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Sample records for lutze ulrich stachow

  1. On the type series of Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939) (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Colaço, Gustavo; Silva, Helio Ricardo Da

    2016-01-01

    The literature regarding the type series of Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939) presents two distinct numbers for the holotype. In 1973, thirty-four years after the description, Bertha Lutz associated numbers to the type series. This numbering has been followed by subsequent reviewers of Scinax ever since, with exception of Peixoto (1987) who assigned another number to the holotype. Our reevaluation of the literature and examination of the type series allowed us to access that, in both cases, the numbers were incorrectly assigned to the specimens and determine the proper museum numbers for this series. PMID:27615835

  2. Adolpho Lutz and the origins of medical entomology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, J L

    2005-12-01

    Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940) formed a bridge between the Bahian Tropicalist School and post-Mansonian medicine. Before taking over as head of the São Paulo Bacteriological Institute (1893), Lutz traveled through a variety of regions and delved into various disciplines. In the 1880s, he was already arguing that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes. Carbuncles, cholera, and typhoid fever were then the accepted models for investigating the etiology of infectious diseases. Following the discovery of how malaria was transmitted, attention turned to hematophagous diptera. Physicians, bacteriologists, zoologists, and veterinarians reshaped the network of actors involved in the 'hunt' for the agents and transmitters of diseases, as they began relying on analogies with malaria and yellow fever. Edwin Ray Lankester, director of the British Museum (Natural History), launched then a worldwide investigation into species that might be linked to human disease. The species described by Lutz and his proposed classification system were vital to Frederick Theobald's fundamental work in medical entomology, published in the early twentieth century. In 1908, Lutz brought with him to the Oswaldo Cruz Institute a remarkable quantity of research and experiments in all branches of the newly created "tropical medicine," devoted especially to entomology.

  3. Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

  4. New Neotropical Culicoides and redescription of Culicoides reticulatus Lutz (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Santarém, Maria Clara Alves; Da Trindade, Rosimeire Lopes; Da Silva, Tiago Do Nascimento; Castellón, Eloy Guillermo; Patiu, Cátia Antunes De Mello; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza

    2014-01-01

    Seven new species of the Culicoides reticulatus species group are described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia, Panama and Brazilian states of northern (Amazonas, Pará and Roraima) and southeast region (Rio de Janeiro). The new species are compared with their similar congener, Culicoides reticulatus Lutz, and a systematic key, table with numerical characters to the females of the species are provided. Redescription of Culicoides reticulatus Lutz is given based on type series deposited in the Ceratopogonidae Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. The distribution of these species is presented in figure 9.

  5. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  6. The DFVLR wind-energy test facility 'Ulrich Huetter' on Schnittlinger Berg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussmann, Alfred

    1986-11-01

    The DFVLR test facility for wind-energy systems (named after Ulrich Huetter, the designer of the 100-kW GFRP-rotor W 34 wind turbine first manufactured and tested in the 1950s) is described and illustrated with photographs. The history of the facility is traced, and current operations in gathering, archiving, processing, interpreting, and documenting performance-test data are outlined. The facility includes instrumentation for rotor telemetry, gondola motion measurements, and ground measurements and provides testing services to private users on both contract and leasing bases.

  7. Transforming sexuality: the medical sources of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-95) and the origins of the theory of bisexuality.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ross

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the medical references in the writings of the German jurist and activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs as a means of breaking new ground in diverse fields (including history of medicine, history of sexuality, and gender history). It demonstrates that the theory of bisexuality has a much deeper and more textured genealogy than has been hitherto appreciated and that dual-gendered bodies and minds must be better recognized as important through the nineteenth century. Specifically, it demonstrates that classifications and rhetoric of hermaphroditism, and other dual-gendered categories (e.g., sexual dualism and anatomical bisexuality), were deployed in diverse contexts through the period, often with little or no reference to the occurrence of genital ambiguities. Important discourses in embryology, utilized by Ulrichs, suggested that all individuals, in the earliest stages of fetal development, were hermaphroditic. In making an analogy among the ontogeny of sex anatomy, hermaphroditism, and the development of erotic preferences, Ulrichs sought to naturalize homoeroticism, rendering social and legal prohibitions untenable. His advocacy, however, was counterbalanced by the Prussian forensic expert Johann Ludwig Casper who had made some conceptual maneuvers similar to Ulrichs only couched in the rhetoric of pathology. Ulrichs was equivocal in his use of forensic works such as Casper's, condemning their authors but recognizing similarities with his own gender schema.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP-DR1) catalogs (Lutz+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bongiovanni, A.; Brisbin, D.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wetzstein, M.; Wieprecht, E.

    2013-11-01

    PACS catalogs built by the PEP team, with key contributions by Stefano Berta, Benjamin Magnelli, Paola Popesso, Dieter Lutz, Francesca Pozzi, Bruno Altieri, Herve Aussel, Hoseong Hwang, Emeric Le Floc'h, Georgios Magdis, Raanan Nordon, Albrecht Poglitsch, Laurie Riguccini, Amelie Saintonge, Li Shao. For more details, please refer to Lutz et al. (2011A&A...532A..90L) and to the PDF documentation associated to the release. Data and catalogs can be retrieved from the web page http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/Research/PEP/publicdatareleases.php See the PDF documentation associated to the PEP DR1 release, http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_global.pdf and http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_SPIRE.pdf for more details. (69 data files).

  9. Are we ready for sexual reorientation therapy in the U.S. military? A response to David W. Lutz.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In his paper "The Catholic Church, the American Military, and Homosexual Reorientation Therapy," David W. Lutz ultimately concludes that it is "appropriate, and highly ethical" for the American military to offer reorientation therapy to help homosexuals overcome "the vice of sodomy." The major thrust of his paper, however, is to call for abandonment of the "Don't Ask/Don't Tell" policy currently in place in the military. Lutz's paper covers much ground, and this review begins by examining whether such a wide view is necessary for the ultimate conclusions. It goes on to ask whether Lutz has omitted to mention important considerations bearing on this issue, and whether Lutz's call for the introduction of reorientation therapy is a serious call or a symbolic response to homosexual activities. Lutz fails to address essential issues such as the actual experiences of other nations having homosexuals in the military, and issues regarding what constitutes "reorientation therapy," the latter leading to questions about how such a therapy would actually be implemented. PMID:15764097

  10. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of eggs of Georgecraigius fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae, Aedini).

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Juliana Soares; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Alencar, Jeronimo; Oliveira, Eliana Medeiros; De Mello, Cecilia Ferreira; De Freitas, Vinícios Ferreira; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir

    2014-04-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to describe the eggs of Georgecraigius fluviatilis (Lutz). Length is 722.8±39.6 µm and width is 177.1±9.8 µm. Diameter of the micropylar disk, surrounded by an irregular flattened collar, is 28 µm. The outer chorionic sculpture consists of cells of irregular shapes, containing tubercles with pitted surface. In the ventral region, tubercles of several diameters are irregularly distributed in chorionic cells, while in the dorsal region one larger tubercle is surrounded by several smaller ones. The eggs appear to lack structures for adhesion, certainly unnecessary due to the habit of laying eggs separately on water surfaces.

  12. A systematic revision of the ostracode species described by Ulrich and Bassler and by Malkin from the Chesapeake Group in Maryland and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Those ostracode species described by Ulrich and Bassler (1904) and Malkin (1953) from the Chesapeake Group of early Miocene to early Pleistocene age are treated systematically. Lectotypes are designated for all species which have syntypic suites and the lectotypes, holotypes, or hypotypes for all but two species are illustrated. A new genus Otikocythere is proposed, with Cythere punctistriata Ulrich and Bassler 1904 as the type species. A new species, Hulingsina calvertensis, is also proposed. All of the species are placed in an updated biostratigraphic framework.

  13. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Automation of the Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Litzenberg, D; Irrer, J; Kessler, M; Lam, K; Keranen, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize clinical efficiency and shorten patient wait time by minimizing the time and effort required to perform the Winston-Lutz test before stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) through automation of the delivery, analysis, and documentation of results. Methods: The radiation fields of the Winston-Lutz (WL) test were created in a “machine-QA patient” saved in ARIA for use before SRS cases. Images of the BRW target ball placed at mechanical isocenter are captured with the portal imager for each of four, 2cm×2cm, MLC-shaped beams. When the WL plan is delivered and closed, this event is detected by in-house software called EventNet which automates subsequent processes with the aid of the ARIA web services. Images are automatically retrieved from the ARIA database and analyzed to determine the offset of the target ball from radiation isocenter. The results are posted to a website and a composite summary image of the results is pushed back into ImageBrowser for review and authenticated documentation. Results: The total time to perform the test was reduced from 20-25 minutes to less than 4 minutes. The results were found to be more accurate and consistent than the previous method which used radiochromic film. The images were also analyzed with DoseLab for comparison. The difference between the film and automated WL results in the X and Y direction and the radius were (−0.17 +/− 0.28) mm, (0.21 +/− 0.20) mm and (−0.14 +/− 0.27) mm, respectively. The difference between the DoseLab and automated WL results were (−0.05 +/− 0.06) mm, (−0.01 +/− 0.02) mm and (0.01 +/− 0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusions: This process reduced patient wait times by 15–20 minutes making the treatment machine available to treat another patient. Accuracy and consistency of results were improved over the previous method and were comparable to other commercial solutions. Access to the ARIA web services is made possible through an Eclipse co-development agreement

  14. SU-E-J-117: Verification Method for the Detection Accuracy of Automatic Winston Lutz Test

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, A; Chan, K; Fee, F; Chau, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Winston Lutz test (WLT) has been a standard QA procedure performed prior to SRS treatment, to verify the mechanical iso-center setup accuracy upon different Gantry/Couch movements. Several detection algorithms exist,for analyzing the ball-radiation field alignment automatically. However, the accuracy of these algorithms have not been fully addressed. Here, we reveal the possible errors arise from each step in WLT, and verify the software detection accuracy with the Rectilinear Phantom Pointer (RLPP), a tool commonly used for aligning treatment plan coordinate with mechanical iso-center. Methods: WLT was performed with the radio-opaque ball mounted on a MIS and irradiated onto EDR2 films. The films were scanned and processed with an in-house Matlab program for automatic iso-center detection. Tests were also performed to identify the errors arise from setup, film development and scanning process. The radioopaque ball was then mounted onto the RLPP, and offset laterally and longitudinally in 7 known positions ( 0, ±0.2, ±0.5, ±0.8 mm) manually for irradiations. The gantry and couch was set to zero degree for all irradiation. The same scanned images were processed repeatedly to check the repeatability of the software. Results: Miminal discrepancies (mean=0.05mm) were detected with 2 films overlapped and irradiated but developed separately. This reveals the error arise from film processor and scanner alone. Maximum setup errors were found to be around 0.2mm, by analyzing data collected from 10 irradiations over 2 months. For the known shift introduced using the RLPP, the results agree with the manual offset, and fit linearly (R{sup 2}>0.99) when plotted relative to the first ball with zero shift. Conclusion: We systematically reveal the possible errors arise from each step in WLT, and introduce a simple method to verify the detection accuracy of our in-house software using a clinically available tool.

  15. On the selection of gantry and collimator angles for isocenter localization using Winston-Lutz tests.

    PubMed

    Du, Weiliang; Johnson, Jennifer L; Jiang, Wei; Kudchadker, Rajat J

    2016-01-01

    In Winston-Lutz (WL) tests, the isocenter of a linear accelerator (linac) is determined as the intersection of radiation central axes (CAX) from multiple gantry, collimator, and couch angles. It is well known that the CAX can wobble due to mechanical imperfections of the linac. Previous studies suggested that the wobble varies with gantry and collimator angles. Therefore, the isocenter determined in the WL tests has a profound dependence on the gantry and collimator angles at which CAX are sampled. In this study, we evaluated the systematic and random errors in the iso-centers determined with different CAX sampling schemes. Digital WL tests were performed on six linacs. For each WL test, 63 CAX were sampled at nine gantry angles and seven collimator angles. Subsets of these data were used to simulate the effects of various CAX sampling schemes. An isocenter was calculated from each subset of CAX and compared against the reference isocenter, which was calculated from 48 opposing CAX. The differences between the calculated isocenters and the reference isocenters ranged from 0 to 0.8 mm. The differences diminished to less than 0.2 mm when 24 or more CAX were sampled. Isocenters determined with collimator 0° were vertically lower than those determined with collimator 90° and 270°. Isocenter localization errors in the longitudinal direction (along the axis of gantry rotation) showed a strong dependence on the collimator angle selected. The errors in all directions were significantly reduced when opposing collimator angles and opposing gantry angles were employed. The isocenter localization errors were less than 0.2 mm with the common CAX sampling scheme, which used four cardinal gantry angles and two opposing collimator angles. Reproducibility stud-ies on one linac showed that the mean and maximum variations of CAX during the WL tests were 0.053 mm and 0.30 mm, respectively. The maximal variation in the resulting isocenters was 0.068 mm if 48 CAX were used, or 0

  16. A simple model for Lutz and Bujard's controllable promoters and its application for analyzing a simple genetic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Chimal, C G; Zeron, E S

    2015-01-01

    We develop an exact and flexible mathematical model for Lutz and Bujard's controllable promoters. It can be used as a building block for modeling genetic systems based on them. Special attention is paid to deduce all the model parameters from reported (in vitro) experimental data. We validate our model by comparing the regulatory ranges measured in vivo by Lutz and Bujard against the ranges predicted by the model, and which are calculated as the reporter activity obtained under inducing conditions divided by the activity measured under maximal repression. In particular, we verify Bond et al. assertion that the cooperativity between two lac operators can be assumed to be negligible when their central base pairs are separated by 22 or 32 bp [Gene repression by minimal lac loops in vivo, Nucleic Acids Res, 38 (2010) 8072-8082]. Moreover, we also find that the probability that two repressors LacI bind to these operators at the same time can be assumed to be negligible as well. We finally use the model for the promoter P(LlacO-1) to analyze a synthetic genetic oscillator recently build by Stricker et al. [A fast, robust and tunable synthetic gene oscillator, Nature, 456 (2008) 516-519].

  17. A simple model for Lutz and Bujard’s controllable promoters and its application for analyzing a simple genetic oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Chimal, CG; Zeron, ES

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We develop an exact and flexible mathematical model for Lutz and Bujard’s controllable promoters. It can be used as a building block for modeling genetic systems based on them. Special attention is paid to deduce all the model parameters from reported (in vitro) experimental data. We validate our model by comparing the regulatory ranges measured in vivo by Lutz and Bujard against the ranges predicted by the model, and which are calculated as the reporter activity obtained under inducing conditions divided by the activity measured under maximal repression. In particular, we verify Bond et al. assertion that the cooperativity between two lac operators can be assumed to be negligible when their central base pairs are separated by 22 or 32 bp [Gene repression by minimal lac loops in vivo, Nucleic Acids Res, 38 (2010) 8072–8082]. Moreover, we also find that the probability that two repressors LacI bind to these operators at the same time can be assumed to be negligible as well. We finally use the model for the promoter PLlacO-1 to analyze a synthetic genetic oscillator recently build by Stricker et al. [A fast, robust and tunable synthetic gene oscillator, Nature, 456 (2008) 516–519]. PMID:25720352

  18. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  19. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness. PMID:26595842

  20. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness.

  1. A study of Winston-Lutz test on two different electronic portal imaging devices and with low energy imaging.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery requires sub-millimetre accuracy in patient positioning and target localization. Therefore, verification of the linear accelerator (linac) isocentre and the laser alignment to the isocentre is performed in some clinics prior to the treatment using the Winston-Lutz (W-L) test with films and more recently with images obtained using the electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). The W-L test is performed by acquiring EPID images of a radio-opaque ball of 6 mm diameter (the W-L phantom) placed at the isocentre of the linac at various gantry and table angles, with a predefined small square or circular radiation beam. In this study, the W-L test was performed on two linacs having EPIDs of different size and resolution, viz, a TrueBeam™ linac with aS1000 EPID of size 40 × 30 cm(2) with 1024 × 768 pixel resolution and an EDGE™ linac having an EPID of size 43 × 43 cm(2) with pixel resolution of 1280 × 1280. In order to determine the displacement of the radio-opaque ball centre from the radiation beam centre of the W-L test, an in-house MATLAB™ image processing code was developed using morphological operations. The displacement in radiation beam centre at each gantry and couch position was obtained by determining the distance between the radiation field centre and the radio-opaque ball centre for every image. Since the MATLAB code was based on image processing that was dependent on the image contrast and resolution, the W-L test was also compared for images obtained with different beam energies. The W-L tests were performed for 6 and 8 MV beams on the TrueBeam™ linac and for 2.5 and 6 MV beams on the EDGE™ linac with a higher resolution EPID. It was observed that the images obtained with the EPID of higher resolution resulted in same accuracy in the determination of the displacement between the centres of the radio-opaque ball and the radiation beam, and significant difference was not observed with images acquired with

  2. Description of the male of Tityus kuryi Lourenço, 1997 and notes about males of Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1877) and Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (Scorpiones, Buthidae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Maria Dulcinéia Sales; Porto, Tiago Jordão; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The male of Tityus kuryi Lourenço, 1997 is described for the first time. Despite being very similar to the female, the male presents more robust metasomal segments. Additionally, the distribution of the sexual populations of another two species of the T. stigmurus complex is reported herein: T. serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 and T. stigmurus (Thorell, 1877). Males of T. serrulatus were, until now, restricted to the Minas Gerais State (Southwestern region of Brazil), and with new records reported here, its known distribution now encompasses the Northeastern region of Brazil. Males of T. stigmurus were previously recorded only for two municipalities in the State of Bahia, and here we present eight new records for Bahia State and one for Pernambuco State. We present a key to related species of the T. stigmurus complex based on morphology and coloration pattern. PMID:25152686

  3. 78 FR 14792 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Stachow, Stockholder. Application Type: New NVO & OFF License Art Van Lines USA, Inc. (NVO), , 501 Penhorn...: New NVO & OFF License Universal Shipping Lines LLC (NVO & OFF), 1810 Auger Drive, Suite G, Tucker,...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies and QSOs FIR size and surface brightness (Lutz+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Contursi, A.; Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-08-01

    We use 70, 100, and 160um images from scan maps obtained with PACS on board Herschel, collecting archival data from various projects. In order to cover a wide range of galaxy properties, we first obtain an IR-selected local sample ranging from normal galaxies up to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies. For that purpose, we searched the Herschel archive for all cz>=2000km/s objects from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS, Sanders et al., 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/1607). (1 data file).

  5. Friendship and Thomas More: Using Erasmus's Letter to Ulrich von Hutten as a Tool in Developing a Classroom Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joshua W.; Rud, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The development of course management plans and student behavioral guidelines are a necessary component for the foundation of any school or learning community. In this article the authors explore a few of the principal foundations of creating these plans based on the qualities Erasmus described in his great friend Thomas More. Teachers and…

  6. Effects of a fire on a population of treefrogs (Scinax cf. alter, Lutz) in a restinga habitat in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D

    2008-08-01

    The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover.

  7. Test Review: Ruff, R. M., & Hibbard, K. M. (2003). "Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorske, Tad T.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory (RNBI), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess an individual's ability to function in cognitive, emotional, physical, and psychosocial domains, before and after a major illness or injury. The measure is designed to be used with men and women ages 18 to 75 who have at…

  8. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). "RIAS: Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS), an individually administered test of intelligence appropriate for ages 3 through 94 years with a conormed, supplemental measure of memory. The RIAS should be administered by examiners who have formal training in assessment. In this regard, the RIAS is a…

  9. Many unique characteristics revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Lutz e Mello 1922) (Chelicerata; Arachnida).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Chagas, Aline Torres de Azevedo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-09-01

    This is the first complete mitochondrial genome of a Tityus species, although it is the most medically important genus in South America. Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian yellow scorpion) mtDNA revealed the same gene arrangement of three out of four other mitogenomes published by now for the same family (Centruroides limpidus, Mesobuthus gibbosus, M. martensii and Buthus occitanus). However, it presented many unique characteristics such as possession of Cox1 gene, different from all other protein-coding genes of scorpion mtDNA, starts with an atypical start codon (CTG). Moreover, no tRNA gene have complete typical secondary structure and the Tytius genome presented three non-coding regions longer than 100bp. Also, it contains the smallest scorpion 16S gene reported by now. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated homologous genes confirmed Buthidae as a monophyletic clade and supports a monophyletic group including T. serrulatus and the other American species, C. limpidus.

  10. Test Review: Abidin, R. R. (2012) "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" ("PSI-4"). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Alyce O.

    2015-01-01

    The "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" (PSI-4) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels considering a parent's relationship with one of his or her children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The main purpose of the test is to define these stress levels and from where they originate in order to identify…

  11. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  12. Michael Gottlieb Hansch (1683-1749), Ulrich Junius (1670-1726) and the attempt to edit the works and letters of Johannes Kepler. (German Title: Michael Gottlieb Hansch (1683-1749), Ulrich Junius (1670-1726) und der Versuch einer Edition der Werke und Briefe Johannes Keplers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Detlef

    Johannes Kepler's manuscripts which remained after his death suffered a troubled fate. It was not possible to collect them in Germany and to work with them systematically, because their importance was strikingly underestimated. Only at the beginning of the 18th century U. Junius in Leipzig tried unsuccessfully to collect and to publish the most important manuscripts. Afterwards M.G. Hansch took up this plan and pursued it until the end of his life. However, the only result was one volume with unpublished letters which appeared in 1718. The hoped-for collected works could not be realized. These events are described in detail, especially the efforts of Junius and Hansch as well as the opposition which eventually lead to a failure of both attempts.

  13. The occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae in the eyes of loricariid fish (Siluriformes: Osteichthyes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zica, E O P; Brandão, H; Zawadzki, C H; Nobile, A B; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented.

  14. Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season.

  15. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  16. [New occurrences of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) eye flukes of fish from the Paraná Basin].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar

    2008-01-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

  17. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the number of insects and temperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  18. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  19. The physiology of the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912): pH in different physiological conditions and mechanisms involved in its control.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vânia C; Araujo, Ricardo N; Machado, Luciane A D; Pereira, Marcos H; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2008-09-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in infected phlebotomines. It was described previously that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH 6). In this study, the pH inside the midgut of blood-fed females was measured. The abdominal midgut (AM) pH varied from 8.15+/-0.31 in the first 10 h post-blood meal to 7.7+/-0.17 after 24 h. While the AM was alkaline during blood digestion, the pH in the thoracic midgut (TM) remained acidic (5.5-6.0). In agreement with these findings, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which has an optimum pH of 5.8, is mainly encountered in the acidic TM. The capacity of unfed females to maintain the acidic intestinal pH was also evaluated. Our results showed the presence of an efficient mechanism that maintains the pH almost constant at about 6 in the midgut, but not in the crop. This mechanism is promptly interrupted in the AM by blood ingestion. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of carbonic anhydrase in the midgut cells, which apparently is required to maintain the pH at 6 in the midgut of unfed females. Investigations on the phenomenon of alkalization observed after blood ingestion indicated that two mechanisms are involved: in addition to the alkalization promoted by CO2 volatilization there is a minor contribution from a second mechanism not yet characterized. Some inferences concerning Leishmania development and pH in the digestive tube are presented.

  20. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926) and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930) in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Mario Eduardo Santos; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Sales, Débora Lima; Oliveira, Olga Paiva; Teles, Diego Alves; Filho, João Antonio de Araujo; de Sousa, José Guilherme Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae) are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM) and L. vastus (OLV) using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. PMID:23710241

  1. From Jefferson to Metallica to Your Campus: Copyright Issues in Student Peer-to-Peer File Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarini, Lisa McHugh; Cesarini, Paul

    2008-01-01

    When Lars Ulrich, drummer for the rock group Metallica, testified before Congress about his group's lawsuit against Napster in 2000, many people who followed copyright issues in the music industry were not surprised (Ulrich, 2000). Ever since downloading audio files became as easy as clicking a few buttons on a personal computer, charges of…

  2. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements for both…

  3. Cytogenetic analysis of Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 (2n = 2x = 26), P. tetraploidea Pombal and Haddad, 1992 (2n = 4x = 52), and their natural triploid hybrids (2n = 3x = 39) (Anura, Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural polyploidy has played an important role during the speciation and evolution of vertebrates, including anurans, with more than 55 described cases. The species of the Phyllomedusa burmeisteri group are mostly characterized by having 26 chromosomes, but a karyotype with 52 chromosomes was described in P. tetraploidea. This species was found in sintopy with P. distincta in two localities of São Paulo State (Brazil), where triploid animals also occur, as consequence of natural hybridisation. We analyse the chromosomes of P. distincta, P. tetraploidea, and their triploid hybrids, to enlighten the origin of polyploidy and to obtain some evidence on diploidisation of tetraploid karyotype. Results Phyllomedusa distincta was 2n = 2x = 26, whereas P. tetraploidea was 2n = 4x = 52, and the hybrid individuals was 2n = 3x = 39. In meiotic phases, bivalents were observed in the diploid males, whereas both bivalents and tetravalents were observed in the tetraploid males. Univalents, bivalents or trivalents; metaphase II cells carrying variable number of chromosomes; and spermatids were detected in the testis preparations of the triploid males, indicating that the triploids were not completely sterile. In natural and experimental conditions, the triploids cross with the parental species, producing abnormal egg clutches and tadpoles with malformations. The embryos and tadpoles exhibited intraindividual karyotype variability and all of the metaphases contained abnormal constitutions. Multiple NORs, detected by Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe, were observed on chromosome 1 in the three karyotypic forms; and, additionally, on chromosome 9 in the diploids, mostly on chromosome 8 in the tetraploids, and on both chromosome 8 and 9 in the triploids. Nevertheless, NOR-bearing chromosome 9 was detected in the tetraploids, and chromosome 9 carried active or inactive NORs in the triploids. C-banding, base-specific fluorochrome stainings with CMA3 and DAPI, FISH with a telomeric probe, and BrdU incorporation in DNA showed nearly equivalent patterns in the karyotypes of P. distincta, P. tetraploidea, and the triploid hybrids. Conclusions All the used cytogenetic techniques have provided strong evidence that the process of diploidisation, an essential step for stabilising the selective advantages produced by polyploidisation, is under way in distinct quartets of the tetraploid karyotype. PMID:24001221

  4. Overland Flow Generation and Soil Hydraulic Properties in Two Catchments in Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Land management decisions in the Panama Canal watershed directly impact the hydrological functioning of the canal itself. Knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the forested portions of the watershed provides a baseline comparison for future land use changes. We chose to work on two streams on Barro Colorado Island that are representative of large regions of the watershed. These two streams respond differently to the same storm events: Conrad Trail Stream exhibits a fairly subdued and delayed response and Lutz Creek stream is flashier. In order to understand these differences, we investigated the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the two catchments and studied the frequency of overland flow generation. The Ks measurements in dominant geologies in Lutz Creek as well as in Conrad Trail Stream are great enough at shallow depths (median Ks = 29.7, 65.6 and 38.3 mm/hr) that Hortonian overland flow is rare, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm (to 1.4 and 5.8 mm/hr) indicates that a perched water table leading to saturated overland flow is the likely runoff mechanism in Lutz Creek. In Conrad, Ks does not decrease as markedly with soil depth, and a perched water table would form at about 60 cm below the surface (median Ks = 0.7 mm/hr). Therefore, more water is able to infiltrate into the soil in Conrad Trail Stream and saturated overland flow is less common. Overland flow was generated much more frequently in Lutz Creek than in Conrad Trail Stream, with lower thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, antecedent wetness and intensity required to generate overland flow. We also quantified the importance of microtopographic features such as concentrated flow lines and the results have implications for experimental design at other field sites. The Lutz Creek and Conrad Trail stream information will provide a useful baseline for land management decisions.

  5. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin.

  6. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin. PMID:23595494

  7. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  8. The first record of Lower Carboniferous bryozoa from the eastern margin of the Burma Tertiary Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye Ko Aung

    Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian-Visean) bryozoa from Tonkyauktaung about 6 km west of Zithaung village, Tigyaing Township, on the western margin of the Burma Tertiary Belt were collected from a limestone unit previously mapped as the Ngapyawdaw Chaung Formation and assigned to a Lower Cretaceous (Albian) age. Five species of fenestellid bryozoans are described: Fenestella cf. F. triserialis Ulrich, Fenestella sp. A cf. Fenestella nododorsalis Ulrich, Fenestella sp. B, Fenestella sp. C, Polypora sp. The former two have a close affinity with Lower Carboniferous bryozoa from central Thailand and Japan.

  9. "Who Killed William Robinson?" Exploring a Nineteenth-Century Murder Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandwell, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the author and fellow-historian John Lutz set about creating a teaching tool for history that would acquaint students with primary documents and take full advantage of the brand-new technology of the World Wide Web. He launched the website, entitled "Who Killed William Robinson? Race, Justice and Settling the Land,"…

  10. The Fallacies of Doublespeak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohatyn, Dennis

    Fallacies are defined as incorrect patterns of reasoning, and can be classified into two chief classes--formal fallacies, which involve violation of a rule, and informal fallacies, such as hasty generalizations or arguing from ignorance. Inspired by George Orwell's essay "Politics and the English Language" and his book "1984," William Lutz coined…

  11. Beyond Nineteen Eighty-Four: Doublespeak in a Post-Orwellian Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, William, Ed.

    This book probes the efforts at manipulation individuals face daily in this information age and the tactics of persuaders from many sectors of society using various forms of Orwellian "doublespeak." The book contains the following essays: (1) "Notes toward a Definition of Doublespeak" (William Lutz); (2) "Truisms Are True: Orwell's View of…

  12. Higher-Order Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales with a Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Canivez, Gary L.; Lindstrom, Will; Hatt, Clifford V.

    2007-01-01

    The factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; [Reynolds, C.R., & Kamphaus, R.W. (2003). "Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.]) was investigated with a large (N=1163) independent sample of referred students (ages 6-18). More rigorous factor extraction criteria…

  13. Technical and Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This issue focuses on the various forms that secondary technical and vocational education takes in different European Community Member States. "The Future for Skilled Workers" is an interview with Burkart Lutz, a German researcher. Other articles are as follows: "Contradictions in Technical and Vocational Education: The Outlook" (Paolo Garonna);…

  14. Ethnography and Language in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Judith L., Ed.; Wallat, Cynthia, Ed.

    This compilation includes the following essays: (1) "Conversational Inference and Classroom Learning" (John J. Gumperz); (2) "Persuasive Talk--The Social Organization of Children's Talk" (Jenny Cook-Gumperz); (3) "Ethnography--The Holistic Approach to Understanding Schooling" (Frank W. Lutz); (4) "Triangulated Inquiry--A Methodology for the…

  15. Contexts of the Bill of Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Stephen L., Ed.; Bernstein, Richard B., Ed.

    This book contains three major essays that consider the origins of the Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. In "The U.S. Bill of Rights in Historical Perspective," Donald S. Lutz examines the intellectual context of the Bill of Rights by analyzing the changing ideas about rights in colonial, Revolutionary, and…

  16. "Three Grandes Dames" or Dayton, Ohio, as a Well-Spring of Women Special Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene B.

    This historical consideration of the role of women librarians in three Dayton special libraries centers on three figures: (1) Caroline W. Lutz, librarian of the General Motors Research Corporation from 1922 to 1956; (2) Hope Thomas, head librarian of the United States Air Force McCook Field Library in the mid-1940's; and (3l Emma Wedenbine,…

  17. Description of the Pupa of Culicoides crucifer Clastrier (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ronderos, M M; Spinelli, G R; Keppler, R L F

    2013-10-01

    The pupa of Culicoides crucifer Clastrier is described, illustrated and photomicrographed by using binocular microscope and phase-contrast microscopy from material collected in an artificial container in Manaus, Brazil. The pupa shows features typical of pupae occurring in calm and clean waters, and it is compared with its similar congeners of the subgenus Haematomyiidium, Culicoides annuliductus Wirth and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz.

  18. Cognitive Distortions and Autonomy among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of university students' cognitive distortions in their sense of autonomy. One hundred and three third-year university students from Shanghai, The People's Republic of China, responded to the Cognitive Distortion Scales [Briere, J. (2000). "Cognitive Distortion Scales: Professional manual". Lutz,…

  19. The Teacher Trainer, A Practical Journal Mainly for Modern Language Teacher Trainers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Tessa, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The three issues of the journal on second language teacher education include these articles: "Making a Course Your Own: Involving Trainees in the Planning and Evaluation of a Special Group Summer Course Abroad" (Klaus Lutz); "Task Based Learning - Appropriate Methodology?" (Jane Cadorath, Simon Harris); "Building Group Spirit in Teachers' Groups…

  20. Assessment of Community Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Electoral Conflict on School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosman, Carol Merz; And Others

    The Dissatisfaction Theory of American Democracy (Iannaccone and Lutz, 1970) describes the political process whereby citizens in a reform governmental system, particularly in local school districts, make their values manifest in terms of public policy. The theory consists of four causally related factors; (1) community member values; (2) citizen…

  1. Crossing the Divide: Infants Discriminate Small from Large Numerosities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Sara; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Although young infants have repeatedly demonstrated successful numerosity discrimination across large sets when the number of items in the sets changes twofold (E. M. Brannon, S. Abbott, & D. J. Lutz, 2004; J. N. Wood & E. S. Spelke, 2005; F. Xu & E. S. Spelke, 2000), they consistently fail to discriminate a twofold change in number when one set…

  2. Global Justice and Education: From Nation to Neuron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between education and global justice? This question is addressed within Ulrich Beck's notion of global "goods" and "bads", through a multidisciplinary approach, which E.O. Wilson terms "consilience"--a "jumping together" of knowledge from international relations to neuroscience. A critical political analysis proposes that…

  3. The Arts 3D VLE Metaverse as a Network of Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Ulrich; Cohodas, Marvin; Wang, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Ulrich Rauch, Marvin Cohodas, and Tim Wang describe the Arts Metaverse, a Croquet-based virtual learning environment under development at the University of British Columbia. The Arts Metaverse allows three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of important artifacts and sites of classical, ancient, and indigenous American art, thereby allowing…

  4. Generational Differences and Participant Experiences in Leadership Development: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedies, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examines generational cohort perceptions as they apply to civilian leadership training within the DOD. Zenger, Ulrich and Smallwood (2000) describe that a new approach for developing future leaders is necessary. Identifying whether generational perceptions of ELDP members positively or negatively impact DOD…

  5. How Strongly Linked Are Mental Time and Space along the Left-Right Axis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikmeier, Verena; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Maienborn, Claudia; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of research suggest that our mental representations of time and space are linked, though the strength of this linkage has only recently been addressed for the front-back mental timeline (Eikmeier, Schröter, Maienborn, Alex-Ruf, & Ulrich, 2013). The present study extends this investigation to the left-right mental timeline. In…

  6. Sparking Innovative Learning & Creativity. 2007 NMC Summer Conference Proceedings (Indianapolis, IN, Jun 6-9, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachel S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The conference proceedings include the following papers: (1) The Arts Metaverse in Open Croquet: Exploring an Open Source 3-D Online Digital World (Ulrich Rauch and Tim Wang); (2) Beyond World of Warcraft: the Universe of MMOGs (Ruben R. Puentedura); (3) ClevelandPlus in Second Life (Wendy Shapiro, Lev Gonick, and Sue Shick); (4) Folksemantic:…

  7. Some Have Credit Cards and Others Have Giro Cheques: A Study of New Labour's 'Individuals' and 'People' as Lifelong Learners in Late Modernity. Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Alison

    The linguistic behavior of individuals and people in the official literature on lifelong learning (LL) was examined and interpreted in light of the theories of individualization in late modern culture and society, particularly the theories of Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens. The analysis was performed to shed light on that literature's ideological…

  8. Nanotechnology and the Developing World: Lab-on-Chip Technology for Health and Environmental Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that advances in nanotechnology in general, and lab-on-chip technology in particular, have the potential to benefit the developing world in its quest to control risks to human health and the environment. Based on the "risk society" thesis of Ulrich Beck, it is argued that the developed world must realign its science and…

  9. Undergraduate Full Text Databases: "Bell and Howell Medical Complete" and "InfoTrac Health Reference Center - Academic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lutishoor; Davidson, Bryan; Bailey, Alberta

    2000-01-01

    Compares/contrasts InfoTrac and ProQuest primarily as full-text resources to supplement retrieval of references contained in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database. These databases are analyzed by examining their scope in terms of the number and types of serials covered within specific areas using "Ulrich's"…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  11. PILOT PROJECT CLOSE UP: ORD RESEARCH INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harvey, Jim and Elin Ulrich. 2004. Pilot Project Close Up: ORD Research Inventory. Changing Times. Pp. 1. (ERL,GB R1022).

    At the January 2003 summit, many people were drawn to our vision of improving ORD's internal communications by creating a "go-to" page that consolicat...

  12. OVERVIEW OF AN INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATION ON EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF MODEL HEPATOTOXICANTS ON HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the Effects of Methapyrilene and Clofibrate on Hepatic Gene Expression: A Collaboration Between Laboratories and a Comparison of Platform and Analytical Approaches

    Roger G. Ulrich1, John C. Rockett2, G. Gordon Gibson3 and Syril Pettit4

    1 Rosetta Inpharmat...

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1991. Division of Collections and Services: Open Forum of Division of Collections and Services; Section of Acquisition and Exchange; Section of Interlending and Document Delivery; Section of Serial Publications; Newspapers; Section of Government Information and Official Publications; Section of Rare [Books] and Manuscripts. Booklet 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 14 papers in this collection were presented at 6 sections of the Division of Collections and Services: (1) "Open Forum of the Division of Collections and Services Report of the Section on Acquisition and Exchange" (Ulrich Montag); (2) "Acquisition Policy of the USSR National Library Collection" (Z. P. Sorokina and S. M. Shpantseva, USSR); (3)…

  14. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Walter freefloats inside the SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter demonstrates the microgravity aboard the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module in Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, payload bay (PLB). The module served as his space laboratory and that of his six crewmates for 10 days. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  15. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  16. Gender Differences in Fundamental Motor Skill Development in Disadvantaged Preschoolers from Two Geographical Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…

  17. National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education Annual Conference Proceedings (San Diego, CA, January 8-10, 1982). Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedvilas, Leo L., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 26 papers delivered at the National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (NAPEHE) Annual Conference (1982). Section 1, "NAPEHE's Image," contains two papers, one by Don Hellison, the other by Celeste Ulrich. "The Splintering of Physical Education" is the topic of the next section, and it contains papers by…

  18. Re-Modernities: Or the Volcanic Landscapes of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinzent, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Is theology dead or dying? Or can we confidently do theology? Since the 1990s Ulrich Beck, one of the best known living sociologists both in Europe and beyond, has promoted the critical reading of the contemporary discourse as "reflexive modernization". He has recently looked into the "fascinating byways" of religion. Based on Beck's re-assessment…

  19. Scientific Journal Publishing: Yearly Volume and Open Access Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Bo-Christer; Roos, Annikki; Lauri, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We estimate the total yearly volume of peer-reviewed scientific journal articles published world-wide as well as the share of these articles available openly on the Web either directly or as copies in e-print repositories. Method: We rely on data from two commercial databases (ISI and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory) supplemented by…

  20. The "Financial Counseling and Planning" Indexing Project: Establishing a Correlation between Indexing, Total Citations, and Library Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The researcher hypothesized that increasing the number of indexing services covering a journal would increase library holdings and total citations for the journal. A sample group of 40 Journal Citation Reports (JCR) journals in the "Business, Finance" category was identified and checked for the number of times indexed in Ulrich's…

  1. Diplostomiasis in cultured and wild tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guerrero State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; García-Varela, Martín; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a comparative study of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linneo) from two fish farms and two nearby coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico. The higher infections levels in cultured tilapia than wild tilapia is attributed to higher fish densities in the culture systems and higher abundance of the snail Biomphalaria cf. havanensis (Pteiffer), first intermediate host of this parasite in freshwater and brackish water systems. PMID:19452167

  2. Narrowband land mobile satellite channel modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanatas, A. G.; Kanderakis, E. C.; Constantinou, P.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the development of a generalized analog model for the narrowband Land Mobile Satellite Channel (LMSC). It is based on the model proposed by Lutz, the 3-dimensional scattering model of Aulin and the multipath interference simulation method proposed by Jakes. Statistical tests of the simulated data show excellent agreement with the expected distributions whereas the power spectrum predicted by Aulin is duplicated in a discrete manner.

  3. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  4. FAMILY CERATOPOGONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Gustavo A; Wolff, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty five species of Ceratopogonids arranged in 28 genera are listed for Colombia, mostly Culicoides (112 species) and Forcipomyia (50 species). For each listed species, information on type locality, type category and sex, location of type material, species distribution, localities for Colombia and main references, is provided. Localities are not specified for 17 species in which the literature searching was negative. Forcipomyia squamitibia Lutz and Bezzia clavipennis are excluded from the list. PMID:27395263

  5. Black-fly assemblage distribution patterns in streams in disturbed areas in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa; Sagot, Lúcia Beatriz; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2014-12-01

    Black flies (Simuliidae) are considered to be pests in rural and in some urban areas in the south of Brazil due to the bites of females. Little information exists on the factors that contribute to Simuliidae distribution in these areas. We sampled 39 streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in September 2004 to address ecological aspects. Of the 18 species collected, those that occurred in more than 50% of the streams were: Simulium subnigrum Lutz 1910, Simulium pertinax Kollar 1882, Simulium subpallidum Lutz 1910 and Simulium incrustatum Lutz 1910. Species richness was not influenced by any of the environmental or geographical variables considered, and there was no pattern of species co-occurrence, corroborating the hypothesis of a stochastic distribution of the Simuliidae assemblage. When analyzed individually, only three of seven species with occurrence frequency >30% were related to any of the variables measured. The probabilities of occurrence of Simulium jujuyense Paterson & Shannon 1927 and S. pertinax were higher in streams with high values of water pH and electrical conductivity, whereas the opposite was observed for S. incrustatum. Therefore, due to stochastic distribution, the population studies of Simuliidae are more suitable for predicting the occurrence of species in rural areas than are studies of assemblages. PMID:25107279

  6. Move Affords Many Advantages to EML | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Ulrich Baxa, Ph.D., director of the Electron Microscopy Laboratory (EML), enjoys finally having his staff all in one place. “Our lab is now all in one location, as compared to our previous situation, with two different locations,” he said. “This will make daily work much easier, in particular for me since I am able to have an office next to the other EML staff.”

  7. STS-55 crewmembers pose with U.S. and German flags in SL-D2 module on OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 crewmembers pose with United States and German flags inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module located in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Wearing communications kit assembly headsets (HDSTs) are (left to right) Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel.

  8. Eo-Ulrichian to Neo-Ulrichian views: The renaissance of "layer-cake stratigraphy"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, Carlton E.; McLaughlin, P.I.; Baird, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Classical notions of "layer-cake stratigraphy" have been denigrated as representing an antiquated "Neptunian" view of the geologic record with the American paleontologist-stratigrapher E.O. Ulrich vilified as its quintessential advocate. Some of the extreme "layer-cake" interpretations of E.O. Ulrich are demonstrably incorrect, especially where applied in marginal marine and terrestrial settings. However, close scrutiny of Ulrich's work suggests that the bulk was correct and demonstrated considerable insight for the time. Subsequent development of facies concepts revolutionized geologists' view of time-space relationships in stratigraphy, but rather than focusing on facies patterns within the established stratigraphic (layer-cake) frameworks many geologists in North America came to view strata as parts of diachronous facies mosaics. Recent advances in the development of event and sequence stratigraphic paradigms are beginning to swing the pendulum back the other way. Possible causes of "layer-cake" patterns are numerous and varied, including: (1) parallelism of depositional strike and outcrop belts, especially in foreland basins, (2) very widespread environmental belts developed in low-relief cratonic areas, (3) time-averaging homogenizes facies to a limited extent, resulting in a very subtle signature of lateral change, (4) condensed beds (hardgrounds, bone beds, ironstones, etc.) often form in responses to extrabasinal forces, thus they cross-cut facies, and (5) large events (i.e. hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, eruptions, etc.) are "over represented" in the rock record. A revised ("Neo-Ulrichian") layer-cake paradigm carries many of the original correct empirical observations of pattern, noted by Ulrich, recast in terms of event and sequence stratigraphy.

  9. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Walter at the SL-D2 Fluid Physics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter conducts an experiment using the advanced fluid physics module located in Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (Material Sciences Laboratory) aboard Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter uses intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints to position himself in front of the rack. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day mission.

