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Sample records for lutze ulrich stachow

  1. Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

  2. Adolpho Lutz and the origins of medical entomology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, J L

    2005-12-01

    Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940) formed a bridge between the Bahian Tropicalist School and post-Mansonian medicine. Before taking over as head of the São Paulo Bacteriological Institute (1893), Lutz traveled through a variety of regions and delved into various disciplines. In the 1880s, he was already arguing that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes. Carbuncles, cholera, and typhoid fever were then the accepted models for investigating the etiology of infectious diseases. Following the discovery of how malaria was transmitted, attention turned to hematophagous diptera. Physicians, bacteriologists, zoologists, and veterinarians reshaped the network of actors involved in the 'hunt' for the agents and transmitters of diseases, as they began relying on analogies with malaria and yellow fever. Edwin Ray Lankester, director of the British Museum (Natural History), launched then a worldwide investigation into species that might be linked to human disease. The species described by Lutz and his proposed classification system were vital to Frederick Theobald's fundamental work in medical entomology, published in the early twentieth century. In 1908, Lutz brought with him to the Oswaldo Cruz Institute a remarkable quantity of research and experiments in all branches of the newly created "tropical medicine," devoted especially to entomology.

  3. Official portrait of STS-55 SL-D2 Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter poses for his Official portrait. Walter is assigned to the STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) mission. This is the second dedicated German Spacelab flight. United States and German flags and a space shuttle orbiter model in launch configuration create the backdrop.

  4. The DFVLR wind-energy test facility 'Ulrich Huetter' on Schnittlinger Berg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussmann, Alfred

    1986-11-01

    The DFVLR test facility for wind-energy systems (named after Ulrich Huetter, the designer of the 100-kW GFRP-rotor W 34 wind turbine first manufactured and tested in the 1950s) is described and illustrated with photographs. The history of the facility is traced, and current operations in gathering, archiving, processing, interpreting, and documenting performance-test data are outlined. The facility includes instrumentation for rotor telemetry, gondola motion measurements, and ground measurements and provides testing services to private users on both contract and leasing bases.

  5. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  6. Problems with bins: A critical reassessment of Gotelli and Ulrich's Bayes approach using bird data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Gagern, Melanie; von Gagern, Martin; Schmitz Ornés, Angela

    2015-11-01

    Null model analyses are a common technique used to detect co-occurrence patterns in presence-absence matrices of species. One method which aims to identify interesting pairs of species has been introduced by Gotelli and Ulrich (2010). Based on the "fixed-fixed" null model constraint, it uses a pair-wise C-Score measure and partitions pairs into a number of bins in an attempt to reduce the number of false positives. Applying this technique to ornithological observations from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, provided some insights into the suitability of the method for this kind of data in particular, and raised some more fundamental questions about the method in general. Specifically, the number of bins, which can be chosen arbitrarily, is shown to have significant impact on the number and identity of the returned species pairs. Other parameters, like the number of null model iterations, or the algorithm used to generate these null model matrices, have less impact as long as certain minimal requirements are met. The computations have been performed using different implementations of the method mentioned, "Pairs" by Ulrich and our own code "RePairs". The latter also introduces a randomization algorithm based on a network flow model. Comparing these implementations exposed an error in "Pairs", which might invalidate results obtained using it.

  7. Correlation of neutrino fluxes in the standard Bahcall-Ulrich solar model in connection with the solar-neutrino problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    The ratios of the fluxes of solar neutrinos from the CNO cycle to those of boron neutrinos are less model-dependent than the fluxes themselves in the standard Bahcall-Ulrich solar model. The uncertainties for these ratios are calculated at the level of three standard deviations. Their importance in the overall formulation of the problem of detecting solar neutrinos is discussed.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP-DR1) catalogs (Lutz+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bongiovanni, A.; Brisbin, D.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wetzstein, M.; Wieprecht, E.

    2013-11-01

    PACS catalogs built by the PEP team, with key contributions by Stefano Berta, Benjamin Magnelli, Paola Popesso, Dieter Lutz, Francesca Pozzi, Bruno Altieri, Herve Aussel, Hoseong Hwang, Emeric Le Floc'h, Georgios Magdis, Raanan Nordon, Albrecht Poglitsch, Laurie Riguccini, Amelie Saintonge, Li Shao. For more details, please refer to Lutz et al. (2011A&A...532A..90L) and to the PDF documentation associated to the release. Data and catalogs can be retrieved from the web page http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/Research/PEP/publicdatareleases.php See the PDF documentation associated to the PEP DR1 release, http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_global.pdf and http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_SPIRE.pdf for more details. (69 data files).

  9. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  10. Reminder and 2AFC tasks provide similar estimates of the difference limen: a reanalysis of data from Lapid, Ulrich, and Rammsayer (2008) and a discussion of Ulrich and Vorberg (2009).

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2010-05-01

    Lapid, Ulrich, and Rammsayer (2008) reported that estimates of the difference limen (DL) from a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task are higher than those obtained from a reminder task. This article reanalyzes their data in order to correct an error in their estimates of the DL from 2AFC data. We also extend the psychometric functions fitted to data from both tasks to incorporate an extra parameter that has been shown to allow obtaining accurate estimates of the DL that are unaffected by lapses. Contrary to Lapid et al.'s conclusion, our reanalysis shows that DLs estimated with the 2AFC task are only minimally (and not always significantly) larger than those estimated with the reminder task. We also show that their data are contaminated by response bias, and that the small remaining difference between DLs estimated with 2AFC and reminder tasks can be reasonably attributed to the differential effects that response bias has in either task as they were defined in Lapid et al.'s experiments. Finally, we discuss a novel approach presented by Ulrich and Vorberg (2009) for fitting psychometric functions to 2AFC discrimination data.

  11. The Mysterious Case of the Pervasive Choice Biography: Ulrich Beck, Structure/Agency, and the Middling State of Theory in the Sociology of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Dan

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of the concept of choice biography, as it is linked to the work of Ulrich Beck, in youth research. The concept has been called a current pervasive theoretical orthodoxy. However, this article argues that the concept is most often taken up to critique, and Beck used mostly as a foil, through arguing that he…

  12. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Automation of the Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Litzenberg, D; Irrer, J; Kessler, M; Lam, K; Keranen, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize clinical efficiency and shorten patient wait time by minimizing the time and effort required to perform the Winston-Lutz test before stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) through automation of the delivery, analysis, and documentation of results. Methods: The radiation fields of the Winston-Lutz (WL) test were created in a “machine-QA patient” saved in ARIA for use before SRS cases. Images of the BRW target ball placed at mechanical isocenter are captured with the portal imager for each of four, 2cm×2cm, MLC-shaped beams. When the WL plan is delivered and closed, this event is detected by in-house software called EventNet which automates subsequent processes with the aid of the ARIA web services. Images are automatically retrieved from the ARIA database and analyzed to determine the offset of the target ball from radiation isocenter. The results are posted to a website and a composite summary image of the results is pushed back into ImageBrowser for review and authenticated documentation. Results: The total time to perform the test was reduced from 20-25 minutes to less than 4 minutes. The results were found to be more accurate and consistent than the previous method which used radiochromic film. The images were also analyzed with DoseLab for comparison. The difference between the film and automated WL results in the X and Y direction and the radius were (−0.17 +/− 0.28) mm, (0.21 +/− 0.20) mm and (−0.14 +/− 0.27) mm, respectively. The difference between the DoseLab and automated WL results were (−0.05 +/− 0.06) mm, (−0.01 +/− 0.02) mm and (0.01 +/− 0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusions: This process reduced patient wait times by 15–20 minutes making the treatment machine available to treat another patient. Accuracy and consistency of results were improved over the previous method and were comparable to other commercial solutions. Access to the ARIA web services is made possible through an Eclipse co-development agreement

  13. SU-E-J-117: Verification Method for the Detection Accuracy of Automatic Winston Lutz Test

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, A; Chan, K; Fee, F; Chau, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Winston Lutz test (WLT) has been a standard QA procedure performed prior to SRS treatment, to verify the mechanical iso-center setup accuracy upon different Gantry/Couch movements. Several detection algorithms exist,for analyzing the ball-radiation field alignment automatically. However, the accuracy of these algorithms have not been fully addressed. Here, we reveal the possible errors arise from each step in WLT, and verify the software detection accuracy with the Rectilinear Phantom Pointer (RLPP), a tool commonly used for aligning treatment plan coordinate with mechanical iso-center. Methods: WLT was performed with the radio-opaque ball mounted on a MIS and irradiated onto EDR2 films. The films were scanned and processed with an in-house Matlab program for automatic iso-center detection. Tests were also performed to identify the errors arise from setup, film development and scanning process. The radioopaque ball was then mounted onto the RLPP, and offset laterally and longitudinally in 7 known positions ( 0, ±0.2, ±0.5, ±0.8 mm) manually for irradiations. The gantry and couch was set to zero degree for all irradiation. The same scanned images were processed repeatedly to check the repeatability of the software. Results: Miminal discrepancies (mean=0.05mm) were detected with 2 films overlapped and irradiated but developed separately. This reveals the error arise from film processor and scanner alone. Maximum setup errors were found to be around 0.2mm, by analyzing data collected from 10 irradiations over 2 months. For the known shift introduced using the RLPP, the results agree with the manual offset, and fit linearly (R{sup 2}>0.99) when plotted relative to the first ball with zero shift. Conclusion: We systematically reveal the possible errors arise from each step in WLT, and introduce a simple method to verify the detection accuracy of our in-house software using a clinically available tool.

  14. On the selection of gantry and collimator angles for isocenter localization using Winston-Lutz tests.

    PubMed

    Du, Weiliang; Johnson, Jennifer L; Jiang, Wei; Kudchadker, Rajat J

    2016-01-08

    In Winston-Lutz (WL) tests, the isocenter of a linear accelerator (linac) is determined as the intersection of radiation central axes (CAX) from multiple gantry, collimator, and couch angles. It is well known that the CAX can wobble due to mechanical imperfections of the linac. Previous studies suggested that the wobble varies with gantry and collimator angles. Therefore, the isocenter determined in the WL tests has a profound dependence on the gantry and collimator angles at which CAX are sampled. In this study, we evaluated the systematic and random errors in the iso-centers determined with different CAX sampling schemes. Digital WL tests were performed on six linacs. For each WL test, 63 CAX were sampled at nine gantry angles and seven collimator angles. Subsets of these data were used to simulate the effects of various CAX sampling schemes. An isocenter was calculated from each subset of CAX and compared against the reference isocenter, which was calculated from 48 opposing CAX. The differences between the calculated isocenters and the reference isocenters ranged from 0 to 0.8 mm. The differences diminished to less than 0.2 mm when 24 or more CAX were sampled. Isocenters determined with collimator 0° were vertically lower than those determined with collimator 90° and 270°. Isocenter localization errors in the longitudinal direction (along the axis of gantry rotation) showed a strong dependence on the collimator angle selected. The errors in all directions were significantly reduced when opposing collimator angles and opposing gantry angles were employed. The isocenter localization errors were less than 0.2 mm with the common CAX sampling scheme, which used four cardinal gantry angles and two opposing collimator angles. Reproducibility stud-ies on one linac showed that the mean and maximum variations of CAX during the WL tests were 0.053 mm and 0.30 mm, respectively. The maximal variation in the resulting isocenters was 0.068 mm if 48 CAX were used, or 0

  15. On the selection of gantry and collimator angles for isocenter localization using Winston-Lutz tests.

    PubMed

    Du, Weiliang; Johnson, Jennifer L; Jiang, Wei; Kudchadker, Rajat J

    2016-01-01

    In Winston-Lutz (WL) tests, the isocenter of a linear accelerator (linac) is determined as the intersection of radiation central axes (CAX) from multiple gantry, collimator, and couch angles. It is well known that the CAX can wobble due to mechanical imperfections of the linac. Previous studies suggested that the wobble varies with gantry and collimator angles. Therefore, the isocenter determined in the WL tests has a profound dependence on the gantry and collimator angles at which CAX are sampled. In this study, we evaluated the systematic and random errors in the isocenters determined with different CAX sampling schemes. Digital WL tests were performed on six linacs. For each WL test, 63 CAX were sampled at nine gantry angles and seven collimator angles. Subsets of these data were used to simulate the effects of various CAX sampling schemes. An isocenter was calculated from each subset of CAX and compared against the reference isocenter, which was calculated from 48 opposing CAX. The differences between the calculated isocenters and the reference isocenters ranged from 0 to 0.8 mm. The differences diminished to less than 0.2 mm when 24 or more CAX were sampled. Isocenters determined with collimator 0° were vertically lower than those determined with collimator 90° and 270°. Isocenter localization errors in the longitudinal direction (along the axis of gantry rotation) showed a strong dependence on the collimator angle selected. The errors in all directions were significantly reduced when opposing collimator angles and opposing gantry angles were employed. The isocenter localization errors were less than 0.2 mm with the common CAX sampling scheme, which used four cardinal gantry angles and two opposing collimator angles. Reproducibility studies on one linac showed that the mean and maximum variations of CAX during the WL tests were 0.053 mm and 0.30 mm, respectively. The maximal variation in the resulting isocenters was 0.068 mm if 48 CAX were used, or 0.13 mm

  16. [Development of an automated method for analysis of Winston-Lutz test results using digital radiography and photostimulable storage phosphor].

    PubMed

    Nagafuchi, Kousuke; Kawata, Hidemichi; Nashiki, Kazutaka; Ohkura, Sunao; Hayashida, Kazuya; Kawahara, Tomomi; Ohishi, Ayumu; Mizoguchi, Asumi; Saida, Yoshifumi

    2013-11-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and radiotherapy (SRT) are intricate techniques that deliver a highly precise radiation dose to a localized target, usually a tumor. At our hospital, we perform SRS and SRT on brain tumors using a linear accelerator (linac) mounted with an external micro multi-leaf system. The Task Group TG-142 Report by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine recommends the coincidence of the radiation and mechanical isocenter to be within ±1 mm. The Winston-Lutz test is commonly used to verify the linac isocenter position: it has the advantages of being a simple method that uses a film or electronic portal imaging device (EPID). However, the film method requires a higher radiation dose, which makes it more time-consuming than the EPID method, and the results are highly dependent on the skills of the observer. The EPID method has certain advantages over the film method, but it has low resolution and can only be used for a few combinations of gantry and couch angles. This prompted us to develop an in-house-designed radiation receptor system based on digital radiography, using a photostimulable storage phosphor and automated analysis algorithm for Winston-Lutz test images using a template-matching technique based on cross-correlation coefficients. Our proposed method shows a maximum average absolute error of 0.222 mm (less than 2 pixels) for 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm displacement from the isocenter toward the inline and crossline directions. Our proposed method is thus potentially useful for verifying the Linac isocenter position with a small error and good reproducibility, as demonstrated by improved accuracy of evaluation.

  17. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  18. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness.

  19. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

    2004-10-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia) and Corinto (N. neivai) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26 masculineC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  20. Genetic differentiation in natural populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) with different phenotypic spot patterns on tergites in males.

    PubMed

    Silva, M H; Nascimento, M D S B; Leonardo, F S; Rebêlo, J M M; Pereira, S R F

    2011-01-01

    Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.

  1. Reflections on Hypothesis Testing in Response to Ulrich.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David

    1984-01-01

    Responds that hypothesis testing is not a formula for judging debates but an attempt to model the nature of argumentation itself. Addresses criticisms of hypothesis testing and the role of paradigms in argumentation theory and practice. (PD)

  2. [Severe hydrops fetalis in a first trimester pregnancy with Ulrich-Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Klare, P; Sydow, P; Körner, H

    1992-01-01

    We report about a case of abundant hydropic evolution of a fetus in the first trimester of gestation. Already in the 8th week of gestation we diagnosed the first references of failure with transvaginal ultrasound. In the following three weeks we observed the progression of the hydrops. The genetic research of fetal tissue after induced abortion show the karyotype 45 X0.

  3. The "Individualized" (Woman) in the Academy: Ulrich Beck, Gender and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the tensions and struggles that exist between men and women and between women and women in the academic workplace. The research reported here is a small-scale case study of 22 academic women from two generations who were interviewed about their career experiences. The theoretical framework is materialist feminism and draws…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies and QSOs FIR size and surface brightness (Lutz+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Contursi, A.; Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-08-01

    We use 70, 100, and 160um images from scan maps obtained with PACS on board Herschel, collecting archival data from various projects. In order to cover a wide range of galaxy properties, we first obtain an IR-selected local sample ranging from normal galaxies up to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies. For that purpose, we searched the Herschel archive for all cz>=2000km/s objects from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS, Sanders et al., 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/1607). (1 data file).

  5. Breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus Lutz in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, María Cristina; Guhl, Felipe; Zipa, Yaneth; Ferro, Cristina; Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Santamaría, Erika

    2010-03-01

    The breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus are described for the first time in western Boyacá Province, Colombia, where this species is a public health problem. In addition to being a nuisance due to its enormous density and its high biting rates, C. pachymerus cause dermatological problems in the human population. Analysis of microhabitats by the sugar flotation technique and the use of emergence traps allowed us to recover 155 larvae of Culicoides spp and 65 adults of C. pachymerus from peridomiciliary muddy substrates formed by springs of water and constant rainwater accumulation. These important findings could aid in the design of integrated control measures against this pest.

  6. Test Reviews: Loranger, A. W. (2001). "OMNI Personality Inventory." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    The OMNI Personality Inventory (OMNI) is a self-report questionnaire designed for use with adolescents and adults between 18 and 74 years of age. The questionnaire is not based on a particular theory, consistent with current trends in test development, according to the author. An abbreviated form of the OMNI, the OMNI-IV Personality Disorder…

  7. Tribute to P. L. Lutz: respiratory ecophysiology of coral-reef teleosts.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Göran E; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara

    2007-05-01

    One of the most diverse vertebrate communities is found on tropical coral reefs. Coral-reef fishes are not only remarkable in color and shape, but also in several aspects of physiological performance. Early in life, at the end of the pelagic larval stage, coral-reef fishes are the fastest swimmers of all fishes in relation to body size, and show the highest specific rates of maximum oxygen uptake. Upon settling on the reef, coral-reef fishes have to adopt a demersal lifestyle, which involves coping with a habitat that can become severely hypoxic, and some fishes may even have to rely on air breathing when their coral homes become air exposed. Oxygen availability appears to be a major ambient selection pressure, making respiratory function a key factor for survival on coral reefs. Consequently, hypoxia tolerance is widespread among coral-reef fishes. Hypoxia can even be a factor to gamble with for those fishes that are mouthbrooders, or a factor that the coral inhabitants may actively seek to reduce by sleep-swimming at night. Here, we summarize the present knowledge of the respiratory ecophysiology of coral-reef teleosts. From an ecophysiological perspective, the coral reef is an exciting and largely unexplored system for testing existing hypotheses and making new discoveries.

  8. Friendship and Thomas More: Using Erasmus's Letter to Ulrich von Hutten as a Tool in Developing a Classroom Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joshua W.; Rud, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The development of course management plans and student behavioral guidelines are a necessary component for the foundation of any school or learning community. In this article the authors explore a few of the principal foundations of creating these plans based on the qualities Erasmus described in his great friend Thomas More. Teachers and…

  9. Leishmaniasis in Bolivia. I. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) as the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Los Yungas.

    PubMed

    Le Pont, F; Desjeux, P

    1985-01-01

    A relatively high leishmanial infection rate was found in the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis collected from three villages of the Los Yungas region (Department of La Paz, Bolivia). 2,578 female sandflies were dissected. In three houses surveyed in Santa Barbara promastigote infection rates of Lu. longipalpis were 4.2, 2.2 and 3.2% respectively. Anatomical localization of the infection in the insect, and biochemical characterization of the strains indicate that the parasite belongs to the Leishmania donovani complex. The geographical area and the biotopes of Lu. longipalpis are discussed in relation to the vector-parasite relationship.

  10. Effects of a fire on a population of treefrogs (Scinax cf. alter, Lutz) in a restinga habitat in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D

    2008-08-01

    The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover.

  11. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  12. Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

  13. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). "RIAS: Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS), an individually administered test of intelligence appropriate for ages 3 through 94 years with a conormed, supplemental measure of memory. The RIAS should be administered by examiners who have formal training in assessment. In this regard, the RIAS is a…

  14. Test Review: Ruff, R. M., & Hibbard, K. M. (2003). "Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorske, Tad T.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory (RNBI), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess an individual's ability to function in cognitive, emotional, physical, and psychosocial domains, before and after a major illness or injury. The measure is designed to be used with men and women ages 18 to 75 who have at…

  15. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the number of insects and temperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  16. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Dias, Edmilson de Castro; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula Gabriela Melo de; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Macedo, Iara Térsia Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p < 0.05). Monthly analysis of the variables temperature, relative humidity and rainfall did not show a significant influence on population density. However, there were seasonal differences: approximately 70% of sand flies were captured during the rainy season (p < 0.05). The predominant species, L. longipalpis, is present in substantial number, representing a public health risk. Therefore, because of higher prevalence during the rainy season, we recommend intensified VL control measures before and during this season to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

  17. Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's rule) on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Marcondes, C B; Lozovei, A L; Falqueto, A; Brazil, R P; Galati, E; Aguiar, G; Souza, N

    1999-01-01

    The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espírito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from higher altitudes. The small number of differences between insects collected in July and in December does not indicate a defined influence of season and temperature on the size of adults. The possible epidemiological implications of these variations are discussed.

  18. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, José Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L.) longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL. PMID:22315621

  19. [New occurrences of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) eye flukes of fish from the Paraná Basin].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar

    2008-01-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

  20. Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season.

  1. The physiology of the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912): pH in different physiological conditions and mechanisms involved in its control.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vânia C; Araujo, Ricardo N; Machado, Luciane A D; Pereira, Marcos H; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2008-09-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in infected phlebotomines. It was described previously that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH 6). In this study, the pH inside the midgut of blood-fed females was measured. The abdominal midgut (AM) pH varied from 8.15+/-0.31 in the first 10 h post-blood meal to 7.7+/-0.17 after 24 h. While the AM was alkaline during blood digestion, the pH in the thoracic midgut (TM) remained acidic (5.5-6.0). In agreement with these findings, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which has an optimum pH of 5.8, is mainly encountered in the acidic TM. The capacity of unfed females to maintain the acidic intestinal pH was also evaluated. Our results showed the presence of an efficient mechanism that maintains the pH almost constant at about 6 in the midgut, but not in the crop. This mechanism is promptly interrupted in the AM by blood ingestion. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of carbonic anhydrase in the midgut cells, which apparently is required to maintain the pH at 6 in the midgut of unfed females. Investigations on the phenomenon of alkalization observed after blood ingestion indicated that two mechanisms are involved: in addition to the alkalization promoted by CO2 volatilization there is a minor contribution from a second mechanism not yet characterized. Some inferences concerning Leishmania development and pH in the digestive tube are presented.

  2. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  3. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926) and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930) in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Mario Eduardo Santos; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Sales, Débora Lima; Oliveira, Olga Paiva; Teles, Diego Alves; Filho, João Antonio de Araujo; de Sousa, José Guilherme Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae) are commonly encountered in the "Caatinga" biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM) and L. vastus (OLV) using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256  μ g/mL for both) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.

  4. Wyeomyia (Prosopolepis) Confusa (Lutz): Subgeneric Validation, Species Description, and Recognition of Wyeomyia Flui (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne) as the Senior Synonym of Wyeomyia Kerri Del Ponte and Cerqueira

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Short, length about 0.5 mm; widest at base, tapering distally; index 2.5-3.3 (width mea- sured at base); lightly and evenly tanned. Pecten with 3-9...compressed and expanded distally, with hooked tip. Segment X: Saddle incomplete; lightly tanned; length about 0.25 mm, siphon/saddle index about...cylindrical; index about 3.6 (2.5-4.1) (width measured at midlength). Ab- domen: Lightly tanned, anterior margins of sterna II-VI noticeably darker; length

  5. Civil Reconnaissance; Separating the Insurgent From the Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Montagne , "Interview: Anna Simons and Catherine Lutz on the involvement of anthropologists in war," National Public Radio’s Morning Edition, 14 August 2002...Military Review March-April 2005. Montagne , Renee "Interview: Anna Simons and Catherine Lutz on the involvement of anthropologists in war

  6. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements…

  7. On the Situation in the Near East: Fleet Activities in the Indian Ocean: Summary from July 1980 to August 1982 (Zur Lage im Mittleren Osten: Flottenaktivataeten in Indischen Ozean: Ueberblick vom Juli 1980 bis August 1982).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-16

    3, by Ulrich Schulz- Torge , Verlag Wehr und Wissen, Bonn, 1981. 21. Warship International, No. 4/1980, and Rivista Militare and Marine- Rundschau, No...1/1981, p. 57. 22. The Soviet Navy, Vol. 3, by Ulrich Schulz- Torge . 23. OB at 11,500 t and 150 m in length has about 400 to 500 beds and about 200

  8. From Jefferson to Metallica to Your Campus: Copyright Issues in Student Peer-to-Peer File Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarini, Lisa McHugh; Cesarini, Paul

    2008-01-01

    When Lars Ulrich, drummer for the rock group Metallica, testified before Congress about his group's lawsuit against Napster in 2000, many people who followed copyright issues in the music industry were not surprised (Ulrich, 2000). Ever since downloading audio files became as easy as clicking a few buttons on a personal computer, charges of…

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950 (2n = 2x = 26), P. tetraploidea Pombal and Haddad, 1992 (2n = 4x = 52), and their natural triploid hybrids (2n = 3x = 39) (Anura, Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural polyploidy has played an important role during the speciation and evolution of vertebrates, including anurans, with more than 55 described cases. The species of the Phyllomedusa burmeisteri group are mostly characterized by having 26 chromosomes, but a karyotype with 52 chromosomes was described in P. tetraploidea. This species was found in sintopy with P. distincta in two localities of São Paulo State (Brazil), where triploid animals also occur, as consequence of natural hybridisation. We analyse the chromosomes of P. distincta, P. tetraploidea, and their triploid hybrids, to enlighten the origin of polyploidy and to obtain some evidence on diploidisation of tetraploid karyotype. Results Phyllomedusa distincta was 2n = 2x = 26, whereas P. tetraploidea was 2n = 4x = 52, and the hybrid individuals was 2n = 3x = 39. In meiotic phases, bivalents were observed in the diploid males, whereas both bivalents and tetravalents were observed in the tetraploid males. Univalents, bivalents or trivalents; metaphase II cells carrying variable number of chromosomes; and spermatids were detected in the testis preparations of the triploid males, indicating that the triploids were not completely sterile. In natural and experimental conditions, the triploids cross with the parental species, producing abnormal egg clutches and tadpoles with malformations. The embryos and tadpoles exhibited intraindividual karyotype variability and all of the metaphases contained abnormal constitutions. Multiple NORs, detected by Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe, were observed on chromosome 1 in the three karyotypic forms; and, additionally, on chromosome 9 in the diploids, mostly on chromosome 8 in the tetraploids, and on both chromosome 8 and 9 in the triploids. Nevertheless, NOR-bearing chromosome 9 was detected in the tetraploids, and chromosome 9 carried active or inactive NORs in the triploids. C-banding, base-specific fluorochrome stainings with CMA3 and DAPI, FISH with a telomeric probe, and BrdU incorporation in DNA showed nearly equivalent patterns in the karyotypes of P. distincta, P. tetraploidea, and the triploid hybrids. Conclusions All the used cytogenetic techniques have provided strong evidence that the process of diploidisation, an essential step for stabilising the selective advantages produced by polyploidisation, is under way in distinct quartets of the tetraploid karyotype. PMID:24001221

  10. The Strategic Context for Assessing Long Range Offense and Active Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-27

    for the Air Force and it proposed a fully distributed packet switching system to provide for all military commnications , data and voice. The Study...advice. 55 LA P II, il W’ Mga1 SECTION 13 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Paul Baran, "On Distributed Communications," RAND Corporation Research Memorandum B265...Hoffman, R.J. Lutz and H.S. Roven, Selection of Stratexic Base Systems, March 1953, Rand Corporation R-244S; Wohlstetter, Hoffman, Lutz and Rowen

  11. 76 FR 3145 - Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program (P50)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... promote pediatric device development by providing grants to nonprofit consortia whose business model and... Information and Additional Requirements Contact: Linda C. Ulrich or Debra Y. Lewis, Office of Orphan...

  12. The Primacy of Standards for Paradigm Evaluation: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Considers the positions developed by Lichtman and Rohrer and by Ulrich, and then focuses on Zarefsky's indictment of the proposed standards for evaluating debate paradigms. (See CS 705 841-705 844). (PD)

  13. Political Soldiers and Democratic Institution-Building in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Bruneau and Scott Tollefson, (Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2006), 3. 72 Mary Beth Ulrich, Democratizing Communist Militaries – The Cases of...had appointed.” 79 Mary Beth Ulrich, Democratizing Communist Militaries – The Cases of the Czech and Russian Armed Forces (Ann Arbor: The University...Bosnian Serbs has warned that if Kosovo is granted independence it could cause trouble in the Republika Srpska.236 Maj. Gen. David Leakey , commander

  14. Overland Flow Generation and Soil Hydraulic Properties in Two Catchments in Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Land management decisions in the Panama Canal watershed directly impact the hydrological functioning of the canal itself. Knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the forested portions of the watershed provides a baseline comparison for future land use changes. We chose to work on two streams on Barro Colorado Island that are representative of large regions of the watershed. These two streams respond differently to the same storm events: Conrad Trail Stream exhibits a fairly subdued and delayed response and Lutz Creek stream is flashier. In order to understand these differences, we investigated the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the two catchments and studied the frequency of overland flow generation. The Ks measurements in dominant geologies in Lutz Creek as well as in Conrad Trail Stream are great enough at shallow depths (median Ks = 29.7, 65.6 and 38.3 mm/hr) that Hortonian overland flow is rare, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm (to 1.4 and 5.8 mm/hr) indicates that a perched water table leading to saturated overland flow is the likely runoff mechanism in Lutz Creek. In Conrad, Ks does not decrease as markedly with soil depth, and a perched water table would form at about 60 cm below the surface (median Ks = 0.7 mm/hr). Therefore, more water is able to infiltrate into the soil in Conrad Trail Stream and saturated overland flow is less common. Overland flow was generated much more frequently in Lutz Creek than in Conrad Trail Stream, with lower thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, antecedent wetness and intensity required to generate overland flow. We also quantified the importance of microtopographic features such as concentrated flow lines and the results have implications for experimental design at other field sites. The Lutz Creek and Conrad Trail stream information will provide a useful baseline for land management decisions.

  15. Species diversity and seasonal abundance of Culicoides biting midges in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Aybar, C A Veggiani; Juri, M J Dantur; De Grosso, M S Lizarralde; Spinelli, G R

    2010-03-01

    The species diversity and seasonal abundance of biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were studied in northwestern Argentina during the period 2003-2005. A total of 5437 Culicoides specimens were collected using CDC light traps in three areas of the mountainous rainforest area. The most common species were Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi) and C. insignis Lutz, Culicoides lahillei (Iches), C. venezuelensis Ortiz & Mirsa, C. debilipalpis Lutz and C. crescentis Wirth & Blanton were also collected. Culicoides paraensis was abundant during the summer, and C. insignis and C. lahillei during late summer and early fall. Accumulated rainfall was the climatic variable most related to fluctuation in abundance of C. paraensis.

  16. Langevin equation approach to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Jennie M; Kalmykov, Yuri P; Coffey, William T; Kerskens, Christian M

    2009-12-01

    The normal phase diffusion problem in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is treated by means of the Langevin equation for the phase variable using only the properties of the characteristic function of Gaussian random variables. The calculation may be simply extended to anomalous diffusion using a fractional generalization of the Langevin equation proposed by Lutz [E. Lutz, Phys. Rev. E 64, 051106 (2001)] pertaining to the fractional Brownian motion of a free particle coupled to a fractal heat bath. The results compare favorably with diffusion-weighted experiments acquired in human neuronal tissue using a 3 T MRI scanner.

  17. The first record of Lower Carboniferous bryozoa from the eastern margin of the Burma Tertiary Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye Ko Aung

    Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian-Visean) bryozoa from Tonkyauktaung about 6 km west of Zithaung village, Tigyaing Township, on the western margin of the Burma Tertiary Belt were collected from a limestone unit previously mapped as the Ngapyawdaw Chaung Formation and assigned to a Lower Cretaceous (Albian) age. Five species of fenestellid bryozoans are described: Fenestella cf. F. triserialis Ulrich, Fenestella sp. A cf. Fenestella nododorsalis Ulrich, Fenestella sp. B, Fenestella sp. C, Polypora sp. The former two have a close affinity with Lower Carboniferous bryozoa from central Thailand and Japan.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Population Genetics at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents Along the East Pacific Rise and Galapagos Rift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    conservation biology, invasive species, disease mapping, and forensic science. As co-dominant Mendelian alleles with mutation rates of 10"’ to 10Ś...control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 15,237-240. Lutz RA, Shank TM, Fornari DJ, et al. (1994) Rapid growth at deep-sea vents

  19. Higher-Order Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales with a Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Canivez, Gary L.; Lindstrom, Will; Hatt, Clifford V.

    2007-01-01

    The factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; [Reynolds, C.R., & Kamphaus, R.W. (2003). "Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.]) was investigated with a large (N=1163) independent sample of referred students (ages 6-18). More rigorous factor extraction criteria…

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Ronaldo; Araújo-Coutinho, Carlos J P C; Azevedo, Leonardo H Gil; Nascimento, Erika S; Monteiro, Ricardo F

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the blackfly larval taxocenoses of different altitudes in the Itatiaia National Park (located in the southeast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil 44 degrees 34' - 44 degrees 42' W, 22 degrees 16' - 22 degrees 28' S) was investigated on four campaigns, one in each season of 2003. On each campaign 60 samples were collected, using 30 x 30 cm wooden quadrats, distributed at four sites: Taquaral, Véu da Noiva, Três Picos and Brejo da Lapa. The winter and spring campaigns included two additional sampling sites: Alsene and Agulhas Negras. A total of 3578 larvae and 292 pupae were sampled, representative of six species: Simulium clavibranchium Lutz, S. subnigrum Lutz, S. rappae Py-Daniel, S. incrustatum Lutz, S. stellatum Gil-Azevedo, Figueiró & Maia-Herzog and Lutzsimulium pernigrum Lutz 1910. The highest larvae abundance and diversity were reported at the intermediate altitude site, Brejo da Lapa. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that L. pernigrum, S. stellatum and S. incrustatum were associated with the smaller breeding sites, the first two species being associated with sunny sites, while S. incrustatum occurred in sites with little sunlight.

  1. Konrad Adenauer’s Military Advisors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-13

    Basic and Advanced Courses; the Air Defense Officer’s Advanced Course; the Image Interpretation (Tactical Surveillance) and Electronic Warfare Staff...34swachgSt-1-um . (Dissertation, Universitdt Freiburg/ Schweiz ) Reinheim: E. Lokay, 1971. K611ner, Lutz. Militar und Finanzen: Zur Finanzsoziologie von

  2. "Who Killed William Robinson?" Exploring a Nineteenth-Century Murder Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandwell, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the author and fellow-historian John Lutz set about creating a teaching tool for history that would acquaint students with primary documents and take full advantage of the brand-new technology of the World Wide Web. He launched the website, entitled "Who Killed William Robinson? Race, Justice and Settling the Land,"…

  3. Witch-Hunting at Crucible University: The Power and Peril of Competing Organizational Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Hartley, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The literature on organizational culture underscores the benefits of a strong culture--its capacity to draw people together through shared values and norms. Yet, the formation of a powerful ideology also has the capacity to promote divisiveness and to alienate those who fail to conform. This study employs Frank W. Lutz's witch-hunting framework in…

  4. Ethnography and Language in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Judith L., Ed.; Wallat, Cynthia, Ed.

    This compilation includes the following essays: (1) "Conversational Inference and Classroom Learning" (John J. Gumperz); (2) "Persuasive Talk--The Social Organization of Children's Talk" (Jenny Cook-Gumperz); (3) "Ethnography--The Holistic Approach to Understanding Schooling" (Frank W. Lutz); (4) "Triangulated Inquiry--A Methodology for the…

  5. Beyond Nineteen Eighty-Four: Doublespeak in a Post-Orwellian Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, William, Ed.

    This book probes the efforts at manipulation individuals face daily in this information age and the tactics of persuaders from many sectors of society using various forms of Orwellian "doublespeak." The book contains the following essays: (1) "Notes toward a Definition of Doublespeak" (William Lutz); (2) "Truisms Are True:…

  6. Comparison of five parasitological techniques for laboratory diagnosis of Balantidium coli cysts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bastos, Augusto César Machado Pereira; Souza, Igo Vieira de; Dib, Laís Verdan; Azevedo, Eduarda Peixoto; Siqueira, Mayara Perlingeiro de; Cardozo, Matheus Lessa; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2016-01-01

    Balantidium coli is a protozoon that can cause dysentery in humans, pigs and nonhuman primates, with zoonotic potential. In the literature, there is still little information on the effectiveness of different laboratory techniques for diagnosing this disease. This study compared and evaluated the performance of the Lutz, modified Ritchie, Faust, modified Sheather and direct examination techniques for detecting cysts of this protozoon. Between 2012 and 2014, 1905 fecal samples were collected from captive animals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of these, 790 were obtained from the rectum of pigs and 1115 from enclosures occupied by nonhuman primates. B. coli cysts were most evident through direct examination (22.4% of the samples) and the Lutz technique (21%). Fair agreement (Kappa = 0.41; p < 0.05) was observed only between direct examination and Lutz. The flotation techniques (Faust and modified Sheather) did not show good recovery of cysts. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the frequency of cysts between pigs and nonhuman primates could only be observed through direct examination and the Lutz technique. The most efficient method for diagnosing this parasitosis was seen to an association between direct examination and the spontaneous sedimentation technique.

  7. Description of the Pupa of Culicoides crucifer Clastrier (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ronderos, M M; Spinelli, G R; Keppler, R L F

    2013-10-01

    The pupa of Culicoides crucifer Clastrier is described, illustrated and photomicrographed by using binocular microscope and phase-contrast microscopy from material collected in an artificial container in Manaus, Brazil. The pupa shows features typical of pupae occurring in calm and clean waters, and it is compared with its similar congeners of the subgenus Haematomyiidium, Culicoides annuliductus Wirth and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz.

  8. Technical and Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This issue focuses on the various forms that secondary technical and vocational education takes in different European Community Member States. "The Future for Skilled Workers" is an interview with Burkart Lutz, a German researcher. Other articles are as follows: "Contradictions in Technical and Vocational Education: The…

  9. The Teacher Trainer, A Practical Journal Mainly for Modern Language Teacher Trainers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Tessa, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The three issues of the journal on second language teacher education include these articles: "Making a Course Your Own: Involving Trainees in the Planning and Evaluation of a Special Group Summer Course Abroad" (Klaus Lutz); "Task Based Learning - Appropriate Methodology?" (Jane Cadorath, Simon Harris); "Building Group…

  10. Oxygen Transport to Human Tissues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Respiration and CSF Acid-Base Balance John W. Severinghaus As my part of this delightful festival honoring Ulrich Luft. I plan to summarize the role of high...Tobias, M.C. and Drasdo. H.. eds. Woodstock . N.Y.: Overlook Press. pp. 117-124. Formand, S.A., Lansdowne, M.. Follansbee, J.N., and Hansen. J.E. 1968

  11. The Arts 3D VLE Metaverse as a Network of Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Ulrich; Cohodas, Marvin; Wang, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Ulrich Rauch, Marvin Cohodas, and Tim Wang describe the Arts Metaverse, a Croquet-based virtual learning environment under development at the University of British Columbia. The Arts Metaverse allows three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of important artifacts and sites of classical, ancient, and indigenous American art, thereby allowing…

  12. Simulation-based Decision Support for Acquisition Policy and Process Design: The Effect of System and Enterprise Characteristics on Acquisition Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    Research Policy , 30(7), 1019-1039. Ford, D.N., & Dillard, J.T. (2008). Modeling the integration of open systems and evolutionary acquisition in DoD...manufacturing firm. Research Policy 24(3), 419- 440. Ulrich, K., & Tung, K. (1991). Fundamentals of product modularity. In Issues in Design/Manufacture

  13. An Experiment in Software Development Risk Information Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    Law, J.; & Rip, A. "Quantitative Scientometrics ." Mapping of the Dynamics of Science and Technology, London: McMillian, 1986. [Callon 91...Research: The Case of Polymer Chemistry." Scientometrics 22,1 (January 1991): 153-203. [Carr 93] Carr, Marvin; Konda, Suresh; Monarch, Ira; Ulrich, Carol

  14. Comment on ``Cluster Formation of Transmembrane Proteins Due to Hydrophobic Mismatching''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meyer, Frédérick; Smit, Berend

    2009-05-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Ulrich Schmidt, Gernot Guigas, and Matthias Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 101, 128104 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.128104. The authors of the Letter offer a Reply.

  15. Lessons We Can Learn from Other Countries. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz; Konig, Ingeborg

    This document contains three papers from an international conference on "ways and means for more employment." The first paper, "Employment Policy Comparisons and Policy Advice" (Ulrich Walwei), covers the German labor market in the second half of the 1990s and requirements for longer-term employment success through coping with…

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  17. Sparking Innovative Learning & Creativity. 2007 NMC Summer Conference Proceedings (Indianapolis, IN, Jun 6-9, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachel S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The conference proceedings include the following papers: (1) The Arts Metaverse in Open Croquet: Exploring an Open Source 3-D Online Digital World (Ulrich Rauch and Tim Wang); (2) Beyond World of Warcraft: the Universe of MMOGs (Ruben R. Puentedura); (3) ClevelandPlus in Second Life (Wendy Shapiro, Lev Gonick, and Sue Shick); (4) Folksemantic:…

  18. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Division of Collections and Services. Open Forum of the Division; Section on Acquisition and Exchange; Section on Interlending and Document Delivery; Section on Serial Publications; Section on Rare and Precious Books and Documents. Booklet 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1989

    There are 20 papers in this collection from the Division of Collections and Services: "IFLA Division of Collections and Services" (Hope E. A. Clement); "Divisional Open Forum Reports" ("Section of Acquisition and Exchange" by Ulrich Montag; "Section of Government Information and Official Publications" by Bernadine Abbott Hoduski; "Section on…

  19. PILOT PROJECT CLOSE UP: ORD RESEARCH INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harvey, Jim and Elin Ulrich. 2004. Pilot Project Close Up: ORD Research Inventory. Changing Times. Pp. 1. (ERL,GB R1022).

    At the January 2003 summit, many people were drawn to our vision of improving ORD's internal communications by creating a "go-to" page that consolicat...

  20. Warrior or Pundit: Ethical Struggle of Army Senior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-06

    the course of future events becomes. Crystal balls that work reliably are hard to find, while astrology , alas is apt to disappoint also. But...contacted Dr. Ulrich and asked for a hardcopy of the slides, her case study. She provided all material , but did not authorize release of her material as it

  1. How Strongly Linked Are Mental Time and Space along the Left-Right Axis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikmeier, Verena; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Maienborn, Claudia; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of research suggest that our mental representations of time and space are linked, though the strength of this linkage has only recently been addressed for the front-back mental timeline (Eikmeier, Schröter, Maienborn, Alex-Ruf, & Ulrich, 2013). The present study extends this investigation to the left-right mental timeline. In…

  2. Freedom's Children: A Gender Perspective on the Education of the Learner-Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on Ulrich Beck's theory of "freedom's children," the present contribution examines contemporary concerns about educating young people "for" citizenship as well as educating them "about" citizenship. Under the first theme, the author focuses on the "citizen as learner," highlighting some of the gender- and class-related inequalities that…

  3. Some Have Credit Cards and Others Have Giro Cheques: A Study of New Labour's 'Individuals' and 'People' as Lifelong Learners in Late Modernity. Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Alison

    The linguistic behavior of individuals and people in the official literature on lifelong learning (LL) was examined and interpreted in light of the theories of individualization in late modern culture and society, particularly the theories of Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens. The analysis was performed to shed light on that literature's ideological…

  4. Dystopian Visions of Global Capitalism: Philip Reeve's "Mortal Engines" and M.T Anderson's "Feed"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Parsons, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Philip Reeve's novel for children, "Mortal Engines", and M.T. Anderson's young adult novel, "Feed", by assessing these dystopias as prototypical texts of what Ulrich Beck calls risk society. Through their visions of a fictional future, the two narratives explore the hazards created by contemporary techno-economic progress,…

  5. Confidence-Based Robot Policy Learning from Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-05

    Shavlik. Creating advice-taking reinforcement learners. Mach. Learn., 22(1-3):251–281, 1996. [55] Gail F. Melson, Peter H. Kahn, Jr., Alan M. Beck ...adaptation of biped locomotion. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 47:79–91, 2004. [60] Ulrich Nehmzow, Otar Akanyeti, Cristoph Weinrich, Theocharis

  6. Misrepresenting "Choice Biographies"?: A Reply to Woodman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a reply to Woodman's (2009) recent argument that youth studies often incorrectly attribute the concept of "choice biographies" to the work of Ulrich Beck. Drawing heavily on Beck's own words, this paper contends that youth researchers might not be making this association unduly. Consideration is paid to some conceptual issues…

  7. The "Self-Interested" Woman Academic: A Consideration of Beck's Model of the "Individualised Individual"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck, particularly his concept of the "individualised individual", is increasingly cited by educational social scientists. As yet, there have been few empirical investigations that consider how applicable and relevant is the notion of the "individualised individual" in understanding how people make sense of…

  8. Sulfur Mustard Induces Apoptosis in Lung Epithelial Cells via a Caspase Amplification Loop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    absolute requirement for removal of caspase-6 prodomain. Cell Death Differ. 9, 1046–1056. Dabrowska, M.I., Becks , L.L., Lelli Jr., J.L., Levee, M.G...Breton, P., Bren- ner, C., Boisvieux- Ulrich , E., Marano, F., 2006. Inhibition of caspase-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition protects airway

  9. "Where Are We Going? Mini Sessions on Maxi Concerns."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Association for Physical Education of College Women, Albany, NY.

    The proceedings of the fall conference of the Eastern Association for Physical Education of College Women includes articles and overviews of mini-sessions. In "Journey Proud," Celeste Ulrich provides observations about human interaction, teaching/learning environments, techniques and methods, and administrative patterns and scholarship. In…

  10. The Limits of Institutional Reflexivity in Bulgarian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva, Snejana

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the notion of institutional reflexivity. Its theoretical framework is based on the views of a group of sociologists--Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck, Scott Lash--who developed the concept of reflexive modernization. The article applies the notion of institutional reflexivity to the field of higher education and reviews the…

  11. Re-Modernities: Or the Volcanic Landscapes of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinzent, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Is theology dead or dying? Or can we confidently do theology? Since the 1990s Ulrich Beck, one of the best known living sociologists both in Europe and beyond, has promoted the critical reading of the contemporary discourse as "reflexive modernization". He has recently looked into the "fascinating byways" of religion. Based on Beck's re-assessment…

  12. Disability and the Open City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Brendan

    2001-01-01

    Contributes to the social theorization of physical access for people with disabilities by critically exploring how Ulrich Beck's "reflexive modernisation" thesis might be applied to the geographical understanding of disability. Demonstrates how Beck's theoretical framework can be used to enrich people's understanding of the genesis and mediation…

  13. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  14. Nanotechnology and the Developing World: Lab-on-Chip Technology for Health and Environmental Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that advances in nanotechnology in general, and lab-on-chip technology in particular, have the potential to benefit the developing world in its quest to control risks to human health and the environment. Based on the "risk society" thesis of Ulrich Beck, it is argued that the developed world must realign its science and…

  15. Global Justice and Education: From Nation to Neuron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between education and global justice? This question is addressed within Ulrich Beck's notion of global "goods" and "bads", through a multidisciplinary approach, which E.O. Wilson terms "consilience"--a "jumping together" of knowledge from international relations to neuroscience. A critical political analysis proposes that…

  16. Persistence of Zinc-Binding Bacterial Superantigens at the Surface of Antigen-Presenting Cells Contributes to the Extreme Potency of These Superantigens as T-Cell Activators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Contributes to the Extreme Potency of These Superantigens as T-Cell Activators Dorothy D. Pless,† Gordon Ruthel, Emily K. Reinke, Robert G. Ulrich, and Sina...immunoglobulin G, and the cells were analyzed with a FACSort flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson , Mountain View, CA). To measure off rates, 1 or 5 g of SE or

  17. Gender, Career and "Individualisation" in the Audit University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Ulrich Beck's model of the "individualised individual" in a second modernity has generated interest from social scientists in education, particularly in terms of what he has to say about the demise of social class. What has attracted less attention from educationalists is his argument regarding transformations in the nature of work. This article…

  18. Combining Different NLP Methods for HUMINT Report Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    JENGE, Silverius KAWALETZ, Ulrich SCHADE Fraunhofer-Institut für Kommunikation, Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie (FKIE) Neuenahrer Str. 20 53343...ES) Fraunhofer-Institut für Kommunikation, Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie (FKIE) Neuenahrer Str. 20 53343 Wachtberg-Werthhoven Germany 8

  19. The "Financial Counseling and Planning" Indexing Project: Establishing a Correlation between Indexing, Total Citations, and Library Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The researcher hypothesized that increasing the number of indexing services covering a journal would increase library holdings and total citations for the journal. A sample group of 40 Journal Citation Reports (JCR) journals in the "Business, Finance" category was identified and checked for the number of times indexed in Ulrich's…

  20. Generational Differences and Participant Experiences in Leadership Development: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedies, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examines generational cohort perceptions as they apply to civilian leadership training within the DOD. Zenger, Ulrich and Smallwood (2000) describe that a new approach for developing future leaders is necessary. Identifying whether generational perceptions of ELDP members positively or negatively impact DOD…

  1. IFLA General Conference, 1991. Division of Collections and Services: Open Forum of Division of Collections and Services; Section of Acquisition and Exchange; Section of Interlending and Document Delivery; Section of Serial Publications; Newspapers; Section of Government Information and Official Publications; Section of Rare [Books] and Manuscripts. Booklet 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 14 papers in this collection were presented at 6 sections of the Division of Collections and Services: (1) "Open Forum of the Division of Collections and Services Report of the Section on Acquisition and Exchange" (Ulrich Montag); (2) "Acquisition Policy of the USSR National Library Collection" (Z. P. Sorokina and S. M.…

  2. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  3. Recent Developments in the Theory and Practice of Policy Debate: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, Dean

    Shifting theoretical perspectives of intercollegiate policy debate, especially the changing affirmative case constructs, warrant reformulations of various strategies open to the negative case such as those developed by W. Ulrich, R. Dempsey, and D. Hartmann. Options open to the affirmative have increased, e.g., the comparative advantages case, the…

  4. National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education Annual Conference Proceedings (San Diego, CA, January 8-10, 1982). Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedvilas, Leo L., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 26 papers delivered at the National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (NAPEHE) Annual Conference (1982). Section 1, "NAPEHE's Image," contains two papers, one by Don Hellison, the other by Celeste Ulrich. "The Splintering of Physical Education" is the topic of the next section, and it contains papers by…

  5. Scientific Journal Publishing: Yearly Volume and Open Access Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Bo-Christer; Roos, Annikki; Lauri, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We estimate the total yearly volume of peer-reviewed scientific journal articles published world-wide as well as the share of these articles available openly on the Web either directly or as copies in e-print repositories. Method: We rely on data from two commercial databases (ISI and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory) supplemented by…

  6. OVERVIEW OF AN INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATION ON EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF MODEL HEPATOTOXICANTS ON HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the Effects of Methapyrilene and Clofibrate on Hepatic Gene Expression: A Collaboration Between Laboratories and a Comparison of Platform and Analytical Approaches

    Roger G. Ulrich1, John C. Rockett2, G. Gordon Gibson3 and Syril Pettit4

    1 Rosetta Inpharmat...

  7. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  8. Genetic divergence among Venezuelan populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, J; Rangel, Y; Oviedo, M; Feliciangeli, M D

    2000-05-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) is the primary vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela. An analysis of alleles at seven enzyme-encoding loci among four populations from different geographic and epidemiological regions revealed strong genetic substructuring. Isozyme analysis indicated that L. longipalpis in Venezuela is a complex of at least two subspecies. Possible differences in population size during their evolutionary histories, varying colonization histories and geological events may explain discrepancies in the patterns of variation observed at genetic markers between these four populations.

