 and 0.90. While these values are similar to other estimates for fishes inhabiting vegetated coastal wetlands in North America, they are much less than new estimates from a Bahamian mangrove creek system. These new data highlight important differences between the habitat value of mangrove shorelines of continental (low-relief) and island (high-relief) systems.

  12. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  13. Primordial germ cell migration in the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and identification of stromal cell-derived factor 1.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Bubner, E J; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshizaki, G; Wang, T; Cummins, S F; Elizur, A

    2015-03-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are progenitors of the germ cell lineage, giving rise to either spermatogonia or oogonia after the completion of gonadal differentiation. Currently, there is little information on the mechanism of PGCs migration leading to the formation of the primordial gonad in perciform fish. Yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) (YTK) (order Perciforms) inhabit tropical and temperate waters in the southern hemisphere. Fundamental details into the molecular basis of larval development in this species can be easily studied in Australia, as they are commercially cultured and readily available. In this study, histological analysis of YTK larvae revealed critical time points for the migration of PGCs to the genital ridge, resulting in the subsequent development of the primordial gonad. In YTK larvae at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post hatch (DPH), PGCs were not yet enclosed by somatic cells, indicating the primordial gonad had not yet started to form. While at 15, 18 and 20 DPH PGCs had already settled at the genital ridge and started to become enclosed by somatic cells indicating the primordial gonad had started to develop. A higher number of PGCs were observed in the larvae at 15 and 18 DPH indicating PGCs proliferation, which corresponds with them becoming enclosed by the somatic cells. Directional migration of PGCs toward the genital ridge is a critical event in the subsequent development of a gonad. In zebrafish, mouse and chicken, stromal-cell derived factor (SDF1) signalling is one of the key molecules for PGC migration. We subsequently isolated from YTK the SDF1 (Slal-SDF1) gene, which encodes for a 98-residue precursor protein with a signal peptide at the N-terminus. There is spatial conservation between fish species of four cysteine residues at positions C9, C11, C34 and C49, expected to form disulphide bonds and stabilize the SDF structure. In YTK, Slal-SDF1 gene expression analyses shows that this gene is expressed in larvae from 1 to 22 DPH and

  14. Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic percomorph families (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Sanciangco, Millicent D; Carpenter, Kent E; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Percomorphs are a large and diverse group of spiny-finned fishes that have come to be known as the "bush at the top" due to their persistent lack of phylogenetic resolution. Recently, the broader Euteleost Tree of Life project (EToL) inferred a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that groups the diversity of percomorphs into nine well-supported series (supraordinal groups): Ophidiaria, Batrachoidaria, Gobiaria, Syngnatharia, Pelagiaria, Anabantaria, Carangaria, Ovalentaria, and Eupercaria. The EToL also provided, for the first time, a monophyletic definition of Perciformes - the largest order of vertebrates. Despite significant progress made in accommodating the diversity of percomorph taxa into major clades, some 62 families (most previously placed in "Perciformes", as traditionally defined) were not examined by the EToL. Here, we provide evidence for the phylogenetic affinities of 10 of those 62 families, seven of which have largely remained enigmatic. This expanded taxonomic sampling also provides further support for the nine EToL supraordinal series. We examined sequences from 21 genes previously used by the EToL and added two fast-evolving mitochondrial markers in an attempt to increase resolution within the rapid percomorph radiations. We restricted the taxonomic sampling to 1229 percomorph species, including expanded sampling from recent studies. Results of maximum likelihood analysis revealed that bathyclupeids (Bathyclupeidae), galjoen fishes (Dichistiidae), kelpfishes (Chironemidae), marblefishes (Aplodactylidae), trumpeters (Latridae), barbeled grunters (Hapalogenyidae), slopefishes (Symphysanodontidae), and picarel porgies (formerly Centracanthidae) are members of the series Eupercaria ("new bush at the top"). The picarel porgies and porgies (Sparidae) are now placed in the same family (Sparidae). Our analyses suggest a close affinity between the orders Spariformes (including Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae) and Lobotiformes (including the

  15. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future. PMID:25081275

  16. [Ichthyofauna of the Navidad Bay, Jalisco, México].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Palomino, B; Pérez Reyes, C; Galván-Magaña, F; Abitía-Cardenas, L A

    2001-03-01

    A check-list and the relative abundance of the ichthyofauna from Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. This poorly known area of the eastern Tropical Pacific ocean is characterized by its great fish diversity. A total of 245 fish species (163 genera, 72 families) were collected during the 1994-1995 annual cycle. Vouchers were deposited in Centro de Ecologia Costera, Universidad de Guadalajara. The most important families in number of species were Carangidae (20 species), Haemulidae (20), Serranidae (17), Sciaenidae (13) and Lutjanidae (8); 20 species represented 85% and 80% of relative abundance and biomass respectively. Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caninus, Caranx caballus, Kiphosus analogus and Caranx sexfasciatus, were the dominant species. Most fish species collected in Bahia de Navidad have zoogeographical affinity with the Panamic Province (65%), and in lesser proportion with the Eastern Pacific Ocean (19%), Circumtropical (7%), Mexican Province (5%), Indo-Pacific Ocean (3%) and Gulf of California (0.4%). The great ichthyological affinity between the study area and the southern Gulf of California suggests an extension of the of Gulf southern limit.

  17. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future.

  18. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

  19. An experimental field test of susceptibility to ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods among Caribbean reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Coile, A M; Sikkel, P C

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to infestation by a gnathiid isopod (Gnathia marleyi: Crustacea: Isopoda) was examined among 16 species from 9 families and 3 orders of common Caribbean reef fishes off St. John, United States Virgin Islands. Fish were placed in cages during times of peak gnathiid activity. Individuals from most (n=14) species were compared against a single species (French Grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum) that served as a standard and effectively controlled for the effects of habitat and variation in gnathiid abundance on exposure to and the likelihood and intensity of host infestation by gnathiids. All species were susceptible to infestation by gnathiids, with individual hosts harbouring up to 368 gnathiids. However, there was significant variation in levels of infestation among the 14 comparison species. Controlling for body size, nocturnal species from the families Haemulidae and Lutjanidae had the highest gnathiid infestation. Our finding that haemulids and lutjanids are particularly susceptible has important implications for the role of gnathiids in Caribbean reef food webs, given the role members of these families play in trophic connectivity between reefs and associated habitats. To our knowledge this is the first manipulative field study to examine variation among potential hosts in susceptibility to an ectoparasite in any terrestrial or aquatic system and is the greatest number of teleost hosts documented for any gnathiid species.