  10. STS-55 German payload specialists Walter and Schlegel work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, conducts Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter's activities in front of Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) are monitored by German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. Walter uses intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  11. Improving the Estimation of Psychometric Functions in 2AFC Discrimination Tasks

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Ulrich and Vorberg (2009) presented a method that fits distinct functions for each order of presentation of standard and test stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, which removes the contaminating influence of order effects from estimates of the difference limen. The two functions are fitted simultaneously under the constraint that their average evaluates to 0.5 when test and standard have the same magnitude, which was regarded as a general property of 2AFC tasks. This constraint implies that physical identity produces indistinguishability, which is valid when test and standard are identical except for magnitude along the dimension of comparison. However, indistinguishability does not occur at physical identity when test and standard differ on dimensions other than that along which they are compared (e.g., vertical and horizontal lines of the same length are not perceived to have the same length). In these cases, the method of Ulrich and Vorberg cannot be used. We propose a generalization of their method for use in such cases and illustrate it with data from a 2AFC experiment involving length discrimination of horizontal and vertical lines. The resultant data could be fitted with our generalization but not with the method of Ulrich and Vorberg. Further extensions of this method are discussed. PMID:21687462

  12. SU-E-T-48: Automated Quality Assurance for XML Controlled Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, G; Morin, O; Pouliot, J; Chuang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To automate routine imaging QA procedures so that complying with TG 142 and TG 179 can be efficient and reliable. Methods: Two QA tests for a True Beam Linac were automatized. A Winston Lutz test as described by Lutz et al{sup 1} using the Winston Lutz test kit from BrainLab, Germany and a CBCT Image Quality test as described in TG 179 using the EMMA phantom, Siemens Medical Physics, Germany were performed in our True Beam. For each QA procedure tested, a 3 step paradigm was used. First, the data was automatically acquired using True Beam Developer Mode and XML scripting. Second, the data acquired in the first step was automatically processed using in-home grown Matlab GUIs. Third, Machine Learning algorithms were used to automatically classify the processed data and reports generated. Results: The Winston Luzt test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 29.0 ± 8.0 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 3.0 ± 0.1 min. In the same lieu, time could be substantially saved for image quality tests. In this case, the amount of time saved will depend on the phantoms used and the initial localization method. Additionally, machine learning algorithms could automatically identify the roots of the problems if any and possibly help reduce machine down time. Conclusion: Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging that are used for patient alignment substantially improving IGRT protocols. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA tests needed. Using the new paradigm described above, not only bare minimum but best practice QA programs could be implemented with the same manpower. This work is supported by Varian, Palo Alto, CA.

  13. Overland flow generation in two lithologically distinct rainforest catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Streams on uniformly rainforest-covered, but lithologically very diverse Barro Colorado Island in central Panama?? show remarkable differences in their runoff response to rainfall. This lithological diversity is reflected in equally diverse soilscapes, and our objective was to test the hypothesis that contrasting runoff responses derive from soilscape features that control the generation of overland flow. We determined the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of two neighboring, but hydrologically contrasting catchments (Lutz Creek with a flashy and Conrad Trail with a delayed response to rainfall), and quantified the spatial and temporal frequency of overland flow occurrence. The median Ks values at a depth of 12.5 cm are large enough to rule out Hortonian overland flow, but a marked decrease in K s in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm suggests the formation of a perched water table and the generation saturation overland flow; the decrease in Ks in the Conrad Trail catchment is more gradual, and a perched water table is expected to form only at depths below 50 cm. In Lutz Creek, overland flow was generated frequently in time and space and regardless of topographic position, including near the interfluve, with very low thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, intensity and antecedent wetness, whereas in Conrad Trail, overland flow was generated much less frequently and then only locally. We conclude that soilscape features and microtopography are important controls of overland flow generation in these catchments. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that overland flow and forests are not a priori a contradiction in terms. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An examination of possible solar wind sources for a sudden brightening of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    Terrestrial and near-earth measurements are examined in order to investigate possible solar wind sources for the sudden global brightenings noted in Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock. These brightenings are not found to be associated with increases in the solar wind momentum flux, quantity of solar energetic particles, or solar activity, in contradiction to the proposal of Lutz and Wagner (1986). If a radial alignment of the IMF seen at IMP-8 after about 0800 UT was not responsible for the cometary brightening, then it is suggested that the brightening must have been intrinsic to the comet.

  15. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae) with the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Flávia Guimarães; Oliveira, Sabrina Barbosa; Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2006-11-01

    The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors. PMID:17160283

  16. The tadpole of Dendropsophus branneri (Cochran, 1948) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Souza, Isana Carla Amorim; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2015-01-01

    Dendropsophus branneri is a small treefrog largely distributed throughout the Tropical Atlantic and Caatinga morphoclimatic domains (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for morphoclimatic domains), from northeastern to southeastern Brazil [Lutz 1973, Frost 2014; see Zina et al. 2014 for taxonomic comments on D. minusculus (Rivero, 1971) and D. branneri]. This species is currently placed in the D. microcephalus species group according to Bastos & Pombal (1996) and Faivovich et al. (2005). The D. microcephalus group comprises 36 species (Frost 2014), 14 of which have known tadpoles. Here, we describe the external morphology and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of D. branneri. PMID:25947693

  17. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  18. A new species of the predaceous midge genus Brachypogon Kieffer from the Neotropical Region and first description of the female of Brachypogon (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Huerta, Herón; Spinelli, Gustavo R

    2016-01-01

    The predaceous midge genus Brachypogon Kieffer is presently known in Mexico by Brachypogon (Brachypogon) fuscivenosus (Lutz, 1914), B. (B.) bimaculatus Spinelli & Grogan, 1998, B. (B.) woodruffi Spinelli & Grogan, 1998 and B. (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent, 2005. In this contribution a new species, Brachypogon (Brachypogon) ginue, is described and illustrated from a male specimen collected in Tlanchinol, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. This new species belongs to the impar species group. The first description of the female of Brachypogon (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent is also provided. PMID:27395848

  19. Chaperonin-mediated Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Horwich, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    We have been studying chaperonins these past twenty years through an initial discovery of an action in protein folding, analysis of structure, and elucidation of mechanism. Some of the highlights of these studies were presented recently upon sharing the honor of the 2013 Herbert Tabor Award with my early collaborator, Ulrich Hartl, at the annual meeting of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Boston. Here, some of the major findings are recounted, particularly recognizing my collaborators, describing how I met them and how our great times together propelled our thinking and experiments. PMID:23803606

  20. STS-55 SL-D2 crew reviews preflight CEIT procedures in KSC conference room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, seated at a conference table, discuss Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) procedures in a briefing room at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, MS3 Bernard J. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt. Seated in the foreground are KSC technicians and payload integration officers. Walter and Schlegel are representatives from DLR. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-212.

  1. STS-55 Columbia, OV-102, crew poses for onboard portrait in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) portrait in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module. Front (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. In the rear (left to right) are MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  2. STS-55 crewmembers work in the SL-D2 module onboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Working in the shirt-sleeve research environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module are STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Ross examines sample tube at Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (left). Harris, holding his arm, waits to have his blood drawn by Schlegel (right). Wearing the baroreflex (BA) collar at Rack 12 Experiment Rack and waving is Walter. The SL-D2 module is located in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  3. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  4. LC/MS/MS data analysis of the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome fingerprint in pregnancy, labor, and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Craig C.; Quilici, David R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L.O.

    2015-01-01

    The data described in this article is the subject of an article in the American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, titled “The Human Uterine Smooth Muscle S-nitrosoproteome Fingerprint in Pregnancy, Labor, and Preterm Labor” (doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00198.2013) (Ulrich et al., 2013) [1]. The data described is a large scale mass spectrometry data set that defines the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome differences among laboring, non-laboring, preterm laboring tissue after treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione. PMID:26322325

  5. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  6. STS-55 German payload specialists pose in front of SL-D2 module at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, German payload specialists pose in front of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. These two Germans have been assigned to support the STS-55/SL-D2 mission. They are Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel (left) and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to fly aboard OV-102 for the mission, joining five NASA astronauts. Clearly visible on the SL-D2 module are the European Space Agency (ESA) insignia, the feedthrough plate, and the D2 insignia.

  7. STS-55 German payload specialists (and backups) in LESs during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, German payload specialists and backup (alternate) payload specialists, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for group portrait outside mockup side hatch in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. These payload specialists will support the STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) mission. It is the second dedicated German (Deutsche) Spacelab flight. Left to right are backup Payload Specialists Renate Brummer and Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele, Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel.

  8. STS-55 German payload specialist Schlegel and MS3 Harris work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, finds plenty of room to 'spread out' (head to the floor, feet at the ceiling) while conducting Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR). In the background, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr monitors an experiment in Rack 11, an experiment rack.

  9. Risk and outbreak communication: lessons from alternative paradigms.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Risk communication guidelines widely used in public health are based on the psychometric paradigm of risk, which focuses on risk perception at the level of individuals. However, infectious disease outbreaks and other public health emergencies are more than public health events and occur in a highly charged political, social and economic environment. This study examines other sociological and cultural approaches from scholars such as Ulrich Beck and Mary Douglas for insights on how to communicate in such environments. It recommends developing supplemental tools for outbreak communication to deal with issues such as questions of blame and fairness in risk distribution and audiences who do not accept biomedical explanations of disease.

  10. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  11. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  12. The faint young sun-climate paradox - Volcanic influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Endal, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that the early earth may have frozen over as a result of a fainter early sun (see Ulrich, 1975). If this had happened, climate models suggest the earth would have remained frozen through the present epoch and into the distant future. We suggest that volcanic influences could allow a passage from the frozen branch into the unfrozen branch of climate models should conditions on earth be suitable for the latter climate change. A broad equatorial belt of volcanic ash is one scenario which would allow a transfer from the frozen earth state into the unfrozen one.

  13. Emerging magnetic stability in atomically assembled spin arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loth, Sebastian; Baumann, Susanne; Lutz, Christopher P.; Eigler, D. M.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic stability is usually created by the interaction of a large ensemble of atomically small magnetic moments that are themselves unstable. We make use of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope's ability to move individual atoms and construct arrays of interacting spins. Owed to their smallness, the magnetic states of these spin arrays are quantized and we probe their energies by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy [1]. To gain access to the equally important dynamical properties we employ an all-electronic pump-probe measurement scheme with which we follow the evolution between the spin states at nanosecond speed [2]. The combination of energetic and dynamical information allows identification of the relevant spin interaction and spin relaxation mechanisms at the atomic level. We design arrangements of atoms that suppress quantum tunneling of magnetization and drastically stabilize different spin configurations. Tracing the emergence of magnetic stability in the progression from individual atoms to arrays of spins points to new avenues for spintronic applications at atomic dimensions. [4pt] [1] A. J. Heinrich, J. A. Gupta, C. P. Lutz, D. M. Eigler, Science 306 466 (2004).[0pt] [2] S. Loth, M. Etzkorn, C. P. Lutz, D. M. Eigler, A. J. Heinrich, Science 329 1628 (2010).

  14. [Spatial distribution and temporal variation in composition of black fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small watershed located in the Northern of Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Rachel B Dos; Lopes, José; Santos, Karen B Dos

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the survey of simuliid species and the study of their spatial distribution in four streams of a small watershed situated in Londrina, Paraná State, were carried out from January to October 2007. Changes in the species composition of the breeding sites were also checked along the sampling months. Seventeen black fly species were found, being Simulium botulibranchium Lutz, Simulium travassosi d'Andretta & d'Andretta, Simulium anamariae Vulcano, Simulium brachycladum Lutz & Pinto and Simulium metallicum s. l. Bellardi new records for Paraná State. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that the environmental variables most correlated to the species distribution among sample sites were water conductivity and those linked to physical dimensions of the breeding sites, like width, depth and water velocity. The matrix of faunistic similarity among collecting dates was negatively correlated to the time interval of sampling matrix for three of the water bodies studied, showing the existence of temporal changes in the species composition. According to Multiple Regression Analysis, temporal abundance variation of Simulium perflavum Roubaud, Simulium inaequale Paterson & Shannon and Simulium lutzianum s. l. Pinto was not linked to air temperature, photoperiod and rainfall, suggesting the influence of other factors, probably those directly associated to specific breeding site conditions. The results indicate that differences in physical and chemical characteristics among water bodies may affect the taxonomic composition of simuliids in this watershed. PMID:20498969

  15. [Spatial distribution and temporal variation in composition of black fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small watershed located in the Northern of Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Rachel B Dos; Lopes, José; Santos, Karen B Dos

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the survey of simuliid species and the study of their spatial distribution in four streams of a small watershed situated in Londrina, Paraná State, were carried out from January to October 2007. Changes in the species composition of the breeding sites were also checked along the sampling months. Seventeen black fly species were found, being Simulium botulibranchium Lutz, Simulium travassosi d'Andretta & d'Andretta, Simulium anamariae Vulcano, Simulium brachycladum Lutz & Pinto and Simulium metallicum s. l. Bellardi new records for Paraná State. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that the environmental variables most correlated to the species distribution among sample sites were water conductivity and those linked to physical dimensions of the breeding sites, like width, depth and water velocity. The matrix of faunistic similarity among collecting dates was negatively correlated to the time interval of sampling matrix for three of the water bodies studied, showing the existence of temporal changes in the species composition. According to Multiple Regression Analysis, temporal abundance variation of Simulium perflavum Roubaud, Simulium inaequale Paterson & Shannon and Simulium lutzianum s. l. Pinto was not linked to air temperature, photoperiod and rainfall, suggesting the influence of other factors, probably those directly associated to specific breeding site conditions. The results indicate that differences in physical and chemical characteristics among water bodies may affect the taxonomic composition of simuliids in this watershed.

  16. Space Science Network Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Space Science Network Northwest (S2N2) is a new NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator that serves the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The headquarters of S2N2 is at the University of Washington in Seattle and the Director is Julie Lutz (206-543-0214; nasaerc@u.washington.edu). Each state has an S2N2 representative. Their contact information can be found on the Web site (www.s2n2.org) or by contacting Julie Lutz. The purpose of S2N2 is to form and nurture partnerships between space scientists and others (K-12 teachers, schools and districts, museums, planetariums, libraries, organizations such as Girl Scouts, amateur astronomy clubs, etc.). S2N2 can help space scientists come up with appropriate activities and partners for education and public outreach proposals and projects. S2N2 also provides information and advice about education materials and programs that are available from all of the Office of Space Science missions and scientific forums (Solar System Exploration, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, Astronomical Search for Origins).

  17. Identifying storm flow pathways in a rainforest catchment using hydrological and geochemical modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Stallard, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrological model TOPMODEL is used to assess the water balance and describe flow paths for the 9??73 ha Lutz Creek Catchment in Central Panama. Monte Carlo results are evaluated based on their fit to the observed hydrograph, catchment-averaged soil moisture and stream chemistry. TOPMODEL, with a direct-flow mechanism that is intended to route water through rapid shallow-soil flow, matched observed chemistry and discharge better than the basic version of TOPMODEL and provided a reasonable fit to observed soil moisture and wet-season discharge at both 15-min and daily time-steps. The improvement of simulations with the implementation of a direct-flow component indicates that a storm flow path not represented in the original version of TOPMODEL plays a primary role in the response of Lutz Creek Catchment. This flow path may be consistent with the active and abundant pipeflow that is observed or delayed saturation overland flow. The 'best-accepted' simulations from 1991 to 1997 indicate that around 41% of precipitation becomes direct flow and around 10% is saturation overland flow. Other field observations are needed to constrain evaporative and groundwater losses in the model and to characterize chemical end-members posited in this paper. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  18. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3. 0 m. y. old in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-12-01

    This map is one of a series of maps designed for hot dry rock geothermal assessment in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of the west Texas. The 3.0 m.y. cutoff age was selected because original heat has probably largely dissipated in older rocks. The location of volcanic centers is more important to geothermal resource assessment than the location of their associated volcanic rocks; however, ages have been determined for numerous flows far from their source. Therefore, the distribution of all volcanic rocks less than or equal to 3.0 m.y. old, for which there is at least one determined age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages were obtained from the original literature in all cases except for McKee and others (1974), Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976). The abstract by McKee and others (1974) lists only the ages of various rocks they dated, so locations were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). The dates of Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976) are taken from written communications cited by Luedke and Smith (1978); therefore, both references are shown on the map for those ages.

  19. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  20. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  1. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  2. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P; Vieira, S; Greco, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  3. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    SciTech Connect

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry and couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter.

  4. SU-E-J-213: Imaging and Treatment Isocenter Verification of a Gantry Mounted Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S; Goddu, S; Rankine, L; Klein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Mevion proton therapy machine is the first to feature a gantry mounted sychro-cyclotron. In addition, the system utilizes a 6D motion couch and kV imaging for precise proton therapy. To quantify coincidence between these systems, isocentricity tests were performed based on kV imaging alignment using radiochromic film. Methods: The 100 ton gantry and 6D robotic couch can rotate 190° around isocenter to provide necessary beam angles for treatment. The kV sources and detector panels are deployed as needed to acquire orthogonal portals. Gantry and couch mechanical isocenter were tested using star-shots and radiochromic-film (RCF). Using kV imaging, the star-shot phantom was aligned to an embedded fiducial and the isocenter was marked on RCF with a pinprick. The couch and gantry stars were performed by irradiating films at every 45° and 30°, respectively. A proton beam with a range and modulation-width of 18 cm was used. A Winston-Lutz test was also performed at the same gantry and couch rotations using a custom jig holding RCF and a tungsten ball placed at isocenter. A 2 cm diameter circular aperture was used for the irradiation. Results: The couch star-shot indicated a minimum tangent circle of 0.6 mm, with a 0.9 mm offset from the manually marked isocenter. The gantry star-shot showed a 0.6 mm minimum tangent circle with a 0.5 mm offset from the pinprick. The Winston Lutz test performed for gantry rotation showed a maximum deviation from center of 0.5 mm. Conclusion: Based on star-shots and Winston-Lutz tests, the proton gantry and 6D couch isocentricity are within 1 mm. In this study, we have shown that the methods commonly utilized for Linac characterization can be applied to proton therapy. This revolutionary proton therapy system possesses excellent agreement between the mechanical and radiation isocenter, providing highly precise treatment.

  5. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

  6. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species.

  7. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  8. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  9. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    PubMed

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.

  10. A new species of Petasiger (Digenea: Echinostomiformes: Echinostomatidae) in the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, David; Overstreet, Robin M; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-12-01

    A new species of Petasiger inhabits Pelecanus occidentalis, from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species most closely resembles Petasiger novemdecim Lutz 1929 and Petasiger caribbensis Nassi, 1980 by having 19 circumoral spines and vitelline follicles confluent between the ventral sucker and gonads. The new species differs from both of these species by having a cirrus sac that is anteroposteriorly elongate and that reaches posteriorly to the midventral sucker, an ovary and Mehlis' gland that overlap the anterior testis dorsally, a uterus that lies dorsal to the ventral sucker, and a dextromedial genital pore. In P. novemdecim and P. caribbensis the cirrus sac is round and does not extend posteriorly to the anterior margin of the ventral sucker, both the ovary and Mehlis' gland are anterior to the anterior testis, the uterus runs lateral to and not dorsal to the ventral sucker, and the genital pore opens medially and sinistromedially, respectively.

  11. Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we examined global treatment outcomes during 16 months of intensive, psychodynamic treatment for 77 inpatients suffering from treatment-refractory disorders. Hypotheses based on the phase model of treatment change (Howard, Lueger, Maling, & Martinovich, 1993; Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) were supported in the study results. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis V scales assessing behavioral functioning demonstrated large and medium effect size change, whereas stable, enduring personality functioning assessed by psychoanalytic Rorschach scales and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, 1995) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) demonstrated small and medium effect size change. We also report assessment of reliable change index and clinical significance. The ecological validity of Rorschach measures is supported by significant validity coefficients (in the hypothesized directions) between implicit measures of personality functioning and behavioral ratings.

  12. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  13. The Spatio-Temporal Distribution Patterns of Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in Salta Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Aybar, Cecilia A. Veggiani; Juri, María J. Dantur; Santana, Mirta; de Grosso, Mercedes S. Lizarralde; Spinelli, Gustavo R.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this survey was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their relationship with environmental variables in Salta, northwestern Argentina. Culicoides were collected monthly from January 2003 through December 2005. The influence of the climatic variables on population abundance was analyzed with a multilevel Poisson regression. A total of 918 specimens belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Culicoides paraensis Goeldi (65.5%), followed by Culicoides lahillei Iches (14.6%) and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (7.6%). The highest seasonal abundance for C. paraensis, C. debilipalpis and C. lahillei occurred during the spring and summer. A Poisson regression analysis showed that the mean maximum and minimum temperature and the mean maximum and minimum humidity were the variables with the greatest influence on the population abundance of Culicoides species. PMID:23461794

  14. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  15. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences. PMID:19397030

  16. Scorpion toxins from Centruroides noxius and Tityus serrulatus. Primary structures and sequence comparison by metric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Martin, B M; Svendsen, I; Rode, G S; Erickson, B W

    1985-01-01

    The complete primary structures of toxin II-14 from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and toxin gamma from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz and Mello have been determined. Cleavage of toxin gamma after Met-6 with CNBr produced the 55-residue peptide 7-61, which maintained the four disulphide bonds but was not toxic to mice at a dose 3 times the lethal dose of native toxin gamma. Pairwise comparison by metric analysis of segment 1-50 of toxin gamma and the corresponding segments from two other South American scorpion toxins, five North American scorpion toxins, nine North African scorpion toxins and one Central Asian scorpion toxin showed that the three Brazilian toxins are intermediate between the North American and North African toxins. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the South American and African continents were joined by a land connection in the distant past. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052021

  17. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  18. Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we examined global treatment outcomes during 16 months of intensive, psychodynamic treatment for 77 inpatients suffering from treatment-refractory disorders. Hypotheses based on the phase model of treatment change (Howard, Lueger, Maling, & Martinovich, 1993; Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) were supported in the study results. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis V scales assessing behavioral functioning demonstrated large and medium effect size change, whereas stable, enduring personality functioning assessed by psychoanalytic Rorschach scales and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, 1995) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) demonstrated small and medium effect size change. We also report assessment of reliable change index and clinical significance. The ecological validity of Rorschach measures is supported by significant validity coefficients (in the hypothesized directions) between implicit measures of personality functioning and behavioral ratings. PMID:15548467

  19. Laboratory band strengths of methane and their application to the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. II - The red region 6000-7600 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. L.; Owen, T.; Cess, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Lutz et al. (1976) have reported the first quantitative analyses of the strengths of the blue-green bands of methane which dominate the visible spectra of the outer planets. The present investigation represents an extension of the first study to include a number of bands between 6000 and 7500 A. The objective of this extension is to establish the validity of the scaled numerical curve of growth of the first study further into the saturated region and to test the apparent pressure independence of the high-overtone bands over a large pressure range. In addition, it is desired to provide a set of homogeneously determined band strengths and curves of growth over a large spectral region and over a large range of band strengths. This will make it possible to investigate feasible apparent dependences of planetary methane abundances on wavelength and band strength as a probe of the scattering processes in the planetary atmospheres.

  20. A new species of Petasiger (Digenea: Echinostomiformes: Echinostomatidae) in the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, David; Overstreet, Robin M; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-12-01

    A new species of Petasiger inhabits Pelecanus occidentalis, from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species most closely resembles Petasiger novemdecim Lutz 1929 and Petasiger caribbensis Nassi, 1980 by having 19 circumoral spines and vitelline follicles confluent between the ventral sucker and gonads. The new species differs from both of these species by having a cirrus sac that is anteroposteriorly elongate and that reaches posteriorly to the midventral sucker, an ovary and Mehlis' gland that overlap the anterior testis dorsally, a uterus that lies dorsal to the ventral sucker, and a dextromedial genital pore. In P. novemdecim and P. caribbensis the cirrus sac is round and does not extend posteriorly to the anterior margin of the ventral sucker, both the ovary and Mehlis' gland are anterior to the anterior testis, the uterus runs lateral to and not dorsal to the ventral sucker, and the genital pore opens medially and sinistromedially, respectively. PMID:16539032

  1. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Marc D. Sutton (nominated by Stephan Beck), Gonzalo Giribet (nominated by Lutz Walter), and Lennart Olsson (nominated by Purificación López-García). PMID:20604956

  2. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  3. SU-E-T-300: Spatial Variations of Multiple Off-Axial Targets for a Single Isocenter SRS Treatment Plan in ExacTrac 6D Robotic Couch System

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Tseng, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial variations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment plan in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system (BrainLab AG). Methods: Five metallic ball bearing (BB) markers were placed sparsely in 3D off-axial locations (non-coplanar) inside a skull phantom as the representatives of multiple targets mimicking multiple brain metastases. The locations of the BB markers were carefully chosen to minimize overlapping of each other in a port imaging detector plane. The skull phantom was immobilized by a frameless mask and CT scanned with a BrainLab Head and Neck Localizer using a GE Optima MDCT scanner. The CT images were exported to iPlan software (BrainLab AG) and a multiple target PTV was drawn by combining all the contours of the BBs. The margin of the MLC opening was selected as 3 mm expansion outward. Two coplanar arc beams were placed to generate a single isocenter SRS plan to treat the PTV. The arc beams were delivered using Novalis Tx system with portal imaging acquisition mode per 10% temporal resolution. The locations of the BBs were visualized and analyzed with respect to the MLC aperture in the treatment plan similar to the Winston-Lutz test. Results: All the BBs were clearly identified inside the MLC openings. The positional errors for the BBs were overall less than 1 mm along the rotational path of the two arcs. Conclusion: This study verified that the spatial deviations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter SRS treatment plan is within sub-millimeter range in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system. Accompanied with the Winston-Lutz test, this test will quality-assure the spatial accuracies of the isocenter as well as the positions of multiple off-axial targets for the SRS treatment using a single isocenter multiple target treatment plan.

  4. Dose-Response for Multiple Biomarkers of Exposure and Genotoxic Effect Following Repeated Treatment of Rats with the Alkylating Agents, MMS and MNU.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiying; LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Zhang, Fagen; Bartels, Michael J; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Pottenger, Lynn H

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the dose-response relationship for various in vivo endpoints of exposure and effect were investigated using the alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and methylnitrosourea (MNU). Six male F344 rats/group were dosed orally with 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 25 or 50mg/kg bw/day (mkd) of MMS, or 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 or 50 mkd of MNU, for 4 consecutive days and sacrificed 24h after the last dose. The dose-responses for multiple biomarkers of exposure and genotoxic effect were investigated. In MMS-treated rats, the hemoglobin adduct level, a systemic exposure biomarker, increased linearly with dose (r (2) = 0.9990, P < 0.05), indicating the systemic availability of MMS; however, the N7MeG DNA adduct, a target exposure biomarker, exhibited a non-linear dose-response in blood and liver tissues. Blood reticulocyte micronuclei (MN), a genotoxic effect biomarker, exhibited a clear no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level (NOGEL) of 5 mkd as a point of departure (PoD) for MMS. Two separate dose-response models, the Lutz and Lutz model and the stepwise approach using PROC REG both supported a bilinear/threshold dose-response for MN induction. Liver gene expression, a mechanistic endpoint, also exhibited a bilinear dose-response. Similarly, in MNU-treated rats, hepatic DNA adducts, gene expression changes and MN all exhibited clear PoDs, with a NOGEL of 1 mkd for MN induction, although dose-response modeling of the MNU-induced MN data showed a better statistical fit for a linear dose-response. In summary, these results provide in vivo data that support the existence of clear non-linear dose-responses for a number of biologically significant events along the pathway for genotoxicity induced by DNA-reactive agents.

  5. SU-E-T-373: A Motorized Stage for Fast and Accurate QA of Machine Isocenter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J; Velarde, E; Wong, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Precision delivery of radiation dose relies on accurate knowledge of the machine isocenter under a variety of machine motions. This is typically determined by performing a Winston-Lutz test consisting of imaging a known object at multiple gantry/collimator/table angles and ensuring that the maximum offset is within specified tolerance. The first step in the Winston-Lutz test is careful placement of a ball bearing at the machine isocenter as determined by repeated imaging and shifting until accurate placement has been determined. Conventionally this is performed by adjusting a stage manually using vernier scales which carry the limitation that each adjustment must be done inside the treatment room with the risks of inaccurate adjustment of the scale and physical bumping of the table. It is proposed to use a motorized system controlled outside of the room to improve the required time and accuracy of these tests. Methods: The three dimensional vernier scales are replaced by three motors with accuracy of 1 micron and a range of 25.4mm connected via USB to a computer in the control room. Software is designed which automatically detects the motors and assigns them to proper axes and allows for small shifts to be entered and performed. Input values match calculated offsets in magnitude and sign to reduce conversion errors. Speed of setup, number of iterations to setup, and accuracy of final placement are assessed. Results: Automatic BB placement required 2.25 iterations and 13 minutes on average while manual placement required 3.76 iterations and 37.5 minutes. The average final XYZ offsets is 0.02cm, 0.01cm, 0.04cm for automatic setup and 0.04cm, 0.02cm, 0.04cm for manual setup. Conclusion: Automatic placement decreased time and repeat iterations for setup while improving placement accuracy. Automatic placement greatly reduces the time required to perform QA.

  6. STS-55 SL-D2 crew, in LESs, rehearse launch procedures during TCDT at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), depart the Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building for Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Leading the way are Pilot Terence T. Henricks (left) and Commander Steven R. Nagel; behind them are, from left Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. This is the final portion of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch which cumulates with a simulated T-0. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-310.

  7. STS-55 crew examines emergency egress system (slidewire) mechanism at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers examine emergency egress system (slidewire) mechanism and listen to training instructor's briefing on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) tower 39A. In the slidewire basket (litter) are Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel (left) and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. On either side of the basket are (left to right) Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (kneeling), Commander Steven R. Nagel, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, the instructor, and MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr. Schlegel and Walter are representatives for Germany's DLR. The crewmembers are participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-316.

  8. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  9. STS-55 SL-D2 crew poses in front of ET/SRB at KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers pose for a group portrait in front of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Towering above them in the background are the external tank (ET) and solid rocket boosters (SRBs). Wearing flight coveralls are (left to right) Mission Specialist 2 (MS) Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, and MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr. The crew is at KSC for the Terminal Countdown Demostration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-319.

  10. STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab D2 Official crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers, wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for their Official crew portrait. Five NASA astronauts and two German payload specialists, assigned to fly aboard OV-102 in support of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2), are pictured. On the front row (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks (holding launch and entry helmet (LEH)), Commander Steven R. Nagel (holding crew insignia), and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt (holding LEH). In the back are (left to right) MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. In the background are the United States and German flags. Portrait made by NASA JSC contract photographer Robert L. Walck.

  11. STS-55 crew and backups listen to emergency egress briefing on KSC LC tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers and backup (alternate) payload specialists listen to emergency egress system briefing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Clockwise from the lower right corner are backup Payload Specialist Renate Brummer, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt, Commander Steven R. Nagel, backup Payload Specialist Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Other members of the ground team look on. Brummer, Thiele, Schlegel, and Walter are representatives of Germany's DLR. The crew and two alternates are participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-314.

  12. Refuse and the 'Risk Society': The Political Ecology of Risk in Inter-war Britain.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Timothy; Bulmer, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    This article responds to current critiques of Ulrich Beck's 'risk society' thesis by historians of science and medicine. Those who have engaged with the concept of risk society have been content to accept the fundamental categories of Beck's analysis. In contrast, we argue that Beck's risk society thesis underplays two key themes. First, the role of capitalist social relations as the driver of technological change and the transformation of everyday life; and second, the ways in which hegemonic discourses of risk can be appropriated and transformed by counter-hegemonic forces. In place of 'risk society', we propose an approach based upon a 'political ecology of risk', which emphasises the social relations that are fundamental to the everyday politics of environmental health. PMID:24771975

  13. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

  14. How strongly linked are mental time and space along the left-right axis?

    PubMed

    Eikmeier, Verena; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Maienborn, Claudia; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    Different lines of research suggest that our mental representations of time and space are linked, though the strength of this linkage has only recently been addressed for the front-back mental timeline (Eikmeier, Schröter, Maienborn, Alex-Ruf, & Ulrich, 2013). The present study extends this investigation to the left-right mental timeline. In contrast to what was found in the cited previous study, the obtained space-time congruency effects were smaller than benchmark stimulus-response congruency effects in control conditions. This pattern of results suggests that the representations of time and space are less strongly linked for the left-right axis than for the back-front axis.

  15. Detection of a flare at Fermi LAT energies during a multiwavelength campaign on Markarian 180

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarra, C.; Bastieri, D.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of Markarian 180 (1ES 1133+704), a BL Lac object embedded in a giant elliptical galaxy, obtained for a period of 45 day, during which multi-wavelength observations were ongoing. The multi-wavelength campaign on Mrk180 was in 2008 (from 2008-10-24 to 2008-12-08) and was coordinated by Stefan Rugamer (MAGIC Collaboration). The Mrk 180 is associated with a quasar-like object whose distance can be determined unambiguously, thanks to the measurement of absorption line that gives the redshift (z=0.046; Ulrich 1978). The source was observed by the LAT of the Fermi satellite, and it was possible to discover a change of flux, at the energies 100 MeV-300 GeV, during the multi-wavelength campaign period. Results of the analysis are shown.

  16. Taking times out: Tense logic as a theory of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashby, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Ulrich Meyer's book The Nature of Time uses tense logic to argue for a 'modal' view of time, which replaces substantial times (as in Newton's Absolute Time) with 'ersatz times' constructed using conceptually basic tense operators. He also argues against Bertrand Russell's relationist theory, in which times are classes of events, and against the idea that relativity compels the integration of time and space (called by Meyer the Inseparability Argument). I find fault with each of these negative arguments, as well as with Meyer's purported reconstruction of empty spacetime from tense operators and substantial spatial points. I suggest that Meyer's positive project is best conceived as an elimination of time in the mode of Julian Barbour's The End of Time.

  17. Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J.; Stott, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  18. Mediating subpolitics in US and UK science news.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The development of therapeutic cloning research sparked a scientific controversy pitting patients' hopes for cures against religious and anti-abortion opposition. The present study investigates this controversy by examining the production and content of Anglo-American print media coverage of the branch of embryonic stem cell research known as "therapeutic cloning." Data collection included press articles about therapeutic cloning (n = 5,185) and qualitative interviews with journalists (n = 18). Patient activists and anti-abortion groups emerged as key news sources in this coverage. Significant qualitative differences in the mediation of these subpolitical groups and their arguments for and against therapeutic cloning are identified. Results suggest that the perceived human interest news value of narratives of patient suffering may give patient advocacy groups a privileged position in journalistic coverage. Finally, Ulrich Beck's theoretical arguments about subpolitics are critically applied to the results to elicit further insights.

  19. Distribution of intensity for the Westmorland, California, earthquake of April 26, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhard, L.M.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Algermissen, Sylvester Theodore

    1982-01-01

    The maximum Modified Mercalli intensity of the April 26, 1981 earthquake located 5 km northwest of Westmorland, California is VII. Twelve buildings in Westmorland were severely damaged with an additional 30 sustaining minor damage. Two brick parapets fell in Calipatria, 14 km northeast of Westmorland and 10 km from the earthquake epicenter. Significant damage in rural areas was restricted to unreinforced, concrete-lined irrigation canals. Liquefaction effects and ground slumping were widespread in rural areas and were the primary causes of road cracking. Preliminary local government estimates of property loss range from one to three million dollars (Imperial Valley Press, 1981). The earthquake was felt over an area of approximately 160,000 km2; about the same felt area of the October 15, 1979 (Reagor and others, 1980), and May 18, 1940 (Ulrich, 1941) Imperial Valley earthquakes.

  20. Type specific dynamic measurements on wind-power plant at the Schnittlingen test site (Fed. Republic of Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnisch, Helmut; Kussmann, Alfred; Reiniger, Klaus; Thiesen, Reimer

    1991-05-01

    The German Aerospace Research and Test Establishment has operated the Ulrich Hutter wind energy test site in the Schwebische Alb for small and medium sized wind turbines since 1979. Dynamic stressing of components as well as the power and control characteristics on a number of wind turbines of different design and construction during varying weather and operational conditions are measured. High resolution data is transmitted from the rotating system to the ground station by means of telemetry. The data, from both the short timespan tests (with high data flow rate) and the long timespan measurements are first reduced by the data recording facility to allow an overview and initial judgement. Further evaluation is carried out off-line using the mainframe. The influence of the widely varying weather conditions on the control system and the performance of the wind turbines is of particular interest. The conclusions and recommendations achieved from this operational experience are presented.

  1. Lyapunov exponent and surrogation analysis of patterns of variability: profiles in new walkers with and without down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Beth A; Stergiou, Nick; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we found that preadolescents with Down syndrome (DS) produce higher amounts of variability (Smith et al., 2007) and larger Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values (indicating more instability) during walking than their peers with typical development (TD) (Buzzi & Ulrich, 2004). Here we use nonlinear methods to examine the patterns that characterize gait variability as it emerges, in toddlers with TD and with DS, rather than after years of practice. We calculated Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values to assess stability of leg trajectories. We also tested the use of 3 algorithms for surrogation analysis to investigate mathematical periodicity of toddlers' strides. Results show that toddlers' LyE values were not different between groups or with practice and strides of both groups become more periodic with practice. The underlying control strategies are not different between groups at this point in developmental time, although control strategies do diverge between the groups by preadolescence.

  2. Phonon-dressed Mollow triplet in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics: excitation-induced dephasing and nonperturbative cavity feeding effects.

    PubMed

    Roy, C; Hughes, S

    2011-06-17

    We study the resonance fluorescence spectra of a driven quantum dot placed inside a high-Q semiconductor cavity and interacting with an acoustic phonon bath. The dynamics is calculated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame. We predict pronounced spectral broadening of the Mollow sidebands through off-resonant cavity emission which, for small cavity-coupling rates, increases quadratically with the Rabi frequency in direct agreement with recent experiments using semiconductor micropillars [S. M. Ulrich et al., preceding Letter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247402 (2011)]. We also demonstrate that, surprisingly, phonon coupling actually helps resolve signatures of the elusive second rungs of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder states via off-resonant cavity feeding. Both multiphonon and multiphoton effects are shown to play a qualitatively important role on the fluorescence spectra.

  3. STS-55 German payload specialists and backups pose in front of SL-D2 at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, German payload specialists and backup (alternate) payload specialists pose in front of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. These four Germans have been assigned to support the STS-55/SL-D2 mission. Left to right are Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, backup Payload Specialist Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele (kneeling), Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and backup Payload Specialist Renate Brummer. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to fly aboard OV-102 for the mission while Brummer and Thiele will serve as alternates and fill supportive roles on the ground. Clearly visible on the SL-D2 module are the European Space Agency (ESA) insignia, the feedthrough plate, and the D2 insignia.

  4. Cell scientist to watch - Christian Behrends.

    PubMed

    2016-08-15

    Christian Behrends studied biology at the University of Konstanz in Germany, but did his Diploma thesis externally with Michael Ehrmann in the School of Bioscience at Cardiff University, UK. He then pursued his PhD degree in Franz-Ulrich Hartl's group at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany. For his postdoctoral work Christian received a Feodor Lynen Research Fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, with which he moved to the US and joined the laboratory of J. Wade Harper at Harvard Medical School. In 2011, he received an Emmy Noether Research Grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and started his own independent group at the Medical School of Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. He is also a recipient of an ERC starting grant. Research in Christian's lab is focused on the basic mechanisms of autophagy, particularly concentrating on the role of ubiquitin signalling in autophagy, and the crosstalk between autophagy and other vesicular trafficking pathways.

  5. Refuse and the ‘Risk Society’: The Political Ecology of Risk in Inter-war Britain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy; Bulmer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to current critiques of Ulrich Beck's ‘risk society’ thesis by historians of science and medicine. Those who have engaged with the concept of risk society have been content to accept the fundamental categories of Beck's analysis. In contrast, we argue that Beck's risk society thesis underplays two key themes. First, the role of capitalist social relations as the driver of technological change and the transformation of everyday life; and second, the ways in which hegemonic discourses of risk can be appropriated and transformed by counter-hegemonic forces. In place of ‘risk society’, we propose an approach based upon a ‘political ecology of risk’, which emphasises the social relations that are fundamental to the everyday politics of environmental health. PMID:24771975

  6. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  7. Complex I function in mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Lenaz, Giorgio; Tioli, Gaia; Falasca, Anna Ida; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses the functional properties of mitochondrial Complex I originating from its presence in an assembled form as a supercomplex comprising Complex III and Complex IV in stoichiometric ratios. In particular several lines of evidence are presented favouring the concept that electron transfer from Complex I to Complex III is operated by channelling of electrons through Coenzyme Q molecules bound to the supercomplex, in contrast with the hypothesis that the transfer of reducing equivalents from Complex I to Complex III occurs via random diffusion of the Coenzyme Q molecules in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, another property provided by the supercomplex assembly is the control of generation of reactive oxygen species by Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  8. Current topics on inhibitors of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    There are a variety of chemicals which regulate the functions of bacterial and mitochondrial complex I. Some of them, such as rotenone and piericidin A, have been indispensable molecular tools in mechanistic studies on complex I. A large amount of experimental data characterizing the actions of complex I inhibitors has been accumulated so far. Recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of entire complex I may be helpful to carefully interpret this data. We herein focused on recent hot topics on complex I inhibitors and the subjects closely connected to these inhibitors, which may provide useful information not only on the structural and functional aspects of complex I, but also on drug design targeting this enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  9. Infrared spectroscopic studies on reaction induced conformational changes in the NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Petra; Kriegel, Sébastien; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Redox-dependent conformational changes are currently discussed to be a crucial part of the reaction mechanism of the respiratory complex I. Specialized difference Fourier transform infrared techniques allow the detection of side-chain movements and minute secondary structure changes. For complex I, (1)H/(2)H exchange kinetics of the amide modes revealed a better accessibility of the backbone in the presence of NADH and quinone. Interestingly, the presence of phospholipids, that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the isolated enzyme complex, changes the overall conformation. When comparing complex I samples from different species, very similar electrochemically induced FTIR difference spectra and very similar rearrangements are reported. Finally, the information obtained with variants and from Zn(2+) inhibited samples for the conformational reorganization of complex I upon electron transfer are discussed in this review. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  10. Is the cosmopolitanization of science emerging in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2013-01-01

    China is one among many other countries that have recognised the necessity in aligning national scientific progress with that of global development. As China is striding along the path of scientific development with determination and initial success, a key concern confronted by international scientific community is how China, a rising scientific power, will transform existing global scientific atlas. Based on a project carried out in six Chinese cities between 2006 to 2009, this paper mainly employs Ulrich Beck’s cosmopolitan theory in examining China’s life sciences’ development in the last decade to investigate how Chinese stakeholders have developed a (cosmopolitan) sensibility to rival ways of scientific reasoning, and in what way, Chinese stakeholders have contributed to the cosmopolitanization of science. PMID:24244045

  11. STS-55 crew (and backups) pose for portrait in front of SL-D2 module at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers and backup (alternate) payload specialists pose for group portrait in front of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. Left to right (front) are Commander Steven R. Nagel, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, backup Payload Specialist Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele, and Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel; and (back) backup Payload Specialist Renate Brummer and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to represent the DLR as payload specialists for the mission, while Brummer and Thiele will serve as alternates and fill supportive roles on the ground.

  12. STS-55 crew poses for portrait in front of SL-D2 module at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for group portrait in front of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. These five Americans and two Germans have been assigned as prime crewmembers to support the STS-55/SL-D2 mission. Left to right (front) are Commander Steven R. Nagel, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt; and (back) Pilot Terence T. Henricks and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to represent the DLR as payload specialists for the mission.

  13. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline. PMID:17893754

  14. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases.

  15. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  16. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline.

  17. Learning organizations need teachers: the leader's challenge.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2003-01-01

    The leader as learner and the leader as teacher are very basic to the role of any leader, but often overlooked in favor of command and control styles of leadership. Continual improvement is the only way we can insure to our patients that we can provide the best care available to them. In the words of Florence Nightingale: "For us who Nurse, our Nursing is a thing, which, unless in it we are making progress every year, every month, every week, take my word for it, we are going back (Ulrich, 1992, p. 12). When we truly believe that everyone in the organization possesses useful knowledge they can share, and when we truly believe that the best organizations comprise true learners and teachers, we will achieve the excellence that we are determined to achieve.

  18. Do we map remembrances to the left/back and expectations to the right/front of a mental timeline? Space-time congruency effects with retrospective and prospective verbs.