  9. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    W. Collins Peter Feiler John Goodenough Aaron Greenhouse Jorgen Hansson Alan R. Hevner John Hudak Angel Jordan Rick Kazman Richard C . Linger...Mark G. Pleszkoch Stacy J. Prowell Natasha Sharygina Kurt C . Wallnau Gwen Walton Chuck Weinstock Lutz Wrage December 2005...John Goodenough Aaron Greenhouse Jorgen Hansson Alan R. Hevner John Hudak Angel Jordan Rick Kazman Richard C . Linger Mark G. Pleszkoch Stacy J

  10. COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-06

    Bank n Scheduler ... Channel Scheduler Memory scheduler Read/ Write Buffers DRAM address/command buses Processor data bus DRAM data bus Memory...COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions Dionisio de Niz Bjorn Andersson and Lutz Wrage dionisio@sei.cmu.edu...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and

  11. Combating Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-06

    Methodology This research project was conducted utilizing library and Internet based research of subject matter experts from primary source terrorist analysts...modern day Islamic transnational terrorism as the Sicilians were to the American Italian Mafia or Cosa Nostra: which translates to: “our thing.” Like...14 September 2001, accessed 09October 2002); available from http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-network.cfm; Internet . Beck, Ulrich. 2000. What is

  12. Move Affords Many Advantages to EML | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Ulrich Baxa, Ph.D., director of the Electron Microscopy Laboratory (EML), enjoys finally having his staff all in one place. “Our lab is now all in one location, as compared to our previous situation, with two different locations,” he said. “This will make daily work much easier, in particular for me since I am able to have an office next to the other EML staff.”

  13. Lapses in Alertness: Brain-Evoked Responses to Task-Irrelevant Auditory Probes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    attention has been given to changes in the appearance (Santarnaria and Chiappa , 1987), topography (Ulrich and Frick, 1986), or spectrum (Townsend and John...Further, across subjects the appearance of these signs varies substantially (Santamaria and Chiappa , 1987), limiting the potential success of subject... Chiappa , K.H. (1987). The EEG of drowsiness in normal adults. J Clin Neu- rophysiolog 4, 327-382. Torsvall, L. & Akerstedt, T. (1988). Extreme

  14. Toxicity Comparison of Eight Repellents Against Four Species of Female Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    TOXICITY COMPARISON OF EIGHT REPELLENTS AGAINST FOUR SPECIES OF FEMALE MOSQUITOES JULIA W. PRIDGEON, ULRICH R. BERNIER AND JAMES J. BECNEL Center for...repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti...repellent toxicity, topical application INTRODUCTION Females of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.) transmit viral pathogens to humans, resulting in

  15. Ray picture for prism-film coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.; van't Spijker, J. C.; Koerkamp, H. M. M. Klein

    1993-10-01

    Tien and Ulrich introduced a description of the prism-film coupler, with use of the ray picture. The model given is discussed, and it is argued that the effect of the Goss-Hanchen shift cannot be neglected in general. Relatively simple expressions are given for the computation of the coupling efficiency of a prism-loaded planar structure as a function of the angle of incidence of the incoming beam. Computational results are presented and compared with those of other methods.

  16. Trade Associations and Their Environment from an Efficiency Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Machires, Alcoa Foundation. William G. Ouchi. Jay Barney and Dave Ulrich have been helpful in developing the concepts in this draft. I A B S T RA C T... Lorsch 1967: Thompson, 1967; Perrow, 1970; Duncan, 1972; and Leblebici and Salancik, 1981), acquiring scarce resources (Yuchtman and Seashore, 1967...and C. Shields. 1971. Trade Association Law and Practice. Boston, Mass: Little, Brown & Co. Lawrence, P. and J. Lorsch . 1967. Organizations and

  17. Systems Engineering and Project Management for Product Development: Optimizing Their Working Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    guide to the project management body of knowledge ( PMBOK (R) GUIDE). Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute, Inc. Ulrich, K., & Eppinger, S...activities to meet the project requirements. (Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013, p. 6) The PMBOK states that project management requires a set of...The PMBOK , however, does not address the product processes (i.e., processes required to ensure the project’s deliverable meets the customer’s needs

  18. Eo-Ulrichian to Neo-Ulrichian views: The renaissance of "layer-cake stratigraphy"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, Carlton E.; McLaughlin, P.I.; Baird, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Classical notions of "layer-cake stratigraphy" have been denigrated as representing an antiquated "Neptunian" view of the geologic record with the American paleontologist-stratigrapher E.O. Ulrich vilified as its quintessential advocate. Some of the extreme "layer-cake" interpretations of E.O. Ulrich are demonstrably incorrect, especially where applied in marginal marine and terrestrial settings. However, close scrutiny of Ulrich's work suggests that the bulk was correct and demonstrated considerable insight for the time. Subsequent development of facies concepts revolutionized geologists' view of time-space relationships in stratigraphy, but rather than focusing on facies patterns within the established stratigraphic (layer-cake) frameworks many geologists in North America came to view strata as parts of diachronous facies mosaics. Recent advances in the development of event and sequence stratigraphic paradigms are beginning to swing the pendulum back the other way. Possible causes of "layer-cake" patterns are numerous and varied, including: (1) parallelism of depositional strike and outcrop belts, especially in foreland basins, (2) very widespread environmental belts developed in low-relief cratonic areas, (3) time-averaging homogenizes facies to a limited extent, resulting in a very subtle signature of lateral change, (4) condensed beds (hardgrounds, bone beds, ironstones, etc.) often form in responses to extrabasinal forces, thus they cross-cut facies, and (5) large events (i.e. hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, eruptions, etc.) are "over represented" in the rock record. A revised ("Neo-Ulrichian") layer-cake paradigm carries many of the original correct empirical observations of pattern, noted by Ulrich, recast in terms of event and sequence stratigraphy.

  19. US Japan Workshop. Hybrid 2000 Conference Held in Ithaca, New York on May 7-12, 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    Illinois University) 10:30-10:45 BREAK 10:45-11:30 " Nano -Objects With Controlled Shape, Size and Composition From Block Copolymer-Ceramic Hybrid...discussed. Nano -objects with controlled shape, size and composition from block copolymer - ceramic hybrid materials. ULRICH WIESNER Materials Science...organic and inorganic components [2] which can be employed to prepare ’hairy’ nano -objects of controlled shape, size and composition (Fig.l). This

  20. Evaluation of the Cepheid GeneXpert System for Detecting Bacillus anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-25

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of the Cepheid GeneXpert system for detecting Bacillus anthracis M.P. Ulrich1, D.R. Christensen1, S.R. Coyne1, P.D...Knepp et al. 2003). In addition, Keywords anthrax, automated system, Bacillus anthracis, GeneXpert, nucleic acid, real-time PCR, sample processing...system. In this study, the capability of the GeneX- pert to isolate and detect nucleic acid from Bacillus anthracis Ames spores was assessed. Methods

  1. Simultaneous Vascular Targeting and Tumor Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T-Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Tumor Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T-Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ulrich Bickel...of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T-Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0184 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...tumors using a brain selective cell line, 231-BR, derived from human breast cancer . Therefore, the experimental model to be used must be immune

  2. Migration and its risks.

    PubMed

    O'brien, P

    1996-01-01

    "This essay applies the theories of Ulrich Beck...to the politics of migration in Germany. In particular, the essay focuses on Beck's notion of the waning influence, indeed even relevancy, of science and scientists regarding postmodern risk phenomena. The essay argues that migration to Germany can be understood as a Beckian risk phenomenon, helping to explain the decreasing influence of social scientists over the politics of migration in the Federal Republic."

  3. Automated Attacker Correlation for Malicious Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-22

    Thomas Dullien, Ero Carrera, Soeren-Meyer Eppler, Sebastian Porst Ruhr-University Bochum zynamics GmbH Grosse Beck Str 3. 44787 Bochum Germany March...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Ruhr-University Bochum,zynamics GmbH,Grosse Beck Str 3,44787...Halvar Flake. Structural comparison of executable objects. In Ulrich Flegel and Michael Meier, editors, DIMVA, volume 46 of LNI, pages 161–173. GI

  4. Scarab/Bandit-D Multi-Vehicle Proximity Operations Using a University Nanosatellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    the project, either through course work or volunteering in the summer: Rashied Amini, Erin Beck , Fiona Turett, Anne Schneider, Doug Beattie, Charles...Gronek, Brad Kukurza, BettyLynn Ulrich , Justin Char, Erik Karulf and Lane Haury. Publications M.A. Swartwout. The First One Hundred University-Class...Spacecraft 1981-2008, IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 24(3), 2008. Interactions/Transitions The PI and five students ( Beck

  5. U.S. Democratization Strategy: Origins and Obstacles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs- Merrill Company, 1957), p. 11. 3 Michael W. Doyle, “Liberal Internationalism: Peace, War and...2008). 74 Ulrich Fichtner, “Mr. Tapfer, der Retter der Welt,” Der Spiegel, 11 June 2001, p. 76; and Carlos Widmann, “USA/Mit Schirm und Charme,” Der...157 Kant, Perpetual Peace, ed. Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1957), p. 13. 158 Doyle, p. 206. 159 Ibid

  6. NSWC Library of Mathematics Subroutines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Eckhardt, Ulrich,"Algorithm 549, Weierstrass’ Ellip’ic Functions," ACM Trans. Matk . Software 4 (1980’, pp. 112-i20. (2) ,"A Rational Approximation to...ill-conditioned. lII such situatioMS one 0C inst use a more gen eral equation solver. Ih T()tPIX and I)T()IPI,X 4(11 1)( floating additions and 4n (n 1

  7. STS-55 crewmembers pose with U.S. and German flags in SL-D2 module on OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 crewmembers pose with United States and German flags inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module located in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Wearing communications kit assembly headsets (HDSTs) are (left to right) Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel.

  8. Cashing In Stars: Does the Professional Ethic Apply in Retirement?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    US Air Force Academy. She is a retired USAF colonel. “Cashing In” Stars Does the Professional Ethic Apply in Retirement? Marybeth Peterson Ulrich...the service professional ethic . It concerns the trend to offer professional expertise in such a way that it exploits active duty experience to sup...Responsibility and Ethics in Washington “Strategic Maneuvers” Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  9. Workbook for Predicting Pressure Wave and Fragment Effect of Exploding Propellent Tanks and Gas Storage Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    White, Clayton S., "The Scope of Blast and Shock Biology and Prob- tlem Areas in Relating Physical and Biological Parameters," Annals of the New York...abdominal cavity is biologically equivalent to, the ballistic limit velccity V 5 0 fcr penetrating isolated human skin. This assumption is true...34iucatiun and Research, AD 70997Z. March 1970, Dainin. Edý\\ard G., John T. Yelverton, Ulrich C. Lutt , and Robert K. Jones. "Recovery of the Respiratory System

  10. Learning In A Hierarchical Control System: 4D/RCS In The DARPA LAGR Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Santa Barbara, CA, 1999. [20] I. Ulrich and I. Nourbakhsh, "Appearance- Based Obstacle Detection with Monocu- lar Color Vision ," Proceedings of the...the vehicle will learn to do without stereo vision at times, so it must learn to distinguish traversable terrain from non- traversable terrain based on...of the local traversability. Learning has been applied to computer vision for a variety of applications, including traversability prediction

  11. Lightning Initiation and Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of Thunderstonn Systems that Produce or Lack RHESSI Identified Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes , EOS Transactions, AGU, Vol. 90, Fall Meeting...Cramer, M. Schaal, Z. H. Saleh, W. Ulrich, B. Grefenstette, B. 1. Hazelton 8. A Ground-Based Campaign in Search of Terrestrial Gamma -ray Flashes ...to develop sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations and runaway electron transport models of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash (TGF), which are providing new

  12. Death, the Military and Society: Casualties and Civil-Military Relations in Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    has been socially toned down. In this, he is joined by others who - like, inter alia, Norbert Fischer (2001) and the authors in the anthology by Blum...also propelled by processes renowned sociologists like Ulrich Beck, Norbert Elias, Anthony Giddens, and Ronald Inglehart came to call individualization...At around 1:00 p.m. local time on 29 May 2003 German soldiers were driving in two unar- mored Wolf vehicles on patrol in heavy terrain far out from

  13. Female Captive Stories in the United States from the Colonial Era to Present: A Study in the Pervasive Elements of the Traditional Narrative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1982). 53Ulrich, 173. 54 John Warner...which women were seen as too delicate for violence, Dustan’s actions were evaluated differently. John Warner Barber in his Historical Collections...58 Ibid, 169. 59 John Warner Barber, Historical Collections, Being a General Collection of Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches

  14. A Preliminary Study of Reducing the Cost of Blast Shelter for Critical Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    23 2.1.6 Luscher Study ..... ................. .... 28 2.1.7 Krupka Study ..... ................. .... 29 2.1.9 Haaland Study...a more reasonable cost/space number had been reported. 2.1.6 Ulrich Luscher - Behavior of Flexible Underground Cylinders, 1965 This study ( Luscher ...information about the utilization of corrugated culverts as blast shelters and modes of hardening. No cost analyses were discussed by Luscher . 2.1.7 R. A

  15. Analytic solutions to the accretion of a rotating finite cloud towards a central object - I. Newtonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, S.; Tejeda, E.; Nagel, E.

    2009-02-01

    We construct a steady analytic accretion flow model for a finite rotating gas cloud that accretes material to a central gravitational object. The pressure gradients of the flow are considered to be negligible, and so the flow is ballistic. We also assume a steady flow and consider the particles at the boundary of the spherical cloud to be rotating as a rigid body, with a fixed amount of inwards radial velocity. This represents a generalization to the traditional infinite gas cloud model described by Ulrich. We show that the streamlines and density profiles obtained deviate largely from the ones calculated by Ulrich. The extra freedom in the choice of the parameters on the model can naturally account for the study of protostars formed in dense clusters by triggered mechanisms, where a wide variety of external physical mechanisms determine the boundary conditions. Also, as expected, the model predicts the formation of an equatorial accretion disc about the central object with a radius different from the one calculated by Ulrich.

  16. Improving the estimation of psychometric functions in 2AFC discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Ulrich and Vorberg (2009) presented a method that fits distinct functions for each order of presentation of standard and test stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, which removes the contaminating influence of order effects from estimates of the difference limen. The two functions are fitted simultaneously under the constraint that their average evaluates to 0.5 when test and standard have the same magnitude, which was regarded as a general property of 2AFC tasks. This constraint implies that physical identity produces indistinguishability, which is valid when test and standard are identical except for magnitude along the dimension of comparison. However, indistinguishability does not occur at physical identity when test and standard differ on dimensions other than that along which they are compared (e.g., vertical and horizontal lines of the same length are not perceived to have the same length). In these cases, the method of Ulrich and Vorberg cannot be used. We propose a generalization of their method for use in such cases and illustrate it with data from a 2AFC experiment involving length discrimination of horizontal and vertical lines. The resultant data could be fitted with our generalization but not with the method of Ulrich and Vorberg. Further extensions of this method are discussed.

  17. SU-E-T-48: Automated Quality Assurance for XML Controlled Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, G; Morin, O; Pouliot, J; Chuang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To automate routine imaging QA procedures so that complying with TG 142 and TG 179 can be efficient and reliable. Methods: Two QA tests for a True Beam Linac were automatized. A Winston Lutz test as described by Lutz et al{sup 1} using the Winston Lutz test kit from BrainLab, Germany and a CBCT Image Quality test as described in TG 179 using the EMMA phantom, Siemens Medical Physics, Germany were performed in our True Beam. For each QA procedure tested, a 3 step paradigm was used. First, the data was automatically acquired using True Beam Developer Mode and XML scripting. Second, the data acquired in the first step was automatically processed using in-home grown Matlab GUIs. Third, Machine Learning algorithms were used to automatically classify the processed data and reports generated. Results: The Winston Luzt test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 29.0 ± 8.0 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 3.0 ± 0.1 min. In the same lieu, time could be substantially saved for image quality tests. In this case, the amount of time saved will depend on the phantoms used and the initial localization method. Additionally, machine learning algorithms could automatically identify the roots of the problems if any and possibly help reduce machine down time. Conclusion: Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging that are used for patient alignment substantially improving IGRT protocols. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA tests needed. Using the new paradigm described above, not only bare minimum but best practice QA programs could be implemented with the same manpower. This work is supported by Varian, Palo Alto, CA.

  18. Overland flow generation in two lithologically distinct rainforest catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Streams on uniformly rainforest-covered, but lithologically very diverse Barro Colorado Island in central Panama?? show remarkable differences in their runoff response to rainfall. This lithological diversity is reflected in equally diverse soilscapes, and our objective was to test the hypothesis that contrasting runoff responses derive from soilscape features that control the generation of overland flow. We determined the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of two neighboring, but hydrologically contrasting catchments (Lutz Creek with a flashy and Conrad Trail with a delayed response to rainfall), and quantified the spatial and temporal frequency of overland flow occurrence. The median Ks values at a depth of 12.5 cm are large enough to rule out Hortonian overland flow, but a marked decrease in K s in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm suggests the formation of a perched water table and the generation saturation overland flow; the decrease in Ks in the Conrad Trail catchment is more gradual, and a perched water table is expected to form only at depths below 50 cm. In Lutz Creek, overland flow was generated frequently in time and space and regardless of topographic position, including near the interfluve, with very low thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, intensity and antecedent wetness, whereas in Conrad Trail, overland flow was generated much less frequently and then only locally. We conclude that soilscape features and microtopography are important controls of overland flow generation in these catchments. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that overland flow and forests are not a priori a contradiction in terms. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A fast double template convolution isocenter evaluation algorithm with subpixel accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Winey, Brian; Sharp, Greg; Bussiere, Marc

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To design a fast Winston Lutz (fWL) algorithm for accurate analysis of radiation isocenter from images without edge detection or center of mass calculations. Methods: An algorithm has been developed to implement the Winston Lutz test for mechanical/radiation isocenter agreement using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The algorithm detects the position of the radiation shadow of a tungsten ball within a stereotactic cone. The fWL algorithm employs a double convolution to independently find the position of the sphere and cone centers. Subpixel estimation is used to achieve high accuracy. Results of the algorithm were compared to (1) a human observer with template guidance and (2) an edge detection/center of mass (edCOM) algorithm. Testing was performed with high resolution (0.05mm/px, film) and low resolution (0.78mm/px, EPID) image sets. Results: Sphere and cone center relative positions were calculated with the fWL algorithm for high resolution test images with an accuracy of 0.002{+-}0.061 mm compared to 0.042{+-}0.294 mm for the human observer, and 0.003{+-}0.038 mm for the edCOM algorithm. The fWL algorithm required 0.01 s per image compared to 5 s for the edCOM algorithm and 20 s for the human observer. For lower resolution images the fWL algorithm localized the centers with an accuracy of 0.083{+-}0.12 mm compared to 0.03{+-}0.5514 mm for the edCOM algorithm. Conclusions: A fast (subsecond) subpixel algorithm has been developed that can accurately determine the center locations of the ball and cone in Winston Lutz test images without edge detection or COM calculations.

  20. Overland flow generation in two lithologically distinct rainforest catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2004-08-01

    Streams on uniformly rainforest-covered, but lithologically very diverse Barro Colorado Island in central Panamá show remarkable differences in their runoff response to rainfall. This lithological diversity is reflected in equally diverse soilscapes, and our objective was to test the hypothesis that contrasting runoff responses derive from soilscape features that control the generation of overland flow. We determined the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ks) of two neighboring, but hydrologically contrasting catchments (Lutz Creek with a flashy and Conrad Trail with a delayed response to rainfall), and quantified the spatial and temporal frequency of overland flow occurrence. The median Ks values at a depth of 12.5 cm are large enough to rule out Hortonian overland flow, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm suggests the formation of a perched water table and the generation saturation overland flow; the decrease in Ks in the Conrad Trail catchment is more gradual, and a perched water table is expected to form only at depths below 50 cm. In Lutz Creek, overland flow was generated frequently in time and space and regardless of topographic position, including near the interfluve, with very low thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, intensity and antecedent wetness, whereas in Conrad Trail, overland flow was generated much less frequently and then only locally. We conclude that soilscape features and microtopography are important controls of overland flow generation in these catchments. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that overland flow and forests are not a priori a contradiction in terms.

  1. Use of charts for flow discharge calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, O

    1941-01-01

    Various problems in connection with engine design involve flow-discharge calculations which are rendered difficult both on account of the large number of external variables that enter into the computation - i.e., changes in discharge area during the process, change in volume of the cylinder, pressure, etc., and changes in the thermal constants themselves of the flow medium. A fairly accurate solution that does not involve an excessive amount of labor can be obtained only through the extensive use of i-s tables. In the present report, a solution is offered in the form of a different method making use of the I-S table of Lutz and Wolf.

  2. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 4. Detection and Identification of Leishmania Parasites in Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    l ofAEbufferwas added, followed by incubation at room temperature for 5 min and centrifugion at 8,000 rpm for 1 min in a microcentrifuge. An...additional 50 l of AE buffer was added to the QIAamp Spin Column, followed by in- cubation at room temperature for 5 min and centri- fugion at 8,000 rpm for...FLIES 653 addition, DNA from three species of phlebotomine sand ßies Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva), P. papatasi, and Phlebotomus argentipes

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CaII-Mv Correlation (Wilson-Bappu Effect) (Wallerstein+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Machado-Pelaez, L.; Gonzalez, G.

    1999-07-01

    Hipparcos parallaxes were used to derive absolute visual magnitudes of G, K, and M stars with Ca II emission line widths previously measured by O.C. Wilson. A linear relationship similar to the one derived originally by Wilson & Bappu and improved by Lutz & Kelker was found from Mv=+7 to -2. For stars brighter than Mv=-2 a substantial number of stars show Ca II emission lines that are broader than expected from the linear fit. Most of those stars are bright giants and supergiants of type G. (3 data files).

  4. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  5. A Thermoelastic Model for Thick Composite Rings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Laboratory ATT’N: AMSRL-OP-CI-AD, (Cla fY) I Commandant Records Management U.S. Army Infantry School 2800 Powder Mill Rd. ATTN: ATSH-CD (Security Mgr...Price F. Heizer V. Linder J. Keane T. Davidson T. Allen Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 J. Vasilakis G. Friar I Commander J. Zweig Production Base...Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 R. Cart SMCAR-CCH-V, E. Fennell 3 Project Manager SMCAR-CCH-P, 1. Lutz Advanced Field Artillery System SMCAR-CCH, J

  6. Laser-Induced Dissociation of HN sub 3 (DN sub 3) on GaAs (100) K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Colaionmi, and J. T. Yates, Jr.; Surface Sci. 274 (1992) L 605. [2] J. L. Bishoff, F. Lutz, D. Bolmont, and L. Kubler ; Surface Sci. 251/252 (1991) 170. [3...E. K. Hjil, L. Kubler , J. L. Bischoff, and D. Bolmont; Phys. Rev. B35 (1987) 5913. [4] Ph. Avouris, F. Bozso, and R. J. Hamers; J. Vac. Sci. Technol...Surface Sci. 241 (1991) 353. [9] A. C. Dillon, P. Gupta, M. B. Robinson, A. S. Bracker, and S. M. George ; J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A9 (1991) 2222. [10

  7. The 308-nm Laser Photodissociation of HN3 Adsorbed on Si(111)-7X7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    and M. Nishijima; Surface Sci. 191 (1987) L756. [3] C.U.S. Larsson, and A.S. Flodstrom; Surface Sci. 241 (1991) 353. [4] E.K. Hlil, L. Kubler , J.L...Bischoff, F. Lutz, D. Bolmont, and L. Kubler ; Surface Sci. 251 (1991) 170. [7] D.G. Kilday, G. Margartondo, D.J. Frankel, J. Anderson, and G.J. Lapeyre; Phys...Rev. B35 (1987) 9364. [8] T. Isu, and K. Fujiwaraf; Solid State Commun. 42 (1982) 477. [9] L. Kubler , E.K. Hlil, D. Bolmont, and G. Gewinner

  8. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-10

    contour plots in Luhman et al. (2003), the measured [C ii] 158 and [O i] 145 m line fluxes (but not the [O i] 63 m line flux, which may be affected by...J., & Luhman , M. L. 1999, ApJ, 527, 795 Kessler, M. F., et al. 1996, A&A, 315, L27 Kriss, G. A., Davidsen, A. F., Blair, W. P., Ferguson, H. C...123, 3 Lepp, S., & Dalgarno, A. 1996, A&A, 306, L21 Luhman ,M. L., Satyapal, S., Fischer, J., Wolfire,M. G., Sturm, E., Dudley, C. C., Lutz, D

  9. New Synthetic and Assembly Methodology for Guiding Nanomaterial Assembly with High Fidelity into 1D Clusters and 3D Crystals Using Biomimetic Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    mediated electrostatic assembly of nanoparticles" J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2014, 432, 144-150. (4) C. M. Alexander, K. L. Hamner, M.M. Maye*, J.D...electrostatic assembly of nanoparticles" J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2014, 15, 144-150. 7. C. M. Alexander, K. L. Hamner, M.M. Maye*, J.D. Dabrowiak...nanoparticles assembled by DNA and thermosensitive co-polymers" ACS Fall Meeting, Colloids /Nanoscience Section, Indianapolis, 2013 14. P. Lutz, W. Wu, M.M. Maye

  10. [The serovars of Leptospira interrogans isolated from cases of human leptospirosis in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sakata, E E; Yasuda, P H; Romero, E C; Silva, M V; Lomar, A V

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen strains of L. interrogans isolated from human cases were serotyped by the agglutinin-absorption test at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo, Brazil. Fourteen were identified as serovar copenhageni (icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup), 2 as canicola (canicola serogroup), 1 as castellonis (Ballum serogroup) and 1 as pomona serogroup (serovar not yet defined). The frequency of serovar copenhageni in 100% of the isolates in icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup is emphasized and more studies to verify the real serovars prevalence as subsidy to the epidemiology of this infection are suggested by the authors.

  11. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  12. A new mandate for human resources.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D

    1998-01-01

    Should we do away with HR? In recent years, a number of people who study and write about business--along with many who run businesses--have been debating that question. The debate arises out of serious and widespread doubts about HR's contribution to organizational performance. Dave Ulrich acknowledges that HR, as it is configured today in many companies, is indeed ineffective, incompetent, and costly. But he contends that it has never been more necessary. The solution, he believes, is to create an entirely new role for the field that focuses it not on traditional HR activities, such as staffing and compensation, but on business results that enrich the company's value to customers, investors, and employees. Ulrich elaborates on four broad tasks for HR that would allow it to help deliver organizational excellence. First, HR should become a partner in strategy execution. Second, it should become an expert in the way work is organized and executed. Third, it should become a champion for employees. And fourth, it should become an agent of continual change. Fulfilling this agenda would mean that every one of HR's activities would in some concrete way help a company better serve its customers or otherwise increase shareholder value. Can HR transform itself on its own? Certainly not--in fact, the primary responsibility for transforming the role of HR, Ulrich says, belongs to the CEO and to every line manager who works with the HR staff. Competitive success is a function of organizational excellence, and senior managers must hold HR accountable for delivering it.

  13. Critical thinking at the bedside: providing safe passage to patients.

    PubMed

    Robert, Ruth R; Petersen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The critical thinking ability of health care professionals can affect patient safety directly (Buerhaus, Donelan, Ulrich, Norman, & Dittus, 2005). The National League for Nursing (NLN, 2006) expects nursing graduates to be able to demonstrate critical thinking. Nursing programs are required to measure critical thinking as an outcome criterion for accreditation. This process of program accreditation is considered an indicator that a professional program offers a quality product. Based on NLN expectations, health care disciplines should diligently seek opportunities to enhance critical thinking by promoting qualitative and quantitative research that focuses on curriculum evaluation, enhancing educators' and faculty knowledge, and improving patient care outcomes.

  14. The faint young sun-climate paradox - Volcanic influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Endal, A. S.

    1982-12-01

    It has been suggested that the early earth may have frozen over as a result of a fainter early sun (see Ulrich, 1975). If this had happened, climate models suggest the earth would have remained frozen through the present epoch and into the distant future. We suggest that volcanic influences could allow a passage from the frozen branch into the unfrozen branch of climate models should conditions on earth be suitable for the latter climate change. A broad equatorial belt of volcanic ash is one scenario which would allow a transfer from the frozen earth state into the unfrozen one.

  15. The faint young sun-climate paradox - Volcanic influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Endal, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that the early earth may have frozen over as a result of a fainter early sun (see Ulrich, 1975). If this had happened, climate models suggest the earth would have remained frozen through the present epoch and into the distant future. We suggest that volcanic influences could allow a passage from the frozen branch into the unfrozen branch of climate models should conditions on earth be suitable for the latter climate change. A broad equatorial belt of volcanic ash is one scenario which would allow a transfer from the frozen earth state into the unfrozen one.

  16. On the Origin and Evolution of s-PROCESS Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, David N.; Tinsley, Beatrice M.

    The evolution of s-process abundances in the solar neighborhood is studied, using alternative stellar production sites and Galactic models. Production in either low-mass or medium-mass stars, as suggested in Ulrich's alternative models for FG Sge for example, can account for the solar-system abundances. Either case is consistent with independent limits on subsequent neutron exposure of nuclei produced in explosive oxygen and silicon burning and of r-process material. The cases could be distinguished by observations of the ratios of s-process to primary metal abundances in stars of different ages. The predictions are not strongly dependent on the model used for Galactic evolution.

  17. Introducing Systems Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  18. A simple accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Mendoza, S.

    2007-04-01

    We construct a simple accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We show how to build analytic solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This construction represents a general relativistic generalisation of the Newtonian accretion model first proposed by Ulrich (1976). In exactly the same form as it occurs for the Newtonian case, the flow naturally predicts the existence of an equatorial rotating accretion disc about the hole. However, the radius of the disc increases monotonically without limit as the flow reaches its minimum allowed angular momentum for this particular model.

  19. Bayesian Automatic Classification Of HMI Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, John G.

    2011-05-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system known as "AutoClass" finds a set of class definitions based on a set of observed data and assigns data to classes without human supervision. It has been applied to Mt Wilson data to improve modeling of total solar irradiance variations (Ulrich, et al, 2010). We apply AutoClass to HMI observables to automatically identify regions of the solar surface. To prevent small instrument artifacts from interfering with class identification, we apply a flat-field correction and a rotationally shifted temporal average to the HMI images prior to processing with AutoClass. Additionally, the sensitivity of AutoClass to instrumental artifacts is investigated.

  20. The Animal Pathogen-Like Type III Secretion System is Required for the Intracellular Survival of Burkholderia mallei within J774.2 Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-30

    E -mail: Ricky.Ulrich @AMEDD.ARMY.MIL. 4349 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...counterbioterrorism. The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, N.J. 4. DeShazer, D., D. M. Waag, D. L. Fritz, and D. E . Woods. 2001. Identification of a Burkholderia...Microb. Pathog. 30:253–269. 5. Galan, J. E . 2001. Salmonella interactions with host cells: type III secretion at work. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 17:53

  1. Stimulated Cerenkov-Raman Scattering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-14

    Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 3,253. 11. Coleman, P., and Enderby, C. (1960). J. AppI. Phys. 31, 1695. 12. Danos , M. ( 1953 ). J. Appl. Phys. 26,2. *1f 13...made by Coleman, by Danos , by Lashinsky,13 and by Ulrich.14 In these experiments, no provision was made for feeding back the emitted radia- I tion on...latio e ted ltiple Scattering’ * Pts. Is.; Vol. 8I(2), pp. 245-248. Jan. 11, 19S2. d . Jelly, J. V., Cerefo U diation nd its A liti rgqam sess, 1953

  2. Cerenkov Maser and Cerenkov Laser Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Nauk. SSSR 3,253. 11. Coleman, P., and Enderby, C. (1960). J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1695. 12. Danos , M. ( 1953 ). J. Appl. Phys. 26,2. 13. Lashinsky, H. (1956...by Danos , by Lashinsky, 1 3 and by Ulrich. 14 In these experiments, no provision was made for feeding back the emitted radia- tion on subsequent...Ginzburg, Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 56,253 (1947). 4M. Abele, Nouvo Cimento 9, 207 (1952). In conclusion, the above experiments have demonstrat- ’M. Danos , S

  3. Biting Deterrence and Insecticidal Activity of Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Their Corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles Against Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4- oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti Nurhayat Tabanca,a∗ Abbas Ali,a Ulrich R Bernier,b Ikhlas A Khan,a,c,d Bedia...biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti for the first time. RESULTS: The compound 3-acetyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(dimethylamino...phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole (17) produced the highest biting deterrent activity (BDI = 1.025) against Ae. Aegypti , followed by 4

  4. Honoring Jean-David Rochaix.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Redding, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We honor Jean-David Rochaix, an outstanding scholar of chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis, who received the prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research at its 17th International Photosynthesis Congress held in Maastricht, The Netherlands (August 5-12, 2016). With this award he joins other major discoverers in the field of photosynthesis: Pierre Joliot (of France, 2013); Ulrich W. Heber* (of Germany, 2010) and Kenneth Sauer (of USA, 2010); Jan M. Anderson* (of Australia, 2007); and Horst T. Witt* (of Germany, 2004). See "Appendix 1" for the list of those who have received the ISPR Communication, Innovation, Calvin-Benson, and Hill awards.

  5. [Risk also requires treatment].

    PubMed

    Hørby, Helle Rørbæk

    2014-06-09

    According to the sociologist Ulrich Beck we live in a risk society. Every day we are introduced to many risks which can only be seen by the help of science and are not immediately experienced by the individual. When the individual shall decide how to act on the screening results the statistical knowledge is inapt. The philosopher and theologian Peter Kemp points out that the mathematical calculus of probability does not take the risk of the individual into account. Ethically, our use of screening lacks considerations regarding contents of the good life.

  6. Property Predictions for Nitrate Salts with Nitroxy-Functionalized Cations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    unstable”* to be employed as rocket propellant ingredients (Dunn, 1952; Naoum and Ulrich , 1929; Medard, 1954; Urbanski, 1965). The EQBR and SERDP efforts...from models that combine the B3LYP hybrid functional ( Becke , 1993; Lee et al., 1988; Stephens et al., 1994; Vosko et al., 1980) with a 6-31+G(d,p), 6...1989, 122, 1963–1967. Becke , A. D. Density-Functional Thermochemistry. 3. The Role of Exact Exchange. Journal of Chemical Physics 1993, 98, 5648

  7. Risk and outbreak communication: lessons from alternative paradigms.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Risk communication guidelines widely used in public health are based on the psychometric paradigm of risk, which focuses on risk perception at the level of individuals. However, infectious disease outbreaks and other public health emergencies are more than public health events and occur in a highly charged political, social and economic environment. This study examines other sociological and cultural approaches from scholars such as Ulrich Beck and Mary Douglas for insights on how to communicate in such environments. It recommends developing supplemental tools for outbreak communication to deal with issues such as questions of blame and fairness in risk distribution and audiences who do not accept biomedical explanations of disease.

  8. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  9. STS-55 Payload Specialist Walter and backups at KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter (center) discusses preflight procedures with backup payload specialists Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele (left) and Renate Brummer at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. The entire seven-member flight crew and the two alternates are learning pad procedures and structures during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Walter, Thiele, and Brummer are representatives for Germany's DLR. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-318.

  10. STS-55 German payload specialist Schlegel and MS3 Harris work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, finds plenty of room to 'spread out' (head to the floor, feet at the ceiling) while conducting Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR). In the background, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr monitors an experiment in Rack 11, an experiment rack.

  11. Electrocatalytic Reduction of Molecular Oxygen by Mononuclear and Binuclear Cobalt Phthalocyanines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    in activity may be attributed to electronic coupling between the phthalocyanine rings. 1 -- S~ 5d ’ ON .ALAdIL,_ e ~ 0; AaS7RACT 21 A8BSTRACT SEC...Wien Morris Plains, NJ 07950 AUSTRIA Dr. Ulrich StiumingDr. E . Yeager Department of Chemical EngineeringDepartment of Chemistry Columbia UniversityCase...Box 531 Baltimore, Maryland 21218 Baltimore, Maryland 21218 S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden Dr’. D. E . Irish Dr. John Owen Department of Chemistry Department

  12. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  13. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  14. STS-55 Columbia, OV-102, crew poses for onboard portrait in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) portrait in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module. Front (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. In the rear (left to right) are MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  15. Interaction of Anchors with Soil and Anchor Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Cro7wn fluke 79 ank f LK j3 a STATO Mooring Ancoer a. placed on seafloor b. flukes keying C. in dense/stiff $@afloor d. in soft seafloor into seafloor 01o4...friction has been found to peak at pile embedment -20 diameter. -Recommnended value of f, for long piles compiled from Ehlers (1977), Angemeer (1975...Laboratory, PO No. M-R450. Port Hueneme, Calif., Oct 1978. Ehlers , C. J., and E. J. Ulrich, Jr. (1977). "Design criteria for grouted piles in sand," in

  16. Chaperonin-mediated Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Horwich, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    We have been studying chaperonins these past twenty years through an initial discovery of an action in protein folding, analysis of structure, and elucidation of mechanism. Some of the highlights of these studies were presented recently upon sharing the honor of the 2013 Herbert Tabor Award with my early collaborator, Ulrich Hartl, at the annual meeting of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Boston. Here, some of the major findings are recounted, particularly recognizing my collaborators, describing how I met them and how our great times together propelled our thinking and experiments. PMID:23803606

  17. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  18. LC/MS/MS data analysis of the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome fingerprint in pregnancy, labor, and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Craig C.; Quilici, David R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L.O.

    2015-01-01

    The data described in this article is the subject of an article in the American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, titled “The Human Uterine Smooth Muscle S-nitrosoproteome Fingerprint in Pregnancy, Labor, and Preterm Labor” (doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00198.2013) (Ulrich et al., 2013) [1]. The data described is a large scale mass spectrometry data set that defines the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome differences among laboring, non-laboring, preterm laboring tissue after treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione. PMID:26322325

  19. Microdesigning of Lightweight/High Strength Ceramic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    pp. 199-204. Mat. Res. Sx). Symp. Proc., 32 Amsterdam: North-Hlolland. 23. See, e.g., Matijevic , E~. 1976. Progr. Coloid & Polymer Sd. 61:24-35. 24...Johnson, D,. W, 1987. Adv. Ceram. 21:3. 25. Matijevic , E. 1984. Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, Classes, and Composites, pp. 334-352. L. L...Ilench, 1). R. Ulrich, ed., New York: Wiley. 26. Matijevic , E. 1987. Personal communication. 27. Pak, S. F)88. M.S. Thesis. University of Washington

  20. [Theodor Kocher and Zurich].

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, K

    1992-01-01

    Theodor Kocher was linked to Zurich by many relationships. It was in this town that he spent his last semester at university, and his contacts with his teachers Friedrich Horner and Theodor Billroth were of some importance with regard to his election as a professor at Berne. Kocher was on friendly terms with his Zurich colleagues Rudolf Ulrich Krönlein and Ferdinand Sauerbruch. In spite of many common views, however, the two Swiss surgeons Kocher and Krönlein were not always of the same opinion.

  1. STS-55 crewmembers work in the SL-D2 module onboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Working in the shirt-sleeve research environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module are STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Ross examines sample tube at Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (left). Harris, holding his arm, waits to have his blood drawn by Schlegel (right). Wearing the baroreflex (BA) collar at Rack 12 Experiment Rack and waving is Walter. The SL-D2 module is located in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  2. STS-55 SL-D2 crew reviews preflight CEIT procedures in KSC conference room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, seated at a conference table, discuss Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) procedures in a briefing room at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, MS3 Bernard J. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt. Seated in the foreground are KSC technicians and payload integration officers. Walter and Schlegel are representatives from DLR. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-212.

  3. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  4. Identifying storm flow pathways in a rainforest catchment using hydrological and geochemical modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Stallard, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrological model TOPMODEL is used to assess the water balance and describe flow paths for the 9??73 ha Lutz Creek Catchment in Central Panama. Monte Carlo results are evaluated based on their fit to the observed hydrograph, catchment-averaged soil moisture and stream chemistry. TOPMODEL, with a direct-flow mechanism that is intended to route water through rapid shallow-soil flow, matched observed chemistry and discharge better than the basic version of TOPMODEL and provided a reasonable fit to observed soil moisture and wet-season discharge at both 15-min and daily time-steps. The improvement of simulations with the implementation of a direct-flow component indicates that a storm flow path not represented in the original version of TOPMODEL plays a primary role in the response of Lutz Creek Catchment. This flow path may be consistent with the active and abundant pipeflow that is observed or delayed saturation overland flow. The 'best-accepted' simulations from 1991 to 1997 indicate that around 41% of precipitation becomes direct flow and around 10% is saturation overland flow. Other field observations are needed to constrain evaporative and groundwater losses in the model and to characterize chemical end-members posited in this paper. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  5. ON PULSAR DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR UNCERTAINTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, J. P. W.; Lee, K. J.; Weisberg, J. M.; Chael, A. A.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2012-08-10

    Accurate distances to pulsars can be used for a variety of studies of the Galaxy and its electron content. However, most distance measures to pulsars have been derived from the absorption (or lack thereof) of pulsar emission by Galactic H I gas, which typically implies that only upper or lower limits on the pulsar distance are available. We present a critical analysis of all measured H I distance limits to pulsars and other neutron stars, and translate these limits into actual distance estimates through a likelihood analysis that simultaneously corrects for statistical biases. We also apply this analysis to parallax measurements of pulsars in order to obtain accurate distance estimates and find that the parallax and H I distance measurements are biased in different ways, because of differences in the sampled populations. Parallax measurements typically underestimate a pulsar's distance because of the limited distance to which this technique works and the consequential strong effect of the Galactic pulsar distribution (i.e., the original Lutz-Kelker bias), in H I distance limits, however, the luminosity bias dominates the Lutz-Kelker effect, leading to overestimated distances because the bright pulsars on which this technique is applicable are more likely to be nearby given their brightness.

  6. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  7. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  8. SU-E-J-213: Imaging and Treatment Isocenter Verification of a Gantry Mounted Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S; Goddu, S; Rankine, L; Klein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Mevion proton therapy machine is the first to feature a gantry mounted sychro-cyclotron. In addition, the system utilizes a 6D motion couch and kV imaging for precise proton therapy. To quantify coincidence between these systems, isocentricity tests were performed based on kV imaging alignment using radiochromic film. Methods: The 100 ton gantry and 6D robotic couch can rotate 190° around isocenter to provide necessary beam angles for treatment. The kV sources and detector panels are deployed as needed to acquire orthogonal portals. Gantry and couch mechanical isocenter were tested using star-shots and radiochromic-film (RCF). Using kV imaging, the star-shot phantom was aligned to an embedded fiducial and the isocenter was marked on RCF with a pinprick. The couch and gantry stars were performed by irradiating films at every 45° and 30°, respectively. A proton beam with a range and modulation-width of 18 cm was used. A Winston-Lutz test was also performed at the same gantry and couch rotations using a custom jig holding RCF and a tungsten ball placed at isocenter. A 2 cm diameter circular aperture was used for the irradiation. Results: The couch star-shot indicated a minimum tangent circle of 0.6 mm, with a 0.9 mm offset from the manually marked isocenter. The gantry star-shot showed a 0.6 mm minimum tangent circle with a 0.5 mm offset from the pinprick. The Winston Lutz test performed for gantry rotation showed a maximum deviation from center of 0.5 mm. Conclusion: Based on star-shots and Winston-Lutz tests, the proton gantry and 6D couch isocentricity are within 1 mm. In this study, we have shown that the methods commonly utilized for Linac characterization can be applied to proton therapy. This revolutionary proton therapy system possesses excellent agreement between the mechanical and radiation isocenter, providing highly precise treatment.

  9. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P; Vieira, S; Greco, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  10. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    SciTech Connect

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry and couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter.

  11. SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N; Laurel, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the

  12. 'Small change of the universal': beyond modernity?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Sarat

    2010-09-01

    The paper is a sounding of Ulrich Beck's and Edgar Grande's conceptual map of the varieties of second modernity - Western and Non-Western, European and beyond - that makes up today's world. Their mapping is examined in the light of two, striking analytical perspectives associated with Ulrich Beck: everyday 'cosmopolitization' and his call for a methodological cosmopolitanism. A line of inquiry explores whether contemporary modernities are essentially expressions of a single, underlying modernization drive or whether they are utterly disparate entities. The implications of treating them as 'variants and variations' are unpacked with reference to musical models and how they generate difference. The probe into methodological cosmopolitanism touches on 'de-provincialization' that is somewhat at odds with the postcolonial project of 'provincializing' Europe. It looks at the attempt to go beyond 'nation-bound' sociological dualisms in determining the appropriate 'unit of analysis' for our ever-morphing current reality. Does this imply engaging with 'singularity'- with a mode of conceptualization that sidesteps the universal/particular couple and related either/or thinking? References to the making of the 'first modernity' under unequal centre/periphery relations of colonial power are aired for possible lessons in mappings of the second. Ulrich Beck's 'impure, really-existing cosmopolitanism'- in contrast to its speculative counterpart derived from the realm of pure ideas - springs from humdrum global economic and political links and institutions that span out across, above and beyond the 'container of the national space'. With the inadvertent cosmopolitical impact of the migrations it amounts in practice to a functioning 'cosmopolitan realpolitik'. Is there room for it to develop or will it stall as a mere front for national, tribal-territorial interests - going the way of 'multiculturalism and diversity' that seem increasingly to serve as governmental ideologies for

  13. A probabilistic estimate of maximum acceleration in rock in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Algermissen, Sylvester Theodore; Perkins, David M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic estimate of the maximum ground acceleration to be expected from earthquakes occurring in the contiguous United States. It is based primarily upon the historic seismic record which ranges from very incomplete before 1930 to moderately complete after 1960. Geologic data, primarily distribution of faults, have been employed only to a minor extent, because most such data have not been interpreted yet with earthquake hazard evaluation in mind.The map provides a preliminary estimate of the relative hazard in various parts of the country. The report provides a method for evaluating the relative importance of the many parameters and assumptions in hazard analysis. The map and methods of evaluation described reflect the current state of understanding and are intended to be useful for engineering purposes in reducing the effects of earthquakes on buildings and other structures.Studies are underway on improved methods for evaluating the relativ( earthquake hazard of different regions. Comments on this paper are invited to help guide future research and revisions of the accompanying map.The earthquake hazard in the United States has been estimated in a variety of ways since the initial effort by Ulrich (see Roberts and Ulrich, 1950). In general, the earlier maps provided an estimate of the severity of ground shaking or damage but the frequency of occurrence of the shaking or damage was not given. Ulrich's map showed the distribution of expected damage in terms of no damage (zone 0), minor damage (zone 1), moderate damage (zone 2), and major damage (zone 3). The zones were not defined further and the frequency of occurrence of damage was not suggested. Richter (1959) and Algermissen (1969) estimated the ground motion in terms of maximum Modified Mercalli intensity. Richter used the terms "occasional" and "frequent" to characterize intensity IX shaking and Algermissen included recurrence curves for various parts of the country in the paper

  14. Nocturnal activity rhythms of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2005-11-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Lutz & Neiva) and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Coutinho & Antunes) are important vectors of Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, the etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In some areas, both species occur in sympatry, and their relative roles as vectors in these areas are not clear. We studied the nocturnal activity and biting rhythms of both species in Posse, a locality in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Our results show differences between the activity patterns of Lu. intermedia and Lu. whitmani that might be epidemiologically important. Although the activity profiles vary between seasons and microhabitats (peridomestic versus forest), the two species show marked differences in their tendencies to bite humans in the early morning (0400-0600 hours), with Lu. whitmani showing higher feeding rates than Lu. intermedia.

  15. Scorpion toxins from Centruroides noxius and Tityus serrulatus. Primary structures and sequence comparison by metric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Martin, B M; Svendsen, I; Rode, G S; Erickson, B W

    1985-01-01

    The complete primary structures of toxin II-14 from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and toxin gamma from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz and Mello have been determined. Cleavage of toxin gamma after Met-6 with CNBr produced the 55-residue peptide 7-61, which maintained the four disulphide bonds but was not toxic to mice at a dose 3 times the lethal dose of native toxin gamma. Pairwise comparison by metric analysis of segment 1-50 of toxin gamma and the corresponding segments from two other South American scorpion toxins, five North American scorpion toxins, nine North African scorpion toxins and one Central Asian scorpion toxin showed that the three Brazilian toxins are intermediate between the North American and North African toxins. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the South American and African continents were joined by a land connection in the distant past. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052021

  16. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  17. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  18. The spatio-temporal distribution patterns of biting midges of the genus Culicoides in Salta province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Aybar, Cecilia A Veggiani; Juri, María J Dantur; Santana, Mirta; de Grosso, Mercedes S Lizarralde; Spinelli, Gustavo R

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this survey was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their relationship with environmental variables in Salta, northwestern Argentina. Culicoides were collected monthly from January 2003 through December 2005. The influence of the climatic variables on population abundance was analyzed with a multilevel Poisson regression. A total of 918 specimens belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Culicoides paraensis Goeldi (65.5%), followed by Culicoides lahillei Iches (14.6%) and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (7.6%). The highest seasonal abundance for C. paraensis, C. debilipalpis and C. lahillei occurred during the spring and summer. A Poisson regression analysis showed that the mean maximum and minimum temperature and the mean maximum and minimum humidity were the variables with the greatest influence on the population abundance of Culicoides species.

  19. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  20. Personality and symptom change in treatment-refractory inpatients: evaluation of the phase model of change using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we examined global treatment outcomes during 16 months of intensive, psychodynamic treatment for 77 inpatients suffering from treatment-refractory disorders. Hypotheses based on the phase model of treatment change (Howard, Lueger, Maling, & Martinovich, 1993; Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) were supported in the study results. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Axis V scales assessing behavioral functioning demonstrated large and medium effect size change, whereas stable, enduring personality functioning assessed by psychoanalytic Rorschach scales and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, 1995) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) demonstrated small and medium effect size change. We also report assessment of reliable change index and clinical significance. The ecological validity of Rorschach measures is supported by significant validity coefficients (in the hypothesized directions) between implicit measures of personality functioning and behavioral ratings.

  1. New method to test the gantry, collimator, and table rotation angles of a linear accelerator used in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Stéphane; Torfeh, Tarraf; Latreille, Romain; Ben Hdech, Yassine; Guedon, Jeanpierre

    2011-03-01

    The precision of a medical LINear ACcelerator (LINAC) gantry rotation angle is crucial for the radiation therapy process, especially in stereotactic radio surgery, given the expected precision of the treatment and in Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) where the mechanical stability is disturbed due to the additional weight of the kV x-ray tube and detector. We present in this paper an extension of the Winston and Lutz test initially dedicated to control the size and the position of the isocenter of the LINAC and here adapted to test the gantry rotation angle with no additional portal images. This new method uses a test-object patented by QualiFormeD5 and is integrated in the QUALIMAGIQ software platform developed to automatically analyze images acquired for quality control of medical devices.