  20. Investigating the behavioural responses of trapped fishes using underwater video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Renchen, G F; Pittman, S J; Brandt, M E

    2012-10-01

    An underwater video surveillance system known as TrapCam was used to continuously record (15 ×c. 24 h periods) fish behaviour within and immediately surrounding an experimental fish trap situated in a coral reef ecosystem in the United States Virgin Islands. Of the 100 fishes (18 species, 12 families) trapped, surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) were most common. Thirteen distinctively identifiable behaviours were observed for trapped fishes. Species did not differ significantly in the proportion of time allocated to different behaviours (ANOSIM, R = 0·142). Doctorfish Acanthurus chirurgus and grey angelfish Pomacanthus arcuatus allocated the largest proportion of their recorded time to enter and exit the trap. Fishes spent an average of 15 min in the trap before escaping. Sixty-seven per cent of trap approaches consisted of an individual of the same species as one already trapped suggesting that conspecific attraction may have occurred. Fifteen per cent of trapped species were observed with abrasions to the head and 70% were observed approaching the trap corners. The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the behavioural interactions between fishes and traps that can help explain patterns of catch composition, the physical condition of fishes in traps and inform design of gear modifications to optimize by-catch reduction in the trap fishery.

  1. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  2. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae.

  3. Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ovary of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Fajer-Avila, E J; Bakenhaster, M

    2010-03-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae, Perciformes), from the Gulf of Mexico off Treasure Island, Florida, USA. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in having a smooth gubernaculum with a distinct dorsal tooth on the distal tip. The new species is most similar to P. carolinensis Moravec, de Buron & Roumillat, 2006, but differs in length and shape of spicules. It can be distinguished from P. carolinensis and other species with unknown males, by the markedly greater body length of gravid females (up to about 100 cm). Philometra floridensis is the third valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from sciaenids. PMID:19580690

  4. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  5. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac. PMID:18564751

  6. Cues from the reef: olfactory preferences of a symbiotically luminous cardinalfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alison L.; Harii, Saki; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2015-06-01

    The symbiotically luminous, reef-dwelling cardinalfish, Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae), exhibits daily site fidelity, homing behavior, and a preference for the long-spined urchin, Diadema setosum, as its daytime host. The fish acquires its symbiont during larval development and releases large numbers of the bacteria with its feces daily at a host urchin. To examine the role of olfaction in site fidelity and homing by S. tubifer, juvenile and adult fish were tested in a two-channel choice flume for their olfactory preferences. Neither juveniles nor adults showed a preference for seawater conditioned by D. setosum. Juvenile fish, but not adults, preferred seawater conditioned by conspecific fish versus unconditioned seawater. Both juveniles and adults preferred seawater conditioned by their luminous symbiont and also preferred home site water to foreign reef water. These results suggest that S. tubifer uses chemical cues for homing and possibly settlement and symbiont acquisition, but not for host urchin recognition.

  7. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  8. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac.

  9. Redescription and genetic characterization of Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2013-08-01

    Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990, was redescribed using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy based on newly collected specimens from the marine fishes Priacanthus tayenus Richardson and Pricanthus macracanthus Cuvier (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) in the South China Sea. Previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features of taxonomic significance are described, including the number and morphology of paracloacal and postcloacal papillae, the morphology of the vulva, and the presence of small phasmids in the both sexes. Moreover, specimens of H. thalassini collected from the 2 hosts were characterized by sequencing and analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. The ITS region of H. thalassini was compared with Hysterothylacium spp. in GenBank, and the results seem to support the validity of the incompletely known species. PMID:23343397

  10. Redescription and genetic characterization of Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2013-08-01

    Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990, was redescribed using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy based on newly collected specimens from the marine fishes Priacanthus tayenus Richardson and Pricanthus macracanthus Cuvier (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) in the South China Sea. Previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features of taxonomic significance are described, including the number and morphology of paracloacal and postcloacal papillae, the morphology of the vulva, and the presence of small phasmids in the both sexes. Moreover, specimens of H. thalassini collected from the 2 hosts were characterized by sequencing and analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. The ITS region of H. thalassini was compared with Hysterothylacium spp. in GenBank, and the results seem to support the validity of the incompletely known species.

  11. Developmental expression of three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Gothilf, Yoav; Zmora, Nilli; Kight, Katherine E; Meiri, Iris; Elizur, Abigail; Zohar, Yonathan

    2004-09-01

    To address the complexity of the origin of the GnRH system in perciforms, we investigated the ontogenic expression of three GnRHs in gilthead seabream. Using in situ hybridization, chicken (c) GnRH-II mRNA-expressing cells were detected in the hindbrain at 1.5 days postfertilization (DPF) and in the midbrain at 2 DPF and thereafter; the hindbrain signals became undetectable after 10 DPF. Salmon (s) GnRH mRNA-expressing cells were first seen in the olfactory placode at 3 DPF, started caudal migration at 14 DPF, and reached the preoptic areas at 59 DPF. Seabream (sb) GnRH mRNA-expressing cells were first detected in the terminal nerve ganglion cells (TNgc), ventral part of the ventral telencephalon, nucleus preopticus parvocellularis, and thalamus at 39 DPF, and extended to the nucleus preopticus magnocellularis at 43 DPF, ventrolateral hypothalamus at 51 DPF, and nucleus lateralis tuberis and posterior tuberculum at 59 DPF. Coexpression of sbGnRH and sGnRH transcripts was found in the TNgc. Using real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction, transcript levels of cGnRH-II and sGnRH were first detected at 1 and 1.5 DPF, respectively, and increased and remained high thereafter. Transcript levels of sbGnRH remained low after first detection at 1 DPF. Furthermore, these GnRH expression profiles were correlated with the expression profiles of reproduction-related genes in which at least four concomitant increases of GnRH, GnRH receptor, gonadotropin, gonadotropin receptor, and Vasa transcripts were found at 5, 8, 14, and 28 DPF. Our data provide an expanded view of the ontogeny of the GnRH system and reproductive axis in perciforms.