    PubMed

    Maienborn, Claudia; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Eikmeier, Verena; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that people code time in terms of a mental timeline which typically runs from left to right or from back to front. Determining the cognitive function of this mental timeline for language processing, however, is still an unsettled issue. Whereas the studies of Ulrich and Maienborn (2010) and Ulrich et al. (2012) argue against an automatic activation of the mental timeline for the interpretation of tense and temporal adverbials at sentence level, Sell and Kaschak (2011) observe an automatic activation for the processing of past- and future-related sentences in small stories. The present paper reports the results of three experiments which examine the processing of sentences with retrospective and prospective verbs (e.g., to remember, to regret vs. to expect, to announce) in present tense, which locate a second, embedded event in the past or the future. When temporal information was task-relevant, a space-time congruency effect emerged (Experiment 1). This suggests that the mental timeline is not only linked to overtly deictic linguistic material but may also be construed in a more intricate way through the compositional construction of sentence meaning. The congruency effect disappeared, however, when temporal information was task-irrelevant (Experiments 2 and 3), suggesting that the mental timeline is not functionally involved in the cognitive processing of these especially demanding two-event sentences. The results of the present study support the conclusion that the relevant factor driving an automatic activation of the mental timeline is not the number of linguistically expressed events, but might rather be the number of sentential units.

  19. Application of the AutoClass Automatic Bayesian Classification System to HMI Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Beck, J. G.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    When applied to a sample set of observed data, the Bayesian automatic classification system known as AutoClass finds a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of the data, such as magnetic field and intensity, without human supervision. These class definitions can then be applied to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. AutoClass can be applied to solar magnetic and intensity images to identify surface features associated with different values of magnetic and intensity fields in a consistent manner without the need for human judgment. AutoClass has been applied to Mt. Wilson magnetograms and intensity-grams to identify solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, to improve modeling of TSI variations over time. (Ulrich, et al, 2010) Here, we apply AutoClass to observables derived from the high resolution 4096 x 4096 HMI magnetic, intensity continuum, line width and line depth images to identify solar surface regions which may be associated with variations in TSI and other solar irradiance measurements. To prevent small instrument artifacts from interfering with class identification, we apply a flat-field correction and a rotationally shifted temporal average to the HMI images prior to processing with AutoClass. This pre-processing also allows an investigation of the sensitivity of AutoClass to instrumental artifacts. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these highly resolved images and the use of that analysis to enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Reference Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and Boyden, J. 2010, Solar Phys., 261, 11.

  20. Comparison Of Solar Surface Features In HMI Images And Mount Wilson Images Found By The Automatic Bayesian Classification System AutoClass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass has been applied to daily solar magnetogram and intensity images taken at the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to find and identify classes of solar surface features which are associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, to improve modeling of TSI variations over time. (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass does this by a two step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images embody four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI image observables to derive solar surface feature classes and compare the characteristic statistics of those classes to the MWO classes. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and Boyden, J. 2010, Solar Phys. , 261 , 11.

  1. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta

  2. Air pollution exposure-DNA adduct dosimetry in humans and rodents: evidence for non-linearity at high doses.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, J; Walsh, D; Williams, R; Dobiás, L

    1997-08-01

    form of non-linearity at high doses that has been described by Lutz (W.K. Lutz, Dose-response relationship and low dose extrapolation in chemical carcinogenesis, Carcinogenesis, 11 (1990) 1243-1247) as a superlinear dose response. This superlinear response may be due to saturation of metabolic activation enzymes, induction of either DNA repair processes or detoxification enzymes, or other mechanisms. Regardless of the mechanism, this decrease in the DNA-binding potency at moderate to high doses of PAH has important implications for dose-response extrapolation in risk assessment.

  3. Bayesian Analysis of Hmi Images and Comparison to Tsi Variations and MWO Image Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.; Tran, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    We have previously applied the Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass to solar magnetogram and intensity images from the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to identify classes of solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, modeled TSI time series with improved accuracy (r > 0.96). (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass identifies classes by a two-step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images capture four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two observables-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI observables for images from June, 2010 to December, 2014 to identify solar surface feature classes. We use contemporaneous TSI measurements to determine whether and how variations in the HMI classes are related to TSI variations and compare the characteristic statistics of the HMI classes to those found from MWO images. We also attempt to derive scale factors between the HMI and MWO magnetic and intensity observables.The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment.Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and

  4. The assessment of the relationship between various waterscapes and outdoor activities: Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sakıcı, Çiğdem

    2014-06-01

    The environment is very important in terms of the behaviours and actions of human beings, and activity-environment correlation is used frequently in outdoor arrangements. The environment must meet the requirements and expectations of society. Outdoor activities are the activities that contribute to the well-being of human beings in physical (heartbeat, respiration, blood pressure, etc.) (Ulrich, Journal of Environmental Psychology 11:210-230, 1991), psychological (fear, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, etc.) (Marcus and Barnes 1999) and behavioural (insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, passivity, etc.) (Ulrich 1999) terms. It is known that human beings are affected significantly by the environments they are in, and more importantly, it is known that the environment they are in affects their happiness status. The causes of this effect are the features and appearances of the spatial elements and components that mainly make up such environments. One of the elements that is used frequently in landscape is water. If one examines designed or natural open spaces, it may be observed that water has very distinctive features. Dynamic (in the form of a leak, with intense flow rate, cascade, foamy, squirting, jet, graded, etc.) and still water elements may be used with sculptures, plants, rocks and elevations (on land). This study aims to reveal which age groups of students enjoy the different types of activities with regards to water features and emotional associations that motion and characteristics of water bring out in human beings and also to reveal the water preferences of human beings, including their reasons for such preference. Thus, 20 different water compositions located in Edirne Province were selected, and in 2-min camera reels, the students of various age groups assessed water with various characteristic features via a survey. As a result, it was revealed that human beings from various age groups wish to perform different activities with water elements

  5. Bayesian Analysis Of HMI Solar Image Observables And Comparison To TSI Variations And MWO Image Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have previously applied the Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass to solar magnetogram and intensity images from the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to identify classes of solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, modeled TSI time series with improved accuracy (r > 0.96). (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass identifies classes by a two-step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images capture four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two observables-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI observables for images from May, 2010 to June, 2014 to identify solar surface feature classes. We use contemporaneous TSI measurements to determine whether and how variations in the HMI classes are related to TSI variations and compare the characteristic statistics of the HMI classes to those found from MWO images. We also attempt to derive scale factors between the HMI and MWO magnetic and intensity observables. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and

  6. Pu-powered space probes face uncertain future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    When fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashed into the gas clouds of Jupiter in July, the only representatives of humankind with a good view were a trio of spacecraft, Voyager 2, Galileo, and Ulysses. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy provided the power to run the observing instruments on these spacecraft, but now that source of power-and all deep-space missions-may be in jeopardy. Despite the fact that the recently passed congressional appropriations bill increased funding for the RTG program by nearly 20 percent, from $51 million in 1994 to $61 million in 1995, rumors persist that the program is in danger of being discontinued. Peter Ulrich, chief of the Flight Programs Branch of the Solar System Exploration Division of the Office of Space Science at NASA, was confident that the program would stay alive through NASA`s next mission. RTGs will be on board the Cassini spacecraft scheduled to blast off in 1997 for an exploration of Saturn and its rings and moons. RTG`s use the heat produced by the alpha decay of plutonium-238 to heat a thermocouple, which generates electricity. Cassini is designed to carry three RTGs, producing a total of 750 W of electricity initially, decreasing to about 600 W by the time it reaches Saturn seven years after launch. The RTGs on Cassini will carry a total of about 70 lb of plutonium oxide. RTGs have no moving parts. They are simple, rugged, and reliable. According to Ulrich, {open_quotes}It`s really a very well-matched power source for something like a remote mission.{close_quotes} The political situation is less clear, though. {open_quotes}What I hear unofficially is funding looks dime,{close_quotes} said the DOE spokesperson, {open_quotes}and the lights are being turned off for these missions.{close_quotes} If that happens, the lights will go out on NASA`s deep-space missions to other parts of our solar system.

  7. The assessment of the relationship between various waterscapes and outdoor activities: Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sakıcı, Çiğdem

    2014-06-01

    The environment is very important in terms of the behaviours and actions of human beings, and activity-environment correlation is used frequently in outdoor arrangements. The environment must meet the requirements and expectations of society. Outdoor activities are the activities that contribute to the well-being of human beings in physical (heartbeat, respiration, blood pressure, etc.) (Ulrich, Journal of Environmental Psychology 11:210-230, 1991), psychological (fear, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, etc.) (Marcus and Barnes 1999) and behavioural (insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, passivity, etc.) (Ulrich 1999) terms. It is known that human beings are affected significantly by the environments they are in, and more importantly, it is known that the environment they are in affects their happiness status. The causes of this effect are the features and appearances of the spatial elements and components that mainly make up such environments. One of the elements that is used frequently in landscape is water. If one examines designed or natural open spaces, it may be observed that water has very distinctive features. Dynamic (in the form of a leak, with intense flow rate, cascade, foamy, squirting, jet, graded, etc.) and still water elements may be used with sculptures, plants, rocks and elevations (on land). This study aims to reveal which age groups of students enjoy the different types of activities with regards to water features and emotional associations that motion and characteristics of water bring out in human beings and also to reveal the water preferences of human beings, including their reasons for such preference. Thus, 20 different water compositions located in Edirne Province were selected, and in 2-min camera reels, the students of various age groups assessed water with various characteristic features via a survey. As a result, it was revealed that human beings from various age groups wish to perform different activities with water elements

  8. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Bruce; Oliveria, Emerson Barbosa de; Haigh, Emily; Almeida, Lourenço Leal de

    2002-07-01

    Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations. PMID:12219123

  9. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria Formation in Idaho, 1949: part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, D.F.; Smart, R.A.; Peirce, H.W.; Weiser, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Idaho and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This is the fifth report of data containing abstracts of sections measured in southeastern Idaho; it includes about half of the data gathered in Idaho in 1949. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953a). Many people have taken part in this investigation, which was organized and supervised by V. E. McKelvey. F. J. Anderson, A. L. Bush, R. S. Jones, K. B. Krauskopf, K. Lutz, M. E. Thompson, R. G. Waring, and M. A. Warner participated in the description of strata and the collection of samples referred to in this report. T. K. Rigby assisted in the preparation of trenches and the collection, crushing, and splitting of samples in the field. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

  10. Epoxidation of plasmalogens: source for long-chain alpha-hydroxyaldehydes in subcellular fractions of bovine liver.

    PubMed Central

    Loidl-Stahlhofen, A; Hannemann, K; Felde, R; Spiteller, G

    1995-01-01

    1. Masked long-chain alpha-hydroxyaldehydes were trapped in all subcellular fractions of bovine liver by application of pentafluorbenzyloxime derivatization [van Kuijk, Thomas, Stephens and Dratz (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139, 144-149] and quantified via GLC/MS using characteristic ion traces. 2. The chain-length profile of long-chain 2-hydroxyalkanales clearly indicates their relationship to plasmalogens as precursor molecules. 3. The previously postulated existence of alpha-acyloxyplasmalogens as precursor molecules of masked long-chain alpha-hydroxyaldehydes in bovine tissue lipids [Lutz and Spiteller (1991) Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1991, 563-567] was excluded. 4. The constant oxidation rate of plasmalogens in all subcellular fractions provides conclusive evidence for a non-enzymic plasmalogen epoxidation process (probably via hydroperoxy radicals). 5. The high reactivity of alpha-hydroxyaldehydes sheds some doubt on the postulation that plasmalogens protect mammalian cells against oxidative stress as postulated previously [Morand, Zoeller and Raetz (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11590-11596; Morand, Zoeller and Raetz (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11597-11606]. Images Figure 4 PMID:7639697

  11. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  12. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic. PMID:26960764

  13. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  14. Stoichiometric saturation tests of NaCl1- xBrx and KCl1- xBrx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoessell, Ronald K.; Carpenter, Alden B.

    1986-07-01

    Stoichiometric saturation is examined as a possible control on Br contents of halite and sylvite during precipitation from binary salt solutions of NaCl-NaBr and KCl-KBr, respectively. Experimental data at 25°C, assumed to represent Stoichiometric saturation, were used to predict mole fractions of NaBr in halite and KBr in sylvite in thermodynamic equilibrium with fluids as a function of aqueous activity ratios of Br -:Cl -. The predictions are based on the additional assumption that the aqueous activity product of the major salt component in the precipitated salt was independent of the trace Br content in the salt lattice. The extension of the predictions to diagenetic pressures and temperatures is discussed. The predicted equilibrium Br content of halite at initial halite saturation of evaporating seawater is in close agreement with that computed from the distribution coefficient of Lutz (1975), measured in slowgrowth single crystal experiments. Fluid recrystallization of halite and sylvite at near-surface temperatures is predicted to generally deplete the Br contents in the solids. Bulk Br contents in halite in cap-rock of Gulf Coast salt domes generally agree with those predicted by the recrystallization of halite in the presence of evaporative-concentrated seawater. At a constant solution composition, increasing temperature results in increasing the equilibrium Br content of halite, making less efficient Br depletion in halite by recrystallization.

  15. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS

    PubMed Central

    de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; MALTA, Fernanda Mello; CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; MARQUES, Priscilla Duarte; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; YAMASHIRO, Juliana; PINHO, João Renato Rebello; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo César Borges; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients. PMID:27680168

  16. Choosing a measure of Health Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P G

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides practical advice on the choice of health related quality of life measures. It starts by making explicit a series of underlying assumptions and then advises on selecting a measure as a trade-off between three sets of conditions: The purpose of collecting HQoL information, which considers the objectives of the study, the level of analysis, the population to be studied and the audience to whom the data will be presented. The qualities of the measure, including the need for a strong conceptual basis, pragmatic considerations, face and content validity, adequate psychometric properties and for the measure to be acceptable to the people participating in the study. The use of the measure, including the mode of administration and resource requirements. An earlier version of this paper was published as Robinson, P.G. (2016): Wahl der messinstrumente zur ermittlung der gesundheitsbezogenen lebensqualitat. In: Kovacs, L., Kipke, R., Lutz, R. (eds) Lebensqualitat in der medizin. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp201-222. PMID:27352464

  17. Parallax Results from Urat Epoch Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    We present 1103 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions from the United States Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) observations taken at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) over a three-year period from 2012 April to 2015 June covering the entire sky north of about -10^\\circ decl. We selected two samples: previously suspected nearby stars from known photometric distances and stars showing a large, significant parallax signature in URAT epoch data without any prior selection criteria. All systems presented in this paper have an observed parallax ≥40 mas with no previous published trigonometric parallax. The formal errors on these weighted parallax solutions are mostly between 4 and 10 mas. This sample gives a significant (of the order of 50%) increase to the number of known systems having a trigonometric parallax to be within 25 pc of the Sun (without applying Lutz-Kelker bias corrections). A few of these are found to be within 10 pc. Many of these new nearby stars display a total proper motion of less than 200 mas yr-1. URAT parallax results have been verified against Hipparcos and Yale data for stars in common. The publication of all signifigant parallax observations from URAT data is in preparation for CDS.

  18. Experimental infection of Culicoides lahillei (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (Orbivirus: Reoviridae).

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E; Nettles, V F

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the vector competence of Culicoides lahillei Lutz for epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses, wild-caught females were allowed to feed on 4 viremic white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, experimentally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2). Colonized C. variipennis sonorensis (Coquillett) were included as a positive control. Virus was not isolated from 13 C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 3.0 or <2.1 log10 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) virus per milliliter of blood. Virus was isolated from 6 of 69 (8.7%) C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 5.3 or 6.0 TCID50 virus per milliliter of blood. The average amount of EHDV-2 ingested in the blood meal ranged from

  19. Seasonal abundance of livestock-associated Culicoides species in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P C; Silva, F S

    2014-06-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are of great medical and veterinary importance because the haematophagous females of some species can transmit diseases to humans and animals. In order to determine the presence and seasonal abundance of the bluetongue virus (BTV) vector Culicoides insignis Lutz at domestic animal sheds in northeastern Brazil, insects were collected once a month between January and December 2010. Light traps were set from 18.00 to 06.00 hours at a pigsty, chicken coop and bovine corral. Culicoides insignis accounted for 81% of the 22,316 specimens collected. Other well-represented species were: Culicoides paucienfuscatus Barbosa (3246 individuals), Culicoides diabolicus Hoffman (308), Culicoides leopoldoi Ortiz (224) and Culicoides duartei Tavares and Luna Dias (221). The remainder accounted for 4% of the total sample. Culicoides insignis occurred mostly at the cattle corral, 98.2% in the rainy season. This study confirms the presence and close association of C. insignis with cattle in Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil and emphasizes the risk of bluetongue infections spreading in the area. PMID:24382216

  20. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D; Hester, Eric R; Martynova, Daria; Maughan, Heather; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide. PMID:26713242

  1. Experimental infection of Culicoides lahillei (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (Orbivirus: Reoviridae).

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E; Nettles, V F

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the vector competence of Culicoides lahillei Lutz for epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses, wild-caught females were allowed to feed on 4 viremic white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, experimentally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2). Colonized C. variipennis sonorensis (Coquillett) were included as a positive control. Virus was not isolated from 13 C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 3.0 or <2.1 log10 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) virus per milliliter of blood. Virus was isolated from 6 of 69 (8.7%) C. lahillei tested 4-15 d after feeding on deer with viremias of 5.3 or 6.0 TCID50 virus per milliliter of blood. The average amount of EHDV-2 ingested in the blood meal ranged from

  2. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Devlin, B; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Standardized weekly sand fly collections made from pigpens and natural resting sites displayed a bimodal annual abundance cycle, with a small peak occurring in October-November and a larger one in April-May. Time series analysis was employed to quantify the associations between sand fly abundance and weather factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). In addition to a prominent 6-mo cycle. Fourier analysis of the collection data demonstrated that the L. longipalpis population also exhibited a 5- to 8-wk cycle that may represent the length of larval development. Autoregressive moving average models were fit to weekly collection data and their residuals were regressed against rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. A significant positive association between female L. longipalpis abundance and the relative humidity and rainfall recorded 3 wk earlier was found, indicating that these factors may be of value in predicting sand fly abundance. Additionally, these data indicated that L. longipalpis larvae may become quiescent during adverse conditions.

  3. Age structure, blood-feeding behavior, and Leishmania chagasi infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is endemic. Subsamples of sand flies collected weekly from pigpens, the interior of houses, and natural outdoor resting sites were dissected to determine physiological age and Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas infection rates. Eleven female L. longipalpis had flagellates in their gut, 2 of which were successfully cultured and identified as Leishmania chagasi. The reproductive status, stage of ovarian development, and trophic history of female sand flies varied among sites, habitats, and time of collection. The percentage of parous females ranged from about one-third to two-thirds overall and varied seasonally. Of most relevance to AVL transmission was the finding that 8% of L. longipalpis females were multiparous. In addition, our data suggest that L. longipalpis rest inside houses after blood-feeding outdoors, and that this species can blood-feed more than once during a single gonotrophic cycle.

  4. Measurement of repositioning accuracy during fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for intracranial tumors using noninvasive fixation of BrainLAB radiotherapy equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Takeo . E-mail: taketaka@saitama-med.ac.jp; Nishimura, Keiichiro; Hondo, Mikito; Okada, Takenori; Osada, Hisato; Honda, Norinari

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: A noninvasive fixation mask device is used for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in our hospital. Fractionated SRT is useful because it results in less damage to normal tissues, for which the positioning accuracy of the removable noninvasive fixation device is important. We examined the repositioning accuracy of a BrainLAB removable noninvasive fixation device on the coordinates of computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 13 patients who had undergone head SRT. The removable noninvasive fixation mask device used was a noninvasive fixation device for the BrainLAB system. The accuracy of the irradiation apparatus was evaluated using Winston-Lutz test film, and the repositioning accuracy of the fixation device was examined using differences in the distance on the X, Y, and Z coordinates between the treatment planning and repositioning times determined by comparing the relative coordinates. The evaluation was performed using the relative coordinates of the standard and test points. Results: The accuracy of the irradiation center with the apparatus was within 0.5 mm. In the 13 patients, the difference in the distance between the treatment planning and repositioning procedures ranged from 0.1 to 2.080 mm, and an accuracy of within 2 mm was obtained in 84.6% of the patients using the fixation device. Conclusion: The BrainLAB noninvasive SRT fixation device was considered useful for routine treatment with high accuracy.

  5. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  6. Female students' disordered eating and the big five personality facets.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2009-08-01

    Female undergraduate students at two Canadian universities (N = 378) completed the NEO PI-R (Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., Bohr, Y. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878.). Eating disorder symptomatic (N = 43) and nonsymptomatic (N = 335) women differed on facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness. Among symptomatic women, the Oral Control subscale of the EAT-26 was correlated significantly with facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Specifically, the Impulsivity facet of Neuroticism was positively correlated with the Bulimia and Food Preoccupation subscale of EAT-26, but negatively correlated with the Oral Control and Dieting subscales. Overall, results suggest that high scores on Neuroticism may be a risk factor for development of disordered eating behavior and that the degree of Impulsiveness may predict the eating disorder subtype to which one is most susceptible.

  7. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Santos, Dircelina Silva; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7) were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%), southern (47.5%), eastern (57.5%) and western (55%). The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%), 5-10 years (21.2%) and 10-15 years (10%). Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001). The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%), Entamoeba coli (20.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%), Hymenolepis nana (7.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (5%), hookworms (3.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.5%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%). The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community. PMID:19142436

  8. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  9. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic.

  10. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  11. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management.

  12. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  13. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by real-time PCR in sputum samples and its use in the routine diagnosis in a reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Watanabe Pinhata, Juliana Maira; Cergole-Novella, Maria Cecilia; Moreira dos Santos Carmo, Andreia; Ruivo Ferro e Silva, Regina; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Tavares Sacchi, Claudio; Siqueira de Oliveira, Rosangela

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global distribution, constituting a serious public health problem in Brazil. São Paulo State, located in the south-east of Brazil, notified 16,580 new TB cases in 2013. The Instituto Adolfo Lutz is a public health reference laboratory for TB diagnosis for all the State. Considering that rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for TB control, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an in-house real-time (RT)-PCR assay targeting the mpt64 gene in the routine diagnosis of TB, and to compare this technique with smear microscopy and culture. From August 2012 to October 2013, 715 sputum samples from 657 patients were included in the study. Smear microscopy, culture, phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification of mycobacteria, and mpt64 RT-PCR were performed. With respect to confirmed TB cases (n = 62/657; 9.4%), smear microscopy had a sensitivity of 82.3%. Culture and RT-PCR showed the same sensitivity, i.e. 90.3%. Specificity was 99.7, 99.4 and 98.6% for smear microscopy, culture and RT-PCR, respectively. mpt64 RT-PCR showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum samples. This technique can be deployed in laboratories that do not have a rapid test for TB available, enabling the performance of TB diagnosis in up to 5 h.

  14. [The arrival of the plague in São Paulo in 1899].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    In October 1899, the bubonic plague arrived in Brazil through the port of Santos. A city of intensive port activity, Santos was the gateway for a plague epidemic that devastated several cities in Brazil in the early 20th century and prompted joint action by several states to fight it. More importantly, given the difficulties and delays in importing anti-plague serum from Europe, it led to the creation of the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo (in 1899) and the Municipal Serotherapeutic Institute in Rio de Janeiro (in 1900), which developed and standardized anti-plague serum and vaccines according to the particular conditions of the country. Until then, public health efforts had been isolated and had not reached the whole country. Oswaldo Cruz, newly arrived after three years of specialization at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, worked with scientists Adolfo Lutz and Vital Brazil on identifying the plague in Santos. This article analyzes the arrival of the bubonic plague epidemic in the state of Sao Paulo and the public health measures taken to combat the disease and provide patient care in the early part of the 20th century. The primary sources for this analysis were the São Paulo newspapers, especially O Estado de Sao Paulo, and reports from the Ministry of Justice and the President of the State of Sao Paulo.

  15. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D; Hester, Eric R; Martynova, Daria; Maughan, Heather; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  16. Direct Measures of the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, P. L.

    1999-05-01

    When astronomers talk about Lutz-Kelker corrections, metallicity dependent zeropoints, statistical parallaxes, Tully-Fisher relations, "fundamental" planes, light curve decline rates and, worst of all, Malmquist bias, physicists begin heading for the exits, showing signs of severe allergic reaction. They respond less violently to so-called "direct" methods of measuring distances which bypass the traditional distance ladder. Two of these, gravitational lens time delay measurements (Refsdal's method) and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (S-Z) effect, give distance measurements to objects at high redshift which appear to rival more traditional approaches. Present, model mediated interpretations of such measurements give low values for the Hubble constant. But as is often the case with new techniques, initial enthusiasm is followed by increasing concern about systematic errors connected with messy astrophysical details. The single largest source of error in modelling lenses is the difficulty in constraining the degree of central concentration of the lensing galaxy. Sources of systematic error in S-Z distances include the clumpiness of intracluster gas, temperature variations within that gas and a bias toward selecting clusters that are elongated along the line of sight. Present best estimates of the Hubble constant, along with best estimates of the systematic uncertainties, and the prospects for improving upon these, will be presented. Support from NSF grant AST96-16866 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Mosquitoes in Bromeliads at Ground Level of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the Relationship Between Mosquito Fauna, Water Volume, and Plant Type

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, C. A. A.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R.; Codeço, C. T.; Motta, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Water accumulating in the axils of bromeliads provides habitat for numerous invertebrates, frequently among them, immature mosquitoes. To evaluate mosquito richness in bromeliads and the relationship between mosquito presence and biotic and abiotic variables, we performed a study in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mosquitoes of genus Culex were the most abundant and varied in species richness, among which nine belonged to subgenus Microculex, Culex (Microculex) neglectus Lutz and Culex ocellatus Theobald being the most frequent species. Sabethines of genera Wyeomyia and Runchomyia were found in low numbers. Wyeomyia (Spilonympha) airosai Lane and Cerqueira and Wyeomyia (Spilonympha) finlayi Lane and Cerqueira tend to proliferate in bromeliads of the genus Bilbergia which hold less than 50 ml of water and grow either alone or with Runchomyia frontosa (Theobald). The larger the volume of water, the greater the chance of finding Culex, Anopheles as well as Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) species, which seems to be the more generalist as it is present in different bromeliad types with a large range of plant water holding capacities. PMID:27418695

  18. Metazoan parasites of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil-Sato, Marilia de C; Dos Santos, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    Specimens of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) were collected from the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12'32''S, 45 degrees 15'41''W) in the municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate their parasitofauna. Of the 24 pirá fish collected, 8 were male (33.3%) and 16 were female (66.7%). Of this total, 12 were parasitized (50%). Nine species of parasites were found: Helobdella sp., Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Palaeocryptogonimus claviformis Szidat, 1954; metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. and of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz 1928); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. (young specimen); larvae of Anisakidae and Rhabdochona sp.; and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (young specimen). Helobdella sp. had the highest prevalence, followed by C. creptotrema (most abundant) and P. claviformis. Creptotrema creptotrema was dominant species in the parasite community of C. conirostris. There was no influence of the host size and sex on the prevalence and abundance of parasites, with P. claviformis being found only in male hosts. With the exception of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., this was the first record of these parasites in C. conirostris.

  19. Argentinian phlebotomine fauna, new records of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) for the country and the province of Chaco.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Enrique A; Filho, Jose D Andrade; Rosa, Juan R; Parras, Matias A; Quintana, Maria G; Quintana, Maria G; Salomon, Oscar D

    2016-07-21

    Sand flies are insects of medical and veterinary importance, because some species are able to transmit several pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Phlebovirus spp., and protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania (Ross). They are widely distributed in the Americas, with recordings ranging from Canada to Argentina. Approximately 500 Phlebotominae species are known in the Americas, of which it is considered that at least 56 are involved in the transmission of leishmaniasis (Maroli et al. 2012). Previous studies have shown that the phlebotomine fauna in Argentina consists of 32 species distributed in 14 provinces (Quintana et al. 2012; Sábio et al. 2015; Salomón et al. 2010). Of these species, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto), Ny. whitmani (Antunes & Countinho), Cortelezzii complex [Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brèthes) - Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho)], Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar) and Migonemyia migonei (França) have been found with DNA of Leishmania spp. (Moya et al. 2015). Five new records of species in the province of Chaco, obtained from different projects carried out between 2001 and 2015, four of which are also new records for Argentina, are described in this article. Their importance as potential vectors and the correct determination of the sympatric species is also discussed.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasites in food handlers, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Mizutani, Angelica Sayuri; Martins, Vanessa Aparecida; Ferreira, Erika Cristina; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and risk factors for enteroparasites were determined in food handlers from Maringá, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Fecal and subungual materials of 150 street food vendors were analyzed by the methods of Lutz, Faust, and Mello, respectively. A questionnaire on hygiene and sanitary conditions of the workplace and of domicile was applied. The prevalence of enteroparasites was 28%, and the protozoa infection was more expressive (21.3%) than by helminths (6.7%), but without significant difference (p > 0.05). Entamoeba coli was the most frequent species occurring in 15.3%, while the prevalence of protozoa pathogenic was low (Giardia lamblia: 2.7% and Entamoeba histolytica: 0.7%). The subungual material presented negative results. The presence of pets in domiciles has increased twice the risk of infection. The working conditions of the majority of street food vendors were inappropriate. The results highlight the need for more rigorous programs of continuing education, parasitological examination every six months, and health surveillance. In this way, the quality of the service provided to the population can be improved and the transmission of food-borne diseases can be prevented.

  1. The Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS) revisiting the client's frame of reference.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Barry L; Reese, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Despite overall psychotherapy efficacy (Lambert, 2013), many clients do not benefit (Reese, Duncan, Bohanske, Owen, & Minami, 2014), dropouts are a problem (Swift & Greenberg, 2012), and therapists vary significantly in success rates (Baldwin & Imel, 2013), are poor judges of negative outcomes (Chapman et al., 2012), and grossly overestimate their effectiveness (Walfish, McAlister, O'Donnell, & Lambert, 2012). Systematic client feedback offers 1 solution (Duncan, 2014). Several feedback systems have emerged (Castonguay, Barkham, Lutz, & McAleavey, 2013), but only 2 have randomized clinical trial support and are included in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices: The Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 System (Lambert, 2010) and the Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS; Duncan, 2012). This article presents the current status of PCOMS, the psychometrics of the PCOMS measures, its empirical support, and its clinical and training applications. Future directions and implications of PCOMS research, training, and practice are detailed. Finally, we propose that systematic feedback offers a way, via large-scale data collection, to reprioritize what matters to psychotherapy outcome, reclaim our empirically validated core values and identity, and change the conversation from a medical model dominated discourse to a more scientific, relational perspective. PMID:26641369

  2. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2%) handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9%) was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00). The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p < 0.05). The high overall occurrence of enteroparasites found indicates improper hygiene and sanitation conditions. Effective educational measures should be implemented to prevent the transfer of pathogenic organisms to food via handling.

  3. [Regional laboratory network for surveillance of invasive fungal infections and antifungal susceptibility in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Córdoba, Susana; Melhem, Marcia C; Szeszs, María W; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Martínez, Gerardo; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain), and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina) and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil). The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.

  4. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D.; Hester, Eric R.; Martynova, Daria; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide. PMID:26713242

  5. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  6. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS.

  7. Frequency of Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in stool samples examined at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the São Paulo State University, Araraquara.

    PubMed

    Miné, Júlio César; Rosa, João Aristeu da

    2008-01-01

    Blastocystis homins is a protozoan that causes an intestinal infection known as human blastocystosis. This infection is diagnosed by means of parasitological examination of stools and by permanent staining techniques. The present study was developed to evaluate the frequency of Blastocystis hominis infection among inhabitants of the Araraquara region, State of São Paulo, and to compare different methods for investigating this protozoan in feces samples. Evaluations on 503 stool samples were performed by means of direct fresh examination and using the techniques of Faust et al., Lutz and Rugai et al. In addition, the iron hematoxylin, trichrome and modified Kinyoun staining techniques were used. Out of the 503 samples examined, 174 (34.6%) were found to be positive for the presence of intestinal parasites. The most frequent protozoa and helminths were Entamoeba coli (14.6%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (6.7%), respectively. Blastocystis hominis was present in 23 (4.6%) fecal samples, with a predominately pasty consistency and without characterizing a condition of diarrhea. Despite the low frequency of Blastocystis hominis found in the Araraquara region, compared with other regions of Brazil, it is important to perform laboratory diagnostic tests for this protozoan. Its finding in fecal material is indicative of food and drinking water contamination. Since the transmission route for this parasite is accepted to be oral-fecal, this implies that the population needs guidance regarding hygiene and basic sanitation measures as a means for controlling health problems caused by enteroparasites.

  8. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  9. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats.

  10. How fruit flies came to launch the chromosome theory of heredity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elof Axel

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies were used by several laboratories between 1901 and 1910 for studies of experimental evolution at Harvard, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor before Thomas Hunt Morgan found his white-eyed mutation that we associate with the beginnings of the fly lab at Columbia University. The major players prior to Morgan were William Castle and his students at Harvard University, Frank Lutz at Cold Spring Harbor, and Fernandus Payne whose ideas for working with fruit flies were shaped by his studies of blind cave fauna at Indiana University. Payne's interests were stimulated by the work of Carl Eigenmann, an authority on blind cave fauna, and William Moenkhaus, who introduced Payne to fruit flies at Indiana University before Payne moved to Columbia to pursue graduate work with Morgan and Edmund Wilson. The motivations of the laboratories differed in the theories used for their work. Castle spread the word about the utility of fruit flies for research, but Payne gave Morgan his first fruit flies for research leading to the discovery of the white-eye mutation.

  11. Quantum Corral Wave-function Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alfredo; Reboredo, Fernando; Balseiro, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    We present a theoretical method for the design and optimization of quantum corrals[1] with specific electronic properties. Taking advantage that spins are subject to a RKKY interaction that is directly controlled by the scattering of the quantum corral, we design corral structures that reproduce spin Hamiltonians with coupling constants determined a priori[2]. We solve exactly the bi-dimensional scattering problem for each corral configuration within the s-wave approximation[3] and subsequently the geometry of the quantum corral is optimized by means of simulated annealing[4] and genetic algorithms[5]. We demonstrate the possibility of automatic design of structures with complicated target electronic properties[6]. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California at the LLNL under contract no W-7405-Eng-48. [1] M. F. Crommie, C. P. Lutz and D. M. Eigler, Nature 403, 512 (2000) [2] D. P. DiVincenzo et al., Nature 408, 339 (2000) [3] G. A. Fiete and E. J. Heller, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 933 (2003) [4] M. R. A. T. N. Metropolis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 1087 (1953) [5] E. Aarts and J. K. Lenstra, eds. Local search in combinatorial problems (Princeton University Press, 1997) [6] A. A. Correa, F. Reboredo and C. Balseiro, Phys. Rev. B (in press).

  12. L-Auger Electron Production in Krypton Ion-Atom Collisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Peter Jonathon

    1987-09-01

    Secondary electron production as a consequence of inner-shell vacancy decay for the Kr-Kr system has been studied. Electron-energy spectra differential in impact parameter have been obtained by detecting electrons in coincidence with projectile ions scattered through a known angle. The spectra exhibit structure attributable to Auger decay of L-shell vacancies. The collision-energy dependence of the L-Auger yields is consistent with the L-shell excitation being due to rotational coupling of the 4fsigma , 4fpi, 4fdelta and 4fvarphi orbitals of the Kr-Kr quasimolecule, as originally proposed by Shanker and coworkers.^1 The L-Auger electron energies and relative transition-group intensities suggest that L-shell vacancy decay occurs in Kr ions with initial charge states greater than +10, indicating that a surprisingly large number of electrons are emitted prior to the decay of the L-shell vacancy. These prior ionizations, most of which occur during the collision, are the source of the 100-600 eV continuum electrons which dominate the low -energy region of the electron spectrum. ftn^1 R. Shanker, U. Wille, R. Bilau, R. Hippler, W. R. McMurray, and H. O. Lutz, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys., 17 (1984) 1353.

  13. 25 Years Of Holography The Development Of Holographic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenkolber, H.

    1988-06-01

    It was of course Dennis Gabor who, as long ago as 1948, published the fundamental work the principle of holography. But it was not until Theodore Maiman's invention of the laser in 1960 that the practical realisation of holography became possible. This was achieved by Leith and Upatnicks between 1962 and 1964, with the crucial impetus being provided by Vander Lugt (the author wishes to acknowledge the assistence of A. Vander Lugt, who, while performing work of a relatet nature, showed him the value of the gas laser as a light source). 1964 was the year in which Denisyuk presented his first portrait holograms in Leningrad. The many publications of Stroke of the University of New York were a source of numerous impulses. It is to this period, too, that my own first experiences date back. Together with my teacher. Ulrich Grigull, whom I hold in the highest regard, I constructed the first laser interferometer for the study of heat transfer and developed the initial ideas for holo-graphic interferometry. Then, in 1965, came the work of Hildebrandt and Haines and of Powell and Stetson in the United States in this field, and it was around this time, too, that Nassenstein and his colleagues Riek and Bestenreiner began their work in this new area in Germany.

  14. Circumstellar Hydrodynamics and Spectral Radiation in ALGOLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Dirk Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Algols are the remnants of binary systems that have undergone large scale mass transfer. This dissertation presents the results of the coupling of a hydrodynamical model and a radiative model of the flow of gas from the inner Lagrangian point. The hydrodynamical model is a fully Lagrangian, three-dimensional scheme with a novel treatment of viscosity and an implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method to compute pressure gradients. Viscosity is implemented by allowing particles within a specified interaction length to share momentum. The hydrodynamical model includes a provision for computing the self-gravity of the disk material, although it is not used in the present application to Algols. Hydrogen line profiles and equivalent widths computed with a code by Drake and Ulrich are compared with observations of both short and long period Algols. More sophisticated radiative transfer computations are done with the escape probability code of Ko and Kallman which includes the spectral lines of thirteen elements. The locations and velocities of the gas particles, and the viscous heating from the hydro program are supplied to the radiative transfer program, which computes the equilibrium temperature of the gas and generates its emission spectrum. Intrinsic line profiles are assumed to be delta functions and are properly Doppler shifted and summed for gas particles that are not eclipsed by either star. Polarization curves are computed by combining the hydro program with the Wilson-Liou polarization program. Although the results are preliminary, they show that polarization observations show great promise for studying circumstellar matter.

  15. Simple reaction time to the onset of time-varying sounds.

    PubMed

    Schlittenlacher, Josef; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Although auditory simple reaction time (RT) is usually defined as the time elapsing between the onset of a stimulus and a recorded reaction, a sound cannot be specified by a single point in time. Therefore, the present work investigates how the period of time immediately after onset affects RT. By varying the stimulus duration between 10 and 500 msec, this critical duration was determined to fall between 32 and 40 milliseconds for a 1-kHz pure tone at 70 dB SPL. In a second experiment, the role of the buildup was further investigated by varying the rise time and its shape. The increment in RT for extending the rise time by a factor of ten was about 7 to 8 msec. There was no statistically significant difference in RT between a Gaussian and linear rise shape. A third experiment varied the modulation frequency and point of onset of amplitude-modulated tones, producing onsets at different initial levels with differently rapid increase or decrease immediately afterwards. The results of all three experiments results were explained very well by a straightforward extension of the parallel grains model (Miller and Ulrich Cogn. Psychol. 46, 101-151, 2003), a probabilistic race model employing many parallel channels. The extension of the model to time-varying sounds made the activation of such a grain depend on intensity as a function of time rather than a constant level. A second approach by mechanisms known from loudness produced less accurate predictions.

  16. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude.

  17. Environmental risks and environmental justice, or how titanic risks are not so titanic after all.

    PubMed

    Alario, Margarita V; Freudenburg, William R

    2010-01-01

    Some of the best-known social scientific theories of risks are those that have been elaborated by Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck. Although their arguments differ greatly, they agree in seeing the technologically induced risks of today's "Risk Society" as global - so pervasive that they transcend all socioeconomic as well as geopolitical and national boundaries. Most empirical work, however, provides greater support for a theoretical tradition exemplified by Short and Erikson. In this paper, we argue that many of the technological mega-risks described by Giddens and Beck as "transcending" social boundaries are better described as "Titanic risks," referring not so much to their colossal impact as to the fact that - as was the case for the majority of the victims on the Titanic - actual risks are related to victims' socioeconomic as well as sociogeographic locations. Previous research has shown this to be the case with high-risk technologies, such as nuclear energy and weaponry, and also with localized ones, such as toxic waste disposal. This article illustrates that the same is true even for the most genuinely "global" risks of all, namely those associated with global climate disruption. PMID:20827858

  18. Cosmopolitics: towards a new articulation of politics, science and critique.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores how Ulrich Beck's world-risk-society theory (WRST) and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be combined to advance a theory of cosmopolitics. On the one hand, WRST helps to examine 'cosmopolitan politics', how actors try to inject cosmopolitanism into existing political practices and institutions anchored in the logic of nationalism. On the other hand, ANT sheds light on 'cosmological politics', how scientists participate in the construction of reality as a reference point for political struggles. By combining the WRST and ANT perspectives, it becomes possible to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cosmopolitics that takes into account both political and ontological dimensions. The proposed synthesis of WRST and ANT also calls for a renewal of critical theory by making social scientists aware of their performative involvement in cosmopolitics. This renewal prompts social scientists to explore how they can pragmatically support certain ideals of cosmopolitics through continuous dialogues with their objects of study, actors who inhabit different nations and different cosmoses. PMID:26174094

  19. Toxic waste in our midst: towards an interdisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Intractable industrial legacies present new challenges to governance. Amongst the persistent organic pollutants, now managed internationally under the Stockholm Convention, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) stands out in all three classes of chemicals (pesticides, industrial chemicals and unintended by-products). This paper introduces twelve interdisciplinary papers contributing to our understanding of decision-making processes using a case study of HCB and industry-community relations in Sydney's industrial heartland. In this collection, authors align new political theory and emerging management theory, and they analyse the case study from several disciplines. Disputes such as that over HCB destablilise the political/administrative/technoscientific regime that is the modern state. Citizens engage in 'sub-political' processes which require recognition of what Ulrich Beck and others have termed 'individualisation'. This sees decision-forming and decision-making functions push outwards into community-driven structures. There we find new styles of public participation, resolution of asymmetries between knowledge and expertise, and new corporate behaviour. PMID:18805624

  20. Solar p-mode oscillations as a tracer of radial differential rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deubner, F.-L.; Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of solar p-modes obtained with improved wavenumber and frequency resolution are presented. The observations are compared with model calculations of the p-modes, and the degree of spatial and temporal coherence of the observed wave pattern is investigated. It is found that the p-mode oscillations pervade the visible surface of the sun with a high degree of coherence in space and time, so that the whole complex pattern of standing waves with its nodes and antinodes can be regarded as a fixed pattern corotating with the solar surface layers. The p-modes are introduced as a tracer of solar rotational flow velocities. The equatorial differential rotation is estimated as a function of effective depth on the basis of the theoretical contribution functions for the p-modes recently derived by Ulrich et al. (1978). The results strongly indicate that the angular speed of rotation is not uniform even in the relatively shallow layer extending about 20,000 km below the photosphere.

  1. History, causality, and sexology.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2003-08-01

    In 1896, Krafft-Ebing published Psychopathia Sexualis. Popularly defined as hereditary weakness or taintedness in the family pedigree, degeneracy was called upon as a causal explanation for perversions of the sexual instinct. Although Krafft-Ebing accepted Karl Ulrichs proposal that homosexuality could be innate and probably located in the brain, he paid little attention to neuropathological sexology. Alfred Binet challenged Krafft-Ebing's orthodoxy by explaining fetishism in terms of associative learning, to which Krafft-Ebing's response was that only those with a hereditary taint would be vulnerable. Thus did the venerable nature-nurture antithesis maintain its rhetoric, even to the present day. Krafft-Ebing died too soon to meet the Freudian challenge of endopsychic determinism, and too soon also to encounter the idea of a developmental multivariate outcome of what I have termed the lovemap. Like other brain maps, for example the languagemap, the lovemap requires an intact human brain in which to develop. The personalized content of the lovemap has access to the brain by way of the special senses.

  2. On the illness of Politian (Agnolo Ambrogini, 1454-1494): syphilis at its identification in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The authors investigated the life, the works and the illness of the humanist and poet Agnolo Ambrogini, better known as Politian, and the cause of his death, shedding evidence on the ambiguous meaning of the term scabies that is included in the titles of two works ascribed to Politian, namely 'Sylva in scabiem' and 'De scabie'. These two works tell us the illness that will kill Politian who describes them in detail as a new illness that does appear in other important works dated between the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th. This new illness will be called 'syphilis'. Syphilis was virulent in Europe soon after it appeared and it killed Politian within one year. He seems to have been the first famous European who was not a physician who described his own syphilis. Others include the poet Niccolò Campani (1478-1523), the writer and humanist Ulrich Von Hutten (1488-1523), the sculptor and writer Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571) and Joseph Grunpeck (1473-1532), and secretary to Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519). The origins of this serious condition have been ascribed to the crew who accompanied Christopher Columbus (1451-1506).