  2. Intestinal parasites and commensals among individuals from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Cec lia; Silva, Claudio Vieira da; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children and adults from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October to November 2001. Stool samples from 78 individuals were examined by both the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Fifty-one (65.4%; CI 54.8 - 76.0) individuals were found to be infected, 23 (45.1%) children and 28 (54.9%) adults, of whom 34 (66.7%) were mono-infected, 9 (17.6%) bi-infected, and 8 (15.7%) poly-infected. In conclusion, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals suggests that parasitological exams should be periodically carried out in addition to the sanitation education and health special care in this population.

  3. Piscine Insights into Comparisons of Anoxia Tolerance, Ammonia Toxicity, Stroke and Hepatic Encephalopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Patrick J.; Veauvy, Clemence M.; McDonald, M. Danielle; Pamenter, Matthew E.; Buck, Leslie T.; Wilkie, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the number of fish species that have been studied for both hypoxia/anoxia tolerance and ammonia tolerance are few, there appears to be a correlation between the ability to survive these two insults. After establishing this correlation with examples from the literature, and after examining the role Peter Lutz played in catalyzing this convergent interest in two variables, this article explores potential mechanisms underpinning this correlation. We draw especially on the larger body of information for two human diseases with the same effected organ (brain), namely stroke and hepatic encephalopathy. While several dissimilarities exist between the responses of vertebrates to anoxia and hyperammonemia, one consistent observation in both conditions is an overactivation of NMDA receptors or glutamate neurotoxicity. We propose a glutamate excitotoxicity hypothesis to explain the correlation between ammonia and hypoxia resistance in fish. Furthermore, we suggest several experimental paths to test this hypothesis. PMID:17046301

  4. The Spatio-Temporal Distribution Patterns of Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in Salta Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Aybar, Cecilia A. Veggiani; Juri, María J. Dantur; Santana, Mirta; de Grosso, Mercedes S. Lizarralde; Spinelli, Gustavo R.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this survey was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their relationship with environmental variables in Salta, northwestern Argentina. Culicoides were collected monthly from January 2003 through December 2005. The influence of the climatic variables on population abundance was analyzed with a multilevel Poisson regression. A total of 918 specimens belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Culicoides paraensis Goeldi (65.5%), followed by Culicoides lahillei Iches (14.6%) and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (7.6%). The highest seasonal abundance for C. paraensis, C. debilipalpis and C. lahillei occurred during the spring and summer. A Poisson regression analysis showed that the mean maximum and minimum temperature and the mean maximum and minimum humidity were the variables with the greatest influence on the population abundance of Culicoides species. PMID:23461794

  5. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  6. Polymer Models of Interphase Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Kondev, Jané; Bressen, Debra; Haber, James

    2006-03-01

    Experiments during interphase, the growth phase of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, have shown that parts of chromosomes are tethered to the nuclear periphery[1]. Using a simple polymer model of interphase chromosomes that includes tethering, we compute the probability distribution for the distance between two marked points on the chromosome. These calculations are inspired by recent experiments with two or more fluorescent markers placed along the chromosome[2]. We demonstrate how experiments of this kind, in conjunction with simpe polymer models, can be used to systematically dissect the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes in the nucleus of living cells. This comparison of theory with experiments has lead to the conclusion that the structure of chromosome III in yeast is consistent with a 10nm-fiber model of chromatin. [1]Wallace F. Marshall. Current Biology, 12, 2002. [2] Kerstin Bystricky, Patrick Heun, Lutz Gehlen, Jörg Langowski and Susan M. Gasser. PNAS, 101(47) 2004

  7. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  8. Photoelectron Angular Distribution Asymmetry Parameters for Photodetachment of Li^- and Al^-.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Nan; Starace, Anthony F.

    1997-04-01

    Calculation of photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameters for photodetachment precesses is a more stringent test for theory than calculation of partial or total cross sections. Since asymmetry parameters involve ratios of transition matrix elements of different channels, they are particularly sensitive to the resonance behavior of transition matrix elements. We present the asymmetry parameters for photodetachment of Li^- (2s^2 ^1S) and Al^- (3s^23p^2 ^3P) using the eigenchannel R-matrix method(U.Fano and C.M. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31), 1573 (1973)^,(C.H. Greene, in Fundamental Processes of Atomic Dynamics,) edited by J.S. Briggs, H. Kleinpoppen, and H.O. Lutz (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp.105-127.. Our results are in good agreement with the available Al^- photodetachment measurements(A.M. Covington et al.), U of Nevada-Reno, private communication..

  9. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    PubMed

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.

  10. SU-E-T-373: A Motorized Stage for Fast and Accurate QA of Machine Isocenter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J; Velarde, E; Wong, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Precision delivery of radiation dose relies on accurate knowledge of the machine isocenter under a variety of machine motions. This is typically determined by performing a Winston-Lutz test consisting of imaging a known object at multiple gantry/collimator/table angles and ensuring that the maximum offset is within specified tolerance. The first step in the Winston-Lutz test is careful placement of a ball bearing at the machine isocenter as determined by repeated imaging and shifting until accurate placement has been determined. Conventionally this is performed by adjusting a stage manually using vernier scales which carry the limitation that each adjustment must be done inside the treatment room with the risks of inaccurate adjustment of the scale and physical bumping of the table. It is proposed to use a motorized system controlled outside of the room to improve the required time and accuracy of these tests. Methods: The three dimensional vernier scales are replaced by three motors with accuracy of 1 micron and a range of 25.4mm connected via USB to a computer in the control room. Software is designed which automatically detects the motors and assigns them to proper axes and allows for small shifts to be entered and performed. Input values match calculated offsets in magnitude and sign to reduce conversion errors. Speed of setup, number of iterations to setup, and accuracy of final placement are assessed. Results: Automatic BB placement required 2.25 iterations and 13 minutes on average while manual placement required 3.76 iterations and 37.5 minutes. The average final XYZ offsets is 0.02cm, 0.01cm, 0.04cm for automatic setup and 0.04cm, 0.02cm, 0.04cm for manual setup. Conclusion: Automatic placement decreased time and repeat iterations for setup while improving placement accuracy. Automatic placement greatly reduces the time required to perform QA.

  11. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2017-03-22

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree.

  12. SU-E-T-300: Spatial Variations of Multiple Off-Axial Targets for a Single Isocenter SRS Treatment Plan in ExacTrac 6D Robotic Couch System

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Tseng, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial variations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment plan in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system (BrainLab AG). Methods: Five metallic ball bearing (BB) markers were placed sparsely in 3D off-axial locations (non-coplanar) inside a skull phantom as the representatives of multiple targets mimicking multiple brain metastases. The locations of the BB markers were carefully chosen to minimize overlapping of each other in a port imaging detector plane. The skull phantom was immobilized by a frameless mask and CT scanned with a BrainLab Head and Neck Localizer using a GE Optima MDCT scanner. The CT images were exported to iPlan software (BrainLab AG) and a multiple target PTV was drawn by combining all the contours of the BBs. The margin of the MLC opening was selected as 3 mm expansion outward. Two coplanar arc beams were placed to generate a single isocenter SRS plan to treat the PTV. The arc beams were delivered using Novalis Tx system with portal imaging acquisition mode per 10% temporal resolution. The locations of the BBs were visualized and analyzed with respect to the MLC aperture in the treatment plan similar to the Winston-Lutz test. Results: All the BBs were clearly identified inside the MLC openings. The positional errors for the BBs were overall less than 1 mm along the rotational path of the two arcs. Conclusion: This study verified that the spatial deviations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter SRS treatment plan is within sub-millimeter range in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system. Accompanied with the Winston-Lutz test, this test will quality-assure the spatial accuracies of the isocenter as well as the positions of multiple off-axial targets for the SRS treatment using a single isocenter multiple target treatment plan.

  13. Mediating subpolitics in US and UK science news.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The development of therapeutic cloning research sparked a scientific controversy pitting patients' hopes for cures against religious and anti-abortion opposition. The present study investigates this controversy by examining the production and content of Anglo-American print media coverage of the branch of embryonic stem cell research known as "therapeutic cloning." Data collection included press articles about therapeutic cloning (n = 5,185) and qualitative interviews with journalists (n = 18). Patient activists and anti-abortion groups emerged as key news sources in this coverage. Significant qualitative differences in the mediation of these subpolitical groups and their arguments for and against therapeutic cloning are identified. Results suggest that the perceived human interest news value of narratives of patient suffering may give patient advocacy groups a privileged position in journalistic coverage. Finally, Ulrich Beck's theoretical arguments about subpolitics are critically applied to the results to elicit further insights.

  14. ESCIMO.spread - a spreadsheet-based point snow surface energy balance model to calculate hourly snow water equivalent and melt rates for historical and changing climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, U.; Marke, T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the spreadsheet-based point energy balance model ESCIMO.spread which simulates the energy and mass balance as well as melt rates of a snow surface. The model makes use of hourly recordings of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, global and longwave radiation. The effect of potential climate change on the seasonal evolution of the snow cover can be estimated by modifying the time series of observed temperature and precipitation by means of adjustable parameters. Model output is graphically visualized in hourly and daily diagrams. The results compare well with weekly measured snow water equivalent (SWE). The model is easily portable and adjustable, and runs particularly fast: hourly calculation of a one winter season is instantaneous on a standard computer. ESICMO.spread can be obtained from the authors on request (contact: ulrich.strasser@uni-graz.at).

  15. Time-course analysis of temporal preparation on central processes.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Tanja; Bratzke, Daniel; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

    2012-03-01

    Participants usually respond faster to a response signal (RS) when this signal is preceded by a warning stimulus than when it is not. A question of theoretical importance is the locus of this facilitating effect within the information processing stream. Recently, Los and Schut (Cogn Psychol 57:20-55, 2008) suggested that temporal preparation acts on central processes while perception of the RS is under way. The present study provides a stochastic model (central preparation model, CPM) based on this hypothesis and presents three experiments testing this model. To track the complete time-course of temporal preparation, the warning signal could either precede or follow the RS. The data show some systematic deviation from the model's predictions, questioning CPM's assumption that temporal preparation acts only on central processes. An alternative mechanism of temporal preparation based on the parallel grains model [Miller and Ulrich (Cogn Psychol 46:101-151, 2003)] is discussed.

  16. The kinematics of the high velocity bipolar nebulae NGC 6537 and HB 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Schwarz, Hugo E.

    1993-03-01

    The velocity structure of the bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 6537 and Hb 5 has been investigated by means of medium dispersion long slit spectra. We have derived kinematical parameters and the deprojected shapes of the two nebulae by applying the kinematical model introduced by Solf and Ulrich (1985). In the direction of the polar axis of the nebulae, the deprojected expansion velocity is computed to be 300 km/s for NGC 6537 and about 250 km/s for Hb 5. These are very high velocities, but not unusual in the class of bipolar nebulae. The observed shapes and the velocity fields, in particular the one of Hb 5, are nicely reproduced by the interacting winds models by Icke et al. (1989). These imply a strongly aspherical initial mass distribution, i.e. equatorial to polar density contrasts larger than five. We espouse the idea that these initial conditions are created in interacting binary systems.

  17. Universal and scaled relaxation of interacting magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Sahoo, S.; Kleemann, W.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2004-11-01

    The logarithmic relaxation rate of the thermoremanent magnetic moment m(t) of interacting magnetic nanoparticles in discontinuous Co80Fe20/Al2O3 multilayers follows a universal power law, whose exponent n increases with increasing particle concentration as predicted by recent simulations [Ulrich , Phys. Rev. B 67, 024416 (2003)]. While n<1 characterizes the stretched exponential decay of the dilute superspin glass (SSG) regime, n>1 refers to algebraic decay with finite remanence for t→∞ as observed in more concentrated superferromagnets (SFM). In the crossover regime from SSG to SFM, an increase from n<1 at low temperature to n>1 at T⪅Tc violates Tln(t/τ0) scaling and seems to indicate a crossover from random-field domain state to SFM behavior.

  18. Accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, S.; Huerta, E. A.

    2008-04-01

    We construct a simple accretion model of a rotating pressureless gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole. Far away from the hole, the flow is assumed to rotate as a rigid body. We show how to build analytic solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This construction represents a general relativistic generalization of the Newtonian accretion model first proposed by Ulrich (1976). In exactly the same form as it occurs for the Newtonian case, the flow naturally predicts the existence of an equatorial rotating accretion disk about the hole. However, the radius of the disk increases monotonically without limit as the flow reaches the angular momentum corresponding to the maximum limit allowed by the model.

  19. Testing solar models with global solar oscillations in the 5-minute band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Frequencies of solar oscillation for normal modes described by spherical harmonics with l-values between 0 and 4 are computed. The method of computation is discussed and some of the theoretical uncertainties are examined. It is shown that the standard solar model has eigenfrequencies which do not agree with the frequencies observed for the low l-modes to within the estimated accuracy of either the observed or theoretical frequencies. Four non-standard models are considered: (1) the interior Z abundance is lower than the surface abundance; (2) the interior Z abundance is higher than the surface abundance; (3) the interior Z abundance is altered by mixing; and (4) a large primordial magnetic field remains in the solar core. The effect of all these models on the solar neutrino flux is considered, with the result that the high-Z model is rejected. The conclusions of Bahcall and Ulrich (1971) that a primordial magnetic field increases the neutrino flux are disputed.

  20. DLs in reminder and 2AFC tasks: data and models.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    García-Pérez and Alcalá-Quintana (2010) dispute the conclusion of Lapid, Ulrich, and Rammsayer (2008) that the two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task yields meaningfully larger estimates of the difference limen (DL) than does the reminder task. García-Pérez and Alcalá-Quintana overlook, however, fundamental properties of 2AFC psychometric functions and Type B order errors in their reanalysis. In addition, their favored theory (i.e., the difference model with guessing) does not provide a plausible account for why the 2AFC task tends to yield larger DLs (by about 50%) than does the reminder task. In trying to clarify these issues, I hope to advance the proper assessment of discrimination performance in 2AFC tasks.

  1. Solar Implications of ULYSSES Interplanetary Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Recent observations by the Ulysses magnetometer team have shown that the strength of the radial interplanetary field component, |Br| , is essentially independent of latitude, a result which implies that the heliospheric currents are confined entirely to thin sheets. Using such a current sheet model, we extrapolate the observed photospheric field to 1 AU and compare the predicted magnitude and sign of Br with spacecraft measurements during 1970--1993. Approximate agreement can be obtained if the solar magnetograph measurements in the Fe I lambda 5250 line are scaled upward by a latitude-dependent factor, similar to that derived by Ulrich from a study of magnetic saturation effects. The correction factor implies sharply peaked polar fields near sunspot minimum, with each polar coronal hole having a mean field strength of 10 G.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic studies on reaction induced conformational changes in the NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Petra; Kriegel, Sébastien; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Redox-dependent conformational changes are currently discussed to be a crucial part of the reaction mechanism of the respiratory complex I. Specialized difference Fourier transform infrared techniques allow the detection of side-chain movements and minute secondary structure changes. For complex I, (1)H/(2)H exchange kinetics of the amide modes revealed a better accessibility of the backbone in the presence of NADH and quinone. Interestingly, the presence of phospholipids, that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the isolated enzyme complex, changes the overall conformation. When comparing complex I samples from different species, very similar electrochemically induced FTIR difference spectra and very similar rearrangements are reported. Finally, the information obtained with variants and from Zn(2+) inhibited samples for the conformational reorganization of complex I upon electron transfer are discussed in this review. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  3. Complex I function in mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Lenaz, Giorgio; Tioli, Gaia; Falasca, Anna Ida; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses the functional properties of mitochondrial Complex I originating from its presence in an assembled form as a supercomplex comprising Complex III and Complex IV in stoichiometric ratios. In particular several lines of evidence are presented favouring the concept that electron transfer from Complex I to Complex III is operated by channelling of electrons through Coenzyme Q molecules bound to the supercomplex, in contrast with the hypothesis that the transfer of reducing equivalents from Complex I to Complex III occurs via random diffusion of the Coenzyme Q molecules in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, another property provided by the supercomplex assembly is the control of generation of reactive oxygen species by Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  4. Current topics on inhibitors of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    There are a variety of chemicals which regulate the functions of bacterial and mitochondrial complex I. Some of them, such as rotenone and piericidin A, have been indispensable molecular tools in mechanistic studies on complex I. A large amount of experimental data characterizing the actions of complex I inhibitors has been accumulated so far. Recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of entire complex I may be helpful to carefully interpret this data. We herein focused on recent hot topics on complex I inhibitors and the subjects closely connected to these inhibitors, which may provide useful information not only on the structural and functional aspects of complex I, but also on drug design targeting this enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  5. Molecular simulation and modeling of complex I.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Gerhard; Wikström, Mårten

    2016-07-01

    Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations play an important role in the functional characterization of complex I. With its large size and complicated function, linking quinone reduction to proton pumping across a membrane, complex I poses unique modeling challenges. Nonetheless, simulations have already helped in the identification of possible proton transfer pathways. Simulations have also shed light on the coupling between electron and proton transfer, thus pointing the way in the search for the mechanistic principles underlying the proton pump. In addition to reviewing what has already been achieved in complex I modeling, we aim here to identify pressing issues and to provide guidance for future research to harness the power of modeling in the functional characterization of complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  6. Beck, individualization and the death of class: a critique.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Will

    2007-09-01

    Ulrich Beck has argued that the changing logic of distribution and, more importantly, the 'individualization' of social processes in reflexive modernity have killed off the concept of social class and rendered the analysis of its effects a flawed endeavour. The present paper takes issue with this perspective by exposing its key weaknesses, namely its ambivalence and contradiction over what exactly constitutes individualization and the extent to which it has really displaced class, its inconsistent and caricaturized description of what actually constitutes class, its erroneous and unsatisfactory depiction of class analysis, and its self-defeating reasoning on the motors of individualization. The intention is not to conservatively deny that social change is occurring nor to advocate any particular model of class, but only to illustrate the aporias of Beck's position with the aim of vindicating the enterprise of class analysis.

  7. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases.

  8. Toxic waste in our midst: towards an interdisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Intractable industrial legacies present new challenges to governance. Amongst the persistent organic pollutants, now managed internationally under the Stockholm Convention, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) stands out in all three classes of chemicals (pesticides, industrial chemicals and unintended by-products). This paper introduces twelve interdisciplinary papers contributing to our understanding of decision-making processes using a case study of HCB and industry-community relations in Sydney's industrial heartland. In this collection, authors align new political theory and emerging management theory, and they analyse the case study from several disciplines. Disputes such as that over HCB destablilise the political/administrative/technoscientific regime that is the modern state. Citizens engage in 'sub-political' processes which require recognition of what Ulrich Beck and others have termed 'individualisation'. This sees decision-forming and decision-making functions push outwards into community-driven structures. There we find new styles of public participation, resolution of asymmetries between knowledge and expertise, and new corporate behaviour.

  9. Freedom's Children: A Gender Perspective on the Education of the Learner-Citizen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnot, Madeleine

    2006-03-01

    Drawing on Ulrich Beck's theory of "freedom's children", the present contribution examines contemporary concerns about educating young people for citizenship as well as educating them about citizenship. Under the first theme, the author focuses on the citizen as learner, highlighting some of the gender- and class-related inequalities that are typically associated with individualisation. Under the second theme, she looks at the learner as citizen in view of the fact that citizenship education courses often prepare learners for a gender-divided world - even though the processes of individualisation have themselves significantly reshaped contemporary gender relations. In light of current challenges facing citizenship education, the study concludes by reflecting on gender-related dimensions of individualisation and their implications for democracy and the learner-citizen.

  10. Freedom's Children: A gender perspective on the education of the learner-citizen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnot, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on Ulrich Beck's theory of "freedom's children", the present contribution examines contemporary concerns about educating young people for citizenship as well as educating them about citizenship. Under the first theme, the author focuses on the citizen as learner, highlighting some of the gender- and class-related inequalities that are typically associated with individualisation. Under the second theme, she looks at the learner as citizen in view of the fact that citizenship education courses often prepare learners for a gender-divided world — even though the processes of individualisation have themselves significantly reshaped contemporary gender relations. In light of current challenges facing citizenship education, the study concludes by reflecting on gender-related dimensions of individualisation and their implications for democracy and the learner-citizen.

  11. Cell scientist to watch - Christian Behrends.

    PubMed

    2016-08-15

    Christian Behrends studied biology at the University of Konstanz in Germany, but did his Diploma thesis externally with Michael Ehrmann in the School of Bioscience at Cardiff University, UK. He then pursued his PhD degree in Franz-Ulrich Hartl's group at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany. For his postdoctoral work Christian received a Feodor Lynen Research Fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, with which he moved to the US and joined the laboratory of J. Wade Harper at Harvard Medical School. In 2011, he received an Emmy Noether Research Grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and started his own independent group at the Medical School of Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. He is also a recipient of an ERC starting grant. Research in Christian's lab is focused on the basic mechanisms of autophagy, particularly concentrating on the role of ubiquitin signalling in autophagy, and the crosstalk between autophagy and other vesicular trafficking pathways.

  12. Physical activity measurement among individuals with disabilities: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Carlos M; Porretta, David L

    2010-07-01

    This review examined the literature on physical activity measurement among individuals with disabilities utilizing Yun and Ulrich's (2002) view on measurement validity. Specific inclusion criteria were identified. The search produced 115 articles; however, only 28 met all specified criteria. Findings revealed that self-reports and accelerometers were the most common approaches to measuring physical activity, and individuals with orthopedic impairments, those with mental retardation, and those with other health impairments received the most attention. Of the 28 articles, 17 (61%) reported validity and reliability evidence. Among those studies reporting validity, criterion-related evidence was the most common; however, a number of methodological limitations relative to validity were observed. Given the importance of using multiple physical activity measures, only five (18%) studies reported the use of multiple measures. Findings are discussed relative to conducting future physical activity research on persons with disabilities.

  13. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  14. Refuse and the ‘Risk Society’: The Political Ecology of Risk in Inter-war Britain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy; Bulmer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to current critiques of Ulrich Beck's ‘risk society’ thesis by historians of science and medicine. Those who have engaged with the concept of risk society have been content to accept the fundamental categories of Beck's analysis. In contrast, we argue that Beck's risk society thesis underplays two key themes. First, the role of capitalist social relations as the driver of technological change and the transformation of everyday life; and second, the ways in which hegemonic discourses of risk can be appropriated and transformed by counter-hegemonic forces. In place of ‘risk society’, we propose an approach based upon a ‘political ecology of risk’, which emphasises the social relations that are fundamental to the everyday politics of environmental health. PMID:24771975

  15. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  16. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  17. STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab D2 Official crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers, wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for their Official crew portrait. Five NASA astronauts and two German payload specialists, assigned to fly aboard OV-102 in support of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2), are pictured. On the front row (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks (holding launch and entry helmet (LEH)), Commander Steven R. Nagel (holding crew insignia), and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt (holding LEH). In the back are (left to right) MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. In the background are the United States and German flags. Portrait made by NASA JSC contract photographer Robert L. Walck.

  18. Is the cosmopolitanization of science emerging in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2013-01-01

    China is one among many other countries that have recognised the necessity in aligning national scientific progress with that of global development. As China is striding along the path of scientific development with determination and initial success, a key concern confronted by international scientific community is how China, a rising scientific power, will transform existing global scientific atlas. Based on a project carried out in six Chinese cities between 2006 to 2009, this paper mainly employs Ulrich Beck’s cosmopolitan theory in examining China’s life sciences’ development in the last decade to investigate how Chinese stakeholders have developed a (cosmopolitan) sensibility to rival ways of scientific reasoning, and in what way, Chinese stakeholders have contributed to the cosmopolitanization of science. PMID:24244045

  19. Phonon-dressed Mollow triplet in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics: excitation-induced dephasing and nonperturbative cavity feeding effects.

    PubMed

    Roy, C; Hughes, S

    2011-06-17

    We study the resonance fluorescence spectra of a driven quantum dot placed inside a high-Q semiconductor cavity and interacting with an acoustic phonon bath. The dynamics is calculated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame. We predict pronounced spectral broadening of the Mollow sidebands through off-resonant cavity emission which, for small cavity-coupling rates, increases quadratically with the Rabi frequency in direct agreement with recent experiments using semiconductor micropillars [S. M. Ulrich et al., preceding Letter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247402 (2011)]. We also demonstrate that, surprisingly, phonon coupling actually helps resolve signatures of the elusive second rungs of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder states via off-resonant cavity feeding. Both multiphonon and multiphoton effects are shown to play a qualitatively important role on the fluorescence spectra.

  20. STS-55 crew examines emergency egress system (slidewire) mechanism at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers examine emergency egress system (slidewire) mechanism and listen to training instructor's briefing on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) tower 39A. In the slidewire basket (litter) are Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel (left) and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. On either side of the basket are (left to right) Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (kneeling), Commander Steven R. Nagel, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, the instructor, and MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr. Schlegel and Walter are representatives for Germany's DLR. The crewmembers are participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-316.

  1. Refuse and the 'Risk Society': The Political Ecology of Risk in Inter-war Britain.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Timothy; Bulmer, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    This article responds to current critiques of Ulrich Beck's 'risk society' thesis by historians of science and medicine. Those who have engaged with the concept of risk society have been content to accept the fundamental categories of Beck's analysis. In contrast, we argue that Beck's risk society thesis underplays two key themes. First, the role of capitalist social relations as the driver of technological change and the transformation of everyday life; and second, the ways in which hegemonic discourses of risk can be appropriated and transformed by counter-hegemonic forces. In place of 'risk society', we propose an approach based upon a 'political ecology of risk', which emphasises the social relations that are fundamental to the everyday politics of environmental health.

  2. Lyapunov exponent and surrogation analysis of patterns of variability: profiles in new walkers with and without down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Beth A; Stergiou, Nick; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we found that preadolescents with Down syndrome (DS) produce higher amounts of variability (Smith et al., 2007) and larger Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values (indicating more instability) during walking than their peers with typical development (TD) (Buzzi & Ulrich, 2004). Here we use nonlinear methods to examine the patterns that characterize gait variability as it emerges, in toddlers with TD and with DS, rather than after years of practice. We calculated Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values to assess stability of leg trajectories. We also tested the use of 3 algorithms for surrogation analysis to investigate mathematical periodicity of toddlers' strides. Results show that toddlers' LyE values were not different between groups or with practice and strides of both groups become more periodic with practice. The underlying control strategies are not different between groups at this point in developmental time, although control strategies do diverge between the groups by preadolescence.

  3. Pyroelectricity in Polycrystalline Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, R.; Jiménez, B.

    The first reference to pyroelectric effect is by Theophrastus in 314 BC, who noted that tourmaline becomes charged because it attracted bits of straw and ash when heated. Tourmaline's properties were reintroduced in Europe in 1707 by Johann George Schmidt, who also noted the attractive properties of the mineral when heated. Pyroelectricity was first described by Louis Lemery in 1717. In 1747, Linnaeus first related the phenomenon to electricity, although this was not proven until 1756 by Franz Ulrich Thodor Aepinus. In 1824, Sir David Brewster gave the effect the name it has today. William Thomson in 1878 and Voight in 1897 helped develop a theory for the processes behind pyroelectricity. Pierre Curie and his brother, Jacques Curie, studied pyroelectricity in the 1880s, leading to their discovery of some of the mechanisms behind piezoelectricity.

  4. Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J.; Stott, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  5. STS-55 SL-D2 crew poses in front of ET/SRB at KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers pose for a group portrait in front of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Towering above them in the background are the external tank (ET) and solid rocket boosters (SRBs). Wearing flight coveralls are (left to right) Mission Specialist 2 (MS) Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, and MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr. The crew is at KSC for the Terminal Countdown Demostration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-319.

  6. STS-55 crew and backups listen to emergency egress briefing on KSC LC tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers and backup (alternate) payload specialists listen to emergency egress system briefing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Clockwise from the lower right corner are backup Payload Specialist Renate Brummer, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt, Commander Steven R. Nagel, backup Payload Specialist Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Other members of the ground team look on. Brummer, Thiele, Schlegel, and Walter are representatives of Germany's DLR. The crew and two alternates are participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-314.

  7. STS-55 SL-D2 crew, in LESs, rehearse launch procedures during TCDT at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), depart the Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building for Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Leading the way are Pilot Terence T. Henricks (left) and Commander Steven R. Nagel; behind them are, from left Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. This is the final portion of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch which cumulates with a simulated T-0. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-310.

  8. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline.

  9. Comparison Of Solar Surface Features In HMI Images And Mount Wilson Images Found By The Automatic Bayesian Classification System AutoClass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass has been applied to daily solar magnetogram and intensity images taken at the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to find and identify classes of solar surface features which are associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, to improve modeling of TSI variations over time. (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass does this by a two step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images embody four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI image observables to derive solar surface feature classes and compare the characteristic statistics of those classes to the MWO classes. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and Boyden, J. 2010, Solar Phys. , 261 , 11.

  10. Application of the AutoClass Automatic Bayesian Classification System to HMI Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Beck, J. G.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    When applied to a sample set of observed data, the Bayesian automatic classification system known as AutoClass finds a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of the data, such as magnetic field and intensity, without human supervision. These class definitions can then be applied to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. AutoClass can be applied to solar magnetic and intensity images to identify surface features associated with different values of magnetic and intensity fields in a consistent manner without the need for human judgment. AutoClass has been applied to Mt. Wilson magnetograms and intensity-grams to identify solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, to improve modeling of TSI variations over time. (Ulrich, et al, 2010) Here, we apply AutoClass to observables derived from the high resolution 4096 x 4096 HMI magnetic, intensity continuum, line width and line depth images to identify solar surface regions which may be associated with variations in TSI and other solar irradiance measurements. To prevent small instrument artifacts from interfering with class identification, we apply a flat-field correction and a rotationally shifted temporal average to the HMI images prior to processing with AutoClass. This pre-processing also allows an investigation of the sensitivity of AutoClass to instrumental artifacts. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these highly resolved images and the use of that analysis to enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Reference Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and Boyden, J. 2010, Solar Phys., 261, 11.

  11. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta

  12. Low temperature elastic behavior of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, T. J.; Darling, T. W.; McCall, K. R.; Fenn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The resonant frequencies of a material sample are directly related to the elastic constants characterizing the sample. Thus, by studying trends in resonant frequencies as a function of temperature, the elastic behavior of the sample may be inferred, and changes in the physical properties of the material may be tracked (for example, phase changes). Historically, tracking the resonant frequencies of a crystalline sample as a function of temperature is one of the most sensitive methods for identifying phase changes in the sample. We are using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) to track the resonant frequencies of rock samples at low temperatures. Our initial measurements showed unexpected behavior in a millimeter-sized sample of Berea sandstone in the temperature range from 77 K to 300 K [Ulrich and Darling, 2001], including hysteresis in the temperature dependence of the resonant frequencies, and softening rather than hardening as the temperature decreases. A second experimental apparatus has been developed to make RUS measurements on samples up to 2 cm by 3 cm by 8 cm in size, and over the temperature range 77 K - 400 K. RUS measurements using the new experimental system have been made on several rock samples, as well as several standards, and will be described in this talk. In general, the rock samples exhibit anomalous elastic behavior, consistent with the initial measurements on much smaller samples. Similar elastic phenomena, with similar activation energies, are seen in these rocks in room temperature measurements of resonant frequency versus strain [Tencate and Shankland, 1996]. Thus, low temperature measurements could provide insight into the mechanisms for the nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks and other materials. Ulrich T.J., Darling T.W., Observation of anomalous elastic behavior in rock at low temperatures. Geophys. Res. Let., Vol. 28, No. 11, pgs. 2293-2296, June 1, 2001. Tencate J.A., Shankland, T.J., Slow dynamics in the nonlinear response of

  13. Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. XI. Methods to Correct for Observational Selection Bias for RR Lyrae Absolute Magnitudes from Trigonometric Parallaxes Expected from the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan; Saha, A.

    2002-04-01

    A short history is given of the development of the correction for observation selection bias inherent in the calibration of absolute magnitudes using trigonometric parallaxes. The developments have been due to Eddington, Jeffreys, Trumpler & Weaver, Wallerstein, Ljunggren & Oja, West, Lutz & Kelker, after whom the bias is named, Turon Lacarrieu & Crézé, Hanson, Smith, and many others. As a tutorial to gain an intuitive understanding of several complicated trigonometric bias problems, we study a toy bias model of a parallax catalog that incorporates assumed parallax measuring errors of various severities. The two effects of bias errors on the derived absolute magnitudes are (1) the Lutz-Kelker correction itself, which depends on the relative parallax error δπ/π and the spatial distribution, and (2) a Malmquist-like ``incompleteness'' correction of opposite sign due to various apparent magnitude cutoffs as they are progressively imposed on the catalog. We calculate the bias properties using simulations involving 3×106 stars of fixed absolute magnitude using Mv=+0.6 to imitate RR Lyrae variables in the mean. These stars are spread over a spherical volume bounded by a radius 50,000 pc with different spatial density distributions. The bias is demonstrated by first using a fixed rms parallax uncertainty per star of 50 μas and then using a variable rms accuracy that ranges from 50 μas at apparent magnitude V=9 to 500 μas at V=15 according to the specifications for the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) satellite to be launched in 2004. The effects of imposing magnitude limits and limits on the ``observer's'' error, δπ/π, are displayed. We contrast the method of calculating mean absolute magnitude directly from the parallaxes where bias corrections are mandatory, with an inverse method using maximum likelihood that is free of the Lutz-Kelker bias, although a Malmquist bias is present. Simulations show the power of the inverse method. Nevertheless, we

  14. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M; Litzenberg, D; Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M; Keranen, W; Covington, E; Moran, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from

  15. Bayesian Analysis of Hmi Images and Comparison to Tsi Variations and MWO Image Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.; Tran, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    We have previously applied the Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass to solar magnetogram and intensity images from the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to identify classes of solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, modeled TSI time series with improved accuracy (r > 0.96). (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass identifies classes by a two-step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images capture four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two observables-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI observables for images from June, 2010 to December, 2014 to identify solar surface feature classes. We use contemporaneous TSI measurements to determine whether and how variations in the HMI classes are related to TSI variations and compare the characteristic statistics of the HMI classes to those found from MWO images. We also attempt to derive scale factors between the HMI and MWO magnetic and intensity observables.The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment.Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and

  16. Bayesian Analysis Of HMI Solar Image Observables And Comparison To TSI Variations And MWO Image Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have previously applied the Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass to solar magnetogram and intensity images from the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to identify classes of solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, modeled TSI time series with improved accuracy (r > 0.96). (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass identifies classes by a two-step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images capture four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two observables-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI observables for images from May, 2010 to June, 2014 to identify solar surface feature classes. We use contemporaneous TSI measurements to determine whether and how variations in the HMI classes are related to TSI variations and compare the characteristic statistics of the HMI classes to those found from MWO images. We also attempt to derive scale factors between the HMI and MWO magnetic and intensity observables. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and

  17. The Current Status and Future Direction of Asteroseismology of Sun-like Stars from Ground and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, D. B.

    It was the Summer of 1986 in AArhus, Denmark. Several hundred astronomers gathered together to talk about the new and promising field of solar and stellar seismology (Christensen-Dalsgaard & Frandsen 1986). Elsworth et al. talked about their two station network to observe oscillations on the Sun. On the stellar front, we heard reports on attempts to observe five- minute oscillations on Procyon (Isaak & Jones), on α Centauri (Gelly, Grec, & Fossat; Balona & Marang), and on ɛ Eridani (Soderblom & Däppen). Harvey explained to us why it was going to be difficult to observe stellar oscillations regardless of whether we used Doppler shift velocities, intensity variations, or other specific spectral-line feature variations. But then Ulrich (among many others) explained to us why it was worth all the effort. Finally, Widget reminded us that stellar oscillations on white dwarfs have already been seen. A lot, of course, has happened since then. Several working networks of telescopes surrounding the earth are currently observing the Sun. White dwarf seismologists are using the Whole Earth Telescope network (Widget et al. 1994). Harvey was right about how difficult it is to observe solar-type oscillations on stars but so was Ulrich about it being worth the effort. And so, not yet successful (e.g., a confirmed independent identification of the large spacing on a star), we are continuing to try to observe oscillations on stars. In this presentation, I will remind you of why we are still trying, that is, I will discuss some of the science that can be done with stellar p-mode oscillation data: with single stars, with binaries, and with clusters of stars. I will, also briefly review two active programs: COROT (Convection and Rotation: Catala, Auvergne, & Baglin, et al. 1995), a proposed mission to put a small telescope in space to observe luminosity variations on stars, and AFOE (Advanced Fiber-Optic Echelle), an echelle spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m Whipple Observatory

  18. The assessment of the relationship between various waterscapes and outdoor activities: Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sakıcı, Çiğdem

    2014-06-01

    The environment is very important in terms of the behaviours and actions of human beings, and activity-environment correlation is used frequently in outdoor arrangements. The environment must meet the requirements and expectations of society. Outdoor activities are the activities that contribute to the well-being of human beings in physical (heartbeat, respiration, blood pressure, etc.) (Ulrich, Journal of Environmental Psychology 11:210-230, 1991), psychological (fear, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, etc.) (Marcus and Barnes 1999) and behavioural (insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, passivity, etc.) (Ulrich 1999) terms. It is known that human beings are affected significantly by the environments they are in, and more importantly, it is known that the environment they are in affects their happiness status. The causes of this effect are the features and appearances of the spatial elements and components that mainly make up such environments. One of the elements that is used frequently in landscape is water. If one examines designed or natural open spaces, it may be observed that water has very distinctive features. Dynamic (in the form of a leak, with intense flow rate, cascade, foamy, squirting, jet, graded, etc.) and still water elements may be used with sculptures, plants, rocks and elevations (on land). This study aims to reveal which age groups of students enjoy the different types of activities with regards to water features and emotional associations that motion and characteristics of water bring out in human beings and also to reveal the water preferences of human beings, including their reasons for such preference. Thus, 20 different water compositions located in Edirne Province were selected, and in 2-min camera reels, the students of various age groups assessed water with various characteristic features via a survey. As a result, it was revealed that human beings from various age groups wish to perform different activities with water elements

  19. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  20. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  1. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Devlin, B; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Standardized weekly sand fly collections made from pigpens and natural resting sites displayed a bimodal annual abundance cycle, with a small peak occurring in October-November and a larger one in April-May. Time series analysis was employed to quantify the associations between sand fly abundance and weather factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). In addition to a prominent 6-mo cycle. Fourier analysis of the collection data demonstrated that the L. longipalpis population also exhibited a 5- to 8-wk cycle that may represent the length of larval development. Autoregressive moving average models were fit to weekly collection data and their residuals were regressed against rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. A significant positive association between female L. longipalpis abundance and the relative humidity and rainfall recorded 3 wk earlier was found, indicating that these factors may be of value in predicting sand fly abundance. Additionally, these data indicated that L. longipalpis larvae may become quiescent during adverse conditions.

  2. Effect of abiotic factors on seasonal population dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Castellón, Eloy G; De Souza, Maria de Fátima; Menezes, Alexandre A Lara; Queiroz, José Wilton; Macedo e Silva, Virgínia Penéllope; Jerônimo, Selma M B

    2006-09-01

    The resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil increases the need for studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Sand flies were captured in peridomestic habitats biweekly for 3 yr. Cross-correlation tests and spectral analysis were used to analyze the simultaneous and lag-time correlations between Lu. longipalpis population densities and abiotic factors of temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and rainfall. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed for males and females, with intervals of 6 mo between population peaks for males and 12 mo for females. Peak female population densities lagged 3 mo behind the maximum annual temperature. Female population density was negatively correlated with relative humidity. An increase in average wind velocity was followed by a decrease in the number of females for 2 wk. Understanding the relationship between the seasonal population dynamics of Lu. longipalpis and abiotic factors will contribute to the design of better control measures to decrease transmission of L. infantum and consequently the incidence of leishmaniasis.

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS

    PubMed Central

    de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; MALTA, Fernanda Mello; CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; MARQUES, Priscilla Duarte; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; YAMASHIRO, Juliana; PINHO, João Renato Rebello; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo César Borges; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients. PMID:27680168

  4. How fruit flies came to launch the chromosome theory of heredity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elof Axel

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies were used by several laboratories between 1901 and 1910 for studies of experimental evolution at Harvard, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor before Thomas Hunt Morgan found his white-eyed mutation that we associate with the beginnings of the fly lab at Columbia University. The major players prior to Morgan were William Castle and his students at Harvard University, Frank Lutz at Cold Spring Harbor, and Fernandus Payne whose ideas for working with fruit flies were shaped by his studies of blind cave fauna at Indiana University. Payne's interests were stimulated by the work of Carl Eigenmann, an authority on blind cave fauna, and William Moenkhaus, who introduced Payne to fruit flies at Indiana University before Payne moved to Columbia to pursue graduate work with Morgan and Edmund Wilson. The motivations of the laboratories differed in the theories used for their work. Castle spread the word about the utility of fruit flies for research, but Payne gave Morgan his first fruit flies for research leading to the discovery of the white-eye mutation.

  5. Potential Distribution Map of Culicoides insignis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Vector of Bluetongue Virus, in Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Díaz Gomez, Romina A; Dantur Juri, María J; Lizarralde de Grosso, Mercedes S; Spinelli, Gustavo R

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides insignis Lutz is incriminated as a vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) to ruminants in America. In South America, almost all countries have serological evidence of BTV infections, but only four outbreaks of the disease have been reported. Although clinical diseases have never been cited in Argentina, viral activity has been detected in cattle. In this study, we developed a potential distribution map of Culicoides insignis populations in northwestern Argentina using Maximum Entropy Modeling (Maxent). For the analyses, information regarding both data of specimen collections between 2003 and 2013, and climatic and environmental variables was used. Variables selection was based on the ecological relevance in relation to Culicoides spp. biology and distribution in the area. The best Maxent model according to the Jackknife test included 53 C. insignis presence records and precipitation of the warmest quarter, altitude, and precipitation of the wettest month. Accuracy was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC = 0.97). These results provide an important analytical resource of high potential for both the development of suitable control strategies and the assessment of disease transmission risk in the region.

  6. Epoxidation of plasmalogens: source for long-chain alpha-hydroxyaldehydes in subcellular fractions of bovine liver.

    PubMed Central

    Loidl-Stahlhofen, A; Hannemann, K; Felde, R; Spiteller, G

    1995-01-01

    1. Masked long-chain alpha-hydroxyaldehydes were trapped in all subcellular fractions of bovine liver by application of pentafluorbenzyloxime derivatization [van Kuijk, Thomas, Stephens and Dratz (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139, 144-149] and quantified via GLC/MS using characteristic ion traces. 2. The chain-length profile of long-chain 2-hydroxyalkanales clearly indicates their relationship to plasmalogens as precursor molecules. 3. The previously postulated existence of alpha-acyloxyplasmalogens as precursor molecules of masked long-chain alpha-hydroxyaldehydes in bovine tissue lipids [Lutz and Spiteller (1991) Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1991, 563-567] was excluded. 4. The constant oxidation rate of plasmalogens in all subcellular fractions provides conclusive evidence for a non-enzymic plasmalogen epoxidation process (probably via hydroperoxy radicals). 5. The high reactivity of alpha-hydroxyaldehydes sheds some doubt on the postulation that plasmalogens protect mammalian cells against oxidative stress as postulated previously [Morand, Zoeller and Raetz (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11590-11596; Morand, Zoeller and Raetz (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11597-11606]. Images Figure 4 PMID:7639697

  7. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  8. Wing Shape Variation in the Taxonomic Recognition of Species of Diachlorus Osten-Sacken (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ambrosio; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the directional asymmetry between right and left wings and quantified the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the wing shape of 601 specimens of the genus Diachlorus to determine to what extent the geometrical variation discriminates six species distributed in six protected areas of Colombia. Geometric analyses were performed, integrating Procrustes methods, principal component analyses, cluster analyses, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses, and evaluations of shape changes. In Diachlorus, left and right wings did not present significant asymmetry but a geometrical analysis was allowed for species identification and, in some cases, the origin of the specimens using the variation of wing shape; the best-assigned species was Diachlorus leticia Wilkerson & Fairchild, while the worst was Diachlorus jobbinsi Fairchild, which also had the highest intraspecific variation, while Diachlorus fuscistigma Lutz had the lowest variation. Diachlorus fuscistigma and Diachlorus leucotibialis Wilkerson & Fairchild were the most similar species, while D. leucotibialis and Diachlorus nuneztovari Fairchild & Ortiz were the most disimilar. The specimens with the most different wing shape belonged to Chocó (especially those of D. jobbinsi), the geographically farthest area from the others in the study; however, no correlation was observed between geometric and geographical distances. Linear discriminants were better than nonlinear (quadratic) discriminant analyses in predicting species membership, but the opposite was true for predicting area membership. Based on our data, we hypothesized that other species of Diachlorus could also be discriminated using geometric morphometry of the wing shape.

  9. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  10. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  11. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  12. The identity of Hyla leucotaenia Burmeister, 1861 (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Paulo D P; Faivovich, Julián; Langone, José A; Kwet, Axel

    2014-11-13

    The German naturalist Carl Hermann Conrad Burmeister (1807-1892) had a prolific scientific career, spanning multiple taxa from diverse insect groups and trilobites to temnospondyls, birds, and extant and fossil mammals (see Berg, 1895). His contributions to anuran taxonomy are concentrated in two books, "Erläuterungen zur Fauna Brasiliensis…" (Burmeister, 1856) and "Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten…" (Burmeister, 1861). The latter is an account of his travels in Argentina and Uruguay from 1857-1860 and includes descriptions of three new species of frogs: Leiuperus nebulosus, Cystignathus mystacinus, and Hyla leucotaenia. While the first two names currently designate valid species, with the combinations Pleurodema nebulosum and Leptodactylus mystacinus respectively, the last name has had a more complex taxonomic history. It involves confusions involving a homonym, its consideration as a junior synonym of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841)-a widely distributed species in eastern Argentina, southeastern Brazil, and Uruguay (Frost, 2014)-and its actual identity corresponding to another widespread species in the same geographic area, with which it has never before been associated: Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925). All these issues are discussed in this paper.

  13. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  14. Female students' disordered eating and the big five personality facets.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2009-08-01

    Female undergraduate students at two Canadian universities (N = 378) completed the NEO PI-R (Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., Bohr, Y. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878.). Eating disorder symptomatic (N = 43) and nonsymptomatic (N = 335) women differed on facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness. Among symptomatic women, the Oral Control subscale of the EAT-26 was correlated significantly with facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Specifically, the Impulsivity facet of Neuroticism was positively correlated with the Bulimia and Food Preoccupation subscale of EAT-26, but negatively correlated with the Oral Control and Dieting subscales. Overall, results suggest that high scores on Neuroticism may be a risk factor for development of disordered eating behavior and that the degree of Impulsiveness may predict the eating disorder subtype to which one is most susceptible.

  15. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria Formation in Idaho, 1949: part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, D.F.; Smart, R.A.; Peirce, H.W.; Weiser, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Idaho and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This is the fifth report of data containing abstracts of sections measured in southeastern Idaho; it includes about half of the data gathered in Idaho in 1949. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953a). Many people have taken part in this investigation, which was organized and supervised by V. E. McKelvey. F. J. Anderson, A. L. Bush, R. S. Jones, K. B. Krauskopf, K. Lutz, M. E. Thompson, R. G. Waring, and M. A. Warner participated in the description of strata and the collection of samples referred to in this report. T. K. Rigby assisted in the preparation of trenches and the collection, crushing, and splitting of samples in the field. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

  16. Analysis of the sex pheromone extract of individual male Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies from six regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G C; Maingon, R D C; Alexander, B; Ward, R D; Brazil, R P

    2005-12-01

    Although the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is generally accepted to be a species complex, it is unclear how many members there are, how they are related and which are the main vectors of leishmaniasis. The vectorial capacity of each sibling species is likely to differ, thus a means of identifying the most important vector species is of critical importance to the epidemiology and control of this debilitating disease in South and Central America. In Brazil four chemotypes have been distinguished by sex pheromone analysis. In this study the sex pheromone extracts of L. longipalpis from six regions of Brazil were analysed in detail. Samples included the sympatric 1-spot, 2-spot and intermediate spot morphotypes from Sobral, Ceará State. The results strongly suggest that members of the complex that produce different sex pheromones are reproductively isolated, thus strengthening the argument that the different chemotypes represent true sibling species. The study also found significant differences in morphology and the amounts of sex pheromone produced by members of each chemotype from different parts of Brazil, which suggests population substructuring that has not previously been recognized. Evidence of a fifth chemotype in Brazil is also presented.

  17. The uncertain timing of reaching 8 billion, peak world population, and other demographic milestones.

    PubMed

    Scherbov, Sergei; Lutz, Wolfgang Lutz; Sanderson, Warren C

    2011-01-01

    We present new probabilistic forecasts of the timing of the world's population reaching 8 billion, the world's peak population, and the date at which one-third or more of the world's population would be 60+ years old. The timing of these milestones, as well as the timing of the Day of 7 Billion, is uncertain. We compute that the 60 percent prediction interval for the Day of 8 Billion is between 2024 and 2033. Our figures show that there is around a 60 percent chance that one-third of the world's population would be 60+ years old in 2100. In the UN 2010 medium variant, that proportion never reaches one-third. As in our past forecasts (Lutz et al. 2001, 2008), we find the chance that the world's population will peak in this century to be around 84 percent and the timing of that peak to be highly uncertain. Focal days, like the Day of 7 Billion, play a role in raising public awareness of population issues, but they give a false sense of the certainty of our knowledge. The uncertainty of the timing of demographic milestones is not a constant of nature. Understanding the true extent of our demographic uncertainty can help motivate governments and other agencies to make the investments necessary to reduce it.

  18. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  19. [Regional laboratory network for surveillance of invasive fungal infections and antifungal susceptibility in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Córdoba, Susana; Melhem, Marcia C; Szeszs, María W; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Martínez, Gerardo; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain), and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina) and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil). The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.

  20. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana Martins de; Malta, Fernanda Mello; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Marques, Priscilla Duarte; Gottardi, Maiara; Meisel, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; Yamashiro, Juliana; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Castilho, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-09-22

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients.

  1. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic.

  2. On the Hipparcos parallaxes of O stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S. E.; Kaper, L.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Brown, A. G. A.

    2004-12-01

    We compare the absolute visual magnitude of the majority of bright O stars in the sky as predicted from their spectral type with the absolute magnitude calculated from their apparent magnitude and the Hipparcos parallax. We find that many stars appear to be much fainter than expected, up to five magnitudes. We find no evidence for a correlation between magnitude differences and the stellar rotational velocity as suggested for OB stars by Lamers et al. (1997, A&A, 325, L25), whose small sample of stars is partly included in ours. Instead, by means of a simulation we show how these differences arise naturally from the large distances at which O stars are located, and the level of precision of the parallax measurements achieved by Hipparcos. Straightforwardly deriving a distance from the Hipparcos parallax yields reliable results for one or two O stars only. We discuss several types of bias reported in the literature in connection with parallax samples (Lutz-Kelker, Malmquist) and investigate how they affect the O star sample. In addition, we test three absolute magnitude calibrations from the literature (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1982, Landolt-Börnstein; Howarth & Prinja 1989, ApJS, 69, 527; Vacca et al. 1996, ApJ, 460, 914) and find that they are consistent with the Hipparcos measurements. Although O stars conform nicely to the simulation, we notice that some B stars in the sample of \\citeauthor{La97} have a magnitude difference larger than expected.