  12. A phylogeny of the temperate seabasses (Moronidae) characterized by a translocation of the mt-nd6 gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, E P; Peer, A C; Miller, T J; Secor, D H; Place, A R

    2012-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of the striped bass Morone saxatilis was sequenced together with the mitochondrial (mt) control regions of the white bass Morone chrysops, white perch Morone americana, yellow bass Morone mississippiensis, spotted seabass Dicentrarchus punctatus, European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. The resultant 17 580 base pair circular genome of M. saxatilis contains 38 genes (13 proteins, 23 transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs) and a control region bordered by the proline and phenylalanine mitochondrial tRNAs. Gene arrangement was similar to other vertebrates, except that the mt-nd6 gene was found within the control region rather than the canonical position between the mt-nd5 and mt-cyb genes. This translocation was found in all the Morone and Dicentrarchus species studied without functional copies or pseudogenes in the ancestral position. In L. japonicus, the mt-nd6 gene was found in the canonical position without evidence of an mt-nd6 gene in the control region. A Bayesian analysis of these and published mt-nd6 sequences from 45 other Perciformes grouped the Morone and Dicentrarchus species monophyletically with a probability of 1·00 with respect to L. japonicus and all other perciforms, and placed the Dicentrarchus species in the basal position. These data reinforce current placement of L. japonicus outside the Moronidae and provide a clear evolutionary character to define this family. The phylogeny of the Moronidae presented here also supports the hypothesis of an anadromous common ancestor to this family that gave rise to the North American estuarine and freshwater species. A series of tandem repeats previously reported in M. saxatilis was found in the control region of all Morone species between the mt-nd6 and mt-rnr1 genes, but not in either Dicentrarchus species, which reinforces the continued use of these two separate genera. PMID:22220893

  13. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  14. Hysterothylacium simile n. sp. and H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) from marine fishes in the Bohai and Yellow Sea, China, with comments on the record of H. paralichthydis (Yamaguti, 1941) from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Hysterothylacium simile n. sp., collected from the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Lateolabracidae) in the Bohai Sea off China, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the presence of narrow lateral alae originating a short distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips, a long intestinal caecum (60.4-79.1% of oesophageal length) and a relatively short ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:0.58-0.85), long spicules (2.11-2.99 mm, 4.25-7.83% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (32-36 pairs arranged as follows: 27-31 pairs precloacal, 1 pair paracloacal, and 4-5 pairs postcloacal with the second or third pair double) and the presence of a particular midventral precloacal papilla. Specimens originally identified as Contracaecum paralichthydis Yamaguti, 1941 [now H. paralichthydis (Yamaguti, 1941)] by Xü (1957), collected from the yellow striped flounder Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder) (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae) in the Yellow Sea off China, were also re-examined. Their morphology clearly revealed they belong to H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), which is also redescribed based on Xü's material. In addition, the morphological variation of caudal papillae in H. aduncum from P. herzensteini was compared, using scanning electron microscopy, with specimens collected from another three fish hosts, Lophius litulon (Jordan) (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), Scomberomorus niphonius (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Scombridae) and Cleisthenes herzensteini (Schmidt) (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae), from the Yellow Sea off China. PMID:23263941

  15. Novel relationships among ten fish model species revealed based on a phylogenomic analysis using ESTs.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2006-06-01

    The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the

  16. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  17. Novel relationships among ten fish model species revealed based on a phylogenomic analysis using ESTs.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2006-06-01

    The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the

  18. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed. PMID:26233306

  19. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  20. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A; Saunders, Thor M; Barton, Diane P; Taylor, Jonathan A; Welch, David J; Newman, Stephen J; Travers, Michael J; Saunders, Richard J; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1-1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10-13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification. PMID:27635362

  1. Patterns of recruitment and microhabitat associations for three predatory coral reef fishes on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, C. K. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Almany, G. R.; Jones, G. P.

    2013-06-01

    This study examined recruitment patterns and microhabitat associations for three carnivorous fishes, Plectropomus maculatus, Lutjanus carponotatus and Epinephelus quoyanus, at the Keppel Islands, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Habitat selectivity was highest for recruits that were found mostly with corymbose Acropora, predominantly on patches of live coral located over loose substrates (sand). Adults were more commonly associated with tabular Acropora. The proportion of P. maculatus (72 %) found with live corals was higher than for L. carponotatus (68 %) and E. quoyanus (44 %). Densities of recruits were highly variable among locations, but this was only partly related to availability of preferred microhabitats. Our findings demonstrate that at least some carnivorous reef fishes, especially during early life-history stages, strongly associate with live corals. Such species will be highly sensitive to increasing degradation of coral reef habitats.

  2. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  3. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million.

  4. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test. PMID:26611089

  5. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  6. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A.; Saunders, Thor M.; Barton, Diane P.; Taylor, Jonathan A.; Welch, David J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Travers, Michael J.; Saunders, Richard J.; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification. PMID:27635362

  7. Rare parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) from Egyptian Red Sea fishes.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-10-01

    Two rare species of parasitic copepods belonging to the genus Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from Red Sea fishes, caught at El-Tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Adult females of Lernanthropus sanguineus Song & Chen, 1976 were found on the gills of snapper Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description based on material from Chinese waters. Adult females of Lernanthropus triangularis Pillai, 1963 were obtained from the gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters and both host records are new. PMID:27638733

  8. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  9. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A.; Saunders, Thor M.; Barton, Diane P.; Taylor, Jonathan A.; Welch, David J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Travers, Michael J.; Saunders, Richard J.; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification.

  10. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving.

  11. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A; Saunders, Thor M; Barton, Diane P; Taylor, Jonathan A; Welch, David J; Newman, Stephen J; Travers, Michael J; Saunders, Richard J; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1-1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10-13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification.

  12. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed.

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies.

  14. The functional role of tabular structures for large reef fishes: avoiding predators or solar irradiance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Large reef fishes may often be seen sheltering under tabular structures on coral reefs. There are two principle explanations for this behaviour: avoidance of predation or avoidance of solar irradiance. This study sought supporting evidence to distinguish between these two explanations by examining the usage of tabular structures on a shallow mid-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef at midday and sunset. If predation avoidance is most important, usage should increase towards sunset; conversely, if avoidance of solar radiation is most important, more fishes should use cover at midday. Underwater video observations revealed that tabular structures were extensively used by large reef fishes at midday, being characterised by numerous species, especially Lutjanidae and Haemulidae. In contrast, at sunset, tabular structures were used by significantly fewer large reef fishes, being characterised mostly by species of unicornfish ( Naso spp.). Resident times of fishes using tabular structures were also significantly longer at midday (28:06 ± 5:55 min) than at sunset (07:47 ± 2:19 min). The results suggest that the primary function of tabular structures for large reef fishes is the avoidance of solar irradiance. This suggestion is supported by the position of fishes when sheltering. The majority of large reef fishes were found to shelter under the lip of tabular structure, facing outwards. This behaviour is thought to allow protection from harmful downwelling UV-B irradiance while allowing the fish to retain photopic vision and survey more of the surrounding area. These findings help to explain the importance of tabular structures for large reef fishes on coral reefs, potentially providing a valuable energetic refuge from solar irradiance.