  3. The Cosmopolitanization of Science: Experience from Chinese Stem Cell Scientists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2010-09-01

    It is commonly perceived that the 'globalization of science' may result in a 'Westernization of science'. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists' outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still 'catching-up' to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the 'cosmopolitanization of science'. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the 'cosmopolitanization of science': shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance.

  4. Chance Fracture of the Upper Thoracic Spine in a Child.

    PubMed

    Sander, Anna L; Laurer, Helmut; El Saman, André; Ploss, Carola; Mack, Martin G; Maier, Bernd; Marzi, Ingo

    2009-06-01

    We report on a three-year-old girl who fell accidentally from the fourth floor. She suffered multiple trauma, including severe head injury, unstable T2-T3 Chance fracture, pneumothorax with lung contusion and serial rib fractures on the left side, liver laceration, splenic injury and fracture of the sacral bone on the right side. The progressive intracranial pressure was released by trepanation and bifrontal craniectomy. The abdominal injuries were treated conservatively. After stabilization of the intracranial situation, dorsal spondylodesis from T2 to T4 was performed employing the cannulated NEON system (Ulrich(®)) with CT-controlled positioning of guide wires. One year on, the implants have been removed and the patient has good function, with only a small atactic dysfunction as residuum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pediatric Chance fracture located in the upper thoracic spine following a fall from great height that describes how this treatment approach led to a very favorable outcome. PMID:26814912

  5. Astrometric Jitter of the Sun as a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Parker, D.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2010-07-01

    The daily variation of the solar photocenter over some 11 yr is derived from the Mount Wilson data reprocessed by Ulrich et al. to closely match the surface distribution of solar irradiance. The standard deviations of astrometric jitter are 0.52 μAU and 0.39 μAU in the equatorial and the axial dimensions, respectively. The overall dispersion is strongly correlated with solar cycle, reaching 0.91 μAU at maximum activity in 2000. The largest short-term deviations from the running average (up to 2.6 μAU) occur when a group of large spots happen to lie on one side with respect to the center of the disk. The amplitude spectrum of the photocenter variations never exceeds 0.033 μAU for the range of periods 0.6-1.4 yr, corresponding to the orbital periods of planets in the habitable zone. Astrometric detection of Earth-like planets around stars as quiet as the Sun is not affected by star spot noise, but the prospects for more active stars may be limited to giant planets.

  6. Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitechurch, Hubert; Agard, Philippe; Ulrich, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia. Whitechurch H.(1) Agard P.(2), Ulrich M.(1) (1) EOST - University of Strasbourg (France) (2) ISTeP - University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France) Ophiolites are considered as pieces of oceanic lithosphere that escaped subduction to be obducted on continental margins. After the Penrose Conference in 1972, they have all been regarded as issued from mid-ocean ridges of large oceans. Subsequently, most of ophiolites have been considered as generated in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment, mainly on the basis of geochemical arguments. However, this characterization encompasses very different geological situations, somewhat in contradiction with a univocal geochemical interpretation, both in terms of where ophiolite formed (i.e., ocean-continent transition zones, ocean ridges, marginal basins) and were obducted (contrasting nature of the margins). Examples from eastern Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolites (Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Iran, Oman) and tertiary New Caledonia ophiolites all show this diversity, both in their internal structures and geological setting of obduction. Several questions will be addressed in this debate: the relationships and paradoxes between the nature of ophiolites, their geodynamic environment of formation, their geochemistry, their modality of obduction and ultimately the mountain range style where they are found.

  7. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  8. [Public health management in invasive meningococcal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ehrhard, I; Arndt, U

    2004-12-01

    At the 54(th) Scientific Congress of the German Professional Association of Public Health Service Physicians and Dentists in Marburg on 6th May 2004 the working group on meningococci (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Meningokokken, AGMK) organised the international workshop "Public Health Management of invasive Meningococcal Disease". In recent years significant changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease took place in Europe: in some countries and regions the number of disease caused by meningococci serogroup C has increased significantly. In the Netherlands this increase led to the introduction of an immunisation programme with conjugated meningococcal vaccines targeting children aged 1 up to 18 years. In Switzerland a peak in the number of reported meningococcal group C cases could be observed in some regions. Therefore, a regional vaccination programme has been introduced. Nevertheless, compared with Germany, the indications for vaccination against meningococci in Switzerland are more extensive. In the workshop, Professor Ulrich Vogel and Dr. Ingrid Ehrhard presented the epidemiological situation in Germany and the recommended prophylaxis regimen against meningococci. PMID:15609213

  9. Leperditicopid ostracodes from Ordovician rocks of Kentucky and nearby states and characteristic features of the order Leperditicopida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berdan, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Leperditicopid ostracodes from the Ordovician formations of Kentucky occur in micritic to fine-grained carbonate rocks believed to represent shallow-water facies. They are found at widely separated horizons in the Middle Ordovician High Bridge Group, the Middle and Upper Ordovician Lexington Limestone, and the Upper Ordovician Ashlock, Bull Fork, and Drakes Formations. In this sequence, the leperditicopes are represented by two genera of leperditiids, Eoleperditia Swartz, 1949 and Bivia Berdan, 1976, and six isochilinid genera, Isochilina Jones, 1858, Teichochilina Swartz, 1949, Ceratoleperditia Harris, 1960, Parabriartina n. gen., Kenodontochilina n. gen., and Saffordellina Bassler and Kellett, 1934; the type species of the hitherto poorly known genus Saffordellina, S. muralis (Ulrich and Bassler, 1923), is redescribed and refigured. In all, 18 taxa, of which 2 are in open nomenclature, are described and illustrated. In addition, the family Isochilinidae Swartz, 1949 is redefined to include genera without marginal brims and with straight ventral contact margins. The morphological characteristics of leperditicopid genera are discussed, and a table listing described genera and their diagnostic features is included.

  10. The Cosmopolitanization of Science1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly perceived that the ‘globalization of science’ may result in a ‘Westernization of science’. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists’ outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still ‘catching-up’ to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the ‘cosmopolitanization of science’. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck’s cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the ‘cosmopolitanization of science’: shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance. PMID:24409002

  11. Plant mitochondrial Complex I composition and assembly: A review.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire; Hamel, Patrice Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the mitochondrial inner membrane, oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP via the operation of several multimeric enzymes. The proton-pumping Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and most complicated enzyme required in this process. Complex I is an L-shaped enzyme consisting of more than 40 subunits, one FMN molecule and eight Fe-S clusters. In recent years, genetic and proteomic analyses of Complex I mutants in various model systems, including plants, have provided valuable insights into the assembly of this multimeric enzyme. Assisted by a number of key players, referred to as "assembly factors", the assembly of Complex I takes place in a sequential and modular manner. Although a number of factors have been identified, their precise function in mediating Complex I assembly still remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current knowledge of plant Complex I composition and assembly derived from studies in plant model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Complex I is highly conserved and comprises a significant number of subunits also present in mammalian and fungal Complexes I. Plant Complex I also contains additional subunits absent from the mammalian and fungal counterpart, whose function in enzyme activity and assembly is not clearly understood. While 14 assembly factors have been identified for human Complex I, only two proteins, namely GLDH and INDH, have been established as bona fide assembly factors for plant Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  12. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  13. Clinicians’ Contributions to the Development of Coronary Artery Stents: A Qualitative Study of Transformative Device Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Kesselheim, Aaron S.; Xu, Shuai; Avorn, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical device innovation remains poorly understood, and policymakers disagree over how to incentivize early development. We sought to elucidate the components of transformative health care innovation by conducting an in-depth case study of development of a key medical device: coronary artery stents. Methods and Findings We conducted semi-structured interviews with the innovators whose work contributed to the development of coronary artery stents who we identified based on a review of the regulatory, patent, and medical literature. Semi-structured interviews with each participant covered the interviewee’s personal involvement in coronary artery stent development, the roles of institutions and other individuals in the development process, the interplay of funding and intellectual property in the interviewee’s contribution, and finally reflections on lessons arising from the experience. Transcripts were analyzed using standard coding techniques and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Conclusions We found that the first coronary artery stents emerged from three teams: Julio Palmaz and Richard Schatz, Cesare Gianturco and Gary Roubin, and Ulrich Sigwart. First, these individual physician-inventors saw the need for coronary artery stents in their clinical practice. In response, they developed prototypes with the support of academic medical centers leading to early validation studies. Larger companies entered afterwards with engineering support. Patents became paramount once the technology diffused. The case of coronary stents suggests that innovation policy should focus on supporting early physician-inventors at academic centers. PMID:24533133

  14. The history of tissue tension.

    PubMed

    Peters, W S; Tomos, A D

    1996-06-01

    In recent years the phenomenon of tissue tension and its functional connection to elongation growth has regained much interest. In the present study we reconstruct older models of mechanical inhomogenities in growing plant organs, in order to establish an accurate historical background for the current discussion. We focus on the iatromechanic model developed in Stephen Hales' Vegetable Staticks, Wilhelm Hofmeister's mechanical model of negative geotropism, Julius Sachs' explanation of the development of tissue tension, and the differential-auxin-response-hypothesis by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider. Each of these models is considered in the context of its respective historic and theoretical environment. In particular, the dependency of the biomechanical hypotheses on the cell theory and the hormone concept is discussed. We arrive at the conclusion that the historical development until the middle of our century is adequately described as a development towards more detailed explanations of how differential tensions are established during elongation growth in plant organs. Then we compare with the older models the structure of more recent criticism of hormonal theories of tropic curvature, and particularly the epidermal-growth-control hypothesis of Ulrich Kutschera. In contrast to the more elaborate of the older hypotheses, the recent models do not attempt an explanation of differential tensions, but instead focus on mechanical processes in organs, in which tissue tension already exists. Some conceptual implications of this discrepancy, which apparently were overlooked in the recent discussion, are briefly evaluated. PMID:11541099

  15. Growth, productivity, and scientific impact of sources of HIV/AIDS research information, with a focus on eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bosire Onyancha, Omwoyo

    2008-05-01

    As channels of communicating HIV/AIDS research information, serial publications and particularly journals are increasingly used in response to the pandemic. The last few decades have witnessed a proliferation of sources of HIV/AIDS-related information, bringing many challenges to collection-development librarians as well as to researchers. This study uses an informetric approach to examine the growth, productivity and scientific impact of these sources, during the period 1980 to 2005, and especially to measure performance in the publication and dissemination of HIV/AIDS research about or from eastern or southern Africa. Data were collected from MEDLINE, Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), and Ulrich's Periodical Directory. The analysis used Sitkis version 1.5, Microsoft Office Access, Microsoft Office Excel, Bibexcel, and Citespace version 2.0.1. The specific objectives were to identify the number of sources of HIV/AIDS-related information that have been published in the region, the coverage of these in key bibliographic databases, the most commonly used publication type for HIV/AIDS research, the countries in which the sources are published, the sources' productivity in terms of numbers of papers and citations, the most influential sources, the subject coverage of the sources, and the core sources of HIV/AIDS-information. PMID:25871272

  16. Cosmopolitics: towards a new articulation of politics, science and critique.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores how Ulrich Beck's world-risk-society theory (WRST) and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be combined to advance a theory of cosmopolitics. On the one hand, WRST helps to examine 'cosmopolitan politics', how actors try to inject cosmopolitanism into existing political practices and institutions anchored in the logic of nationalism. On the other hand, ANT sheds light on 'cosmological politics', how scientists participate in the construction of reality as a reference point for political struggles. By combining the WRST and ANT perspectives, it becomes possible to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cosmopolitics that takes into account both political and ontological dimensions. The proposed synthesis of WRST and ANT also calls for a renewal of critical theory by making social scientists aware of their performative involvement in cosmopolitics. This renewal prompts social scientists to explore how they can pragmatically support certain ideals of cosmopolitics through continuous dialogues with their objects of study, actors who inhabit different nations and different cosmoses.

  17. Current and recollected perceptions of family relationships: the social relations model approach applied to members of three generations.

    PubMed

    Delsing, Marc J M H; Oud, Johan H L; De Bruyn, Eric E J; Van Aken, Marcel A G

    2003-12-01

    Data from 81 three-generation families (comprising 567 participants) were analyzed to assess perceptions of current-family and family-of-origin relationships. The dimensions studied (Restrictiveness, Justice, Affection, and Trust) were derived from the family systems theories as developed by Boszormenyi-Nagy (I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & B. R. Krasner, 1986; I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & G. Spark, 1984; I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & D. N. Ulrich, 1981) and Stierlin (H. Stierlin, 1974, 1978; H. Stierlin, I. Rucker-Embden, N. Wetzel, & M. Wirsching, 1980). The social relations model (SRM) was used to disentangle the perception scores into characteristics of the perceiver (actor component), the target (partner component), and the family as a whole. For both current-family and family-of-origin relationships, significant variances of actor as well as family components were found. Empirical evidence for an association between current-family and (mother's) family-of-origin components was only found on the dimension of Restrictiveness. Clear differences were found between the means of current-family and family-of-origin perceptions, which could be explained by differences between current and past SRM components. PMID:14640796

  18. When two heads are better than one: Interactive versus independent benefits of collaborative cognition.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Allison A; Enns, James T

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that two heads working together can outperform one working alone, but whether such benefits result from social interaction or from the statistical facilitation of independent responses is not clear. Here we apply Miller's (Cognitive Psychology, 14, 247-279, 1982; Ulrich, Miller & Schröter, Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 291-302, 2007) race model inequality (RMI) to distinguish between these two possibilities. Pairs of participants completed a visual enumeration task, both as independent individuals and as two members of a team. The results showed that team performance exceeded the efficiency of two individuals working independently, indicating that interpersonal interaction underlies the collaborative gains in this task. This interpretation was bolstered by analyses showing that the magnitude of the collaborative benefit was positively mediated by the strength of social affiliation and by the similarity of verbal communication among team members. This research serves as a proof-of-concept that Miller's RMI can differentiate between interactive versus independent effects of collaborative cognition. Moreover, the finding that social affiliation and communication similarity each contribute to the collaborative benefit suggests new avenues of research for establishing the mechanisms supporting collaborative cognition. PMID:25416077

  19. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  20. Climate Change at the Poles: Research Immersion Experience at Bellingshausen, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Repina, I. A.; Baeseman, J. L.; Fernandoy, F.; Bart, S.

    2010-12-01

    We brought a party of 15 scientists, graduate students, and educators to King George Island, the largest of the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula, for an international workshop on Antarctica and global climate change in January 2010. Participants included professors, young scientists and graduate students from the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin, and the Michigan Technological University. Lindsay Bartholomew, an education and outreach specialist at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago connected the workshop via video and Internet with an audience of museum visitors. Scientists living and working at Bellingshausen, including Hans-Ulrich Peter, an eminent ecologist from Jena University (Germany), and Bulat Movlyudov (Institute of Geography, Moscow), a distinguished glaciologist, participated in the workshop. Field trips led by Peter and Movlyudov and others were made by day and lectures were held by night. Professors and graduate students made cutting-edge presentations on such subjects as permafrost, glaciology, and global climate models. Three workshop teams conducted field research projects at the foot of the Bellingshausen Dome icecap - two on carbon cycling and one on permafrost. Major funding sources for the workshop included the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russia), Wilderness Research Foundation (USA), NSF, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Museum for Science and Industry (Chicago). INACH, the Chilean Antarctic Institute, and IAU, the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, provided air charter services. On King George Island, our group was billeted at Russia’s Bellingshausen science station.

  1. Ground motion simulations in Marmara (Turkey) region from 3D finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, Hideo; Ulrich, Thomas; Douglas, John

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European project MARSite (2012-2016), one of the main contributions from our research team was to provide ground-motion simulations for the Marmara region from various earthquake source scenarios. We adopted a 3D finite difference code, taking into account the 3D structure around the Sea of Marmara (including the bathymetry) and the sea layer. We simulated two moderate earthquakes (about Mw4.5) and found that the 3D structure improves significantly the waveforms compared to the 1D layer model. Simulations were carried out for different earthquakes (moderate point sources and large finite sources) in order to provide shake maps (Aochi and Ulrich, BSSA, 2015), to study the variability of ground-motion parameters (Douglas & Aochi, BSSA, 2016) as well as to provide synthetic seismograms for the blind inversion tests (Diao et al., GJI, 2016). The results are also planned to be integrated in broadband ground-motion simulations, tsunamis generation and simulations of triggered landslides (in progress by different partners). The simulations are freely shared among the partners via the internet and the visualization of the results is diffused on the project's homepage. All these simulations should be seen as a reference for this region, as they are based on the latest knowledge that obtained during the MARSite project, although their refinement and validation of the model parameters and the simulations are a continuing research task relying on continuing observations. The numerical code used, the models and the simulations are available on demand.

  2. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  3. Environmental risks and environmental justice, or how titanic risks are not so titanic after all.

    PubMed

    Alario, Margarita V; Freudenburg, William R

    2010-01-01

    Some of the best-known social scientific theories of risks are those that have been elaborated by Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck. Although their arguments differ greatly, they agree in seeing the technologically induced risks of today's "Risk Society" as global - so pervasive that they transcend all socioeconomic as well as geopolitical and national boundaries. Most empirical work, however, provides greater support for a theoretical tradition exemplified by Short and Erikson. In this paper, we argue that many of the technological mega-risks described by Giddens and Beck as "transcending" social boundaries are better described as "Titanic risks," referring not so much to their colossal impact as to the fact that - as was the case for the majority of the victims on the Titanic - actual risks are related to victims' socioeconomic as well as sociogeographic locations. Previous research has shown this to be the case with high-risk technologies, such as nuclear energy and weaponry, and also with localized ones, such as toxic waste disposal. This article illustrates that the same is true even for the most genuinely "global" risks of all, namely those associated with global climate disruption.

  4. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-09-01

    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  5. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  6. Energy conversion, redox catalysis and generation of reactive oxygen species by respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Judy; Roessler, Maxie M

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is critical for respiration in mammalian mitochondria. It oxidizes NADH produced by the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids, reduces ubiquinone, and transports protons to contribute to the proton-motive force across the inner membrane. Complex I is also a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. In complex I, NADH oxidation by a flavin mononucleotide, followed by intramolecular electron transfer along a chain of iron-sulfur clusters, delivers electrons and energy to bound ubiquinone. Either at cluster N2 (the terminal cluster in the chain) or upon the binding/reduction/dissociation of ubiquinone/ubiquinol, energy from the redox process is captured to initiate long-range energy transfer through the complex and drive proton translocation. This review focuses on current knowledge of how the redox reaction and proton transfer are coupled, with particular emphasis on the formation and role of semiquinone intermediates in both energy transduction and reactive oxygen species production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26721206

  7. Cell scientist to watch - Christian Behrends.

    PubMed

    2016-08-15

    Christian Behrends studied biology at the University of Konstanz in Germany, but did his Diploma thesis externally with Michael Ehrmann in the School of Bioscience at Cardiff University, UK. He then pursued his PhD degree in Franz-Ulrich Hartl's group at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany. For his postdoctoral work Christian received a Feodor Lynen Research Fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, with which he moved to the US and joined the laboratory of J. Wade Harper at Harvard Medical School. In 2011, he received an Emmy Noether Research Grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and started his own independent group at the Medical School of Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. He is also a recipient of an ERC starting grant. Research in Christian's lab is focused on the basic mechanisms of autophagy, particularly concentrating on the role of ubiquitin signalling in autophagy, and the crosstalk between autophagy and other vesicular trafficking pathways. PMID:27528205

  8. Cosmopolitan sociology and the classical canon: Ferdinand Tönnies and the emergence of global Gesellschaft.

    PubMed

    Inglis, David

    2009-12-01

    How relevant are figures from the classical sociological canon for present day efforts to found cosmopolitan forms of sociological thought? According to the critique of Ulrich Beck, the classical sociologists remain far too wedded to nation-state-centred ways of thinking to play an important role in the development of cosmopolitan sociology. This paper argues that such a critique fails to account for the ways in which certain classical sociologists were attuned to the emerging cosmopolitical conditions of their own time, were not wholly wedded to nation-state-based conceptualizations, and thus can function as both groundings of, and inspirations for, cosmopolitan sociological endeavours. The apparently unpromising case of Tönnies is focused on, the paper showing how he outlined an account of how and why a planet-spanning condition of Gesellschaft developed a position which diverges from and counterpoints Marx's analysis of similar phenomena in important ways. The stereotype of Tönnies as an arch-conservative is also dissolved, allowing him to be considered as one of the most important antecedents of contemporary cosmopolitan sociological practice and a canonical figure still relevant for present-day purposes.

  9. Phylogenetic signal in predator-prey body-size relationships.

    PubMed

    Naisbit, Russell E; Kehrli, Patrik; Rohr, Rudolf P; Bersier, Louis-Félix

    2011-12-01

    Body mass is a fundamental characteristic that affects metabolism, life history, and population abundance and frequently sets bounds on who eats whom in food webs. Based on a collection of topological food webs, Ulrich Brose and colleagues presented a general relationship between the body mass of predators and their prey and analyzed how mean predator-prey body-mass ratios differed among habitats and predator metabolic categories. Here we show that the general body-mass relationship conceals significant variation associated with both predator and prey phylogeny. Major-axis regressions between the log body mass of predators and prey differed among taxonomic groups. The global pattern for Kingdom Animalia had slope > 1, but phyla and classes varied, and several had slopes significantly < 1. The predator-prey body-mass ratio can therefore decrease or increase with increasing body mass, depending on the taxon considered. We also found a significant phylogenetic signal in analyses of prey body-mass range for predators and predator body-mass range for prey, with stronger signal in the former. Besides providing insights into how characteristics of trophic interactions evolve, our results emphasize the need to integrate phylogeny to improve models of community structure and dynamics or to achieve a metabolic theory of food-web ecology.

  10. Comparison of different torsion angle approaches for NMR structure determination.

    PubMed

    Bardiaux, Benjamin; Malliavin, Thérèse E; Nilges, Michael; Mazur, Alexey K

    2006-03-01

    A new procedure for NMR structure determination, based on the Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics (ICMD) approach, is presented. The method finds biopolymer conformations that satisfy usual NMR-derived restraints by using high temperature dynamics in torsion angle space. A variable target function algorithm gradually increases the number of NOE-based restraints applied, with the treatment of ambiguous and floating restraints included. This soft procedure allows combining artificially high temperature with a general purpose force-field including Coulombic and Lennard-Jones non-bonded interactions, which improves the quality of the ensemble of conformations obtained in the gas-phase. The new method is compared to existing algorithms by using the structures of eight ribosomal proteins earlier obtained with state-of-the-art procedures and included into the RECOORD database [Nederveen, A., Doreleijers, J., Vranken, W., Miller, Z., Spronk, C., Nabuurs, S., Guntert, P., Livny, M., Markley, M., Nilges, M., Ulrich, E., Kaptein, R. and Bonvin, A.M. (2005) Proteins, 59, 662-672]. For the majority of tested proteins, the ICMD algorithm shows similar convergence and somewhat better quality Z scores for the phi, psi distributions. The new method is more computationally demanding although the overall load is reasonable.

  11. [Stent, endovascular prosthesis, net or strut? What would British dentist Charles Stent (1807-1885) have to say on all this?].

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Josip; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The word stent appears in the Index Medicus as of 1952, while in Croatian articles as of 1993. The origin of the word has been attributed to British dentist Charles. T. Stent (1807-1885), maker of the compound for dental impressions (Stent's compound). Viennese surgeon, Johannes F. S. Esser (1877-1946) used the compound in plastic surgery of the face calling it an eponym Stent's mould. During the 1950's, William H. ReMine and John H. Grindlay used Stent's principle for omentum lined plastic tubes in the bile duct of a dog. The development of today's vascular stents began in 1912 when French Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) implanted glass tubes in the arteries of dogs. The first metal spirals were implanted in the arteries of dogs by Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985), while the first stents in human arteries were implanted by French doctors Ulrich Sigwart and Jacques Puel in Toulouse in 1986. Some authors claim that the origin of the word stent is associated with the Scotish word stynt or stent, meaning stretched out river fishing nets. PMID:19348354

  12. Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner; Reynolds, Martin

    Critical systems heuristics (CSH) is a framework for reflective professional practice organised around the central tool of boundary critique. This paper, written jointly by the original developer, Werner Ulrich, and Martin Reynolds, an experienced practitioner of CSH, offers a systematic introduction to the idea and use of boundary critique. Its core concepts are explained in detail and their use is illustrated by means of two case studies from the domain of environmental planning and management. A particular focus is on working constructively with tensions between opposing perspectives as they arise in many situations of professional intervention. These include tensions such as ‘situation' versus ‘system', ‘is' versus ‘ought' judgements, concerns of ‘those involved' versus ‘those affected but not involved', stakeholders' ‘stakes' versus ‘stakeholding issues', and others. Accordingly, boundary critique is presented as a participatory process of unfolding and questioning boundary judgements rather than as an expert-driven process of boundary setting. The paper concludes with a discussion of some essential skills and considerations regarding the practice of boundary critique.

  13. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene Arroyo Diablo and Borrego Formations in the Borrego Badlands, western Salton Trough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report results obtained from a stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Borrego Badlands, E of Borrego Springs, CA. The Borrego Badlands are bordered by dextral strike slip faults of the San Jacinto fault zone (Clark fault to the NE, Coyote Creek fault to the SW), and is also cut by several NE-striking sinistral faults (linked antithetically to the Coyote Creek and Clark faults), the largest of which is the Inspiration Point fault. Our work focuses on deposits of the Palm Spring Group, including Pliocene fluvial/deltaic sandstones of the Arroyo Diablo Formation and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine mudstones of the Borrego Formation. We collected a suite of 54 paleomagnetic sample sites from a 2500 m thick section of the Borrego Badlands (3rd Wash, Hills of the Moon Wash, and Rainbow Wash), from the upper part of the Arroyo Diablo Formation to the contact between the Borrego Formation and overlying Ocotillo Formation. This section is correlated to the upper Borrego and Ocotillo formations in Beckman Wash, located NW of here on the NW side of the Inspiration Point fault, allowing us to use the previous magnetostratigraphy of Lutz et al (2006) as a tie point for this section. Sample sites were spaced at 15 to 100 m, and 5 to 8 samples were collected from each site. Samples were thermally demagnetized using steps from 80 to 690 C, and two magnetization components were observed from 53 of the sites. A total of 49 sites had well-defined second-removed components and site mean directions that were robust (k>10). The combined mean of these 49 sites is D = 35, I = 41, α95 = 7.5. We identify 8 polarity zones in this section, ranging from near the base of the Gauss magnetochron to the upper part of the Matuyama chron, including the Mammoth, Kaena, and Olduvai subchrons. The contact between the Arroyo Diablo and Borrego formations is estimated to be ~2.9 Ma. Sediment-accumulation rates are relatively rapid and vary between 0.7 and 1

  14. Photochemical modeling of H2O in Titan's atmosphere constrained by Herschel Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. M.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Courtin, R.; Hartogh, P.; Rengel, M.

    2012-04-01

    As a species subject to photolytic, chemical and condensation losses, H2O present in Titan's stratosphere must be of external origin. The discovery of CO2 by Voyager (Samuelson et al. 1981) pointed to an external supply of oxygen to Titan's atmosphere. Indeed, CO2, which also condenses, was recognized to be formed via CO+OH, where OH was likely produced by H2O photolysis. This view was supported by the ground-based discovery of CO (Lutz et al. 1983) and subsequent measurements confirming an abundance of ~50 ppm. The source of CO itself remained elusive, but inspired by the Cassini/CAPS discovery of a O+ influx rate (Hartle et al. 2006), Hörst et al. (2008) showed that an external source of O or O+ leads to the formation of CO, also pointing to the likely external origin of this compound. The most up-to-date model of Titan's oxygen chemistry by Hörst et al. (2008) adjusted the OH/H2O deposition rate as a function of the eddy diffusion coefficient below 200 km to match the observed CO2 mixing ratio (15 ppb, uniform over 100-200 km), and producing a H2O profile that was deemed consistent with ISO/SWS measurement of the H2O abundance at a nominal altitude of 400 km (Coustenis et al. 1998). Therefore, the Hörst et al. (2008) study provided an apparently self-consistent picture of the origin of oxygen compounds in Titan's atmosphere, with the three main species (CO, CO2 and H2O) being produced from a permanent external supply of oxygen in two distinct forms. However, recent measurements of several H2O lines by the HIFI and PACS instruments (Herschel Space Observatory) have shown that none of the H2O profiles calculated in Hörst et al. (2008) reproduces the observed lines (Moreno et al., this workshop), and neither does the Lara et al. (1996) H2O profile. Here we revisit the Lara et al. (1996) photochemical model by including (i) an updated eddy diffusion coefficient profile (K(z)), constrained by the C2H6 vertical distribution (ii) an adjustable O+/OH/H2O influx. Our

  15. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital. PMID:15938437

  16. High-precision timing of 42 millisecond pulsars with the European Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvignes, G.; Caballero, R. N.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Champion, D. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Janssen, G. H.; Lazarus, P.; Osłowski, S.; Babak, S.; Bassa, C. G.; Brem, P.; Burgay, M.; Cognard, I.; Gair, J. R.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lassus, A.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Perrodin, D.; Petiteau, A.; Possenti, A.; Purver, M. B.; Rosado, P. A.; Sanidas, S.; Sesana, A.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Taylor, S. R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; van Haasteren, R.; Vecchio, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the high-precision timing of 42 radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed by the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). This EPTA Data Release 1.0 extends up to mid-2014 and baselines range from 7-18 yr. It forms the basis for the stochastic gravitational-wave background, anisotropic background, and continuous-wave limits recently presented by the EPTA elsewhere. The Bayesian timing analysis performed with TEMPONEST yields the detection of several new parameters: seven parallaxes, nine proper motions and, in the case of six binary pulsars, an apparent change of the semimajor axis. We find the NE2001 Galactic electron density model to be a better match to our parallax distances (after correction from the Lutz-Kelker bias) than the M2 and M3 models by Schnitzeler. However, we measure an average uncertainty of 80 per cent (fractional) for NE2001, three times larger than what is typically assumed in the literature. We revisit the transverse velocity distribution for a set of 19 isolated and 57 binary MSPs and find no statistical difference between these two populations. We detect Shapiro delay in the timing residuals of PSRs J1600-3053 and J1918-0642, implying pulsar and companion masses m_p=1.22_{-0.35}^{+0.5} M_{⊙}, m_c = 0.21_{-0.04}^{+0.06} M_{⊙} and m_p=1.25_{-0.4}^{+0.6} M_{⊙}, m_c = 0.23_{-0.05}^{+0.07} M_{⊙}, respectively. Finally, we use the measurement of the orbital period derivative to set a stringent constraint on the distance to PSRs J1012+5307 and J1909-3744, and set limits on the longitude of ascending node through the search of the annual-orbital parallax for PSRs J1600-3053 and J1909-3744.

  17. The orthology of HLA-E and H2-Qa1 is hidden by their concerted evolution with other MHC class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Etienne; Rouillon, Virginie

    2006-01-01

    Background Whether MHC molecules undergo concerted evolution or not has been the subject of a long-standing debate. Results By comparing sequences of eight functional homologues of HLA-E from primates and rodents with those of MHC class Ia molecules from the same eight species, we find that different portions of MHC class I molecules undergo different patterns of evolution. By focusing our analyses sequentially on these various portions, we have obtained clear evidence for concerted evolution of MHC class I molecules, suggesting the occurrence of extensive interallelic and intergenic exchanges. Intra-species homogenisation of sequences is particularly noticeable at the level of exon 4, which codes for the α3 domain, but our results suggest that homogenisation also concerns certain residues of the α1–α2 codomain that lie outside the antigen recognition site. Conclusion A model is presented in which Darwinian selective pressures due to pathogens could, at the same time, favour diversification of MHC class Ia molecules and promote concerted evolution of separate loci by spreading advantageous motifs arising by mutations in individual MHC molecules to other alleles and to other loci of the MHC region. This would also allow MHC molecules to co-evolve with the proteins with which they interact to fulfil their functions of antigen presentation and regulation of NK cell activity. One of the raisons d'être of the MHC may therefore be to favour at the same time both diversification of MHC class Ia molecules and homogenisation of the whole pool of MHC class I molecules (Ia and Ib) involved in antigen presentation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Stephan Beck, Lutz Walter and Pierre Pontarotti. PMID:16542007

  18. Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

    2013-03-01

    The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances.

  19. Evaluation of a novel kit (TF-Test) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Dias, Luiz Cândido S; Araujo, Ana Júlia S A; Castilho, Vera L P; Neves, Fátima A M A

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are currently a source of concern for Public Health agencies in developing and developed countries. Since three ovum-and-parasite stool examinations have been demonstrated to provide sensitive results, we designed a practical and economical kit (TF-Test) that is now commercially available (Immunoassay Com. Ind. Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil). This kit allows the separate collection of three fecal specimens into a preservative solution. The specimens are then pooled, double-filtered, and concentrated by a single rapid centrifugation process. The TF-Test was evaluated in four different laboratories in a study using 1,102 outpatients and individuals living in an endemic area for enteroparasitosis. The overall sensitivity found using the TF-Test (86.2-97.8%) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than the sensitivity of conventional techniques such as the Coprotest (NL Comércio Exterior Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil) and the combination of Lutz/Hoffman, Faust, and Rugai techniques (De Carli, Diagnóstico Laboratorial das Parasitoses Humanas. Métodos e Técnicas, 1994), which ranged from 48.3% to 75.9%. When the above combined three specimen technique was repeated with three specimens collected on different days, its sensitivity became similar (P>0.01) to that of the TF-Test. The kappa index values of agreement for the TF-Test were consistent (P<0.01), being higher and ranking in a better position than conventional techniques. The high sensitivity, cost/benefit ratio, and practical aspects demonstrate that the TF-Test is suitable for individual diagnosis, epidemiological inquiries, or evaluation of chemotherapy in treated communities.

  20. From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, G

    2000-01-01

    The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work.

  1. A Comparison of Runoff Pathways and Nutrient Export in Small Tropical Forest Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, H. B.; Stallard, R. F.; Pullen, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Center for Tropical Forest Research (CTFS), a program of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), has coordinated a global network of 17 tropical forest dynamics plots of approximately 50 hectares in order to collect baseline information and to monitor forest changes. Missing from most past studies of these plots is an integrated soil hydrology and water chemistry component. To fill this gap, we have developed and are testing rapid assessment methods to measure soil and hydrological properties for tropical forest catchments. This assessment includes gaging and sampling first to third order headwater streams with high frequency over several storm events within a 2-4 week period. Detailed flow separations enable us to test Elsenbeer's (2001) functional classification continuum for tropical soils and allow us to test the hypothesis that forest sites with greater overland flow experience greater nutrient loss during storm events. Data from a storm event for the steep Lutz Creek Catchment on Barro Colorado Island, Panama in September 1990 demonstrate that Na+ and Si, typical of most solutes, decrease in concentration with increasing discharge. In contrast, the nutrients, K+ and NO3- increase in concentration with increasing discharge. Results from a 20 ha catchment in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador from November 2003 show a similar pattern during several small events on relatively impermeable soils. Data collected from a more permeable 20 ha catchment in Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia in July 2004 also show nutrient export, but suggest that rainfall amount, intensity and duration may play a large role in the magnitude of nutrient concentrations. Elsenbeer, H., 2001. Hydrological flowpaths in tropical rain forest soilscapes-a review. Hydrological Processes, 15: 1751-1759.

  2. Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: impact of intensive mental training.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink-a deficit in identifying the second of two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close succession. This deficit is thought to result from an overinvestment of limited resources in T1 processing. We previously reported that intensive mental training in a style of meditation aimed at reducing elaborate object processing, reduced brain resource allocation to T1, and improved T2 accuracy [Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J., et al. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PloS Biology, 5, e138, 2007]. Here we report EEG spectral analyses to examine the possibility that this reduction in elaborate T1 processing rendered the system more available to process new target information, as indexed by T2-locked phase variability. Intensive mental training was associated with decreased cross-trial variability in the phase of oscillatory theta activity after successfully detected T2s, in particular, for those individuals who showed the greatest reduction in brain resource allocation to T1. These data implicate theta phase locking in conscious target perception, and suggest that after mental training the cognitive system is more rapidly available to process new target information. Mental training was not associated with changes in the amplitude of T2-induced responses or oscillatory activity before task onset. In combination, these findings illustrate the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind by revealing the neural mechanisms that enable the brain to successfully represent target information.

  3. Band 3/complement-mediated recognition and removal of normally senescent and pathological human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Arese, Paolo; Turrini, Franco; Schwarzer, Evelin

    2005-01-01

    Band 3 modifications that normally occur during physiological red blood cell (RBC) senescence in humans, and occasionally in pathological conditions are described in the context of their role in enhancing RBC recognition and phagocytic removal. Band 3 modifications are mostly due to oxidative insults that gradually accumulate during the RBC lifespan or impact massively in a shorter time period in pathological conditions. The oxidative insults that impact on the RBC, the protective mechanisms that counteract those damages and the phenotypic modifications that accumulate during the RBC lifespan are described. It is shown how specific oxidative as well as non-oxidative band 3 modifications enhance RBC membrane affinity for normally circulating anti-band 3 antibodies, and how membrane-bound anti-band 3 antibodies bring about a limited complement activation and membrane deposition of complement C3 fragments. The partially covalent complexes between anti-band 3 antibodies and complement C3 fragments are very powerful opsonins readily recognized by the CR1 complement receptor on the phagocyte. Band 3 modifications typically encountered in old RBCs have crystallized to a number of band 3-centered models of RBC senescence. One of those band 3-centered models, the so-called 'band 3/complement RBC removal model' first put up by Lutz et al. is discussed in more detail. Finally, it is shown how the genetic deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plus fava bean consumption, and a widespread RBC parasitic disease, P. falciparum malaria, may lead to massive and rapid destruction of RBCs by a mechanism comparable to a dramatic, time-compressed enhancement of normal RBC senescence. PMID:16301814

  4. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston–Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior–inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle. PMID:22482636

  5. Thule to Summit: Using the physical and chemical properties of shallow firn to describe glacier facies, accumulation, and 55 years of change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, G. J.; Overly, T. B.; Courville, Z.; Hawley, R. L.; Lutz, E. R.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Between 1952 and 1955, Carl Benson and the US Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment undertook a series of traverses of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Employing a number of physical measurements, Benson (1962) characterized the GIS via mapping of the spatial distribution of annual net accumulation and classifying the diagenetic glacier facies. Recent advances in remote sensing techniques now provide a number of ways to assess the state of the GIS, but these techniques still require some component of in situ verification. In the springs of 2010 and 2011, we undertook a 1200 km traverse along a nearly-identical route on the GIS from Thule Air Base to Summit Station. Along the traverse route, we characterized the physical stratigraphy of the near-surface (0-10 m depth) snow using an array of observations such as density, grain size, hardness, optical stratigraphy and temperature. We collected a total of 30 snow pits and 14 shallow firn cores over the two field seasons. These measurements allow us to make comparisons with Benson's results, identifying changes in glacier facies and accumulation patterns over the past 55 years. In addition to physical stratigraphy, we measured snowpit chemical stratigraphy (major ions, trace elements and stable water isotopes) at 5-10 cm resolution. These measurements allow us to date horizons seen in the physical stratigraphic record, and to explore questions about the spatial variability of species deposition. Here, we present an initial analysis of these snowpits, shallow cores, and BOS logs, co-located with near infrared imagery, ground-penetrating radar and kinematic GPS data (see Lutz et al. and Overly et al., both this session), which will be useful in quantifying spatial and temporal changes in glacier facies, accumulation rates, and geochemical cycling on the GIS. Benson, CS. 1962. Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet. SIPRE Research Report, 70, 89 pp.

  6. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Infidum similis, Including Morphological Data and Estimation of its Genome Size.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, Elizabeth A; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Gregory, T Ryan; Violante-González, Juan

    2016-08-01

    :   Infidum similis Travassos, 1916 (Dicrocoeliidae: Leipertrematinae) was found in the gall bladder of Leptophis diplotropis Günther, 1872 from El Podrido, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico. A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses was carried out to assess its phylogenetic position within suborder Xiphidiata, alongside members of the superfamilies Gorgoderoidea and Plagiorchoidea. The phylogenetic trees showed that the genus is most-closely related to the Plagiorchoidea rather than to the Gorgoderoidea, in keeping with previous taxonomic designations. Phylogenies obtained from ML and BI analysis of the 28S rDNA gene revealed a well supported clade in which Choledocystus hepaticus (Lutz, 1928) Sullivan, 1977 is sister to I. similis. On the other hand, a tree obtained using a partial sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA gene (ML and BI analysis), with species supposed to be closely related to I. similis according to 28S, does not support this relatedness. Based on the independence of Infidum from the subfamily Leipertrematinae Yamaguti, 1958 , our results clearly demonstrated that the genus corresponds to a different family and with species closely related to C. hepaticus within Plagiorchoidea. New data are presented about the tegumental surface of I. similis by scanning electron microscopy as well as the estimation of its haploid genome size using Feulgen Image Analysis Densitometry of sperm nuclei as part of the characterization of this species. This is the first genome size estimated for a member of Plagiorchiida, and these data will provide a new source of knowledge on helminth diversity and evolutionary studies. This constitutes the first host record, and new geographical distribution, for this species in Mexico. PMID:26998629

  7. Evaluation of a novel kit (TF-Test) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Dias, Luiz Cândido S; Araujo, Ana Júlia S A; Castilho, Vera L P; Neves, Fátima A M A

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are currently a source of concern for Public Health agencies in developing and developed countries. Since three ovum-and-parasite stool examinations have been demonstrated to provide sensitive results, we designed a practical and economical kit (TF-Test) that is now commercially available (Immunoassay Com. Ind. Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil). This kit allows the separate collection of three fecal specimens into a preservative solution. The specimens are then pooled, double-filtered, and concentrated by a single rapid centrifugation process. The TF-Test was evaluated in four different laboratories in a study using 1,102 outpatients and individuals living in an endemic area for enteroparasitosis. The overall sensitivity found using the TF-Test (86.2-97.8%) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than the sensitivity of conventional techniques such as the Coprotest (NL Comércio Exterior Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil) and the combination of Lutz/Hoffman, Faust, and Rugai techniques (De Carli, Diagnóstico Laboratorial das Parasitoses Humanas. Métodos e Técnicas, 1994), which ranged from 48.3% to 75.9%. When the above combined three specimen technique was repeated with three specimens collected on different days, its sensitivity became similar (P>0.01) to that of the TF-Test. The kappa index values of agreement for the TF-Test were consistent (P<0.01), being higher and ranking in a better position than conventional techniques. The high sensitivity, cost/benefit ratio, and practical aspects demonstrate that the TF-Test is suitable for individual diagnosis, epidemiological inquiries, or evaluation of chemotherapy in treated communities. PMID:15065214

  8. DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Feast, Michael W.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise; Shulyak, D. V.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-15

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  9. Population structure and circulating genotypes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in São Paulo state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Maria Conceição; Saraiva Giampaglia, Carmen M.; Oliveira, Rosângela S.; Simonsen, Vera; Latrilha, Fábio Oliveira; Moniz, Letícia Lisboa; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine

    2013-01-01

    São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state and reports the largest number of tuberculosis cases in the country annually (over 18,500). This study included 193 isolates obtained during the 2nd Nationwide Survey on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance that was conducted in São Paulo state and 547 isolates from a laboratory based study of drug resistance that were analyzed by the Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory at the Institute Adolfo Lutz. Both studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and sought to determine the genetic diversity and pattern of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates (MTC) circulating in São Paulo. The patterns obtained from the spoligotyping analysis demonstrated that 51/740 (6.9%) of the isolates corresponded to orphan patterns and that 689 (93.1%) of the isolates distributed into 144 shared types, including 119 that matched a preexisting shared type in the SITVIT2 database and 25 that were new isolates. A total of 77/144 patterns corresponded to unique isolates, while the remaining 67 corresponded to clustered patterns (n = 612 isolates clustered into groups of 2–84 isolates each). The evolutionarily ancient PGG1 lineages (Beijing, CAS1-DEL, EAI3-IND, and PINI2) were rarely detected in São Paulo and comprised only 13/740, or 1.76%, of the total isolates; all of the remaining 727/740, or 98.24%, of the MTC isolates from São Paulo state were from the recent PGG2/3 evolutionary isolates belonging to the LAM, T, S, X, and Haarlem lineages, i.e., the Euro-American group. This study provides the first overview of circulating genotypes of M. tuberculosis in São Paulo state and demonstrates that the clustered shared types containing seven or more M. tuberculosis isolates that are spread in São Paulo state included both resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:23201043

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-08-15

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm.