  3. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D; Hester, Eric R; Martynova, Daria; Maughan, Heather; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  4. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D.; Hester, Eric R.; Martynova, Daria; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide. PMID:26713242

  5. Toward an appreciation of hydrothennal-vent animals: Their environment, physiological ecology, and tissue stable isotope values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Charles R.

    In the last few years several comprehensive reviews of the biology of hydrothermal vent organisms and communities have been published. In this contribution I will not attempt to exhaustively review the literature, list the fauna, or the known sites, but rather present a conceptual basis for understanding the relation between the dominant metazoan "primary producers" in hydrothermal vent communities and their environment. In addition to the other chapters in this volume, interested readers are encouraged to consult the following reviews for a more detailed discussion of particular aspects of vent biology. The community ecology of hydrothermal vents is reviewed by Grassle [1986], Tunnicliffe [1991], and Lutz and Kennish [1993]. Tunnicliffe [1991] contains the most complete species lists and general site descriptions currently available. Fisher [1990] reviews the literature on chemoautotrophic symbioses and presents species lists of the hosts to chemoautotrophic symbionts known at that time. Those lists are updated in Nelson and Fisher [1995] and the physiology of the associations reviewed from a distinctly bacterial (symbiont) viewpoint. The 1992 review by Childress and Fisher takes a detailed look at the physiology of vent fauna, with a full coverage of subjects such as rate processes, blood function, and chemical composition, which are not covered in depth in the other reviews, but are of special relevance to this contribution. Uses (and abuses) of stable isotopes are discussed in several of the above reviews, and are also reviewed specifically by Conway et al. [1994], Fiala-Médioni et al. [1993], and Kennicutt et al. [1992].

  6. Schistosomiasis in a low prevalence area: incomplete urbanization increasing risk of infection in Paracambi, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, M S; Barreto, M G; da Silva, C L; Pereira, J B; Moza, P G; Rey, L; Calçado, M S; Lustoza, A; Maspero, R

    1995-01-01

    The risk of schistosomiasis infection and heavy infection in the locality of Sabugo was evaluated in relation to housing in areas with different urbanization development and to residential supply with snail-infested water. Critical sanitary conditions were found in areas of incomplete urbanization, where healthy water supply sources were scarce, and draining of sewage, without previous treatment, was made directly to the water-bodies used for domestic and leisure activities, despite being Biomphalaria tenagophila snail breeding-places. Stool examinations (Kato-Katz and Lutz methods) showed prevalence of 2.9% mean intensity of 79 eggs per gram of stool and 47% of positive cases presenting intense infection. The use of snail-contaminated water for domestic purposes was considered a risk factor for infection. It is concluded that incomplete urbanization would facilitate transmission, probably enhancing the intensity of infection and that a low prevalence could hide a highly focal transmission. The relevance of these facts upon the efficiency of epidemiologic study methods and disease control planning are then discussed.

  7. [Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Boia, M N; da Motta, L P; Salazar, M D; Mutis, M P; Coutinho, R B; Coura, J R

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi Elisa antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%), Giardia lamblia (17.4%), and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6%) were reactive to T. cruzi antibodies, but only three showed a correlation between this result and human contact with wild triatomines, known locally as "piassava lice".

  8. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Evolution of the Danba Anticline, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. J.; Wang, W. H.; Lee, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    We applied finite difference method with markers in cell technique to simulate the thermal evolution in the Danba anticline, which is located to the north of the Sichuan basin within the Songpan-Ganzi orogen. We obtained the thermal history of the Danba anticline by solving thermokenematic equations for detachment folding. With that, we calculated the corresponding fission track ages based on a chemical kinetic model proposed by Lutz and Omar and compared them with the observed ones to find out the optimal model parameters. Our results show that the Danba anticline is most likely formed by horizontal contraction along a detachment fault at depth about 15 km, corresponding to the brittle-ductile transition in the mid-crust. For the last 25 My, the horizontal shortening is estimated to be about 72 km over a cross section with a width of 180 km. The average contraction velocity of about 2.9 mm/yr but it has been accelerating in a parabolic function to about 5~6 mm/yr at the present time, which is comparable with GPS observations. Our findings suggest that a weak detachement zone should exist beneath the Danba anticline, which might be associated with crustal channel flow.

  9. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro).

  10. Argentinian phlebotomine fauna, new records of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) for the country and the province of Chaco.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Enrique A; Filho, Jose D Andrade; Rosa, Juan R; Parras, Matias A; Quintana, Maria G; Quintana, Maria G; Salomon, Oscar D

    2016-07-21

    Sand flies are insects of medical and veterinary importance, because some species are able to transmit several pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Phlebovirus spp., and protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania (Ross). They are widely distributed in the Americas, with recordings ranging from Canada to Argentina. Approximately 500 Phlebotominae species are known in the Americas, of which it is considered that at least 56 are involved in the transmission of leishmaniasis (Maroli et al. 2012). Previous studies have shown that the phlebotomine fauna in Argentina consists of 32 species distributed in 14 provinces (Quintana et al. 2012; Sábio et al. 2015; Salomón et al. 2010). Of these species, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto), Ny. whitmani (Antunes & Countinho), Cortelezzii complex [Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brèthes) - Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho)], Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar) and Migonemyia migonei (França) have been found with DNA of Leishmania spp. (Moya et al. 2015). Five new records of species in the province of Chaco, obtained from different projects carried out between 2001 and 2015, four of which are also new records for Argentina, are described in this article. Their importance as potential vectors and the correct determination of the sympatric species is also discussed.

  11. Environmental effects of dredging: Methods for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. Glossary and references. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E.; Jarvis, A.S.; McFarland, V.A.

    1995-07-01

    This technical note is the third in a series of three that outline and describe the principal methods that have been developed to test the potential of environmental contaminants to cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. The first in this series (EEDP-04-24) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the sub cellular level, while the second (EEDP-04-25) describes methods used to discern genotoxic effects at the cellular and organ/organism level. Recent literature citations for each topic referenced in this series of technical notes are provided in this technical note, in addition to a glossary of terms. The information in these technical notes is intended to provide Corps of Engineers personnel with a working knowledge of the terminology and conceptual basis of genotoxicity testing. To develop an improved understanding of the concepts of genotoxicity, readers are encouraged to review A Primer in Genotoxicity (Jarvis, Reilly, and Lutz 1993), presented in Volume D-93-3 of the Environmental Effects of Dredging information exchange bulletin.

  12. A Bayesian Analysis of the Cepheid Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Thomas G., III; Jefferys, W. H.; Berger, J. O.; Mueller, Peter J.; Orr, K.; Rodriguez, R.

    2003-07-01

    We develop and describe a Bayesian statistical analysis to solve the surface brightness equations for Cepheid distances and stellar properties. Our analysis provides a mathematically rigorous and objective solution to the problem, including immunity from Lutz-Kelker bias. We discuss the choice of priors, show the construction of the likelihood distribution, and give sampling algorithms in a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach for efficiently and completely sampling the posterior probability distribution. Our analysis averages over the probabilities associated with several models rather than attempting to pick the ``best model'' from several possible models. Using a sample of 13 Cepheids we demonstrate the method. We discuss diagnostics of the analysis and the effects of the astrophysical choices going into the model. We show that we can objectively model the order of Fourier polynomial fits to the light and velocity data. By comparison with theoretical models of Bono et al. we find that EU Tau and SZ Tau are overtone pulsators, most likely without convective overshoot. The period-radius and period-luminosity relations we obtain are shown to be compatible with those in the recent literature. Specifically, we find log()=(0.693+/-0.037)[log(P)-1.2]+(2.042+/-0.047) and v>=-(2.690+/-0.169)[log(P)-1.2]-(4.699+/-0.216).

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Parallaxes of Galactic RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, B. E.

    2011-04-01

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Pop II variable stars: the five RR Lyr stars; RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, UV Oct; and two W Vir Pop II Cepheids; VY Pyx and kappa Pav. We obtain these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensor 1r, a white-light interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. We measure absolute parallaxes with an average precision, 6.6%. Using these parallaxes we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Considering only the RR Lyr stars, we use these absolute magnitudes to construct a K-band Leavitt Law (Period-Luminosity relation) and a Galactic Mv-[Fe/H] relation. We employ these relations to determine independent distances to the LMC and several globular clusters. For the LMC our K-band distance modulus from RR Lyr stars agrees within the errors with a previous value derived by us from Galactic Cepheids, uncorrected for metallicity. These results are based on observations made through grants GO-11211 and GO-11789 administered through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. Parasitological and immunological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza R; Teixeira, Eliane M; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria Do Rosario F; Loureiro, Zaira M; Araújo, Rogério A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer through parasitological and immunological tests. A total of 77 patients were evaluated, 33 with gastrointestinal cancer and 44 controls with other types of cancers. All the patients were undergoing chemotherapy and 14 (18.2%) were receiving concomitant radiotherapy. For a parasitological diagnosis, we applied the Baermann and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis involved the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG antibodies using Strongyloides ratti antigens. The frequency of positive S. stercoralis in gastrointestinal cancer diagnosed by parasitological methods was 3 cases (9.1%), by serology it was 8 cases (24.2%). In the control group 1 case (2.3%) of S. stercoralis was diagnosed by parasitological methods and 2 cases (4.5%) by immunological tests (p<0.05). Patients with gastrointestinal cancer had a 6.7-fold greater chance of testing positive for S. stercoralis infection. Our data highlight the importance of parasitological and immunological diagnosis for S. stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer living in endemic areas of strongyloidiasis, since they have a higher risk of becoming infected with S. stercoralis than patients with other types of cancer.

  15. Species diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) during different seasons and in different environments in the district of Taquaruçú, state of Tocantins, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tâmara Oliveira; Bragança, Marcos Antônio Lima; Carvalho, Muzenilha Lima; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2012-11-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors for the protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis. The present study investigated the species composition of sandfly fauna in the rural district of Taquaruçú, municipality of Palmas, state of Tocantins, Brazil and compared the diversity of species among intradomicile, peridomicile and forest environments during the dry and rainy seasons. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps over the course of three months during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 767 specimens were captured, belonging to different 32 species. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia goiana (Martins, Falcão & Silva), Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Evandromyia carmelinoi (Ryan Fraiha, Lainson & Shaw), Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). The highest species diversity (30) and the greatest percentage of specimens (78.3%) were obtained during the rainy season. During the dry season, the species richness and abundance were greater in domestic environments. However, during the rainy season, the forest displayed the highest species richness and the domestic environment exhibited the greatest species abundance. Several important vector species are reported in this study.

  16. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  17. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  18. Locus of the intensity effect in simple reaction time tasks.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Kurczewska, Marta; Nowik, Agnieszka; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Verleger, Rolf

    2007-11-01

    Evidence is still inconclusive regarding the locus of the stimulus intensity effect on information processing in reaction tasks. Miller, Ulrich, and Rinkenauer (1999) addressed this question by assessing the intensity effect on stimulus- and response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) as indices of the sensory and motor parts of reaction time (RT). In the case of visual stimuli, they observed that application of brighter stimuli resulted in a shortening of RT and stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP), but not of response-locked LRP (R-LRP). The results for auditory stimuli, however, were unclear. In spite of a clear RT reduction due to increased loudness, neither S-LRP nor R-LRP onset was affected. A reason for this failure might have been a relatively small range of intensity variation and the type of task. To check for this possibility, we performed three experiments in which broader ranges of stimulus intensities and simple, rather than choice, response tasks were used. Although the intensity effect on the R-LRP was negligible, S-LRP followed RT changes, irrespective of stimulus modality. These findings support the conclusion that stimulus intensity exerts its effect before the start of motoric processes. Finally, S-LRP and R-LRP findings are discussed within a broader information-processing perspective to check the validity of the claim that S-LRP and R-LRP can, indeed, be considered as pure estimates of the duration of sensory and motor processes.

  19. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  20. Solar model uncertainties, MSW analysis, and future solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Naoya; Langacker, Paul

    1994-07-01

    Various theoretical uncertainties in the standard solar model and in the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) analysis are discussed. It is shown that two methods give consistent estimations of the solar neutrino flux uncertainties: (a) a simple parametrization of the uncertainties using the core temperature and the ncuelar production cross sections; (b) the Monte Carlo method of Bahcall and Ulrich. In the MSW analysis, we emphasize proper treatments of correlations of theoretical uncertainties between flux components and between different detectors, the Earth effect, and multiple solutions in a combined χ2 procedure. In particular the large-angle solution of the combined observation is allowed at 95% C.L. only when the theoretical uncertainties are included. If their correlations were ignored, the region would be overestimated. The MSW solutions for various standard and nonstandard solar models are also shown. The MSW predictions of the global solutions for the future solar neutrino experiments are given, emphasizing the measurement of the energy spectrum and the day-night effect in Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Super-Kamiokande to distinguish the two solutions.

  1. Systematic biases and Type I error accumulation in tests of the race model inequality.

    PubMed

    Kiesel, Andrea; Miller, Jeff; Ulrich, Rolf

    2007-08-01

    In simple, go/no-go, and choice reaction time (RT) tasks, responses are faster to two redundant targets than to a single target. This redundancy gain has been explained in terms of a race model assuming that whichever target is processed faster determines RT (Raab, 1962). Miller (1982) presented a race model inequality to test the race model by comparing the RT distributions of single and redundant target conditions. Here, we present simulations indicating that the standard tests of this inequality (for a description of the testing algorithm, see Ulrich, Miller, & Schröter, 2007) are afflicted with systematic biases and Type I error accumulation. Systematic biases tend to produce violations of the race model inequality, but they decrease as the numbers of observations increase. Reasonably unbiased tests of the race model inequality are obtained for sample sizes of at least 20 for each target condition. In addition, Type I error accumulates because of testing the inequality at multiple percentiles. To reduce Type I error, the race model inequality should be tested in a restricted range of percentiles, preferably in the percentile range 10% to 25%.

  2. Thermohaline mixing: a physical mechanism governing the photospheric composition of low-mass giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, C.; Zahn, J.-P.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:Numerous spectroscopic observations provide compelling evidence for a non-canonical mixing process that modifies the surface abundances of Li, C and N of low-mass red giants when they reach the bump in the luminosity function. Eggleton and collaborators have proposed that a molecular weight inversion created by the ^3He(^3He, 2p)^4He reaction may be at the origin of this mixing, and relate it to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We argue that one is actually dealing with a double diffusive instability referred to as thermohaline convection and we discuss its influence on the red giant branch. Methods: We compute stellar models of various initial metallicities that include thermohaline mixing, which is treated as a diffusive process based on the prescription given originally by Ulrich for the turbulent diffusivity produced by the thermohaline instability in stellar radiation zones. Results: Thermohaline mixing simultaneously accounts for the observed behaviour of the carbon isotopic ratio and of the abundances of Li, C and N in the upper part of the red giant branch. It significantly reduces the ^3He production with respect to canonical evolution models as required by measurements of ^3He/H in galactic HII regions. Conclusions: Thermohaline mixing is a fundamental physical process that must be included in stellar evolution modeling.

  3. Time-dependent dynamics of intense laser-induced above threshold Coulomb explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2007-06-01

    We use our recently proposed model [1] to extract information about the nuclear dynamics from the recent Coulomb explosion data of Staudte et al. taken with 40 fs pulses [2]. That data, taken at multiple intensities near the ionization appearance intensity for both H2 and D2 in linearly and circularly polarized light, shows remarkable structure and regularity not easily explained by conventional models. Because our model does fit the spectra well, we can infer the qualitative time-dependent evolution of the system. In addition, we speculate about the possibility of rescattering leading to above threshold Coulomb explosion. [1] B.D. Esry, A.M. Sayler, P.Q. Wang, K.D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013003 (2006). [2] A. Staudte, D. Pavici'c, S. Chelkowski, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Sch"offler, S. Sch"ossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D.M. Villeneuve, A.D. Bandrauk, C.L. Cocke, P.B. Corkum, and R. D"orner, Phys. Rev. Lett. (accepted).

  4. Climate Change at the Poles: Research Immersion Experience at Bellingshausen, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Repina, I. A.; Baeseman, J. L.; Fernandoy, F.; Bart, S.

    2010-12-01

    We brought a party of 15 scientists, graduate students, and educators to King George Island, the largest of the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula, for an international workshop on Antarctica and global climate change in January 2010. Participants included professors, young scientists and graduate students from the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin, and the Michigan Technological University. Lindsay Bartholomew, an education and outreach specialist at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago connected the workshop via video and Internet with an audience of museum visitors. Scientists living and working at Bellingshausen, including Hans-Ulrich Peter, an eminent ecologist from Jena University (Germany), and Bulat Movlyudov (Institute of Geography, Moscow), a distinguished glaciologist, participated in the workshop. Field trips led by Peter and Movlyudov and others were made by day and lectures were held by night. Professors and graduate students made cutting-edge presentations on such subjects as permafrost, glaciology, and global climate models. Three workshop teams conducted field research projects at the foot of the Bellingshausen Dome icecap - two on carbon cycling and one on permafrost. Major funding sources for the workshop included the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russia), Wilderness Research Foundation (USA), NSF, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Museum for Science and Industry (Chicago). INACH, the Chilean Antarctic Institute, and IAU, the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, provided air charter services. On King George Island, our group was billeted at Russia’s Bellingshausen science station.

  5. Circumstellar Hydrodynamics and Spectral Radiation in ALGOLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Dirk Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Algols are the remnants of binary systems that have undergone large scale mass transfer. This dissertation presents the results of the coupling of a hydrodynamical model and a radiative model of the flow of gas from the inner Lagrangian point. The hydrodynamical model is a fully Lagrangian, three-dimensional scheme with a novel treatment of viscosity and an implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method to compute pressure gradients. Viscosity is implemented by allowing particles within a specified interaction length to share momentum. The hydrodynamical model includes a provision for computing the self-gravity of the disk material, although it is not used in the present application to Algols. Hydrogen line profiles and equivalent widths computed with a code by Drake and Ulrich are compared with observations of both short and long period Algols. More sophisticated radiative transfer computations are done with the escape probability code of Ko and Kallman which includes the spectral lines of thirteen elements. The locations and velocities of the gas particles, and the viscous heating from the hydro program are supplied to the radiative transfer program, which computes the equilibrium temperature of the gas and generates its emission spectrum. Intrinsic line profiles are assumed to be delta functions and are properly Doppler shifted and summed for gas particles that are not eclipsed by either star. Polarization curves are computed by combining the hydro program with the Wilson-Liou polarization program. Although the results are preliminary, they show that polarization observations show great promise for studying circumstellar matter.

  6. Anomalous Magnetoresistance Phenomena in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeson, Jeremy D.; Lincoln, Derek M.; Shima Edelstein, Ruth; Prigodin, Vladimir N.; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2006-03-01

    We report magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena with temperature and bias dependence in organic semiconductor thin films with either nonmagnetic or magnetic contacts through high field reaching 9T. For nonmagnetic organic thin films such as Alq3 we find a low field MR up to 15%. A similar magnetic field effect has been reported earlier^1 but, as noted, the mechanism remains unclear. We propose a model of the anomalous MR where charge transport is space-charge limited. The current is determined by the e-h recombination rate. The recombination rate is field dependent, analogous to the chemical yield for radical pairs^2. Using an organic- based magnetic semiconductor^3, V[TCNE]x, and Co as magnetic contacts, with a nonmagnetic organic semiconductor (α-6T) leads to an order-of-magnitude broader zero-centered MR peak superimposed on a spin-valve effect. Possible origins of this broader MR will be discussed. 1. Francis, et al., New J. Phys. 6 185 (2004); Frankevich, et al., Phys. Rev. B 53 4498 (1996) 2. Steiner and Ulrich, Chem. Rev. 89 51 (1989) 3. Pokhodnya, et al., Adv. Mater. 12 410 (2000); Prigodin, et al., Adv. Mater. 14 1230 (2002); Shima Edelstein, et al., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 871E I7.3 (2005)

  7. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-09-01

    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  8. Sequential Data-assimilation in a Flux-transport Dynamo Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; de Toma, G.; Gilman, P. A.; Anderson, J. L.; Ulrich, R. K.; Boyden, J. E.

    2009-05-01

    Applying a very simplified data-nudging technique in a flux-transport dynamo, Dikpati, de Toma and Gilman predicted solar cycle amplitude and onset-timing of cycle 24 seperately. In order to simultaneously predict cycle amplitude and timing we have developed a sequential data-assimilation technique, in a similar way used in atmospheric and oceanic prediction models. However two major difficulties in applying this technique in solar dynamo models are, (i) equatorward return meridional circulation is unknown, (ii) time-varying surface flow measurements have not been available for years prior to 1996. With recent progress of Mount Wilson Observatory's flow-data analysis by Ulrich and colleagues, we can now go back to 1985. We build sequential data-assimilation into a flux-transport dynamo model by (i) solving mean and perturbation equations by incorporating time-varying meridional flow since 1985; (ii) investigating transport of assimilated poloidal magnetic fields from surface to tachocline, where they are sheared by differential rotation to create spot-producing fields; (iii) updating model after a finite time-interval, by comparing model-output with observations; (iv) forecasting simultaneously cycle-amplitude, duration and shape. We form an ensemble of model-runs whose outputs calibrate best with surface magnetic observations. The ensemble-average gives the simultaneous prediction of solar cycle timing, amplitude and shape. This work is partially supported by NASA grant NNX08AQ34G.

  9. Fragmentation dynamics of Ar2^+ dimers in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, M.; Wu, J.; Dörner, R.; Thumm, U.

    2012-06-01

    We studied the fragmentation dynamics of the Ar2 dimers in 790 nm pump and 1400 nm probe pulses with intensities of 10^14 W/cm^2 by analyzing kinetic energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump probe delay. The KER spectra are measured by detecting Ar-ion fragments in a COLTRIMS [1] setup and are compared with model calculations based on the numerical propagations of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation [2]. The measured spectra are best reproduced by two-state calculations that include the adiabatic electronic states I(1/2)u and II(1/2)g of Ar2^+, dipole coupled in the pump- and probe-laser electric fields. [4pt] [1] J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. D"orner, PRA 83, 061403(R) (2011) [0pt] [2] M. Magrakvelidze, F. He, Th. Niederhausen, I. V. Litvinyuk, and U. Thumm, PRA 79, 033410 (2009).

  10. The Comparison of Spectroscopic Measurements of the Solar Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jejčič, S.; Čadež, A.

    We studied the velocity field on the surface of the Sun measured by the Doppler shift of Fraunhofer Sodium lines Na-D_{2} at 5891.583 Å, Na-D_{1} at 5897.557 Å and Nickel line Ni I at 5894.505 Å. All the spectroscopic measurements were done at Ljubljana observatory on September 9, 10, 13 and 14 1999 using double monochromator DFS-12. The calibration was done through five telluric water lines in the vicinity of Sodium lines. With respect to telluric water lines Fraunhofer lines were analysed and through their Doppler velocity we determined the velocity field on the surface of the Sun. The data were fitted to the rotation model to determine the average solar angular (sidereal) coefficients, the average gravitational redshift velocity and the average parameters of the systematic limb shift for each line separately. Solar rotation coefficients determined by our measurements are compared with those of Howard and Harvey, Snodgrass and Ulrich, and Wittmann.

  11. Solar p-mode oscillations as a tracer of radial differential rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deubner, F.-L.; Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of solar p-modes obtained with improved wavenumber and frequency resolution are presented. The observations are compared with model calculations of the p-modes, and the degree of spatial and temporal coherence of the observed wave pattern is investigated. It is found that the p-mode oscillations pervade the visible surface of the sun with a high degree of coherence in space and time, so that the whole complex pattern of standing waves with its nodes and antinodes can be regarded as a fixed pattern corotating with the solar surface layers. The p-modes are introduced as a tracer of solar rotational flow velocities. The equatorial differential rotation is estimated as a function of effective depth on the basis of the theoretical contribution functions for the p-modes recently derived by Ulrich et al. (1978). The results strongly indicate that the angular speed of rotation is not uniform even in the relatively shallow layer extending about 20,000 km below the photosphere.

  12. Ground motion simulations in Marmara (Turkey) region from 3D finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, Hideo; Ulrich, Thomas; Douglas, John

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European project MARSite (2012-2016), one of the main contributions from our research team was to provide ground-motion simulations for the Marmara region from various earthquake source scenarios. We adopted a 3D finite difference code, taking into account the 3D structure around the Sea of Marmara (including the bathymetry) and the sea layer. We simulated two moderate earthquakes (about Mw4.5) and found that the 3D structure improves significantly the waveforms compared to the 1D layer model. Simulations were carried out for different earthquakes (moderate point sources and large finite sources) in order to provide shake maps (Aochi and Ulrich, BSSA, 2015), to study the variability of ground-motion parameters (Douglas & Aochi, BSSA, 2016) as well as to provide synthetic seismograms for the blind inversion tests (Diao et al., GJI, 2016). The results are also planned to be integrated in broadband ground-motion simulations, tsunamis generation and simulations of triggered landslides (in progress by different partners). The simulations are freely shared among the partners via the internet and the visualization of the results is diffused on the project's homepage. All these simulations should be seen as a reference for this region, as they are based on the latest knowledge that obtained during the MARSite project, although their refinement and validation of the model parameters and the simulations are a continuing research task relying on continuing observations. The numerical code used, the models and the simulations are available on demand.

  13. History, causality, and sexology.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2003-08-01

    In 1896, Krafft-Ebing published Psychopathia Sexualis. Popularly defined as hereditary weakness or taintedness in the family pedigree, degeneracy was called upon as a causal explanation for perversions of the sexual instinct. Although Krafft-Ebing accepted Karl Ulrichs proposal that homosexuality could be innate and probably located in the brain, he paid little attention to neuropathological sexology. Alfred Binet challenged Krafft-Ebing's orthodoxy by explaining fetishism in terms of associative learning, to which Krafft-Ebing's response was that only those with a hereditary taint would be vulnerable. Thus did the venerable nature-nurture antithesis maintain its rhetoric, even to the present day. Krafft-Ebing died too soon to meet the Freudian challenge of endopsychic determinism, and too soon also to encounter the idea of a developmental multivariate outcome of what I have termed the lovemap. Like other brain maps, for example the languagemap, the lovemap requires an intact human brain in which to develop. The personalized content of the lovemap has access to the brain by way of the special senses.

  14. [New diagnostic aids in automatic perimetry].

    PubMed

    Weber, J; Papoulis, C; Schmitz, A

    1993-04-01

    The Conformity Analysis is a new procedure for objective recognition of specific defect patterns in automated perimetry. The "Conformity Index," the measure of conformity between the distribution of defect values and several standard defect patterns, is calculated from the ratio of global variance and mean variance in particular regions. Using 68 visual fields from 68 normal persons, we determined normal values and limits of the Conformity Index for seven standard defect patterns: hemifields right-left, hemifields upper-lower, quadrants, sectors, rings with 5 degrees and 10 degrees radius interval and the perimetric nerve fiber bundles of Weber and Ulrich. The evaluation of 148 visual fields (68 normal eyes, 80 eyes with chronic glaucoma and all stages of damage) by both the Conformity Index and two experienced clinicians revealed an identical result in 89%. Using the Conformity Analysis in 37 cases of pituitary adenoma, we could objectively identify quadrants, sectors and hemifields right-left to be the most common defect patterns in this disease. In glaucoma fields with marked damage (n = 46), the most frequent pathological Conformity Index was the index for perimetric nerve fiber bundles.

  15. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  16. [Stent, endovascular prosthesis, net or strut? What would British dentist Charles Stent (1807-1885) have to say on all this?].

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Josip; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The word stent appears in the Index Medicus as of 1952, while in Croatian articles as of 1993. The origin of the word has been attributed to British dentist Charles. T. Stent (1807-1885), maker of the compound for dental impressions (Stent's compound). Viennese surgeon, Johannes F. S. Esser (1877-1946) used the compound in plastic surgery of the face calling it an eponym Stent's mould. During the 1950's, William H. ReMine and John H. Grindlay used Stent's principle for omentum lined plastic tubes in the bile duct of a dog. The development of today's vascular stents began in 1912 when French Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) implanted glass tubes in the arteries of dogs. The first metal spirals were implanted in the arteries of dogs by Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985), while the first stents in human arteries were implanted by French doctors Ulrich Sigwart and Jacques Puel in Toulouse in 1986. Some authors claim that the origin of the word stent is associated with the Scotish word stynt or stent, meaning stretched out river fishing nets.

  17. 1927 reference in the new millennium: where is the Automat?

    PubMed Central

    Worel, Sunny Lynn; Rethlefsen, Melissa Lyle

    2003-01-01

    James Ballard, director at the Boston Medical Library, tracked questions he received at the reference desk in 1927 to recognize the trend of queries and to record the information for future use. He presented a paper on reference services that listed sixty of his reference questions at the Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the Medical Library Association (MLA) in 1927. During a two-month period in 2001, the authors examined Ballard's questions by attempting to answer them with print sources from the 1920s and with the Internet. The searchers answered 85% of the questions with the Internet and 80% with 1920s reference sources. The authors compared Internet and 1920s print resources for practical use. When answering the questions with 1920s resources, the searchers rediscovered a time in health sciences libraries when there was no Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, no standardized subject headings, and no comprehensive listings of available books. Yet, the authors found many of the 1920s reference materials to be quite useful and often multifunctional. The authors recorded observations regarding the impact of automation on answering reference questions. Even though the Internet has changed the outward appearance of reference services, many things remain the same. PMID:12883575

  18. Food panics in history: corned beef, typhoid and “risk society”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David F

    2007-01-01

    An outline of the “risk society” thesis of the German social theorist Ulrich Beck is given, and some points that he has taken from food safety examples are discussed. The potential for exploring the viability and utility of the thesis, via a comparative study of historical food safety episodes is illustrated through an account and discussion of the large corned beef‐associated typhoid outbreak which occurred in 1964 in Aberdeen, Scotland. The outcome of the Aberdeen affair, in terms of public and political interest in food safety, and impact on the official food safety system, is compared with the outcome and impact of the series of food safety episodes of the 1980s and 1990s. The interactions between the latter episodes and the new food movement, the proactive responses of corporate interests, and the dramatic changes in the food safety regime represented by the formation of the Food Standards Agency in Britain, are contrasted with the relative lack of impact of the Aberdeen outbreak. Despite criticisms of Beck's thesis, this comparative study highlights, in particular, the value of his concept of “subpolitics”, and his expectation that the transition to risk society will involve the emergence of new social institutions. Such insights may help orientate epidemiologists and community health specialists who are currently active in food safety and regulation. PMID:17568045

  19. Cosmopolitics: towards a new articulation of politics, science and critique.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores how Ulrich Beck's world-risk-society theory (WRST) and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be combined to advance a theory of cosmopolitics. On the one hand, WRST helps to examine 'cosmopolitan politics', how actors try to inject cosmopolitanism into existing political practices and institutions anchored in the logic of nationalism. On the other hand, ANT sheds light on 'cosmological politics', how scientists participate in the construction of reality as a reference point for political struggles. By combining the WRST and ANT perspectives, it becomes possible to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cosmopolitics that takes into account both political and ontological dimensions. The proposed synthesis of WRST and ANT also calls for a renewal of critical theory by making social scientists aware of their performative involvement in cosmopolitics. This renewal prompts social scientists to explore how they can pragmatically support certain ideals of cosmopolitics through continuous dialogues with their objects of study, actors who inhabit different nations and different cosmoses.

  20. Risk society and the distribution of bads: theorizing class in the risk society.

    PubMed

    Curran, Dean

    2013-03-01

    Ulrich Beck states in the Risk Society (1992) that the rise of the social production of risks in the risk society signals that class ceases to be of relevance; instead the hierarchical logic of class will be supplanted by the egalitarian logic of the distribution of risks. Several trenchant critiques of Beck's claim have justified the continued relevance of class to contemporary society. While these accounts have emphasized continuity, they have not attempted to chart, as this paper will, how the growing social production of risk increases the importance of class. This paper argues that it is Beck's undifferentiated, catastrophic account of risk that undergirds his rejection of class, and that by inserting an account of risk involving gradations in both damages and calculability into Beck's framework, his theory of risk society may be used to develop a critical theory of class. Such a theory can be used to reveal how wealth differentials associated with class relations actually increase in importance to individuals' life-chances in the risk society. With the growing production and distribution of bads, class inequalities gain added significance, since it will be relative wealth differentials that both enables the advantaged to minimize their risk exposure and imposes on others the necessity of facing the intensified risks of the risk society.

  1. A commentary on decision-making and organisational legitimacy in the Risk Society.

    PubMed

    Benn, Suzanne; Brown, Paul; North-Samardzic, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    Key concepts of Risk Society as elaborated by Ulrich Beck and others (Beck, U., 1992 (trans. Mark Ritter). The Risk Society. Sage Publications, London. Beck, U., 1995, Ecological Politics in the Age of Risk. Polity Press, Cambridge. Beck, U., 1999, World Risk Society. Polity Press, Cambridge. Giddens, A., 1994, Beyond Left and Right. Polity Press, Oxford. Beck, U., Giddens, A. and Lash, S., 1994, Reflexive Modernisation: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Stanford University Press, Stanford. Beck, U., Bonss, W. and Lau, C., 2003, Theory, Culture & Society 2003, Sage, London, 20(2), pp. 1-33.) are illuminated though a case study of managed environmental risk, namely the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) controversy at Botany, a southeast suburb of Sydney. We observe the way multiple stakeholder decision-making plays out a number of Risk Society themes, including the emergence of 'unbounded risk' and of highly 'individualised' and 'reflexive' risk communities. Across several decades, the events of the HCB story support Risk Society predictions of legitimacy problems faced by corporations as they harness technoscientific support for innovation in their products and industrial processes without due recognition of social and environmental risk. Tensions involving identity, trust and access to expert knowledge advance our understanding of democratic 'sub-political' decision-making and ways of distributing environmental risk.

  2. Regulating dangerous futures: the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990--legislation in risk society.

    PubMed

    Augst, C

    2000-06-01

    This article summarises the outcome of a research project which analyses the legislative debate about the German Embryonenschutzgesetz (Embryo Protection Act) in 1990. From 1988 to 1990 the German Parliament discussed legislation for the practice of assisted contraception and embryo research. The term 'risk' is central to the discourse. For Ulrich Beck (1986) this emphasis on risk is a sign of the reflexivity which contemporary western societies have reached. This article reads back into the risk discourse the values hidden in risk terminology: they are identified as fears about modernisation processes. The focus on risk in this article allows observation of late modernity's unease about its own potential and a growing ambiguity about modern ideas of progress and control (Bauman, 1991). This ambiguity also becomes apparent in the strategies of policing which the German legislature offers as solutions to the perceived risks: different legislative strategies are developed to tackle the contradictory risk scenarios. These different strategies of policing are understood as the construction of 'places of safety' in the face of identified dangers: the 'traditional family', the 'good doctor', 'professional' judgement. Defining those boundaries allows the German legislature to juggle contradictory agendas. This explains the inconsistent and fragmented nature of the Embryo Protection Act 1990.

  3. Food panics in history: corned beef, typhoid and "risk society".

    PubMed

    Smith, David F

    2007-07-01

    An outline of the "risk society" thesis of the German social theorist Ulrich Beck is given, and some points that he has taken from food safety examples are discussed. The potential for exploring the viability and utility of the thesis, via a comparative study of historical food safety episodes is illustrated through an account and discussion of the large corned beef-associated typhoid outbreak which occurred in 1964 in Aberdeen, Scotland. The outcome of the Aberdeen affair, in terms of public and political interest in food safety, and impact on the official food safety system, is compared with the outcome and impact of the series of food safety episodes of the 1980s and 1990s. The interactions between the latter episodes and the new food movement, the proactive responses of corporate interests, and the dramatic changes in the food safety regime represented by the formation of the Food Standards Agency in Britain, are contrasted with the relative lack of impact of the Aberdeen outbreak. Despite criticisms of Beck's thesis, this comparative study highlights, in particular, the value of his concept of "subpolitics", and his expectation that the transition to risk society will involve the emergence of new social institutions. Such insights may help orientate epidemiologists and community health specialists who are currently active in food safety and regulation.

  4. Cosmopolitan sociology and the classical canon: Ferdinand Tönnies and the emergence of global Gesellschaft.

    PubMed

    Inglis, David

    2009-12-01

    How relevant are figures from the classical sociological canon for present day efforts to found cosmopolitan forms of sociological thought? According to the critique of Ulrich Beck, the classical sociologists remain far too wedded to nation-state-centred ways of thinking to play an important role in the development of cosmopolitan sociology. This paper argues that such a critique fails to account for the ways in which certain classical sociologists were attuned to the emerging cosmopolitical conditions of their own time, were not wholly wedded to nation-state-based conceptualizations, and thus can function as both groundings of, and inspirations for, cosmopolitan sociological endeavours. The apparently unpromising case of Tönnies is focused on, the paper showing how he outlined an account of how and why a planet-spanning condition of Gesellschaft developed a position which diverges from and counterpoints Marx's analysis of similar phenomena in important ways. The stereotype of Tönnies as an arch-conservative is also dissolved, allowing him to be considered as one of the most important antecedents of contemporary cosmopolitan sociological practice and a canonical figure still relevant for present-day purposes.

  5. Plant mitochondrial Complex I composition and assembly: A review.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire; Hamel, Patrice Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the mitochondrial inner membrane, oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP via the operation of several multimeric enzymes. The proton-pumping Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and most complicated enzyme required in this process. Complex I is an L-shaped enzyme consisting of more than 40 subunits, one FMN molecule and eight Fe-S clusters. In recent years, genetic and proteomic analyses of Complex I mutants in various model systems, including plants, have provided valuable insights into the assembly of this multimeric enzyme. Assisted by a number of key players, referred to as "assembly factors", the assembly of Complex I takes place in a sequential and modular manner. Although a number of factors have been identified, their precise function in mediating Complex I assembly still remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current knowledge of plant Complex I composition and assembly derived from studies in plant model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Complex I is highly conserved and comprises a significant number of subunits also present in mammalian and fungal Complexes I. Plant Complex I also contains additional subunits absent from the mammalian and fungal counterpart, whose function in enzyme activity and assembly is not clearly understood. While 14 assembly factors have been identified for human Complex I, only two proteins, namely GLDH and INDH, have been established as bona fide assembly factors for plant Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  6. 25 Years Of Holography The Development Of Holographic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenkolber, H.

    1988-06-01

    It was of course Dennis Gabor who, as long ago as 1948, published the fundamental work the principle of holography. But it was not until Theodore Maiman's invention of the laser in 1960 that the practical realisation of holography became possible. This was achieved by Leith and Upatnicks between 1962 and 1964, with the crucial impetus being provided by Vander Lugt (the author wishes to acknowledge the assistence of A. Vander Lugt, who, while performing work of a relatet nature, showed him the value of the gas laser as a light source). 1964 was the year in which Denisyuk presented his first portrait holograms in Leningrad. The many publications of Stroke of the University of New York were a source of numerous impulses. It is to this period, too, that my own first experiences date back. Together with my teacher. Ulrich Grigull, whom I hold in the highest regard, I constructed the first laser interferometer for the study of heat transfer and developed the initial ideas for holo-graphic interferometry. Then, in 1965, came the work of Hildebrandt and Haines and of Powell and Stetson in the United States in this field, and it was around this time, too, that Nassenstein and his colleagues Riek and Bestenreiner began their work in this new area in Germany.

  7. Environmental risks and environmental justice, or how titanic risks are not so titanic after all.

    PubMed

    Alario, Margarita V; Freudenburg, William R

    2010-01-01

    Some of the best-known social scientific theories of risks are those that have been elaborated by Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck. Although their arguments differ greatly, they agree in seeing the technologically induced risks of today's "Risk Society" as global - so pervasive that they transcend all socioeconomic as well as geopolitical and national boundaries. Most empirical work, however, provides greater support for a theoretical tradition exemplified by Short and Erikson. In this paper, we argue that many of the technological mega-risks described by Giddens and Beck as "transcending" social boundaries are better described as "Titanic risks," referring not so much to their colossal impact as to the fact that - as was the case for the majority of the victims on the Titanic - actual risks are related to victims' socioeconomic as well as sociogeographic locations. Previous research has shown this to be the case with high-risk technologies, such as nuclear energy and weaponry, and also with localized ones, such as toxic waste disposal. This article illustrates that the same is true even for the most genuinely "global" risks of all, namely those associated with global climate disruption.

  8. The Cosmopolitanization of Science: Experience from Chinese Stem Cell Scientists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2010-09-01

    It is commonly perceived that the 'globalization of science' may result in a 'Westernization of science'. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists' outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still 'catching-up' to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the 'cosmopolitanization of science'. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the 'cosmopolitanization of science': shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance.

  9. Growth, productivity, and scientific impact of sources of HIV/AIDS research information, with a focus on eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bosire Onyancha, Omwoyo

    2008-05-01

    As channels of communicating HIV/AIDS research information, serial publications and particularly journals are increasingly used in response to the pandemic. The last few decades have witnessed a proliferation of sources of HIV/AIDS-related information, bringing many challenges to collection-development librarians as well as to researchers. This study uses an informetric approach to examine the growth, productivity and scientific impact of these sources, during the period 1980 to 2005, and especially to measure performance in the publication and dissemination of HIV/AIDS research about or from eastern or southern Africa. Data were collected from MEDLINE, Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), and Ulrich's Periodical Directory. The analysis used Sitkis version 1.5, Microsoft Office Access, Microsoft Office Excel, Bibexcel, and Citespace version 2.0.1. The specific objectives were to identify the number of sources of HIV/AIDS-related information that have been published in the region, the coverage of these in key bibliographic databases, the most commonly used publication type for HIV/AIDS research, the countries in which the sources are published, the sources' productivity in terms of numbers of papers and citations, the most influential sources, the subject coverage of the sources, and the core sources of HIV/AIDS-information.

  10. The Cosmopolitanization of Science1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly perceived that the ‘globalization of science’ may result in a ‘Westernization of science’. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists’ outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still ‘catching-up’ to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the ‘cosmopolitanization of science’. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck’s cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the ‘cosmopolitanization of science’: shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance. PMID:24409002

  11. X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan; van den Heuvel, Edward Peter Jacobus

    1997-01-01

    Preface; 1. The properties of X-ray binaries, N. E. White, F. Nagase and A. N. Parmar; 2. Optical and ultraviolet observations of X-ray binaries J. van Paradijs and J. E. McClintock; 3. Black-hole binaries Y. Tanaka and W. H. G. Lewin; 4. X-ray bursts Walter H. G. Lewin, Jan Van Paradijs and Ronald E. Taam; 5. Millisecond pulsars D. Bhattacharya; 6. Rapid aperiodic variability in binaries M. van der Klis; 7. Radio properties of X-ray binaries R. M. Hjellming and X. Han; 8. Cataclysmic variable stars France Anne-Dominic Córdova; 9. Normal galaxies and their X-ray binary populations G. Fabbiano; 10. Accretion in close binaries Andrew King; 11. Formation and evolution of neutron stars and black holes in binaries F. Verbunt and E. P. J. van den Heuvel; 12. The magnetic fields of neutron stars and their evolution D. Bhattacharya and G. Srinivasan; 13. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts K. Hurley; 14. A catalogue of X-ray binaries Jan van Paradijs; 15. A compilation of cataclysmic binaries with known or suspected orbital periods Hans Ritter and Ulrich Kolb; References; Index.

  12. The greater temporal acuity in the reminder task than in the 2AFC task is independent of standard duration and sensory modality.

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, Thomas; Ulrich, Rolf

    2012-03-01

    The present study compared estimates of the difference limen (DL) from the reminder and the two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC) task. Both tasks used exactly the same set of stimulus values and also the same adaptive method for estimating DL. The magnitude of the standard stimulus was varied over a large range. In two experiments, participants discriminated the duration of two successively presented auditory and visual stimuli, respectively. The results are unambiguous. DL estimates from the 2AFC task were considerably larger than the ones from the reminder task. This difference between the two performance estimates was rather stable across the range of standards used and across both sensory modalities. These results reinforce the conclusion by Lapid, Ulrich, and Rammsayer (2008) that the 2AFC task produces consistently higher values of DL than the reminder task. Furthermore and most important, the present data indicate that the observed shape of the Weber function is not influenced by the psychophysical method applied.

  13. Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitechurch, Hubert; Agard, Philippe; Ulrich, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia. Whitechurch H.(1) Agard P.(2), Ulrich M.(1) (1) EOST - University of Strasbourg (France) (2) ISTeP - University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France) Ophiolites are considered as pieces of oceanic lithosphere that escaped subduction to be obducted on continental margins. After the Penrose Conference in 1972, they have all been regarded as issued from mid-ocean ridges of large oceans. Subsequently, most of ophiolites have been considered as generated in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment, mainly on the basis of geochemical arguments. However, this characterization encompasses very different geological situations, somewhat in contradiction with a univocal geochemical interpretation, both in terms of where ophiolite formed (i.e., ocean-continent transition zones, ocean ridges, marginal basins) and were obducted (contrasting nature of the margins). Examples from eastern Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolites (Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Iran, Oman) and tertiary New Caledonia ophiolites all show this diversity, both in their internal structures and geological setting of obduction. Several questions will be addressed in this debate: the relationships and paradoxes between the nature of ophiolites, their geodynamic environment of formation, their geochemistry, their modality of obduction and ultimately the mountain range style where they are found.

  14. ASTROMETRIC JITTER OF THE SUN AS A STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, V. V.; Parker, D.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2010-07-10

    The daily variation of the solar photocenter over some 11 yr is derived from the Mount Wilson data reprocessed by Ulrich et al. to closely match the surface distribution of solar irradiance. The standard deviations of astrometric jitter are 0.52 {mu}AU and 0.39 {mu}AU in the equatorial and the axial dimensions, respectively. The overall dispersion is strongly correlated with solar cycle, reaching 0.91 {mu}AU at maximum activity in 2000. The largest short-term deviations from the running average (up to 2.6 {mu}AU) occur when a group of large spots happen to lie on one side with respect to the center of the disk. The amplitude spectrum of the photocenter variations never exceeds 0.033 {mu}AU for the range of periods 0.6-1.4 yr, corresponding to the orbital periods of planets in the habitable zone. Astrometric detection of Earth-like planets around stars as quiet as the Sun is not affected by star spot noise, but the prospects for more active stars may be limited to giant planets.

  15. Spectral definition of the ArTeMiS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Vic; Maffei, Bruno; Pisano, Giampaolo; Dubreuil, Didier; Delisle, Cyrille; Le Pennec, Jean; Hurtado, Norma

    2014-07-01

    ArTeMiS is a sub-millimetre camera to be operated, on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope (APEX). The ultimate goal is to observe simultaneously in three atmospheric spectral windows in the region of 200, 350 and 450 microns. We present the filtering scheme, which includes the cryostat window, thermal rejection elements, band separation and spectral isolation, which has been adopted for this instrument. This was achieved using a combination of scattering, Yoshinaga filters, organic dyes and Ulrich type embedded metallic mesh devices. Design of the quasi-optical mesh components has been developed by modelling with an in-house developed code. For the band separating dichroics, which are used with an incidence angle of 35 deg, further modelling has been performed with HFSS (Ansoft). Spectral characterization of the components for the 350 and 450 bands have been performed with a Martin-Puplett Polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer. While for the first commissioning and observation campaign, one spectral band only was operational (350 microns), we report on the design of the 200, 350 and 450 micron bands.

  16. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets.

  17. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene Arroyo Diablo and Borrego Formations in the Borrego Badlands, western Salton Trough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report results obtained from a stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Borrego Badlands, E of Borrego Springs, CA. The Borrego Badlands are bordered by dextral strike slip faults of the San Jacinto fault zone (Clark fault to the NE, Coyote Creek fault to the SW), and is also cut by several NE-striking sinistral faults (linked antithetically to the Coyote Creek and Clark faults), the largest of which is the Inspiration Point fault. Our work focuses on deposits of the Palm Spring Group, including Pliocene fluvial/deltaic sandstones of the Arroyo Diablo Formation and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine mudstones of the Borrego Formation. We collected a suite of 54 paleomagnetic sample sites from a 2500 m thick section of the Borrego Badlands (3rd Wash, Hills of the Moon Wash, and Rainbow Wash), from the upper part of the Arroyo Diablo Formation to the contact between the Borrego Formation and overlying Ocotillo Formation. This section is correlated to the upper Borrego and Ocotillo formations in Beckman Wash, located NW of here on the NW side of the Inspiration Point fault, allowing us to use the previous magnetostratigraphy of Lutz et al (2006) as a tie point for this section. Sample sites were spaced at 15 to 100 m, and 5 to 8 samples were collected from each site. Samples were thermally demagnetized using steps from 80 to 690 C, and two magnetization components were observed from 53 of the sites. A total of 49 sites had well-defined second-removed components and site mean directions that were robust (k>10). The combined mean of these 49 sites is D = 35, I = 41, α95 = 7.5. We identify 8 polarity zones in this section, ranging from near the base of the Gauss magnetochron to the upper part of the Matuyama chron, including the Mammoth, Kaena, and Olduvai subchrons. The contact between the Arroyo Diablo and Borrego formations is estimated to be ~2.9 Ma. Sediment-accumulation rates are relatively rapid and vary between 0.7 and 1

  18. HIPPARCOS subdwarfs and globular cluster ages: the distance and age of M 92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pont, F.; Mayor, M.; Turon, C.; Vandenberg, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new determination of the distance and age of the old globular cluster M 92 (NGC 6341) is obtained from a consideration of a set of more than 500 subdwarf candidates with Hipparcos parallaxes. Precise [Fe/H] values are derived for most stars using the equivalent width of the Coravel cross-correlation function. We examine at some length the biases affecting the determination of the mean luminosity of a set of subdwarfs selected by metallicity and sigma_ pi /pi Lutz-Kelker bias are found to be significant, so that in most cases considered, the resulting bias acts as a slight shift in a direction opposite to the Lutz-Kelker correction. The effect of the presence of detected (and suspected) binaries is also examined and taken into account. Our best estimate of the distance of M 92 is (m-M)_V=14.67+/- 0.08 mag, from a fit of the cluster main sequence to the 17 subdwarfs in our set with [Fe/H]<-1.8 and sigma_ pi /pi <15%. Bias and binarity corrections are included. The adoption of an alternative [Fe/H] scale causes only minor differences in this result. A more classic treatment of binaries (i.e., simply excluding the detected binaries from the sample) leads to (m-M)_V=14.74 mag. The location of the evolved field subdwarfs (along the subgiant branch) provides a strong indication that M 92 and the most metal-poor subdwarfs are coeval. The M 92 C-M diagram is confronted with up-to-date stellar evolutionary models (recent opacities and nuclear reaction rates, non-ideal equation of state, alpha -element enhancement). The agreement between theory and observations is excellent, including the position of the horizontal branch, if the models are shifted by delta (B-V)= +0.012 mag. An age of 14 Gyr is derived from the luminosities of the cluster turnoff and subgiant branch stars. A similar colour shift is found from an examination of an independent set

  19. SU-E-T-54: A New Method for Optimizing Radiation Isocenter for Linac-Based SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S; Hyer, D; Nixon, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new method to minimize deviation of linac x-ray beams from the centroid of the volumetric radiation isocenter for all combinations of gantry and table angle. Methods: A set of ball-bearing (Winston-Lutz) images was used to determine the gantry radiation isocenter as the midrange of deviation values. Deviations in the cross-plane direction were minimized by calibration of MLC leaf position offset, and by adjusting beam position steering for each energy. Special attention was also paid to matching the absolute position of isocenter across all energies by adjusting position steering in the gun-target axis. Displacement of table axis from the gantry isocenter, and recommended table axis adjustment for contemporary Elekta linacs, was also determined. Eight images were used to characterize the volumetric isocenter for the full range of gantry and table rotations available. Tabulation of deviation for each beam was used to test compliance with isocenter tolerance. Results: Four contemporary Elekta linacs were evaluated and the radius in the gun-target axis of the radiation isocenter was 0.5 to 0.7 mm. After beam steering adjustment, the radius in the cross-plane direction was typically 0.2 to 0.4 mm. Position matching between energies can be reduced to 0.28 mm. Maximum total deviation was 0.68 to 1.07 mm, depending primarily on the effect of systematic table axis wobble with rotation. Conclusion: This new method effectively facilitates minimization of deviation between beam center and target position. The test, which requires a few minutes to perform, can be easily incorporated into a routine machine QA program. A tighter radiation isocenter for contemporary Elekta linacs would require reducing the effect of gantry arm flex and/or table axis wobble that are the two main components of deviation from the designated isocenter point.