  15. Mangrove habitat use by juvenile reef fish: meta-analysis reveals that tidal regime matters more than biogeographic region.

    PubMed

    Igulu, Mathias M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Dorenbosch, Martijn; Grol, Monique G G; Harborne, Alastair R; Kimirei, Ismael A; Mumby, Peter J; Olds, Andrew D; Mgaya, Yunus D

    2014-01-01

    Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae) showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future. PMID:25551761

  16. Fishes in mangrove prop-root habitats of northeastern Florida Bay: Distinct assemblages across an estuarine gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ley, J.A.; McIvor, Carole; Montague, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal changes in freshwater inflow and other environmental conditions may induce changes in density and species composition of mangrove fishes along estuarine gradients. Fishes within mangrove habitats in a subtropical estuary were sampled monthly from May 1989 to May 1990, using block nets with rotenone and visual censuses. At 18 stations, temperature ranged from 22 to 34°C, depth from 10 to 104cm and underwater visibility from 1 to 13m. Salinity ranged from 0 to 60 upstream, and 35 to 54 mid- and downstream. A total of 573191 individuals (76 species) was observed or collected, with an average density of 6·5 fish m−2. Engraulidae, Atherinidae, Poeciliidae and Cyprinodontidae numerically dominated the assemblage. Distinct assemblages occurred up-, mid- and downstream and maintained coherent groups in these gradient positions over the seasons. Residents totalled 94·5% of the individuals, estuarine transients comprised 5·1% and occasional marine visitors were less than 0·4%. Densities of resident fishes peaked in winter as temperatures and water levels fell, uncorrelated with changes in salinity. These observations suggest that mangrove habitats may sustain diverse and abundant fish communities dominated by euryhaline residents. Although estuarine transients were consistently rare in upstream sub-basins, downstream were found numerous sub-adults of species occurring as adults on nearby reefs (Lutjanidae, Haemulidae). Thus, reef-associated estuarine transients may be abundant in mangrove habitats having near-marine salinities. Contrary to expectations, mangrove habitats in northeastern Florida bay did not function as a nursery as defined under the nursery-ground paradigm: young-of-the-year juveniles of estuarine transient species did not seek low salinity sub-basins. However, northeastern Florida Bay may not be representative of most mangrove estuaries as the area: (1) is without lunar tides and related circulation; (2) has low and variable amounts of

  17. Mangrove habitat use by juvenile reef fish: meta-analysis reveals that tidal regime matters more than biogeographic region.

    PubMed

    Igulu, Mathias M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Dorenbosch, Martijn; Grol, Monique G G; Harborne, Alastair R; Kimirei, Ismael A; Mumby, Peter J; Olds, Andrew D; Mgaya, Yunus D

    2014-01-01

    Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae) showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future.

  18. Fishes in Mangrove Prop-root Habitats of Northeastern Florida Bay: Distinct Assemblages across an Estuarine Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, J. A.; McIvor, C. C.; Montague, C. L.

    1999-06-01

    Seasonal changes in freshwater inflow and other environmental conditions may induce changes in density and species composition of mangrove fishes along estuarine gradients. Fishes within mangrove habitats in a subtropical estuary were sampled monthly from May 1989 to May 1990, using block nets with rotenone and visual censuses. At 18 stations, temperature ranged from 22 to 34°C, depth from 10 to 104cm and underwater visibility from 1 to 13m. Salinity ranged from 0 to 60 upstream, and 35 to 54 mid- and downstream. A total of 573191 individuals (76 species) was observed or collected, with an average density of 6·5 fish m -2. Engraulidae, Atherinidae, Poeciliidae and Cyprinodontidae numerically dominated the assemblage. Distinct assemblages occurred up-, mid- and downstream and maintained coherent groups in these gradient positions over the seasons. Residents totalled 94·5% of the individuals, estuarine transients comprised 5·1% and occasional marine visitors were less than 0·4%. Densities of resident fishes peaked in winter as temperatures and water levels fell, uncorrelated with changes in salinity. These observations suggest that mangrove habitats may sustain diverse and abundant fish communities dominated by euryhaline residents. Although estuarine transients were consistently rare in upstream sub-basins, downstream were found numerous sub-adults of species occurring as adults on nearby reefs (Lutjanidae, Haemulidae). Thus, reef-associated estuarine transients may be abundant in mangrove habitats having near-marine salinities. Contrary to expectations, mangrove habitats in northeastern Florida bay did not function as a nursery as defined under the nursery-ground paradigm: young-of-the-year juveniles of estuarine transient species did not seek low salinity sub-basins. However, northeastern Florida Bay may not be representative of most mangrove estuaries as the area: (1) is without lunar tides and related circulation; (2) has low and variable amounts of

  19. A comparison of fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a Caribbean island, based on species, families, size distribution and functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2004-08-01

    Differences in fish community structure between different estuaries, lagoons and bays can be very large, and generalisations are complicated by the use of a wide variety of sampling methods. In the present study, fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a single Caribbean island were therefore sampled using a uniform method. The objective of the study was to determine whether the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats of various embayments are characterised by typical fish assemblages which differ in terms of taxa (species, families), size classes (life stages) and functional groups (ecological species groups, feeding time and diet). This was linked to the hypothesis that differences in fish assemblages between habitats in different embayments are larger at taxonomic levels than at the level of functional groups. A second objective was to determine the most useful discriminating features between the two habitat types. The above hypothesis was rejected, since differences in fish assemblages from different seagrass and sandy seabed sites did not increase from functional to taxonomic level, but from size class to diet/species to family/feeding time to ecological species group. However, the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats could each be characterised by typical fish assemblages which differed in taxonomical and functional group composition, irrespective of differences in environmental and biotic variables between the embayments in which these habitats were situated. The two habitat types could be best characterised on the basis of fish family, ecological species group, feeding time and size distribution. Seagrass beds mainly harboured nocturnally active nursery species (Haemulidae, Lutjanidae, etc.), whose relative abundance was related to vegetation (mainly seagrass) cover. Sandy seabeds mainly harboured diurnally active bay species (Gerreidae, etc.) whose relative abundance was related to cover of bare sand. Similarities