  11. Predictive-like distribution mapping using Google Earth: reassessment of the distribution of the bromeligenous frog, Scinax v-signatus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Helio Ricardo; Alves-Silva, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The hylid frog Scinax perpusillus species group comprises 13 species that share, in addition to a few morphological features, reproduction that occurs exclusively associated with bromeliads. Among the species in the group, Scinax v-signatus (Lutz, 1968) is one of the few with a relatively large geographic distribution, occurring in association with bromeliads growing on granitic outcrops above 800 m along the Serra dos Órgãos (a local designation of Serra do Mar) in the Atlantic forest, State of Rio de Janeiro. Here we demonstrate that previous assessment of the distribution of this species was overestimated, and reevaluate the available data on its occurrence. The distributional data analyzed was based on three levels of evidence. First, we assessed the distribution of the bromeliad, Alcantarea imperialis (Carrière) Harms, which is used by S. v-signatus at the type locality. We plotted potential occurrence data for this plant using Google Earth (GE) by visually inspecting GE images in search of indications of granitic outcrops where groups and large individual bromeliads could be identified. Second, we plotted the distribution of these plants and that of the frog based on locality data taken from the literature and voucher specimens in natural history collections and checked for congruence between these sets of data. Third, as a second test of accuracy of this methodology we visited four new localities indicated by the bromeliad-occurrence GE prediction map and searched for the occurrence of both the frog and the bromeliad. This simple process has proven efficient and accurate in finding new collecting sites and determining the distribution of the two involved taxa. We discuss this and other possibilities of using Google Earth as a tool for mapping and discovering the distribution of organisms and habitats. Furthermore, this study has shed light on a more accurate and realistic estimate of the distribution of Scinax v-signatus with implications for the

  12. Dual pathways of internalization of the cholecystokinin receptor

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Receptor molecules play a major role in the desensitization of agonist- stimulated cellular responses. For G protein-coupled receptors, rapid desensitization occurs via receptor phosphorylation, sequestration, and internalization, yet the cellular compartments in which these events occur and their interrelationships are unclear. In this work, we focus on the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor, which has been well characterized with respect to phosphorylation. We have used novel fluorescent and electron-dense CCK receptor ligands and an antibody to probe receptor localization in a CCK receptor-bearing CHO cell line. In the unstimulated state, receptors were diffusely distributed over the plasmalemma. Agonist occupation stimulated endocytosis via both clathrin-dependent and independent pathways. The former was predominant, leading to endosomal and lysosomal compartments, as well as recycling to the plasmalemma. The clathrin-independent processes led to a smooth vesicular compartment adjacent to the plasmalemma resembling caveolae, which did not transport ligand deeper within the cell. Potassium depletion largely eliminated clathrin-dependent endocytosis, while not interfering with agonist-stimulated receptor movement into subplasmalemmal smooth vesicle compartments. These cellular endocytic events can be related to the established cycle of CCK receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which we have previously described (Klueppelberg, U. G., L. K. Gates, F. S. Gorelick, and L. J. Miller. 1991. J. Biol. Chem. 266:2403-2408; Lutz, M. P., D. I. Pinon, L. K. Gates, S. Shenolikar, and L. J. Miller. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:12136-12142). The rapid onset and peak of receptor phosphorylation after agonist occupation correlates best with a plasmalemmal localization, while stimulated receptor phosphatase activity correlates best with receptor residence in intracellular compartments. We postulate that the smooth vesicular compartment adjacent to the plasmalemma functions for

  13. Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical

  14. Population structure and circulating genotypes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Conceição; Giampaglia, Carmen M Saraiva; Oliveira, Rosângela S; Simonsen, Vera; Latrilha, Fábio Oliveira; Moniz, Letícia Lisboa; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine

    2013-03-01

    São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state and reports the largest number of tuberculosis cases in the country annually (over 18,500). This study included 193 isolates obtained during the 2nd Nationwide Survey on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance that was conducted in São Paulo state and 547 isolates from a laboratory based study of drug resistance that were analyzed by the Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory at the Institute Adolfo Lutz. Both studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and sought to determine the genetic diversity and pattern of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates (MTC) circulating in São Paulo. The patterns obtained from the spoligotyping analysis demonstrated that 51/740 (6.9%) of the isolates corresponded to orphan patterns and that 689 (93.1%) of the isolates distributed into 144 shared types, including 119 that matched a preexisting shared type in the SITVIT2 database and 25 that were new isolates. A total of 77/144 patterns corresponded to unique isolates, while the remaining 67 corresponded to clustered patterns (n=612 isolates clustered into groups of 2-84 isolates each). The evolutionarily ancient PGG1 lineages (Beijing, CAS1-DEL, EAI3-IND, and PINI2) were rarely detected in São Paulo and comprised only 13/740, or 1.76%, of the total isolates; all of the remaining 727/740, or 98.24%, of the MTC isolates from São Paulo state were from the recent PGG2/3 evolutionary isolates belonging to the LAM, T, S, X, and Haarlem lineages, i.e., the Euro-American group. This study provides the first overview of circulating genotypes of M. tuberculosis in São Paulo state and demonstrates that the clustered shared types containing seven or more M. tuberculosis isolates that are spread in São Paulo state included both resistant and susceptible isolates.

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  16. Structural basis for the interaction between yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex components Sgf11 and Sus1.

    PubMed

    Ellisdon, Andrew M; Jani, Divyang; Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2010-02-01

    Sus1 is a central component of the yeast gene gating machinery, the process by which actively transcribing genes such as GAL1 become associated with nuclear pore complexes. Sus1 is a component of both the SAGA transcriptional co-activator complex and the TREX-2 complex that binds to nuclear pore complexes. TREX-2 contains two Sus1 chains that have an articulated helical hairpin fold, enabling them to wrap around an extended alpha-helix in Sac3, following a helical hydrophobic stripe. In SAGA, Sus1 binds to Sgf11 and has been proposed to provide a link between SAGA and TREX-2. We present here the crystal structure of the complex between Sus1 and the N-terminal region of Sgf11 that forms an extended alpha-helix around which Sus1 wraps in a manner that shares some similarities with the Sus1-Sac3 interface in TREX-2. However, the Sus1-binding site on Sgf11 is somewhat shorter than on Sac3 and is based on a narrower hydrophobic stripe. Engineered mutants that disrupt the Sgf11-Sus1 interaction in vitro confirm the importance of the hydrophobic helical stripe in molecular recognition. Helix alpha1 of the Sus1-articulated hairpin does not bind directly to Sgf11 and adopts a wide range of conformations within and between crystal forms, consistent with the presence of a flexible hinge and also with results from previous extensive mutagenesis studies (Klöckner, C., Schneider, M., Lutz, S., Jani, D., Kressler, D., Stewart, M., Hurt, E., and Köhler, A. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 12049-12056). A single Sus1 molecule cannot bind Sgf11 and Sac3 simultaneously and this, combined with the structure of the Sus1-Sgf11 complex, indicates that Sus1 forms separate subcomplexes within SAGA and TREX-2.

  17. A comparison between the bottom-track data of an ADCP and Laserscanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2015-04-01

    Simon Lutz Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Peter Rutschmann Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany A standard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is constructed, as the name suggests, to gain data about the flow velocity and discharge of e.g. a river. The device is in fact similar to a sonar and uses the Doppler effect to detect the velocity of particles in the water column below the transducers. Beside that standard function it also can track the bottom of a river or sea. The pulses are scattered by the bottom and the shift in the detected velocities between bottom and bulk phase can be used to identify the surface. However this data set depends on the quality of the signal and can be influenced inter alia when the river-bed is moving. Under in situ conditions it is almost not possible to evaluate the quality of this bottom track data. On the other hand e.g. a minimum water depth is needed to get proper results with the ADCP which causes problems in a lab flume. Therefore a reservoir was used for the comparison measurement which could be drained and set nearby dry so the scanning with a RIEGL terrestrial laser scanner became feasible. Within the reservoir due to sedimentation of silt and fine sand fractions a nature-like bottom structure has developed including a talweg, steeper and more shallow areas. This is a perfect structure for the comparison of the results of these two measurement devices. With the Laser-scanning data a 3D model is generated. The bottom track cross sections of the ADCP can be implemented in this model and compared.

  18. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Silva Martins, Alzira Maria

    2001-01-01

    Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute), Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606), were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs); 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs); 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens. PMID:11591223

  19. Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Anne E.

    2005-04-20

    Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees work, leaders have the personal characteristics that engender trust and commitment. In

  20. Notes on the cultural significance of the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchting, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    ‘Cultural’ in the title is intended to allude to the bearing of the sciences on humanity's general orientation in the world. Questions about this are distinguished from ones about the sciences' instrumental aspect, as means to ends extrinsic to them qua sciences, and also from ones about their intrinsic character, except to the extent that these bear on the central topic of the paper. It is argued that the sciences, ethical/moral reflection and the arts are distinct but inseparable. The sciences may be regarded as ‘first among equals’ substantively, insofar they are a privileged source of a certain specially important sort of factual knowledge, and, methodologically, insofar as they provide a particularly clear model for understanding a purely naturalistic approach to the world. ...Ulrich...loved mathematics because of the people who could not endure it. He was not so much scientifically as humanly in love with science...many people for whom mathematics or natural science is a job feel it is almost an outrage if someone goes in for science for reasons like [his]. ...[He]...hated...all those who give up half-way, the faint-hearted, the soft, those who comfort their souls with flummery about the soul and who feed it, because the intellect allegedly gives it stones instead of bread, on religious, philosophical and fictitious emotions, which are like buns soaked in milk. ...soul is...easily defined negatively: it is simply what curls up and hides when there is any mention of an algebraic series. Robert Musil, The Man Without Qualities, Bk. I, Chs. 11, 13, 25.

  1. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465]. PMID:15474175

  2. Calculating Formulas of Coefficient and Mean Neutron Exposure in the Exponential Expression of Neutron Exposure Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. H.; Zhou, G. D.; Ma, K.; Ma, W. J.; Cui, W. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2015-11-01

    Present studies have shown that, in the main stages of the development and evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star s-process models, the distributions of neutron exposures in the nucleosynthesis regions can all be expressed by an exponential function ({ρ_{AGB}}(τ) = C/{τ_0}exp ( - τ/{τ_0})) in the effective range of values. However, the specific expressions of the proportional coefficient C and the mean neutron exposure ({τ_0}) in the formula for different models are not completely determined in the related literatures. Through dissecting the basic solving method of the exponential distribution of neutron exposures, and systematically combing the solution procedure of exposure distribution for different stellar models, the general calculating formulas as well as their auxiliary equations for calculating C and ({τ_0}) are reduced. Given the discrete distribution of neutron exposures ({P_k}), i.e. the mass ratio of the materials which have exposed to neutrons for (k) ((k = 0, 1, 2 \\cdots )) times when reaching the final distribution with respect to the materials of the He intershell, (C = - {P_1}/ln R), and ({τ_0} = - Δ τ /ln R) can be obtained. Here, (R) expresses the probability that the materials can successively experience neutron irradiation for two times in the He intershell. For the convective nucleosynthesis model (including the Ulrich model and the ({}^{13}{C})-pocket convective burning model), (R) is just the overlap factor r, namely the mass ratio of the materials which can undergo two successive thermal pulses in the He intershell. And for the (^{13}{C})-pocket radiative burning model, (R = sumlimits_{k = 1}^∞ {{P_k}} ). This set of formulas practically give the corresponding relationship between C or ({τ_0}) and the model parameters. The results of this study effectively solve the problem of analytically calculating the distribution of neutron exposures in the low-mass AGB star s-process nucleosynthesis model of (^{13}{C

  3. The role of geochemistry and energetics in the evolution of modern respiratory complexes from a proton-reducing ancestor.

    PubMed

    Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg; Wu, Chang-Hao; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I or NADH quinone oxidoreductase (NUO) is an integral component of modern day respiratory chains and has a close evolutionary relationship with energy-conserving [NiFe]-hydrogenases of anaerobic microorganisms. Specifically, in all of biology, the quinone-binding subunit of Complex I, NuoD, is most closely related to the proton-reducing, H2-evolving [NiFe]-containing catalytic subunit, MbhL, of membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), to the methanophenzine-reducing subunit of a methanogenic respiratory complex (FPO) and to the catalytic subunit of an archaeal respiratory complex (MBX) involved in reducing elemental sulfur (S°). These complexes also pump ions and have at least 10 homologous subunits in common. As electron donors, MBH and MBX use ferredoxin (Fd), FPO uses either Fd or cofactor F420, and NUO uses either Fd or NADH. In this review, we examine the evolutionary trajectory of these oxidoreductases from a proton-reducing ancestral respiratory complex (ARC). We hypothesize that the diversification of ARC to MBH, MBX, FPO and eventually NUO was driven by the larger energy yields associated with coupling Fd oxidation to the reduction of oxidants with increasing electrochemical potential, including protons, S° and membrane soluble organic compounds such as phenazines and quinone derivatives. Importantly, throughout Earth's history, the availability of these oxidants increased as the redox state of the atmosphere and oceans became progressively more oxidized as a result of the origin and ecological expansion of oxygenic photosynthesis. ARC-derived complexes are therefore remarkably stable respiratory systems with little diversity in core structure but whose general function appears to have co-evolved with the redox state of the biosphere. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  4. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lunn, John E; Feil, Regina; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Gibon, Yves; Morcuende, Rosa; Osuna, Daniel; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Carillo, Petronia; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Stitt, Mark

    2006-07-01

    Tre6P (trehalose 6-phosphate) is implicated in sugar-signalling pathways in plants, but its exact functions in vivo are uncertain. One of the main obstacles to discovering these functions is the difficulty of measuring the amount of Tre6P in plant tissues. We have developed a highly specific assay, using liquid chromatography coupled to MS-Q3 (triple quadrupole MS), to measure Tre6P in the femto-picomole range. The Tre6P content of sucrose-starved Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in axenic culture increased from 18 to 482 pmol x g(-1) FW (fresh weight) after adding sucrose. Leaves from soil-grown plants contained 67 pmol x g(-1) FW at the end of the night, which rose to 108 pmol x g(-1)FW after 4 h of illumination. Even greater changes in Tre6P content were seen after a 6 h extension of the dark period, and in the starchless mutant, pgm. The intracellular concentration of Tre6P in wild-type leaves was estimated to range from 1 to 15 microM. It has recently been reported that the addition of Tre6P to isolated chloroplasts leads to redox activation of AGPase (ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase) [Kolbe, Tiessen, Schluepmann, Paul, Ulrich and Geigenberger (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11118-11123]. Using the new assay for Tre6P, we found that rising sugar levels in plants are accompanied by increases in the level of Tre6P, redox activation of AGPase and the stimulation of starch synthesis in vivo. These results indicate that Tre6P acts as a signalling metabolite of sugar status in plants, and support the proposal that Tre6P mediates sucrose-induced changes in the rate of starch synthesis.

  5. Special Section on Synchronization in Nonlinear Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeguchi, Tohru; Tokuda, Isao

    Synchronization is a ubiquitous phenomenon of coupled nonlinear oscillators, commonly found in physics, engineering, biology, and other diverse disciplines. It has a long research history back to Christiaan Huygens, who discovered synchronized motion of two pendulum clocks in 1673. It is very easy to observe synchronization in our daily life: e.g., metronomes, candle fires, pet-bottle oscillators, saltwater oscillators, and so on(See, for example, experimental movies at http://www.youtube.com/user/IkeguchiLab?feature=watch). For the last few decades, significant development has been made from both theories and experiments on synchronization of coupled limit cycle oscillators as well as coupled chaotic oscillators. Applications have been also developed to communication technologies, controlling techniques, and data analysis. Combined with the idea from complex network theory, neuroscience, and systems biology, the research speed of synchronization has been even accelerated. This Special Section of NOLTA is primarily dedicated to the recent advanced development of basics and applications of synchronization in science and engineering. A number of qualified works is included, ranging from experimental study on synchronization of Huygens' system, analog circuits, and singing voice to applied study of synchronization in communication networks. One invited paper is devoted to comprehensive reviews on generalized synchronization of chaotic oscillators. On behalf of the editorial committee of the special section, the guest editors would like to express their sincere thanks to all the authors for their excellent contributions. In particular, they are grateful to Prof. Dr. Ulrich Parlitz for contributing his distinguished review article. They would also like to thank the reviewers and the members of the guest editorial committee, especially Prof. Hiroo Sekiya of Chiba University and the editorial staffs of the NOLTA journal, for their supports on publishing this Special

  6. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Hendriks, Janneke H. M.; Gibon, Yves; Morcuende, Rosa; Osuna, Daniel; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Carillo, Petronia; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Stitt, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Tre6P (trehalose 6-phosphate) is implicated in sugar-signalling pathways in plants, but its exact functions in vivo are uncertain. One of the main obstacles to discovering these functions is the difficulty of measuring the amount of Tre6P in plant tissues. We have developed a highly specific assay, using liquid chromatography coupled to MS-Q3 (triple quadrupole MS), to measure Tre6P in the femto-picomole range. The Tre6P content of sucrose-starved Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in axenic culture increased from 18 to 482 pmol·g−1FW (fresh weight) after adding sucrose. Leaves from soil-grown plants contained 67 pmol·g−1FW at the end of the night, which rose to 108 pmol·g−1FW after 4 h of illumination. Even greater changes in Tre6P content were seen after a 6 h extension of the dark period, and in the starchless mutant, pgm. The intracellular concentration of Tre6P in wild-type leaves was estimated to range from 1 to 15 μM. It has recently been reported that the addition of Tre6P to isolated chloroplasts leads to redox activation of AGPase (ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase) [Kolbe, Tiessen, Schluepmann, Paul, Ulrich and Geigenberger (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11118–11123]. Using the new assay for Tre6P, we found that rising sugar levels in plants are accompanied by increases in the level of Tre6P, redox activation of AGPase and the stimulation of starch synthesis in vivo. These results indicate that Tre6P acts as a signalling metabolite of sugar status in plants, and support the proposal that Tre6P mediates sucrose-induced changes in the rate of starch synthesis. PMID:16551270

  7. [Veterinary double-monsters historically viewed].

    PubMed

    Baljet, B; Heijke, G C

    1997-01-01

    A large number of duplication monstrosities have been observed in cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, goats, cats and dogs, ever since the publication of the famous woodcut of a swine double monster by J. S. Brant in Basel in 1496, better known as the "wunderbare Sau von Landser im Elsass". Albrecht Dürer also made a woodcut of this double monster in front of the village Landser in 1496. A picture of a deer double monster was published in 1603 by Heinrich Ulrich in Germany. In the monograph De monstrorum causis, natura et differentiis ..., published by the Italian Fortunius Licetus in 1616 pictures of double monsters being half man half dog are found. These fantasy figures have been popular for a long time and were supposed to be really in existence. Apart from these fantasy figures many pictures are known from real veterinary double monsters. U. Aldrovandus described in 1642 in his Monstrorum historia, besides many fantasy figures, also real human and veterinary double monsters and he gave also good pictures of them. In the 19th century examples of veterinary duplication monstrosities were published by I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1832-37), E. F. Gurlt (1832), W. Vrolik (1840) and C. Taruffi (1881); they proposed also concepts concerning the etiology. In the second volume of his famous handbook of teratology (1907), E. Schwalbe described many veterinary double monsters and discussed the theories of the genesis of congenital malformations. Various theories concerning the genesis of double monsters have been given since Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). ...

  8. Variability of the Solar Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, L.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2003-05-01

    Possible temporal variability of the solar radius is important as an indicator of internal energy storage and as a mechanism for changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI). Variations in the TSI with an amplitude of 0.1% have been observed from space for more than two decades. Although the variability of this solar output is definitely established, the detailed dependence of the rate of energy output on the level of solar magnetic activity has not yet been measured with enough continuity and precision to establish the correlation throughout the full solar cycle. Changes in the solar radius could account for a significant fraction of the total irradiance variations. However, studies of the solar radius variation have reported contradictory results in the form of both correlations and anticorrelations between the solar radius and, for example, the cycle of sunspot numbers. Most of these studies however, are affected by the highly inhomogeneous data used in the analysis. This factor becomes particularly critical in the case of measurements that cover a very long period of time. We present consistent solar radius measurements obtained from the Mt Wilson synoptic programme of solar magnetic observations carried out at the 150-foot tower. Two definitions of the solar radius are used: the longest reduced record beginning in 1975 is derived from the fit of a circle to the isophote having an intensity equal to 40%\\ of the central intensity and more recently we have developed a definition based on intensity fits within 16 sectors around the solar circumference. Ulrich and Bertello (Nature, 1995, 377, 214) have made a re-analysis of an older database correcting for such effects as scattered light and atmospheric refraction. The older database is brought up to date and compared to results based on the new radius definition as well as other published radius variations. This work was supported by NASA through grants NAG5-10905 and NAG5-11708 as well as by NSF through grant ATM

  9. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: German Protestantism, conscience, and the limits of purely ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Bartmann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this essay I shall describe and analyse the current debate on physician assisted suicide in contemporary German Protestant church and theology. It will be shown that the Protestant (mainly Lutheran) Church in Germany together with her Roman Catholic sister church has a specific and influential position in the public discussion: The two churches counting the majority of the population in Germany among their members tend to "organize" a social and political consensus on end-of-life questions. This cooperation is until now very successful: Speaking with one voice on end-of-life questions, the two churches function as the guardians of a moral consensus which is appreciated even by many non-believers. Behind this joint service to society the lines of the theological debate have to be ree-discovered. First it will be argued that a Protestant reading of the joint memoranda has to be based on the concept of individual conscience. The crucial questions are then: Whose conscience has the authority to decide? and: Can the physician assisted suicide be desired faithfully? Prominent in the current debate are Ulrich Eibach as a strict defender of the sanctity of life, and on the other side Walter Jens and Hans Kung, who argue for a right to physician assisted suicide under extreme conditions. I shall argue that it will be necessary to go beyond this actual controversy to the works of Gerhard Ebeling and Karl Barth for a clear and instructive account of conscience and a theological analysis of the concepts of life and suicide. On the basis of their considerations, a conscience-related approach to physician assisted suicide is developed.

  10. The role of geochemistry and energetics in the evolution of modern respiratory complexes from a proton-reducing ancestor.

    PubMed

    Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg; Wu, Chang-Hao; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I or NADH quinone oxidoreductase (NUO) is an integral component of modern day respiratory chains and has a close evolutionary relationship with energy-conserving [NiFe]-hydrogenases of anaerobic microorganisms. Specifically, in all of biology, the quinone-binding subunit of Complex I, NuoD, is most closely related to the proton-reducing, H2-evolving [NiFe]-containing catalytic subunit, MbhL, of membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), to the methanophenzine-reducing subunit of a methanogenic respiratory complex (FPO) and to the catalytic subunit of an archaeal respiratory complex (MBX) involved in reducing elemental sulfur (S°). These complexes also pump ions and have at least 10 homologous subunits in common. As electron donors, MBH and MBX use ferredoxin (Fd), FPO uses either Fd or cofactor F420, and NUO uses either Fd or NADH. In this review, we examine the evolutionary trajectory of these oxidoreductases from a proton-reducing ancestral respiratory complex (ARC). We hypothesize that the diversification of ARC to MBH, MBX, FPO and eventually NUO was driven by the larger energy yields associated with coupling Fd oxidation to the reduction of oxidants with increasing electrochemical potential, including protons, S° and membrane soluble organic compounds such as phenazines and quinone derivatives. Importantly, throughout Earth's history, the availability of these oxidants increased as the redox state of the atmosphere and oceans became progressively more oxidized as a result of the origin and ecological expansion of oxygenic photosynthesis. ARC-derived complexes are therefore remarkably stable respiratory systems with little diversity in core structure but whose general function appears to have co-evolved with the redox state of the biosphere. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26808919

  11. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J. E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu

    2014-12-20

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  12. Active-region Tilt Angles: Magnetic versus White-light Determinations of Joy's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Baranyi, T.; Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    The axes of solar active regions are inclined relative to the east-west direction, with the tilt angle tending to increase with latitude ("Joy's law"). Observational determinations of Joy's law have been based either on white-light images of sunspot groups or on magnetograms, where the latter have the advantage of measuring directly the physically relevant quantity (the photospheric field), but the disadvantage of having been recorded routinely only since the mid-1960s. White-light studies employing the historical Mount Wilson (MW) database have yielded tilt angles that are smaller and that increase less steeply with latitude than those obtained from magnetic data. We confirm this effect by comparing sunspot-group tilt angles from the Debrecen Photoheliographic Database with measurements made by Li and Ulrich using MW magnetograms taken during cycles 21-23. Whether white-light or magnetic data are employed, the median tilt angles significantly exceed the mean values, and provide a better characterization of the observed distributions. The discrepancy between the white-light and magnetic results is found to have two main sources. First, a substantial fraction of the white-light "tilt angles" refer to sunspots of the same polarity. Of greater physical significance is that the magnetograph measurements include the contribution of plage areas, which are invisible in white-light images but tend to have greater axial inclinations than the adjacent sunspots. Given the large uncertainties inherent in both the white-light and the magnetic measurements, it remains unclear whether any systematic relationship exists between tilt angle and cycle amplitude during cycles 16-23.

  13. Re-examining Sunspot Tilt Angle to Include Anti-Hale Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li & Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  14. Ischemic A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I and its role in ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Stepanova, Anna; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism and provides approximately 40% of the proton-motive force that is utilized during mitochondrial ATP production. The dysregulation of complex I function--either genetically, pharmacologically, or metabolically induced--has severe pathophysiological consequences that often involve an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Slow transition of the active (A) enzyme to the deactive, dormant (D) form takes place during ischemia in metabolically active organs such as the heart and brain. The reactivation of complex I occurs upon reoxygenation of ischemic tissue, a process that is usually accompanied by an increase in cellular ROS production. Complex I in the D-form serves as a protective mechanism preventing the oxidative burst upon reperfusion. Conversely, however, the D-form is more vulnerable to oxidative/nitrosative damage. Understanding the so-called active/deactive (A/D) transition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic interventions for conditions like stroke, cardiac infarction, and other ischemia-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the mechanism of A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I considering recently available structural data and site-specific labeling experiments. In addition, this review discusses in detail the impact of the A/D transition on ROS production by complex I and the S-nitrosation of a critical cysteine residue of subunit ND3 as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage and tissue damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  15. Mitochondrial complex I-linked disease.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most frequently encountered single mitochondrial single enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial disorder. Although specific genotype-phenotype correlations are very difficult to identify, the majority of patients present with symptoms caused by leukodystrophy. The poor genotype-phenotype correlations can make establishing a diagnosis a challenge. The classical way to establish a complex I deficiency in patients is by performing spectrophotometric measurements of the enzyme in a muscle biopsy or other patient-derived material (liver or heart biopsy, cultured skin fibroblasts). Complex I is encoded by both the mtDNA and nuclear DNA and pathogenic mutations have been identified in the majority of the 44 genes encoding the structural subunits of complex I. In recent years, the increasing possibilities for diagnostic molecular genetic tests of large gene panels, exomes, and even entire genomes has led to the identification of many novel genetic defects causing complex I deficiency. Complex I mutations not only result in a reduced enzyme activity but also induce secondary effects at the cellular level, such as elevated reactive oxygen species production, altered membrane potential and mitochondrial morphology. At this moment there is no cure for complex I deficiency and the treatment options for complex I patients are restricted to symptomatic treatment. Recent developments, amongst others based on the treatment of the secondary effects of complex I deficiency, have shown to be promising as new therapeutic strategies in vitro and have entered clinical trials. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  16. The origin of the supernumerary subunits and assembly factors of complex I: A treasure trove of pathway evolution.

    PubMed

    Elurbe, Dei M; Huynen, Martijn A

    2016-07-01

    We review and document the evolutionary origin of all complex I assembly factors and nine supernumerary subunits from protein families. Based on experimental data and the conservation of critical residues we identify a spectrum of protein function conservation between the complex I representatives and their non-complex I homologs. This spectrum ranges from proteins that have retained their molecular function but in which the substrate specificity may have changed or have become more specific, like NDUFAF5, to proteins that have lost their original molecular function and critical catalytic residues like NDUFAF6. In between are proteins that have retained their molecular function, which however appears unrelated to complex I, like ACAD9, or proteins in which amino acids of the active site are conserved but for which no enzymatic activity has been reported, like NDUFA10. We interpret complex I evolution against the background of molecular evolution theory. Complex I supernumerary subunits and assembly factors appear to have been recruited from proteins that are mitochondrial and/or that are expressed when complex I is active. Within the evolution of complex I and its assembly there are many cases of neofunctionalization after gene duplication, like ACAD9 and TMEM126B, one case of subfunctionalization: ACPM1 and ACPM2 in Yarrowia lipolytica, and one case in which a complex I protein itself appears to have been the source of a new protein from another complex: NDUFS6 gave rise to cytochrome c oxidase subunit COX4/COX5b. Complex I and its assembly can therewith be regarded as a treasure trove for pathway evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  17. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health. PMID:20728972

  18. Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.D.; Allen, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval in northwestern Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, the Joins Formation was found to be present. The central Oklahoma section consists of interbedded gray, olive gray and green splintery moderately waxy shale, cream to light gray homogeneous microcrystallin dolomite, and microcrystalline to fine crystalline fossiliferous slightly glauconitic well cemented sandstones are also noted. The entire Joins Formation is moderately to very fossiliferous; primarily consisting of crinoids, ostracods, brachiopods, and trilobites. The ostracod fauna closely resembles and correlates with the Arbuckle Mountain section, which has been extensively studied over the years by such authors as Taff, Ulrich and Harris. Beneath the Joins in this area is a normal section of Arbuckle dolomites. Due to the absence of a basal sand in the Joins the separation of the Joins and Arbuckle, utilizing electric logs only, is frequently tenuous. In comparison with the Arbuckle, the Joins tends to have higher gamma ray and S.P. values. Other tools, such as resistivity, bulk density and photoelectric (PE), are frequently inconclusive. For geologists studying the Simpson-Arbuckle contact in central Oklahoma, the presence or absence of the Joins Formation is best determined through conventional lithologic and palenontologic sample identification techniques. Once this has been done, correlation of electric logs with this type log is possible for the local area.

  19. β2-Adrenergic receptor supports prolonged theta tetanus-induced LTP.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hai; Matt, Lucas; Zhang, Mingxu; Nguyen, Minh; Patriarchi, Tommaso; Koval, Olha M; Anderson, Mark E; He, Kaiwen; Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Hell, Johannes W

    2012-05-01

    The widespread noradrenergic innervation in the brain promotes arousal and learning by molecular mechanisms that remain largely undefined. Recent work shows that the β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) is linked to the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA1 via stargazin and PSD-95 (Joiner ML, Lise MF, Yuen EY, Kam AY, Zhang M, Hall DD, Malik ZA, Qian H, Chen Y, Ulrich JD, Burette AC, Weinberg RJ, Law PY, El-Husseini A, Yan Z, Hell JW. EMBO J 29: 482-495, 2010). We now demonstrate that the β(2)AR plays a prominent role in long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a train of 900 stimuli at 5 Hz (prolonged theta-tetanus-LTP, or PTT-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region in mice, which requires simultaneous β-adrenergic stimulation. Although PTT-LTP was impaired in hippocampal slices from β(1)AR and β(2)AR knockout (KO) mice, only β(2)AR-selective stimulation with salbutamol supported this PTT-LTP in wild-type (WT) slices, whereas β(1)AR-selective stimulation with dobutamine (+ prazosin) did not. Furthermore, only the β(2)AR-selective antagonist ICI-118551 and not the β(1)AR-selective antagonist CGP-20712 inhibited PTT-LTP and phosphorylation of GluA1 on its PKA site S845 in WT slices. Our analysis of S845A knockin (KI) mice indicates that this phosphorylation is relevant for PTT-LTP. These results identify the β(2)AR-S845 signaling pathway as a prominent regulator of synaptic plasticity.

  20. ACTIVE-REGION TILT ANGLES: MAGNETIC VERSUS WHITE-LIGHT DETERMINATIONS OF JOY'S LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Baranyi, T.; Li, J. E-mail: robin.colaninno@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu

    2015-01-01

    The axes of solar active regions are inclined relative to the east-west direction, with the tilt angle tending to increase with latitude ({sup J}oy's law{sup )}. Observational determinations of Joy's law have been based either on white-light images of sunspot groups or on magnetograms, where the latter have the advantage of measuring directly the physically relevant quantity (the photospheric field), but the disadvantage of having been recorded routinely only since the mid-1960s. White-light studies employing the historical Mount Wilson (MW) database have yielded tilt angles that are smaller and that increase less steeply with latitude than those obtained from magnetic data. We confirm this effect by comparing sunspot-group tilt angles from the Debrecen Photoheliographic Database with measurements made by Li and Ulrich using MW magnetograms taken during cycles 21-23. Whether white-light or magnetic data are employed, the median tilt angles significantly exceed the mean values, and provide a better characterization of the observed distributions. The discrepancy between the white-light and magnetic results is found to have two main sources. First, a substantial fraction of the white-light ''tilt angles'' refer to sunspots of the same polarity. Of greater physical significance is that the magnetograph measurements include the contribution of plage areas, which are invisible in white-light images but tend to have greater axial inclinations than the adjacent sunspots. Given the large uncertainties inherent in both the white-light and the magnetic measurements, it remains unclear whether any systematic relationship exists between tilt angle and cycle amplitude during cycles 16-23.

  1. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  2. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    procedures. One man who was well aware of the role of nanostructured catalysts in the progress of material science research was the late Ulrich Gösele, director at the Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik Halle, who passed away at the age of 60 on 8 November, 2009. Ulrich Gösele published over 750 papers of premium calibre research that have collectively been cited over 20,000 times. His research output includes a cornucopia of excellent work published in Nanotechnology, amongst which are a number of papers detailing the deft manipulation of nanocatalysts to control the quality and structure of nanomaterials [5-8]. Ulrich Gösele was a pioneer in nanoscience. In 1991, when the nanotechnology revolution was little more than a portentous rumble, he published a seminal report examining the effect of quantum confinement on the optical properties of silicon nanowires [9]. While we lament the loss to the community, we have much to celebrate in the insights his legacy has provided for the progress of materials science. It would be unwise to assume that science will or can ultimately advance in such a way as to allow ample means to indulge an unrestrained appetite for consumerism and energy consumption. As with most things, a balanced approach, considering solutions to the problem from many angles, seems sensible. Nonetheless, a browse through the latest literature leaves much cause for optimism for the positive role science can play in improving and sustaining our lifestyle. References [1] Mukherjee P, Roy M, Mandal B P, Dey G K, Mukherjee P K, Ghatak J, Tyagi A K and Kale S P 2008 Nanotechnology 19 075103 [2] Greenham N C and Grätzel M 2008 Nanotechnology 19 420201 [3] Vajo J, Pinkerton F and Stetson N 2009 Nanotechnology 20 200201 [4] Zhong C-J, Luo J, Fang B, Wanjala B N, Njoki P N, Loukrakpam R and Yin J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 062001 [5] Sivakov V A, Scholz A, Syrowatka F, Falk F, Gösele U and Christiansen S H 2009 Nanotechnology 20 405607 [6] Liu L, Lee W, Huang Z

  3. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    procedures. One man who was well aware of the role of nanostructured catalysts in the progress of material science research was the late Ulrich Gösele, director at the Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik Halle, who passed away at the age of 60 on 8 November, 2009. Ulrich Gösele published over 750 papers of premium calibre research that have collectively been cited over 20,000 times. His research output includes a cornucopia of excellent work published in Nanotechnology, amongst which are a number of papers detailing the deft manipulation of nanocatalysts to control the quality and structure of nanomaterials [5-8]. Ulrich Gösele was a pioneer in nanoscience. In 1991, when the nanotechnology revolution was little more than a portentous rumble, he published a seminal report examining the effect of quantum confinement on the optical properties of silicon nanowires [9]. While we lament the loss to the community, we have much to celebrate in the insights his legacy has provided for the progress of materials science. It would be unwise to assume that science will or can ultimately advance in such a way as to allow ample means to indulge an unrestrained appetite for consumerism and energy consumption. As with most things, a balanced approach, considering solutions to the problem from many angles, seems sensible. Nonetheless, a browse through the latest literature leaves much cause for optimism for the positive role science can play in improving and sustaining our lifestyle. References [1] Mukherjee P, Roy M, Mandal B P, Dey G K, Mukherjee P K, Ghatak J, Tyagi A K and Kale S P 2008 Nanotechnology 19 075103 [2] Greenham N C and Grätzel M 2008 Nanotechnology 19 420201 [3] Vajo J, Pinkerton F and Stetson N 2009 Nanotechnology 20 200201 [4] Zhong C-J, Luo J, Fang B, Wanjala B N, Njoki P N, Loukrakpam R and Yin J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 062001 [5] Sivakov V A, Scholz A, Syrowatka F, Falk F, Gösele U and Christiansen S H 2009 Nanotechnology 20 405607 [6] Liu L, Lee W, Huang Z

  4. EXACTRAC x-ray and beam isocenters--What's the difference?

    SciTech Connect

    Tideman Arp, Dennis; Carl, Jesper

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of the isocenter of an image-guidance system, as implemented in the exactrac system from brainlab, relative to the linear accelerator radiation isocenter. Subsequently to correct the x-ray isocenter of the exactrac system for any geometric discrepancies between the two isocenters. Methods: Five Varian linear accelerators all equipped with electronic imaging devices and exactrac with robotics from brainlab were evaluated. A commercially available Winston-Lutz phantom and an in-house made adjustable base were used in the setup. The electronic portal imaging device of the linear accelerators was used to acquire MV-images at various gantry angles. Stereoscopic pairs of x-ray images were acquired using the exactrac system. The deviation between the position of the external laser isocenter and the exactrac isocenter was evaluated using the commercial software of the exactrac system. In-house produced software was used to analyze the MV-images and evaluate the deviation between the external laser isocenter and the radiation isocenter of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, the deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system was calculated. A new method of calibrating the isocenter of the exactrac system was applied to reduce the deviations between the radiation isocenter and the exactrac isocenter. Results: To evaluate the geometric accuracy a 3D deviation vector was calculated for each relative isocenter position. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system varied from 0.21 to 0.42 mm. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the linac radiation isocenter ranged from 0.37 to 0.83 mm. The 3D deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system ranged from 0.31 to 1.07 mm. Using the new method of calibrating the exactrac isocenter the 3D deviation of one linac was reduced from 0.90 to 0.23 mm. The

  5. Mold remediation in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tang G

    2009-01-01

    As occupants in a hospital, patients are susceptible to air contaminants that can include biological agents dispersed throughout the premise. An exposed patient can become ill and require medical intervention. A consideration for patients is that they may have become environmentally sensitive and require placement in an environment that does not compromise their health. Unfortunately, the hospital environment often contains more biological substances than can be expected in an office or home environment. When a hospital also experiences water intrusion such as flooding or water leaks, resulting mold growth can seriously compromise the health of patients and others such as nursing staff and physicians (Burge, Indoor Air and Infectious Disease. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 1980; Lutz et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases 37: 786-793, 2003). Micro-organism growth can propagate if the water is not addressed quickly and effectively. Immunocompromised patients are particularly at risk when subjected to fungal infection such that the US Center for Disease Control issued guideline for building mold in health care facilities (Centers for Disease and Control [CDC], Centers for Disease and Control: Questions and Answers on Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds, 2000). This paper is based on mold remediation of one portion of a hospital unit due to water from construction activity and inadequate maintenance, resulting in mold growth. A large proportion of the hospital staff, primarily nurses in the dialysis unit, exhibited health symptoms consistent with mold exposure. Unfortunately, the hospital administrators did not consider the mold risk to be serious and refused an independent consultant retained by the nurse's union to examine the premise (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC], Nurses file complaints over mold at Foothills. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2003). The nurse's union managed to have the premise examined by submitting a court order of

  6. SU-E-T-406: Use of TrueBeam Developer Mode and API to Increase the Efficiency and Accuracy of Commissioning Measurements for the Varian EDGE Stereotactic Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S; Gulam, M; Song, K; Li, H; Huang, Y; Zhao, B; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Varian EDGE machine is a new stereotactic platform, combining Calypso and VisionRT localization systems with a stereotactic linac. The system includes TrueBeam DeveloperMode, making possible the use of XML-scripting for automation of linac-related tasks. This study details the use of DeveloperMode to automate commissioning tasks for Varian EDGE, thereby improving efficiency and measurement consistency. Methods: XML-scripting was used for various commissioning tasks,including couch model verification,beam-scanning,and isocenter verification. For couch measurements, point measurements were acquired for several field sizes (2×2,4×4,10×10cm{sup 2}) at 42 gantry angles for two couch-models. Measurements were acquired with variations in couch position(rails in/out,couch shifted in each of motion axes) compared to treatment planning system(TPS)-calculated values,which were logged automatically through advanced planning interface(API) scripting functionality. For beam scanning, XML-scripts were used to create custom MLC-apertures. For isocenter verification, XML-scripts were used to automate various Winston-Lutz-type tests. Results: For couch measurements, the time required for each set of angles was approximately 9 minutes. Without scripting, each set required approximately 12 minutes. Automated measurements required only one physicist, while manual measurements required at least two physicists to handle linac positions/beams and data recording. MLC apertures were generated outside of the TPS,and with the .xml file format, double-checking without use of TPS/operator console was possible. Similar time efficiency gains were found for isocenter verification measurements Conclusion: The use of XML scripting in TrueBeam DeveloperMode allows for efficient and accurate data acquisition during commissioning. The efficiency improvement is most pronounced for iterative measurements, exemplified by the time savings for couch modeling measurements(approximately 10

  7. SU-E-J-123: Targeting Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Intracranial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y; Wen, N; Zhao, B; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracies of image-guided intracranial radiosurgery across several different linear accelerator platforms. Methods: A CT scan with a slice thickness of 1.0 mm was acquired of a Rando head phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) in a U-frame mask (BrainLAB AG). The phantom had three embedded BBs, simulating a central, left, and anterior lesion. The phantom was setup with each BB placed at the radiation isocenter under image guidance. Four different setup procedures were investigated: (1) NTX-ExacTrac: 6 degree-of-freedom (6D) correction on a Novalis Tx (BrainLAB AG) with ExacTrac localization (BrainLAB AG); (2) NTX-CBCT: 4D correction on the Novalis Tx with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT); (3) TrueBeam-CBCT: 4D correction on a TrueBeam (Varian) with CBCT; (4) Edge-CBCT: 6D correction on an Edge (Varian) with CBCT. The experiment was repeated 5 times with different initial setup error at each BB location on each platform, and the mean (μ) and one standard deviation (σ) of the residual error was compared.The congruence between radiation and imaging isocenters on each platform was evaluated by acquiring Winston Lutz (WL) images of a WL jig followed by imaging using ExacTrac or CBCT. The difference in coordinates of the jig relative to radiation and imaging isocenters was then recorded. Results: Averaged over all three BB locations, the residual vector setup errors (μ±σ) of the phantom in mm were 0.6±0.2, 1.0±0.5, 0.2±0.1, and 0.3±0.1 on NTX-ExacTrac, NTX-CBCT, TrueBeam-CBCT, and Edge-CBCT, with their ranges in mm being 0.4∼1.1, 0.4∼1.9, 0.1∼0.5, and 0.2∼0.6, respectively. And imaging isocenter was found stable relative to radiation isocenter, with the congruence to radiation isocenter in mm being 0.6±0.1, 0.7±0.1, 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, respectively, on the four systems in the same order. Conclusion: Millimeter accuracy can be achieved with image-guided radiosurgery for intracranial lesions based on this set of experiments.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Affecting Planetary Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Horst, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric hazes are present in a range of solar system and extrasolar planetary atmospheres, and organic hazes, such as that in Titan's atmosphere, could be a source of prebiotic molecules.1 However, the chemistry occurring in planetary atmospheres and the resulting chemical structures are still not clear. Numerous experimental simulations2 have been carried out in the laboratory to understand the chemistry in N2/CH4 atmospheres, but very few simulations4 have included CO in their initial gas mixtures, which is an important component in many N2/CH4 atmospheres including Titan, Triton, and Pluto.3 Here we have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments using AC glow discharge (cold plasma) as energy source to irradiate reactions in gas mixtures of CO, CH4, and N2 with a range of CO mixing ratios (from 0, 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, to 5%) at low temperature (~100 K). Gas phase products are monitored during the reaction by quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS), and solid phase products are analyzed by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). MS results show that with the increase of CO in the initial gases, the production of nitrogenous organic molecules increases while the production of hydrogen molecules decreases in the gas phase. NMR measurements of the solid phase products show that with the increase of CO, hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen or oxygen in unsaturated structures increase while those bonded to saturated carbon decrease, which means more unsaturated species and less saturated species formed with the addition of CO. MS and NMR results demonstrate that the inclusion of CO affects the compositions of both gas and solid phase products, indicating that CO has an important impact on the chemistry occurring in our experiments and probably in planetary atmospheres.1. Hörst, S. M., et al. 2012, AsBio, 12, 8092. Cable, M. L., et al. 2012, Chem. Rev., 112, 18823. Lutz, B. L., et al. 1983, Sci, 220, 1374; Greaves, J. S., et al

  9. TU-C-BRE-02: A Novel, Highly Efficient and Automated Quality Assurance Tool for Modern Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Goddu, S; Sun, B; Yaddanapudi, S; Kamal, G; Mutic, S; Baltes, C; Rose, S; Stinson, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. Varian’s Machine Performance Check (MPC) uses IsoCal phantom to test geometric and dosimetric aspects of the TrueBeam systems in <5min. In this study we independently tested the accuracy and robustness of the MPC tools. Methods: MPC is automated for simultaneous image-acquisition, using kV-and-MV onboard-imagers (EPIDs), while delivering kV-and-MV beams in a set routine of varying gantry, collimator and couch angles. MPC software-tools analyze the images to test: i) beam-output and uniformity, ii) positional accuracy of isocenter, EPIDs, collimating jaws (CJs), MLC leaves and couch and iii) rotational accuracy of gantry, collimator and couch. 6MV-beam dose-output and uniformity were tested using ionization-chamber (IC) and ICarray. Winston-Lutz-Tests (WLT) were performed to measure isocenter-offsets caused by gantry, collimator and couch rotations. Positional accuracy of EPIDs was evaluated using radio-opaque markers of the IsoCal phantom. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the MPC tools we purposefully miscalibrated a non-clinical TrueBeam by introducing errors in beam-output, energy, symmetry, gantry angle, couch translations, CJs and MLC leaves positions. Results: 6MV-output and uniformity were within ±0.6% for most measurements with a maximum deviation of ±1.0%. Average isocenter-offset caused by gantry and collimator rotations was 0.316±0.011mm agreeing with IsoLock (0.274mm) and WLT (0.41mm). Average rotation-induced couch-shift from MPC was 0.378±0.032mm agreeing with WLT (0.35mm). MV-and-kV imager-offsets measured by MPC were within ±0.15mm. MPC predicted all machine miscalibrations within acceptable clinical tolerance. MPC detected the output miscalibrations within ±0.61% while the MLC and couch positions were within ±0.06mm and ±0.14mm, respectively. Gantry angle miscalibrations were detected within ±0.1°. Conclusions: MPC is a useful tool

  10. Carbon and Oxygen Depletion and Extinction in the Translucent Cloud Toward HD 34534 (X Persei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Theodore P.; Hansen, Margaret M.; Black, John H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Lutz, Barry L.