  20. A simple method to quantify the coincidence between portal image graticules and radiation field centers or radiation isocenter

    SciTech Connect

    Du Weiliang; Yang, James; Luo Dershan; Martel, Mary

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a computerized method to quantify the coincidence between portal image graticules and radiation field centers or radiation isocenter. Three types of graticules were included in this study: Megavoltage (MV) mechanical graticule, MV electronic portal imaging device digital graticule, and kilovoltage (kV) on-board imaging digital graticule. Methods: A metal ball bearing (BB) was imaged with MV and kV x-ray beams in a procedure similar to a Winston-Lutz test. The radiation fields, graticules, and BB were localized in eight portal images using Hough transform-based computer algorithms. The center of the BB served as a static reference point in the 3D space so that the distances between the graticule centers and the radiation field centers were calculated. The radiation isocenter was determined from the radiation field centers at different gantry angles. Results: Misalignments of MV and kV portal imaging graticules varied with the gantry or x-ray source angle as a result of mechanical imperfections of the linear accelerator and its imaging system. While the three graticules in this study were aligned to the radiation field centers and the radiation isocenter within 2.0 mm, misalignments of 1.5-2.0 mm were found at certain gantry angles. These misalignments were highly reproducible with the gantry rotation. Conclusions: A simple method was developed to quantify the alignments of portal image graticules directly against the radiation field centers or the radiation isocenter. The advantage of this method is that it does not require the BB to be placed exactly at the radiation isocenter through a precalibrated surrogating device such as room lasers or light field crosshairs. The present method is useful for radiation therapy modalities that require high-precision portal imaging such as image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy.

  1. Maxadilan-simile expression in Nyssomyia neivai, a sandfly vector in an endemic region of Brazil, and its immunogenicity in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Juliana; Casanova, Claudio; Vernal, Sebastian; Nascimento, Margarida; Rodrigues, Sandra; Lerner, Ethan A; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients. METHODS cDNA and protein were extracted from the cephalic segment, including salivary glands, of Ny. neivai and analysed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and blotting assays. The results were compared with data obtained from Lu. longipalpis samples. We quantified antibodies against Max in serum samples from 41 patients with ATL (31 and 10 with the cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms, respectively) and 63 controls from the endemic northeastern region of São Paulo state, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FINDINGS Recognition of a Max-simile peptide by specific antibodies confirmed expression of a Max sequence in Ny. neivai (GenBank EF601123.1). Compared to controls, patients with ATL presented higher levels of antibodies against Max (p = 0.004); 24.4% of the patients with ATL and 3.2% of the controls presented anti-Max levels above the cutoff index (p = 0.014). The anti-Max levels were not associated with the specific clinical form of ATL, leishmanin skin test response, absence or presence of amastigotes in histopathologic exam, results of indirect immunofluorescence testing for leishmaniasis, or duration of cutaneous form disease. MAIN CONCLUSION High serum anti-Max levels did not protect patients against ATL, but confirmed previous natural exposure to Ny. neivai bites in this ATL endemic region. PMID:28177045

  2. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  3. Performances of HTLV serological tests in diagnosing HTLV infection in high-risk population of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Fabrício; Santos-Fortuna, Elizabeth de los; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2007-01-01

    Testing problems in diagnosing human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection, mostly HTLV-II, have been documented in HIV/AIDS patients. Since December 1998, the Immunology Department of Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL) offers HTLV-I/II serology to Public Health Units that attend HTLV high-risk individuals. Two thousand, three hundred and twelve serum samples: 1,393 from AIDS Reference Centers (Group I), and 919 from HTLV out-patient clinics (Group II) were sent to IAL for HTLV-I/II antibodies detection. The majority of them were screened by two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), and confirmed by Western Blot (WB 2.4, Genelabs). Seven different EIA kits were employed during the period, and according to WB results, the best performance was obtained by EIAs that contain HTLV-I and HTLV-II viral lysates and rgp21 as antigens. Neither 1st and 2nd, nor 3rd generation EIA kits were 100% sensitive in detecting truly HTLV-I/II reactive samples. HTLV-I and HTLV-II prevalence rates of 3.3% and 2.5% were detected in Group I, and of 9.6% and 3.6% in Group II, respectively. High percentages of HTLV-seroindeterminate WB sera were detected in both Groups. The algorithm testing to be employed in HTLV high-risk population from São Paulo, Brazil, needs the use of two EIA kits of different formats and compounds as screening, and because of high seroindeterminate WB, may be another confirmatory assay.

  4. Photoperiod Differences in Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species Richness and Abundance in Caves in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A M; Dos Santos, C L C; Stumpp, R; Da Silva, L H D; Maia, R A; Paglia, A P; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected with light traps, which were operated for 5 consecutive days in the rainy season and in the dry season. Samples were collected every 12 h and separated between photophase and scotophase periods. In total, 1,777 sand flies of 23 species were collected. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia renei (Martins, Falcão, and Silva) (44%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (15%), Evandromyia edwardsi (Mangabeira) (11%), and Micropygomyia quinquefer (Costa Lima) (6%). The richness and abundance of total sand flies and the abundance of male and female sand flies in the aphotic zone of the caves did not differ between the photophase and scotophase, but differed between photoperiods at the entrance and at sites surrounding the caves. From our study of the daily activity of these insects in this ecotope, it will be possible to know which period of the day is of greatest risk of exposure of vertebrates who visit or live in these environments, including the human population.

  5. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Infidum similis, Including Morphological Data and Estimation of its Genome Size.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, Elizabeth A; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Gregory, T Ryan; Violante-González, Juan

    2016-08-01

    :   Infidum similis Travassos, 1916 (Dicrocoeliidae: Leipertrematinae) was found in the gall bladder of Leptophis diplotropis Günther, 1872 from El Podrido, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico. A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses was carried out to assess its phylogenetic position within suborder Xiphidiata, alongside members of the superfamilies Gorgoderoidea and Plagiorchoidea. The phylogenetic trees showed that the genus is most-closely related to the Plagiorchoidea rather than to the Gorgoderoidea, in keeping with previous taxonomic designations. Phylogenies obtained from ML and BI analysis of the 28S rDNA gene revealed a well supported clade in which Choledocystus hepaticus (Lutz, 1928) Sullivan, 1977 is sister to I. similis. On the other hand, a tree obtained using a partial sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA gene (ML and BI analysis), with species supposed to be closely related to I. similis according to 28S, does not support this relatedness. Based on the independence of Infidum from the subfamily Leipertrematinae Yamaguti, 1958 , our results clearly demonstrated that the genus corresponds to a different family and with species closely related to C. hepaticus within Plagiorchoidea. New data are presented about the tegumental surface of I. similis by scanning electron microscopy as well as the estimation of its haploid genome size using Feulgen Image Analysis Densitometry of sperm nuclei as part of the characterization of this species. This is the first genome size estimated for a member of Plagiorchiida, and these data will provide a new source of knowledge on helminth diversity and evolutionary studies. This constitutes the first host record, and new geographical distribution, for this species in Mexico.

  6. Reply to Dr. Stoesselfs Comment on “Reaction paths and equilibrium end-points in solid-solution aqueous-solution systems”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Reardon, Eric J.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1992-01-01

    In reply to the Critical Comment of R. K. Stoessell (this issue), limiting activity coefficients of bromide in halite (γNaBr) have been calculated by least-squares fitting of Simons et al.'s (1952) bromide distribution coefficient data for the Na(Cl,Br)-NaOH-H2O system at 35°C. Regular and subregular solidsolution model fits give γNaBr = 7.4 and γNaBr = 8.8, respectively. The Br contents of halite at equilibrium with seawater at initial halite saturation, calculated from the regular and subregular fits, are 17 ppm and 14 ppm, respectively. A survey of literature data for trace bromide in halite shows a wide spread in distribution coefficients, with lower values (DBr≈ 0.01) reported by Bloch and Schnerb (1953), Puchelt et al. (1972), and Lutz (1975), and higher values (DBr− ≈ 0.03) reported by Braitsch and Herrmann (1963), Kühn (1968), Herrmann (1972), Herrmann (1980), Mccaffrey et al. (1987), valiashko et al. (1976), Valiashko and Lavrova (1976), and Fontes (pers. commun., 1990). The measurement of stoichiometric saturation states for halite (or sylvite) with trace bromide mole-fractions is not practical, given the insensitivity of the measured solubilities on the bromide mole-fractions. Distribution coefficient measurements, with proof of thermodynamic equilibrium, need to be obtained instead, to conclusively determine the thermodynamic-mixing properties of both Na(Cl,Br) and K(Cl,Br) solidsolution series at very low mole-fractions of bromide. The applicability of the stoichiometric saturation concept to the interpretation of precipitation processes is questionable, primarily because the concept requires solid-solutions to behave as one-component solids with fixed composition. Lippmann diagrams are useful in depicting stoichiometric saturation, endmember saturation, and thermodynamic equilibrium states in binary-solid-solution aqueous-solution systems. Lippmann diagrams can contribute a better understanding of these systems, regardless of the

  7. Detection of bluetongue virus RNA in field-collected Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) following the discovery of bluetongue virus serotype 1 in white-tailed deer and cattle in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Becker, M E; Reeves, W K; Dejean, S K; Emery, M P; Ostlund, E N; Foil, L D

    2010-03-01

    In November 2004, bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) serotype 1 (BTV-1) was detected for the first time in the United States from a hunter-killed deer in St. Mary Parish, LA. In 2005, sera surveys were conducted on three cattle farms near the area where the deer was found, and BTV-1-seropositive cattle were found on two of the three farms; in 2006, sera surveys from the cattle on the three farms did not detect any BTV-1-positive animals. The purpose of this study was to survey ceratopogonid populations at the three farms and test field-collected specimens for the presence of BTV and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, EHDV). Miniature CDC light traps and New Jersey traps were used to capture ceratopogonids on the three farms from January 2006 through November 2007. In total, 3,319 ceratopogonids were captured, including 1,790 specimens of 10 different species of Culicoides. IR-RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to screen for BTV and EHDV in 264 pools representing 2,309 specimens collected at the farms. All positive samples were sequenced for serotype determination. Five pools of 275 (1.8%) were positive for BTV. Pools of four species of Culicoides were found to be positive: Culicoides crepuscularis (Malloch), Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (two pools), Culicoides haematopotus Malloch, and Gulicoidesfurens (Poey). The amplicons of the positive specimens were sequenced and found to be identical to both BTV-17 and BTV-13. During our study, no BTV-1 transmission was detected in cattle, and no BTV-1 was detected in specimens of ceratopogonids.

  8. The Fauna Of Two New Discovered Hydrothermal Fields At 5°S And 9°33'S On The Mid-Atlantic-Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecher, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    Before April 2005 there was a zoogeographical puzzle to solve: Are there any hydrothermal vent communities south of the equator the Atlantic Ocean, and if so, what will be their characteristics? Are they similar with those of the northern Atlantic Ocean or will they differ? Before the cruise 169 of the British "Charles Darwin" research vessel started, no vent site was discovered on the southern Atlantic Ridge. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle from WHOI, the first hydrothermal active vent site was found at 5°S in April 2005. With the support by British and American colleagues(Chris German and Tim Shank) the scientific crew of Meteor cruise M64/1 sampled this site at 5° first with the ROV "Quest 4000" from Marum, University Bremen. But far in excess of this success one more vent site was discovered and investigated by the Meteor cruise M64/1: the Lilliput Field at 9°33S on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge. Our first results indicate that the identified taxa of the hydrothermal fields at 5°S and 9°33S resemble the northern Logatchev community (Gebruk et al. 2000) in most elements. Remarkable is the missing of following typical hydrothermal taxa: Decapods of the families Alvinocaridae, like Chorocaris, and Galatheidae, echinoderms like Ophiuridae and Ventfishes of the family Zoarcidae. Obviously the Romanch Fracture Zone act only partly as a physical barrier between vent fauna assemblages of the North and South Atlantic Oceans (see Shank 2004). Gebruk, A.V., Chevaldonne, P., Shank, T., Lutz, R.A. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2000): Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities of the Logatchev area (14°45'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge): diverse biotopes and high biomass. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 80: 383-393. Shank, T. (2004): The evolutionary puzzle of seafloor life. - Oceanus Magazine Vol. 42, No.2 http://oceanusmag.whoi.edu/v42n2/shank.html.

  9. Temperature-dependent analysis of thermal motion, disorder and structures of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate and tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Stef; Parois, Pascal; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Lutz, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The crystal structures of the title compounds have been determined in the temperature range 140-290 K for the zinc complex, and 190-270 K for the copper complex. The two structures are isostructural in the trigonal space group P31c with the sulfate anion severely disordered on a site with 32 (D(3)) symmetry. This sulfate disorder leads to a disordered three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network, with the N-H atoms acting as donors and the sulfate O atoms as acceptors. The displacement parameters of the N and C atoms in both compounds contain disorder contributions in the out-of-ligand plane direction owing to ring puckering and/or disorder in hydrogen bonding. In the Zn compound the vibrational amplitudes in the bond directions are closely similar. Their differences show no significant deviations from rigid-bond behaviour. In the Cu compound, a (presumably) dynamic Jahn-Teller effect is identified from a temperature-independent contribution to the displacement ellipsoids of the N atom along the N-Cu bond. These conclusions derive from analyses of the atomic displacement parameters with the Hirshfeld test, with rigid-body models at different temperatures, and with a normal coordinate analysis. This analysis considers the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) from all different temperatures simultaneously and provides a detailed description of both the thermal motion and the disorder in the cation. The Jahn-Teller radii of the Cu compound derived on the basis of the ADP analysis and from the bond distances in the statically distorted low-temperature phase [Lutz (2010). Acta Cryst. C66, m330-m335] are found to be the same.

  10. SU-E-T-282: Dose Measurements with An End-To-End Audit Phantom for Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R; Artschan, R; Thwaites, D; Lehmann, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Report on dose measurements as part of an end-to-end test for stereotactic radiotherapy, using a new audit tool, which allows audits to be performed efficiently either by an onsite team or as a postal audit. Methods: Film measurements have been performed with a new Stereotactic Cube Phantom. The phantom has been designed to perform Winston Lutz type position verification measurements and dose measurements in one setup. It comprises a plastic cube with a high density ball in its centre (used for MV imaging with film or EPID) and low density markers in the periphery (used for Cone Beam Computed Tomography, CBCT imaging). It also features strategically placed gold markers near the posterior and right surfaces, which can be used to calculate phantom rotations on MV images. Slit-like openings allow insertion of film or other detectors.The phantom was scanned and small field treatment plans were created. The fields do not traverse any inhomogeneities of the phantom on their paths to the measurement location. The phantom was setup at the delivery system using CBCT imaging. The calculated treatment fields were delivered, each with a piece of radiochromic film (EBT3) placed in the anterior film holder of the phantom. MU had been selected in planning to achieve similar exposures on all films. Calibration films were exposed in solid water for dose levels around the expected doses. Films were scanned and analysed following established procedures. Results: Setup of the cube showed excellent suitability for CBCT 3D alignment. MV imaging with EPID allowed for clear identification of all markers. Film based dose measurements showed good agreement for MLC created fields down to 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. Conclusion: An end-to-end audit phantom for stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed and tested.

  11. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston–Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior–inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle. PMID:22482636

  12. High-precision timing of 42 millisecond pulsars with the European Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvignes, G.; Caballero, R. N.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Champion, D. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Janssen, G. H.; Lazarus, P.; Osłowski, S.; Babak, S.; Bassa, C. G.; Brem, P.; Burgay, M.; Cognard, I.; Gair, J. R.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lassus, A.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Perrodin, D.; Petiteau, A.; Possenti, A.; Purver, M. B.; Rosado, P. A.; Sanidas, S.; Sesana, A.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Taylor, S. R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; van Haasteren, R.; Vecchio, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the high-precision timing of 42 radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed by the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). This EPTA Data Release 1.0 extends up to mid-2014 and baselines range from 7-18 yr. It forms the basis for the stochastic gravitational-wave background, anisotropic background, and continuous-wave limits recently presented by the EPTA elsewhere. The Bayesian timing analysis performed with TEMPONEST yields the detection of several new parameters: seven parallaxes, nine proper motions and, in the case of six binary pulsars, an apparent change of the semimajor axis. We find the NE2001 Galactic electron density model to be a better match to our parallax distances (after correction from the Lutz-Kelker bias) than the M2 and M3 models by Schnitzeler. However, we measure an average uncertainty of 80 per cent (fractional) for NE2001, three times larger than what is typically assumed in the literature. We revisit the transverse velocity distribution for a set of 19 isolated and 57 binary MSPs and find no statistical difference between these two populations. We detect Shapiro delay in the timing residuals of PSRs J1600-3053 and J1918-0642, implying pulsar and companion masses m_p=1.22_{-0.35}^{+0.5} M_{⊙}, m_c = 0.21_{-0.04}^{+0.06} M_{⊙} and m_p=1.25_{-0.4}^{+0.6} M_{⊙}, m_c = 0.23_{-0.05}^{+0.07} M_{⊙}, respectively. Finally, we use the measurement of the orbital period derivative to set a stringent constraint on the distance to PSRs J1012+5307 and J1909-3744, and set limits on the longitude of ascending node through the search of the annual-orbital parallax for PSRs J1600-3053 and J1909-3744.

  13. DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Feast, Michael W.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise; Shulyak, D. V.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-15

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  14. Verification procedure for isocentric alignment of proton beams.

    PubMed

    Ciangaru, George; Yang, James N; Oliver, Patrick J; Bues, Martin; Zhu, Mengping; Nakagawa, Fumio; Chiba, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Shin; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Umezawa, Mosumi; Smith, Alfred R

    2007-10-24

    We present a technique--based on the Lutz, Winston, and Maleki test used in stereotactic linear accelerator radiosurgery--for verifying whether proton beams are being delivered within the required spatial coincidence with the gantry mechanical isocenter. Our procedure uses a proton beam that is collimated by a circular aperture at its central axis and is then intercepted by a small steel sphere rigidly supported by the patient couch. A laser tracker measurement system and a correction algorithm for couch position assures precise positioning of the steel sphere at the mechanical isocenter of the gantry. A film-based radiation dosimetry technique, chosen for the good spatial resolution it achieves, records the proton dose distribution for optical image analysis. The optical image obtained presents a circular high-dose region surrounding a lower-dose area corresponding to the proton beam absorption by the steel sphere, thereby providing a measure of the beam alignment with the mechanical isocenter. We found the self-developing Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ) and commercial Epson 10000 XL flatbed scanner (Epson America, Long Beach, CA) to be accurate and efficient tools. The positions of the gantry mechanical and proton beam isocenters, as recorded on film, were clearly identifiable within the scanning resolution used for routine alignment testing (0.17 mm per pixel). The mean displacement of the collimated proton beam from the gantry mechanical isocenter was 0.22 +/- 0.1 mm for the gantry positions tested, which was well within the maximum deviation of 0.50 mm accepted at the Proton Therapy Center in Houston.

  15. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

  16. An Ongoing Program of Radial Velocities of Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperauskas, J.; Boyle, R. P.; Harlow, J.; Jahreiss, H.; Upgren, A. R.

    2003-12-01

    The lists of stars found by Vyssotsky at the McCormick Observatory and the Fourth Edition of the Catalog of Nearby Stars (CNS4) complement each other. Each was limited in a different way, but together they can be used to evaluate sources of systematic error in either of them. The lists of Vyssotsky comprise almost 900 stars, brighter than a limiting visual magnitude of about 11.5. and thus form a magnitude-limited sample. The CNS4 includes all stars believed to be within 25 parsecs of the Sun, and thus forms a distance-limited group. Limits in magnitude are prone to the Malmquist bias by which stars of a given range in magnitude may average spuriously brighter than stars within a given distance range appropriate for the mean distance modulus. The CNS4 stars may be subject to a slight Lutz-Kelker effect. This also requires a correction that depends mainly on the ratios of the standard errors in the distances to the stars, to the distances, themselves. This is a status report on a survey seeking completeness in the six dynamical properties (positions along the three orthogonal axes, and their first time-derivatives). Parallax, proper motion and radial velocity are the stellar properties required for this information and, as is frequently the case among sets of faint stars, the radial velocities are not always available. We seek to obtain radial velocities for a full dynamical picture for more than one thousand nearby stars of which some two-thirds have been observed. It would be most desirable to follow with age-related measures for all stars

  17. Holding fast.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital.

  18. Combined distributed source and single-trial EEG-fMRI modeling: application to effortful decision making processes.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Mulert, Christoph; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Single-trial coupling of simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI time-series can be used to generate fMRI patterns of brain activity with high spatial resolution from EEG responses with high temporal resolution. A forced choice reaction task under different effort conditions has been previously used to demonstrate single-trial EEG-fMRI coupling effects for an early ERP component (N1: 70-150 ms) measured on a single scalp channel (Cz), thereby providing the first multi-modal evidence of early anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation in effortful decision making (Mulert, C., Seifert, C., Leicht, G., Kirsch, V., Ertl, M., Karch, S., Moosmann, M., Lutz, J., Möller, H.J., Hegerl, U., Pogarell, O., Jäger, L., 2008. Single-trial coupling of EEG and fMRI reveals the involvement of early anterior cingulate cortex activation in effortful decision making. Neuroimage 42, 158-168.). In this work, we searched for "effort-specific" ERP-N1 sources and explored their single-trial EEG-fMRI correlations for discovering "source-specific" inter-modality coupling effects. To this end, we performed a whole-cortex distributed ERP analysis and used the local source power trial-by-trial variation as an input for single-trial EEG-fMRI coupling analysis. We found a high-effort-specific ERP-N1 source in the ACC and statistically significant differential EEG-fMRI coupling spots in five cortical regions, including the ACC. Our results provide new insights about the neural origins of effort-specific EEG and fMRI response modulations in a choice reaction task and confirm the central role of early ACC activation in motivation-related decision making processes; we discuss the importance of combining distributed source modeling with single-trial coupling for enriching the interpretation of EEG-fMRI patterns.

  19. [Epidemiological, social, and sanitary aspects in an area of the Rio Negro, State of Amazonas, with special reference to intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Coura, J R; Willcox, H P; Tavares, A M; de Paiva, D D; Fernandes, O; Rada, E L; Perez, E P; Borges, L C; Hidalgo, M E; Nogueira, M L

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on the residents of one in every four dwellings in the town of Barcelos (in the northern part of the State of Amazonas, on the right bank of the Rio Negro, 490 kilometers from Manaus by river), in order to evaluate social and sanitary conditions and specific indicators for intestinal parasites and Chagas' infection. During the survey, two questionnaires were applied, a household one to evaluate social and sanitary aspects, and an individual one, for social and epidemiological evaluation of the population conditions. A conglomerate family sample of 171 dwellings was studied. From each of the 658 habitants, a sample was requested for stool examination by Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques modified by Willcox & Coura (1989), and blood was collected in filter paper for immunofluorescence test by Camargo (1966) and Souza & Camargo (1966) methods modified by Petana & Willcox (1975). The stool examination showed 69.4% of samples with one or more parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant with 51% of positivity and Entamoeba histolytica, although surveyed by a non-specific method, was present in 19.7%. Surprisingly, 20.1% of the 658 sera samples were reactive for T. cruzi antibodies at a dilution of 1:20 and 13.7% at 1:40. There was a strong correlation between this result and the level of human contact with wild triatomines, known locally as "piasava lice", and we succeeded in isolating by xenodiagnosis one strain of T. cruzi from one patient, a sixty-one-year old man (n. 209 -1), a native of the area, with positive serology for Chagas' disease and who worked in agriculture and transporting piasava and was very familiar with "piasava lice".

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-08-15

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm.

  1. Prediction of fading phenomena in land-satellite communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaunstein, N.; Cohen, Y.; Hayakawa, M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of prediction of probability of successful radio communication of any mobile or stationary subscriber located in areas of service such as complex urban environments characterized by nonline-of-sight propagation conditions, which limit GPS, Low Earth Orbit, and Medium Earth Orbit services in land-satellite communications. It presents a self-consistent physical-statistical approach for predicting fading phenomena usually occurring in land-satellite communication links caused by influence of the terrain features on radio signal propagation from the ground-based to the satellite antenna. This approach combines (1) the statistical description of the buildings array located on the rough terrain and the buildings' overlay profile, based on special probabilistic distributions of built-up terrain parameters, and (2) the theoretical description of propagation phenomena, taking into account multiple scattering, reflection, and diffraction mechanisms. A new technique is proposed for predicting the probability of fading phenomena occurring in land-satellite links using the so-called stochastic multiparametric model. Results of theoretical predictions are compared with those obtained from the "pure statistical" Lutz model and physical-statistical Saunders-Evans model, and then with experimental data obtained for different European cities. Obtained results show that the proposed stochastic approach can be used as a good predictor of fading phenomena in land-satellite communication links for different satellite constellation scenarios and elevations of satellites during their movement surrounding the Earth, with respect to the ground-based antenna for different land environments: rural, mixed residential, suburban, and urban.

  2. Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical

  3. Population structure and circulating genotypes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in São Paulo state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Maria Conceição; Saraiva Giampaglia, Carmen M.; Oliveira, Rosângela S.; Simonsen, Vera; Latrilha, Fábio Oliveira; Moniz, Letícia Lisboa; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine

    2013-01-01

    São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state and reports the largest number of tuberculosis cases in the country annually (over 18,500). This study included 193 isolates obtained during the 2nd Nationwide Survey on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance that was conducted in São Paulo state and 547 isolates from a laboratory based study of drug resistance that were analyzed by the Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory at the Institute Adolfo Lutz. Both studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and sought to determine the genetic diversity and pattern of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates (MTC) circulating in São Paulo. The patterns obtained from the spoligotyping analysis demonstrated that 51/740 (6.9%) of the isolates corresponded to orphan patterns and that 689 (93.1%) of the isolates distributed into 144 shared types, including 119 that matched a preexisting shared type in the SITVIT2 database and 25 that were new isolates. A total of 77/144 patterns corresponded to unique isolates, while the remaining 67 corresponded to clustered patterns (n = 612 isolates clustered into groups of 2–84 isolates each). The evolutionarily ancient PGG1 lineages (Beijing, CAS1-DEL, EAI3-IND, and PINI2) were rarely detected in São Paulo and comprised only 13/740, or 1.76%, of the total isolates; all of the remaining 727/740, or 98.24%, of the MTC isolates from São Paulo state were from the recent PGG2/3 evolutionary isolates belonging to the LAM, T, S, X, and Haarlem lineages, i.e., the Euro-American group. This study provides the first overview of circulating genotypes of M. tuberculosis in São Paulo state and demonstrates that the clustered shared types containing seven or more M. tuberculosis isolates that are spread in São Paulo state included both resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:23201043

  4. From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, G

    2000-01-01

    The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work.

  5. Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back.

    PubMed

    Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Provensi, Gustavo; Ricca, Valdo; Lutz, Thomas; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2016-12-01

    The central nervous system and viscera constitute a functional ensemble, the gut-brain axis, that allows bidirectional information flow that contributes to the control of feeding behavior based not only on the homeostatic, but also on the hedonic aspects of food intake. The prevalence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, binge eating and obesity, poses an enormous clinical burden, and involves an ever-growing percentage of the population worldwide. Clinical and preclinical research is constantly adding new information to the field and orienting further studies with the aim of providing a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches to pathological conditions. A recent symposium at the XVI Congress of the Societá Italiana di Neuroscienze (SINS, 2015) 'Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back' brought together basic scientists and clinicians with the objective of presenting novel perspectives in the neurobiology of eating disorders. Clinical studies presented by V. Ricca illustrated some genetic aspects of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Preclinical studies addressed different issues ranging from the description of animal models that mimic human pathologies such as anorexia nervosa, diet-induced obesity, and binge eating disorders (T. Lutz), to novel interactions between peripheral signals and central circuits that govern food intake, mood and stress (A. Romano and G. Provensi). The gut-brain axis has received increasing attention in the recent years as preclinical studies are demonstrating that the brain and visceral organs such as the liver and guts, but also the microbiota are constantly engaged in processes of reciprocal communication, with unexpected physiological and pathological implications. Eating is controlled by a plethora of factors; genetic predisposition, early life adverse conditions, peripheral gastrointestinal hormones that act directly or indirectly on the central nervous system, all are

  6. A comparison between the bottom-track data of an ADCP and Laserscanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2015-04-01

    Simon Lutz Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Peter Rutschmann Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany A standard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is constructed, as the name suggests, to gain data about the flow velocity and discharge of e.g. a river. The device is in fact similar to a sonar and uses the Doppler effect to detect the velocity of particles in the water column below the transducers. Beside that standard function it also can track the bottom of a river or sea. The pulses are scattered by the bottom and the shift in the detected velocities between bottom and bulk phase can be used to identify the surface. However this data set depends on the quality of the signal and can be influenced inter alia when the river-bed is moving. Under in situ conditions it is almost not possible to evaluate the quality of this bottom track data. On the other hand e.g. a minimum water depth is needed to get proper results with the ADCP which causes problems in a lab flume. Therefore a reservoir was used for the comparison measurement which could be drained and set nearby dry so the scanning with a RIEGL terrestrial laser scanner became feasible. Within the reservoir due to sedimentation of silt and fine sand fractions a nature-like bottom structure has developed including a talweg, steeper and more shallow areas. This is a perfect structure for the comparison of the results of these two measurement devices. With the Laser-scanning data a 3D model is generated. The bottom track cross sections of the ADCP can be implemented in this model and compared.

  7. Training Emotion Cultivates Morality: How Loving-Kindness Meditation Hones Compassion and Increases Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bankard, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Traditional moral philosophy has long focused on rationality, principled thinking, and good old-fashioned willpower, but recent evidence strongly suggests that moral judgments and prosocial behavior are more heavily influenced by emotion and intuition. As the evidence mounts, rational traditions emphasizing deliberative analysis and conscious decision making are called into question. The first section highlights some compelling evidence supporting the primacy of affective states in motivating moral judgments and behavior. The real challenge is finding a way to align intuition with desired behavior. In cool reflective states, one may desire to be a kind and loving person. But when it is time to act, the moment is often accompanied by strong affect-laden intuitions. I argue that if affective states are the primary motivators of behavior, then moral sentiments must be trained through habituation in order to increase prosocial behavior. The second section provides empirical evidence linking emotional training with increased prosociality. To highlight this connection, focus is placed on the relationship between habitual meditation training, compassion, and prosocial behavior. Recent studies by Antoine Lutz, Richard Davidson, Susanne Leiberg, and others show that various meditation practices can dramatically affect the human person at various levels, i.e., increased physical health, neural restructuring, regulation and development of emotions, and increased helping behavior, to name a few. The current article focuses on the impact the habit of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has on compassion and prosocial behavior. Recent studies strongly support the conclusion that LKM training hones compassion and ultimately leads to an increase in compassionate behavior.

  8. Distance Scale Zero Points from Galactic RR Lyrae Star Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Feast, Michael W.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Menzies, John W.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Laney, C. D.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Shulyak, D. V.; Taylor, Denise; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-01

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars—five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and κ Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 ± 0.16 mas XZ Cyg, 1.67 ± 0.17 mas SU Dra, 1.42 ± 0.16 mas RR Lyr, 3.77 ± 0.13 mas UV Oct, 1.71 ± 0.10 mas VY Pyx, 6.44 ± 0.23 mas and κ Pav, 5.57 ± 0.28 mas an average σπ/π = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for MV -[Fe/H] and MK -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  10. Population structure and circulating genotypes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Conceição; Giampaglia, Carmen M Saraiva; Oliveira, Rosângela S; Simonsen, Vera; Latrilha, Fábio Oliveira; Moniz, Letícia Lisboa; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine

    2013-03-01

    São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state and reports the largest number of tuberculosis cases in the country annually (over 18,500). This study included 193 isolates obtained during the 2nd Nationwide Survey on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance that was conducted in São Paulo state and 547 isolates from a laboratory based study of drug resistance that were analyzed by the Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory at the Institute Adolfo Lutz. Both studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and sought to determine the genetic diversity and pattern of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates (MTC) circulating in São Paulo. The patterns obtained from the spoligotyping analysis demonstrated that 51/740 (6.9%) of the isolates corresponded to orphan patterns and that 689 (93.1%) of the isolates distributed into 144 shared types, including 119 that matched a preexisting shared type in the SITVIT2 database and 25 that were new isolates. A total of 77/144 patterns corresponded to unique isolates, while the remaining 67 corresponded to clustered patterns (n=612 isolates clustered into groups of 2-84 isolates each). The evolutionarily ancient PGG1 lineages (Beijing, CAS1-DEL, EAI3-IND, and PINI2) were rarely detected in São Paulo and comprised only 13/740, or 1.76%, of the total isolates; all of the remaining 727/740, or 98.24%, of the MTC isolates from São Paulo state were from the recent PGG2/3 evolutionary isolates belonging to the LAM, T, S, X, and Haarlem lineages, i.e., the Euro-American group. This study provides the first overview of circulating genotypes of M. tuberculosis in São Paulo state and demonstrates that the clustered shared types containing seven or more M. tuberculosis isolates that are spread in São Paulo state included both resistant and susceptible isolates.

  11. The Stability Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Engineers operate the controls of the Stability Tunnel: Plans for a new tunnel to study stability problems began in the late thirties. The Stability Tunnel was authorized in 1939 and began operations in June 1941. The installation was completed in December that year with the completion of a new 10,000 Horsepower Diesel-electric generating plant. It was a single return, closed jet tunnel with a 6-foot square test section. The tunnel was disassembled and shipped to Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1958. The tunnel had two separate test sections: one for curved flow, the other for rolling flow. 'The facility...simulates the motion of the aircraft in curved or rolling flight. This is done by actually curving or rolling the airstream as it passes over the model and at the same time providing the proper velocity distribution.' (From AIAA-80-0309) >From Alan Pope, Wind-Tunnel Testing: 'The only tunnel directly designed for dynamic stability work is located at the Langley Field branch of the NACA. Its most vital feature is its ability to subject the models to curving air streams that simulate those actually encountered when an airplane rolls, pitches, or yaws. the rotating airstream for simulating roll is produced by a motor-driven paddle just ahead of the test section. Curved air of properly varying velocity for simulating pitch and yaw is produced by a combination of a curved test section and velocity screens. The proper use of this apparatus makes possible the determination of the stability derivatives.' Published in F.H. Lutze, 'Experimental Determination of Pure Rotary Stability Derivatives using a Curved and Rolling Flow Wind Tunnel,' AIAA-80-0309, AIAA 18th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, CA, January 14-16, 1980; Alan Pope, Wind-Tunnel Testing (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1947).

  12. Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: impact of intensive mental training.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink-a deficit in identifying the second of two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close succession. This deficit is thought to result from an overinvestment of limited resources in T1 processing. We previously reported that intensive mental training in a style of meditation aimed at reducing elaborate object processing, reduced brain resource allocation to T1, and improved T2 accuracy [Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J., et al. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PloS Biology, 5, e138, 2007]. Here we report EEG spectral analyses to examine the possibility that this reduction in elaborate T1 processing rendered the system more available to process new target information, as indexed by T2-locked phase variability. Intensive mental training was associated with decreased cross-trial variability in the phase of oscillatory theta activity after successfully detected T2s, in particular, for those individuals who showed the greatest reduction in brain resource allocation to T1. These data implicate theta phase locking in conscious target perception, and suggest that after mental training the cognitive system is more rapidly available to process new target information. Mental training was not associated with changes in the amplitude of T2-induced responses or oscillatory activity before task onset. In combination, these findings illustrate the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind by revealing the neural mechanisms that enable the brain to successfully represent target information.

  13. Evaluation of a novel kit (TF-Test) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Dias, Luiz Cândido S; Araujo, Ana Júlia S A; Castilho, Vera L P; Neves, Fátima A M A

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are currently a source of concern for Public Health agencies in developing and developed countries. Since three ovum-and-parasite stool examinations have been demonstrated to provide sensitive results, we designed a practical and economical kit (TF-Test) that is now commercially available (Immunoassay Com. Ind. Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil). This kit allows the separate collection of three fecal specimens into a preservative solution. The specimens are then pooled, double-filtered, and concentrated by a single rapid centrifugation process. The TF-Test was evaluated in four different laboratories in a study using 1,102 outpatients and individuals living in an endemic area for enteroparasitosis. The overall sensitivity found using the TF-Test (86.2-97.8%) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than the sensitivity of conventional techniques such as the Coprotest (NL Comércio Exterior Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil) and the combination of Lutz/Hoffman, Faust, and Rugai techniques (De Carli, Diagnóstico Laboratorial das Parasitoses Humanas. Métodos e Técnicas, 1994), which ranged from 48.3% to 75.9%. When the above combined three specimen technique was repeated with three specimens collected on different days, its sensitivity became similar (P>0.01) to that of the TF-Test. The kappa index values of agreement for the TF-Test were consistent (P<0.01), being higher and ranking in a better position than conventional techniques. The high sensitivity, cost/benefit ratio, and practical aspects demonstrate that the TF-Test is suitable for individual diagnosis, epidemiological inquiries, or evaluation of chemotherapy in treated communities.

  14. Predictive-like distribution mapping using Google Earth: reassessment of the distribution of the bromeligenous frog, Scinax v-signatus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Helio Ricardo; Alves-Silva, Ricardo

    2013-01-29

    The hylid frog Scinax perpusillus species group comprises 13 species that share, in addition to a few morphological features, reproduction that occurs exclusively associated with bromeliads. Among the species in the group, Scinax v-signatus (Lutz, 1968) is one of the few with a relatively large geographic distribution, occurring in association with bromeliads growing on granitic outcrops above 800 m along the Serra dos Órgãos (a local designation of Serra do Mar) in the Atlantic forest, State of Rio de Janeiro. Here we demonstrate that previous assessment of the distribution of this species was overestimated, and reevaluate the available data on its occurrence. The distributional data analyzed was based on three levels of evidence. First, we assessed the distribution of the bromeliad, Alcantarea imperialis (Carrière) Harms, which is used by S. v-signatus at the type locality. We plotted potential occurrence data for this plant using Google Earth (GE) by visually inspecting GE images in search of indications of granitic outcrops where groups and large individual bromeliads could be identified. Second, we plotted the distribution of these plants and that of the frog based on locality data taken from the literature and voucher specimens in natural history collections and checked for congruence between these sets of data. Third, as a second test of accuracy of this methodology we visited four new localities indicated by the bromeliad-occurrence GE prediction map and searched for the occurrence of both the frog and the bromeliad. This simple process has proven efficient and accurate in finding new collecting sites and determining the distribution of the two involved taxa. We discuss this and other possibilities of using Google Earth as a tool for mapping and discovering the distribution of organisms and habitats. Furthermore, this study has shed light on a more accurate and realistic estimate of the distribution of Scinax v-signatus with implications for the

  15. MDI and GOLF simulation and intercomparison via the Mt. Wilson 150-foot tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Scott Edward

    A 24 channel analyzer (Evans and Ulrich, 1995) was designed and built for the Mt. Wilson 150-foot solar tower. This instrument has 4 channels dedicated to the continuance of the existing dataset for the CrII and FeI solar lines. Additionally, the instrument employs 10 channels each for NaD1 and NiI. The latter two lines are those studied by the SOHO instruments GOLF and MDI respectively. Ten-point line profiles are taken for both Ni and NaD1 and analyzed using computer simulations of both the MDI and GOLF instruments. Since the data are taken simultaneously and for a resolved sun, the signal derived from the MDI simulation can be compared on a pixel by pixel basis to the GOLF single wing signal. A correlation is found between MDI Id and GOLF single wing intensity. By removing the Id contribution to the GOLF signal, we hope to achieve a purer velocity signal in GOLF and hence raise the signal to noise ratio. The roll angle of MDI has not been accurately measured due to the failure of SOHO's gyros. At present, a single guide star is being used for spacecraft pointing and the error in roll angle is unkown. Previously (Ulrich and Henney, 1994) the MDI roll angle was estimated by comparing magnetograms from MDI and Mt. Wilson. Observations derived from the new multichannel system at Mt. Wilson can measure the roll angle directly by comparing MDI proxy images to a Mt. Wilson proxy derived from the MDI data. The 38 roll angle measurements spanning selected time frames covering nearly the entire SOHO mission average -.32 degrees. This suggests that a steady, equator-crossing flow of ~-10 m/s would exist due to the error in MDI coordinates. A Southward, equator-crossing flow has been observed (Giles, et al. 1997) whose magnitude is roughly -7 m/s. Thus some or even all of such a flow may be explainable by the MDI roll angle. Sources of error in the Mt. Wilson determination of the MDI roll angle are discussed and found to be relatively small (~3-4 are minutes) when estimated

  16. Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Anne E.

    2005-04-20

    Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees work, leaders have the personal characteristics that engender trust and commitment. In

  17. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J. E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu

    2014-12-20

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  18. Testing the validity of conflict drift-diffusion models for use in estimating cognitive processes: A parameter-recovery study.

    PubMed

    White, Corey N; Servant, Mathieu; Logan, Gordon D

    2017-03-29

    Researchers and clinicians are interested in estimating individual differences in the ability to process conflicting information. Conflict processing is typically assessed by comparing behavioral measures like RTs or error rates from conflict tasks. However, these measures are hard to interpret because they can be influenced by additional processes like response caution or bias. This limitation can be circumvented by employing cognitive models to decompose behavioral data into components of underlying decision processes, providing better specificity for investigating individual differences. A new class of drift-diffusion models has been developed for conflict tasks, presenting a potential tool to improve analysis of individual differences in conflict processing. However, measures from these models have not been validated for use in experiments with limited data collection. The present study assessed the validity of these models with a parameter-recovery study to determine whether and under what circumstances the models provide valid measures of cognitive processing. Three models were tested: the dual-stage two-phase model (Hübner, Steinhauser, & Lehle, Psychological Review, 117(3), 759-784, 2010), the shrinking spotlight model (White, Ratcliff, & Starns, Cognitive Psychology, 63(4), 210-238, 2011), and the diffusion model for conflict tasks (Ulrich, Schröter, Leuthold, & Birngruber, Cogntive Psychology, 78, 148-174, 2015). The validity of the model parameters was assessed using different methods of fitting the data and different numbers of trials. The results show that each model has limitations in recovering valid parameters, but they can be mitigated by adding constraints to the model. Practical recommendations are provided for when and how each model can be used to analyze data and provide measures of processing in conflict tasks.

  19. Abundance Determinations for Nova V1974 Cygni 1992 Using the Metropolis Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Scott J.; Starrfield, Sumner; Wagner, R. Mark; Bertram, Ray; Shore, Steven N.; Sonneborn, George

    1994-05-01

    Nova Cygni 1992 was the brightest nova, Vmax ~4.4, to appear since Nova V1500 Cygni 1975. It is one of the three well studied slow ``neon'' novae, the others being QU Vul, and Nova Pup 1991. We have spectroscopically monitored Nova Cygni 1992 in both the optical (using the OSU CCD spectrograph on the Perkins 1.8-m telescope at Lowell Observatory) and in the UV with IUE. We have done extensive photoionization modeling of the emission line fluxes for epochs 300, 400, and 500 days after maximum. We determined from line diagnostics that the electron density during this time was above the critical densities for many of the observed transitions. Since collisional de-excitations were important, detailed modeling was necessary to determine the physical conditions and elemental abundances of the ejected material. In order to determine both the sensitivity of the abundances to the various model parameters and the uniqueness of our solutions, we mapped the relevant parameter space (Bahcall & Ulrich 1988, Rev Mod Phys, 60, 297) with the photoionization code CLOUDY 84.06 (Ferland 1993) using the Metropolis algorithm (Metropolis et al. 1953, J Chem Phys, vol. 21). The results have allow us to determine the accuracy of the abundances. Our line profiles show that the ejected material has a non-spherical but axially symmetric configuration. We, therefore, included the filling and covering factors among the parameters in our study and also allowed the density to vary as a function of the radius. Our results demonstrate that the abundances cannot be constrained any better than factors of two but do show that helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon are enhanced above solar. Neon and oxygen in particular are shown to be enhanced to the point where an underlying ONeMg white dwarf must be the progenitor.

  20. Star Formation in NGC 6531-Evidence From the age Spread and Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Douglas

    1996-09-01

    The results of a photometric UBV study of the young open cluster NGC 6531 are presented. The cluster is found to have a mean reddening E(B-V)=0.28±0.04 (s.d.) and distance modulus (V0-Mv)=10.70±0.13 (s.e.), and 105±11 likely cluster members have been identified within the cluster coronal radius of 9 arcmin. A comparison of the high-luminosity end of the cluster color-magnitude diagram to the evolutionary models by Maeder & Meynet [A&AS, 76, 411(1988)] suggests a nuclear age of (8±2) Myr. The very clear gap in the distribution of stars with 0≤(B-V)0≤0.20, corresponding to the "burn-off" of 3He in stars contracting to the main sequence [Ulrich, ApJ, 168, 57 (1971)], implies a contraction age of (8±3) Myr. There would seem to be no evidence of a spread in the ages of cluster stars, as has been observed in several other young open clusters [Herbst & Miller, AJ, 87, 1478 (1982)]. The initial mass function (IMF) constructed from the cluster luminosity function and the mass-luminosity relation given by Scab (1986) shows good agreement with the field star IMF, and with the IMFS of a number of clusters of similar age and richness. The relative deficiency of low-mass stars seen by Herbst and Miller in NGC 3293 (a cluster of quite similar age and reddening) is not evident in NGC 6531.

  1. Notes on the cultural significance of the sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchting, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    ‘Cultural’ in the title is intended to allude to the bearing of the sciences on humanity's general orientation in the world. Questions about this are distinguished from ones about the sciences' instrumental aspect, as means to ends extrinsic to them qua sciences, and also from ones about their intrinsic character, except to the extent that these bear on the central topic of the paper. It is argued that the sciences, ethical/moral reflection and the arts are distinct but inseparable. The sciences may be regarded as ‘first among equals’ substantively, insofar they are a privileged source of a certain specially important sort of factual knowledge, and, methodologically, insofar as they provide a particularly clear model for understanding a purely naturalistic approach to the world. ...Ulrich...loved mathematics because of the people who could not endure it. He was not so much scientifically as humanly in love with science...many people for whom mathematics or natural science is a job feel it is almost an outrage if someone goes in for science for reasons like [his]. ...[He]...hated...all those who give up half-way, the faint-hearted, the soft, those who comfort their souls with flummery about the soul and who feed it, because the intellect allegedly gives it stones instead of bread, on religious, philosophical and fictitious emotions, which are like buns soaked in milk. ...soul is...easily defined negatively: it is simply what curls up and hides when there is any mention of an algebraic series. Robert Musil, The Man Without Qualities, Bk. I, Chs. 11, 13, 25.

  2. Monitoring and modelling snow avalanches in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humlum, O.; Christiansen, H.; Neumann, U.; Eckerstorfer, M.; Sjöblom, A.; Stalsberg, K.; Rubensdotter, L.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring and modelling snow avalanches in Svalbard Ole Humlum 1,3, Hanne H. Christiansen 1, Ulrich Neumann 1, Markus Eckerstorfer 1, Anna Sjöblom 1, Knut Stalsberg 2 and Lena Rubensdotter 2. 1: The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS). 2: Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) 3: University of Oslo Ground based transportation in Svalbard landscape all takes place across mountainous terrain affected by different geomorphological slope processes. Traffic in and around the Svalbard settlements is increasing, and at the same time global climate models project substantial increases in temperature and precipitation in northern high latitudes for coming century. Therefore improved knowledge on the effect of climatic changes on slope processes in such high arctic landscapes is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by this, the CRYOSLOPE Svalbard research project since 2007 has carried out field observations on snow avalanche frequency and associated meteorological conditions. Snow avalanches are important geomorphic agents of erosion and deposition, and have long been a source of natural disasters in many mid-latitude mountain areas. Avalanches as a natural hazard has thereby been familiar to inhabitants of the Alps and Scandinavia for centuries, while it is a more recent experience in high arctic Svalbard. In addition, overall climate, topography and especially high winter wind speeds makes it difficult to apply snow avalanche models (numerical or empirical) developed for use at lower latitudes, e.g. in central Europe. In the presentation we examplify results from the ongoing (since winter 2006-07) monitoring of snow avalanches in Svalbard along a 70 km long observational route in the mountains. In addition, we present observations on the geomorphological impact of avalanches, with special reference to the formation of rock glaciers. Finally, we also present some initial results from numerical attempts of snow avalanche risk modelling within the study area.

  3. The effects of particle-size distribution and chloride depletion of sea-salt aerosols on estimating atmospheric deposition at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkel, M. J. Ten

    Estimating atmospheric deposition in a coastal region cannot be done without taking care of the size distribution and amount of chloride depletion of sea-salt aerosols. Size distribution of the dry deposition particles is important when the approach of Ulrich (1983, Effects of Accumulation of Air Pollutants in Forest Ecosystems, pp. 33-45. Reidel, Dordrecht) is used to estimate total atmospheric deposition levels in a coastal area. A sodium deposition model demonstrated that the presumption of an equal size of sodium aerosols and chloride, potassium, magnesium and calcium aerosols is not valid in the coastal zone. Modelled aerosol diameter distribution showed that more than 50% of the aerosols deposited in this zone is larger than 20 μm. Besides an anthropogenic source, the reaction of nitric or sulphuric acid with sea-salt aerosols, by which HCl (g) is formed, can be a second source of an excess of chloride in throughflow compared to sodium. The newly formed HCl can deposit as dry deposition on a vegetation, and not as dry bulk deposition. Chloride loss in the bulk deposition at the coastal sites was up to 35% in summertime. Chloride depletion also affects the calculation of potential acid deposition (PAD) in the coastal zone. Part of the NO 3- and excess SO 42- deposition should not be taken into account when calculating the PAD, because it is neutralized by the sea-salt. This effect decreases very soon with increasing distance to the sea. Implementing chloride depletion in calculating yearly PAD at 500 m from the coastline decreased the PAD with 26%. At 2000 m this decrease was 14%. However, in some cases PAD values on a fortnightly base were observed to decrease more than 50% after implementing chloride depletion.

  4. Calculation of stellar structure. IV. Results using a detailed energy generation subroutine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, C. A.