  20. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  1. Mangrove Habitat Use by Juvenile Reef Fish: Meta-Analysis Reveals that Tidal Regime Matters More than Biogeographic Region

    PubMed Central

    Igulu, Mathias M.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Dorenbosch, Martijn; Grol, Monique G. G.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Kimirei, Ismael A.; Mumby, Peter J.; Olds, Andrew D.; Mgaya, Yunus D.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae) showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future. PMID:25551761

  2. Cloning of stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs of divergent teleost species: Monomeric STC supports monophyly of the ancient teleosts, the osteoglossomorphs.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yutaka; Irwin, David M; Youson, John H

    2006-10-01

    Molecular cloning of teleost stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs was undertaken in two species of order Osteoglossiformes of subdivision Osteoglossomorpha and one species of each of orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes within the subdivision Euteleostei. The elephantnose (Gnathonemus petersii) and the butterflyfish (Pantadon buchholzi) are basal teleosts in different osteoglossiforme suborders yet their 218 amino acid (aa) mature hormones, from prehormones of 249 and 251aa, respectively, have only 10 cysteine residues. A substitution for cysteine at the intermonomeric disulfide linkage site, implies that their STCs exist as monomeric peptides, as is the case with STC from another osteoglossormorph, arawana [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. The STC cDNA of the generalized teleost and cyprinid, the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), encodes a prehormone of 249aa with a signal peptide of 31aa and a mature protein of 218aa that possesses 11 cysteine residues. The latter feature is consistent with a previous analysis that white sucker mature STC is a glycosylated, homodimeric peptide [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. An open reading frame of the STC cDNA of the derived teleost and perciforme, the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), encodes a prehormone of 255aa with a signal peptide of 33aa and a mature protein of 222aa. The position of the 11 cysteines in smallmouth bass STC suggests that it exists as a homodimeric peptide. A phylogenetic analysis, using the new STC-1 amino acid sequences and those in the gene data base provided strong support for monophyly of the Osteoglossomorpha and indicated, with positioning of

  3. Isolation and characterization of a bluegill-degrading microorganism, and analysis of the root hair-promoting effect of the degraded products.

    PubMed

    Sanpa, Sirilak; Sumiyoshi, Sayoko; Kujira, Tadakazu; Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Kubo, Motoki

    2006-02-01

    Bluegill-degrading bacteria were isolated from various environmental sources. Brevibacillus sp. BGM1 degraded bluegill efficiently at 50 degrees C, and its culture supernatant showed the highest peptide and amino acid concentrations as trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble fraction (ASF) (10.7 mg/ml) of all supernatants obtained with bluegill as a substrate. Strain BGM1 secreted a protease(s) into the medium, and the concentration of peptides and amino acids gradually increased. The fertile effect of the degraded bluegill products (DGP) on Brassica rapa was also investigated. The root hair density of B. rapa grown with DGP at a concentration of 30 mug peptides and amino acids/ml was about 1.7 times higher than when grown with the same concentration of undegraded bluegill. DGP was shown to increase root hair numbers and adventitious root formation. The results of this study suggest that a specific peptide(s) for promotion of root hair is produced from the order Perciformes with a protease(s) from BGM1.

  4. Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-11-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.

  5. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  6. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  7. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with differential body size in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Tian, Changxu; Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Guo, Wenjie; Lv, Liyuan; Wang, Qingchao; Song, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Body size is an obvious and important characteristic of fish. Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) is one of the most valuable perciform species widely cultured in China. Individual differences in body size are common in mandarin fish and significantly influence the aquaculture production. However, little is currently known about its genetic control. In this study, digital gene expression profiling and transcriptome sequencing were performed in mandarin fish with differential body size at 30 and 180 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. Body weight, total length and body length of fish with big-size were significantly higher than those with small-size at both 30 and 180 dph (P < 0.05). 2171 and 2014 differentially expressed genes were identified between small-size and big-size fish at 30 and 180 dph, respectively. RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the differential expression of 10 selected genes in mandarin fish that went through the same training procedure. The genes were involved in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis, cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, glucose metabolism, reproduction and sexual size dimorphism pathways. This study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of regulation of body size in mandarin fish individuals and provide valuable information for future research. PMID:27393605

  9. Fish assemblage structure of the Ipanema River, a small lotic environment partially protected by a Conservation Unit in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A K; Apone, F; Birindelli, J L O; Garavello, J C

    2013-05-01

    A study on the fish assemblage of the Ipanema River, a small affluent of the Tietê River basin in southeastern Brazil, was performed aiming to look for structural patterns of species diversity in small lowland lotic environments. Fish samplings were performed every two months from June 2003 to April 2004 at four sample sites located on the lower stretch of the river. Local assemblage showed to be species rich, with fifty-two species belonging to Characiformes (25 spp.), Siluriformes (19 spp.), Cyprinodontiformes (3 spp.), Gymnotiformes (2 spp.), Perciformes (2 spp.), and Synbranchiformes (1 sp.). Fish fauna was composed of small-sized species (<200 mm SL) and by individuals of medium (up to 400 mm SL) to large (more than 400 mm SL) sized species. The Ipanema River, such as other small lotic transitional environments in the upper Paraná River drainage, is considered important for conservation of fish fauna because they cover available habitats for persistent populations of small-sized species and for non-persistent individuals or shoals of medium and large-sized fish species, which occupy other habitats along their life-history (e. g. floodplains, oxbow lakes, main channel of great rivers). The importance of the Ipanema River basin for fish fauna conservation is also reinforced by the fact that it is located in a highly impacted region of southeastern Brazil, near the São Paulo metropolitan area. PMID:23917553

  10. [Electron microscopic observation of synaptonemal complexes in spermatocytes of six species of fishes].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Yu, Q X