    1998-09-01

    In the Letter ``Carbon and Oxygen Depletion and Extinction in the Translucent Cloud toward HD 24534 (X Persei)'' byT. P. Snow, M. M. Hanson, J. H. Black, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. M. Crutcher, and B. L. Lutz (ApJ, 496, L113 [1998]), there was an error in the data reduction for the 2325 Å line of C II], and the result for the carbon abundance in this line of sight should be corrected to show that the C II] line was detected (at the 3 σ level) with an equivalent width of 0.90+/-0.30 mÅ, yielding a column density of 3+/-1×1017 cm-2. This result is similar to that of U. J. Sofia, E. L. Fitzpatrick, and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 504, L47 [1998]), who have reanalyzed the same data. We find a line velocity (heliocentric) of +15 km s-1, which is in good agreement with previous measures of interstellar lines toward this star (e.g., D. J. Lien, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Illinois [1984]). The cause of the original discrepancy is worth noting: we used the so-called FP-SPLIT procedure in the observations of C II] toward HD 24534, in which the exposure time was divided into a pattern of subexposures at four slightly shifted grating positions. The final spectrum must be reassembled by shifting and adding the subexposures. In the standard data reduction package supplied by the Space Telescope Science Institute, the shifting is optimized through cross-correlation of the subexposures by default. It turns out that this default procedure is inappropriate for such a spectrum that has a smooth continuum and lacks strong spectral features: false or insignificant cross-correlations can yield incorrect shifts. Incorrect shifts can smooth real, weak features into the noise while still eliminating the fixed-pattern noise of the detector array. This explains why we did not detect the C II] line in the original analysis. It appears that our previously quoted limit was overly optimistic, since it was based on the noise per sampling element rather than on the noise per resolution element. We note that even

  11. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OLD PULSAR PSR B1451-68

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Garmire, G. P.; Manchester, R. N.; Kargaltsev, O. E-mail: pavlov@astro.psu.edu

    2012-04-20

    We present 35 ks Chandra ACIS observations of the 42 Myr old radio pulsar PSR B1451-68. A point source is detected 0.''32 {+-} 0.''73 from the expected radio pulsar position. It has {approx}200 counts in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. We identify this point source as the X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar. PSR B1451-68 is located close to a Two Micron All Sky Survey point source for which we derive 7% as the upper limit on the flux contribution to the measured pulsar X-ray flux. The pulsar spectrum can be described by either a power-law model with photon index {Gamma} = 2.4{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} and a unrealistically high absorbing column density N{sub H} = (2.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.3}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, or by a combination of a kT = 0.35{sup +0.12}{sub -0.07} keV blackbody and a {Gamma} = 1.4 {+-} 0.5 power-law component for N{sup DM}{sub H} = 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}, estimated from the pulsar dispersion measure. At the parallactic, a Lutz-Kelker bias corrected distance of 480 pc, the non-thermal X-ray luminosities in the 0.3-8 keV energy band are either L{sup nonth}{sub 0.3-8keV} = (11.3 {+-} 1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 29} erg s{sup -1} or L{sup nonth}{sub 0.3-8keV} = (5.9{sup +4.9}{sub -5.0}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 29} erg s{sup -1}, respectively. This corresponds to non-thermal X-ray efficiencies of either {eta}{sub 0.3-8keV}{sup north}=L{sub 0.3-8keV}{sup north}/E-dot{approx}5x10{sup -3} or 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, respectively.

  12. SU-E-T-74: Commissioning of the Elekta VersaHD Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Ding, K; Hobbs, R; McNutt, T; Wang, K; Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To present the commissioning process of recently-released Elekta VersaHD linear accelerator, equipped with Agility 160-leaf multileaf collimator and flattening-filter free (FFF) photon modes. Methods: In addition to routine QA procedures, we adopted an EPID-based method to perform the table rotation and Winston-Lutz tests, and a novel multiradiation isocenter alignment check. The beam data acquired include photon percent-depth dose (PDD) of 6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, and 15X in the field size from 2×2 to 40×40cm{sup 2}, profiles, collimator and phantom scatter factors (Sc and Sp), wedge factor, electron (6, 9, 12, and 15MeV) PDD and profiles, cone and cutout factors, and virtual SSD. Validation measurements were carried out in water tank to evaluate the accuracy of beam modeling by the Pinnacle planning system. End-to-End test and IMRT QA were performed to validate the overall delivery accuracy. A theoretical model has also been used to extract the primary dose ratio and off-axis beam softening effects by fitting photon beam profile measurements. Results: The PDDs of FFF beams with field size 10×10cm{sup 2} at 10cm depth, 100cm SSD were intentionally adjusted within 1% of the non-FFF beams. The photon profiles of 30×30cm{sup 2} at 10cm depth between non-FFF and FFF beams are very different, OAR(10)=0.74 and 0.63, respectively, for 6XFFF and 10XFFF. The collimator and phantom scatter factors of FFF beam demonstrated smaller variation with field sizes. The EPID-based method demonstrated the maximum deviation between the table rotation axis and radiation isocenter is within 1mm, and the radiation isocenters are within 0.4mm relative to that of 6X. The validation measurement shows less than 2% deviation between the measurement and Pinnacle modeling for most of the test conditions. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the Elekta VersaHD commissioning experience, which can be a valuable reference for the radiotherapy

  13. Astrometry With the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, and DeHt 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT2M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, sigma (sub pi)/ pi = 5%. Derived distances are: d(sub NGC6853) = 405(exp +28 sub -25) pc, d(sub NGC7293) = 216(exp +14 sub -12) pc, d(sub Abell31) = 621(exp +91 sub -70) pc, and d(sub DeHt5) = 345(exp +19 sub -17) pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 solar Mass, close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well

  14. Assessing the instrumentalist interface: modifications, ergonomics and maintenance of play.

    PubMed

    Storm, Seneca A

    2006-11-01

    Awareness of the tasks required to play a particular instrument requires observation of technique and understanding of the dynamic and static loads placed on the musculoskeletal system to play a particular instrument. Anatomic differences, variation in hand size, gender, instrument choice, and maintainance of the instrument all may play a role in the development of playing-related complaints. Simply observing particular instruments, we can see a variety of positions that are required to play the instrument. Important to the discussion of overuse syndromes, we must evaluate the duration of practice sessions and warm-up and cool down periods, which may help minimize playing-related problems. Avoid absolute rest and opt for relative rest for playing-related problems. Immobilization for more than 3 to 4 weeks may lead to greater risk of injury when playing is resumed. Return to play schedules should start with simple, soft music, doubling minutes of playing every few days, dropping back if pain develops. Practical advice may include building up practice times gradually with 5- to 10-minute intervals in 60- to 90-minutes sessions. This recommendation is supported by the findings of Lutz and colleagues who showed decreased blood flow to the forearm after repetitive hand and wrist activities for 90 minutes. This decrease in blood flow normalized after 5 to 10 minutes of stretching exercises. Players with hypermobility should consider limiting practice sessions to 45 minutes allowing for rest breaks of 10 to 15 minutes. Fry suggested a shift in thinking of ergonomics as sa reactive strategy to one in which we anticipate and prevent problems before they become insidious or severe enough to limit the ability of the instrumentalist to play. Joint protection is important in all musicians, and although youth can be forgiving for many, we must remind our patients about joint protection as it applies to activities of daily living. Instrumentalists rely on their hands and finger

  15. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    a contributing source in London. Overall, the source of biomass burning in London was likely a background regional source from mainland Europe overlaid by high contributions from local domestic burning emissions. This could have implications when considering future control strategies during winter. References Fuller, G.W., Sciare, J., Lutz, M., Moukhtar, S., Wagener, S., 2013. New Directions: Time to tackle urban wood burning? Atmospheric Environment 68, 295-296.

  16. Redox speciation and biogeochemical gradients: Assessing spatial niches and monitoring dynamics in natural systems with voltammetric microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschel, G. K.; Lorenson, G. W.; Eastmann, D. A.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    scales, the application of voltammetry to infer physiology of as-yet uncultured organisms, and the monitoring of geochemical dynamics affecting systems on variable time scales. Luther, G.W., Rozan, T.F., Taillefert, M., Nuzzio, D.B., Di Meo, C., Shank, T.M., Lutz, R.A., and Cary, S.C., 2001: Chemical Speciation Drives hydrothermal vent ecology. Nature, V. 410, Iss. 6830, p. 813-816

  17. Verification of the linac isocenter for stereotactic radiosurgery using cine-EPID imaging and arc delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O' Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose:Verification of the mechanical isocenter position is required as part of comprehensive quality assurance programs for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments. Several techniques have been proposed for this purpose but each of them has certain drawbacks. In this paper, a new efficient and more comprehensive method using cine-EPID images has been introduced for automatic verification of the isocenter with sufficient accuracy for stereotactic applications. Methods: Using a circular collimator fixed to the gantry head to define the field, EPID images of a Winston-Lutz phantom were acquired in cine-imaging mode during 360 deg. gantry rotations. A robust matlab code was developed to analyze the data by finding the center of the field and the center of the ball bearing shadow in each image with sub-pixel accuracy. The distance between these two centers was determined for every image. The method was evaluated by comparison to results of a mechanical pointer and also by detection of a manual shift applied to the phantom position. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were tested and it was also applied to detect couch and collimator wobble during rotation. Results:The accuracy of the algorithm was 0.03 {+-} 0.02 mm. The repeatability was less than 3 {mu}m and the reproducibility was less than 86 {mu}m. The time elapsed for the analysis of more than 100 cine images of Varian aS1000 and aS500 EPIDs were {approx}65 and 20 s, respectively. Processing of images taken in integrated mode took 0.1 s. The output of the analysis software is printable and shows the isocenter shifts as a function of angle in both in-plane and cross-plane directions. It gives warning messages where the shifts exceed the criteria for SRS/SRT and provides useful data for the necessary adjustments in the system including bearing system and/or room lasers. Conclusions: The comprehensive method introduced in this study uses cine-images, is highly accurate, fast, and

  18. Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, Abell 31, and DeHt 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E.; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-12-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT2M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, σπ/π = 5%. Derived distances are: d NGC 6853 = 405+28 -25 pc, d NGC 7293 = 216+14 -12 pc, d Abell 31 = 621+91 -70 pc, and d DeHt 5 = 345+19 -17 pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 M_{⊙}, close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well-determined distances and masses, we compare all the PNNi with cooler white dwarfs

  19. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  20. Assessing the instrumentalist interface: modifications, ergonomics and maintenance of play.

    PubMed

    Storm, Seneca A

    2006-11-01

    Awareness of the tasks required to play a particular instrument requires observation of technique and understanding of the dynamic and static loads placed on the musculoskeletal system to play a particular instrument. Anatomic differences, variation in hand size, gender, instrument choice, and maintainance of the instrument all may play a role in the development of playing-related complaints. Simply observing particular instruments, we can see a variety of positions that are required to play the instrument. Important to the discussion of overuse syndromes, we must evaluate the duration of practice sessions and warm-up and cool down periods, which may help minimize playing-related problems. Avoid absolute rest and opt for relative rest for playing-related problems. Immobilization for more than 3 to 4 weeks may lead to greater risk of injury when playing is resumed. Return to play schedules should start with simple, soft music, doubling minutes of playing every few days, dropping back if pain develops. Practical advice may include building up practice times gradually with 5- to 10-minute intervals in 60- to 90-minutes sessions. This recommendation is supported by the findings of Lutz and colleagues who showed decreased blood flow to the forearm after repetitive hand and wrist activities for 90 minutes. This decrease in blood flow normalized after 5 to 10 minutes of stretching exercises. Players with hypermobility should consider limiting practice sessions to 45 minutes allowing for rest breaks of 10 to 15 minutes. Fry suggested a shift in thinking of ergonomics as sa reactive strategy to one in which we anticipate and prevent problems before they become insidious or severe enough to limit the ability of the instrumentalist to play. Joint protection is important in all musicians, and although youth can be forgiving for many, we must remind our patients about joint protection as it applies to activities of daily living. Instrumentalists rely on their hands and finger

  1. Coevolutionary modeling of protein sequences: Predicting structure, function, and mutational landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigt, Martin

    Over the last years, biological research has been revolutionized by experimental high-throughput techniques, in particular by next-generation sequencing technology. Unprecedented amounts of data are accumulating, and there is a growing request for computational methods unveiling the information hidden in raw data, thereby increasing our understanding of complex biological systems. Statistical-physics models based on the maximum-entropy principle have, in the last few years, played an important role in this context. To give a specific example, proteins and many non-coding RNA show a remarkable degree of structural and functional conservation in the course of evolution, despite a large variability in amino acid sequences. We have developed a statistical-mechanics inspired inference approach - called Direct-Coupling Analysis - to link this sequence variability (easy to observe in sequence alignments, which are available in public sequence databases) to bio-molecular structure and function. In my presentation I will show, how this methodology can be used (i) to infer contacts between residues and thus to guide tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction and RNA structure prediction, (ii) to discriminate interacting from non-interacting protein families, and thus to infer conserved protein-protein interaction networks, and (iii) to reconstruct mutational landscapes and thus to predict the phenotypic effect of mutations. References [1] M. Figliuzzi, H. Jacquier, A. Schug, O. Tenaillon and M. Weigt ''Coevolutionary landscape inference and the context-dependence of mutations in beta-lactamase TEM-1'', Mol. Biol. Evol. (2015), doi: 10.1093/molbev/msv211 [2] E. De Leonardis, B. Lutz, S. Ratz, S. Cocco, R. Monasson, A. Schug, M. Weigt ''Direct-Coupling Analysis of nucleotide coevolution facilitates RNA secondary and tertiary structure prediction'', Nucleic Acids Research (2015), doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv932 [3] F. Morcos, A. Pagnani, B. Lunt, A. Bertolino, D. Marks, C

  2. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of herbicides in stream water: a combined monitoring and modeling approach to assess pollutant degradation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Van der Velde, Ype; Elsayed, Omniea; Imfeld, Gwenael; Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Van Breukelen, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) measures the isotopic composition of a compound, i.e. the relative abundance of light and heavy stable isotopes of an element contained in the compound (e.g. 12C and 13C). As degradation processes may induce a change in isotopic composition (i.e. isotope fractionation), CSIA allows distinguishing degradation from non-destructive processes such as dilution or sorption. CSIA can be combined with model-assisted interpretation to evaluate degradation of contaminants in the environment. Although CSIA methods have also been developed for diffuse pollutants such as pesticides and nitrate, they have not yet been continuously applied in monitoring of diffuse pollution in surface water. Results of a virtual experiment of isotope fractionation at hillslope scale have suggested that CSIA qualifies as a feasible and useful complement to concentration measurements of diffuse pollutants (Lutz et al., 2013). We now present the first continuously measured concentration and carbon CSIA data of herbicides from a 49-ha agricultural catchment (Alsace, France). Stream concentrations of two chloroacetanilide herbicides, i.e. S-metolachlor and acetochlor, were highest (65 μg/L) following an extreme rainfall event in the first month after herbicide application, and subsequently decreased to background concentration level (0.1 μg/L). This decrease was accompanied by an increase of more than 2 ‰ in carbon isotope ratios, which was also observed in surface runoff samples from a plot experiment in the study catchment. The increase of carbon isotope ratios over time indicates the occurrence of herbicide degradation during transport to the stream, and thus demonstrates the advantage of CSIA over pesticide concentration measurements only. Despite providing evidence of herbicide degradation, the field CSIA data do not allow for a comprehensive characterization of herbicide sources, fate and transport in the study catchment. Therefore, we

  3. SU-F-BRE-09: Linac Isocenter Quality Assurance: A Stereotactic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B; Li, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A quantitative method was designed to independently determine the couch/collimator/gantry isocenters, as well as the overall LINAC mechanical isocenter in 3D. Methods: Performed on both a Varian TrueBeam™ STx and Trilogy with the gold standard front pointer positioned at 100 cm SAD, and a Radionics XKnife™ (RX) attached to the couch. At gantry and couch 0°, the RX laser alignment attachment (RXLAA) was centered to the front pointer using the micrometers (0.1-mm precision) on the RX. The 3D coordinates of the micrometers were recorded. The collimator was rotated to 90° and 270°. At each collimator rotation, the RXLAA was re-centered to the front pointer and the micrometer coordinates recorded. At collimator and gantry 0°, the process was repeated for couch angles 0°/90°/270°. Finally, at collimator and couch 0°, the steps were repeated for gantry rotations 0°/90°/180°/270°. The centers/radii of the smallest bounding spheres for the collimator, couch and gantry walkout were calculated (using MatLab™). The smallest bounding sphere containing the collimator, couch and gantry walkout spheres was then calculated. The center of this all-encompassing sphere is the overall mechanical isocenter of the LINAC. This position was dialed in on the RX. LINAC mechanical and radiation isocenter coincidence was determined by performing Winston- Lutz test at four cardinal gantry angles. Results: TrueBeam and Trilogy mechanical isocenters had overall walkout radii of 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. For the TrueBeam and Trilogy 6-MV beams, the radii of radiation isocenter were 0.3 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively, with distances between LINAC mechanical and radiation isocenters of 0.5 mm and 0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: This efficient and simple method allows for an independent and reliable quantitative assessment of LINAC isocenter in 3D with equipment typically available in a radiation oncology clinic. It can easily be performed for LINAC commissioning and

  4. A novel phantom and procedure providing submillimeter accuracy in daily QA tests of accelerators used for stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Brezovich, Ivan A; Popple, Richard A; Duan, Jun; Shen, Sui; Wu, Xingen; Benhabib, Sidi; Huang, Mi; Cardan, Rex A

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) places great demands on spatial accuracy. Steel BBs used as markers in quality assurance (QA) phantoms are clearly visible in MV and planar kV images, but artifacts compromise cone-beam CT (CBCT) isocenter localization. The purpose of this work was to develop a QA phantom for measuring with sub-mm accuracy isocenter congruence of planar kV, MV, and CBCT imaging systems and to design a practical QA procedure that includes daily Winston-Lutz (WL) tests and does not require computer aid. The salient feature of the phantom (Universal Alignment Ball (UAB)) is a novel marker for precisely localizing isocenters of CBCT, planar kV, and MV beams. It consists of a 25.4mm diameter sphere of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) containing a concentric 6.35mm diameter tungsten carbide ball. The large density difference between PMMA and the polystyrene foam in which the PMMA sphere is embedded yields a sharp image of the sphere for accurate CBCT registration. The tungsten carbide ball serves in finding isocenter in planar kV and MV images and in doing WL tests. With the aid of the UAB, CBCT isocenter was located within 0.10 ± 0.05 mm of its true positon, and MV isocenter was pinpointed in planar images to within 0.06 ± 0.04mm. In clinical morning QA tests extending over an 18 months period the UAB consistently yielded measurements with sub-mm accuracy. The average distance between isocenter defined by orthogonal kV images and CBCT measured 0.16 ± 0.12 mm. In WL tests the central ray of anterior beams defined by a 1.5 × 1.5 cm2 MLC field agreed with CBCT isocenter within 0.03 ± 0.14 mm in the lateral direction and within 0.10 ± 0.19 mm in the longitudinal direction. Lateral MV beams approached CBCT isocenter within 0.00 ± 0.11 mm in the vertical direction and within -0.14 ± 0.15 mm longitudinally. It took therapists about 10 min to do the tests. The novel QA phantom allows pinpointing CBCT and MV isocenter positions to better than 0.2 mm, using

  5. Evaluation of IsoCal geometric calibration system for Varian linacs equipped with on-board imager and electronic portal imaging device imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Du, Weiliang; Balter, Peter; Munro, Peter; Jeung, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the IsoCal geometric calibration system for kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imagers on Varian C-series linear accelerators (linacs). IsoCal calibration starts by imaging a phantom and collimator plate using MV images with different collimator angles, as well as MV and kV images at different gantry angles. The software then identifies objects on the collimator plate and in the phantom to determine the location of the treatment isocenter and its relation to the MV and kV imager centers. It calculates offsets between the positions of the imaging panels and the treatment isocenter as a function of gantry angle and writes a correction file that can be applied to MV and kV systems to correct for those offsets in the position of the panels. We performed IsoCal calibration three times on each of five Varian C-series linacs, each time with an independent setup. We then compared the IsoCal calibrations with a simplified Winston-Lutz (WL)-based system and with a Varian cubic phantom (VC)-based system. The maximum IsoCal corrections ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm for MV and 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm for kV imagers across the five linacs. The variations in the three calibrations for each linac were less than 0.2 mm. Without IsoCal correction, the WL results showed discrepancies between the treatment isocenter and the imager center of 0.9 mm to 1.6 mm (for the MV imager) and 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm (for the kV imager); with IsoCal corrections applied, the differences were reduced to 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm (MV) and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm (kV) across the five linacs. The VC system was not as precise as the WL system, but showed similar results, with discrepancies of less than 1.0 mm when the IsoCal corrections were applied. We conclude that IsoCal is an accurate and consistent method for calibration and periodic quality assurance of MV and kV imaging systems.

  6. Palaeocopid and podocopid Ostracoda from the Lexington Limestone and Clays Ferry Formation (Middle and Upper Ordovician) of central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, S.M.; Berdan, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Middle through lower Upper Ordovician Lexington Limestone and lower part of the Clays Ferry Formation contain an abundant and diversified ostracode fauna. More than 10,000 specimens belonging to 39 genera and 53 species have been found in 73 collections made by members of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kentucky Geological Survey between 1961 and 1970. Five of the genera and 17 of the species are new. New taxa include the genera Gephyropsis, Ningulella, Phelobythocypris, Quasibollia, and Uninodobolba and the following species: Americoncha dubia, Ballardina millersburgia, Brevidorsa strodescreekensis, Ceratopsis asymme , trica C. fimbriata, Ctenobolbina ventrispinifera, Cystomatochilina reticulotiara, Easchmidtella sinuidorsata, Gephyropsis trachyreticulata, Jonesella gonyloba, Laccoprimitia claysferryensis, L. cryptomorphologica, Leperditella? perplexa, Ningulella paupera, Parenthatia sadievillensis, Silenis kentuckyensis, and Uninodobolba franklinensis. In addition, a new species, Quasibollia copelandi, is described from the Middle Ordovician of Ontario. The type specimens of ostracodes previously described from these formations but not represented in the recent collections are redescribed and refigured. The genus Warthinia Spivey, 1939, is reinstated for Ordovician bolliids with two to four nodes, and the genus Ceratopsis Ulrich, 1894, is reviewed with new figures of all known North American species of the genus. Forty-four collections included enough specimens to warrant quantitative analysis. The temporal and spatial distribution of the genera were defined by using Q-mode cluster analysis based on Sorensen's quantified coefficient of association. The resulting phenogram indicated the existence of eight clusters; these clusters were characterized by calculation of constancy and fidelity measures for each of the variables. Generic diversity, compound generic diversity, and lithologic associations were scanned in an attempt to delineate the

  7. [Medico-genetic study of isolates in Uzbekistan. IV. Clinico-biochemical diagnosis of hereditary diseases].

    PubMed

    Kozlova, S I; Diachenko, S S; Khannanova, F K; Kuleshov, N P; Khodzhaeva, G K

    1976-01-01

    An exhaustive clinico-biochemical examination of the population of two kishlaks of the Samarkand Region, viz. Karakent (210 persons) and Ishan (248 persons) was carried out. The program of this examination permitted to exclude over 160 forms of hereditary pathology. A total of 45 persons affected with diseases belonging to 12 nosological forms were revealed in the course of the examination. Among the diseases observed only 5 are hereditary sensu stricto, viz. myoclonus-epilepsy, Bonevi-Ulrich's syndrome, imperfect osteogenesis, pigment choreoretinite and Down's syndrome, others belong to diseases with a pronounced hereditary predisposition. The main part of this group comprises neuro-psychic diseases, such as non-differentiated olygophreny (5.0%), epilepsy (1.3%), schizophreny; many of these cases have a familial character, particularly in Karakent. Besides the persons suffering from diseases, 20 heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassemia and 17 heterozygous carriers of G6PD-deficiency were discovered in the kishlaks examined. On the whole the frequency of the diseases revealed did not exceed the level in the general population. Despite the different degree of isolation of the kishlaks examined (Karakent is isolated on a religious basis, F = 0.0064; while Ishan is a desintagrated isolate, F = = 0.0014), no substantial differences between them in the distribution of pathological phenomena were observed. On the basis of the experience of this expedition recomendations are proposed concerning the origination and accomplishment of medico-genetic expeditions. A scheme is proposed for the performance of medico-genetic examination through several stages. The first stage in the composition of tentative maps of the distribution of hereditary diseases within a region on the basis of the information obtained from the medical personnel and from the examination of the documents of district and regional hospitals. Subsequently the primary information is specified, the regions to

  8. Memories of Maurice Jacob (1933-2007) Proceedings of the Maurice Jacob Memorial Meeting (CERN, 11 September 2007) Memories of Maurice Jacob (1933-2007) Proceedings of the Maurice Jacob Memorial Meeting (CERN, 11 September 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heinz, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Maurice Jacob passed away unexpectedly on 2 May 2007. Soon after the terrible news arrived, it was thought appropriate to organize a memorial meeting at CERN. The meeting took place on 11 September 2007, and a large number of friends and colleagues participated in the event. The idea was to have brief presentations on the many scientific activities in which Maurice had been engaged, to provide a sketch of his personal trajectory. We also had spontaneous anecdotes and recollections from the audience which, unfortunately, did not make it into this special issue but enriched all of us present. The meeting took place in an afternoon, hence we were faced with the difficult task of selecting from the many presentations that could have been made by his colleagues and collaborators. The end results are the papers contained in this special issue. They provide a short overview of the breadth and depth of Maurice's physics, on the one hand, and of his deep commitment to European and world physics and to the interface between science and society, on the other hand. The first two talks were given by his fellow students and life-long friends Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Robert Pick. These were mostly personal recollections, less focussed on scientific issues per se but reminding us how Maurice grew into the renowned scientist he later became. Cecilia Jarlskog, a longtime collaborator and friend, provided us with a beautiful view of the wonderfully multifaceted activities Maurice was able to accomplish. Peter Landshoff also spoke about his more than 35 years of personal and scientific interaction with Maurice. The talks presented during the second part of the meeting went a bit more into the technical details of the wide spectrum of scientific activities pursued by Maurice. We had contributions by Helmut Satz (whose transparencies were kindly presented by Urs Wiedemann) and Ulrich Heinz, with the closing talk presented by John Ellis. We have lost a great friend and an excellent

  9. Physics in Berlin I: The Historical City Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Hans-Jürgen Treder has written that, “During the nearly 60 years that spanned the call of Hermann Helmholtz to become professor of physics in the Berlin University ... in 1871, and Erwin Schrödinger’s call to the chair of theoretical physics [in 1927] ..., the general history of physics was closely connected to the history of physics in Berlin.”1 Besides Helmholtz and Schrödinger, the list of famous physicists who worked in Berlin during those six decades includes Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Max von Laue, Walther Nernst, Gustav Hertz, James Franck, and Lise Meitner, to name but some of them.2 But the heyday of physics in Berlin arose neither by chance nor out of the blue: It resulted from a long historical process that began with the foundation of the Brandenburg Academy of Science in 1700 by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; the present Academy of Science in Berlin is the direct descendent of that society. With the founding of the Academy in the capital of Prussia, science established itself in Berlin as a constituent part of its social life. It was predominantly in the context of mathematical research and the fields of mechanics and astronomy that physics was practiced at first. The names of such renowned scientists as Leonhard Euler, Joseph Louis Lagrange, Johann Heinrich Lambert, and Franz Ulrich Theodosius Aepinus bear witness to the remarkably high level that mathematical and physical research had reached in Berlin as early as the 18th century. There was no other city in Germany at that time where there was such a large and extraordinary community of mathematicians, physicists, and chemists teaching and carrying out research. You will find a reminder of this early period in the history of physics in Berlin at Behrenstrasse 21 (a street parallel to the western part of Unter den Linden), where Leonhard Euler lived during his Berlin period from 1743 to 1766. Of course, this is not Euler’s original house, since large parts of Berlin were totally destroyed by

  10. An interpretation of the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results based on new permittivity measurements of porous water ice and ice-basaltic/organic dust mixtures suggests an increase of porosity with depth in 67P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Sabouroux, Pierre; Neves, Luisa; Encrenaz, Pierre; Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Kofman, Wlodek; Le Gall, Alice; Ciarletti, Valérie; Hérique, Alain; Lethuillier, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The CONSERT bistatic radar on Rosetta and Philae sounded the interior of the small lobe of 67P/C-G at 90 MHz and determined the average of the real part of the complex permittivity (hereafter ɛ') to be equal to 1.27±0.05 [1,2]. The permittivity probe (PP) of the SESAME package sounded the near-surface in the 400–800 Hz range and derived a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45±0.20 [3,4]. At the time of the measurements, the temperature was found to be below 150 K at Philae's location and expected to be close or below 100 K inside the nucleus [4-6].The complex permittivity depends of the frequency, the composition, the porosity and the temperature of the material [7,8,9]. These parameters have to be taken into account to interpret the permittivity values. The non-dispersive behavior of ɛ' below 150 K [9], allows us to compare the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results and to interpret their difference in terms of porosity and/or composition. For this purpose we use a semi-empirical formula obtained from reproducible permittivity measurements performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice particles and ice-basaltic dust mixtures [10], with a controlled porosity in the 26–91% range and dust-to-ice volumetric ratios in the 0.1–2.8 range. The influence of the presence of organic materials on ɛ' is also discussed based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter [11]. Our results suggest an increase of the porosity of the small lobe of 67P with depth [11], in agreement Lethuillier et al. [4]'s conclusion using a different method.[1]Kofman et al., 1998. Adv. Space Res., 21, 1589.[2]Ciarletti et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A40.[3]Seidensticker et al., 2007. Space Sci. Rev., 128, 301.[4]Lethuillier et al., 2016. A&A, 591, A32.[5]Spohn et al., 2015. Science, 349, aab0464.[6]Festou et al. (Eds.), Comets II. Univ. of Arizona Press.[7]Campbell and Ulrichs, 1969. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5867.[8]Brouet et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A39.[9]Mattei et al., 2014

  11. Speciation of Al, Fe, and P in recent sediment from three lakes in Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Norton, Stephen A; Coolidge, Kyle; Amirbahman, Aria; Bouchard, Roy; Kopácek, Jirí; Reinhardt, Raquel

    2008-10-15

    Sequential extraction of sediments [Psenner R, Pucsko R. Die Fraktionierung organischer und anorganischer Phosphorverbindungen von Sedimenten. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 1988. 70(1): 111-155.] from short, (210)Pb-dated cores from three lakes in Maine USA demonstrates that sediment P is dominantly associated with the NaOH-extractable fraction (P-NaOH(25)) and less with the bicarbonate-dithionite extractable fraction (P-BD). The ratios (Al-NaOH(25))/(Fe-BD) and (Al-NaOH(25))/(P-NH(4)Cl+P-BD) for upper sediment for two oligo-mesotrophic lakes exceeded 3 and 25, the thresholds for preventing substantial release of P from sediments during hypolimnetic anoxia [Kopácek J, Borovec J, Hejzlar J, Ulrich K-U, Norton SA, Amirbahman A. Aluminum control of phosphorus sorption by lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2005a;39:8784-8789.]. Hypolimnetic water chemistry verifies this effect. The third lake, currently eutrophic, has values for the ratios that are below the thresholds and this lake has substantial release of P from recent sediment. The sediment characteristics remain relatively constant over the last 150+ years, indicating that the processes responsible for P retention have operated long before atmospheric acidification of watersheds might have influenced the flux of Al and Fe to the lake. In 2002, the pH of inlets and the lakes was generally between 6 and 8. Input to the lakes had high concentrations of acid-soluble particulate and dissolved Al, Fe, and P, and dissolved Al and Fe complexed with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Lake water column and outlet Al, Fe, and P were typically 90-95% lower than inlet concentrations over a 12 month period. Photo-oxidation of Al-DOC and Fe-DOC in the lake, liberation of inorganic Al and Fe, precipitation of Al(OH)(3) and Fe(OH)(3), adsorption of P by the hydroxides, and sedimentation are responsible for the changes in water quality and long-term sediment characteristics. PMID:18440053

  12. [Healing garden: Primary concept].

    PubMed

    Pringuey-Criou, F

    2015-10-01

    Since ancient times the relationship between mankind and plants occupies medicine and philosophy. From the first tablets of herbal medicine to Asclepius gardens, those of cloisters and bimaristans to cosmological gardens in Asia, from the largest public park to asylum institutions of the nineteenth century, the garden is proposed as a place of care, a promoter of restoration of the human being. If the advent of technology and drugs have for a time relegated it to the level of empirical care, results in neuroscience ultimately provide it on a scientific basis. The early evolutionary theories, the Savanah theory from Orians, the biophilia hypothesis from Wilson, are relayed by the famous Ulrich' study showing the positive influence of a view of nature through the window on the recovery of in patients. Mechanisms leading stress regulation, level of attention and organisation, focus and fascination, are recognized at the origin of restoration processes. Human capacities to respond to the recuperating function of a natural environment connect to grounded behaviour for adaptation to natural selection process and survival. The mechanisms of our immune system are essential to maintain our vitality. Phyto-resonance, felt or unconsciously perceived in appearance, according to Shepard is an emotion that structures well beyond the archaic behaviour. Recovery, in terms of phenomenological experience of the presence, is a philosophical demonstration of the environmental i.e. multisensory, spatial and temporal approach. Its emotional and affective experience connects to the vitality and creativity. The phyto-resonance hypothesis according to the Konrad Neuberger's point of view induces strategies catering to all levels of the organisation of the human being. It confirms the multidisciplinary nature of hortitherapy and places the mechanism of relationships between man and plant at the centre of discipline. It is also a source of inspiration and inexhaustible work for caregivers

  13. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic), Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice), Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin), Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich), Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt), Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien). In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO) were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be used preferably in these

  14. Online measurements of ambient fluorescent aerosol particles by WIBS at a polluted regional site in the North China Plain: potential impact of burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Wang, Z.; Cheng, Y.; Xie, Z.; Kecorius, S.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yu, X.; Pöhlker, C.; Zhang, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kuhn, U.; Poeschl, U.; Huffman, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Online measurements of ambient fluorescent aerosol particles by WIBS at a polluted regional site in the North China Plain: potential impact of burning activities Zhibin Wang1, Xiawei Yu1,3, Simonas Kecorius2, Zhouqing Xie3, Gavin McMeeking4, Christopher Pöhlker1, Minghui, Zhang1, Alfred Wiedensohler2, Uwe Kuhn1, Yafang Cheng1, Ulrich Pöschl1, Hang Su1,*1Multiphase Chemistry and Biogeochemistry Departments, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz 55128, Germany2Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig 04318, Germany3School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China4Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder 80301, USA ABSTRACTBioaerosols are the main subset of super-micron particles, and significantly influence the evolution of cloud and precipitation, as well as the public health. Currently, the detection of ambient biological materials in real-time is mainly based on the presence of fluorophores in the particles. In this study, we present the wideband integrated bioaerosol spectrometer (WIBS) measurement results to characterize the fluorescent aerosol particles (FAP) at a polluted regional site (Xianghe, 39.80 °N, 116.96 °E) in the North China Plain. We observed substantially much higher number concentration of FAP as compared with those of previous studies in clean environments. We found the good agreement between the FAP number fraction in coarse mode particles (> 1 mm) and BC mass fraction in fine particles (< 1 mm), possibly indicating a majority of the observed FAP is to a certain extent related to the anthropogenic burning activities nearby. This interference and uncertainty should be especially noticed when performing fluorescence measurements in the polluted area, where the certain non-biological compounds (such as SOA, PAH and soot) may significantly lead to a positive fluorescence measurement artifacts and an overestimation of actual fluorescent biological aerosol particles. We also

  15. The Observational Helioseismology Programs at the Sacramento Peak and Mount Wilson Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    The starting point for the study of the solar interior using helioseismology can be identified with the observational confirmation by Deubner (1975) and independently by Rhodes (1977); Rhodes et al. (1976a,b, 1977a) of the standing wave nature of the solar “5-minute” oscillations as proposed by Ulrich (1970) and independently by Leibacher & Stein (1971). The pioneering observations of the Rhodes et al. (1977a) study were obtained using what is now the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) at the Sacramento Peak National Observatory in early 1975. Subsequent helioseismic observations were also obtained at the DST, but one of the major drawbacks of all of these early studies was the fact that the DST could only be dedicated to these studies for a few days at a time. Consequently, the 60-Foot Solar Tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) was converted into a dedicated helioseismology telescope. The initial observations there were obtained in 1984. These observations were employed later in several studies of solar internal rotation. An important outcome of these early observations was the discovery of the Solar Subsurface Shear Layer (SSL). The 60-Foot Tower was upgraded with the installation of a one-mega-pixel camera during 1986 and 1987. High-resolution observations using this instrumentation were taken on a regular basis beginning in 1988. Inversions of the frequency-splitting coefficients derived from these observations confirmed the existence of the SSL. More recently, the 60-Foot Tower data were used to study the solar torsional oscillations and the solar cycle dependence of both the intermediate- and high-degree p-mode frequencies during Solar Cycles 21, 22, and 23. Observations from this program were also employed in ring-diagram studies to demonstrate the existence of helical flows within the SSL. Observations obtained with the 60-Foot Tower's imaging program between 1988 and 2009 are now being employed in a retrospective study of internal zonal and meridional

  16. [Wonder matter and assassin. The perception of the asbestos danger as a mirror of the time 1930-1990].

    PubMed

    Janssen, J H M

    2005-01-01

    In the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century the ideas of the dangers concerning the use of asbestos changed dramatically. The mineral, which had, more than half a century before been introduced in the Netherlands as a miraculous mineral, was completely banned from use. Asbestos became known as a 'silent killer' and 'the blue sand of death', and as a symbol of the hidden hazards of a deteriorating environment caused by unscrupulous companies and indolent authorities. Asbestos seems to fit perfectly into the ubiquitous hazards which Ulrich Beck defines in his concept of the 'risk society' as the dangerous side effects of industrial production. Yet the perception of the risk associated with asbestos depended more on socio-cultural characteristics than on scientifically risk assessments. In the first half of the twentieth century the use of asbestos was limited and therefore did not cause any concern. Economic crisis and war silenced the first alarming signals of asbestos related disease from foreign experts and a handful of Dutch physicians. The asbestos workers themselves were held responsible for their own health and safety. In the 1951 asbestosis became recognised as an industrial disease. Preventive measures with regard to the industrial use of asbestos were prescribed by law. Workers shared the responsibilities for a safe use with employers and authorities. However, during this period, all the attention was directed towards economic growth. Supervision by the labour inspection was scarce and workers and employers were not very interested in upholding the safety measures. Among asbestos workers the use of protective clothes and dust masks was generally seen as unmanly. In the sixties the foreign literature on the connection between the exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma became known among Dutch specialists. The results of these studies were confirmed by research among Dutch insulation workers. At the same time the

  17. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions''

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich W. Heinz

    2012-11-09

    In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous experimental observables that can be used to diagnose the evolving and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last decade of the twentieth century on collisions at lower energies, the group exploited newly developed theoretical tools and the stream of new high-quality data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (which started operations in the summer of the year 2000) to arrive at an increasingly quantitative description of the experimentally observed phenomena. Work done at Ohio State University (OSU) was instrumental in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. The tool of relativistic fluid dynamics for viscous liquids developed at OSU in the years 2005-2007 opened the possibility to quantitatively determine the value of the QGP viscosity empirically from experimental measurements of the collective flow patterns established in the collisions. A first quantitative extraction of the QGP shear viscosity, with controlled theoretical uncertainty estimates, was achieved during the last year of this project in 2010. OSU has paved the way for a transition of the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics from a qualitative discovery stage to a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. To gain confidence in the precision of our theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma dynamics, one must test it on a large set of experimentally measured observables. This achievement report demonstrates that we have, at

  18. [The Theory and Trend of Microhistory: History of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Sul, Heasim

    2015-08-01

    Microhistory, first developed in the 1970s, is the study of the past on a very small scale applying zoom-in methodology. Although microhistory had been introduced to Korea during the late 1990s, there still exists much of misunderstanding and confusions surrounding its nature. Microhistory is to be distinguished from the monographs which deal with petty subject, or from the history of everyday life, and from the case studies. In the field of the history of medicine, there are not many microhistories proper. Several works that claim to utilize microhistorical approach, could not be categorized as microhistory because they carry strong characteristics of macrohistory, specifically those of the disciplinary history or the case studies. The well known work of Harold J. Cook, Trials of an Ordinary Doctor, is not an exception. These studies fail to materialize the critical mind of microhistory that pursues to write a history from below and to restore the agency of obscure people. However, Guido Ruggiero's "The Strange Death of Margarita Marcellini," David Cressy's Travesties and Transgressions in Tudor and Stuart England, and Laurel Thatcher Ulrich's A Midwife's Tale clearly demonstrate the attributes, characteristics, and methodologies of microhistory. These studies well display the emphasis of microhistory, which reveal the complexity of early modern medicine, and the complicated function of individual relationships within each and every social setting. Recently, some scholars begin to suggest that the rigid definition of microhistory should be softened, arguing that there could be various types of microhistory. The history of medicine has many advantage of aptly applying many virtues of microhistory: the de-territoriality of diseases, the peculiar elements of the training and practice in hospitals and medical schools which call for anthropological survey, and the possibility of utilizing doctor's records that contain the confessions of the patients. Also, medical

  19. North American Paleozoic Oceanography: Overview of Progress Toward a Modern Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1987-04-01

    Three fundamental questions have confronted paleoceanographers from the beginning of their North American explorations. What was the size and timing of ancient epicontinental seas: large and long-lasting or small and brief? What characterized the distribution of biotas and sediments at any one point in time: a multitude of complex facies patterns or a more spacially homogeneous cover? What promoted continental foundering: eustatic changes in sea level or relative changes in sea level brought about by regional tectonics? These questions have been debated by North Americans since the middle 1800s in response to various new insights, usually coming from abroad but often elaborated into substantial contributions of equal standing. Contemporary facies zones in Mediterranean biota found by the Englishman E. Forbes attracted the notice of geologists as early as 1844. C. Whittlesey was among the first to apply the bathymetric scheme of Forbes to the interpretation of American Paleozoic strata in 1851. The outstanding "native" innovation of the period was J. Hall's geosyncline concept, which is reflected in the earliest map of Paleozoic North America made by T. C. Chamberlin in 1881. Another wave of influence spread from the late 19th century work on stratigraphic facies patterns by the German J. Walther. A. W. Grabau is best remembered as Walther's foremost American champion against the formidable layer-caker E. O. Ulrich in the first decades of the 20th century, but he also made pioneering contributions of his own on Paleozoic sea level studies and global paleogeographic reconstructions. Charles Schuchert was the consummate paleogeographer of this period. Meanwhile, the term "cyclothem" was coined by J. Marvin Weller in 1930 for recurrent Carboniferous strata in Illinois. Controversy fast erupted over a glacial as opposed to tectonic mode of origin for these cycles. In 1964, A. B. Shaw restimulated interest in Paleozoic oceanography through his reformulation of Walther

  20. PREFACE: A Short History of the Surphon Workshop Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. Peter

    2004-07-01

    It all began in 1979 when Bruce Doak decided to leave MIT after a year of graduate school to come to Göttingen to do something new. Within a year he succeeded in putting together a novel helium atom surface scattering apparatus, with which the first surface phonon dispersion curves were measured on the LiF surface out to the zone boundary [1]. To help us understand these results we invited Giorgio Benedek to Göttingen in June 1980. Giorgio then was a regular guest in the lattice dynamics theory group of Heinz Bilz, a director at the Max Planck Institut für Festköroperforschung in Stuttgart. Heinz Bilz at that time was developing models for phonons in metals in which the electron degrees of freedom were modeled by assigning multipole deformabilities to the ion cores [2]. This explains his excitement, when in 1983 he heard through Giorgio Benedek that another PhD student, Ulrich Harten [3], had succeeded in another apparatus (HUGO I) in our Institut to measure the surface phonon dispersion curves on Ag(111) [4]. Both Benedek and Bilz were especially fascinated by the discovery of a second dispersion curve at frequencies above the ubiquitous Rayligh mode. This prompted Bilz to organize on short notice an informal gathering in his Institut on `Oberflächenstatistik and dynamik'. My opening lecture on the new experiments was followed by six half hour theoretical lectures including talks by Fritz de Wette and by Giorgio Benedek, the pioneers in realistic calculations of surface dispersion curves on alkali halide surfaces. This was the birthday of the Surphon Series. The official conference names, organizers, venues, dates and numbers of participants of all the Surphon meetings held since are listed below: Statics and Dynamics of Surfaces, H Bilz (Max-Planck-Insitut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, 27 September 1983) 7 speakers Statics and Dynamics of Surfaces, J P Toennies (Max-Planck-Insitut für Strömungsforschung, Göttingen, 15 June 1984) 11 speakers, 31

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

    2009-06-01

    regard to the energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays. The remaining contributions are of a more theoretical nature and discuss propagation (T Stanev), the time structure of multi-messenger signals (G H W Sigl), ultra-high energy cosmic ray production near black holes (A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev), production in jets associated with black holes (C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J Finke and A Atoyan) and emission from a specific object, Cen A (M Kachelriess, S S Ostapchenko and R Tomas). Additionally the potential of high energy cosmic rays to give information about features of hadronic interactions, specifically the cross-section for p-air collisions, is discussed in the paper by R Ulrich et al. We thank all our authors most sincerely for their efforts and Tim Smith and his editorial team for their hard work. We believe that this collection of articles will be of great value to workers in the field: further contributions to this focus issue will be published during the course of 2009. Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays Contents The cosmic ray energy spectrum as measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory Giorgio Matthiae The northern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory Johannes Blümer and the Pierre Auger Collaboration Searching for new physics with ultrahigh energy cosmic rays Floyd W Stecker and Sean T Scully On the measurement of the proton-air cross section using air shower data R Ulrich, J Blümer, R Engel, F Schüssler and M Unger High energy radiation from Centaurus A M Kachelrieß, S Ostapchenko and R Tomàs Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from black hole jets of radio galaxies C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J D Finke and A Atoyan Ultra-high energy cosmic ray production in the polar cap regions of black hole magnetospheres A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev Time structure and multi-messenger signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources Günter Sigl Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays Todor Stanev Search for the end of the energy

  2. PREFACE: Proceedings of the TeV Particle Astrophysics II Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, F.; Karle, A.; Montaruli, T.

    2007-03-01

    people from the various fields of Astroparticle Physics. Acknowledgements Due to the high quality of help that we received from them, we wish to acknowledge the conveners of the Working Groups mentioned in the text with the same numbering used above: 1) Felix Aharonian, Gus Sinnis, Frank Krennrich and Masahiro Teshima; 2) Piera Ghia and Tom Gaisser; 3) Laura Baudis and Gianfranco Bertone; 4) Lutz Koepke and Dan Hooper; 5) David Saltzberg and David Waters; 6) Ivone Albuquerque, Alexander Kusenko and Tom Weiler; and Bruce Allen and Guido Mueller. Special thanks also go to Tom Gaisser, who gave a comprehensive final summary of the conference. Throughout the Conference and the collection of these proceedings, Kim Kreiger constantly supported us. She was also responsible for the wonderful food available at coffee breaks and at the social dinner! (The PDF file lists the IceCube Collaboration) T Montaruli

  3. Evolution of the Foucault-Secretan reflecting telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, William

    2016-08-01

    his cousin Georges Secretan. Production of silvered-glass reflectors and other scientific instruments languished, and focal ratios slowed. Production appears to have revived after R. Mailhat became Director of the company's workshops and then founded his own firm. In 1903 the Secretan Company offered a simplified 125-mm reflector designed specially for members of the Société Astronomique de France, perhaps promoted by Georges' son Paul. Foucault-style reflecting telescopes were offered by other makers too, including Jules Duboscq, Édouard Lutz and Albert Bardou. Following Georges' death in 1906 the Company was operated by Paul before being sold to Charles Épry in 1906 who associated with Gustave Jacquelin in 1913. Only 125- to 200-mm amateur reflectors were offered in their 1924 and 1942 catalogues. Non-specific advertisements for reflectors continued beyond amalgamation with the Morin Company in 1963, but disappeared after a subsequent merger with the Société de Recherches et de Perfectionnements Industriels c.1967.

  4. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, Garrett.; Reichmuth, David.; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Peterson, Meghan B.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Guzman, Katherine Dunphy; Edwards, Donna M.; Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters

    2012-09-01

    (GHG) emission by the LDV fleet. However, EVs alone cannot drive compliance with the most aggressiveGHG emission reduction targets, even as the current electricity source mix shifts away from coal and towardsnatural gas. Since ICEs will comprise the majority of the LDV fleet for up to forty years, conventional vehicleefficiency improvements have the greatest potential for reductions in LDV GHG emissions over this time.These findings seem robust even if global oil prices rise to two to three times current projections. Thus,investment in improving the internal combustion engine might be the cheapest, lowest risk avenue towardsmeeting ambitious GHG emission and petroleum consumption reduction targets out to 2050.3 AcknowledgmentThe authors would like to thank Dr. Andrew Lutz, Dr. Benjamin Wu, Prof. Joan Ogden and Dr. ChristopherYang for their suggestions over the course of this project. This work was funded by the Laboratory DirectedResearch and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.4

  5. SU-C-BRB-04: Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of the First Commercial MLC for a Robotic Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerweger, C; Prins, P; Coskan, H; Heijmen, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess characteristics and performance of the “Incise™” MLC (41 leaf pairs, 2.5mm width, FFF linac) mounted on the robotic SRS/SBRT platform “CyberKnife M6™” in a pre-clinical 5 months (11/2014–03/2015) test period. Methods: Beam properties were measured with unshielded diodes and EBT3 film. The CyberKnife workspace for MLC was analyzed by transforming robot node coordinates (cranial / body paths) into Euler geometry. Bayouth tests for leaf / bank position accuracy were performed in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after exercising the MLC for 10+ minutes. Total system and delivery accuracy were assessed in End-to-End tests and dosimetric verification of exemplary plans. Stability over time was evaluated in Picket-Fence-and adapted Winston-Lutz-tests (AQA) for different collimator angles. Results: Penumbrae (80–20%, with 100%=2*dose at inflection point; SAD 80cm; 10cm depth) parallel / perpendicular to leaf motion were 2.87/2.64mm for the smallest (0×76×0.75cm{sup 2}) and 5.34/4.94mm for the largest (9.76×9.75cm{sup 2}) square field. MLC circular field penumbrae exceeded fixed cones by 10–20% (e.g. 60mm: 4.0 vs. 3.6mm; 20mm: 3.6 vs. 2.9mm). Interleaf leakage was <0.5%. Clinically accessible workspace with MLC covered (non-coplanar) gantry angles of [-113°;+112°] (cranial) and [-108°;+102°] (body), and collimator angles of [-100°;+107°] (cranial) and [-91°;+100°] (body). Average leaf position offsets were ≤0.2mm in 14 standard A/P Bayouth tests and ≤0.6mm in 8 non-standard direction tests. Pre-test MLC exercise increased jaggedness (range ±0.3mm vs. ±0.5mm) and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.39±0.06mm in 6 End-to-End tests. Picket-Fence and AQA showed no adverse trends during the test period. Conclusion: The Incise™ MLC for CyberKnife M6™ displayed high accuracy and mechanical stability over the test period. The

  6. Characteristics of a novel treatment system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ning; Li, Haisen; Song, Kwang; Chin-Snyder, Karen; Qin, Yujiao; Kim, Jinkoo; Bellon, Maria; Gulam, Misbah; Gardner, Stephen; Doemer, Anthony; Devpura, Suneetha; Gordon, James; Chetty, Indrin; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ajlouni, Munther; Pompa, Robert; Hammoud, Zane; Simoff, Michael; Kalkanis, Steven; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-07-08

    deviation between the OSMS and CBCT was -0.4 ± 0.2 mm, 0.1± 0.3mm, and 0.0 ± 0.1 mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions. The mean values and standard deviations of the average deviation and maximum deviation of the daily Winston-Lutz tests over three months are 0.20 ± 0.03 mm and 0.66 ± 0.18 mm, respectively. Initial testing of this novel system demonstrates the technology to be highly accurate and suitable for frameless, linac-based SRS and SBRT treatment.

  7. Observations of CO dayglow at 4.7 μm, CO mixing ratios, and temperatures at 74 and 104-111 km on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2014-07-01

    The CO dayglow at 4.7 μm on Venus has been observed using the long-slit high-resolution spectrograph CSHELL at NASA IRTF with a resolving power of 4 × 104. The observations covered a latitude range of ±60° at local time of 07:50 at low latitudes. Solar lines in the spectra are used to measure Venus reflectivity which is found to be of 0.077 at 4.7 μm. Intensity ratio of the P2, P1, and R1 lines of the CO dayglow at the fundamental band (1-0) differs from that calculated by Crovisier et al. (Crovisier, J., Lellouch, E., de Bergh, C., Maillard, J.P., Lutz, B.L., Bezard, B. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1398-1414) and is closer to that expected at local thermodynamic equilibrium. The CO (1-0) dayglow is optically thick, its intensity weakly depends on the CO abundance and it proves poorly accessible for diagnostics of the Venus atmosphere. Six observed lines of the CO dayglow at the hot (2-1) band show a significant limb brightening typical of an optically thin airglow. Vertical intensities of the CO (2-1) band corrected for viewing angle and the Venus reflection are constant at 3.3 MR in the latitude range of ±50° at a solar zenith angle of 64°. Rotational temperatures of the CO (2-1) dayglow should reflect ambient temperature near 111 km. The observed temperatures are slightly higher on the south with a mean value of 203 K. A model of the CO (2-1) dayglow has been improved. The CO (v = 2) molecules are excited by absorption of the sunlight at the CO (2-0) and (3-0) bands at 2.35 and 1.58 μm and photolysis of CO2 by the solar Lyman-alpha emission. The dayglow is quenched by CO2, and the calculated mean dayside intensity is 3.1 MR. The weighted-mean dayglow altitude is 104 km. Variations of the dayglow with CO abundance and solar zenith angle are calculated and presented. Then the model results are used to convert the observed dayglow intensities into CO abundances at 104 km. The retrieved CO mixing ratios are constant from 50°S to 50°N with a mean value

  8. Accuracy of cranial coplanar beam therapy using an oblique, stereoscopic x-ray image guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinci, Justin P.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Neck, Daniel W.

    2008-08-15

    -A axis were correlated to misalignments between laser isocenter and radiation isocenter as documented by daily clinical Lutz tests. Based on results of comparisons of measured with calculated positions of the 80% dose lines along the major anatomical axes, a 1.25, 1.0, and 1.0 mm (0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 mm) gross tumor volume (GTV)-planning target volume (PTV) margin to account for delivery error would be appropriate for the P-A, R-L, and I-S axes, respectively, for an acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (0.4 mm/0.4 deg. ). It typically took 2 (3) ExacTrac x-ray image sets to achieve and verify acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (0.4 mm/0.4 deg. ). Our results demonstrated a measurement technique using a CIRS anthropomorphic head phantom with a modified film cassette, radiographic film (Kodak EDR2) with a custom film cutting template, and film dosimetry software has been developed and successfully applied to our clinic. It is recommended that a third party offer this service. Our goal of achieving accuracy of delivery of 1 mm or better in each of the three major anatomical axes was almost, but not quite achieved, not because of the accuracy of the image guidance system, but likely due to inaccuracy of laser isocenter and other systematic errors.

  9. Chronostratigraphy of the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, SW Salton Trough: A High-Fidelity Record of Slip on the West Salton Detachment Fault and Subsidence in its Upper Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Housen, B. A.; Janecke, S. U.; McDougall, K.; Fanning, M.; Fluette, A.; Axen, G. J.; Shirvell, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    delta into the Imperial seaway, and continued during deposition of the fluvial Diablo and Olla formations. It ended at 3.2 Ma, 0.4 m.y. prior to the end of Colorado River sand input and transition to locally-derived Hueso Fm. This abrupt change in sediment composition occurred during slip on the WSDF, and may have been driven by an increase in sediment supply related to climate change. The entire basin has been inverted and completely exhumed, suggesting a rock uplift rate of ca. 6 mm/yr during the past 0.9 m.y. Rapid uplift coincides with modern transpressional deformation and strike-slip faults that cross-cut and terminated slip on the WSDF starting at 1.1-1.3 Ma (Steely, 2006; Lutz et al., in press; Kirby et al., in press).

  10. Characteristics of a novel treatment system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ning; Li, Haisen; Song, Kwang; Chin-Snyder, Karen; Qin, Yujiao; Kim, Jinkoo; Bellon, Maria; Gulam, Misbah; Gardner, Stephen; Doemer, Anthony; Devpura, Suneetha; Gordon, James; Chetty, Indrin; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ajlouni, Munther; Pompa, Robert; Hammoud, Zane; Simoff, Michael; Kalkanis, Steven; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-01-01

    deviation between the OSMS and CBCT was -0.4 ± 0.2 mm, 0.1± 0.3mm, and 0.0 ± 0.1 mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions. The mean values and standard deviations of the average deviation and maximum deviation of the daily Winston-Lutz tests over three months are 0.20 ± 0.03 mm and 0.66 ± 0.18 mm, respectively. Initial testing of this novel system demonstrates the technology to be highly accurate and suitable for frameless, linac-based SRS and SBRT treatment. PMID:26218998

  11. Toxicological significance of DNA adducts: summary of discussions with an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Nestmann, E R; Bryant, D W; Carr, C J

    1996-08-01

    A workshop was held to discuss the uses of data on DNA adduct measurement in humans and in experimental systems in vitro and in vivo. The discussions focused principally on the understanding of the toxicological significance of DNA adducts as provided by information from animal models. An Expert Panel concluded that human DNA adduct data have utility in several aspects of risk assessment. The presence and amount of specific adducts that can be correlated with a chemical exposure are relevant for hazard identification and risk evaluation. Data from experimental systems have established dose-response relationships between the level of adducts and exposure, but these remain complex and depend on metabolic fate. Although structure-activity relationships have been useful retrospectively to explain the DNA-reactive nature of some chemicals or classes of chemicals, there are currently no means outside the laboratory to specifically predict the adduct-producing potency of a compound. Analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of laboratory animals and humans has revealed sensitive subpopulations, a finding that has important relevance for human risk assessment. Adduct analysis may be one of the best tools available to characterize exposures to DNA from complex mixtures for purposes of epidemiological investigation. Consensus statements were developed based on presentations by R. Gupta, W. Lutz, R. Nath, and B. Singer [see Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 23(1), 1996] and subsequent discussions. First, rigorous scientific criteria should be met for the detection and characterization of specific DNA adducts in vitro and in target tissues in vivo. Second, the use of adduct data in risk extrapolation has the greatest value when there is characterization of adduct structure, an understanding of the role of repair in DNA adduct removal, and demonstration of biological relevance for each adduct. Third, the detection of DNA adducts in a tissue does not necessarily indicate a specific

  12. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Pisa and the librarian Pozzetti at Bologna, and Karin Reich describes and edits Bessel's book critique of Gauss' Theoria Motus. How many one-time astronomers have to earn their living in other ways, become distracted from astronomical research, and vanish from the horizon of astronomical history? In the ninth paper, Hans-Joachim Ilgauds has traced the life of Georg Koch (1851-1905), who started his career as an astronomer at Leipzig Observatory in 1874. Later Koch worked at Hamburg Observatory, and then became an employee at the statistical office in Kiel, and finally director of the statistical office of the Hamburg revenue service. He was a collaborator for the statistical yearbook of German cities, and also contributed to a book investigating the causes and the impact of the cholera epidemic of 1892 in Hamburg. The last two papers deal with the circumstances of the discovery of the first Near-Earth asteroid (433) Eros. It was recorded on photographic plates taken at the Urania-Sternwarte Berlin and at Nice Observatory. The Berlin observer Witt announced the discovery, and only later, the Nice observer Charlois published a position of Eros. While all plates have disappeared, the authors Hans Scholl and Lutz D. Schmadel could prove that the Nice plate was poorly guided and Charlois would have been unable to discover the object. From a copy of the Berlin plate, published 50 years after the discovery by Witt's co-observer F. Linke, the exact position was determined, and the time of observation (which had not been published) was derived. The second article, by Lutz D. Schmadel, deals with the life of the Eros co-discoverer Felix Linke (1879-1959), who later worked in statistic offices, was a frequent writer of popular scientific articles, and later the editor of a journal, "Technik im Hotel'', and author of a book of the same title. As can be seen from the summaries given above, this collection of essays deals mainly with historical events that occurred in Germany and

  13. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C

  14. Front Matter.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    organized under the common umbrella of HEC2016 by the motto of 'Health - Exploring Complexity: An Interdisciplinary Systems Approach', which took place in the city of Munich in Germany from August 28th to September 2nd. The title points to the joint effort of all societies involved to rethink their approaches and to signal the need to move on from silo thinking by exploring the complexity of health together although from different perspectives. Complex systems often involve heterogeneous objects and multifaceted interactions. The health domain is recognised to be particularly complex; hence, we need to identify models that are able to integrate all the various aspects. We need to find new ways for collaboration of different scientific disciplines as well as for establishing comprehensive methodological approaches. The HEC2016 conference is a step forward. The current volume supports this effort by documenting the results of this event. The HEC2016 received 833 contributions from 47 countries. We would also like to take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all who contributed to this proceeding as well as to the success of this important event by submitting their contributions, reviewing them and by sharing their expertise and time. Alexander Hörbst Werner Hackl Nicolette de Keizer Hans-Ulrich Prokosch Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres Simon de Lusignan. PMID:27577504

  15. Tectonics at the Southeast Indian Ridge 79 to 99 E. Results from the GEISEIR cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, A.; Hemond, C.; Maia, M. A.; Hanan, B. B.; Graham, D. W.; Geiseir Scientific Team; Geiseir2 Scientific Team

    2011-12-01

    correspond to relatively high MBA suggestive of thin crust. Some transform faults also appear to have changed orientation, and show intra-transform ridges suggestive of compressive deformation. The ridge flanks show large off-axis seamounts and seamount chains, clearly observed in the satellite-derived gravity maps. We mapped and sampled some of these seamounts. The ridge sections showing the most robust morphology are sometimes associated with off-axis seamounts, but some seamounts also occur close to relatively starved axial areas. These structural and geophysical observations of the SEIR suggest a much larger variety of ridge processes and discontinuity evolution than predicted from the intermediate-spreading rate quasi-constant along the surveyed axis. GEISEIR cruise scientific team: Claire Bassoulet, Dass Bissessur, Erwan Cambrai, Mathieu Clog, Céline Dantas, Ludovic Menjot, Emanuele Paganelli, Fabienne de Parseval, Marc Ulrich. GEISEIR2 cruise scientific team: Erwan Cambrai, Romain Chateau, Cédric Hamelin, Jabrane Labidi, Maximilliano Melchiorre, Ludovic Menjot, Emanuele Paganelli.

  16. Utilizing the International GeoSample Number Concept during ICDP Expedition COSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Ulbricht, Damian; Gorgas, Thomas; Elger, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    facility. This CurationDIS assigns IGSNs on samples newly taken in the repository in the identical fashion as done in the field. Thereby, the parent-child linkage of the IGSNs is ensured consistently throughout the entire sampling process. The only difference between ExpeditionDIS and CurationDIS sample curation is using the name space ICDP and BGRB respectively as part of the corresponding ID string. To prepare the IGSN registry, a set of metadata is generated for every assigned IGSN using the DIS, which is then exported from the DIS into one common xml-file. The xml-file is based on the SESAR schema and a proposal of IGSN e.V. (http://schema.igsn.org). This systematics has been recently extended for drilling data to achieve additional information for future retrieval options. The two allocation agents GFZ Potsdam und PANGAEA are currently involved in the registry of IGSNs in the case of COSC drill campaigns. An example for the IGSN registration of the COSC-1 drill hole A (5054_1_A) is "ICDP5054EEW1001" and can be resolved using the URL http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001. Opening the landing page for the complete COSC core material for this particular hole showcases graphically a hierarchical tree entitled "Sample Family". An example of an IGSN citation associated with a COSC sample set is featured on an EGU-2016 poster presentation by Ulrich Harms, Johannes Hierold et al. (EGU2016-8646).

  17. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    . Also available in the online edition are (i) an interactive conference picture, (ii) the abstract book, and (iii) material on the special session `Waves, Waves and Waves'. Additional articles related to both the HELAS II and the SOHO 19/GONG 2007 conferences can be found in a topical issue of Solar Physics, volume 251, nos 1-2. Financial support was provided by the HELAS Network, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (through Ulrich Christensen and Sami Solanki) and the University of Göttingen (through Stefan Dreizler). We thank the local organizers, and in particular Sabine Deutsch, for their outstanding efforts in making the conference a success. We are also grateful to Graham Douglas and Jacky Mucklow of IoP Publishing for their help in the production of this volume. Laurent Gizon and Markus Roth Editors Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany

  18. Can laboratory data explain field observations: The fluxes of HNO3 and HNO4 from snow in the lab and in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    equilibrium partitioning of HNO3 and HNO4 that one would expect based on selected laboratory data. Both, adsorption to the surface of the snow and uptake to the bulk forming a solid solution are discussed (HNO3 only). Further, I address the question, if the snow holds enough HNO3 and HNO4 at its surface or in its bulk (HNO3 only) to fuel the observed emissions. Thus both equilibrium conditions and molecular flux budgets are discussed. These calculations show that adsorption/desorption can indeed explain the observed mixing ratio in the Antarctic boundary layer. Release from a solid solution seems to be too slow. Jones, A. E., Brough, N., Anderson, P. S., & Wolff, E. W. (2014). HO2NO2 and HNO3 in the coastal Antarctic winter night: a "lab-in-the-field" experiment. Acpd, 14(9), 12771-12796. Interactive comment on "HO2NO2 and HNO3 in the coastal Antarctic winter night: a "lab-in-the-field" experiment" by A. E. Jones et al. , T. Bartels-Rausch thorsten.bartels-rausch@psi.ch Received and published: 11 July 2014 Legrand, M., Preunkert, S., Frey, M., Bartels-Rausch, T., Kukui, A., King, M. D., et al. (2014). Large mixing ratios of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at Concordia (East Antarctic plateau) in summer: a strong source from surface snow? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14(8), 11749-11785. doi:10.5194/acpd-14-11749-2014 Ulrich, T., Ammann, M., Leutwyler, S., & Bartels-Rausch, T. (2012). The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(4), 1833-1845. doi:10.5194/acp-12-1833-2012

  19. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    initial contact with the journal. Leopoldo Soto President, Chilean Physical Society Head of Plasma Department, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission Editors: Leopoldo Soto, José Moreno, Ricardo Ávila, Karla Cubillos Scientific Committee Physicists from various research institutions, specialty areas, and regions of the country were invited by the Board of SOCHIFI to join the Symposium Scientific Committee, which was formed by: Julio Yánez, Universidad de Antofagasta Sergio del Campo, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Patricio Vargas, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María Rodrigo Soto, Universidad de Chile Ulrich Volkmann, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Víctor Muñoz, Universidad de Chile Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Luis Huerta, Universidad de Talca Patricio Salgado, Universidad de Concepción Luis Roa, Universidad de Concepción Asticio Vargas, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco Cristian Martínez, Centro de Estudios Científicos, Valdivia Organizing Commitee Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Erik Herrera, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear José Moreno, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Andrea Rozas, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Gonzalo Gutiérrez, Universidad de Chile Executive Board, Chilean Physical Society April 2006 - April 2008 Leopoldo Soto, President Joel Saavedra, Secretary Rodrigo Aros: Treasurer Rodolfo Figueroa: Director Luis Huerta: Director Conference photograph

  20. EDITORIAL: Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014 Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. G.

    2014-02-01

    from receipt-to-first decision of a paper is only 50 days. In 2014 we will continue to support the low-temperature plasma physics community through the publication of special topical issues. Those already scheduled for next year are: Transport in B-fields in low temperature plasmas, Guest Editors: Rod Boswell and Igor D Kaganovich Spots and patterns on electrodes of gas discharges, Guest Editors: Mikhail S Benilov and Ulrich Kogelschatz Interaction of electromagnetic waves with low temperature plasmas, Guest Editors: Osamu Sakai and Shahid Rauf We will also launch a new feature: LabTalks, a way in which our authors can showcase their group's work and communicate their research published in PSST to a wider audience. Full details are on the PSST website. Along with the leadership team, made up of Associate Editors, Anne, Nick and Richard and the great PSST staff at Institute of Physics Publishing, led by Alice Malhador, I will strive to grow, improve and deliver a journal which reflects the excellent science from the low-temperature plasma community. We hope we can continue to count on your vital support as authors and referees.

  1. 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also

  2. Unexpected mechanical properties of very dry Berea sandstone near 45°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. A.; Darling, T. W.; TenCate, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Office of Basic Energy Sciences]. [1] B. R. Tittmann, L. Ahlberg, and J. Curnow, "Internal friction and velocity measurements," Proc. of 7th Lunar Science Conference , pp. 3123-3132, 1997. [2] K. E.-A. Van Den Abeele, J. Carmeliet, P. A. Johnson, and B. Zinszner, "Influence of water saturation on the nonlinear elastic mesoscopic response in Earth materials and the implications to the mechanism of nonlinearity," Journal of Geophysical Research 107, p. 2121, June 2002. [3] "Dynamic Measures of Elastic Nonlinear (Anelastic) Behavior: Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity Testing (DAET)," G. Renaud, P-Y Le Bas, J. A. TenCate, T. J. Ulrich, J. W. Carey, J. Han, T.W. Darling and P. A. Johnson, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 2011. [4] "Water and CO2 chemistry influences on the mechanical integrity of rocks," T.W. Darling, P-Y Le Bas, J. W. Carey, P. A. Johnson and R. A. Miller, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 2010.

  3. The Martian geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Di Achille, G.; Duxbury, T.; Erkeling, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Gupta, S.; Head, J. W.; Hiesinger, H.; Ip, W.; Keller, H.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Kneissl, T.; Le Deit, L.; McCord, T. B.; Muller, J.; Murray, J. J.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pinet, P. C.; Reiss, D.; Rossi, A.; Spohn, T.; Tirsch, D.; Williams, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    and volcanic processes, respectively. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116; [27]Hauber et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am. 483.

  4. The Martian Geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    very dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116;

  5. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2005-08-01

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineker, Peter; Schülz, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructures in general are playing a more and more important role in the physics and chemistry of condensed matter systems including both hard and soft materials. This Focus Issue concentrates particularly on recent developments in Nanostructured Soft Matter Systems. Many interesting questions related to both fundamental and applied research in this field have arisen. Some of them are connected to the chemical reactions that take place during the irreversible formation of soft matter systems. Others refer to the theoretical and experimental investigations of structures and topologies of `nanostructured soft matter', e.g. heterogeneous polymers and polymer networks, or soft matter at low dimensions or in constrained geometries. Additional research has also been devoted to the dynamics of other complex nanostructured systems, such as the structure formation on the basis of polymer systems and polyelectrolytes, and several kinds of phase transitions on nano- and microscales. The contributions collected here present the most up-to-date research results on all of these topics. New Journal of Physics, as an electronic journal, is perfectly suited for the presentation of the complex results that the experimental and theoretical investigations reported here yield. The articles that will follow provide a number of excellent examples of the use of animations, movies and colour features for the added benefit of the reader. Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter Contents Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages Peter Virnau, Marcus Müller, Luis González MacDowell and Kurt Binder Spectral dynamics in the B800 band of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum: a single-molecule study Clemens Hofmann, Thijs J Aartsma, Hartmut Michel and Jürgen Köhler Adsorption of polyacrylic acid on self-assembled monolayers investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy Claudia Friedsam, Aránzazu Del Campo Bécares, Ulrich Jonas

  7. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  8. Amine-Promoted Organosilicate Hydrolysis Mechanism at Near-Neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delak, K. M.; Sahai, N.

    2006-12-01

    ., Deutzmann R. and Sumper M. (1999) Science 286, 1129. [2] Cha J.N., Shimizu K., Zhou Y., Christiansen S.C., Chmelka B. F., Stucky G. D. and Morse D. E. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 361. [3] Delak K.M. and Sahai N. (2006) J. Phys. Chem. B., 110, DOI: 10.1021/jp062054m [4] Delak K.M. and Sahai N. (2005a) Chem. Materials, 17, 3221. [5] Delak K.M., Farrar T.C. and Sahai N. (2005b) J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 351, 2244. [6] Corriu R.J.P., Leclercq D., Vioux A., Pauthe M., Phalippou J. (1988) In Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Ceramics; Eds. Mackenzie J.D. and Ulrich D.R., Wiley, New York; pp.113-126. [7] Delak K.M. and Sahai N. (2006) unpublished results. [8] Iler R. K. (1979) The Chemistry of Silica. Wiley, New York, p. 174.

  9. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    -like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  10. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    -like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  11. Detailed thermal fingerprinting of obduction-related processes: insights from Northern New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale Brovarone, A.; Agard, P.; Monié, P.; Chauvet, A.

    2012-04-01

    ): geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics 340 (1-2), 23-59. [2] Ulrich, M., Picard C., Guillot S., Chauvel C., Cluzel D., Meffre S. (2010) The New Caledonia Ophiolite : multiple Stage of melting and refertilisation process as indicators of ridge to subduction formation. Lithos. doi 10.1016/j.lithos.2009.12.011. [3] Brothers, R. N. & Blake, M. C., 1972. Tertiary plate tectonics and high-pressure metamorphism in New Caledonia. Tectonophysics, 17, 359-391. [4] Fitzherbert, J. A., Clarke, G. L. & Powell, R., 2003. Lawsonite- omphacite bearing metabasites of the Pam Peninsula, NE New Caledonia: Evidence for disrupted blueschist to eclogite facies conditions. Journal of Petrology, 44, 1805-1831. [5] Spandler, C., & Hermann, J., 2006. High-pressure veins in eclogite from New Caledonia and their significance for fluid migration in subduction zones. Lithos, 89 (1-2). pp. 135-153. ISSN 1872-6143 [6] Beyssac, O., Goffé, B., Chopin, C. & Rouzaud, J.N., 2002. Raman spectra of carbonaceous material in metasediments: a new geothermometer. J. Metamorph. Geol., 20, 859-871. [7] Lahfid, A., Beyssac, O., Deville, E., Negro, F., Chopin, C. & Goffé, B., 2010. Evolution of the Raman spectrum of carbonaceous material in low-grade metasediments of the Glarus Alps (Switzerland). Terra Nova, 22: 354-360. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2010.00956.x

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Alejandro; Pfau, Tilman

    2008-04-01

    molecules L Wang, A Rastelli, S Kiravittaya, P Atkinson, F Ding, C C Bof Bufon, C Hermannstädter, M Witzany, G J Beirne, P Michler and O G Schmidt Effective parameters for weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates S Giovanazzi, J Esteve and M K Oberthaler Current statistics of correlated charge tunnelling through an impurity in a 1D wire Alexander Herzog and Ulrich Weiss Sideband cooling and coherent dynamics in a microchip multi-segmented ion trap Stephan A Schulz, Ulrich Poschinger, Frank Ziesel and Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler The trapped two-dimensional Bose gas: from Bose-Einstein condensation to Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless physics Z Hadzibabic, P Krüger, M Cheneau, S P Rath and J Dalibard Dynamical protection of quantum computation from decoherence in laser-driven cold-ion and cold-atom systems Goren Gordon and Gershon Kurizki Spin-flip and spin-conserving optical transitions of the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond Ph Tamarat, N B Manson, J P Harrison, R L McMurtrie, A Nizovtsev, C Santori, R G Beausoleil, P Neumann, T Gaebel, F Jelezko, P Hemmer and J Wrachtrup Superconductivity in the attractive Hubbard model: functional renormalization group analysis R Gersch, C Honerkamp and W Metzner Quantum stability of Mott-insulator states of ultracold atoms in optical resonators Jonas Larson, Sonia Fernández-Vidal, Giovanna Morigi and Maciej Lewenstein

  13. PREFACE New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B.; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2010-11-01

    , Di Cao and Stuart Lindsay Probing DNA with micro- and nanocapillaries and optical tweezers L J Steinbock, O Otto, D R Skarstam, S Jahn, C Chimerel, J L Gornall and U F Keyser Fabrication of nanopores with embedded annular electrodes and transverse carbon nanotube electrodes Zhijun Jiang, Mirna Mihovilovic, Jason Chan and Derek Stein Fabrication and electrical characterization of a pore-cavity-pore device D Pedone, M Langecker, A M Münzer, R Wei, R D Nagel and U Rant Use of tunable nanopore blockade rates to investigate colloidal dispersions G R Willmott, R Vogel, S S C Yu, L G Groenewegen, G S Roberts, D Kozak, W Anderson and M Trau Facilitated translocation of polypeptides through a single nanopore Robert Bikwemu, Aaron J Wolfe, Xiangjun Xing and Liviu Movileanu Mechanistic insight into gramicidin-based detection of protein-ligand interactions via sensitized photoinactivation Tatyana I Rokitskaya, Michael X Macrae, Steven Blake, Natalya S Egorova, Elena A Kotova, Jerry Yang and Yuri N Antonenko Sequence-dependent unfolding kinetics of DNA hairpins studied by nanopore force spectroscopy Stephan Renner, Andrey Bessonov, Ulrich Gerland and Friedrich C Simmel Hydration properties of mechanosensitive channel pores define the energetics of gating A Anishkin, B Akitake, K Kamaraju, C-S Chiang and S Sukharev Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers Andy Sischka, Andre Spiering, Maryam Khaksar, Miriam Laxa, Janine König, Karl-Josef Dietz and Dario Anselmetti Force fluctuations assist nanopore unzipping of DNA V Viasnoff, N Chiaruttini, J Muzard and U Bockelmann Control and reversal of the electrophoretic force on DNA in a charged nanopore Binquan Luan and Aleksei Aksimentiev The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD Raimund Haarmann, Mohamed Ibrahim, Mara Stevanovic, Rolf Bredemeier and Enrico Schleiff Structural and dynamical properties of the porins OmpF and OmpC: insights from

  14. Potential Mars Surveyor 2001 landing sites: Low-elevation cratered "highlands" in central and eastern Sinus Meridiani and near Amenthes Fossae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Parker, T. J.; Huntwork, S. N.

    1998-01-01

    proximity (the base place on Mars to do so). There are no high resolution (better than 100 m/pixel) Viking or Mariner images of this site. (2) Central Sinus Meridiani Region (proposed by K. S. Edgett and T. J. Parker) Central Sinus Meridiani is characterized by two types of surfaces [4]. One is like typical martian cratered highlands elsewhere - there are old valley networks and old impact craters. The other is relatively smooth and flat. These two units are in contact around 3.1°S between 5°W and 4°E longitudes. Valley networks - including one at 6°S, 358°°W that rivals the Grand Canyon of Arizona - once drained toward the smooth unit. Edgett and Parker [4] proposed that the smooth unit might consist of sediments laid down in a large Noachian-aged sea/ocean that would have covered much of the northern hemisphere. Schultz and Lutz [11] suggested that it is a paleopolar layered deposit. Regardless, the smooth unit where it contacts the cratered terrain would make an excellent site for Athena rover to investigate. The site is best seen in Viking high resolution images from orbits 408B (~30 m/pixel) and 746A (~12 m/pixel). These images suggest that aeolian deflation has occurred along the margin of the smooth unit, and this deflation has exposed horizontal layers of material. The elevation is about 0.5 km; thermal inertias [7] are 6.5-8.0 x 10^-3 cal cm^-2 s^-0.5 K^-1; rock abundances [8] are 2-4%; and the surface is probably sandy with dark drifts and ripples but almost no actual dunes [5]. We suggest a landing around 3.2°S, 3.0°W would test the aqueous sediment hypothesis and provide a potentially smooth surface on which to land. (3) Amenthes Fossae Region (proposed by S. N. Huntwork and K. S. Edgett) The Amenthes Fossae are a series of graben/fissures that are circumferential to the southeast side of Isidis Planitia. These fissures cross a variety of ancient, heavily cratered Noachian terrain and younger, Hesperian and Amazonian terrain [12]. We focused our search

  15. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    down time. In October of 2000 Hugo returned to Chile to work at CTIO. After his demonstrated technical, scientific, and social skills drumming the NOT into shape, he was the natural choice to be the CTIO staff member assigned to the 4-m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope sited at Cerro Pachon. Over the next six years Hugo worked closely with Steve Heathcote and the SOAR technical staff to improve the telescope's operational capacity. Hugo's scientific work dealt with late stages of stellar evolution, particularly planetary nebulae, and stellar polarimetry. Higher resolution optical and infrared imaging of He 2-104 led to its being known as the Southern Crab Nebula (Schwarz, Aspin, & Lutz, ApJ, L29, p. 344, 1989). Unlike the northern supernova remnant, this southern object (a nebula surrounding a symbiotic binary) looks very much like a crab. Their images of it appeared in magazines and books around the world. In 1992, along with Romano Corradi (a Ph.D. student of Hugo's) and Jorge Melnick, Schwarz published "A catalogue of narrow band images of planetary nebulae" (A&A, 96, p. 23, 1992). This was the first extensive, and still the largest, CCD image catalogue of PNe. Hugo edited the conference proceedings of a meeting held in La Serena in January 1992 (Mass Loss on the AGB and Beyond). The talks and published papers strengthened some of Hugo's ideas about the importance of evolution in binary systems, in particular the interaction of compact stellar companions and the formation of accretion disk winds and their precession in the formation of non-symmetrical planetary nebulae. In a highly cited paper, Corradi & Schwarz (A&A, 293, p. 871, 1995) were able to show that bipolar nebulae are produced from higher-mass progenitors than other morphological classes. Hugo knew that you wanted to model PNe in three dimensions, not just in two. He went on to make 3-D photoionization models of PNe with his final PhD student Hektor Monteiro (Schwarz & Monteiro, ApJ, 648

  16. First Look at a Major Transition Period in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    , in other words, those intrinsically bright and remote quasars which are located in directions where the Universe is unusually transparent for ultraviolet light. With a `clear view' thus ensured, it would subsequently be possible to study such far-away objects and the intergalactic gas out there in unprecedented detail with large telescopes. The greater the distance, the longer has the light been underway, the longer is the `look-back' time and the earlier is the epoch about which we then obtain new information. Discovery of a unique quasar Altogether, more than 650 bright quasars have been discovered during this work so far. In the course of six years, the Hamburg group has managed to find two objects that have a clear view and, in particular, are sufficiently distant to observe intergalactic helium in their lines of sight (only four such quasars are presently known). The very brightest of these is the quasar HE 2347-4342 in the southern constellation of Phoenix. Its redshift [2] is so high that a specific helium-line in the far-ultraviolet spectral region is shifted into a wavelength region that is observable [3]. Caption to ESO PR Photo 22a/97 [JPEG, 41k] ESO PR Photo 22a/97 shows a direct image of HE 2347-4342 at the centre of a 7.5 x 7.5 arcmin 2 sky field. HE 2347-4342 was discovered in October 1995 by Lutz Wisotzki from the University of Hamburg; the `HE' stands for Hamburg-ESO . The visual magnitude is 16.1, i.e. `only' 10,000 times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye; this makes it one of the apparently brightest quasars in the sky found so far. Still, it is quite distant - the measured redshift is z = 2.885. This places it at a distance that implies a look-back time of more than 80% of the age of the Universe. We thus observe it, as it was, just a few billion years after the Big Bang. Being so bright in the sky and yet so distant means that HE 2347-4342 must be one of the intrinsically brightest objects in the Universe. In fact, it is no less

  17. First look at a major transition period in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    quasars have been discovered during this work so far. In the course of six years, the Hamburg group has managed to find two objects that have a clear view and, in particular, are sufficiently distant to observe intergalactic helium in their lines of sight (only four such quasars are presently known). The very brightest of these is the quasar HE 2347-4342 in the southern constellation of Phoenix. Its redshift [2] is so high that a specific helium-line in the far-ultraviolet spectral region is shifted into a wavelength region that is observable [3]. [Image at http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-1997/phot-22a-97.html] Caption to ESO PR Photo 22a/97 [JPEG, 41k] ESO PR Photo 22a/97 shows a direct image of HE 2347-4342 at the centre of a 7.5 x 7.5 arcmin2 sky field. HE 2347-4342 was discovered in October 1995 by Lutz Wisotzki from the University of Hamburg; the `HE' stands for Hamburg-ESO. The visual magnitude is 16.1, i.e. `only' 10,000 times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye; this makes it one of the apparently brightest quasars in the sky found so far. Still, it is quite distant - the measured redshift is z = 2.885. This places it at a distance that implies a look-back time of more than 80% of the age of the Universe. We thus observe it, as it was, just a few billion years after the Big Bang. Being so bright in the sky and yet so distant means that HE 2347-4342 must be one of the intrinsically brightest objects in the Universe. In fact, it is no less than 1015 times more luminous than the Sun, or 10,000 times brighter than the entire Milky Way galaxy in which we live. [Image at http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-1997/phot-22b-97.html] Caption to ESO PR Photo 22b/97 [GIF, 22k] Follow-up observations with the now decommissioned ESA/NASA International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observatory showed that the light from this quasar travels the long way to us without being significantly absorbed in the ultraviolet spectral region. This is demonstrated

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Leaf

    2004-04-01

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Leaf

    2004-04-01

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before

  20. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    down time. In October of 2000 Hugo returned to Chile to work at CTIO. After his demonstrated technical, scientific, and social skills drumming the NOT into shape, he was the natural choice to be the CTIO staff member assigned to the 4-m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope sited at Cerro Pachon. Over the next six years Hugo worked closely with Steve Heathcote and the SOAR technical staff to improve the telescope's operational capacity. Hugo's scientific work dealt with late stages of stellar evolution, particularly planetary nebulae, and stellar polarimetry. Higher resolution optical and infrared imaging of He 2-104 led to its being known as the Southern Crab Nebula (Schwarz, Aspin, & Lutz, ApJ, L29, p. 344, 1989). Unlike the northern supernova remnant, this southern object (a nebula surrounding a symbiotic binary) looks very much like a crab. Their images of it appeared in magazines and books around the world. In 1992, along with Romano Corradi (a Ph.D. student of Hugo's) and Jorge Melnick, Schwarz published "A catalogue of narrow band images of planetary nebulae" (A&A, 96, p. 23, 1992). This was the first extensive, and still the largest, CCD image catalogue of PNe. Hugo edited the conference proceedings of a meeting held in La Serena in January 1992 (Mass Loss on the AGB and Beyond). The talks and published papers strengthened some of Hugo's ideas about the importance of evolution in binary systems, in particular the interaction of compact stellar companions and the formation of accretion disk winds and their precession in the formation of non-symmetrical planetary nebulae. In a highly cited paper, Corradi & Schwarz (A&A, 293, p. 871, 1995) were able to show that bipolar nebulae are produced from higher-mass progenitors than other morphological classes. Hugo knew that you wanted to model PNe in three dimensions, not just in two. He went on to make 3-D photoionization models of PNe with his final PhD student Hektor Monteiro (Schwarz & Monteiro, ApJ, 648

  1. PREFACE: Seventh International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Wim J.

    2009-09-01

    possible by generous sponsors, whom we thank wholeheartedly: The Radboud University Nijmegen, The Institute for Molecules and Materials of the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (Stichting FOM), The Foundation PHYSICA (Stichting Physica), and The Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). The organisational support by Erna Gouwens van Oss before and during the conference was essential for its success. The help of Thanja Lambrechts and Vitali Zhaunerchyk during the preparation of the proceedings is greatly appreciated. The delay in the publication of these proceedings is entirely caused by the editor. The authors of the contributions are thanked for the quality of their contributions, Wim J van der Zande, Editor Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands Email: w.vanderzande@science.ru.nl Conference photograph Participants of the 7th International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications, taken in front of d'Amelander Kaap, the conference venue in Ameland, one of the Wadden Islands in the North of the Netherlands. 1. Dror Shafir21. Annemieke Petrignani41. Oumanou Motopan 2. Ioan Scheider22. Johanna Roos42. Max Berg 3. Nigel Adams23. Erna Gouwens van Oss43. Henrik Buhr 4. Hajime Tanuma24. Natalie de Ruette44. Ilya Fabrikant 5. Jonathan Tennyson25. Francois Wameu Tamo45. Claude Krantz 6. Vitali Zhaunerchyk26. Rainer Johnsen46. Michael Stenrup 7. Robert Continetti27. Viatcheslav Kokoouline47. Xavier Urbain 8. Stefan Rosén28. Hidekazu Takagi48. Evelyne Roueff 9. Erik Vigren29. Hans-Jakob Wörner49. Dirk Schwalm 10. Magdalena Kaminska30. Oskar Asvany50. Valery Ngassam 11. Chris Greene31. Lutz Lammich51. Julien Lecointre 12. Steffen Novotny32. Brandon Jordon-Thaden52. Ann Orel 13. Amy Schumak33. Wolf Diettrich Geppert53. Ihor Korolov 14. Gerard van Rooij34. Alexander Faure54. Romain Guerot 15. Wim van der Zande35. Mathias

  2. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    investigating organic solar cell technology. In spring 2011, Nanotechnology launches a new section wholly dedicated to the coverage of new and stimulating research into energy sources based on nanoscale science and technology. There is at present considerable concern over how to fuel the planet in a sustainable manner with the increasingly energy-thirsty human population. Yet the Earth receives more solar energy in one hour than the world population consumes in one year [8]. No wonder research into photovoltaics and ways of increasing the efficiency with which this energy can be harnessed continues to hold so much fascination. References [1] Levin I and White C E 1949 J. Chem. Phys. 18 417 [2] Chirvase D, Parisi J, Hummelen J C and Dyakonov V 2004 Nanotechnology 15 1317 [3] Kwong C Y, Choy W C H, Djurišić A B, Chui P C, Cheng K W and Chan W K 2004 Nanotechnology 15 1156 [4] Krebs F C, Thomann Y, Thomann R and Andreasen J W 2008 Nanotechnology 19 424013 [5] Zeng T-W, Lin Y-Y, Lo H-H, Chen C-W, Chen C-H, Liou S-C, Huang H-Y and Su W-F 2006 Nanotechnology 17 5387 [6] Dissanayake D M N M, Hatton R A, Lutz T, Curry R J and Silva S R P 2009 Nanotechnology 20 245202 [7] Nicholson P G and Castro F A 2010 Nanotechnology 21 492001 [8] http://www.solarenergyworld.org/solar-energy-facts/

  3. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    , tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. This unprecedented view of a merger in action crystallises the theory that the Universe built its magnificent hierarchal structure from the ‘bottom up’ - essentially through mergers of smaller galaxies and galaxy clusters into bigger ones. "Here before our eyes we see the making of one of the biggest objects in the Universe," said Dr Patrick Henry of the University of Hawaii, who led the study. "What was once two distinct but smaller galaxy clusters 300 million years ago is now one massive cluster in turmoil.” Henry and his colleagues, Alexis Finoguenov and Ulrich Briel of the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, present these results in an upcoming issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The forecast for the new super-cluster, they said, is 'clear and calm' now that the worst of the storm has passed. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in Universe, containing hundreds to thousands of galaxies. Our Milky Way galaxy is part of a small group of galaxies but is not gravitationally bound to the closest cluster, the Virgo Cluster. We are destined for a collision in a few thousand million years, though. The cluster named Abell 754 in the constellation Hydra has been known for decades. However, to the scientists' surprise, the new observation reveals that the merger may have occurred from the opposite direction than what was thought. They found evidence for this by tracing the wreckage today left in the merger's wake, spanning a distance of millions of light years. While other large mergers are known, none has been measured in such detail as Abell 754. For the first time, the scientists could create a complete ‘weather map’ of Abell 754 and thus determine a forecast. This map contains information about the temperature, pressure and density of the new cluster. As in all clusters, most the ordinary matter

  4. The lower atmosphere of Pluto revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    ), attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope, have now revealed that the atmosphere as a whole, not just the upper atmosphere, has a mean temperature of minus 180 degrees Celsius, and so it is indeed "much hotter" than the surface. In contrast to the Earth's atmosphere [2], most, if not all, of Pluto's atmosphere is thus undergoing a temperature inversion: the temperature is higher, the higher in the atmosphere you look. The change is about 3 to 15 degrees per kilometre. On Earth, under normal circumstances, the temperature decreases through the atmosphere by about 6 degrees per kilometre. "It is fascinating to think that with CRIRES we are able to precisely measure traces of a gas in an atmosphere 100 000 times more tenuous than the Earth's, on an object five times smaller than our planet and located at the edge of the Solar System," says co-author Hans-Ulrich Käufl. "The combination of CRIRES and the VLT is almost like having an advanced atmospheric research satellite orbiting Pluto." The reason why Pluto's surface is so cold is linked to the existence of Pluto's atmosphere, and is due to the sublimation of the surface ice; much like sweat cools the body as it evaporates from the surface of the skin, this sublimation has a cooling effect on the surface of Pluto. In this respect, Pluto shares some properties with comets, whose coma and tails arise from sublimating ice as they approach the Sun. The CRIRES observations also indicate that methane is the second most common gas in Pluto's atmosphere, representing half a percent of the molecules. "We were able to show that these quantities of methane play a crucial role in the heating processes in the atmosphere and can explain the elevated atmospheric temperature," says Lellouch. Two different models can explain the properties of Pluto's atmosphere. In the first, the astronomers assume that Pluto's surface is covered with a thin layer of methane, which will inhibit the sublimation of the nitrogen frost. The second scenario invokes

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  6. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  8. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  9. STS-55 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia completes the STS-55 Spacelab D-2 mission 6 May with a landing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, at 7:30 a.m. (PDT). The landing was scheduled for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but was diverted to Dryden during the final hours of flight because of unacceptable weather at the Florida facility. The STS-55 mission began with the launch from Kennedy at 7:50 a.m. (PDT), 26 April. Aboard Columbia were commander Steve Nagel; pilot Tom Henricks; mission specialists Jerry Ross, Charles Precourt, and Bernard Harris; and payload specialists Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, both from Germany. During Columbia's flight the NASA space shuttle fleet logged more than one year of combined flight time in space, including the time of all previous orbiters and Columbia on this flight. That mark was reached at 7:01:42 (PDT) on 5 May, and with Columbia's landing the total flight time had reached 365 days, 23 hours, and 28 minutes. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles

  10. EDITORIAL: Quantum science and technology at the nanoscale Quantum science and technology at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    molecular spins [8]. Nanofabrication techniques have seen tremendous advances that have enabled scientists to realise new experimental electronics architectures. Using photolithography, chemical etching and electrodeposition, a collaboration of researchers in China, France and the US has fabricated mechanically controllable break junctions with finely adjustable nanogaps between two gold electrodes on solid state chips [9]. The structures can be used to characterize the electron transport properties of single molecules. In many ways, experimental realization of quantum phenomena has invigorated theoretical endeavours; experiments on the Kondo effect, for example, have renewed interest in finding new approximate solutions for the single impurity Anderson model. Researchers in Brazil present work on finding solutions to the Anderson Hamiltonian based on the atomic approach, which is simple to implement and has a low computational cost [10]. Theoretical descriptions have developed into powerful and sophisticated tools for explaining, understanding and even predicting the behaviour of quantum systems. Recent progress in the theoretical description of correlation and quantum fluctuation phenomena in charge transport through single molecules, quantum dots, and quantum wires is provided in a topical review by researchers in Germany [11]. While a claim to a complete understanding of quantum phenomena may be premature, certainly vast progress has been made in learning how to navigate new territory in the quantum world. And what is more, in exploring novel systems and the continued efforts to develop devices with capabilities enhanced due to quantum effects, we are learning to exploit it. References [1] Eddington A S 1929 The Nature of the Physical World (New York: The University Press) [2] Crommie M F, Lutz C P and Eigler D M 1993 Science 262 218-20 [3] Trbovic J, Minder N, Freitag F and Schönenberger C 2010 Superconductivity-enhanced conductance fluctuations in few-layer graphene

  11. Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in a Polar Desert (Svalbard, Norway): Implications for Interpreting Martian Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Preusker, F.; Trauthan, F.; Reiss, D.; Zanetti, M.; Jaumann, R.; Hiesinger, H.

    2009-04-01

    .D. & Lutz, J.D. (2008) Geomorphology 102, 554-566. [14] Larue, J.-P. (2008) Geomorphology 102, 343-367. [15] Scholten, F. et al. (2005) PE&RS, 71, 1143-1152. [16] Gwinner, K. et al. (2005) PFG, 5/2005, 387-394. [17] Parker, G. et al. (1998) J. Hydraul. Engin., 124, 985-995.

  12. Pedestal Craters in Utopia Planitia and Malea Planum: Evidence for a Past Ice-Rich Substrate from Marginal Sublimation Pits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, S. J.; Head, J. W.; Barlow, N. G.; Marchant, D. R.

    2008-09-01

    . et al. (1995) JGR, 100, 1579. [11] Head, J. et al. (2003) Nature, 426, 797. [12] Barlow, N. (2005) RVAMIC, #3041. [13] Head, J. and Roth, R. (1976) LSI, 50-52. [14] Schultz, P. and Lutz, A. (1988) Icarus, 73, 91. [15] Levrard, B. et al. (2004) Nature, 431, 1072. [16] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) JGR, in progress. [17] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) GRL, in progress. [18] Mustard, J. et al. (2001) Nature, 412, 411. [19] Levy, J. and Head, J. (2005) Terra Nova, 17, 503. [20] Marchant, D. and Head, J. (2007) Icarus, 192, 187. [21] Head, J. and Marchant, D. (2008) Workshop on Martian Gullies, #8009. [22] Moore, J. et al. (1996) Icarus, 122, 63. [23] Lefort, A. et al. (2006) 4th Mars Polar Science Conf., #8061. [24] Zanetti, M. et al. (2008) LPSC 39, 1682. [25] Morgenstern, A. et al. (2007) JGR, 112, E06010. [26] Forget, F. et al. (2006) Science, 311, 368-371. [27] Madeleine, B. et al. (2007) LPSC 38, #1778.

  13. Potential Mars Surveyor 2001 Landing Sites: Low-Elevation Cratered "Highlands" in Central and Eastern Sinus Meridiani and Near Amenthes Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Parker, T. J.; Huntwork, S. N.

    1998-01-01

    than 100 m/pixel) Viking or Mariner images of this site. (2) Central Sinus Meridiani Region (proposed by K. S. Edgett and T. J. Parker) Central Sinus Meridiani is characterized by two types of surfaces [4]. One is like typical martian cratered highlands elsewhere- there are old valley networks and old impact craters. The other is relatively smooth and flat. These two units are in contact around 3.1 S between 5 W and 4 E longitudes. Valley networks- including one at 6'S, 358 W that rivals the Grand Canyon of Arizona- once drained toward the smooth unit. Edgett and Parker [4] proposed that the smooth unit might consist of sediments laid down in a large Noachian-aged sea/ocean that would have covered much of the northern hemisphere. Schultz and Lutz [I I I suggested that it is a paleopolar layered deposit. Regardless, the smooth unit where it contacts the cratered terrain would make an excellent site for Athena rover to investigate. The site is best seen in Viking high resolution images from orbits 408B (about 30 m/pixel) and 746A (about 12 m/pixel). These images suggest that aeolian deflation has occurred along the margin of the smooth unit, and this deflation has exposed horizontal larrs of material. The elevation is about 0.5 km; thermal inertias are 6.5-8.0 x 10(exp -3) cal /sq cm s(exp -0.5) / K; rock abundances are 2-4%; and the surface is probably sandy with dark drifts and ripples but almost no actual dunes. We suggest a landing around 3.2 S, 3.0 W would test the aqueous sediment hypothesis and provide a potentially smooth surface on which to land. (3) Amenthes Fossae Region (proposed by S. N. Huntwork and K. S. Edgett) The Amenthes Fossae are a series of graben/fissures that are circumferential to the southeast side of Isidis Planitia. These fissures cross a variety of ancient, heavily cratered Noachian terrain and younger, Hesperian and Amazonian terrain. We focused our search on a region 0-15 N, 250 - 270 W. Elevations are -0.5 to 2 km. Depending upon whether

  14. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  15. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    , tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. This unprecedented view of a merger in action crystallises the theory that the Universe built its magnificent hierarchal structure from the ‘bottom up’ - essentially through mergers of smaller galaxies and galaxy clusters into bigger ones. "Here before our eyes we see the making of one of the biggest objects in the Universe," said Dr Patrick Henry of the University of Hawaii, who led the study. "What was once two distinct but smaller galaxy clusters 300 million years ago is now one massive cluster in turmoil.” Henry and his colleagues, Alexis Finoguenov and Ulrich Briel of the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, present these results in an upcoming issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The forecast for the new super-cluster, they said, is 'clear and calm' now that the worst of the storm has passed. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in Universe, containing hundreds to thousands of galaxies. Our Milky Way galaxy is part of a small group of galaxies but is not gravitationally bound to the closest cluster, the Virgo Cluster. We are destined for a collision in a few thousand million years, though. The cluster named Abell 754 in the constellation Hydra has been known for decades. However, to the scientists' surprise, the new observation reveals that the merger may have occurred from the opposite direction than what was thought. They found evidence for this by tracing the wreckage today left in the merger's wake, spanning a distance of millions of light years. While other large mergers are known, none has been measured in such detail as Abell 754. For the first time, the scientists could create a complete ‘weather map’ of Abell 754 and thus determine a forecast. This map contains information about the temperature, pressure and density of the new cluster. As in all clusters, most the ordinary matter

  16. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Triest.let's finish—aus basta Some move atoms around to hear how they sound.Karl-Heinz Rieder, Erice, 6 April 1998 From reciprocal space to real space in surface science contents From reciprocal space to real space in surface scienceLudwig Bartels and Karl-Heinz Ernst Karl-Heinz Reider: the quiet pioneerGiorgio Benedek Scattering of CO and N2 molecules by a graphite surfaceJunepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura, W W Hayes and J R Manson Helium, neon and argon diffraction from Ru(0001)M Minniti, C Díaz, J L Fernández Cuñado, A Politano, D Maccariello, F Martín, D Farías and R Miranda Enhanced charge transfer in a monolayer of the organic charge transfer complex TTF-TNAP on Au(111)T R Umbach, I Fernandez-Torrente, J N Ladenthin, J I Pascual and K J Franke Extended pattern recognition scheme for self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo simulationsSyed Islamuddin Shah, Giridhar Nandipati, Abdelkader Kara and Talat S Rahman Acetylene on Cu(111): imaging a molecular surface arrangement with a constantly rearranging tipYeming Zhu, Jonathan Wyrick, Kamelia D Cohen, Katie Marie Magnone, Connor Holzke, Daniel Salib, Quan Ma, Dezheng Sun and Ludwig Bartels Coulomb attraction during the carpet growth mode of NaClFriederike Matthaei, Sarah Heidorn, Konrad Boom, Cord Bertram, Ali Safiei, Jörg Henzl and Karina Morgenstern Molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface: interplay between substrate templating and intermolecular interactionsMarkus Kittelmann, Philipp Rahe and Angelika Kühnle Vertical manipulation of native adatoms on the InAs(111)A surfaceJ Yang, C Nacci, J Martínez-Blanco, K Kanisawa and S Fölsch Charge transfer between isomer domains on n+-doped Si(111)-2 × 1: energetic stabilizationR M Feenstra, G Bussetti, B Bonanni, A Violante, C Goletti, P Chiaradia, M G Betti and C Mariani Probing the properties of metal-oxide interfaces: silica films on Mo and Ru supportsLeonid Lichtenstein, Markus Heyde, Stefan Ulrich, Niklas Nilius

  17. First Circumstellar Disk around a Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Observations with an infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla have for the first time shown the presence of a disk around a hot and massive star, known as G339.88-1.26 . Until now, disks have only been found around less massive stars. Planets are formed in such disks. The new discovery may thus have important implications for our understanding of the formation of planetary systems around stars. TIMMI observations Observations at mid-infrared wavelengths were carried out in July 1997 by Bringfried Stecklum (Landessternwarte Thüringen, Tautenburg, Germany) and Hans-Ulrich Käufl (ESO), using the TIMMI instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Additional measurements were carried out in March 1998. TIMMI ( T hermal I nfrared M ulti M ode I nstrument) is a general-purpose camera spectrometer operating at a wavelength of 10 µm. To reach sufficient sensitivity, the camera must be cooled to approx. -260 o C, i.e. a few degrees above the absolute minimum, by use of liquid Helium. Astronomical objects whose temperatures are between -120 o C and 300 o C radiate most of their energy at this wavelength. In addition, dust and haze that are absolutely impenetrable for light visible to the human eye, are often found to be nearly transparent at this wavelength. This is why fire-fighters now use similar equipment to look through smoke. G339.88-1.26: A very special object ESO PR Photo 22a/98 ESO PR Photo 22a/98 [JPEG, 800k] This image is a true-color composite of near-infrared observations of the sky region around the radio source G339.88-1.26 with the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. In this image, the visible colors red, green and blue have been used to represent the infrared filters J, H and K (at 1.25, 1.63 and 2.2 µm wavelength, respectively). No object is visible at the position of the radio source, even at these near-infrared wavelengths. A dark band of absorbing dust is clearly visible, exactly at the position of the object (indicated by an

  18. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2011-06-01

    particle image velocimetry (PIV), wherein 'instantaneous' planes of the velocity field are obtained. (The planar information, of course, falls short of the volumetric data that would be required for a complete measurement strategy.) In this paper [1] the authors first provide a valuable review of the literature in this area before presenting their original contribution. Operating with the constraint of incomplete information, the authors have significantly advanced this aspect of fluid mechanics measurements by: (i) performing error analysis evaluations of the extant methodologies, and (ii) introducing the use of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) techniques to smooth the PIV data. Three globally unsteady flow fields are investigated in this paper. Two of the subject flows are simulations where the pressure can be compared with the inferred value using simulated PIV results—with the addition of typical measurement uncertainties—and the third test case is the unsteady flow in a planar diffuser. This paper is a benchmark contribution on the path to accurately inferring pressure values in the interior of a flow field. 2010 Award Award Winner—Measurement Science Achieving high effective Q-factors in ultra-high vacuum dynamic force microscopy Jannis Lübbe, Lutz Tröger, Stefan Torbrügge, Ralf Bechstein, Christoph Richter, Angelika Kühnle and Michael Reichling Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany Nanoworld Services GmbH, Schottkystraße 10, 91058 Erlangen, Germany Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Jakob-Welder Weg 11, 55099 Mainz, Germany This paper [2] presents a detailed methodology to achieve good Q-factors in a scanning force microscope. Whilst this instrument, operated in the non-contact mode (NC-AFM), has become a standard tool for atomic scale surface characterization, the paper deals specifically with its operation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Performance of the system

  19. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schießl, Peter

    2000-09-01

    .6 Literatur. Teil II: Verbundfragen (Rolf Eligehausen). 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Beschreibung des Verbundverhaltens zwischen Stahl und Beton (Gert König, Nguyen V. Tue und Wolfgang Kurz). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Beschreibung der Kraftübertragung zwischen Stahl und Beton. 1.3 Vorstellung des Modells. 1.4 Materialgesetze für die Berechnung der Verformung des Fachwerks. 1.5 Vergleich zwischen Versuch und Modell. 1.6 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 1.7 Literatur. 2 Verbund unter nicht ruhender Beanspruchung (Rainer Koch und György L. Balázs). 2.1 Übersicht über die durchgeführten Versuche. 2.2 Versuchkörper und Materialien. 2.3 Versuchseinrichtungen. 2.4 Versuche und Ergebnisse. 2.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 2.6 Literatur. 3 Trag- und Verformungsverhalten von Stahlbetontragwerken unter Betriebsbelastung (Thomas M. Sippel und Rolf Eligehausen). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Allgemeines. 3.3 Rechenmodell und Materialmodelle. 3.4 Vergleich zwischen Versuchen und Rechnung. 3.5 Parameterstudien. 3.6 Vereinfachtes Rechenmodell. 3.7 Zusammenfassung. 3.8 Literatur. 4 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern mit nachträglichem Verbund unter Betriebsbedingungen (Josef Hegger, Norbert Will und Heiner Cordes). 4.1 Einführung. 4.2 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern. 4.3 Zeitabhängige Effekte des Verbunds. 4.4 Versuche unter statischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.5 Versuche unter dynamischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.6 Bemessungsvorschlag für Verbundkennwerte. 4.7 Zusammenfassung. 4.8 Literatur. 5 Spannungsumlagerungen in gemischt bewehrten Querschnitten (Josef Hegger, Heiner Cordes und Matthias Rudlof). 5.1 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung. 5.2 Spannungsumlagerungen bei gemischter Bewehrung. 5.3 Versuche an zentrischen Zugkörpern. 5.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 5.5 Ermittlung und Vergleich von Verbundkennwerten. 5.6 Zusammenfassung. 5.7 Literatur. Teil III: Bauteile (Karl Kordina). 1 Einfluß von Längsbeanspruchungen auf den Neigungswinkel der Schubrisse (Marek Los und Ulrich Quast). 1.1 Einleitung. 1

  20. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    encounters with this giant planet. For instance, it passed Jupiter at a distance of about 30 million kilometers in 1882 and 1894, and again at 40 million kilometres in 1965. SW-3 belongs to the so-called ``Jupiter family'' of comets. Some time ago, SW-3 was chosen as a back-up target for the upcoming Rosetta space mission by the European Space Agency (ESA) because the elliptical orbit of this particular comet may be reached with a relatively small expenditure of rocket fuel (the prime target is Comet Wirtanen). That allows to carry more scientific instruments on this extraordinary mission which aims at a long-term study of a cometary nucleus from a spacecraft in circum-cometary orbit. Rosetta will be launched early in the next century and will also carry two landing modules which will descend on the surface of the nucleus. The Dramatic Outburst of SW-3 In order to study this potential Rosetta target comet, Hermann Boehnhardt (Astronomical Institute of the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany) and Hans-Ulrich Kaufl (ESO-Garching) early in 1995 applied for simultaneous observing time at the ESO 3.6-m telescope and 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory. In May 1995, the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) granted the astronomers some nights for these observations in mid-December 1995 with the TIMMI and EMMI instruments at the 3.6-m and the NTT, respectively, i.e. not quite two months after the predicted perihelion passage on September 22, when the comet would be closest to the Sun (140 million kilometres). Meanwhile, SW-3 was moving closer towards the Sun. After its recovery in December 1994 with the 3.5-metre reflector at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Kurt Birkle and Hermann Boehnhardt collected a series of almost monthly images with that telescope until late June 1995, showing that the comet developed normally with respect to its brightness and the coma and tail. On August 20, it was observed by a Japanese amateur astronomer at

  1. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    . Improved beam quality of a high power Yb: YAG laser (oral paper) / Dennis G. Harris ... [et al.]. Intracavity adaptive optics optimization of an end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser (oral paper) / Petra Welp, Ulrich Wittrock. New results in high power lasers beam correction (oral paper) / Alexis Kudryashov ... [et al.]. Adaptive optical systems for the Shenguang-III prototype facility (oral paper) / Zeping Yang ... [et al.]. Adaptive optics control of solid-state lasers (poster paper) / Walter Lubeigt ... [et al.]. Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for multimode beam reshaping (poster paper) / Inna V. Ilyina, Tatyana Yu. Cherezova. New algorithm of combining for spatial coherent beams (poster paper) / Ruofu Yang ... [et al.]. Intracavity mode control of a solid-state laser using a 19-element deformable mirror (poster paper) / Ping Yang ... [et al.] -- pt. 6. Adaptive optics in communication and atmospheric compensation. Fourier image sharpness sensor for laser communications (oral paper) / Kristin N. Walker and Robert K. Tyson. Fast closed-loop adaptive optics system for imaging through strong turbulence layers (oral paper) / Ivo Buske and Wolfgang Riede. Correction of wavefront aberrations and optical communication using aperture synthesis (oral paper) / R. J. Eastwood ... [et al.]. Adaptive optics system for a small telescope (oral paper) / G. Vdovin, M. Loktev and O. Soloviev. Fast correction of atmospheric turbulence using a membrane deformable mirror (poster paper) / Ivan Capraro, Stefano Bonora, Paolo Villoresi. Atmospheric turbulence measurements over a 3km horizontal path with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (poster paper) / Ruth Mackey, K. Murphy and Chris Dainty. Field-oriented wavefront sensor for laser guide stars (poster paper) / Lidija Bolbasova, Alexander Goncharov and Vladimir Lukin.

  2. First Look at a Major Transition Period in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    , in other words, those intrinsically bright and remote quasars which are located in directions where the Universe is unusually transparent for ultraviolet light. With a `clear view' thus ensured, it would subsequently be possible to study such far-away objects and the intergalactic gas out there in unprecedented detail with large telescopes. The greater the distance, the longer has the light been underway, the longer is the `look-back' time and the earlier is the epoch about which we then obtain new information. Discovery of a unique quasar Altogether, more than 650 bright quasars have been discovered during this work so far. In the course of six years, the Hamburg group has managed to find two objects that have a clear view and, in particular, are sufficiently distant to observe intergalactic helium in their lines of sight (only four such quasars are presently known). The very brightest of these is the quasar HE 2347-4342 in the southern constellation of Phoenix. Its redshift [2] is so high that a specific helium-line in the far-ultraviolet spectral region is shifted into a wavelength region that is observable [3]. Caption to ESO PR Photo 22a/97 [JPEG, 41k] ESO PR Photo 22a/97 shows a direct image of HE 2347-4342 at the centre of a 7.5 x 7.5 arcmin 2 sky field. HE 2347-4342 was discovered in October 1995 by Lutz Wisotzki from the University of Hamburg; the `HE' stands for Hamburg-ESO . The visual magnitude is 16.1, i.e. `only' 10,000 times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye; this makes it one of the apparently brightest quasars in the sky found so far. Still, it is quite distant - the measured redshift is z = 2.885. This places it at a distance that implies a look-back time of more than 80% of the age of the Universe. We thus observe it, as it was, just a few billion years after the Big Bang. Being so bright in the sky and yet so distant means that HE 2347-4342 must be one of the intrinsically brightest objects in the Universe. In fact, it is no less

  3. First look at a major transition period in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    quasars have been discovered during this work so far. In the course of six years, the Hamburg group has managed to find two objects that have a clear view and, in particular, are sufficiently distant to observe intergalactic helium in their lines of sight (only four such quasars are presently known). The very brightest of these is the quasar HE 2347-4342 in the southern constellation of Phoenix. Its redshift [2] is so high that a specific helium-line in the far-ultraviolet spectral region is shifted into a wavelength region that is observable [3]. [Image at http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-1997/phot-22a-97.html] Caption to ESO PR Photo 22a/97 [JPEG, 41k] ESO PR Photo 22a/97 shows a direct image of HE 2347-4342 at the centre of a 7.5 x 7.5 arcmin2 sky field. HE 2347-4342 was discovered in October 1995 by Lutz Wisotzki from the University of Hamburg; the `HE' stands for Hamburg-ESO. The visual magnitude is 16.1, i.e. `only' 10,000 times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye; this makes it one of the apparently brightest quasars in the sky found so far. Still, it is quite distant - the measured redshift is z = 2.885. This places it at a distance that implies a look-back time of more than 80% of the age of the Universe. We thus observe it, as it was, just a few billion years after the Big Bang. Being so bright in the sky and yet so distant means that HE 2347-4342 must be one of the intrinsically brightest objects in the Universe. In fact, it is no less than 1015 times more luminous than the Sun, or 10,000 times brighter than the entire Milky Way galaxy in which we live. [Image at http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-1997/phot-22b-97.html] Caption to ESO PR Photo 22b/97 [GIF, 22k] Follow-up observations with the now decommissioned ESA/NASA International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observatory showed that the light from this quasar travels the long way to us without being significantly absorbed in the ultraviolet spectral region. This is demonstrated

  4. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    /Saclay Irfu/SPP FRANCAVILLA, Paolo IFAE Barcelona GATAULLIN, Marat California Institute of Technology GATTO, Corrado INFN-Napoli GAUDIO, Gabriella INFN-Pavia GERMANI, Stefano INFN-Perugia Goldenzweig, Pablo University of Rochester GRAF, Norman SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory GROOM, Don Lawrence Berkeley Lab GUARDINCERRI, Elena Los Alamos National Laboratory HAUPTMAN, John Iowa State University HENRIQUES, Ana CERN HUANG, Jin Los Alamos National Laboratory HU, Tao IHEP-Beijing, CAS JIANG, Xiaodong Los Alamos National Laboratory JUI, Charles University of Utah KAPUSTINSKY, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory KIBILKO, Mark SE Technical Sales, Inc. KIRSCHENMANN, Henning University of Hamburg KISTENEV, Edouard Brookhaven National Laboratory KLIMEK, Pawel Stockholm Universitet KROEGER, Robert University of Mississippi LECOQ, Paul CERN LEE, Sehwook Texas Tech University LEE, Sung-Won Texas Tech University LIVAN, Michele Pavia University LUTZ, Benjamin DESY MAGILL, Stephen Argonne National Laboratory MATHIS, Mark College of William and Mary MATTHEWS, John University of Utah MENKE, Sven Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik MOULSON, Matthew INFN-Frascati NAGEL, Martin Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik NAKAMURA, Isamu KEK NEMECEK, Stanislav FZU AVCR Praha NESSI-TEDALDI, Francesca ETH Zurich NOVOTNY, Rainer 2nd Physics Institute, University Giessen OREGLIA, Mark University of Chicago PERLOFF, Alexx Texas A&M University PETYT, David Rutherford Appleton Laboratory RAHMAT, Rahmat University of Mississippi RAMILLI, Marco Hamburg Universitaet ROSIER LEES, Sylvie LAPP- IN2P3-CNRS RUTHERFOORD, John University of Arizona SAKUMA, Tai Texas A&M University SANTIAGO CERQUEIRA, Augusto Federal University of Juiz de Fora SARRA, Ivano INFN-Frascati SEIDEL, Sally University of New Mexico SEIFERT, Frank TU Dresden, Germany SHAMIM, Mansoora University of Oregon SIMON, Frank Max-Planck-Institute for Physics STAFFAN, Paul Wiener Plein and Baus, Corp Dr. STAROVOITOV, Pavel DESY TABARELLI DE FATIS, Tommaso

  5. A Glimpse of the Young Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    metal-deficient stars that is currently being carried out at Hamburger Sternwarte [4]. Over a period of more than 10 years, a large collection of photographic pictures of the southern sky were obtained with the ESO 1-m Schmidt Telescope, a wide-angle telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile that has now been decommissioned. Thanks to a large glass prism in the front of the telescope, every object in the observed sky field - stars as well as galaxies - was imaged as a small spectrum, providing a first rough idea about its type and composition. The main aim of this "Hamburg/ESO survey" (with Dieter Reimers , Associate Director of the Hamburger Sternwarte, as Principal Investigator and Lutz Wisotzki , now at Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany, as Project Scientist) was to find quasars (particularly active centres of galaxies), a task that was accomplished most successfully, cf. e.g., ESO PR 10/97 and ESO PR 08/00 (Report F). A very welcome by-product of this survey has been a rich harvest of very metal-poor stars . This part of the project is led by Norbert Christlieb , also from the Hamburg Observatory, and now on sabbatical leave at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Australian National University (Canberra, Australia). Using fast computers and advanced pattern-recognition software to analyze the photographic exposures and thus to sift through millions of registered stellar spectra, about 8000 candidates for very metal-poor stars were found. These stars are now being scrutinized spectroscopically one-by-one with many medium-sized telescopes all over the world. Confirmed candidates are then observed with the largest telescopes in the world in order to obtain very detailed spectra (of high spectral resolution), which allow the astronomers to determine their chemical composition accurately. The very metal-deficient star HE 0107-5240 ESO PR Photo 25a/02 ESO PR Photo 25a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 458 pix - 86k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 915

  6. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    and Chalazonitis N 1961 Excitatiory and inhibitory processes initiated by light and infra-red radiations in single identifiable nerve cells Nervous Inhibition ed. E Florey (New York: Pergamon) pP 194-231 [5] Fork R L 1971 Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia Science 171 907-8 [6] Allegre G, Avrillier S and Albe-Fessard D 1994 Stimulation in the rat of a nerve fiber bundle by a short UV pulse from an excimer laser Neurosci. Lett. 180 261-4 [7] Hirase H, Nikolenko V, Goldberg J H and Yuste R 2002 Multiphoton stimulation of neurons J. Neurobiol. 51 237-47 [8] Callaway E M and Yuste R 2002 Stimulating neurons with light Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12 587-92 [9] Ellis-Davies G C 2007 Caged compounds: photorelease technology for control of cellular chemistry and physiology Nat. Methods 4 619-28 [10] Shoham S, O'Connor D H, Sarkisov D V and Wang S S 2005 Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns Nat. Methods 2 837-43 [11] Nikolenko V, Poskanzer K E and Yuste R 2007 Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits Nat. Methods 4 943-50 [12] Lutz C, Otis T S, DeSars V, Charpak S, DiGregorio D A and Emiliani V 2008 Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters Nat. Methods 5 821-7 [13] Nikolenko V, Watson B O, Araya R, Woodruff A, Peterka D S and Yuste R 2008 SLM microscopy: scanless two-photon imaging and photostimulation with spatial light modulators Front. Neural Circuits 2 5 [14] Zahid M, Velez-Fort M, Papagiakoumou E, Ventalon C, Angulo M C and Emiliani V Holographic photolysis for multiple cell stimulation in mouse hippocampal slices PLoS One 5 e9431 [15] Boyden E S, Zhang F, Bamberg E, Nagel G and Deisseroth K 2005 Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity Nat. Neurosci. 8 1263-8 [16] Zhang F, Aravanis A M, Adamantidis A, de Lecea L and Deisseroth K 2007 Circuit-breakers: optical technologies for probing neural signals and systems Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 577-81 [17] Gradinaru V, Zhang F, Ramakrishnan

  7. New VLT Observations Address the Age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    consists of Sabine Moehler (Principal Investigator), Ulrich Heber and Ralf Napiwotzki (all at Dr. Remeis Sternwarte, Astronomisches Institut der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Bamberg, Germany), Detlev Koester (Institut für Theoretische Physik and Astrophysik, Kiel, Germany) and Alvio Renzini (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany). [2] This method to determine astronomical distances is based on the fact that the brightness of an object is inversely proportionate to the square of the distance. If two stars are identical in all respects, and if the distance to one of them is known, the distance to the other one can therefore be accurately determined from the measured (apparent) brightness difference. However, if they are not absolutely identical, e.g. if their masses and thus their intrinsic brightness differ, a suitable correction will have to be applied. [3] One spectacular example of a planetary nebula with a central White Dwarf star is the Dumbbell Nebula, observed last year with the VLT, cf. ESO PR Photos 38a-b/98. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  8. TIMMI2 Images the Heart of the Orion Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    valuable tool for studying the birth of stars and the formation of circumstellar disks and planets. As such it is complementary to submm observations, e.g. with the future ALMA facility. Later, an extremely large telescope with similar instrumentation - like the 100-m OWL for which a concept study is now underway at ESO - may be used to image earth-size planets orbiting stars in our cosmic neighbourhood. Notes [1]: The team consists of Rolf Chini and Markus Nielbock (Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany), Ralf Siebenmorgen and Hans-Ulrich Käufl (ESO-Garching, Germany). [2]: A more exhaustive description of TIMMI2 is available in the ESO Messenger (No. 102, page 4). Technical information about the photos PR Photo 12a/01 covers an area of approx. 3 x 3 arcmin 2. PR Photo 12b/01 shows an N-band (10.3 µm) mosaic image of the Orion BN/KL Complex, composed of 80 co-added exposures, lasting a total of 3 min, obtained with the 240 x 320 Raytheon detector array of the TIMMI2 camera. The observations were made in the night of January 27-28, 2001. Individual exposures have a scale of 0.2 arcsec/pixel and were taken with the standard chopping and nodding technique with a nodding amplitude of 30 arcsec. The colours are displayed on a logarithmic intensity scale in order to enhance the faintest structures. PR Photo 12c/01 shows a similar Q-band (20.0 µm) mosaic, obtained with the same observing procedure. Both photos show diffraction limited structures in a 30 x 42 arcsec 2 sky field. PR Photo 12d/01 shows the observed 20.0 µm to 10.3 µm brightness ratio and hence the distribution of the colour temperature. The lowest observed ratio corresponds to the highest temperature (a de-reddened colour temperature of about 460K, or +190 °C); it occurs at the location of the BN object .

  9. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2007-12-01

    particle physics was uncovered. A fuller idea of his exceptional scientific scope is indicated by the fact that the standard model for a massive black hole surrounded by a cluster of stars is still called the Bahcall-Wolf model; the most widely quoted model for our Galaxy was for decades the Bahcall-Soneira model; the now common use of quasars as flashlights to illuminate and study the intervening intergalactic medium was originated by Bahcall and Salpeter; and the most accurate models for the solar interior were those developed by Bahcall with Roger Ulrich, Marc Pinsonneault, and others. John Bahcall was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on 30 December 1934, to Mildred and Malcolm Bahcall. Mildred was a pianist, and both parents worked in business. John Bahcall had one brother, Robert Bahcall, now deceased. At Byrd High School in Shreveport, John became interested in sports, especially tennis; with persistence and dedication — traits he exemplified throughout his life — he became the tennis champion of his state. John continued to play and love tennis his entire life. As a high school senior, Bahcall became interested in debate and joined the school's Debate Team. With the same persistence, dedication, and hard work, Bahcall became a National Debate Team winner — the first time ever for this Louisiana high school. Bahcall's debate skills served him well throughout his life, as all of those who tried to debate him know well. Bahcall's love of physics had a non-traditional beginning. He never took science classes in high school; he was excused to play tennis in the afternoons when science courses were offered. After one year at Louisiana State University, Bahcall transferred to the University of California in Berkeley on a tennis scholarship and support from an uncle who saw the promise in the young Bahcall. At Berkeley he began studying philosophy. Berkeley's graduation requirement of a science course led Bahcall to take a physics class, the first science class he ever

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    : American Scientific Publishers) [7] Petty M C 2007 Molecular Electronics, (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) [8] 2006 Molecular Wires and Nanoscale Conductors Faraday Discuss. 131 1-420 Focus on Molecular Electronics Contents Model of mixed Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons in donor-acceptor molecular crystals: investigation of vibronic spectra I J Lalov, C Warns and P Reineker Suppressing the current through molecular wires: comparison of two mechanisms GuangQi Li, Michael Schreiber and Ulrich Kleinekathöfer Charge-memory effect in a polaron model: equation-of-motion method for Green functions Pino D'Amico, Dmitry A Ryndyk, Gianaurelio Cuniberti and Klaus Richter Determination of transport levels of organic semiconductors by UPS and IPS S Krause, M B Casu, A Schöll and E Umbach Electrical characterization of alkane monolayers using micro-transfer printing: tunneling and molecular transport C Kreuter, S Bächle, E Scheer and A Erbe Correlated charge transfer along molecular chains L Mühlbacher and J Ankerhold Non-equilibrium Green's functions in density functional tight binding: method and applications A Pecchia, G Penazzi, L Salvucci and A Di Carlo Asymmetric Coulomb blockade and Kondo temperature of single-molecule transistors Florian Elste and Felix von Oppen Electron-phonon scattering in molecular electronics: from inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy to heating effects Alessio Gagliardi, Giuseppe Romano, Alessandro Pecchia, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas Frauenheim and Thomas A Niehaus Interlinking Au nanoparticles in 2D arrays via conjugated dithiolated molecules Jianhui Liao, Markus A Mangold, Sergio Grunder, Marcel Mayor, Christian Schönenberger and Michel Calame Conductance values of alkanedithiol molecular junctions M Teresa González, Jan Brunner, Roman Huber, Songmei Wu, Christian Schönenberger and Michel Calame Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting C Symonds, C Bonnand, J C Plenet, A Bréhier, R Parashkov, J S Lauret, E

  12. SINFONI Opens with Upbeat Chords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    the development of SINFONI for nearly 7 years. Some of the members of the Commissioning Teams are depicted in PR Photos 24g/04 and 24h/04; in addition to the SPIFFI team members present on the second photo, Walter Bornemann, Reinhard Genzel, Hans Gemperlein, Stefan Huber have also been working on the reintegration/commissioning in Paranal. Notes [1] This press release is issued in coordination between ESO, the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany, and the Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie in Leiden, The Netherlands. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/pressemitteilungen/2004/pressemitteilung20040824/index.html and a Dutch version at http://www.astronomy.nl/inhoud/pers/persberichten/30_08_04.html. [2] The SINFONI team consists of Roberto Abuter, Andrew Baker, Walter Bornemann, Ric Davies, Frank Eisenhauer (SPIFFI Principal Investigator), Hans Gemperlein, Reinhard Genzel (MPE Director), Andrea Gilbert, Armin Goldbrunner, Matthew Horrobin, Stefan Huber, Christof Iserlohe, Matthew Lehnert, Werner Lieb, Dieter Lutz, Nicole Nesvadba, Claudia Röhrle, Jürgen Schreiber, Linda Tacconi, Matthias Tecza, Niranjan Thatte, Harald Weisz (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Anthony Brown, Paul van der Werf (NOVA, Leiden, The Netherlands), Eddy Elswijk, Johan Pragt, Jan Kragt, Gabby Kroes, Ton Schoenmaker, Rik ter Horst (ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands), Henri Bonnet (SINFONI Project Manager), Roberto Castillo, Ralf Conzelmann, Romuald Damster, Bernard Delabre, Christophe Dupuy, Robert Donaldson, Christophe Dumas, Enrico Fedrigo, Gert Finger, Gordon Gillet, Norbert Hubin (Head of Adaptive Optics Dept.), Andreas Kaufer, Franz Koch, Johann Kolb, Andrea Modigliani, Guy Monnet (Head of Telescope Systems Division), Chris Lidman, Jochen Liske, Jean Louis Lizon, Markus Kissler-Patig (SINFONI Instrument Scientist), Jerome Paufique, Juha Reunanen