    1995-12-01

    The results from two solar model calculations using the "energy.for" energy generation and neutrino flux code (Bahcall & Pinsonneault 1992) are presented. The models of the present Sun were generated using the program described in the first three papers of this series and using only the helium abundance profile from the Bahcall & Ulrich (1988) (BU) standard model in the present model structure calculations. One model is a simulation of the BU model and yields a ^37^Cl solar neutrino counting rate of 7.0SNU (compared to 7.9SNU for the BU model) and a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 112 and 137SNU (compared to 132SNU for the BU model). The second model has a postulated small high-Z core (Rouse 1983) and yields a ^37^Cl neutrino experiment counting rate of 2.45SNU that is within one sigma of the Homestake Collaboration observed rate of (2.55+/-0.25)SNU (see Parke 1995). It yields a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 89 and 103SNU that is within one sigma of the GALLEX Collaboration neutrino experiment observed rate of (79+/-12)SNU (see Parke 1995). The theoretical ^8^B solar neutrino flux and the observed Kamiokande ^8^B flux (Hirata et al. 1989) are discussed regarding the puzzle of explaining both the chlorine experiment results and the Kamiokande results. The modification of the energy.for code for use in the current Rouse program is described. Consistency of a high-Z core solar model with theories of star formation from pre-stellar nuclei (Krat 1952; Urey 1956; Huang 1957) is suggested.

  5. Mitochondrial complex I-linked disease.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most frequently encountered single mitochondrial single enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial disorder. Although specific genotype-phenotype correlations are very difficult to identify, the majority of patients present with symptoms caused by leukodystrophy. The poor genotype-phenotype correlations can make establishing a diagnosis a challenge. The classical way to establish a complex I deficiency in patients is by performing spectrophotometric measurements of the enzyme in a muscle biopsy or other patient-derived material (liver or heart biopsy, cultured skin fibroblasts). Complex I is encoded by both the mtDNA and nuclear DNA and pathogenic mutations have been identified in the majority of the 44 genes encoding the structural subunits of complex I. In recent years, the increasing possibilities for diagnostic molecular genetic tests of large gene panels, exomes, and even entire genomes has led to the identification of many novel genetic defects causing complex I deficiency. Complex I mutations not only result in a reduced enzyme activity but also induce secondary effects at the cellular level, such as elevated reactive oxygen species production, altered membrane potential and mitochondrial morphology. At this moment there is no cure for complex I deficiency and the treatment options for complex I patients are restricted to symptomatic treatment. Recent developments, amongst others based on the treatment of the secondary effects of complex I deficiency, have shown to be promising as new therapeutic strategies in vitro and have entered clinical trials. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  6. Ischemic A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I and its role in ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Stepanova, Anna; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism and provides approximately 40% of the proton-motive force that is utilized during mitochondrial ATP production. The dysregulation of complex I function--either genetically, pharmacologically, or metabolically induced--has severe pathophysiological consequences that often involve an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Slow transition of the active (A) enzyme to the deactive, dormant (D) form takes place during ischemia in metabolically active organs such as the heart and brain. The reactivation of complex I occurs upon reoxygenation of ischemic tissue, a process that is usually accompanied by an increase in cellular ROS production. Complex I in the D-form serves as a protective mechanism preventing the oxidative burst upon reperfusion. Conversely, however, the D-form is more vulnerable to oxidative/nitrosative damage. Understanding the so-called active/deactive (A/D) transition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic interventions for conditions like stroke, cardiac infarction, and other ischemia-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the mechanism of A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I considering recently available structural data and site-specific labeling experiments. In addition, this review discusses in detail the impact of the A/D transition on ROS production by complex I and the S-nitrosation of a critical cysteine residue of subunit ND3 as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage and tissue damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  7. The origin of the supernumerary subunits and assembly factors of complex I: A treasure trove of pathway evolution.

    PubMed

    Elurbe, Dei M; Huynen, Martijn A

    2016-07-01

    We review and document the evolutionary origin of all complex I assembly factors and nine supernumerary subunits from protein families. Based on experimental data and the conservation of critical residues we identify a spectrum of protein function conservation between the complex I representatives and their non-complex I homologs. This spectrum ranges from proteins that have retained their molecular function but in which the substrate specificity may have changed or have become more specific, like NDUFAF5, to proteins that have lost their original molecular function and critical catalytic residues like NDUFAF6. In between are proteins that have retained their molecular function, which however appears unrelated to complex I, like ACAD9, or proteins in which amino acids of the active site are conserved but for which no enzymatic activity has been reported, like NDUFA10. We interpret complex I evolution against the background of molecular evolution theory. Complex I supernumerary subunits and assembly factors appear to have been recruited from proteins that are mitochondrial and/or that are expressed when complex I is active. Within the evolution of complex I and its assembly there are many cases of neofunctionalization after gene duplication, like ACAD9 and TMEM126B, one case of subfunctionalization: ACPM1 and ACPM2 in Yarrowia lipolytica, and one case in which a complex I protein itself appears to have been the source of a new protein from another complex: NDUFS6 gave rise to cytochrome c oxidase subunit COX4/COX5b. Complex I and its assembly can therewith be regarded as a treasure trove for pathway evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  8. An analysis of toxicology and medical journal conflict-of-interest polices.

    PubMed

    Krimsky, Sheldon; Sweet, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Basic science and medical journals are increasingly requiring authors to disclose financial interests they have in the subject matter of contributed articles and letters. A comparison of journal conflict-of-interest (COI) policies can provide insight into published reports of low compliance rates and inconsistencies in disclosures by the same author found in different journals. The objective of this article is to compare the criteria, specificity, and scope of COI polices in toxicology and medical journals. We studied the COI policies of 47 toxicology and 180 medical journals catalogued in Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory for criteria of competing interests, types of submissions covered, monetary or time thresholds for reporting, and penalties for violations. Indicators were constructed for rating policy specificity, author discretion, and policy scope. Written COI policies were found in 87% if the toxicology and 84% of the medical journals; 15% and 28% of the toxicology and medical journals, respectively, were explicit about the type of content covered by the policy; 20% and 29%, respectively, included a monetary threshold for reporting purposes; the level of author discretion for reporting COIs was found to be high in 46% of the toxicology and 41% of the medical journals respectively. The level of specificity for more than 75% of the written journal COI policies for both fields was minimal or practically nil, and the scope of more than 80% of the policies was minimal to narrow. Lack of specificity, high author discretion, and restricted scope were found to be prevalent among COI policies of toxicology and medical journals.

  9. Building a leadership brand.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  10. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health.

  11. [Veterinary double-monsters historically viewed].

    PubMed

    Baljet, B; Heijke, G C

    1997-01-01

    A large number of duplication monstrosities have been observed in cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, goats, cats and dogs, ever since the publication of the famous woodcut of a swine double monster by J. S. Brant in Basel in 1496, better known as the "wunderbare Sau von Landser im Elsass". Albrecht Dürer also made a woodcut of this double monster in front of the village Landser in 1496. A picture of a deer double monster was published in 1603 by Heinrich Ulrich in Germany. In the monograph De monstrorum causis, natura et differentiis ..., published by the Italian Fortunius Licetus in 1616 pictures of double monsters being half man half dog are found. These fantasy figures have been popular for a long time and were supposed to be really in existence. Apart from these fantasy figures many pictures are known from real veterinary double monsters. U. Aldrovandus described in 1642 in his Monstrorum historia, besides many fantasy figures, also real human and veterinary double monsters and he gave also good pictures of them. In the 19th century examples of veterinary duplication monstrosities were published by I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1832-37), E. F. Gurlt (1832), W. Vrolik (1840) and C. Taruffi (1881); they proposed also concepts concerning the etiology. In the second volume of his famous handbook of teratology (1907), E. Schwalbe described many veterinary double monsters and discussed the theories of the genesis of congenital malformations. Various theories concerning the genesis of double monsters have been given since Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). ...

  12. Calculating Formulas of Coefficient and Mean Neutron Exposure in the Exponential Expression of Neutron Exposure Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. H.; Zhou, G. D.; Ma, K.; Ma, W. J.; Cui, W. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2015-11-01

    Present studies have shown that, in the main stages of the development and evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star s-process models, the distributions of neutron exposures in the nucleosynthesis regions can all be expressed by an exponential function ({ρ_{AGB}}(τ) = C/{τ_0}exp ( - τ/{τ_0})) in the effective range of values. However, the specific expressions of the proportional coefficient C and the mean neutron exposure ({τ_0}) in the formula for different models are not completely determined in the related literatures. Through dissecting the basic solving method of the exponential distribution of neutron exposures, and systematically combing the solution procedure of exposure distribution for different stellar models, the general calculating formulas as well as their auxiliary equations for calculating C and ({τ_0}) are reduced. Given the discrete distribution of neutron exposures ({P_k}), i.e. the mass ratio of the materials which have exposed to neutrons for (k) ((k = 0, 1, 2 \\cdots )) times when reaching the final distribution with respect to the materials of the He intershell, (C = - {P_1}/ln R), and ({τ_0} = - Δ τ /ln R) can be obtained. Here, (R) expresses the probability that the materials can successively experience neutron irradiation for two times in the He intershell. For the convective nucleosynthesis model (including the Ulrich model and the ({}^{13}{C})-pocket convective burning model), (R) is just the overlap factor r, namely the mass ratio of the materials which can undergo two successive thermal pulses in the He intershell. And for the (^{13}{C})-pocket radiative burning model, (R = sumlimits_{k = 1}^∞ {{P_k}} ). This set of formulas practically give the corresponding relationship between C or ({τ_0}) and the model parameters. The results of this study effectively solve the problem of analytically calculating the distribution of neutron exposures in the low-mass AGB star s-process nucleosynthesis model of (^{13}{C

  13. Special Section on Synchronization in Nonlinear Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeguchi, Tohru; Tokuda, Isao

    Synchronization is a ubiquitous phenomenon of coupled nonlinear oscillators, commonly found in physics, engineering, biology, and other diverse disciplines. It has a long research history back to Christiaan Huygens, who discovered synchronized motion of two pendulum clocks in 1673. It is very easy to observe synchronization in our daily life: e.g., metronomes, candle fires, pet-bottle oscillators, saltwater oscillators, and so on(See, for example, experimental movies at http://www.youtube.com/user/IkeguchiLab?feature=watch). For the last few decades, significant development has been made from both theories and experiments on synchronization of coupled limit cycle oscillators as well as coupled chaotic oscillators. Applications have been also developed to communication technologies, controlling techniques, and data analysis. Combined with the idea from complex network theory, neuroscience, and systems biology, the research speed of synchronization has been even accelerated. This Special Section of NOLTA is primarily dedicated to the recent advanced development of basics and applications of synchronization in science and engineering. A number of qualified works is included, ranging from experimental study on synchronization of Huygens' system, analog circuits, and singing voice to applied study of synchronization in communication networks. One invited paper is devoted to comprehensive reviews on generalized synchronization of chaotic oscillators. On behalf of the editorial committee of the special section, the guest editors would like to express their sincere thanks to all the authors for their excellent contributions. In particular, they are grateful to Prof. Dr. Ulrich Parlitz for contributing his distinguished review article. They would also like to thank the reviewers and the members of the guest editorial committee, especially Prof. Hiroo Sekiya of Chiba University and the editorial staffs of the NOLTA journal, for their supports on publishing this Special

  14. ACTIVE-REGION TILT ANGLES: MAGNETIC VERSUS WHITE-LIGHT DETERMINATIONS OF JOY'S LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Baranyi, T.; Li, J. E-mail: robin.colaninno@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu

    2015-01-01

    The axes of solar active regions are inclined relative to the east-west direction, with the tilt angle tending to increase with latitude ({sup J}oy's law{sup )}. Observational determinations of Joy's law have been based either on white-light images of sunspot groups or on magnetograms, where the latter have the advantage of measuring directly the physically relevant quantity (the photospheric field), but the disadvantage of having been recorded routinely only since the mid-1960s. White-light studies employing the historical Mount Wilson (MW) database have yielded tilt angles that are smaller and that increase less steeply with latitude than those obtained from magnetic data. We confirm this effect by comparing sunspot-group tilt angles from the Debrecen Photoheliographic Database with measurements made by Li and Ulrich using MW magnetograms taken during cycles 21-23. Whether white-light or magnetic data are employed, the median tilt angles significantly exceed the mean values, and provide a better characterization of the observed distributions. The discrepancy between the white-light and magnetic results is found to have two main sources. First, a substantial fraction of the white-light ''tilt angles'' refer to sunspots of the same polarity. Of greater physical significance is that the magnetograph measurements include the contribution of plage areas, which are invisible in white-light images but tend to have greater axial inclinations than the adjacent sunspots. Given the large uncertainties inherent in both the white-light and the magnetic measurements, it remains unclear whether any systematic relationship exists between tilt angle and cycle amplitude during cycles 16-23.

  15. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  16. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    procedures. One man who was well aware of the role of nanostructured catalysts in the progress of material science research was the late Ulrich Gösele, director at the Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik Halle, who passed away at the age of 60 on 8 November, 2009. Ulrich Gösele published over 750 papers of premium calibre research that have collectively been cited over 20,000 times. His research output includes a cornucopia of excellent work published in Nanotechnology, amongst which are a number of papers detailing the deft manipulation of nanocatalysts to control the quality and structure of nanomaterials [5-8]. Ulrich Gösele was a pioneer in nanoscience. In 1991, when the nanotechnology revolution was little more than a portentous rumble, he published a seminal report examining the effect of quantum confinement on the optical properties of silicon nanowires [9]. While we lament the loss to the community, we have much to celebrate in the insights his legacy has provided for the progress of materials science. It would be unwise to assume that science will or can ultimately advance in such a way as to allow ample means to indulge an unrestrained appetite for consumerism and energy consumption. As with most things, a balanced approach, considering solutions to the problem from many angles, seems sensible. Nonetheless, a browse through the latest literature leaves much cause for optimism for the positive role science can play in improving and sustaining our lifestyle. References [1] Mukherjee P, Roy M, Mandal B P, Dey G K, Mukherjee P K, Ghatak J, Tyagi A K and Kale S P 2008 Nanotechnology 19 075103 [2] Greenham N C and Grätzel M 2008 Nanotechnology 19 420201 [3] Vajo J, Pinkerton F and Stetson N 2009 Nanotechnology 20 200201 [4] Zhong C-J, Luo J, Fang B, Wanjala B N, Njoki P N, Loukrakpam R and Yin J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 062001 [5] Sivakov V A, Scholz A, Syrowatka F, Falk F, Gösele U and Christiansen S H 2009 Nanotechnology 20 405607 [6] Liu L, Lee W, Huang Z

  17. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  18. TU-C-BRE-02: A Novel, Highly Efficient and Automated Quality Assurance Tool for Modern Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Goddu, S; Sun, B; Yaddanapudi, S; Kamal, G; Mutic, S; Baltes, C; Rose, S; Stinson, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. Varian’s Machine Performance Check (MPC) uses IsoCal phantom to test geometric and dosimetric aspects of the TrueBeam systems in <5min. In this study we independently tested the accuracy and robustness of the MPC tools. Methods: MPC is automated for simultaneous image-acquisition, using kV-and-MV onboard-imagers (EPIDs), while delivering kV-and-MV beams in a set routine of varying gantry, collimator and couch angles. MPC software-tools analyze the images to test: i) beam-output and uniformity, ii) positional accuracy of isocenter, EPIDs, collimating jaws (CJs), MLC leaves and couch and iii) rotational accuracy of gantry, collimator and couch. 6MV-beam dose-output and uniformity were tested using ionization-chamber (IC) and ICarray. Winston-Lutz-Tests (WLT) were performed to measure isocenter-offsets caused by gantry, collimator and couch rotations. Positional accuracy of EPIDs was evaluated using radio-opaque markers of the IsoCal phantom. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the MPC tools we purposefully miscalibrated a non-clinical TrueBeam by introducing errors in beam-output, energy, symmetry, gantry angle, couch translations, CJs and MLC leaves positions. Results: 6MV-output and uniformity were within ±0.6% for most measurements with a maximum deviation of ±1.0%. Average isocenter-offset caused by gantry and collimator rotations was 0.316±0.011mm agreeing with IsoLock (0.274mm) and WLT (0.41mm). Average rotation-induced couch-shift from MPC was 0.378±0.032mm agreeing with WLT (0.35mm). MV-and-kV imager-offsets measured by MPC were within ±0.15mm. MPC predicted all machine miscalibrations within acceptable clinical tolerance. MPC detected the output miscalibrations within ±0.61% while the MLC and couch positions were within ±0.06mm and ±0.14mm, respectively. Gantry angle miscalibrations were detected within ±0.1°. Conclusions: MPC is a useful tool

  19. Evaluation of IsoCal geometric calibration system for Varian linacs equipped with on-board imager and electronic portal imaging device imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Du, Weiliang; Balter, Peter; Munro, Peter; Jeung, Andrew

    2014-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the IsoCal geometric calibration system for kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imagers on Varian C-series linear accelerators (linacs). IsoCal calibration starts by imaging a phantom and collimator plate using MV images with different collimator angles, as well as MV and kV images at different gantry angles. The software then identifies objects on the collimator plate and in the phantom to determine the location of the treatment isocenter and its relation to the MV and kV imager centers. It calculates offsets between the positions of the imaging panels and the treatment isocenter as a function of gantry angle and writes a correction file that can be applied to MV and kV systems to correct for those offsets in the position of the panels. We performed IsoCal calibration three times on each of five Varian C-series linacs, each time with an independent setup. We then compared the IsoCal calibrations with a simplified Winston-Lutz (WL)-based system and with a Varian cubic phantom (VC)-based system. The maximum IsoCal corrections ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm for MV and 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm for kV imagers across the five linacs. The variations in the three calibrations for each linac were less than 0.2 mm. Without IsoCal correction, the WL results showed discrepancies between the treatment isocenter and the imager center of 0.9 mm to 1.6 mm (for the MV imager) and 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm (for the kV imager); with IsoCal corrections applied, the differences were reduced to 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm (MV) and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm (kV) across the five linacs. The VC system was not as precise as the WL system, but showed similar results, with discrepancies of less than 1.0 mm when the IsoCal corrections were applied. We conclude that IsoCal is an accurate and consistent method for calibration and periodic quality assurance of MV and kV imaging systems.

  20. Mold remediation in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tang G

    2009-01-01

    As occupants in a hospital, patients are susceptible to air contaminants that can include biological agents dispersed throughout the premise. An exposed patient can become ill and require medical intervention. A consideration for patients is that they may have become environmentally sensitive and require placement in an environment that does not compromise their health. Unfortunately, the hospital environment often contains more biological substances than can be expected in an office or home environment. When a hospital also experiences water intrusion such as flooding or water leaks, resulting mold growth can seriously compromise the health of patients and others such as nursing staff and physicians (Burge, Indoor Air and Infectious Disease. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 1980; Lutz et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases 37: 786-793, 2003). Micro-organism growth can propagate if the water is not addressed quickly and effectively. Immunocompromised patients are particularly at risk when subjected to fungal infection such that the US Center for Disease Control issued guideline for building mold in health care facilities (Centers for Disease and Control [CDC], Centers for Disease and Control: Questions and Answers on Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds, 2000). This paper is based on mold remediation of one portion of a hospital unit due to water from construction activity and inadequate maintenance, resulting in mold growth. A large proportion of the hospital staff, primarily nurses in the dialysis unit, exhibited health symptoms consistent with mold exposure. Unfortunately, the hospital administrators did not consider the mold risk to be serious and refused an independent consultant retained by the nurse's union to examine the premise (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC], Nurses file complaints over mold at Foothills. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2003). The nurse's union managed to have the premise examined by submitting a court order of

  1. SU-E-T-74: Commissioning of the Elekta VersaHD Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Ding, K; Hobbs, R; McNutt, T; Wang, K; Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To present the commissioning process of recently-released Elekta VersaHD linear accelerator, equipped with Agility 160-leaf multileaf collimator and flattening-filter free (FFF) photon modes. Methods: In addition to routine QA procedures, we adopted an EPID-based method to perform the table rotation and Winston-Lutz tests, and a novel multiradiation isocenter alignment check. The beam data acquired include photon percent-depth dose (PDD) of 6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, and 15X in the field size from 2×2 to 40×40cm{sup 2}, profiles, collimator and phantom scatter factors (Sc and Sp), wedge factor, electron (6, 9, 12, and 15MeV) PDD and profiles, cone and cutout factors, and virtual SSD. Validation measurements were carried out in water tank to evaluate the accuracy of beam modeling by the Pinnacle planning system. End-to-End test and IMRT QA were performed to validate the overall delivery accuracy. A theoretical model has also been used to extract the primary dose ratio and off-axis beam softening effects by fitting photon beam profile measurements. Results: The PDDs of FFF beams with field size 10×10cm{sup 2} at 10cm depth, 100cm SSD were intentionally adjusted within 1% of the non-FFF beams. The photon profiles of 30×30cm{sup 2} at 10cm depth between non-FFF and FFF beams are very different, OAR(10)=0.74 and 0.63, respectively, for 6XFFF and 10XFFF. The collimator and phantom scatter factors of FFF beam demonstrated smaller variation with field sizes. The EPID-based method demonstrated the maximum deviation between the table rotation axis and radiation isocenter is within 1mm, and the radiation isocenters are within 0.4mm relative to that of 6X. The validation measurement shows less than 2% deviation between the measurement and Pinnacle modeling for most of the test conditions. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the Elekta VersaHD commissioning experience, which can be a valuable reference for the radiotherapy

  2. Incidence and clinical characteristics of the infection by the respiratory syncytial virus in children admitted in Santa Casa de São Paulo Hospital.

    PubMed

    Pecchini, Rogério; Berezin, Eitan N; Felício, Maria C Calahani; Passos, Saulo D; Souza, Maria Cândido O de; Lima, Lourdes Rehder de Andrade Vaz de; Ueda, Mirthes; Matsumoto, Tokiko Kyomen; Durigon, Edison L

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the rate of infections due to RSV and other viruses in children. In addition we have analyzed demographic data and clinical characteristics of the RSV-positive patients comparing with patients infected by other respiratory viruses. We also described the seasonality of the RSV occurrence in a hospital in São Paulo. Children below 5 years old admitted in Santa Casa de São Paulo Hospital between February 2005 and September 2006 due to acute respiratory infections (ARI) were included. A nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained with sterile No. 5 French feeding catheters as soon as possible (usually within 24 h). Specimens were kept refrigerated at 4 degrees C and transported to Adolfo Lutz Institute, where the indirect immunofluorescent assay was performed. Virus identified by these assay included RSV, Adenovirus, Influenza A and B virus and Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3. Clinical data from each group was compared. Four hundred and fifty five cases were included in the study, with 30% positive for some type of virus. Viruses that were identified included Respiratory Syncytial Virus (73.03%), Influenza (8.42%), Parainfluenza (8.42%) and Adenovirus (3.37%). We divided the subjects in 3 groups: Group 1 RSV-Positive, Group 2 Other Positive Viruses and Group 3 Negative for Respiratory Virus. Mean age (months) was of 7.5 for RSV-positive children, 7.6 for other viruses, and 8 for negative for respiratory virus. The RSV-Positive Group was significantly younger than the Group Negative for Respiratory Virus (p<0.05). Signs of UAI were more present in the Positive RSV Group (p<0.05). General mortality was of 2.41%. There was a higher incidence of RSV between the months of March and August in the two years of the study. Our study indicates RSV as the most prevalent viral agent in children admitted due to (ARI), especially in infants below 3 months old. We have also found that infections due to RSV can occur in months others than the classic

  3. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    a contributing source in London. Overall, the source of biomass burning in London was likely a background regional source from mainland Europe overlaid by high contributions from local domestic burning emissions. This could have implications when considering future control strategies during winter. References Fuller, G.W., Sciare, J., Lutz, M., Moukhtar, S., Wagener, S., 2013. New Directions: Time to tackle urban wood burning? Atmospheric Environment 68, 295-296.

  4. Information and research needs of acute-care clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Spath, M; Buttlar, L

    1996-01-01

    The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should

  5. EXACTRAC x-ray and beam isocenters--What's the difference?

    SciTech Connect

    Tideman Arp, Dennis; Carl, Jesper

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of the isocenter of an image-guidance system, as implemented in the exactrac system from brainlab, relative to the linear accelerator radiation isocenter. Subsequently to correct the x-ray isocenter of the exactrac system for any geometric discrepancies between the two isocenters. Methods: Five Varian linear accelerators all equipped with electronic imaging devices and exactrac with robotics from brainlab were evaluated. A commercially available Winston-Lutz phantom and an in-house made adjustable base were used in the setup. The electronic portal imaging device of the linear accelerators was used to acquire MV-images at various gantry angles. Stereoscopic pairs of x-ray images were acquired using the exactrac system. The deviation between the position of the external laser isocenter and the exactrac isocenter was evaluated using the commercial software of the exactrac system. In-house produced software was used to analyze the MV-images and evaluate the deviation between the external laser isocenter and the radiation isocenter of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, the deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system was calculated. A new method of calibrating the isocenter of the exactrac system was applied to reduce the deviations between the radiation isocenter and the exactrac isocenter. Results: To evaluate the geometric accuracy a 3D deviation vector was calculated for each relative isocenter position. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system varied from 0.21 to 0.42 mm. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the linac radiation isocenter ranged from 0.37 to 0.83 mm. The 3D deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system ranged from 0.31 to 1.07 mm. Using the new method of calibrating the exactrac isocenter the 3D deviation of one linac was reduced from 0.90 to 0.23 mm. The

  6. SU-E-J-123: Targeting Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Intracranial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y; Wen, N; Zhao, B; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracies of image-guided intracranial radiosurgery across several different linear accelerator platforms. Methods: A CT scan with a slice thickness of 1.0 mm was acquired of a Rando head phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) in a U-frame mask (BrainLAB AG). The phantom had three embedded BBs, simulating a central, left, and anterior lesion. The phantom was setup with each BB placed at the radiation isocenter under image guidance. Four different setup procedures were investigated: (1) NTX-ExacTrac: 6 degree-of-freedom (6D) correction on a Novalis Tx (BrainLAB AG) with ExacTrac localization (BrainLAB AG); (2) NTX-CBCT: 4D correction on the Novalis Tx with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT); (3) TrueBeam-CBCT: 4D correction on a TrueBeam (Varian) with CBCT; (4) Edge-CBCT: 6D correction on an Edge (Varian) with CBCT. The experiment was repeated 5 times with different initial setup error at each BB location on each platform, and the mean (μ) and one standard deviation (σ) of the residual error was compared.The congruence between radiation and imaging isocenters on each platform was evaluated by acquiring Winston Lutz (WL) images of a WL jig followed by imaging using ExacTrac or CBCT. The difference in coordinates of the jig relative to radiation and imaging isocenters was then recorded. Results: Averaged over all three BB locations, the residual vector setup errors (μ±σ) of the phantom in mm were 0.6±0.2, 1.0±0.5, 0.2±0.1, and 0.3±0.1 on NTX-ExacTrac, NTX-CBCT, TrueBeam-CBCT, and Edge-CBCT, with their ranges in mm being 0.4∼1.1, 0.4∼1.9, 0.1∼0.5, and 0.2∼0.6, respectively. And imaging isocenter was found stable relative to radiation isocenter, with the congruence to radiation isocenter in mm being 0.6±0.1, 0.7±0.1, 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, respectively, on the four systems in the same order. Conclusion: Millimeter accuracy can be achieved with image-guided radiosurgery for intracranial lesions based on this set of experiments.

  7. SU-F-BRE-09: Linac Isocenter Quality Assurance: A Stereotactic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B; Li, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A quantitative method was designed to independently determine the couch/collimator/gantry isocenters, as well as the overall LINAC mechanical isocenter in 3D. Methods: Performed on both a Varian TrueBeam™ STx and Trilogy with the gold standard front pointer positioned at 100 cm SAD, and a Radionics XKnife™ (RX) attached to the couch. At gantry and couch 0°, the RX laser alignment attachment (RXLAA) was centered to the front pointer using the micrometers (0.1-mm precision) on the RX. The 3D coordinates of the micrometers were recorded. The collimator was rotated to 90° and 270°. At each collimator rotation, the RXLAA was re-centered to the front pointer and the micrometer coordinates recorded. At collimator and gantry 0°, the process was repeated for couch angles 0°/90°/270°. Finally, at collimator and couch 0°, the steps were repeated for gantry rotations 0°/90°/180°/270°. The centers/radii of the smallest bounding spheres for the collimator, couch and gantry walkout were calculated (using MatLab™). The smallest bounding sphere containing the collimator, couch and gantry walkout spheres was then calculated. The center of this all-encompassing sphere is the overall mechanical isocenter of the LINAC. This position was dialed in on the RX. LINAC mechanical and radiation isocenter coincidence was determined by performing Winston- Lutz test at four cardinal gantry angles. Results: TrueBeam and Trilogy mechanical isocenters had overall walkout radii of 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. For the TrueBeam and Trilogy 6-MV beams, the radii of radiation isocenter were 0.3 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively, with distances between LINAC mechanical and radiation isocenters of 0.5 mm and 0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: This efficient and simple method allows for an independent and reliable quantitative assessment of LINAC isocenter in 3D with equipment typically available in a radiation oncology clinic. It can easily be performed for LINAC commissioning and

  8. Carbon Monoxide Affecting Planetary Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Horst, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric hazes are present in a range of solar system and extrasolar planetary atmospheres, and organic hazes, such as that in Titan's atmosphere, could be a source of prebiotic molecules.1 However, the chemistry occurring in planetary atmospheres and the resulting chemical structures are still not clear. Numerous experimental simulations2 have been carried out in the laboratory to understand the chemistry in N2/CH4 atmospheres, but very few simulations4 have included CO in their initial gas mixtures, which is an important component in many N2/CH4 atmospheres including Titan, Triton, and Pluto.3 Here we have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments using AC glow discharge (cold plasma) as energy source to irradiate reactions in gas mixtures of CO, CH4, and N2 with a range of CO mixing ratios (from 0, 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, to 5%) at low temperature (~100 K). Gas phase products are monitored during the reaction by quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS), and solid phase products are analyzed by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). MS results show that with the increase of CO in the initial gases, the production of nitrogenous organic molecules increases while the production of hydrogen molecules decreases in the gas phase. NMR measurements of the solid phase products show that with the increase of CO, hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen or oxygen in unsaturated structures increase while those bonded to saturated carbon decrease, which means more unsaturated species and less saturated species formed with the addition of CO. MS and NMR results demonstrate that the inclusion of CO affects the compositions of both gas and solid phase products, indicating that CO has an important impact on the chemistry occurring in our experiments and probably in planetary atmospheres.1. Hörst, S. M., et al. 2012, AsBio, 12, 8092. Cable, M. L., et al. 2012, Chem. Rev., 112, 18823. Lutz, B. L., et al. 1983, Sci, 220, 1374; Greaves, J. S., et al

  9. Astrometry With the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, and DeHt 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT2M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, sigma (sub pi)/ pi = 5%. Derived distances are: d(sub NGC6853) = 405(exp +28 sub -25) pc, d(sub NGC7293) = 216(exp +14 sub -12) pc, d(sub Abell31) = 621(exp +91 sub -70) pc, and d(sub DeHt5) = 345(exp +19 sub -17) pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 solar Mass, close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well

  10. Technical and clinical aspects of spectrometric analysis of trace elements in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Chan, S; Gerson, B; Reitz, R E; Sadjadi, S A

    1998-12-01

    Jarvisalo as well as by Chan and Gerson. Lutz et al observed the ranges in blood shown in Table 4. We have adopted the ranges listed in Table 5 in urines of healthy, ambulatory, and community-dwelling individuals through a limited in-house study and review of literature. In conclusion, differentiation of trace element abnormalities (primary intoxication or disease versus secondary underlying disease) can be made only by utilizing results from trace element analyses in clinical specimens, medical history, and careful observation of symptoms. Repeat analysis on a second specimen collection is recommended when contamination is suspected.

  11. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of herbicides in stream water: a combined monitoring and modeling approach to assess pollutant degradation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Van der Velde, Ype; Elsayed, Omniea; Imfeld, Gwenael; Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Van Breukelen, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) measures the isotopic composition of a compound, i.e. the relative abundance of light and heavy stable isotopes of an element contained in the compound (e.g. 12C and 13C). As degradation processes may induce a change in isotopic composition (i.e. isotope fractionation), CSIA allows distinguishing degradation from non-destructive processes such as dilution or sorption. CSIA can be combined with model-assisted interpretation to evaluate degradation of contaminants in the environment. Although CSIA methods have also been developed for diffuse pollutants such as pesticides and nitrate, they have not yet been continuously applied in monitoring of diffuse pollution in surface water. Results of a virtual experiment of isotope fractionation at hillslope scale have suggested that CSIA qualifies as a feasible and useful complement to concentration measurements of diffuse pollutants (Lutz et al., 2013). We now present the first continuously measured concentration and carbon CSIA data of herbicides from a 49-ha agricultural catchment (Alsace, France). Stream concentrations of two chloroacetanilide herbicides, i.e. S-metolachlor and acetochlor, were highest (65 μg/L) following an extreme rainfall event in the first month after herbicide application, and subsequently decreased to background concentration level (0.1 μg/L). This decrease was accompanied by an increase of more than 2 ‰ in carbon isotope ratios, which was also observed in surface runoff samples from a plot experiment in the study catchment. The increase of carbon isotope ratios over time indicates the occurrence of herbicide degradation during transport to the stream, and thus demonstrates the advantage of CSIA over pesticide concentration measurements only. Despite providing evidence of herbicide degradation, the field CSIA data do not allow for a comprehensive characterization of herbicide sources, fate and transport in the study catchment. Therefore, we

  12. The Effects of Caffeine on Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Performance in Division I Collegiate Fencers.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Taylor P; Lutz, Rafer S; Pellegrino, Joseph K; Sanders, David J; Arent, Shawn M

    2016-11-01

    Doyle, TP, Lutz, RS, Pellegrino, JK, Sanders, DJ, and Arent, SM. The effects of caffeine on arousal, response time, accuracy, and performance in Division I collegiate fencers. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3228-3235, 2016-Caffeine has displayed ergogenic effects on aerobic performance. However, sports requiring precision and quick reaction may also be impacted by central nervous system arousal because of caffeine consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of caffeine on arousal, response time (RT), and accuracy during a simulated fencing practice. Using a randomized, within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, Division I male and female college fencers (N = 13; 69.1 ± 3.5 kg) were administered caffeine doses of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5 mg·kg during separate testing days. Performance was assessed via RT and accuracy to a 4-choice reaction task. A total of 25 trials were performed each day using a random 2- to 8-s delay between trials. Arousal was assessed using the activation-deactivation adjective check list. Results of repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant dose effect (p = 0.02) on performance. Follow-up analyses indicated this was due to a significant effect for RT (p = 0.03), with the dose-response curve exhibiting a quadratic relationship. Response time was significantly faster (p < 0.01) for the 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg·kg conditions than for the placebo condition. Results also indicated a significant dose effect for composite RT + accuracy performance (p < 0.01). The dose-response curve was again quadratic, with performance beginning to deteriorate at 7.5 mg·kg. Energetic arousal, tiredness, tension, and calmness all significantly changed as a function of caffeine dose (p ≤ 0.05). Based on these results, caffeine improves RT and overall performance in fencers, particularly as doses increase up to 4.5-6.0 mg·kg. Above this level, performance begins to deteriorate, consistent with an

  13. Redox speciation and biogeochemical gradients: Assessing spatial niches and monitoring dynamics in natural systems with voltammetric microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschel, G. K.; Lorenson, G. W.; Eastmann, D. A.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    scales, the application of voltammetry to infer physiology of as-yet uncultured organisms, and the monitoring of geochemical dynamics affecting systems on variable time scales. Luther, G.W., Rozan, T.F., Taillefert, M., Nuzzio, D.B., Di Meo, C., Shank, T.M., Lutz, R.A., and Cary, S.C., 2001: Chemical Speciation Drives hydrothermal vent ecology. Nature, V. 410, Iss. 6830, p. 813-816

  14. SU-E-T-406: Use of TrueBeam Developer Mode and API to Increase the Efficiency and Accuracy of Commissioning Measurements for the Varian EDGE Stereotactic Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S; Gulam, M; Song, K; Li, H; Huang, Y; Zhao, B; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Varian EDGE machine is a new stereotactic platform, combining Calypso and VisionRT localization systems with a stereotactic linac. The system includes TrueBeam DeveloperMode, making possible the use of XML-scripting for automation of linac-related tasks. This study details the use of DeveloperMode to automate commissioning tasks for Varian EDGE, thereby improving efficiency and measurement consistency. Methods: XML-scripting was used for various commissioning tasks,including couch model verification,beam-scanning,and isocenter verification. For couch measurements, point measurements were acquired for several field sizes (2×2,4×4,10×10cm{sup 2}) at 42 gantry angles for two couch-models. Measurements were acquired with variations in couch position(rails in/out,couch shifted in each of motion axes) compared to treatment planning system(TPS)-calculated values,which were logged automatically through advanced planning interface(API) scripting functionality. For beam scanning, XML-scripts were used to create custom MLC-apertures. For isocenter verification, XML-scripts were used to automate various Winston-Lutz-type tests. Results: For couch measurements, the time required for each set of angles was approximately 9 minutes. Without scripting, each set required approximately 12 minutes. Automated measurements required only one physicist, while manual measurements required at least two physicists to handle linac positions/beams and data recording. MLC apertures were generated outside of the TPS,and with the .xml file format, double-checking without use of TPS/operator console was possible. Similar time efficiency gains were found for isocenter verification measurements Conclusion: The use of XML scripting in TrueBeam DeveloperMode allows for efficient and accurate data acquisition during commissioning. The efficiency improvement is most pronounced for iterative measurements, exemplified by the time savings for couch modeling measurements(approximately 10

  15. Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, Abell 31, and DeHt 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E.; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-12-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT2M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, σπ/π = 5%. Derived distances are: d NGC 6853 = 405+28 -25 pc, d NGC 7293 = 216+14 -12 pc, d Abell 31 = 621+91 -70 pc, and d DeHt 5 = 345+19 -17 pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 M_{⊙}, close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well-determined distances and masses, we compare all the PNNi with cooler white dwarfs

  16. Verification of the linac isocenter for stereotactic radiosurgery using cine-EPID imaging and arc delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O' Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose:Verification of the mechanical isocenter position is required as part of comprehensive quality assurance programs for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments. Several techniques have been proposed for this purpose but each of them has certain drawbacks. In this paper, a new efficient and more comprehensive method using cine-EPID images has been introduced for automatic verification of the isocenter with sufficient accuracy for stereotactic applications. Methods: Using a circular collimator fixed to the gantry head to define the field, EPID images of a Winston-Lutz phantom were acquired in cine-imaging mode during 360 deg. gantry rotations. A robust matlab code was developed to analyze the data by finding the center of the field and the center of the ball bearing shadow in each image with sub-pixel accuracy. The distance between these two centers was determined for every image. The method was evaluated by comparison to results of a mechanical pointer and also by detection of a manual shift applied to the phantom position. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were tested and it was also applied to detect couch and collimator wobble during rotation. Results:The accuracy of the algorithm was 0.03 {+-} 0.02 mm. The repeatability was less than 3 {mu}m and the reproducibility was less than 86 {mu}m. The time elapsed for the analysis of more than 100 cine images of Varian aS1000 and aS500 EPIDs were {approx}65 and 20 s, respectively. Processing of images taken in integrated mode took 0.1 s. The output of the analysis software is printable and shows the isocenter shifts as a function of angle in both in-plane and cross-plane directions. It gives warning messages where the shifts exceed the criteria for SRS/SRT and provides useful data for the necessary adjustments in the system including bearing system and/or room lasers. Conclusions: The comprehensive method introduced in this study uses cine-images, is highly accurate, fast, and

  17. Coevolutionary modeling of protein sequences: Predicting structure, function, and mutational landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigt, Martin

    Over the last years, biological research has been revolutionized by experimental high-throughput techniques, in particular by next-generation sequencing technology. Unprecedented amounts of data are accumulating, and there is a growing request for computational methods unveiling the information hidden in raw data, thereby increasing our understanding of complex biological systems. Statistical-physics models based on the maximum-entropy principle have, in the last few years, played an important role in this context. To give a specific example, proteins and many non-coding RNA show a remarkable degree of structural and functional conservation in the course of evolution, despite a large variability in amino acid sequences. We have developed a statistical-mechanics inspired inference approach - called Direct-Coupling Analysis - to link this sequence variability (easy to observe in sequence alignments, which are available in public sequence databases) to bio-molecular structure and function. In my presentation I will show, how this methodology can be used (i) to infer contacts between residues and thus to guide tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction and RNA structure prediction, (ii) to discriminate interacting from non-interacting protein families, and thus to infer conserved protein-protein interaction networks, and (iii) to reconstruct mutational landscapes and thus to predict the phenotypic effect of mutations. References [1] M. Figliuzzi, H. Jacquier, A. Schug, O. Tenaillon and M. Weigt ''Coevolutionary landscape inference and the context-dependence of mutations in beta-lactamase TEM-1'', Mol. Biol. Evol. (2015), doi: 10.1093/molbev/msv211 [2] E. De Leonardis, B. Lutz, S. Ratz, S. Cocco, R. Monasson, A. Schug, M. Weigt ''Direct-Coupling Analysis of nucleotide coevolution facilitates RNA secondary and tertiary structure prediction'', Nucleic Acids Research (2015), doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv932 [3] F. Morcos, A. Pagnani, B. Lunt, A. Bertolino, D. Marks, C

  18. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions''

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich W. Heinz

    2012-11-09

    In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous experimental observables that can be used to diagnose the evolving and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last decade of the twentieth century on collisions at lower energies, the group exploited newly developed theoretical tools and the stream of new high-quality data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (which started operations in the summer of the year 2000) to arrive at an increasingly quantitative description of the experimentally observed phenomena. Work done at Ohio State University (OSU) was instrumental in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. The tool of relativistic fluid dynamics for viscous liquids developed at OSU in the years 2005-2007 opened the possibility to quantitatively determine the value of the QGP viscosity empirically from experimental measurements of the collective flow patterns established in the collisions. A first quantitative extraction of the QGP shear viscosity, with controlled theoretical uncertainty estimates, was achieved during the last year of this project in 2010. OSU has paved the way for a transition of the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics from a qualitative discovery stage to a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. To gain confidence in the precision of our theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma dynamics, one must test it on a large set of experimentally measured observables. This achievement report demonstrates that we have, at

  19. Physics in Berlin I: The Historical City Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Hans-Jürgen Treder has written that, “During the nearly 60 years that spanned the call of Hermann Helmholtz to become professor of physics in the Berlin University ... in 1871, and Erwin Schrödinger’s call to the chair of theoretical physics [in 1927] ..., the general history of physics was closely connected to the history of physics in Berlin.”1 Besides Helmholtz and Schrödinger, the list of famous physicists who worked in Berlin during those six decades includes Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Max von Laue, Walther Nernst, Gustav Hertz, James Franck, and Lise Meitner, to name but some of them.2 But the heyday of physics in Berlin arose neither by chance nor out of the blue: It resulted from a long historical process that began with the foundation of the Brandenburg Academy of Science in 1700 by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; the present Academy of Science in Berlin is the direct descendent of that society. With the founding of the Academy in the capital of Prussia, science established itself in Berlin as a constituent part of its social life. It was predominantly in the context of mathematical research and the fields of mechanics and astronomy that physics was practiced at first. The names of such renowned scientists as Leonhard Euler, Joseph Louis Lagrange, Johann Heinrich Lambert, and Franz Ulrich Theodosius Aepinus bear witness to the remarkably high level that mathematical and physical research had reached in Berlin as early as the 18th century. There was no other city in Germany at that time where there was such a large and extraordinary community of mathematicians, physicists, and chemists teaching and carrying out research. You will find a reminder of this early period in the history of physics in Berlin at Behrenstrasse 21 (a street parallel to the western part of Unter den Linden), where Leonhard Euler lived during his Berlin period from 1743 to 1766. Of course, this is not Euler’s original house, since large parts of Berlin were totally destroyed by

  20. Comparison of growth in compensation for hospital administrators and nurses in Kansas, 2003 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Anno, Tony; Hornberger, Cynthia

    2007-04-01

    The current nursing shortage is reaching a critical level (Buerhaus, Donelan, Ulrich, Norman, & Dittus, 2006). As baby boomers reach an age when they will require increased healthcare the demand for nurses will accelerate over the foreseeable future. One issue impacting the desirability of nursing as a career is salary compensation. Nurse salaries have not kept up with the rate of inflation (American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2005) while hospital Chief Executive Officer (CEO) compensation has increased (Westfall, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the compensation growth of hospital CEO's compared to nurses over the past three years in Kansas. Hospital CEO data was obtained from the Internal Revenue Service form 990 retrieved from the public domain. Nursing salary data was obtained from archival data published by the Kansas Department of Labor Statistics. Data analyses described differences in the salaries of nurses and chief executive officers in Kansas over a three-year period and within subgroups defined by geographical region. During this three year period Kansas hospital CEOs' compensation increased 23.2% compared to a national increase of 9%. Registered Nurses' compensation in Kansas increased 17.39% compared to a national average of 11%. Licensed Practical Nurse compensation in Kansas increased 6.28% compared to a national average of 9%. The population in the United States is growing older at the same time demand for nurses will accelerate (Lovell, 2006). The shortage of nurses is reaching a critical level as hospitals try to provide care. Causes of the shortage are multifaceted and include the demand for nurses outpacing supply and compensation trends. In Kansas, the supply of nurses is hampered by a present shortage of nursing faculty that will be exacerbated by the impending retirement of a sizable portion of the faculty in the next decade (Hornberger, Hess, & Thompson, 2005). The lack of faculty impairs nursing programs

  1. Physics-based Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Probable M>7.0 earthquakes in the Marmara Sea Region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Aochi, Hideo; Herrero, Andre; Pischiutta, Marta; Karanikas, Dimitris

    2016-04-01

    The city of Istanbul is characterized by one of the highest levels of seismic risk in Europe and the Mediterranean region. The important source of the increased risk in Istanbul is the remarkable probability of the occurrence of a large earthquake, which stands at about 65% during the coming years due to the existing seismic gap and the post-1999 earthquake stress transfer at the western portion of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). In this study, we have simulated hybrid broadband time histories from two selected scenario earthquakes having magnitude M>7.0 in the Marmara Sea within 10-20 km of Istanbul believed to have generated devastating 1509 event in the region. The physics-based rupture scenarios, which may be an indication of potential future events, are adopted to estimate the ground motion characteristics and its variability in the region. Two simulation techniques (a full 3D wave propagation method to generate low-frequency seismograms, <~1 Hz and a stochastic technique to simulate high-frequency seismograms, >1Hz) are used to compute more realistic time series associated with scenario earthquakes having magnitudes Mw >7.0 in the Marmara Sea Region. A dynamic rupture is generated and computed with a boundary integral equation method and the propagation in the medium is realized through a finite difference approach (Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). The high frequency radiation is computed using stochastic finite-fault model approach based on a dynamic corner frequency (Motazedian and Atkinson, 2005; Boore, 2009). The results from the two simulation techniques are then merged by performing a weighted summation at intermediate frequencies to calculate broadband synthetic time series. The hybrid broadband ground motions computed with the proposed approach are validated by comparing peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral acceleration (SA) with recently proposed ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) in the region. Our

  2. Fractal Fragmentation triggered by meteor impact: The Ries Crater (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Perugini, Diego; Rossi, Stefano; Kueppers, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    FRACTAL FRAGMENTATION TRIGGERED BY METEOR IMPACT: THE RIES CRATER (GERMANY) Joali Paredes (1), Stefano Rossi (1), Diego Perugini (1), Ulrich Kueppers (2) 1. Department of Physics and Geology, University of Perugia, Italy 2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Munich, Germany The Nördlinger Ries is a large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany. The depression was caused by a meteor impact, which occurred about 14.3 million-14.5 million years ago. The original crater rim had an estimated diameter of 24 kilometers. Computer modeling of the impact event indicates that the impact or probably had diameters of about 1.5 kilometers and impacted the target area at an angle around 30 to 50 degrees from the surface in a west- southwest to east-northeast direction. The impact velocity is thought to have been about 20 km/s. The meteor impact generated extensive fragmentation of preexisting rocks. In addition, melting of these rocks also occurred. The impact melt was ejected at high speed provoking its extensive fragmentation. Quenched melt fragments are ubiquitous in the outcrops. Here we study melt fragment size distributions with the aim of understanding the style of melt fragmentation during ejection and to constrain the rheological properties of such melts. Digital images of suevite (i.e. the rock generated after deposition and diagenesis of ash and fragments produced by the meteor impact) were obtained using a high-resolution optical scanner. Successively, melt fragments were traced by image analysis and the images segmented in order to obtain binary images on which impact melt fragments are in black color, embedded on a white background. Hence, the size of fragments was determined by image analysis. Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to fragment size distributions of melt fragments in the Ries crater. Results indicate that melt fragments follow fractal distributions indicating that fragmentation of melt generated by the

  3. Imaging polarimetry of class I young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P. W.; Roche, P. F.

    1998-09-01

    We present near-infrared imaging polarimetry of three class I young stellar objects in the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud. We use Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the flux distributions and polarization patterns of these three sources and five others from an earlier paper. In addition, we present high-resolution polarimetry of HL Tau using the shift and add technique. Most young stellar objects in the sample display sharp, unresolved, peaks in the scattered light distribution. This is most simply explained by a strong concentration of matter in the centre, which we model by applying the rho~r^-1.5 power law throughout the envelope. In terms of the Ulrich/Terebey, Shu and Cassen solution for the late stages of contraction of an initially spherical non-magnetic cloud, this corresponds to r_c<10 au. However, this almost spherically symmetric density distribution is inconsistent with observations of flattened, disc-like structures, so we conclude that this solution is not appropriate and different initial conditions apply. The multiple-scattering models with spherical grains do not reproduce some features of the observed polarization patterns, in particular the broad regions of aligned vectors seen in some sources. We interpret this as evidence for elongated aligned grains. The weak wavelength dependence of nebular morphology shows that the dust grains in circumstellar envelopes obey a much shallower extinction law than interstellar grains in the near-infrared, which we describe by the opacity ratio kappa(J/K)=1.8+/-0.3, compared to the interstellar value of 3.25. We place an upper limit on albedo of omega<0.6 from 1.25 to 2.2 μm and we find 0.1<0.4. With the addition of two more observables derived from the observed degrees of linear and circular polarization, we identify five

  4. Time-Reversal Location of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake Using the Vertical Component of Seismic Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Johnson, P.; Huang, L.; Randall, G.; Patton, H.; Montagner, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we describe Time Reversal experiments applying seismic waves recorded from the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake. The reverse seismic wavefield is created by time-reversing recorded seismograms and then injecting them from the seismograph locations into a whole entire Earth velocity model. The concept is identical to acoustic Time-Reversal Mirror laboratory experiments except the seismic data are numerically backpropagated through a velocity model (Fink, 1996; Ulrich et al, 2007). Data are backpropagated using the finite element code SPECFEM3D (Komatitsch et al, 2002), employing the velocity model s20rts (Ritsema et al, 2000). In this paper, we backpropagate only the vertical component of seismic data from about 100 broadband surface stations located worldwide (FDSN), using the period band of 23-120s. We use those only waveforms that are highly correlated with forward-propagated synthetics. The focusing quality depends upon the type of waves back- propagated; for the vertical displacement component the possible types include body waves, Rayleigh waves, or their combination. We show that Rayleigh waves, both real and artifact, dominate the reverse movie in all cases. They are created during rebroadcast of the time reverse signals, including body wave phases, because we use point-like-force sources for injection. The artifact waves, termed "ghosts" manifest as surface waves, do not correspond to real wave phases during the forward propagation. The surface ghost waves can significantly blur the focusing at the source. We find that the ghosts cannot be easily eliminated in the manner described by Tsogka&Papanicolaou (2002). It is necessary to understand how they are created in order to remove them during TRM studies, particularly when using only the body waves. For this moderate magnitude of earthquake we demonstrate the robustness of the TRM as an alternative location method despite the restriction to vertical component phases. One advantage of TRM location

  5. NMSPEC: A Fortran code for the sparticle and Higgs masses in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwanger, Ulrich; Hugonie, Cyril

    2007-08-01

    NMSPEC is a Fortran code that computes the sparticle and Higgs masses, as well as Higgs decay widths and couplings in the NMSSM, with soft SUSY breaking terms specified at M. Exceptions are the soft singlet mass ms2 and the singlet self-coupling κ, that are both determined in terms of the other parameters through the minimization equations of the Higgs potential. We present a first analysis of the NMSSM parameter space with universal SUSY breaking terms at M—except for m and A—that passes present experimental constraints on sparticle and Higgs masses. We discuss in some detail a region in parameter space where a SM-like Higgs boson decays dominantly into two CP odd singlet-like Higgs states. Program summaryManuscript title: NMSPEC: A Fortran code for the sparticle and Higgs masses in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions Authors: Ulrich Ellwanger, Cyril Hugonie Program title: NMSPEC Catalogue identifier: ADZD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 121 539 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 560 340 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN Computer: Mac, PC, Sun, Dec, Alpha Operating system: Mac OSC, Linux, Unix, Windows RAM: 2M bytes Keywords: Supersymmetry, Higgs masses, sparticle masses, NMSSM PACS: 12.60.Jv, 14.80.Cp, 14.80.Ly Classification: 11.6 Nature of problem: Computation of the Higgs and Sparticle spectrum in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions, check of theoretical and experimental constraints. Solution method: Integration of the RGEs for all couplings and mass terms from the GUT scale to the Susy scale using a modified Runge-Kutta method; computation and diagonalization of all mass matrices including up to two loop

  6. The Observational Helioseismology Programs at the Sacramento Peak and Mount Wilson Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    The starting point for the study of the solar interior using helioseismology can be identified with the observational confirmation by Deubner (1975) and independently by Rhodes (1977); Rhodes et al. (1976a,b, 1977a) of the standing wave nature of the solar “5-minute” oscillations as proposed by Ulrich (1970) and independently by Leibacher & Stein (1971). The pioneering observations of the Rhodes et al. (1977a) study were obtained using what is now the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) at the Sacramento Peak National Observatory in early 1975. Subsequent helioseismic observations were also obtained at the DST, but one of the major drawbacks of all of these early studies was the fact that the DST could only be dedicated to these studies for a few days at a time. Consequently, the 60-Foot Solar Tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) was converted into a dedicated helioseismology telescope. The initial observations there were obtained in 1984. These observations were employed later in several studies of solar internal rotation. An important outcome of these early observations was the discovery of the Solar Subsurface Shear Layer (SSL). The 60-Foot Tower was upgraded with the installation of a one-mega-pixel camera during 1986 and 1987. High-resolution observations using this instrumentation were taken on a regular basis beginning in 1988. Inversions of the frequency-splitting coefficients derived from these observations confirmed the existence of the SSL. More recently, the 60-Foot Tower data were used to study the solar torsional oscillations and the solar cycle dependence of both the intermediate- and high-degree p-mode frequencies during Solar Cycles 21, 22, and 23. Observations from this program were also employed in ring-diagram studies to demonstrate the existence of helical flows within the SSL. Observations obtained with the 60-Foot Tower's imaging program between 1988 and 2009 are now being employed in a retrospective study of internal zonal and meridional

  7. Online measurements of ambient fluorescent aerosol particles by WIBS at a polluted regional site in the North China Plain: potential impact of burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Wang, Z.; Cheng, Y.; Xie, Z.; Kecorius, S.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yu, X.; Pöhlker, C.; Zhang, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kuhn, U.; Poeschl, U.; Huffman, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Online measurements of ambient fluorescent aerosol particles by WIBS at a polluted regional site in the North China Plain: potential impact of burning activities Zhibin Wang1, Xiawei Yu1,3, Simonas Kecorius2, Zhouqing Xie3, Gavin McMeeking4, Christopher Pöhlker1, Minghui, Zhang1, Alfred Wiedensohler2, Uwe Kuhn1, Yafang Cheng1, Ulrich Pöschl1, Hang Su1,*1Multiphase Chemistry and Biogeochemistry Departments, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz 55128, Germany2Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig 04318, Germany3School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China4Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder 80301, USA ABSTRACTBioaerosols are the main subset of super-micron particles, and significantly influence the evolution of cloud and precipitation, as well as the public health. Currently, the detection of ambient biological materials in real-time is mainly based on the presence of fluorophores in the particles. In this study, we present the wideband integrated bioaerosol spectrometer (WIBS) measurement results to characterize the fluorescent aerosol particles (FAP) at a polluted regional site (Xianghe, 39.80 °N, 116.96 °E) in the North China Plain. We observed substantially much higher number concentration of FAP as compared with those of previous studies in clean environments. We found the good agreement between the FAP number fraction in coarse mode particles (> 1 mm) and BC mass fraction in fine particles (< 1 mm), possibly indicating a majority of the observed FAP is to a certain extent related to the anthropogenic burning activities nearby. This interference and uncertainty should be especially noticed when performing fluorescence measurements in the polluted area, where the certain non-biological compounds (such as SOA, PAH and soot) may significantly lead to a positive fluorescence measurement artifacts and an overestimation of actual fluorescent biological aerosol particles. We also

  8. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic), Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice), Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin), Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich), Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt), Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien). In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO) were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be used preferably in these

  9. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (b) 242/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Marek; Mierzejewski, Marcin; Lisowski, Mariusz

    2005-02-01

    This issue contains the Proceedings of the 28th International Conference of Theoretical Physics, ICTP2004 - Electron Correlations in Nano- and Macrosystems, which was held in Ustro, Poland, from 2-7 September 2004. ICTP2004 followed the series of conferences organized by the Institute of Physics of the University of Silesia in Katowice, devoted biannually to the physics of condensed matter.The main objective of the Conference was to bring together specialists working on the physics of electron correlations in nano- and macro-regimes, with the intention of enhancing their mutual understanding and cooperation. The Conference was an international forum for the presentation and discussion of novel scientific ideas and experimental results. The programme of the conference consisted of 25 invited lectures, 11 contributed lectures and 27 papers presented during poster session. The contributions were devoted to problems related to the following subjects: Transport in low dimensional systems Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes Non Fermi liquid systems Superconductivity and Magnetism Quantum phase transitions New materials in magnetoelectronics Among the participants were 88 scientists from 10 countries and 3 continents. The invited talks were presented by distinguished physicists: Hélène Bouchiat, Liviu Chibotaru, Ulrich Eckern, Klaus Ensslin, Jim Freericks, Raymond Frésard, Peter Hänggi, Heike Herper, Carsten Honerkamp, Helmut Keiter, Stefan Krompiewski, Tadeusz Lulek, Kazumi Maki, Nina Markovi, Roman Micnas, Volker Meden, Andrzej M. Ole, Thomas Pruschke, Marek Przybylski, Ken-ichi Sasaki, Uri Sivan, Józef Spaek, Frank Steglich, Michael Thorwart and Roland Zeyher. The Organizing Committee would like to express our gratitude to the International Scientific Committee and to all the speakers and contributors for their talks and posters. Special thanks are addressed to all the participants for their valuable discussions and stimulating atmosphere of the meeting. We express

  10. [Wonder matter and assassin. The perception of the asbestos danger as a mirror of the time 1930-1990].