    1991-01-01

    The synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in spermatocytes of six species of fishes were detected with a combination of surface spreading and silver staining technique and observed under both light and electron microscopes. These fishes are Tilapia nilotica, T. mossambica and Mastacembelus sinensis of Perciformes. Sarcocheilichthys nigripinnis, Pseudorasbora parva and Hemibarbus maculatus of Gobioninae in Cypriniformes. The formation of SCs started in Zygotene and completed at Pachytene. During the pachytene, each SC was morphologically intact, preferentially stained and attached to the nuclear envelope by a dense terminal plaque. Interlock in SCs frequently occurred in Zygotene. In several cases breakage and disentangling of interlocked lateral elements were observed. SCs disappeared in diplotene. The pairing of the SCs started at telomeres and stretched towards kinetochore. The sex determination of Mastacembelus sinensis was xx/xy. The X and Y chromosomal SCs' axes had a distinctive morphology at pachytene and were clearly distinguishable from autosomal SCs. The X and Y chromosomes begain to pair at early pachytene. The X and Y chromosome axes paired to form a length of SC that is somewhat longer than the unpaired portion at the mid-pachytene. There was a dense substance at unpaired portion. Quantitatine evaluation demonstrated that relative length and arm ratio were distinctive characteristics for each autosomal SC. The consistency of relative length and arm ratio indicates the stability of the techniques. The idiograms of SC karyotypes of three species (Tilapia niloticus, T. mossambicus and Mastacembelus sinensis) have been constructed.

  11. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  12. Morphology and small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of Ceratomyxa amazonensis n. sp. parasite of Symphysodon discus, an ornamental freshwater fish from Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Patrick D; Naldoni, Juliana; Maia, Antonio A; Adriano, Edson A

    2016-10-01

    The specious genus Ceratomyxa Thélodan, 1892, infect mainly gallbladder of marine fishes, with only five species reported infecting species from freshwater environment. This study performed morphological and phylogenetic analyses involving a new Ceratomyxa species (Ceratomyxa amazonensis n. sp.) found in gallbladder of Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), an important ornamental fish endemic to Amazon basin. Mature spores were strongly arcuate shaped and measured 7.0 ± 0.3 (6.2-7.6) μm in length, 15.8 ± 0.4 (15.0-16.7) μm in thickness, and polar capsules 3.22 ± 0.34 (2.4-3.6) μm in length and 2.63 ± 0.17 (2.4-2.9) μm in width. This was the first small subunit ribosomal DNA (SS rDNA) sequencing performed to Ceratomyxa species parasite of freshwater fish, and the phylogenetic analysis showed C. amazonensis n. sp. clustering in the early diverging subclade of the ceratomyxids, together with species of parasites of amphidromous/estuaries fishes, suggesting some role of the transition of the fishes between marine/freshwater environments in the evolutionary history of these parasites. PMID:27314232

  13. Input data for inferring species distributions in Kyphosidae world-wide.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D

    2016-09-01

    Input data files for inferring the relationship among the family Kyphosidae, as presented in (Knudsen and Clements, 2016) [1], is here provided together with resulting topologies, to allow the reader to explore the topologies in detail. The input data files comprise seven nexus-files with sequence alignments of mtDNA and nDNA markers for performing Bayesian analysis. A matrix of recoded character states inferred from the morphology examined in museum specimens representing Dichistiidae, Girellidae, Kyphosidae, Microcanthidae and Scorpididae, is also provided, and can be used for performing a parsimonious analysis to infer the relationship among these perciform families. The nucleotide input data files comprise both multiple and single representatives of the various species to allow for inference of the relationship among the species in Kyphosidae and between the families closely related to Kyphosidae. The '.xml'-files with various constrained relationships among the families potentially closely related to Kyphosidae are also provided to allow the reader to rerun and explore the results from the stepping-stone analysis. The resulting topologies are supplied in newick-file formats together with input data files for Bayesian analysis, together with '.xml'-files. Re-running the input data files in the appropriate software, will enable the reader to examine log-files and tree-files themselves. PMID:27508256

  14. Use of comparative genomics to develop EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Portnoy, David S; Gold, John R

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellites physically linked to expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs) are an important resource for linkage mapping and comparative genomics, and data mining in publicly available EST databases is a common strategy for EST-SSR discovery. At present, many species lack species-specific EST sequence data needed for the efficient characterization of EST-SSRs. This paper describes the discovery and development of EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an estuarine-dependent sciaenid species of economic importance in the USA and elsewhere, using a phylogenetically informed, comparative genomics approach to primer design. The approach entailed comparing existing genomic resources from species closely allied phylogenetically to red drum, with resources from more distantly related outgroup species. By taking into account the degree to which flanking regions are conserved across taxa, the efficiency of PCR primer design was increased greatly. The amplification success rate for primers designed for red drum was 100 % when using EST libraries from confamilial species and 92 % when using an EST library from a species in the same suborder. The primers developed also amplified EST-SSRs in a wide range of perciform fishes, suggesting potential use in comparative genomics. This study demonstrates that EST-SSRs can be efficiently developed for an organism when limited species-specific data are available by exploiting genomic resources from well-studied species, even those at extended phylogenetic distances. PMID:22527270

  15. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources. PMID:27761307

  16. Gymnocranius superciliosus and Gymnocranius satoi, two new large-eye breams (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe; Béarez, Philippe; Paijo, Sobar; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Two related perciform fish species of the subfamily Monotaxinae (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) Gymnocranius superciliosus sp. nov. and Gymnocranius satoi sp. nov. are described from specimens and tissue samples from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. G. superciliosus sp. nov. is distinct from all other known Gymnocranius spp. by the following combination of characters: body elongated (depth 2.7-3.1 in standard length), caudal fin moderately forked with a subtle middle notch, its lobes slightly convex inside, distinctive blackish eyebrow, snout and cheek with blue speckles, and dorsal, pectoral, anal and caudal fins reddish. G. satoi sp. nov. is the red-finned 'Gymnocranius sp.' depicted in previous taxonomic revisions. While colour patterns are similar between the two species, G. satoi sp. nov. is distinct from G. superciliosus sp. nov. by the ratio of standard length to body depth (2.4-2.5 vs. 2.7-3.1) and by the shape of the caudal fin, which is more shallowly forked, its lobes convex inside and their extremities rounded. The two species are genetically distinct from each other and they are genetically distinct from G. elongatus, G. euanus, G. grandoculis, and G. oblongus sampled from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. PMID:23849726

  17. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  18. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Black-spot tuskfish (Choerodon schoenleinii).

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Li, Wenshen; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    Choerodon schoenleinii, a critically endangered ocean fish, is also a highly prized commercial fish. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of C. schoenleinii based on NGS. The length of C. schoenleinii mitochondrial genome is 16,504 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a D-loop. The gene order and the composition of mitochondrial genome in C. schoenleinii were similar to other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.23% of A, 30.51% of C,24.04% of T, and 17.22% of G. Except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, the rest of mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The construction of phylogenetic trees based on the entire mitochondrial genome sequence of 11 Perciformes species constructed by the NJ method has suggested that the Choerodon schoenleinii has closer relationship to the Chlorurus sordidus, Scarus ruborviolaceus, Scarus forsteri, and Scarus schlegeli, and that they constitute a sister group.

  20. The Kiss2 receptor (Kiss2r) gene in Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii and in Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi - functional analysis and isolation of transcript variants.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, J N; Biran, J; Lee, Y Y; Levavi-Sivan, B; Mechaly, A S; Zohar, Y; Elizur, A

    2012-10-15

    The kisspeptin system plays an essential role in reproductive function in vertebrates, particularly in the onset of puberty. We investigated the kisspeptin system in two Perciform teleosts, the Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT; Thunnus maccoyii), and the Yellowtail Kingfish (YTK; Seriola lalandi), by characterising their kisspeptin 2 receptor (Kiss2r) genes. In addition to the full length Kiss2r cDNA sequences, we have isolated from SBT and YTK a transcript variant that retained an intron. We have further obtained three ytkKiss2r transcript variants that contained deletions. In vitro functional analysis of the full length SBT and YTK Kiss2r showed higher response to Kiss2-10 than to Kiss1-10, with stronger transduction via PKC than PKA. The full length ytkKiss2r and two deletion variants were differentially expressed in the brain of male, but not in female, juvenile YTK treated with increasing doses of Kiss2-10 peptide. In the gonads, the expression level of the ytkKiss2r transcripts did not vary significantly either in the male or female fish. This is the first time that transcript variants of the Kiss2r gene that contain deletions and show responsiveness to treatments with kisspeptin have been reported in any teleost. PMID:22824208

  1. Structural characterization of carangid fish myoglobins.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Mehedi; Watabe, Shugo; Ochiai, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    The primary structures of myoglobin (Mb) from the following five carangid species were determined: yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata, greater amberjack Seriola dumerili, yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi, Japanese horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus, and silver trevally Pseudocaranx dentex. The sequences were of varying composition both in the coding and in the noncoding regions, but all contained the open reading frame of 444 nucleotides encoding 147 amino acids. Amino acid sequence identities of carangid Mbs were in the range of 81-99%. The similarity of the heme pocket and associated heme-binding residues of carangid Mbs were evidence of the conservative nature of Mbs. Similar to the other teleost Mbs, carangid Mbs did not contain a D helix and had mostly conserved A and E helices as well as E-F and G-H inter-helical segments. Hydropathy profiles of carangid Mbs showed species-specific variations where silver trevally Mb exhibited generally higher hydrophobicity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the primary structures was in agreement with conventional morphological taxonomy, establishing close proximity of carangid Mbs with those of cichlid and scombroid, the other members of the Perciformes order. PMID:22361749

  2. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  3. Turbellarian black spot disease in bluespine unicornfish Naso unicornis in New Caledonia, caused by the parasitic turbellarian Piscinquilinus sp.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Leblanc, Philippe; Keller, Florent; Lester, Robert J G

    2009-07-23

    Turbellarian black spot disease is described in a bluespine unicornfish Naso unicornis (Perciformes, Acanthuridae) collected from the wild off Nouméa, New Caledonia, South Pacific. Each cyst contained a whitish worm, 2 to 4 mm in length, which was able to swim freely in seawater. Cyst walls consisted of fibrous tissue with a scattering of melanocytes. Worms had 2 eyespots at the anterior end, a pharynx at the posterior end and a largely undeveloped reproductive system. They were identified as Piscinquilinus sp. (= Ichthyophaga sp.), a genostomatid turbellarian. The disease spread within 2 wk from a single infected fish to 3 other unicornfish in the same tank, in spite of copper sulphate and diluted seawater treatment; however, other fish from several families kept in the same tank were not infected, suggesting specificity of these parasites. Praziquantel injections into the infected fish eliminated the infection. Other cases of turbellarian infections are reported from 7 fish species off New Caledonia; prevalence is very low (0.3%). PMID:19750813

  4. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  5. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae. PMID:24699571

  6. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  7. Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue?

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production. PMID:25088597

  8. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  9. Muscle water control in crustaceans and fishes as a function of habitat, osmoregulatory capacity, and degree of euryhalinity.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carolina A; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Luciana R; Veiga, Marcos P T; Vitule, Jean R S; Souza, Marta M; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at detecting possible patterns in the relationship between Anisosmotic Extracellular Regulation (AER) and Isosmotic Intracellular Regulation (IIR) in crustaceans and teleost fish from different habitats and evolutionary histories in fresh water (FW), thus different osmoregulatory capabilities, and degrees of euryhalinity. Crustaceans used were the hololimnetic FW Aegla schmitti, and Macrobrachium potiuna, the diadromous FW Macrobrachium acanthurus, the estuarine Palaemon pandaliformis and the marine Hepatus pudibundus; fishes used were the FW Corydoras ehrhardti, Mimagoniates microlepis, and Geophagus brasiliensis, and the marine-estuarine Diapterus auratus. The capacity for IIR was assessed in vitro following wet weight changes of isolated muscle slices incubated in anisosmotic saline (~50% change). M. potiuna was the crustacean with the highest capacity for IIR; the euryhaline perciforms G. brasiliensis and D. auratus displayed total capacity for IIR. It is proposed that a high capacity for IIR is required for invading a new habitat, but that it is later lost after a long time of evolution in a stable habitat, such as in the FW anomuran crab A. schmitti, and the Ostariophysian fishes C. ehrhardti and M. microlepis. More recent FW invaders such as the palaemonid shrimps (M. potiuna and M. acanthurus) and the cichlid G. brasiliensis are euryhaline and still display a high capacity for IIR.

  10. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided.

  11. Use of comparative genomics to develop EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Portnoy, David S; Gold, John R

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellites physically linked to expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs) are an important resource for linkage mapping and comparative genomics, and data mining in publicly available EST databases is a common strategy for EST-SSR discovery. At present, many species lack species-specific EST sequence data needed for the efficient characterization of EST-SSRs. This paper describes the discovery and development of EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an estuarine-dependent sciaenid species of economic importance in the USA and elsewhere, using a phylogenetically informed, comparative genomics approach to primer design. The approach entailed comparing existing genomic resources from species closely allied phylogenetically to red drum, with resources from more distantly related outgroup species. By taking into account the degree to which flanking regions are conserved across taxa, the efficiency of PCR primer design was increased greatly. The amplification success rate for primers designed for red drum was 100 % when using EST libraries from confamilial species and 92 % when using an EST library from a species in the same suborder. The primers developed also amplified EST-SSRs in a wide range of perciform fishes, suggesting potential use in comparative genomics. This study demonstrates that EST-SSRs can be efficiently developed for an organism when limited species-specific data are available by exploiting genomic resources from well-studied species, even those at extended phylogenetic distances.

  12. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  13. Linking the genomes of nonmodel teleosts through comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, E; Nousdili, D; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G

    2008-01-01

    Recently the genomes of two more teleost species have been released: the medaka (Oryzias latipes), and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculateus). The rapid developments in genomics of fish species paved the way to new and valuable research in comparative genetics and genomics. With the accumulation of information in model species, the genetic and genomic characterization of nonmodel, but economically important species, is now feasible. Furthermore, comparison of low coverage gene maps of aquacultured fish species against fully sequenced fish species will enhance the efficiency of candidate genes identification projected for quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans for traits of commercial interest. This study shows the syntenic relationship between the genomes of six different teleost species, including three fully sequenced model species: Tetraodon nigroviridis, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculateus, and three marine species of commercial and evolutionary interest: Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax, Oreochromis spp. All three commercial fish species belong to the order Perciformes, which is the richest in number of species (approximately 10,000) but poor in terms of available genomic information and tools. Syntenic relationships were established by using 800 EST and microsatellites sequences successfully mapped on the RH map of seabream. Comparison to the stickleback genome produced most positive BLAT hits (58%) followed by medaka (32%) and Tetraodon (30%). Thus, stickleback was used as the major stepping stone to compare seabass and tilapia to seabream. In addition to the significance for the aquaculture industry, this approach can encompass important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:18297360

  14. Morphology, histology and phylogeny of Henneguya sinova sp. nov. (Myxobolidae: Myxozoa) infecting gills of Parablennius tentacularis in the Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özer, A; Özkan, H; Gürkanlı, C T; Yurakhno, V; Çiftçi, Y

    2016-03-30

    Myxosporeans of the genus Henneguya have a global distribution and infect organs and tissues of both marine and freshwater fishes. Here we describe the morphological, histological and molecular characteristics of Henneguya sinova sp. nov. parasitizing the gill arches of tentacled blenny Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes: Blenniidae) collected from the coast of Sinop on the Black Sea in Turkey. Several oval whitish plasmodia of different sizes in the gill arches of fish were found. The mature spores were rounded oval in frontal view, with a mean (range) total length 57.5 (51.5-68.0) µm; the spore body was 11.7 (11.3-12.0) µm in length by 7.6 (7.3-8.3) µm in width and 6.7 (6.6-6.8) µm in thickness. The caudal appendages, measuring 46.0 (40.0-55.0) µm in length, were very thin at the tapered end. The prevalence of infection by H. sinova sp. nov. was 35.5%. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) clearly suggested H. sinova as a new species which is clustered within the marine Henneguya lineage. Pairwise nucleotide similarities and DNA distance values of SSU rDNA between H. sinova sp. nov. and other related Henneguya species also supported this suggestion.

  15. Molecular and morphological evidence for the widespread distribution of Laticola paralatesi infecting wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chotnipat, Soranot; Miller, Terrence L; Knuckey, Richard M; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-04-01

    Infections with monogeneans of the Diplectanidae can limit productivity of and cause considerable health issues for fish in aquaculture. To date, 9 species of diplectanids have been reported from the Asian sea bass or barramundi Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae) in the Asia-Pacific region. This study characterised the diplectanid parasite fauna found infecting wild and farmed barramundi from 5 localities in tropical Australia, including north Queensland and Western Australia. A combination of morphometric and comparative genetic analyses of partial 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) from specimens recovered were used to confirm their identity and to explore relationships with other diplectanids. These data revealed that a single, dominant species of diplectanid, Laticola paralatesi, infects wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in tropical Australia. Laticola lingaoensis Yang, Kritsky, Sun, Jiangying, Shi & Agrawal, 2006 is synonymised with L. seabassi (Wu, Li, Zhu & Xie, 2005) Domingues & Boeger, 2008 based on the combination of the host infected (Lates calcarifer), geographic distribution, distinct morphological similarity, and identical 28S rRNA sequence data identified here. Laticola seabassi is now designated as the type species of Laticola due to nomenclatural priority.

  16. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  17. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  18. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  19. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  20. Fish gills alterations as potential biomarkers of environmental quality in a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A A; Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Mendes, R M M; Sales, A

    2012-06-01

    Gill anomalies in three common fish species of different taxonomic order, habitat dwelling and feeding habits (one Characiformes, Oligosarcus hepsetus; one Siluriformes, Hypostomus auroguttatus; and one Perciformes, Geophagus brasiliensis) from a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern in Brazil were compared. The aim of this study was to search for sentinel species that could be used as potential biomarkers of environmental quality. Most fish had gills with histological changes, namely epithelial lifting, interstitial oedema, leucocyte infiltration, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, lamellar fusion, vasodilatation and necrosis. On the other hand, lamellar blood congestion and lamellar aneurysm, which are more serious and often irreversible changes, were recorded for the water column carnivorous O. hepsetus and, to a lesser extent, for the bottom-dwelling detritivorous H. auroguttatus. A histopathological alteration index (HAI) based on the occurrence and severity of gills anomalies indicated that O. hepsetus (mean score = 11.4) had significantly higher values (Kruskall-Wallis H(2,41) = 15.95, P = 0.0003) compared with G. brasiliensis (mean score = 7.0). Overall, the omnivorous G. brasiliensis had comparatively lesser occurrence of most gill anomalies compared with other two species, being less suitable as biomarker of environmental quality. In contrast, the water column-dweller O. hepsetus (water column) and the bottom-dweller H. auroguttatus had gills most susceptible to changes, making them more suitable for using as histological biomarkers of the environmental quality in entrophized tropical rivers.