    PubMed

    Janssen, J H M

    2005-01-01

    In the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century the ideas of the dangers concerning the use of asbestos changed dramatically. The mineral, which had, more than half a century before been introduced in the Netherlands as a miraculous mineral, was completely banned from use. Asbestos became known as a 'silent killer' and 'the blue sand of death', and as a symbol of the hidden hazards of a deteriorating environment caused by unscrupulous companies and indolent authorities. Asbestos seems to fit perfectly into the ubiquitous hazards which Ulrich Beck defines in his concept of the 'risk society' as the dangerous side effects of industrial production. Yet the perception of the risk associated with asbestos depended more on socio-cultural characteristics than on scientifically risk assessments. In the first half of the twentieth century the use of asbestos was limited and therefore did not cause any concern. Economic crisis and war silenced the first alarming signals of asbestos related disease from foreign experts and a handful of Dutch physicians. The asbestos workers themselves were held responsible for their own health and safety. In the 1951 asbestosis became recognised as an industrial disease. Preventive measures with regard to the industrial use of asbestos were prescribed by law. Workers shared the responsibilities for a safe use with employers and authorities. However, during this period, all the attention was directed towards economic growth. Supervision by the labour inspection was scarce and workers and employers were not very interested in upholding the safety measures. Among asbestos workers the use of protective clothes and dust masks was generally seen as unmanly. In the sixties the foreign literature on the connection between the exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma became known among Dutch specialists. The results of these studies were confirmed by research among Dutch insulation workers. At the same time the

  11. Roles for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) expression and signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in mediating the behavioral consequences of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Sayamwong E; Roman, Carolyn W; Lezak, Kimberly R; Kocho-Shellenberg, Margaret; Grimmig, Bethany; Falls, William A; Braas, Karen; May, Victor

    2010-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are frequently long-lasting and debilitating for more than 40 million American adults. Although stressor exposure plays an important role in the etiology of some anxiety disorders, the mechanisms by which exposure to stressful stimuli alters central circuits that mediate anxiety-like emotional behavior are still unknown. Substantial evidence has implicated regions of the central extended amygdala, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the central nucleus of the amygdala as critical structures mediating fear- and anxiety-like behavior in both humans and animals. These areas organize coordinated fear- and anxiety-like behavioral responses as well as peripheral stress responding to threats via direct and indirect projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and brainstem regions (Walker et al. Eur J Pharmacol 463:199-216, 2003, Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33(8):1291-1308, 2009; Ulrich-Lai and Herman Nat Rev Neurosci 10:397-409, 2009). In particular, the BNST has been argued to mediate these central and peripheral responses when the perceived threat is of long duration (Waddell et al. Behav Neurosci 120:324-336, 2006) and/or when the anxiety-like response is sustained (Walker and Davis Brain Struct Funct 213:29-42, 2008); hence, the BNST may mediate pathological anxiety-like states that result from exposure to chronic stress. Indeed, chronic stress paradigms result in enhanced BNST neuroplasticity that has been associated with pathological anxiety-like states (Vyas et al. Brain Res 965:290-294, 2003; Pego et al. Eur J Neurosci 27:1503-1516, 2008). Here we review evidence that suggests that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) work together to modulate BNST function and increase anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, we have shown that BNST PACAP as well as its cognate PAC1 receptor is substantially upregulated following chronic stress

  12. North American Paleozoic Oceanography: Overview of Progress Toward a Modern Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1987-04-01

    Three fundamental questions have confronted paleoceanographers from the beginning of their North American explorations. What was the size and timing of ancient epicontinental seas: large and long-lasting or small and brief? What characterized the distribution of biotas and sediments at any one point in time: a multitude of complex facies patterns or a more spacially homogeneous cover? What promoted continental foundering: eustatic changes in sea level or relative changes in sea level brought about by regional tectonics? These questions have been debated by North Americans since the middle 1800s in response to various new insights, usually coming from abroad but often elaborated into substantial contributions of equal standing. Contemporary facies zones in Mediterranean biota found by the Englishman E. Forbes attracted the notice of geologists as early as 1844. C. Whittlesey was among the first to apply the bathymetric scheme of Forbes to the interpretation of American Paleozoic strata in 1851. The outstanding "native" innovation of the period was J. Hall's geosyncline concept, which is reflected in the earliest map of Paleozoic North America made by T. C. Chamberlin in 1881. Another wave of influence spread from the late 19th century work on stratigraphic facies patterns by the German J. Walther. A. W. Grabau is best remembered as Walther's foremost American champion against the formidable layer-caker E. O. Ulrich in the first decades of the 20th century, but he also made pioneering contributions of his own on Paleozoic sea level studies and global paleogeographic reconstructions. Charles Schuchert was the consummate paleogeographer of this period. Meanwhile, the term "cyclothem" was coined by J. Marvin Weller in 1930 for recurrent Carboniferous strata in Illinois. Controversy fast erupted over a glacial as opposed to tectonic mode of origin for these cycles. In 1964, A. B. Shaw restimulated interest in Paleozoic oceanography through his reformulation of Walther

  13. Factors contributing to the internal loading of phosphorus from anoxic sediments in six Maine, USA, lakes.

    PubMed

    Lake, Bjorn A; Coolidge, Kyle M; Norton, Stephen A; Amirbahman, Aria

    2007-02-15

    Phosphorus (P) is the limiting macronutrient for primary production in most lakes. Seasonal anoxia in the hypolimnion of lakes has been strongly correlated with internal P loading to the water column. Gravimetric sediment cores were collected before and after the onset of anoxia in six Maine (USA) lakes during the summer of 2003. This study investigates the relative importance of P sequestration by aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3(s)), and ferric (oxy)hydroxide (Fe(OH)3(S)) dissolution with subsequent P release in lakes with varying trophic status. Two lakes, Pennesseewassee and Highland, are oligotrophic. The remaining lakes, China, Cobbosseecontee, Webber and Salmon, have varying levels of productivity. Sediment P, Al and Fe in the top 10 cm were extracted sequentially using ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), bicarbonate-dithionite (BD), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 25 degrees C. The results suggest that a sediment [NH4Cl-Al+BD-Al+NaOH25-Al]:[NH4Cl-Fe+BD-Fe] molar ratio >3 and a sediment [NaOH25-Al]:[NH4Cl-P+BD-P] molar ratio >25 predict low P flux from sediments during the development of anoxia, as proposed by Kopácek et al. [Kopácek J, Borovec J, Hejzlar J, Ulrich K, Norton S, Amirbahman A. Aluminum control of Phosphorus Sorption in Lake Sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39: 8784-8789.], despite the development of anoxia in and the release of Fe(II) from the hypolimnia of the two study lakes. However, when these molar ratios are not exceeded the model does not adequately describe sedimentary P flux. The application of the model proposed by Kopácek et al. to Cobbosseecontee Lake suggests that its sediment may be a source of P to the water column. However, water column data indicate little to no sedimentary P flux. Therefore, the lack of P flux may be attributed to the absence of Fe(III) reduction in the Cobbosseecontee Lake sediment or perhaps to the slow diagenesis of organically-bound P.

  14. Memories of Maurice Jacob (1933-2007) Proceedings of the Maurice Jacob Memorial Meeting (CERN, 11 September 2007) Memories of Maurice Jacob (1933-2007) Proceedings of the Maurice Jacob Memorial Meeting (CERN, 11 September 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heinz, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Maurice Jacob passed away unexpectedly on 2 May 2007. Soon after the terrible news arrived, it was thought appropriate to organize a memorial meeting at CERN. The meeting took place on 11 September 2007, and a large number of friends and colleagues participated in the event. The idea was to have brief presentations on the many scientific activities in which Maurice had been engaged, to provide a sketch of his personal trajectory. We also had spontaneous anecdotes and recollections from the audience which, unfortunately, did not make it into this special issue but enriched all of us present. The meeting took place in an afternoon, hence we were faced with the difficult task of selecting from the many presentations that could have been made by his colleagues and collaborators. The end results are the papers contained in this special issue. They provide a short overview of the breadth and depth of Maurice's physics, on the one hand, and of his deep commitment to European and world physics and to the interface between science and society, on the other hand. The first two talks were given by his fellow students and life-long friends Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Robert Pick. These were mostly personal recollections, less focussed on scientific issues per se but reminding us how Maurice grew into the renowned scientist he later became. Cecilia Jarlskog, a longtime collaborator and friend, provided us with a beautiful view of the wonderfully multifaceted activities Maurice was able to accomplish. Peter Landshoff also spoke about his more than 35 years of personal and scientific interaction with Maurice. The talks presented during the second part of the meeting went a bit more into the technical details of the wide spectrum of scientific activities pursued by Maurice. We had contributions by Helmut Satz (whose transparencies were kindly presented by Urs Wiedemann) and Ulrich Heinz, with the closing talk presented by John Ellis. We have lost a great friend and an excellent

  15. The G8-global healthcare applications project (GHAP) - recommendations for the way into the information society

    PubMed

    Dietzel

    1999-12-16

    The Global Healthcare Applications Project has sought to demonstrate the potential of telematics in the field of medicine and healthcare and to promote joint approaches to issues such as the setting of standards. This has been done through 10 sub-projects covering a range of applications and issues: 1. Towards a global public health information network - Coordinator: Germany (Ulrich Laaser, ulaaser@mail.uni-bielefeld.de; URL: http://health.ibs.uni-bielefeld. de/i-jphe/database/documents/abstract/laaser-g7.htm(C45-60_laaser-g7. pdf) 2. Improving prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. - Coordinator: France (Gerard Brugal, gerard. brugal@imag.fr; URL: http://pathconsult.imag.fr/G7/G7_index.html) 3. Improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment of major cardiovascular diseases. - Coordinator: Italy (Attilio Maseri, amaseri@rm.unicatt.it; URL: http://www.g7cardio.org) 4. International concerted action for collaboration in telemedicine. - Coordinator: Canada (Andre Lacroix, lacroixa@ere.umontreal.ca; URL: http:// www.g7sp4.org) 5. Enabling mechanisms for a global healthcare network, including Internet connectivity. - Coordinator: UK (Ray Rogers, r.rogers@mcmail.com; URL: http://www.ehto.be/sp5) 6. International harmonisation of the use of data cards in healthcare: Internet Connectivity Coordinator: USA (Elliot R. Siegel, siegel@nlm.nih.gov; URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/) - Smart Cards and information exchange security in health care Joint Coordinators: France, European Commission, Italy and Germany (Jacques Sauret, jacques.sauret@sante.gouv.fr and G8-HC@sesam-vitale.fr; URL: http:/www.sesam-vitale.fr/Projects/Netlink-G7-En/) 7. Evidence and effectiveness. - Coordinator: Canada (Andrew Penn, andrew. penn@ualberta.ca; URL: http://www.medlib.com/spi/web.htm) 8. Multilingual anatomical digital database. - Coordinator: USA (Michael J. Ackermann; URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov) 9. Medical image reference centre. - Coordinator: Japan (Eturo Kashiwagi

  16. Gold and Copper Partitioning Between Vapor and Brine at 800° C and 100 MPa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Candela, P.; Piccoli, P.; Pettke, T.; Heinrich, C.

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies of fluid inclusions from porphyry-type ore deposits indicate that, although a magmatic brine may have been responsible for the generation of these deposits, high-concentrations of Au and Cu may exist in low-salinity vapor-bearing fluid inclusions as well (Ulrich et al., 1999, Nature, 399, 676). Experimental studies of Au (Frank et al., 2001, 11th Goldschmidt Conf., #3773) and Cu (Williams et al., 1995, CMP, v. 121, 388) have indicated that those elements will partition into a high-salinity brine relative to a low-salinity vapor in a sulfur-poor environment. To this point, the conditions under which Au and Cu will partition into a vapor relative to a brine have not been reproduced experimentally. Therefore, the question we wish to address is: Under what conditions will Au and Cu partition preferentially into a vapor relative to a brine? In an attempt to answer this, we performed experiments in the brine-vapor-haplogranitic melt-intermediate solid solution-pyrrhotite-quartz system at 800° C, 100 MPa and oxygen fugacity buffered by Ni-NiO. The coexisting brine ( ~68wt.% NaCl equivalent) and vapor ( ~3wt.% NaCl equivalent) were composed of NaCl+KCl+HCl+H2O, with starting HCl set to either ~160 or ~1600 ppm in the aqueous mixture. Vapor and brine bearing fluid inclusions were trapped in quartz during the experiment. Select fluid inclusions were drilled out of polished quartz samples using an ArF Excimer laser (output energy of 220 mJ at 30 kV) and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ELAN 6000). Counts of Au, Cu, Fe, and K were related to those of Na (internal standard) to calculate concentrations of those elements in the fluid inclusions. Analyses revealed that at ~160 ppm HCl in the aqueous mixture, Au and Cu partitioned preferentially into the brine with partition coefficients of ~14 and ~7, respectively. Au and Cu partition coefficients were ~2 and ~8 at ~1600 ppm HCl in the aqueous mixture. These data indicate that Au and Cu

  17. An interpretation of the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results based on new permittivity measurements of porous water ice and ice-basaltic/organic dust mixtures suggests an increase of porosity with depth in 67P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Sabouroux, Pierre; Neves, Luisa; Encrenaz, Pierre; Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Kofman, Wlodek; Le Gall, Alice; Ciarletti, Valérie; Hérique, Alain; Lethuillier, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The CONSERT bistatic radar on Rosetta and Philae sounded the interior of the small lobe of 67P/C-G at 90 MHz and determined the average of the real part of the complex permittivity (hereafter ɛ') to be equal to 1.27±0.05 [1,2]. The permittivity probe (PP) of the SESAME package sounded the near-surface in the 400-800 Hz range and derived a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45±0.20 [3,4]. At the time of the measurements, the temperature was found to be below 150 K at Philae's location and expected to be close or below 100 K inside the nucleus [4-6].The complex permittivity depends of the frequency, the composition, the porosity and the temperature of the material [7,8,9]. These parameters have to be taken into account to interpret the permittivity values. The non-dispersive behavior of ɛ' below 150 K [9], allows us to compare the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results and to interpret their difference in terms of porosity and/or composition. For this purpose we use a semi-empirical formula obtained from reproducible permittivity measurements performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice particles and ice-basaltic dust mixtures [10], with a controlled porosity in the 26-91% range and dust-to-ice volumetric ratios in the 0.1-2.8 range. The influence of the presence of organic materials on ɛ' is also discussed based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter [11]. Our results suggest an increase of the porosity of the small lobe of 67P with depth [11], in agreement Lethuillier et al. [4]'s conclusion using a different method.[1]Kofman et al., 1998. Adv. Space Res., 21, 1589.[2]Ciarletti et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A40.[3]Seidensticker et al., 2007. Space Sci. Rev., 128, 301.[4]Lethuillier et al., 2016. A&A, 591, A32.[5]Spohn et al., 2015. Science, 349, aab0464.[6]Festou et al. (Eds.), Comets II. Univ. of Arizona Press.[7]Campbell and Ulrichs, 1969. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5867.[8]Brouet et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A39.[9]Mattei et al., 2014. Icarus

  18. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Have Cardiac Repolarization Disturbances when Travelling to Altitude: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Acetazolamide

    PubMed Central

    Latshang, Tsogyal Daniela; Kaufmann, Barbara; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Ulrich, Silvia; Furian, Michael; Kohler, Malcolm; Thurnheer, Robert; Saguner, Ardan Muammer; Duru, Firat; Bloch, Konrad Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) promotes myocardial electrical instability and may predispose to nocturnal sudden cardiac death. We evaluated whether hypobaric hypoxia during altitude travel further impairs cardiac repolarization in patients with OSA, and whether this is prevented by acetazolamide, a drug known to improve oxygenation and central sleep apnea at altitude. Methods: Thirty-nine OSA patients living < 600 m, discontinued continuous positive airway pressure therapy during studies at 490 m and during two sojourns of 3 days at altitude (2 days at 1860 m, 1 day at 2590 m). During one altitude sojourn, patients took acetazolamide, during the other placebo, or vice versa, according to a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Twelve-lead electrocardiography and pulse oximetry (SpO2) were recorded during nocturnal polysomnography. Heart rate corrected mean QT intervals during the entire night (meanQTc) and during 1 min of the night with the longest meanQTc (maxQTc) were determined. Results: At 490 m the median nocturnal SpO2 was 93%, medians of meanQTc and maxQTc were 420 ms and 478 ms. At 2590 m, on placebo, SpO2 was lower (85%), and meanQTc and maxQTc were prolonged to 430 ms and 510 ms (P < 0.02 vs. 490 m, all corresponding comparisons). At 2590 m on acetazolamide, median SpO2 was increased to 88% (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), meanQTc was reduced to 427 ms (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), whereas maxQTc remained increased at 502 ms (P = ns vs. placebo). Conclusions: At 2590 m OSA patients experienced cardiac repolarization disturbances in association with hypoxemia. Prolongation of meanQTc at altitude was prevented and hypoxemia was improved by acetazolamide, whereas maxQTc remained increased suggesting imperfect protection from repolarization disturbances. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NTC-00714740. URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov Citation: Latshang TD, Kaufmann B, Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y, Ulrich S, Furian M, Kohler M, Thurnheer R

  19. The Lithological Constraint To Gas Hydrate Formation: Evidence OF Grain Size Of Sediments From IODP 311 On CASCADIA Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2006-12-01

    A total of 614 sediment samples at intervals of about 1.5 m from all 5 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 on Cascadia Margin were analyzed using a Beckman Coulter LS-230 Particle Analyzer. The grain-size data were then plotted in depth and compared with other proxies of gas hydrate- occurrence such as soupy/mousse-like structures in sediments, gas hydrate concentration (Sh) derived from LWD data using Archie's relation, IR core images (infrared image) and the recovered samples of gas hydrate¨Cbearing sediments. A good relationship between the distribution of coarse grains in size of 31-63¦Ìm and 63-125¦Ìm sediments and the potential occurrence of gas hydrate was found across the entire gas hydrate stability zone. The depth distribution of grain size from the Site U1326 shows clear excursions at depths of 5-8, 21-26, 50- 123, 132-140, 167-180, 195-206 and 220-240 mbsf, which coincide with the potential occurrence of gas hydrate suggested by soupy/mousse-like structures, logging-derived gas hydrate concentrations (Sh) and the recovered samples of the gas hydrate¨Cbearing sand layers. The lithology of sediments significantly affects the formation of gas hydrate. Gas hydrate forms preferentially within relatively coarse grain-size sediments above 31 ¦Ìm. Key words: grain size of sediments, constraint, occurrence of gas hydrate, IODP 311 IODP Expedition 311 Scientists: Michael Riedel (Co-chief Scientist), Timothy S. Collett (Co-chief Scientist), Mitchell Malone (Expedition Project Manager/Staff Scientist), Gilles Gu¨¨rin, Fumio Akiba, Marie-Madeleine Blanc-Valleron, Michelle Ellis, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Verena Heuer, Yosuke Higashi, Melanie Holland, Peter D. Jackson, Masanori Kaneko, Miriam Kastner, Ji-Hoon Kim, Hiroko Kitajima, Philip E. Long, Alberto Malinverno, Greg Myers, Leena D. Palekar, John Pohlman, Peter Schultheiss, Barbara Teichert, Marta E. Torres, Anne M. Tr¨¦hu, Jiasheng Wang, Ulrich G. Wortmann, Hideyoshi

  20. OBITUARY: Maurice Jacob (1933 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quercigh, Emanuele; Šándor, Ladislav

    2008-04-01

    Maurice Jacob passed away on 2 May 2007. With his death, we have lost one of the founding fathers of the ultra-relativistic heavy ion programme. His interest in high-energy nuclear physics started in 1981 when alpha alpha collisions could first be studied in the CERN ISR. An enthusiastic supporter of ion beam experiments at CERN, Maurice was at the origin of the 1982 Quark Matter meeting in Bielefeld [1] which brought together more than 100 participants from both sides of the Atlantic, showing a good enthusiastic constituency for such research. There were twice as many the following year at Brookhaven. Finally in the mid-eighties, a heavy ion programme was approved both at CERN and at Brookhaven involving as many nuclear as particle physicists. It was the start of a fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration which is nowadays continuing both at RHIC and at LHC. Maurice followed actively the development of this field, reporting at a number of conferences and meetings (Les Arcs, Bielefeld, Beijing, Brookhaven, Lenox, Singapore, Taormina,...). This activity culminated in 2000, when Maurice, together with Ulrich Heinz, summarized the main results of the CERN SPS heavy-ion experiments and the evidence was obtained for a new state of matter [2]. Maurice was a brilliant theoretical physicist. His many contributions have been summarized in a recent article in the CERN Courier by two leading CERN theorists, John Ellis and Andre Martin [3]. The following is an excerpt from their article: `He began his research career at Saclay and, while still a PhD student, he continued brilliantly during a stay at Brookhaven. It was there in 1959 that Maurice, together with Giancarlo Wick, developed the helicity amplitude formalism that is the basis of many modern theoretical calculations. Maurice obtained his PhD in 1961 and, after a stay at Caltech, returned to Saclay. A second American foray was to SLAC, where he and Sam Berman made the crucial observation that the point-like structures

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

    2009-06-01

    regard to the energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays. The remaining contributions are of a more theoretical nature and discuss propagation (T Stanev), the time structure of multi-messenger signals (G H W Sigl), ultra-high energy cosmic ray production near black holes (A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev), production in jets associated with black holes (C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J Finke and A Atoyan) and emission from a specific object, Cen A (M Kachelriess, S S Ostapchenko and R Tomas). Additionally the potential of high energy cosmic rays to give information about features of hadronic interactions, specifically the cross-section for p-air collisions, is discussed in the paper by R Ulrich et al. We thank all our authors most sincerely for their efforts and Tim Smith and his editorial team for their hard work. We believe that this collection of articles will be of great value to workers in the field: further contributions to this focus issue will be published during the course of 2009. Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays Contents The cosmic ray energy spectrum as measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory Giorgio Matthiae The northern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory Johannes Blümer and the Pierre Auger Collaboration Searching for new physics with ultrahigh energy cosmic rays Floyd W Stecker and Sean T Scully On the measurement of the proton-air cross section using air shower data R Ulrich, J Blümer, R Engel, F Schüssler and M Unger High energy radiation from Centaurus A M Kachelrieß, S Ostapchenko and R Tomàs Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from black hole jets of radio galaxies C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J D Finke and A Atoyan Ultra-high energy cosmic ray production in the polar cap regions of black hole magnetospheres A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev Time structure and multi-messenger signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources Günter Sigl Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays Todor Stanev Search for the end of the energy

  2. PREFACE: A Short History of the Surphon Workshop Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. Peter

    2004-07-01

    It all began in 1979 when Bruce Doak decided to leave MIT after a year of graduate school to come to Göttingen to do something new. Within a year he succeeded in putting together a novel helium atom surface scattering apparatus, with which the first surface phonon dispersion curves were measured on the LiF surface out to the zone boundary [1]. To help us understand these results we invited Giorgio Benedek to Göttingen in June 1980. Giorgio then was a regular guest in the lattice dynamics theory group of Heinz Bilz, a director at the Max Planck Institut für Festköroperforschung in Stuttgart. Heinz Bilz at that time was developing models for phonons in metals in which the electron degrees of freedom were modeled by assigning multipole deformabilities to the ion cores [2]. This explains his excitement, when in 1983 he heard through Giorgio Benedek that another PhD student, Ulrich Harten [3], had succeeded in another apparatus (HUGO I) in our Institut to measure the surface phonon dispersion curves on Ag(111) [4]. Both Benedek and Bilz were especially fascinated by the discovery of a second dispersion curve at frequencies above the ubiquitous Rayligh mode. This prompted Bilz to organize on short notice an informal gathering in his Institut on `Oberflächenstatistik and dynamik'. My opening lecture on the new experiments was followed by six half hour theoretical lectures including talks by Fritz de Wette and by Giorgio Benedek, the pioneers in realistic calculations of surface dispersion curves on alkali halide surfaces. This was the birthday of the Surphon Series. The official conference names, organizers, venues, dates and numbers of participants of all the Surphon meetings held since are listed below: Statics and Dynamics of Surfaces, H Bilz (Max-Planck-Insitut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, 27 September 1983) 7 speakers Statics and Dynamics of Surfaces, J P Toennies (Max-Planck-Insitut für Strömungsforschung, Göttingen, 15 June 1984) 11 speakers, 31

  3. SU-C-BRB-04: Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of the First Commercial MLC for a Robotic Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerweger, C; Prins, P; Coskan, H; Heijmen, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess characteristics and performance of the “Incise™” MLC (41 leaf pairs, 2.5mm width, FFF linac) mounted on the robotic SRS/SBRT platform “CyberKnife M6™” in a pre-clinical 5 months (11/2014–03/2015) test period. Methods: Beam properties were measured with unshielded diodes and EBT3 film. The CyberKnife workspace for MLC was analyzed by transforming robot node coordinates (cranial / body paths) into Euler geometry. Bayouth tests for leaf / bank position accuracy were performed in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after exercising the MLC for 10+ minutes. Total system and delivery accuracy were assessed in End-to-End tests and dosimetric verification of exemplary plans. Stability over time was evaluated in Picket-Fence-and adapted Winston-Lutz-tests (AQA) for different collimator angles. Results: Penumbrae (80–20%, with 100%=2*dose at inflection point; SAD 80cm; 10cm depth) parallel / perpendicular to leaf motion were 2.87/2.64mm for the smallest (0×76×0.75cm{sup 2}) and 5.34/4.94mm for the largest (9.76×9.75cm{sup 2}) square field. MLC circular field penumbrae exceeded fixed cones by 10–20% (e.g. 60mm: 4.0 vs. 3.6mm; 20mm: 3.6 vs. 2.9mm). Interleaf leakage was <0.5%. Clinically accessible workspace with MLC covered (non-coplanar) gantry angles of [-113°;+112°] (cranial) and [-108°;+102°] (body), and collimator angles of [-100°;+107°] (cranial) and [-91°;+100°] (body). Average leaf position offsets were ≤0.2mm in 14 standard A/P Bayouth tests and ≤0.6mm in 8 non-standard direction tests. Pre-test MLC exercise increased jaggedness (range ±0.3mm vs. ±0.5mm) and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.39±0.06mm in 6 End-to-End tests. Picket-Fence and AQA showed no adverse trends during the test period. Conclusion: The Incise™ MLC for CyberKnife M6™ displayed high accuracy and mechanical stability over the test period. The

  4. Observations of CO dayglow at 4.7 μm, CO mixing ratios, and temperatures at 74 and 104-111 km on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2014-07-01

    The CO dayglow at 4.7 μm on Venus has been observed using the long-slit high-resolution spectrograph CSHELL at NASA IRTF with a resolving power of 4 × 104. The observations covered a latitude range of ±60° at local time of 07:50 at low latitudes. Solar lines in the spectra are used to measure Venus reflectivity which is found to be of 0.077 at 4.7 μm. Intensity ratio of the P2, P1, and R1 lines of the CO dayglow at the fundamental band (1-0) differs from that calculated by Crovisier et al. (Crovisier, J., Lellouch, E., de Bergh, C., Maillard, J.P., Lutz, B.L., Bezard, B. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1398-1414) and is closer to that expected at local thermodynamic equilibrium. The CO (1-0) dayglow is optically thick, its intensity weakly depends on the CO abundance and it proves poorly accessible for diagnostics of the Venus atmosphere. Six observed lines of the CO dayglow at the hot (2-1) band show a significant limb brightening typical of an optically thin airglow. Vertical intensities of the CO (2-1) band corrected for viewing angle and the Venus reflection are constant at 3.3 MR in the latitude range of ±50° at a solar zenith angle of 64°. Rotational temperatures of the CO (2-1) dayglow should reflect ambient temperature near 111 km. The observed temperatures are slightly higher on the south with a mean value of 203 K. A model of the CO (2-1) dayglow has been improved. The CO (v = 2) molecules are excited by absorption of the sunlight at the CO (2-0) and (3-0) bands at 2.35 and 1.58 μm and photolysis of CO2 by the solar Lyman-alpha emission. The dayglow is quenched by CO2, and the calculated mean dayside intensity is 3.1 MR. The weighted-mean dayglow altitude is 104 km. Variations of the dayglow with CO abundance and solar zenith angle are calculated and presented. Then the model results are used to convert the observed dayglow intensities into CO abundances at 104 km. The retrieved CO mixing ratios are constant from 50°S to 50°N with a mean value

  5. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Palm Spring and Mecca Formations, Mecca Hills, CA: spatial variation of vertical axis rotation in the Coachella Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Fattaruso, L.; McNabb, J. C.; Dorsey, R. J.; Messe, G. T.; Cooke, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Our stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Mecca Hills includes 52 sites from the upper member of the Palm Spring Fm in a section NE of the Painted Canyon fault (the upper section), and 57 sites from the Mecca Fm and lower and upper members of the Palm Spring Fm in Painted Canyon SW of the Painted Canyon Fault. Initial magnetostratigraphic results indicate the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary occurs within the upper Painted Canyon section, and the basal units (Mecca Fm and lower member of the Palm Spring Fm) are predominately reverse polarity. We thus infer the section to be largely within the Matuyama Chron, less than 2.5 Ma in age. Sites from the upper section from the upper member of the Palm Spring Fm have mean directions of D = 350, I = 58, α95 = 5 for normal sites, D = 176, I = -55, α95 = 14 for reverse sites. Results from the lower Painted Canyon section have mean directions of D = 190, I = -68 α95 = 16 for the Mecca Fm, D = 202, I = -30, α95 = 11 for the lower member of the Palm Spring Fm, and D = 187, I = -40, α95 = 9 for the upper member of the Palm Spring Fm. These results indicate modest CCW rotation of 5-10° in the section NE of the Painted Canyon fault, and larger (10-20°) CW rotation in the section SW of the Painted Canyon fault. The Borrego Badlands are bordered by dextral strike slip faults of the San Jacinto fault zone. Results from 54 paleomagnetic sites from the Pliocene Arroyo Diablo Fm and Plio-Pleistocene Borrego Fm in the Borrego Badlands (Housen and Dorsey, 2010) have a mean of D = 35, I = 41, α95 = 7.5. This yields an estimate of 39° CW rotation of these rocks since ~1.6 Ma. This rotation contrasts results of Lutz et al, 2006, who found no significant rotation in Borrego and Ocotillo Fm rocks NW of the Inspiration Point fault- indicating differential rotation on separate sides of the Inspiration Point fault. Prior work from the Mt Eden and San Timoteo beds, from the San Timoteo Badlands located

  6. Carbon Flux to the Deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogou*, A.; Sanchez-Vidal*, A.; Stavrakakis, S.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Calafat, A. M.; Stabholz, M.; Psarra, S.; Canals, M.; Heussner, S.; Stavrakaki, I.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2012-04-01

    seasonality of the POC production and export to depth. The fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone ranges from 7 to 15%, while the fraction of primary production exported below 2000 m depth was 0.61%, 0.34% and 0.97% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. Export rates at the BS and WMED sites found to be slightly higher, while this at the EMED site to be comparable to the global ocean average of 0.31% at 2500 m depth (Lutz et al., 2007). POC export to depth are driven by meso-scale current activity, vertical mixing events, riverine discharges and atmospheric deposition. Understanding the processes driving carbon cycle in the SES is important for assessing the impacts of the predicted climate change in this region, with an ultimate goal to be included in the global ocean carbon models. *Authors AG and AS-V contributed equally to this work

  7. Accuracy of cranial coplanar beam therapy using an oblique, stereoscopic x-ray image guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinci, Justin P.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Neck, Daniel W.

    2008-08-15

    -A axis were correlated to misalignments between laser isocenter and radiation isocenter as documented by daily clinical Lutz tests. Based on results of comparisons of measured with calculated positions of the 80% dose lines along the major anatomical axes, a 1.25, 1.0, and 1.0 mm (0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 mm) gross tumor volume (GTV)-planning target volume (PTV) margin to account for delivery error would be appropriate for the P-A, R-L, and I-S axes, respectively, for an acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (0.4 mm/0.4 deg. ). It typically took 2 (3) ExacTrac x-ray image sets to achieve and verify acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (0.4 mm/0.4 deg. ). Our results demonstrated a measurement technique using a CIRS anthropomorphic head phantom with a modified film cassette, radiographic film (Kodak EDR2) with a custom film cutting template, and film dosimetry software has been developed and successfully applied to our clinic. It is recommended that a third party offer this service. Our goal of achieving accuracy of delivery of 1 mm or better in each of the three major anatomical axes was almost, but not quite achieved, not because of the accuracy of the image guidance system, but likely due to inaccuracy of laser isocenter and other systematic errors.

  8. Accuracy of cranial coplanar beam therapy using an oblique, stereoscopic x-ray image guidance system.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Justin P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Neck, Daniel W

    2008-08-01

    correlated to misalignments between laser isocenter and radiation isocenter as documented by daily clinical Lutz tests. Based on results of comparisons of measured with calculated positions of the 80% dose lines along the major anatomical axes, a 1.25, 1.0, and 1.0 mm (0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 mm) gross tumor volume (GTV)-planning target volume (PTV) margin to account for delivery error would be appropriate for the P-A, R-L, and I-S axes, respectively, for an acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 degrees (0.4 mm/0.4 degrees). It typically took 2 (3) ExacTrac x-ray image sets to achieve and verify acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 degrees (0.4 mm/0.4 degrees). Our results demonstrated a measurement technique using a CIRS anthropomorphic head phantom with a modified film cassette, radiographic film (Kodak EDR2) with a custom film cutting template, and film dosimetry software has been developed and successfully applied to our clinic. It is recommended that a third party offer this service. Our goal of achieving accuracy of delivery of 1 mm or better in each of the three major anatomical axes was almost, but not quite achieved, not because of the accuracy of the image guidance system, but likely due to inaccuracy of laser isocenter and other systematic errors.

  9. Clinical commissioning and use of the Novalis Tx linear accelerator for SRS and SBRT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkoo; Wen, Ning; Jin, Jian-Yue; Walls, Nicole; Kim, Sangroh; Li, Haisen; Ren, Lei; Huang, Yimei; Doemer, Anthony; Faber, Kathleen; Kunkel, Tina; Balawi, Ahssan; Garbarino, Kimberly; Levin, Kenneth; Patel, Samir; Ajlouni, Munther; Miller, Brett; Nurushev, Teamor; Huntzinger, Calvin; Schulz, Raymond; Chetty, Indrin J; Movsas, Benjamin; Ryu, Samuel

    2012-05-10

    ) MLC commissioning: Winston Lutz test, light/radiation field congruence, and Picket Fence tests were performed and were within criteria established by the relevant task group reports. The measured mean MLC transmission and dynamic leaf gap of 6 MV SRS beam were 1.17% and 0.36 mm, respectively. (3) Baseline characteristics of OBI and ETX: The isocenter localization errors in the left/right, posterior/anterior, and superior/inferior directions were, respectively, -0.2 ± 0.2 mm, -0.8 ± 0.2 mm, and -0.8 ± 0.4 mm for ETX, and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5 mm, and 0.0 ± 0.5 mm for OBI cone-beam computed tomography. The registration angular discrepancy was 0.1 ± 0.2°, and the maximum robotic couch error was 0.2°. (4) End-to-end tests: The measured isocenter dose differences from the planned values were 0.8% and 0.4%, measured respectively by an ion chamber and film. The gamma pass rate, measured by EBT2 film, was 95% (3% DD and 1 mm DTA). Through a systematic series of quantitative commissioning experiments and end-to-end tests and our initial clinical experience, described in this report, we demonstrate that the NTX is a robust system, with the image guidance and MLC requirements to treat a wide variety of sites - in particular for highly accurate delivery of SRS and SBRT-based treatments.

  10. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, Garrett.; Reichmuth, David.; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Peterson, Meghan B.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Guzman, Katherine Dunphy; Edwards, Donna M.; Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters

    2012-09-01

    (GHG) emission by the LDV fleet. However, EVs alone cannot drive compliance with the most aggressiveGHG emission reduction targets, even as the current electricity source mix shifts away from coal and towardsnatural gas. Since ICEs will comprise the majority of the LDV fleet for up to forty years, conventional vehicleefficiency improvements have the greatest potential for reductions in LDV GHG emissions over this time.These findings seem robust even if global oil prices rise to two to three times current projections. Thus,investment in improving the internal combustion engine might be the cheapest, lowest risk avenue towardsmeeting ambitious GHG emission and petroleum consumption reduction targets out to 2050.3 AcknowledgmentThe authors would like to thank Dr. Andrew Lutz, Dr. Benjamin Wu, Prof. Joan Ogden and Dr. ChristopherYang for their suggestions over the course of this project. This work was funded by the Laboratory DirectedResearch and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.4

  11. PREFACE: Proceedings of the TeV Particle Astrophysics II Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, F.; Karle, A.; Montaruli, T.

    2007-03-01

    people from the various fields of Astroparticle Physics. Acknowledgements Due to the high quality of help that we received from them, we wish to acknowledge the conveners of the Working Groups mentioned in the text with the same numbering used above: 1) Felix Aharonian, Gus Sinnis, Frank Krennrich and Masahiro Teshima; 2) Piera Ghia and Tom Gaisser; 3) Laura Baudis and Gianfranco Bertone; 4) Lutz Koepke and Dan Hooper; 5) David Saltzberg and David Waters; 6) Ivone Albuquerque, Alexander Kusenko and Tom Weiler; and Bruce Allen and Guido Mueller. Special thanks also go to Tom Gaisser, who gave a comprehensive final summary of the conference. Throughout the Conference and the collection of these proceedings, Kim Kreiger constantly supported us. She was also responsible for the wonderful food available at coffee breaks and at the social dinner! (The PDF file lists the IceCube Collaboration) T Montaruli

  12. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Pisa and the librarian Pozzetti at Bologna, and Karin Reich describes and edits Bessel's book critique of Gauss' Theoria Motus. How many one-time astronomers have to earn their living in other ways, become distracted from astronomical research, and vanish from the horizon of astronomical history? In the ninth paper, Hans-Joachim Ilgauds has traced the life of Georg Koch (1851-1905), who started his career as an astronomer at Leipzig Observatory in 1874. Later Koch worked at Hamburg Observatory, and then became an employee at the statistical office in Kiel, and finally director of the statistical office of the Hamburg revenue service. He was a collaborator for the statistical yearbook of German cities, and also contributed to a book investigating the causes and the impact of the cholera epidemic of 1892 in Hamburg. The last two papers deal with the circumstances of the discovery of the first Near-Earth asteroid (433) Eros. It was recorded on photographic plates taken at the Urania-Sternwarte Berlin and at Nice Observatory. The Berlin observer Witt announced the discovery, and only later, the Nice observer Charlois published a position of Eros. While all plates have disappeared, the authors Hans Scholl and Lutz D. Schmadel could prove that the Nice plate was poorly guided and Charlois would have been unable to discover the object. From a copy of the Berlin plate, published 50 years after the discovery by Witt's co-observer F. Linke, the exact position was determined, and the time of observation (which had not been published) was derived. The second article, by Lutz D. Schmadel, deals with the life of the Eros co-discoverer Felix Linke (1879-1959), who later worked in statistic offices, was a frequent writer of popular scientific articles, and later the editor of a journal, "Technik im Hotel'', and author of a book of the same title. As can be seen from the summaries given above, this collection of essays deals mainly with historical events that occurred in Germany and

  13. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    . Also available in the online edition are (i) an interactive conference picture, (ii) the abstract book, and (iii) material on the special session `Waves, Waves and Waves'. Additional articles related to both the HELAS II and the SOHO 19/GONG 2007 conferences can be found in a topical issue of Solar Physics, volume 251, nos 1-2. Financial support was provided by the HELAS Network, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (through Ulrich Christensen and Sami Solanki) and the University of Göttingen (through Stefan Dreizler). We thank the local organizers, and in particular Sabine Deutsch, for their outstanding efforts in making the conference a success. We are also grateful to Graham Douglas and Jacky Mucklow of IoP Publishing for their help in the production of this volume. Laurent Gizon and Markus Roth Editors Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany

  14. Standard solar models, with and without helium diffusion, and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Pinsonneault, M. H.

    1992-10-01

    We first show that, with the same input parameters, the standard solar models of Bahcall and Ulrich; of Sienkiewicz, Bahcall, and Paczyński of Turck-Chièze, Cahen, Cassé, and Doom; and of the current Yale code all predict event rates for the chlorine experiment that are the same within +/-0.1 SNU (solar neutrino units), i.e., approximately 1% of the total calculated rate. We then construct new standard solar models using the Yale stellar evolution computer code supplemented with a more accurate (exportable) nuclear energy generation routine, an improved equation of state, recent determinations of element abundances, and the new Livermore (OPAL) opacity calculations. We evaluate the individual effects of different improvements by calculating a series of precise models, changing only one aspect of the solar model at a time. We next add a new subroutine that calculates the diffusion of helium with respect to hydrogen with the aid of the Bahcall-Loeb formalism. Finally, we compare the neutrino fluxes computed from our best solar models constructed with and without helium diffusion. We find that helium diffusion increases the predicted event rates by about 0.8 SNU, or 11% of the total rate, in the chlorine experiment; by about 3.5 SNU, or 3%, in the gallium experiments; and by about 12% in the Kamiokande and SNO experiments. The best standard solar model including helium diffusion and the most accurate nuclear parameters, element abundances, radiative opacity, and equation of state predicts a value of 8.0+/-3.0 SNU for the 37Cl experiment and 132+21-17 SNU for the 71Ga experiment. The quoted errors represent the total theoretical range and include the effects on the model predictions of 3σ errors in measured input parameters. All 15 calculations since 1968 of the predicted rate in the chlorine experiment given in this series of papers are consistent with both the range estimated in the present work and the 1968 best-estimate value of 7.5+/-2.3 SNU. Including the

  15. The Martian Geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    very dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116;

  16. Unexpected mechanical properties of very dry Berea sandstone near 45°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. A.; Darling, T. W.; TenCate, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Office of Basic Energy Sciences]. [1] B. R. Tittmann, L. Ahlberg, and J. Curnow, "Internal friction and velocity measurements," Proc. of 7th Lunar Science Conference , pp. 3123-3132, 1997. [2] K. E.-A. Van Den Abeele, J. Carmeliet, P. A. Johnson, and B. Zinszner, "Influence of water saturation on the nonlinear elastic mesoscopic response in Earth materials and the implications to the mechanism of nonlinearity," Journal of Geophysical Research 107, p. 2121, June 2002. [3] "Dynamic Measures of Elastic Nonlinear (Anelastic) Behavior: Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity Testing (DAET)," G. Renaud, P-Y Le Bas, J. A. TenCate, T. J. Ulrich, J. W. Carey, J. Han, T.W. Darling and P. A. Johnson, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 2011. [4] "Water and CO2 chemistry influences on the mechanical integrity of rocks," T.W. Darling, P-Y Le Bas, J. W. Carey, P. A. Johnson and R. A. Miller, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 2010.

  17. Amine-Promoted Organosilicate Hydrolysis Mechanism at Near-Neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delak, K. M.; Sahai, N.

    2006-12-01

    ., Deutzmann R. and Sumper M. (1999) Science 286, 1129. [2] Cha J.N., Shimizu K., Zhou Y., Christiansen S.C., Chmelka B. F., Stucky G. D. and Morse D. E. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 361. [3] Delak K.M. and Sahai N. (2006) J. Phys. Chem. B., 110, DOI: 10.1021/jp062054m [4] Delak K.M. and Sahai N. (2005a) Chem. Materials, 17, 3221. [5] Delak K.M., Farrar T.C. and Sahai N. (2005b) J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 351, 2244. [6] Corriu R.J.P., Leclercq D., Vioux A., Pauthe M., Phalippou J. (1988) In Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Ceramics; Eds. Mackenzie J.D. and Ulrich D.R., Wiley, New York; pp.113-126. [7] Delak K.M. and Sahai N. (2006) unpublished results. [8] Iler R. K. (1979) The Chemistry of Silica. Wiley, New York, p. 174.

  18. EDITORIAL: Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014 Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. G.

    2014-02-01

    from receipt-to-first decision of a paper is only 50 days. In 2014 we will continue to support the low-temperature plasma physics community through the publication of special topical issues. Those already scheduled for next year are: Transport in B-fields in low temperature plasmas, Guest Editors: Rod Boswell and Igor D Kaganovich Spots and patterns on electrodes of gas discharges, Guest Editors: Mikhail S Benilov and Ulrich Kogelschatz Interaction of electromagnetic waves with low temperature plasmas, Guest Editors: Osamu Sakai and Shahid Rauf We will also launch a new feature: LabTalks, a way in which our authors can showcase their group's work and communicate their research published in PSST to a wider audience. Full details are on the PSST website. Along with the leadership team, made up of Associate Editors, Anne, Nick and Richard and the great PSST staff at Institute of Physics Publishing, led by Alice Malhador, I will strive to grow, improve and deliver a journal which reflects the excellent science from the low-temperature plasma community. We hope we can continue to count on your vital support as authors and referees.

  19. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2005-08-01

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  20. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  1. The Martian geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Di Achille, G.; Duxbury, T.; Erkeling, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Gupta, S.; Head, J. W.; Hiesinger, H.; Ip, W.; Keller, H.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Kneissl, T.; Le Deit, L.; McCord, T. B.; Muller, J.; Murray, J. J.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pinet, P. C.; Reiss, D.; Rossi, A.; Spohn, T.; Tirsch, D.; Williams, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    and volcanic processes, respectively. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116; [27]Hauber et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am. 483.

  2. 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also

  3. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    initial contact with the journal. Leopoldo Soto President, Chilean Physical Society Head of Plasma Department, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission Editors: Leopoldo Soto, José Moreno, Ricardo Ávila, Karla Cubillos Scientific Committee Physicists from various research institutions, specialty areas, and regions of the country were invited by the Board of SOCHIFI to join the Symposium Scientific Committee, which was formed by: Julio Yánez, Universidad de Antofagasta Sergio del Campo, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Patricio Vargas, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María Rodrigo Soto, Universidad de Chile Ulrich Volkmann, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Víctor Muñoz, Universidad de Chile Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Luis Huerta, Universidad de Talca Patricio Salgado, Universidad de Concepción Luis Roa, Universidad de Concepción Asticio Vargas, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco Cristian Martínez, Centro de Estudios Científicos, Valdivia Organizing Commitee Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Erik Herrera, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear José Moreno, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Andrea Rozas, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Gonzalo Gutiérrez, Universidad de Chile Executive Board, Chilean Physical Society April 2006 - April 2008 Leopoldo Soto, President Joel Saavedra, Secretary Rodrigo Aros: Treasurer Rodolfo Figueroa: Director Luis Huerta: Director Conference photograph

  4. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C

  5. EDITORIAL: The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páll Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2012-03-01

    AndersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Pia BomholtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hafliði P GíslasonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Haraldur Páll GunnlaugssonAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark John HansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Britta JohansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Volodymyr KhranovskyyLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Arne Nylandsted LarsenAarhus University, Denmark Helge MalmbekkUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik Stensrud MarsteinInstitute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway Antonio MartiUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Torben MølholtUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Sveinn ÓlafssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Thomas PedersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Thomas Garm PedersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Dirch Hjorth PetersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Vincent QuemenerUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Henry RadamsonKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Bahman RaeissiUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Jonatan SlotteAalto University, Aalto, Finland Xin SongUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Einar Örn SveinbjörnssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Mikael SyväjärviLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Chi Kwong TangUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik V ThomsenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Christian UhrenfeldtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hans Ulrik UlriksenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Muhammad UsmanKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Lasse VinesUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Ulrich WahlUnidade de Física e Aceleradores, Sacavém, Portugal Helge WemanNTNU, Trondheim, Norway Gerd WeyerAarhus University, Denmark

  6. Detailed thermal fingerprinting of obduction-related processes: insights from Northern New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale Brovarone, A.; Agard, P.; Monié, P.; Chauvet, A.

    2012-04-01

    ): geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics 340 (1-2), 23-59. [2] Ulrich, M., Picard C., Guillot S., Chauvel C., Cluzel D., Meffre S. (2010) The New Caledonia Ophiolite : multiple Stage of melting and refertilisation process as indicators of ridge to subduction formation. Lithos. doi 10.1016/j.lithos.2009.12.011. [3] Brothers, R. N. & Blake, M. C., 1972. Tertiary plate tectonics and high-pressure metamorphism in New Caledonia. Tectonophysics, 17, 359-391. [4] Fitzherbert, J. A., Clarke, G. L. & Powell, R., 2003. Lawsonite- omphacite bearing metabasites of the Pam Peninsula, NE New Caledonia: Evidence for disrupted blueschist to eclogite facies conditions. Journal of Petrology, 44, 1805-1831. [5] Spandler, C., & Hermann, J., 2006. High-pressure veins in eclogite from New Caledonia and their significance for fluid migration in subduction zones. Lithos, 89 (1-2). pp. 135-153. ISSN 1872-6143 [6] Beyssac, O., Goffé, B., Chopin, C. & Rouzaud, J.N., 2002. Raman spectra of carbonaceous material in metasediments: a new geothermometer. J. Metamorph. Geol., 20, 859-871. [7] Lahfid, A., Beyssac, O., Deville, E., Negro, F., Chopin, C. & Goffé, B., 2010. Evolution of the Raman spectrum of carbonaceous material in low-grade metasediments of the Glarus Alps (Switzerland). Terra Nova, 22: 354-360. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2010.00956.x

  7. Utilizing the International GeoSample Number Concept during ICDP Expedition COSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Ulbricht, Damian; Gorgas, Thomas; Elger, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    facility. This CurationDIS assigns IGSNs on samples newly taken in the repository in the identical fashion as done in the field. Thereby, the parent-child linkage of the IGSNs is ensured consistently throughout the entire sampling process. The only difference between ExpeditionDIS and CurationDIS sample curation is using the name space ICDP and BGRB respectively as part of the corresponding ID string. To prepare the IGSN registry, a set of metadata is generated for every assigned IGSN using the DIS, which is then exported from the DIS into one common xml-file. The xml-file is based on the SESAR schema and a proposal of IGSN e.V. (http://schema.igsn.org). This systematics has been recently extended for drilling data to achieve additional information for future retrieval options. The two allocation agents GFZ Potsdam und PANGAEA are currently involved in the registry of IGSNs in the case of COSC drill campaigns. An example for the IGSN registration of the COSC-1 drill hole A (5054_1_A) is "ICDP5054EEW1001" and can be resolved using the URL http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001. Opening the landing page for the complete COSC core material for this particular hole showcases graphically a hierarchical tree entitled "Sample Family". An example of an IGSN citation associated with a COSC sample set is featured on an EGU-2016 poster presentation by Ulrich Harms, Johannes Hierold et al. (EGU2016-8646).

  8. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    -like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    -like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Alejandro; Pfau, Tilman

    2008-04-01

    molecules L Wang, A Rastelli, S Kiravittaya, P Atkinson, F Ding, C C Bof Bufon, C Hermannstädter, M Witzany, G J Beirne, P Michler and O G Schmidt Effective parameters for weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates S Giovanazzi, J Esteve and M K Oberthaler Current statistics of correlated charge tunnelling through an impurity in a 1D wire Alexander Herzog and Ulrich Weiss Sideband cooling and coherent dynamics in a microchip multi-segmented ion trap Stephan A Schulz, Ulrich Poschinger, Frank Ziesel and Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler The trapped two-dimensional Bose gas: from Bose-Einstein condensation to Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless physics Z Hadzibabic, P Krüger, M Cheneau, S P Rath and J Dalibard Dynamical protection of quantum computation from decoherence in laser-driven cold-ion and cold-atom systems Goren Gordon and Gershon Kurizki Spin-flip and spin-conserving optical transitions of the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond Ph Tamarat, N B Manson, J P Harrison, R L McMurtrie, A Nizovtsev, C Santori, R G Beausoleil, P Neumann, T Gaebel, F Jelezko, P Hemmer and J Wrachtrup Superconductivity in the attractive Hubbard model: functional renormalization group analysis R Gersch, C Honerkamp and W Metzner Quantum stability of Mott-insulator states of ultracold atoms in optical resonators Jonas Larson, Sonia Fernández-Vidal, Giovanna Morigi and Maciej Lewenstein

  11. PREFACE New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B.; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2010-11-01

    , Di Cao and Stuart Lindsay Probing DNA with micro- and nanocapillaries and optical tweezers L J Steinbock, O Otto, D R Skarstam, S Jahn, C Chimerel, J L Gornall and U F Keyser Fabrication of nanopores with embedded annular electrodes and transverse carbon nanotube electrodes Zhijun Jiang, Mirna Mihovilovic, Jason Chan and Derek Stein Fabrication and electrical characterization of a pore-cavity-pore device D Pedone, M Langecker, A M Münzer, R Wei, R D Nagel and U Rant Use of tunable nanopore blockade rates to investigate colloidal dispersions G R Willmott, R Vogel, S S C Yu, L G Groenewegen, G S Roberts, D Kozak, W Anderson and M Trau Facilitated translocation of polypeptides through a single nanopore Robert Bikwemu, Aaron J Wolfe, Xiangjun Xing and Liviu Movileanu Mechanistic insight into gramicidin-based detection of protein-ligand interactions via sensitized photoinactivation Tatyana I Rokitskaya, Michael X Macrae, Steven Blake, Natalya S Egorova, Elena A Kotova, Jerry Yang and Yuri N Antonenko Sequence-dependent unfolding kinetics of DNA hairpins studied by nanopore force spectroscopy Stephan Renner, Andrey Bessonov, Ulrich Gerland and Friedrich C Simmel Hydration properties of mechanosensitive channel pores define the energetics of gating A Anishkin, B Akitake, K Kamaraju, C-S Chiang and S Sukharev Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers Andy Sischka, Andre Spiering, Maryam Khaksar, Miriam Laxa, Janine König, Karl-Josef Dietz and Dario Anselmetti Force fluctuations assist nanopore unzipping of DNA V Viasnoff, N Chiaruttini, J Muzard and U Bockelmann Control and reversal of the electrophoretic force on DNA in a charged nanopore Binquan Luan and Aleksei Aksimentiev The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD Raimund Haarmann, Mohamed Ibrahim, Mara Stevanovic, Rolf Bredemeier and Enrico Schleiff Structural and dynamical properties of the porins OmpF and OmpC: insights from

  12. Potential Mars Surveyor 2001 landing sites: Low-elevation cratered "highlands" in central and eastern Sinus Meridiani and near Amenthes Fossae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Parker, T. J.; Huntwork, S. N.

    1998-01-01

    proximity (the base place on Mars to do so). There are no high resolution (better than 100 m/pixel) Viking or Mariner images of this site. (2) Central Sinus Meridiani Region (proposed by K. S. Edgett and T. J. Parker) Central Sinus Meridiani is characterized by two types of surfaces [4]. One is like typical martian cratered highlands elsewhere - there are old valley networks and old impact craters. The other is relatively smooth and flat. These two units are in contact around 3.1°S between 5°W and 4°E longitudes. Valley networks - including one at 6°S, 358°°W that rivals the Grand Canyon of Arizona - once drained toward the smooth unit. Edgett and Parker [4] proposed that the smooth unit might consist of sediments laid down in a large Noachian-aged sea/ocean that would have covered much of the northern hemisphere. Schultz and Lutz [11] suggested that it is a paleopolar layered deposit. Regardless, the smooth unit where it contacts the cratered terrain would make an excellent site for Athena rover to investigate. The site is best seen in Viking high resolution images from orbits 408B (~30 m/pixel) and 746A (~12 m/pixel). These images suggest that aeolian deflation has occurred along the margin of the smooth unit, and this deflation has exposed horizontal layers of material. The elevation is about 0.5 km; thermal inertias [7] are 6.5-8.0 x 10^-3 cal cm^-2 s^-0.5 K^-1; rock abundances [8] are 2-4%; and the surface is probably sandy with dark drifts and ripples but almost no actual dunes [5]. We suggest a landing around 3.2°S, 3.0°W would test the aqueous sediment hypothesis and provide a potentially smooth surface on which to land. (3) Amenthes Fossae Region (proposed by S. N. Huntwork and K. S. Edgett) The Amenthes Fossae are a series of graben/fissures that are circumferential to the southeast side of Isidis Planitia. These fissures cross a variety of ancient, heavily cratered Noachian terrain and younger, Hesperian and Amazonian terrain [12]. We focused our search

  13. The Age of the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    , the unconsolidated material gradually becomes indurated (perhaps through compression or interaction with the atmosphere) until it reaches a point where it can begin eroding into yardangs again. Lava flows, which remain relatively stable through time, make useful chronological markers for where the unit is and where it used to be. Recognition of remnant contacts between MFF and lava units is helpful in unravelling relationships between the MFF and lava units where direct contacts are not available. Lava unit contacts suggest that parts of the MFF may be older than previously hypothesized, perhaps Hesperian. This conclusion is consistent with the presence of fluvial channels within the deposit and relaxes the time constraint on its emplacement. References [1] Bradley, B.A. and Sakimoto, S.E.H. (2002) JGR, 107, E8. [2] Scott, D.H. and Tanaka, K.L. (1986) USGS Misc. Invest. Ser. Map I-1802-A. [3] Greeley, R. and Guest, J. (1987) USGS Misc. Inv. Series Map I-1802-B. [4] Schultz, P.H. and Lutz, A.B. (1988) Icarus 73, 91-141 [5] Schultz, P.H. (2006) Plan. Chron. Workshop, Abs. 6024. [6] Schultz, P.H. (2007) Science 318, 1080-1081. [7] Zimbelman, J.R. (2000) GSA Abs. Prog., 32(7), A303. [8] Edgett K.S. and Williams R.M.E. (2006) LPSC XXXVI, Abs. 1099. [9] Bradley, B.A. and Sakimoto, S.E.H. (2001) LPSC XXXII, Abs. 1335. [10] Tanaka, K.L. (2000) Icarus 144(2), 254-266. [11] Greeley et al. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96(1-4), 393-404. [12] Scott, D.H. and Tanaka, K.L. (1982) JGR 87(B2), 1179-1190.

  14. Observations of D/H ratios in H2O, HCl, and HF on Venus and new DCl and DF line strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Belyaev, D. A.; Gordon, I. E.; Li, G.; Rothman, L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Intensities of the spectral lines in the fundamental bands of D35Cl and DF were calculated using the semi-empirical dipole moment functions derived from the most accurate and precise measurements of intensities of the ro-vibrational lines of H35Cl and HF. Values obtained in this way for the deuterated species are superior to any available measured or calculated data to date. Our study of the D/H ratios in H2O, HCl, and HF on Venus is based on spatially-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using the CSHELL spectrograph at NASA IRTF. Search for DF on Venus using its R5 (1-0) line at 3024.054 cm-1 results in a DF mixing ratio of 0.23 ± 0.11 ppb that corresponds to (D/H)HF = 420 ± 200 times that in the Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). H2O abundances on Venus were retrieved using lines at 3022.366 and 3025.761 cm-1 that were observed at an exceptionally low overhead telluric water abundance of 0.3 pr. mm. The measured H2O mixing ratios at 74 km vary insignificantly between 55°S and 55°N with a mean value of 3.2 ppm. When compared with simultaneous observations of HDO near 2722 cm-1, this results in (D/H)H2O = 95 ± 15 times SMOW. Reanalysis of the observation of the D35Cl R4 (1-0) line at 2141.540 cm-1 (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2012b]. Icarus 219, 244-249) using the improved line strength and more thorough averaging of the spectra gives (D/H)HCl = 190 ± 50 times SMOW. The similarity of the measured (D/H)H2O = 95 ± 15 at 74 km with 120 ± 40 observed by De Bergh et al. (De Bergh, C., Bezard, B., Owen, T., Crisp, D., Maillard, J.P., Lutz, B.L. [1991]. Science 251, 547-549) below the clouds favors the constant (D/H)H2O from the surface to the mesosphere, in accord with the prediction by theory. D/H ≈ 100 removes a difference of a factor of 2 between H2O abundances in the observations by Krasnopolsky (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2010b]. Icarus 209, 314-322) and the Venus Express nadir observations (Cottini, V., Ignatiev, N.I., Piccioni, G., Drossart, P., Grassi, D., Markiewicz

  15. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    investigating organic solar cell technology. In spring 2011, Nanotechnology launches a new section wholly dedicated to the coverage of new and stimulating research into energy sources based on nanoscale science and technology. There is at present considerable concern over how to fuel the planet in a sustainable manner with the increasingly energy-thirsty human population. Yet the Earth receives more solar energy in one hour than the world population consumes in one year [8]. No wonder research into photovoltaics and ways of increasing the efficiency with which this energy can be harnessed continues to hold so much fascination. References [1] Levin I and White C E 1949 J. Chem. Phys. 18 417 [2] Chirvase D, Parisi J, Hummelen J C and Dyakonov V 2004 Nanotechnology 15 1317 [3] Kwong C Y, Choy W C H, Djurišić A B, Chui P C, Cheng K W and Chan W K 2004 Nanotechnology 15 1156 [4] Krebs F C, Thomann Y, Thomann R and Andreasen J W 2008 Nanotechnology 19 424013 [5] Zeng T-W, Lin Y-Y, Lo H-H, Chen C-W, Chen C-H, Liou S-C, Huang H-Y and Su W-F 2006 Nanotechnology 17 5387 [6] Dissanayake D M N M, Hatton R A, Lutz T, Curry R J and Silva S R P 2009 Nanotechnology 20 245202 [7] Nicholson P G and Castro F A 2010 Nanotechnology 21 492001 [8] http://www.solarenergyworld.org/solar-energy-facts/

  16. PREFACE: Seventh International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Wim J.

    2009-09-01

    possible by generous sponsors, whom we thank wholeheartedly: The Radboud University Nijmegen, The Institute for Molecules and Materials of the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (Stichting FOM), The Foundation PHYSICA (Stichting Physica), and The Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). The organisational support by Erna Gouwens van Oss before and during the conference was essential for its success. The help of Thanja Lambrechts and Vitali Zhaunerchyk during the preparation of the proceedings is greatly appreciated. The delay in the publication of these proceedings is entirely caused by the editor. The authors of the contributions are thanked for the quality of their contributions, Wim J van der Zande, Editor Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands Email: w.vanderzande@science.ru.nl Conference photograph Participants of the 7th International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications, taken in front of d'Amelander Kaap, the conference venue in Ameland, one of the Wadden Islands in the North of the Netherlands. 1. Dror Shafir21. Annemieke Petrignani41. Oumanou Motopan 2. Ioan Scheider22. Johanna Roos42. Max Berg 3. Nigel Adams23. Erna Gouwens van Oss43. Henrik Buhr 4. Hajime Tanuma24. Natalie de Ruette44. Ilya Fabrikant 5. Jonathan Tennyson25. Francois Wameu Tamo45. Claude Krantz 6. Vitali Zhaunerchyk26. Rainer Johnsen46. Michael Stenrup 7. Robert Continetti27. Viatcheslav Kokoouline47. Xavier Urbain 8. Stefan Rosén28. Hidekazu Takagi48. Evelyne Roueff 9. Erik Vigren29. Hans-Jakob Wörner49. Dirk Schwalm 10. Magdalena Kaminska30. Oskar Asvany50. Valery Ngassam 11. Chris Greene31. Lutz Lammich51. Julien Lecointre 12. Steffen Novotny32. Brandon Jordon-Thaden52. Ann Orel 13. Amy Schumak33. Wolf Diettrich Geppert53. Ihor Korolov 14. Gerard van Rooij34. Alexander Faure54. Romain Guerot 15. Wim van der Zande35. Mathias

  17. User-driven generation of standard data services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Laura; Granell, Carlos; Gould, Michael; Huerta, Joaquín.

    2010-05-01

    (3), 271-294. Bernard, L, U Einspanier, M Lutz & C Portele. Interoperability in GI Service Chains The Way Forward. In: M. Gould, R. Laurini & S. Coulondre (Eds.). 6th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science 2003, Lyon: 179-188. INSPIRE. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community. (2007) Masser, I. GIS Worlds: Creating Spatial Data Infrastructures. Redlands, California. ESRI Press. (2005) Masser, I., Rajabifard, A., Williamson, I. 2008. Spatially enabling governments through SDI implementation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. Vol. 22, No. 1, (2008) 5-20 Rajabifard, A., Feeney, M-E. F., Williamson, I. P. 2002. Future directions for SDI development. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 4 (2002) 11-22

  18. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    down time. In October of 2000 Hugo returned to Chile to work at CTIO. After his demonstrated technical, scientific, and social skills drumming the NOT into shape, he was the natural choice to be the CTIO staff member assigned to the 4-m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope sited at Cerro Pachon. Over the next six years Hugo worked closely with Steve Heathcote and the SOAR technical staff to improve the telescope's operational capacity. Hugo's scientific work dealt with late stages of stellar evolution, particularly planetary nebulae, and stellar polarimetry. Higher resolution optical and infrared imaging of He 2-104 led to its being known as the Southern Crab Nebula (Schwarz, Aspin, & Lutz, ApJ, L29, p. 344, 1989). Unlike the northern supernova remnant, this southern object (a nebula surrounding a symbiotic binary) looks very much like a crab. Their images of it appeared in magazines and books around the world. In 1992, along with Romano Corradi (a Ph.D. student of Hugo's) and Jorge Melnick, Schwarz published "A catalogue of narrow band images of planetary nebulae" (A&A, 96, p. 23, 1992). This was the first extensive, and still the largest, CCD image catalogue of PNe. Hugo edited the conference proceedings of a meeting held in La Serena in January 1992 (Mass Loss on the AGB and Beyond). The talks and published papers strengthened some of Hugo's ideas about the importance of evolution in binary systems, in particular the interaction of compact stellar companions and the formation of accretion disk winds and their precession in the formation of non-symmetrical planetary nebulae. In a highly cited paper, Corradi & Schwarz (A&A, 293, p. 871, 1995) were able to show that bipolar nebulae are produced from higher-mass progenitors than other morphological classes. Hugo knew that you wanted to model PNe in three dimensions, not just in two. He went on to make 3-D photoionization models of PNe with his final PhD student Hektor Monteiro (Schwarz & Monteiro, ApJ, 648

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Leaf

    2004-04-01

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before

  20. The lower atmosphere of Pluto revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    ), attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope, have now revealed that the atmosphere as a whole, not just the upper atmosphere, has a mean temperature of minus 180 degrees Celsius, and so it is indeed "much hotter" than the surface. In contrast to the Earth's atmosphere [2], most, if not all, of Pluto's atmosphere is thus undergoing a temperature inversion: the temperature is higher, the higher in the atmosphere you look. The change is about 3 to 15 degrees per kilometre. On Earth, under normal circumstances, the temperature decreases through the atmosphere by about 6 degrees per kilometre. "It is fascinating to think that with CRIRES we are able to precisely measure traces of a gas in an atmosphere 100 000 times more tenuous than the Earth's, on an object five times smaller than our planet and located at the edge of the Solar System," says co-author Hans-Ulrich Käufl. "The combination of CRIRES and the VLT is almost like having an advanced atmospheric research satellite orbiting Pluto." The reason why Pluto's surface is so cold is linked to the existence of Pluto's atmosphere, and is due to the sublimation of the surface ice; much like sweat cools the body as it evaporates from the surface of the skin, this sublimation has a cooling effect on the surface of Pluto. In this respect, Pluto shares some properties with comets, whose coma and tails arise from sublimating ice as they approach the Sun. The CRIRES observations also indicate that methane is the second most common gas in Pluto's atmosphere, representing half a percent of the molecules. "We were able to show that these quantities of methane play a crucial role in the heating processes in the atmosphere and can explain the elevated atmospheric temperature," says Lellouch. Two different models can explain the properties of Pluto's atmosphere. In the first, the astronomers assume that Pluto's surface is covered with a thin layer of methane, which will inhibit the sublimation of the nitrogen frost. The second scenario invokes

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  2. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  3. EDITORIAL: Quantum science and technology at the nanoscale Quantum science and technology at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    molecular spins [8]. Nanofabrication techniques have seen tremendous advances that have enabled scientists to realise new experimental electronics architectures. Using photolithography, chemical etching and electrodeposition, a collaboration of researchers in China, France and the US has fabricated mechanically controllable break junctions with finely adjustable nanogaps between two gold electrodes on solid state chips [9]. The structures can be used to characterize the electron transport properties of single molecules. In many ways, experimental realization of quantum phenomena has invigorated theoretical endeavours; experiments on the Kondo effect, for example, have renewed interest in finding new approximate solutions for the single impurity Anderson model. Researchers in Brazil present work on finding solutions to the Anderson Hamiltonian based on the atomic approach, which is simple to implement and has a low computational cost [10]. Theoretical descriptions have developed into powerful and sophisticated tools for explaining, understanding and even predicting the behaviour of quantum systems. Recent progress in the theoretical description of correlation and quantum fluctuation phenomena in charge transport through single molecules, quantum dots, and quantum wires is provided in a topical review by researchers in Germany [11]. While a claim to a complete understanding of quantum phenomena may be premature, certainly vast progress has been made in learning how to navigate new territory in the quantum world. And what is more, in exploring novel systems and the continued efforts to develop devices with capabilities enhanced due to quantum effects, we are learning to exploit it. References [1] Eddington A S 1929 The Nature of the Physical World (New York: The University Press) [2] Crommie M F, Lutz C P and Eigler D M 1993 Science 262 218-20 [3] Trbovic J, Minder N, Freitag F and Schönenberger C 2010 Superconductivity-enhanced conductance fluctuations in few-layer graphene

  4. Pedestal Craters in Utopia Planitia and Malea Planum: Evidence for a Past Ice-Rich Substrate from Marginal Sublimation Pits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, S. J.; Head, J. W.; Barlow, N. G.; Marchant, D. R.

    2008-09-01

    . et al. (1995) JGR, 100, 1579. [11] Head, J. et al. (2003) Nature, 426, 797. [12] Barlow, N. (2005) RVAMIC, #3041. [13] Head, J. and Roth, R. (1976) LSI, 50-52. [14] Schultz, P. and Lutz, A. (1988) Icarus, 73, 91. [15] Levrard, B. et al. (2004) Nature, 431, 1072. [16] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) JGR, in progress. [17] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) GRL, in progress. [18] Mustard, J. et al. (2001) Nature, 412, 411. [19] Levy, J. and Head, J. (2005) Terra Nova, 17, 503. [20] Marchant, D. and Head, J. (2007) Icarus, 192, 187. [21] Head, J. and Marchant, D. (2008) Workshop on Martian Gullies, #8009. [22] Moore, J. et al. (1996) Icarus, 122, 63. [23] Lefort, A. et al. (2006) 4th Mars Polar Science Conf., #8061. [24] Zanetti, M. et al. (2008) LPSC 39, 1682. [25] Morgenstern, A. et al. (2007) JGR, 112, E06010. [26] Forget, F. et al. (2006) Science, 311, 368-371. [27] Madeleine, B. et al. (2007) LPSC 38, #1778.

  5. Potential Mars Surveyor 2001 Landing Sites: Low-Elevation Cratered "Highlands" in Central and Eastern Sinus Meridiani and Near Amenthes Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Parker, T. J.; Huntwork, S. N.

    1998-01-01

    than 100 m/pixel) Viking or Mariner images of this site. (2) Central Sinus Meridiani Region (proposed by K. S. Edgett and T. J. Parker) Central Sinus Meridiani is characterized by two types of surfaces [4]. One is like typical martian cratered highlands elsewhere- there are old valley networks and old impact craters. The other is relatively smooth and flat. These two units are in contact around 3.1 S between 5 W and 4 E longitudes. Valley networks- including one at 6'S, 358 W that rivals the Grand Canyon of Arizona- once drained toward the smooth unit. Edgett and Parker [4] proposed that the smooth unit might consist of sediments laid down in a large Noachian-aged sea/ocean that would have covered much of the northern hemisphere. Schultz and Lutz [I I I suggested that it is a paleopolar layered deposit. Regardless, the smooth unit where it contacts the cratered terrain would make an excellent site for Athena rover to investigate. The site is best seen in Viking high resolution images from orbits 408B (about 30 m/pixel) and 746A (about 12 m/pixel). These images suggest that aeolian deflation has occurred along the margin of the smooth unit, and this deflation has exposed horizontal larrs of material. The elevation is about 0.5 km; thermal inertias are 6.5-8.0 x 10(exp -3) cal /sq cm s(exp -0.5) / K; rock abundances are 2-4%; and the surface is probably sandy with dark drifts and ripples but almost no actual dunes. We suggest a landing around 3.2 S, 3.0 W would test the aqueous sediment hypothesis and provide a potentially smooth surface on which to land. (3) Amenthes Fossae Region (proposed by S. N. Huntwork and K. S. Edgett) The Amenthes Fossae are a series of graben/fissures that are circumferential to the southeast side of Isidis Planitia. These fissures cross a variety of ancient, heavily cratered Noachian terrain and younger, Hesperian and Amazonian terrain. We focused our search on a region 0-15 N, 250 - 270 W. Elevations are -0.5 to 2 km. Depending upon whether

  6. Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in a Polar Desert (Svalbard, Norway): Implications for Interpreting Martian Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Preusker, F.; Trauthan, F.; Reiss, D.; Zanetti, M.; Jaumann, R.; Hiesinger, H.

    2009-04-01

    .D. & Lutz, J.D. (2008) Geomorphology 102, 554-566. [14] Larue, J.-P. (2008) Geomorphology 102, 343-367. [15] Scholten, F. et al. (2005) PE&RS, 71, 1143-1152. [16] Gwinner, K. et al. (2005) PFG, 5/2005, 387-394. [17] Parker, G. et al. (1998) J. Hydraul. Engin., 124, 985-995.

  7. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Triest.let's finish—aus basta Some move atoms around to hear how they sound.Karl-Heinz Rieder, Erice, 6 April 1998 From reciprocal space to real space in surface science contents From reciprocal space to real space in surface scienceLudwig Bartels and Karl-Heinz Ernst Karl-Heinz Reider: the quiet pioneerGiorgio Benedek Scattering of CO and N2 molecules by a graphite surfaceJunepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura, W W Hayes and J R Manson Helium, neon and argon diffraction from Ru(0001)M Minniti, C Díaz, J L Fernández Cuñado, A Politano, D Maccariello, F Martín, D Farías and R Miranda Enhanced charge transfer in a monolayer of the organic charge transfer complex TTF-TNAP on Au(111)T R Umbach, I Fernandez-Torrente, J N Ladenthin, J I Pascual and K J Franke Extended pattern recognition scheme for self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo simulationsSyed Islamuddin Shah, Giridhar Nandipati, Abdelkader Kara and Talat S Rahman Acetylene on Cu(111): imaging a molecular surface arrangement with a constantly rearranging tipYeming Zhu, Jonathan Wyrick, Kamelia D Cohen, Katie Marie Magnone, Connor Holzke, Daniel Salib, Quan Ma, Dezheng Sun and Ludwig Bartels Coulomb attraction during the carpet growth mode of NaClFriederike Matthaei, Sarah Heidorn, Konrad Boom, Cord Bertram, Ali Safiei, Jörg Henzl and Karina Morgenstern Molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface: interplay between substrate templating and intermolecular interactionsMarkus Kittelmann, Philipp Rahe and Angelika Kühnle Vertical manipulation of native adatoms on the InAs(111)A surfaceJ Yang, C Nacci, J Martínez-Blanco, K Kanisawa and S Fölsch Charge transfer between isomer domains on n+-doped Si(111)-2 × 1: energetic stabilizationR M Feenstra, G Bussetti, B Bonanni, A Violante, C Goletti, P Chiaradia, M G Betti and C Mariani Probing the properties of metal-oxide interfaces: silica films on Mo and Ru supportsLeonid Lichtenstein, Markus Heyde, Stefan Ulrich, Niklas Nilius

  8. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    , tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. This unprecedented view of a merger in action crystallises the theory that the Universe built its magnificent hierarchal structure from the ‘bottom up’ - essentially through mergers of smaller galaxies and galaxy clusters into bigger ones. "Here before our eyes we see the making of one of the biggest objects in the Universe," said Dr Patrick Henry of the University of Hawaii, who led the study. "What was once two distinct but smaller galaxy clusters 300 million years ago is now one massive cluster in turmoil.” Henry and his colleagues, Alexis Finoguenov and Ulrich Briel of the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, present these results in an upcoming issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The forecast for the new super-cluster, they said, is 'clear and calm' now that the worst of the storm has passed. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in Universe, containing hundreds to thousands of galaxies. Our Milky Way galaxy is part of a small group of galaxies but is not gravitationally bound to the closest cluster, the Virgo Cluster. We are destined for a collision in a few thousand million years, though. The cluster named Abell 754 in the constellation Hydra has been known for decades. However, to the scientists' surprise, the new observation reveals that the merger may have occurred from the opposite direction than what was thought. They found evidence for this by tracing the wreckage today left in the merger's wake, spanning a distance of millions of light years. While other large mergers are known, none has been measured in such detail as Abell 754. For the first time, the scientists could create a complete ‘weather map’ of Abell 754 and thus determine a forecast. This map contains information about the temperature, pressure and density of the new cluster. As in all clusters, most the ordinary matter

  9. First Circumstellar Disk around a Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Observations with an infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla have for the first time shown the presence of a disk around a hot and massive star, known as G339.88-1.26 . Until now, disks have only been found around less massive stars. Planets are formed in such disks. The new discovery may thus have important implications for our understanding of the formation of planetary systems around stars. TIMMI observations Observations at mid-infrared wavelengths were carried out in July 1997 by Bringfried Stecklum (Landessternwarte Thüringen, Tautenburg, Germany) and Hans-Ulrich Käufl (ESO), using the TIMMI instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Additional measurements were carried out in March 1998. TIMMI ( T hermal I nfrared M ulti M ode I nstrument) is a general-purpose camera spectrometer operating at a wavelength of 10 µm. To reach sufficient sensitivity, the camera must be cooled to approx. -260 o C, i.e. a few degrees above the absolute minimum, by use of liquid Helium. Astronomical objects whose temperatures are between -120 o C and 300 o C radiate most of their energy at this wavelength. In addition, dust and haze that are absolutely impenetrable for light visible to the human eye, are often found to be nearly transparent at this wavelength. This is why fire-fighters now use similar equipment to look through smoke. G339.88-1.26: A very special object ESO PR Photo 22a/98 ESO PR Photo 22a/98 [JPEG, 800k] This image is a true-color composite of near-infrared observations of the sky region around the radio source G339.88-1.26 with the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. In this image, the visible colors red, green and blue have been used to represent the infrared filters J, H and K (at 1.25, 1.63 and 2.2 µm wavelength, respectively). No object is visible at the position of the radio source, even at these near-infrared wavelengths. A dark band of absorbing dust is clearly visible, exactly at the position of the object (indicated by an

  10. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  11. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2011-06-01

    particle image velocimetry (PIV), wherein 'instantaneous' planes of the velocity field are obtained. (The planar information, of course, falls short of the volumetric data that would be required for a complete measurement strategy.) In this paper [1] the authors first provide a valuable review of the literature in this area before presenting their original contribution. Operating with the constraint of incomplete information, the authors have significantly advanced this aspect of fluid mechanics measurements by: (i) performing error analysis evaluations of the extant methodologies, and (ii) introducing the use of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) techniques to smooth the PIV data. Three globally unsteady flow fields are investigated in this paper. Two of the subject flows are simulations where the pressure can be compared with the inferred value using simulated PIV results—with the addition of typical measurement uncertainties—and the third test case is the unsteady flow in a planar diffuser. This paper is a benchmark contribution on the path to accurately inferring pressure values in the interior of a flow field. 2010 Award Award Winner—Measurement Science Achieving high effective Q-factors in ultra-high vacuum dynamic force microscopy Jannis Lübbe, Lutz Tröger, Stefan Torbrügge, Ralf Bechstein, Christoph Richter, Angelika Kühnle and Michael Reichling Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany Nanoworld Services GmbH, Schottkystraße 10, 91058 Erlangen, Germany Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Jakob-Welder Weg 11, 55099 Mainz, Germany This paper [2] presents a detailed methodology to achieve good Q-factors in a scanning force microscope. Whilst this instrument, operated in the non-contact mode (NC-AFM), has become a standard tool for atomic scale surface characterization, the paper deals specifically with its operation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Performance of the system

  12. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    . Improved beam quality of a high power Yb: YAG laser (oral paper) / Dennis G. Harris ... [et al.]. Intracavity adaptive optics optimization of an end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser (oral paper) / Petra Welp, Ulrich Wittrock. New results in high power lasers beam correction (oral paper) / Alexis Kudryashov ... [et al.]. Adaptive optical systems for the Shenguang-III prototype facility (oral paper) / Zeping Yang ... [et al.]. Adaptive optics control of solid-state lasers (poster paper) / Walter Lubeigt ... [et al.]. Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for multimode beam reshaping (poster paper) / Inna V. Ilyina, Tatyana Yu. Cherezova. New algorithm of combining for spatial coherent beams (poster paper) / Ruofu Yang ... [et al.]. Intracavity mode control of a solid-state laser using a 19-element deformable mirror (poster paper) / Ping Yang ... [et al.] -- pt. 6. Adaptive optics in communication and atmospheric compensation. Fourier image sharpness sensor for laser communications (oral paper) / Kristin N. Walker and Robert K. Tyson. Fast closed-loop adaptive optics system for imaging through strong turbulence layers (oral paper) / Ivo Buske and Wolfgang Riede. Correction of wavefront aberrations and optical communication using aperture synthesis (oral paper) / R. J. Eastwood ... [et al.]. Adaptive optics system for a small telescope (oral paper) / G. Vdovin, M. Loktev and O. Soloviev. Fast correction of atmospheric turbulence using a membrane deformable mirror (poster paper) / Ivan Capraro, Stefano Bonora, Paolo Villoresi. Atmospheric turbulence measurements over a 3km horizontal path with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (poster paper) / Ruth Mackey, K. Murphy and Chris Dainty. Field-oriented wavefront sensor for laser guide stars (poster paper) / Lidija Bolbasova, Alexander Goncharov and Vladimir Lukin.

  13. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    encounters with this giant planet. For instance, it passed Jupiter at a distance of about 30 million kilometers in 1882 and 1894, and again at 40 million kilometres in 1965. SW-3 belongs to the so-called ``Jupiter family'' of comets. Some time ago, SW-3 was chosen as a back-up target for the upcoming Rosetta space mission by the European Space Agency (ESA) because the elliptical orbit of this particular comet may be reached with a relatively small expenditure of rocket fuel (the prime target is Comet Wirtanen). That allows to carry more scientific instruments on this extraordinary mission which aims at a long-term study of a cometary nucleus from a spacecraft in circum-cometary orbit. Rosetta will be launched early in the next century and will also carry two landing modules which will descend on the surface of the nucleus. The Dramatic Outburst of SW-3 In order to study this potential Rosetta target comet, Hermann Boehnhardt (Astronomical Institute of the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany) and Hans-Ulrich Kaufl (ESO-Garching) early in 1995 applied for simultaneous observing time at the ESO 3.6-m telescope and 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory. In May 1995, the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) granted the astronomers some nights for these observations in mid-December 1995 with the TIMMI and EMMI instruments at the 3.6-m and the NTT, respectively, i.e. not quite two months after the predicted perihelion passage on September 22, when the comet would be closest to the Sun (140 million kilometres). Meanwhile, SW-3 was moving closer towards the Sun. After its recovery in December 1994 with the 3.5-metre reflector at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Kurt Birkle and Hermann Boehnhardt collected a series of almost monthly images with that telescope until late June 1995, showing that the comet developed normally with respect to its brightness and the coma and tail. On August 20, it was observed by a Japanese amateur astronomer at

  14. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schießl, Peter

    2000-09-01

    .6 Literatur. Teil II: Verbundfragen (Rolf Eligehausen). 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Beschreibung des Verbundverhaltens zwischen Stahl und Beton (Gert König, Nguyen V. Tue und Wolfgang Kurz). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Beschreibung der Kraftübertragung zwischen Stahl und Beton. 1.3 Vorstellung des Modells. 1.4 Materialgesetze für die Berechnung der Verformung des Fachwerks. 1.5 Vergleich zwischen Versuch und Modell. 1.6 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 1.7 Literatur. 2 Verbund unter nicht ruhender Beanspruchung (Rainer Koch und György L. Balázs). 2.1 Übersicht über die durchgeführten Versuche. 2.2 Versuchkörper und Materialien. 2.3 Versuchseinrichtungen. 2.4 Versuche und Ergebnisse. 2.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 2.6 Literatur. 3 Trag- und Verformungsverhalten von Stahlbetontragwerken unter Betriebsbelastung (Thomas M. Sippel und Rolf Eligehausen). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Allgemeines. 3.3 Rechenmodell und Materialmodelle. 3.4 Vergleich zwischen Versuchen und Rechnung. 3.5 Parameterstudien. 3.6 Vereinfachtes Rechenmodell. 3.7 Zusammenfassung. 3.8 Literatur. 4 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern mit nachträglichem Verbund unter Betriebsbedingungen (Josef Hegger, Norbert Will und Heiner Cordes). 4.1 Einführung. 4.2 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern. 4.3 Zeitabhängige Effekte des Verbunds. 4.4 Versuche unter statischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.5 Versuche unter dynamischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.6 Bemessungsvorschlag für Verbundkennwerte. 4.7 Zusammenfassung. 4.8 Literatur. 5 Spannungsumlagerungen in gemischt bewehrten Querschnitten (Josef Hegger, Heiner Cordes und Matthias Rudlof). 5.1 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung. 5.2 Spannungsumlagerungen bei gemischter Bewehrung. 5.3 Versuche an zentrischen Zugkörpern. 5.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 5.5 Ermittlung und Vergleich von Verbundkennwerten. 5.6 Zusammenfassung. 5.7 Literatur. Teil III: Bauteile (Karl Kordina). 1 Einfluß von Längsbeanspruchungen auf den Neigungswinkel der Schubrisse (Marek Los und Ulrich Quast). 1.1 Einleitung. 1

  15. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    and Chalazonitis N 1961 Excitatiory and inhibitory processes initiated by light and infra-red radiations in single identifiable nerve cells Nervous Inhibition ed. E Florey (New York: Pergamon) pP 194-231 [5] Fork R L 1971 Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia Science 171 907-8 [6] Allegre G, Avrillier S and Albe-Fessard D 1994 Stimulation in the rat of a nerve fiber bundle by a short UV pulse from an excimer laser Neurosci. Lett. 180 261-4 [7] Hirase H, Nikolenko V, Goldberg J H and Yuste R 2002 Multiphoton stimulation of neurons J. Neurobiol. 51 237-47 [8] Callaway E M and Yuste R 2002 Stimulating neurons with light Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12 587-92 [9] Ellis-Davies G C 2007 Caged compounds: photorelease technology for control of cellular chemistry and physiology Nat. Methods 4 619-28 [10] Shoham S, O'Connor D H, Sarkisov D V and Wang S S 2005 Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns Nat. Methods 2 837-43 [11] Nikolenko V, Poskanzer K E and Yuste R 2007 Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits Nat. Methods 4 943-50 [12] Lutz C, Otis T S, DeSars V, Charpak S, DiGregorio D A and Emiliani V 2008 Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters Nat. Methods 5 821-7 [13] Nikolenko V, Watson B O, Araya R, Woodruff A, Peterka D S and Yuste R 2008 SLM microscopy: scanless two-photon imaging and photostimulation with spatial light modulators Front. Neural Circuits 2 5 [14] Zahid M, Velez-Fort M, Papagiakoumou E, Ventalon C, Angulo M C and Emiliani V Holographic photolysis for multiple cell stimulation in mouse hippocampal slices PLoS One 5 e9431 [15] Boyden E S, Zhang F, Bamberg E, Nagel G and Deisseroth K 2005 Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity Nat. Neurosci. 8 1263-8 [16] Zhang F, Aravanis A M, Adamantidis A, de Lecea L and Deisseroth K 2007 Circuit-breakers: optical technologies for probing neural signals and systems Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 577-81 [17] Gradinaru V, Zhang F, Ramakrishnan

  16. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    /Saclay Irfu/SPP FRANCAVILLA, Paolo IFAE Barcelona GATAULLIN, Marat California Institute of Technology GATTO, Corrado INFN-Napoli GAUDIO, Gabriella INFN-Pavia GERMANI, Stefano INFN-Perugia Goldenzweig, Pablo University of Rochester GRAF, Norman SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory GROOM, Don Lawrence Berkeley Lab GUARDINCERRI, Elena Los Alamos National Laboratory HAUPTMAN, John Iowa State University HENRIQUES, Ana CERN HUANG, Jin Los Alamos National Laboratory HU, Tao IHEP-Beijing, CAS JIANG, Xiaodong Los Alamos National Laboratory JUI, Charles University of Utah KAPUSTINSKY, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory KIBILKO, Mark SE Technical Sales, Inc. KIRSCHENMANN, Henning University of Hamburg KISTENEV, Edouard Brookhaven National Laboratory KLIMEK, Pawel Stockholm Universitet KROEGER, Robert University of Mississippi LECOQ, Paul CERN LEE, Sehwook Texas Tech University LEE, Sung-Won Texas Tech University LIVAN, Michele Pavia University LUTZ, Benjamin DESY MAGILL, Stephen Argonne National Laboratory MATHIS, Mark College of William and Mary MATTHEWS, John University of Utah MENKE, Sven Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik MOULSON, Matthew INFN-Frascati NAGEL, Martin Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik NAKAMURA, Isamu KEK NEMECEK, Stanislav FZU AVCR Praha NESSI-TEDALDI, Francesca ETH Zurich NOVOTNY, Rainer 2nd Physics Institute, University Giessen OREGLIA, Mark University of Chicago PERLOFF, Alexx Texas A&M University PETYT, David Rutherford Appleton Laboratory RAHMAT, Rahmat University of Mississippi RAMILLI, Marco Hamburg Universitaet ROSIER LEES, Sylvie LAPP- IN2P3-CNRS RUTHERFOORD, John University of Arizona SAKUMA, Tai Texas A&M University SANTIAGO CERQUEIRA, Augusto Federal University of Juiz de Fora SARRA, Ivano INFN-Frascati SEIDEL, Sally University of New Mexico SEIFERT, Frank TU Dresden, Germany SHAMIM, Mansoora University of Oregon SIMON, Frank Max-Planck-Institute for Physics STAFFAN, Paul Wiener Plein and Baus, Corp Dr. STAROVOITOV, Pavel DESY TABARELLI DE FATIS, Tommaso

  17. A Glimpse of the Young Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    metal-deficient stars that is currently being carried out at Hamburger Sternwarte [4]. Over a period of more than 10 years, a large collection of photographic pictures of the southern sky were obtained with the ESO 1-m Schmidt Telescope, a wide-angle telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile that has now been decommissioned. Thanks to a large glass prism in the front of the telescope, every object in the observed sky field - stars as well as galaxies - was imaged as a small spectrum, providing a first rough idea about its type and composition. The main aim of this "Hamburg/ESO survey" (with Dieter Reimers , Associate Director of the Hamburger Sternwarte, as Principal Investigator and Lutz Wisotzki , now at Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany, as Project Scientist) was to find quasars (particularly active centres of galaxies), a task that was accomplished most successfully, cf. e.g., ESO PR 10/97 and ESO PR 08/00 (Report F). A very welcome by-product of this survey has been a rich harvest of very metal-poor stars . This part of the project is led by Norbert Christlieb , also from the Hamburg Observatory, and now on sabbatical leave at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Australian National University (Canberra, Australia). Using fast computers and advanced pattern-recognition software to analyze the photographic exposures and thus to sift through millions of registered stellar spectra, about 8000 candidates for very metal-poor stars were found. These stars are now being scrutinized spectroscopically one-by-one with many medium-sized telescopes all over the world. Confirmed candidates are then observed with the largest telescopes in the world in order to obtain very detailed spectra (of high spectral resolution), which allow the astronomers to determine their chemical composition accurately. The very metal-deficient star HE 0107-5240 ESO PR Photo 25a/02 ESO PR Photo 25a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 458 pix - 86k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 915

  18. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2007-12-01

    particle physics was uncovered. A fuller idea of his exceptional scientific scope is indicated by the fact that the standard model for a massive black hole surrounded by a cluster of stars is still called the Bahcall-Wolf model; the most widely quoted model for our Galaxy was for decades the Bahcall-Soneira model; the now common use of quasars as flashlights to illuminate and study the intervening intergalactic medium was originated by Bahcall and Salpeter; and the most accurate models for the solar interior were those developed by Bahcall with Roger Ulrich, Marc Pinsonneault, and others. John Bahcall was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on 30 December 1934, to Mildred and Malcolm Bahcall. Mildred was a pianist, and both parents worked in business. John Bahcall had one brother, Robert Bahcall, now deceased. At Byrd High School in Shreveport, John became interested in sports, especially tennis; with persistence and dedication — traits he exemplified throughout his life — he became the tennis champion of his state. John continued to play and love tennis his entire life. As a high school senior, Bahcall became interested in debate and joined the school's Debate Team. With the same persistence, dedication, and hard work, Bahcall became a National Debate Team winner — the first time ever for this Louisiana high school. Bahcall's debate skills served him well throughout his life, as all of those who tried to debate him know well. Bahcall's love of physics had a non-traditional beginning. He never took science classes in high school; he was excused to play tennis in the afternoons when science courses were offered. After one year at Louisiana State University, Bahcall transferred to the University of California in Berkeley on a tennis scholarship and support from an uncle who saw the promise in the young Bahcall. At Berkeley he began studying philosophy. Berkeley's graduation requirement of a science course led Bahcall to take a physics class, the first science class he ever

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    : American Scientific Publishers) [7] Petty M C 2007 Molecular Electronics, (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) [8] 2006 Molecular Wires and Nanoscale Conductors Faraday Discuss. 131 1-420 Focus on Molecular Electronics Contents Model of mixed Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons in donor-acceptor molecular crystals: investigation of vibronic spectra I J Lalov, C Warns and P Reineker Suppressing the current through molecular wires: comparison of two mechanisms GuangQi Li, Michael Schreiber and Ulrich Kleinekathöfer Charge-memory effect in a polaron model: equation-of-motion method for Green functions Pino D'Amico, Dmitry A Ryndyk, Gianaurelio Cuniberti and Klaus Richter Determination of transport levels of organic semiconductors by UPS and IPS S Krause, M B Casu, A Schöll and E Umbach Electrical characterization of alkane monolayers using micro-transfer printing: tunneling and molecular transport C Kreuter, S Bächle, E Scheer and A Erbe Correlated charge transfer along molecular chains L Mühlbacher and J Ankerhold Non-equilibrium Green's functions in density functional tight binding: method and applications A Pecchia, G Penazzi, L Salvucci and A Di Carlo Asymmetric Coulomb blockade and Kondo temperature of single-molecule transistors Florian Elste and Felix von Oppen Electron-phonon scattering in molecular electronics: from inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy to heating effects Alessio Gagliardi, Giuseppe Romano, Alessandro Pecchia, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas Frauenheim and Thomas A Niehaus Interlinking Au nanoparticles in 2D arrays via conjugated dithiolated molecules Jianhui Liao, Markus A Mangold, Sergio Grunder, Marcel Mayor, Christian Schönenberger and Michel Calame Conductance values of alkanedithiol molecular junctions M Teresa González, Jan Brunner, Roman Huber, Songmei Wu, Christian Schönenberger and Michel Calame Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting C Symonds, C Bonnand, J C Plenet, A Bréhier, R Parashkov, J S Lauret, E

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus