Science.gov

Sample records for luuk eve pihl

  1. 78 FR 2423 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk Wind Project on the Campo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Action Alternative, would achieve the generation of electricity from wind turbines installed by Invenergy. The manufacturer and model of the wind turbines have not yet been selected for the Shu'luuk Wind... temporary concrete batch plant. The wind power generation facility would operate year-round for a minimum of...

  2. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  3. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  4. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  5. After "Eve": whither proxy decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E H

    1987-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing physicians is how to approach proxy decisions made on behalf of congenitally incompetent patients. The author considers two recent court cases that attempt to provide guidelines: Re Stephen Dawson, which opts for a substituted-judgement approach, and Eve v. Mrs E.) which injoins best-interests considerations. The author explores the impact of Eve v. Mrs. E. as superseding Re Stephen Dawson, considers its ethical implications and attempts to clarify the best-interests criterion by sketching some guidelines for its interpretation. In so doing, he tries to reconcile the two decisions by laying bare their common underlying ethical rationale. The author concludes by pointing out some ethically questionable implications of Eve v. Mrs. E. in the area of allocation of health care resources. PMID:3651942

  6. Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE): A Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Amador, E. S.; Carrier, B. L.; Albuja, A.; Bapst, J.; Cahill, K. R. S.; Ebersohn, F.; Gainey, S.; Gartrelle, G.; Greenberger, R. N.; Hale, J. M.; Johnston, S.; Olivares, J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Sheehan, J. P.; Thorpe, A. K.; Zareh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is an intriguing planetary body, which possibly has the ingredients needed for life. Further, it has numerous (over 100) continuously erupting geysers that eject material into the atmosphere which provide a unique opportunity to sample the body's internal chemistry from orbit. At JPL's Planetary Science Summer School, Team X and a group of students developed a mission concept to directly sample Enceladus' plumes. The mission, named Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE), follows NASA's Planetary Science Decadal survey and would assess the potential habitability of Saturn's icy satellite through analysis of the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and the nature of the organic chemistry in the plume. EVE would look at geological and geophysical surface processes of Enceladus by investigating the heat output of Enceladus, plumes' mechanics, the extent of the liquid subsurface reservoir(s), and gravitational variation. The EVE mission concept aimed for a January 2023 launch on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle and would arrive at Saturn July 2031. A two-year-long Saturn moon tour would allow sufficient deceleration to permit a polar orbital insertion around Enceladus in March 2035, remaining stable for 54 weeks of observation. The proposed instrument payload includes: 1) SUb MilliMeter Enceladus Radiometer (SUMMER; equivalent to Rosetta MIRO), 2) Enceladus Dust and Gas Experiment (EDGE; an enhanced version of Rosetta COSIMA), 3) MAGnetometer for Ionic Concentration (MAGIC; equivalent to MMS/ InSIGHT magnetometer), 4) Visual Imaging Camera with Topographic Observational Resolution (VICTOR) and 5) Enceladus Radio Gravity Science (ERGS). Our suggested orbital timeline would allow the most comprehensive dataset yet collected of a moon in the outer solar system, mapping the entire surface twice with SUMMER and VICTOR, while sampling the plume directly 232 times with EDGE. MAGIC would also provide over a year of sampling of the magnetic field variations from orbit

  7. Wavelengths for EVE coronal dimming signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Simoes, P. J. D. A.; Kukstas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range. We have shown that dimmings occurred in most of the 31 X-class flares that occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations, we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejections from the low corona. We can estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked" at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. Because of its high photon throughput, EVE data determine line centroids with precisions of a few km/s equivalent. In the present study we analyze the wavelengths of the dimmed regions, characterizing their displacements from the mean wavelengths as functions of heliographic position, time, event magnitude, and excitation state of Fe.

  8. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  9. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  10. The Drosophila eve insulator Homie promotes eve expression and protects the adjacent gene from repression by polycomb spreading.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B

    2013-10-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is "replaced" by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin.

  11. The Drosophila eve Insulator Homie Promotes eve Expression and Protects the Adjacent Gene from Repression by Polycomb Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is “replaced” by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin. PMID:24204298

  12. [A peaceful Christmas Eve at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter

    2011-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate admittance rates and doctors workload during Christmas. In addition, we examined if admittance data supports the common notions that overeating during Christmas results in increased rate of admittances for abdominal problems and that there is an increase in admittance of the elderly at the end of Christmas (i.e. "granny dumping"). A retrospective study analyzing data from the database of the hospital units of Sydvestjysk Sygehus was performed. Data covered admittance in the months spanning from November through January in 1994-2010. Data from Christmas was compared with data from adjacent months. During Christmas more patients with abdominal complaints were admitted to the hospital (p < 0.001). However, there were no differences in mortality for patients with abdominal complaints or heart disease. There was a significant increase of patients admitted primarily because of lack of care at home during Christmas (p < 0.001). The number of admittance reached an absolute minimum on Christmas Eve. No increased admittance among the elderly at the end of Christmas was observed in our data. We conclude that overeating during the festivities of Christmas probably results in increased admittance rates in Danish hospitals. Christmas Eve is the day on which doctors can expect the lowest workload. Although the rate of admission due to lack of care at home was high, we could find no evidence of "granny dumping".

  13. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  14. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  15. Epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear (EVE) dysplasia: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, J.; Cormier-Daire, V.; Journeau, P.; Mussat, P.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the association of epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia in two sisters with normal stature and psychomotor development born to distantly related, healthy parents. This distinctive association has not been reported previously and is likely to represent a new condition with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. For this syndrome, we propose the acronym EVE standing for epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia.


Keywords: epiphyseal; verterbal; and ear (EVE) dysplasia; new syndrome PMID:10424819

  16. "ADAM' or "EVE'?--a toxicological conundrum.

    PubMed

    Cox, D E; Williams, K R

    1996-01-12

    The 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, including "ADAM' and "EVE', are currently popular drugs of abuse. Adverse reactions are reported in the clinical literature but few fatal cases are documented and little toxicological data is available to guide those determining the cause or manner of death in such cases. We report two deaths presenting in a similar manner and with similar clinical features. Various body fluid samples were analysed for amphetamines by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In one case, amphetamine alone was detected at levels of 1.54 mg/l and 1.47 mg/l in postmortem blood and admission serum, respectively. The other involved several 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, namely MDA, MDMA and MDEA, at levels of 0.25 mg/l, 0.43 mg/l and 0.3 mg/l, respectively in postmortem femoral blood and 0.24 mg/l, 0.55 mg/l and 0.49 mg/l in admission blood. The interpretation of these toxicological results and some novel legal issues are discussed.

  17. 75 FR 80717 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks... is establishing a temporary safety zone in support of the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display... Convention and Visitors Bureau will sponsor the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays from 8:45...

  18. 76 FR 78820 - Safety Zone; City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River, Beaufort, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Beaufort, South Carolina, during the City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. The... navigable waters of the United States. Discussion of Rule On New Year's Eve, a fireworks display will...

  19. Doppler-Shifted Flare Emissions Observed by SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap.j. (2011), even with EVE's spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and 'irradiance' measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. This talk will discuss these efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the first results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  20. Measuring and Modeling Solar Flares with SDO EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) currently provides estimations of the solar Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV; 0.1-190 nm) irradiance from 1947 to present at 1 nm bins and 60 second temporal resolution. The accuracy of FISM is limited to 1nm because the TIMED SEE Level 3 and Level 3A measurement, for which the FISM relationships were based on, were at Inm. With the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in Feb 2010, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will provide more accurate, increased spectral resolution (0.1 nm) measurements from 6 nm to 106 nm every 10-seconds and almost 100% duty cycle. EVE also observes additional broadband measurements for 0.1-7 nm, some EUV bands from 16 nm to 40 nm, and Hydrogen Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm. Along with the better spectral resolution of EVE leading to similar spectral resolution improvements in FISM, other significant improvements provide by SDO/EVE measurements will be multi-thermal gradual phase decay, impulsive phase center-to-limb variation characterization, non-flare sub-daily variations, and multi-thermal proxies. SDO/EVE observations of various solar flares with different characteristics will be presented, with the discussion theme focused on how EVE observations will help improve the accuracy of the FISM in the future. The final topic will present the updated FISM website that now has easier access to the FISM results and produce real-time updates that are useful for Space Weather studies.

  1. ADAM binding protein Eve-1 is required for ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonari; Nanba, Daisuke; Mori, Seiji; Shiba, Fumio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Koichiro; Matsuura, Nariaki; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2004-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are implicated in the ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in EGFR transactivation. However, the activation mechanisms of ADAMs remain elusive. To analyze the regulatory mechanisms of ADAM activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM12 as bait, and identified a protein that we designated Eve-1. Two cDNAs were cloned and characterized. They encode alternatively spliced isoforms of Eve-1, called Eve-1a and Eve-1b, that have four and five tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in the carboxyl-terminal region, respectively, and seven proline-rich SH3 domain binding motifs in the amino-terminal region. The short forms of Eve-1, Eve-1c and Eve-1d, translated at Met-371 are human counterparts of mouse Sh3d19. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that Eve-1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Western blot analysis revealed the dominant production of Eve-1c in human cancer cell lines. Knockdown of Eve-1 by small interfering RNA in HT1080 cells reduced the shedding of proHB-EGF induced by angiotensin II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, as well as the shedding of pro-transforming growth factor-alpha, promphiregulin, and proepiregulin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, suggesting that Eve-1 plays a role in positively regulating the activity of ADAMs in the signaling of EGFR-ligand shedding.

  2. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  3. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  4. [Calling patients on the eve of their day surgery procedure].

    PubMed

    Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique

    2015-01-01

    In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ≲2 to ≳50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ∼2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ≳10 MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ∼0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  6. Constraining Solar Flare Differential Emission Measures with EVE and RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-01

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from lsim2 to gsim50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ~2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to gsim10 MK together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ~0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  7. Solar Flare Impulsive Phase Emission Observed with SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-01

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log Te = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  8. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  9. SDO/EVE Data Product Improvements, Additions, and Algorithms Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodraska, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides full-disk integrated solar irradiance at high cadence and 0.1 nm resolution. Here we present improvements in data reduction for creation of the solar irradiance spectrum to improved routine data products. This includes improved degradation corrections to remove instrumental effects, 1-minute data products to accommodate longer integration times, and also a new data filtering technique to reduce the internal and external noise in the CCD detector measurements. We also demonstrate that new data products could be produced including higher resolution flare spectra with improved wavelength registration from the MEGS-A detector.

  10. The New SDO/EVE Coronal Dimming Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James

    2016-10-01

    Coronal dimmings are hours-long voids in the solar corona that can be indicative of plasma density depletion from CMEs. Much prior work has established the theoretical case for this link – tying the emission measure to the mass of the departing CME. These studies have always relied primarily on spectral images of the corona (e.g., SDO/AIA). Our recent work has demonstrated that coronal dimming is observable with irradiance data using SDO/EVE, which can provide higher temperature resolution than relatively broadband spectral imagers. We extend our prior studies which focused on a handful of events to the entire 4 history of SDO/EVE/MEGS-A data, which includes hundreds to thousands of events. We characterize the dimming light curves in terms of dimming depth and slope and compare this statistically sized sample to CME masses and speeds determined with SOHO/LASCO coronagraph data in the CDAW catalog. We will present preliminary statistics on this new extensive dimming catalog and its comparison to the CDAW CME catalog.

  11. Progress Report on Doppler Shift Results from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2015-04-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap. J. (2011), even with EVE’s spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and ‘irradiance’ measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. Initial results were first presented at the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Meeting in Cambridge, MD in March 2013. This presentation will discuss the progress that has been made since then on the efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the updated results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  12. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve.

    PubMed

    Plassard, Andrew J; Hinton, Kendra E; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  13. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve

    PubMed Central

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary. PMID:25914503

  14. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Musk, Gabrielle C.; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Methods Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Results Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into

  15. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S; Musk, Gabrielle C; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P; Kemp, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into markers of treatment efficacy for the

  16. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  17. Specification of motoneuron fate in Drosophila: integration of positive and negative transcription factor inputs by a minimal eve enhancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jocelyn A; Fujioka, Miki; Odden, Joanne P; Jaynes, James B; Doe, Chris Q

    2003-11-01

    We are interested in the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity within the Drosophila central nervous system (CNS), and in particular in the development of a single identified motoneuron called RP2. Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Even-skipped (Eve) is required for RP2 to establish proper connectivity with its muscle target. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which eve is specifically expressed within the RP2 motoneuron lineage. Within the NB4-2 lineage, expression of eve first occurs in the precursor of RP2, called GMC4-2a. We identify a small 500 base pair eve enhancer that mediates eve expression in GMC4-2a. We show that four different transcription factors (Prospero, Huckebein, Fushi tarazu, and Pdm1) are all expressed in GMC4-2a, and are required to activate eve via this minimal enhancer, and that one transcription factor (Klumpfuss) represses eve expression via this element. All four positively acting transcription factors act independently, regulating eve but not each other. Thus, the eve enhancer integrates multiple positive and negative transcription factor inputs to restrict eve expression to a single precursor cell (GMC4-2a) and its RP2 motoneuron progeny. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  19. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species.Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp.

  20. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species. Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp PMID:27242033

  1. Transcriptional bursting in Drosophila development: Stochastic dynamics of eve stripe 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Holloway, David M; Spirov, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    Anterior-posterior (AP) body segmentation of the fruit fly (Drosophila) is first seen in the 7-stripe spatial expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, which regulate downstream genes determining specific segment identities. Regulation of pair-rule expression has been extensively studied for the even-skipped (eve) gene. Recent live imaging, of a reporter for the 2nd eve stripe, has demonstrated the stochastic nature of this process, with 'bursts' in the number of RNA transcripts being made over time. We developed a stochastic model of the spatial and temporal expression of eve stripe 2 (binding by transcriptional activators (Bicoid and Hunchback proteins) and repressors (Giant and Krüppel proteins), transcriptional initiation and termination; with all rate parameters constrained by features of the experimental data) in order to analyze the noisy experimental time series and test hypotheses for how eve transcription is regulated. These include whether eve transcription is simply OFF or ON, with a single ON rate, or whether it proceeds by a more complex mechanism, with multiple ON rates. We find that both mechanisms can produce long (multi-minute) RNA bursts, but that the short-time (minute-to-minute) statistics of the data is indicative of eve being transcribed with at least two distinct ON rates, consistent with data on the joint activation of eve by Bicoid and Hunchback. We also predict distinct statistical signatures for cases in which eve is repressed (e.g. along the edges of the stripe) vs. cases in which activation is reduced (e.g. by mutagenesis of transcription factor binding sites). Fundamental developmental processes such as gene transcription are intrinsically noisy; our approach presents a new way to quantify and analyze time series data during developmental patterning in order to understand regulatory mechanisms and how they propagate noise and impact embryonic robustness.

  2. Overexpression of EVE1, a novel ubiquitin family protein, arrests inflorescence stem development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hoyeun; Jeong, Young-Min; Choi, Monica Y; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Sang-Gu

    2011-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, inflorescence stem formation is a critical process in phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. Although inflorescence stem development has been reported to depend on the expression of a variety of genes during floral induction and repression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of inflorescence stem formation. By activation T-DNA tagging mutagenesis of Arabidopsis, a dominant gain-of-function mutation, eve1-D (eternally vegetative phase1-Dominant), which has lost the ability to form an inflorescence stem, was isolated. The eve1-D mutation exhibited a dome-shaped primary shoot apical meristem (SAM) in the early vegetative stage, similar to that seen in the wild-type SAM. However, the SAM in the eve1-D mutation failed to transition into an inflorescence meristem (IM) and eventually reached senescence without ever leaving the vegetative phase. The eve1-D mutation also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including lobed and wavy rosette leaves, short petioles, and an increased number of rosette leaves. Genetic analysis indicated that the genomic location of the EVE1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana corresponded to a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) F4C21 from chromosome IV at ∼17cM which encoded a novel ubiquitin family protein (At4g03350), consisting of a single exon. The EVE1 protein is composed of 263 amino acids, contains a 52 amino acid ubiquitin domain, and has no glycine residue related to ubiquitin activity at the C-terminus. The eve1-D mutation provides a way to study the regulatory mechanisms that control phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. © 2011 The Author(s).

  3. EVE Doppler Signatures in X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Chamberlin, P. C.; MacKinnon, A.; Woods, T. N.

    2016-12-01

    The MEGS-A spectroscopy of the Sun as a star has produced a greatdeal of interesting solar physics, but without much exploitationyet of its Doppler capabilities (see Chamberlin, 2016 for details).In this presentation we examine the He II 304 line specifically andin specifically on the database of X-class flares from MEGS-A'sactive lifetime (34 events). The gradual-phase emission allows usto obtain a local reference for the rest wavelength to good accuracy,and the impulsive-phase centroid wavelengths typically shift to thered with values consistent with those of Milligan and Dennis (2009),but with smaller uncertainties. The exception events include SOL2014-02-25 (X4.9), which we find to have a blueshifted He IIline at an apparent 105 +- 5 km/s relative to its rest value. Thisevent also includes an unusual coronal hard X-ray source and aFermi/LAT high-energy gamma-ray emission. The EVE Doppler shiftanalysis can also be done at many other emission lines, includingthose covered by MEGS-B in the 33-106 nm range.

  4. Birds flee en mass from New Year's Eve fireworks.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year's Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive.

  5. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis.

  6. Pathology of deaths associated with "ecstasy" and "eve" misuse.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Forrest, A R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual cell necrosis to centrilobular necrosis. In one case there was massive hepatic necrosis. Changes consistent with catecholamine induced myocardial damage were seen in five cases. In the brain perivascular haemorrhagic and hypoxic changes were identified in four cases. Overall, the changes in four cases were the same as those reported in heart stroke, although only two cases had a documented history of hyperthermia. Of these four cases, all had changes in their liver, three had changes in their brains, and three in their heart. Of the other three cases, one man died of fulminant liver failure, one of water intoxication and one probably from a cardiac arrhythmia associated with myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there is more than one mechanism of damage in ring substituted amphetamine misuse, injury being caused by hyperthermia in some cases, but with ring substituted amphetamines also possibly having a toxic effect on the liver and other organs in the absence of hyperthermia. Images PMID:8655682

  7. Repression activity of Tailless on h 1 and eve 1 pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Luiz Paulo; Dos Santos, Wesley Silva; Aguiar, Francisco Dos Santos; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that several transcriptional repressors are necessary to set the boundaries of anterior pair-rule stripes in Drosophila. Specifically, we tested whether Tailless (Tll) is part of a repression mechanism that correctly sets the anterior boundaries of hairy 1 (h 1) and even-skipped 1 (eve 1) stripes. Single mutant tll embryos displayed subtle deviations from the normal positions of h 1 and eve 1 stripes. Moreover, we observed stronger stripe deviations in embryos lacking both Tll and Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp 1), a common repressor for anterior pair-rule stripes. Using h 1 and eve 1 reporter constructs in the genetic assays, we provided further evidence that interference with normal mechanisms of stripe expression is mediated by Tll repression. Indeed, Tll represses both h 1 and eve 1 reporter stripes when misexpressed. Investigating the expression of other anterior gap genes in different genetic backgrounds and in the misexpression assays strengthened Tll direct repression in the regulation of h 1 and eve 1. Our results are consistent with tll being a newly-identified component of a combinatorial network of repressor genes that control pair-rule stripe formation in the anterior blastoderm of Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes. PMID:28235127

  10. 78 FR 77359 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile; Mobile Channel; Mobile, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the City of Mobile New Year's Eve Celebration...

  11. EUV irradiance observations from SDO/EVE as a diagnostic of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    For the past six years, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has been monitoring changes in the Sun's extreme ultraviolet output over a range of timescales. Its primary function is to provide measurements of the solar spectral irradiance that is responsible for driving fluctuations in Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. However, despite its modest spectral resolution and lack of spatial information, the EVE spectral range contains many lines and continua that have become invaluable for diagnosing the response of the lower solar atmosphere itself to an injection of energy, particularly during a flare's impulsive phase. In addition, high temperature emission lines can also be used to track changes in temperature and density of flaring plasma in the corona. The high precision of EVE observations are therefore crucial in helping us understand particle acceleration and energy transport mechanisms during solar flares, as well as the origins of the Sun's most geoeffective emission.

  12. Dynamic regulation of eve stripe 2 expression reveals transcriptional bursts in living Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Esposito, Emilia; Schlissel, Gavin; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2014-07-22

    We present the use of recently developed live imaging methods to examine the dynamic regulation of even-skipped (eve) stripe 2 expression in the precellular Drosophila embryo. Nascent transcripts were visualized via MS2 RNA stem loops. The eve stripe 2 transgene exhibits a highly dynamic pattern of de novo transcription, beginning with a broad domain of expression during nuclear cycle 12 (nc12), and progressive refinement during nc13 and nc14. The mature stripe 2 pattern is surprisingly transient, constituting just ∼15 min of the ∼90-min period of expression. Nonetheless, this dynamic transcription profile faithfully predicts the limits of the mature stripe visualized by conventional in situ detection methods. Analysis of individual transcription foci reveals intermittent bursts of de novo transcription, with duration cycles of 4-10 min. We discuss a multistate model of transcription regulation and speculate on its role in the dynamic repression of the eve stripe 2 expression pattern during development.

  13. 78 FR 75898 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to help protect the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  14. An Innovative Aperture Cover Mechanism Used on SDO/EVE and MMS/SDP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steg, Stephen; Vermeer, William; Tucker, Scott; Passe, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aperture cover mechanism that was successfully flown in four locations on SDO/EVE, and is awaiting launch in sixteen locations on MMS. This design uses a paraffin actuator and a latch that secures the cover closed and removes the actuator from the load path. This latch allows the assembly to operate both as a light weight contamination cover (SDO/EVE), and also as a high-strength sensor restraint mechanism (MMS/SDP). The paper provides design/analysis/test information about the mechanism.

  15. 78 FR 75248 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to help protect the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  16. EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Learning Suite for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellagher, Emily; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-07-01

    EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a

  17. Prominences in SDO/EVE spectra: contributions from large solar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, Nicolas; Hudson, Hugh; Kazachenko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO is making accurate measurements of the solar spectral irradiance in the EUV between 30 and 1069 Å, with 1 Å spectral resolution and 10 s sampling rate. These data define solar variability in the ``Sun-as-a-star'' mode and reveal many interesting kinds of variation. Its high sensitivity also makes it suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of solar features such as flares. Here we present EVE's potential contribution to the diagnostics of large-scale, slowly evolving features such as prominences and active regions, and what we can learn from this.

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  19. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  20. The Right to Control One's Own Body: A Look at the "Eve" Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Marcia; Yarmol, Karen

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the arguments and decision of the "Eve" sterilization case decided by the Supreme Court of Canada. The court held that no one, including the courts themselves, has the power to approve the sterilization, for contraceptive purposes, of any person, mentally handicapped or not, who does not give consent. (DB)

  1. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  2. Eve-3: a liver enriched suppressor of Ras/MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    King, James A J; Corcoran, Niall M; D'Abaco, Giovanna M; Straffon, Andrew F; Smith, Craig T; Poon, Carole L C; Buchert, Michael; I, Stacey; Hall, Nathan E; Lock, Peter; Hovens, Christopher M

    2006-04-01

    The developed liver is able to tightly control cellular proliferation, rapidly switching from quiescence to growth in response to specific stimuli. This suggests that growth inhibitors may be involved in the control of liver growth. We analyzed the role of the Spred-family of growth inhibitors in the liver. We screened human EST databases for Spred-related sequences. Clones were isolated, sequenced, epitope-tagged and expressed. Subcellular localization of clones were determined and their effects on cellular signaling pathways analysed using specific antibodies. Cell cycle progression assays and protein interaction studies were initiated. Organ distribution of transcripts and their expression throughout liver development and in primary hepatocytes were recorded. We have identified a new, liver-restricted protein, Eve-3, containing a single Ena Vasp homology (EVH1) domain that can potently block activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway. Eve-3 is specific in inhibiting the Ras/MAPK pathway. Eve-3 can block serum-mediated cell cycle progression and its expression is highly regulated during liver development. The liver is the only organ that can regulate its growth and mass. Eve-3 may act as an inhibitor of proliferation pathways in the mature liver and be involved in modulating the unique regenerative capacity of this organ.

  3. 75 FR 78726 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...This document provides notice that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve lines of electric vehicles. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that the United States is the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and Eve lines of electric vehicles for purposes of U.S. Government procurement.

  4. Functional analysis of eve stripe 2 enhancer evolution in Drosophila: rules governing conservation and change.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M Z; Patel, N H; Kreitman, M

    1998-03-01

    Experimental investigations of eukaryotic enhancers suggest that multiple binding sites and trans-acting regulatory factors are often required for wild-type enhancer function. Genetic analysis of the stripe 2 enhancer of even-skipped (eve), an important developmental gene in Drosophila, provides support for this view. Given the importance of even-skipped expression in early Drosophila development, it might be predicted that many structural features of the stripe 2 enhancer will be evolutionarily conserved, including the DNA sequences of protein binding sites and the spacing between them. To test this hypothesis, we compared sequences of the stripe 2 enhancer between four species of Drosophila: D. melanogaster, D. yakuba, D. erecta and D. pseudoobscura. Our analysis revealed a large number of nucleotide substitutions in regulatory protein binding sites for bicoid, hunchback, Kruppel and giant, as well as a systematic change in the size of the enhancer. Some of the binding sites in D. melanogaster are either absent or modified in other species. One functionally important bicoid-binding site in D. melanogaster appears to be recently evolved. We, therefore, investigated possible functional consequences of sequence differences among these stripe 2 enhancers by P-element-mediated transformation. This analysis revealed that the eve stripe 2 enhancer from each of the four species drove reporter gene expression at the identical time and location in D. melanogaster embryos. Double staining of native eve protein and transgene mRNA in early embryos showed that the reporter gene mimicked native eve expression and, in every case, produced sharply defined stripes at the blastoderm stage that were coincident with eve stripe 2 protein. We argue that stripe 2 eve expression in Drosophila evolution can be viewed as being under constant stabilizing selection with respect to the location of the anterior and posterior borders of the stripe. We further hypothesize that the stripe 2

  5. eveƒue2‚esv‚yeh2gy‚€y‚e„syx ivwixhy‚p2 es‚2py‚gi2feƒi ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-02-08

    ... xy‚„r2fv…pp2pegi e†i eve r2ƒtreet ‡rs„xi‰2‚yeh ieƒ„ QrdF2eveF ... iƒ„ Qrd p2ƒtreet gr‚sƒ„ixƒix ‡iƒ„ eve Pnd hrive eve ‡iƒ„ ieƒ„ eve ieƒ„ g‚iiu2eve ...

  6. On the possibility to diagnose a kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifcakova, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    X-ray flare emission is strongly affected by the non-thermal part of the electron distribution. RHESSI observations and also recent theoretical derivations showed that the electron distribution function in coronal X-ray sources could be a kappa-distribution. An effect of kappa-distribution on the relative intensities of spectral lines of Fe XVIII - Fe XXIV observed in SDO/EVE flare spectra was calculated using KAPPA package based on the CHIANTI. Together with CHIANTI, this allows us to estimate the influence of the kappa-distributions on the diagnostics of electron density and temperature from the flare spectra. The possibility to diagnose parameters of the kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra is discussed. The synthetic spectra for the kappa-distribution are compared with the observed flare spectra.

  7. 77 FR 75556 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zones during the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River on December 31, 2012 and January 1, 2013. The fireworks displays will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:15 p.m. on December 31, 2011 and from 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2012 until 12:15 a.m. on January 1, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  8. The slowly varying corona from DEMs with the EVE data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the slowly varying corona during the first half of solar cycle 24. Using the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the CHIANTI atomic line database we identify strong isolated iron emission lines present in the non-flaring spectrum with peak emissions covering the coronal temperature range of 5.7 < log(T) < 6.5. These lines are used to generate daily DEMs from EVE spectra to observe the long term variability of global coronal thermal properties. We discuss the choice of emission lines and the implications of this data set for the relationship between EUV and the F10.7 radio flux.

  9. 76 FR 81827 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zones during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to ensure the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  10. Treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated neuropathy with vitamin E and Eve primrose.

    PubMed

    Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Ezeobi, Emmanuel; Unachukwu, Chioma; Oshinaike, Olajumoke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E, an antioxidant, and Eve Primrose in the management of painful diabetes mellitus (DM) neuropathy. This was an interventional study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose in the management of DM neuropathy. The study was conducted at the Diabetic Centre of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Eighty individuals with type 2 DM who had painful neuropathy were recruited for this study, which took place for a duration of 1 year. The study subjects underwent clinical and biochemical assessment at baseline and were given vitamin E in a dose of 400 mg in combination with Eve Primrose in doses ranging 500-1000 mg/day. They were afterward assessed for relief of symptoms and possible untoward effects after 2 weeks and, thereafter, monthly for 3 months. The main outcome measure was amelioration of symptoms of neuropathy. The mean age and age range of the study subjects were 58.2 years and 37-70 years, respectively. A total of 70 patients (88%) of the study population reported relief from neuropathic pains. Clinical parameters were comparable between the responders and non-responders. One characteristic feature of the non-responders was that they all had vibration perception threshold of ≥25 mV, which was indicative of severe neuropathy. The combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose is beneficial in the management of mild to moderate diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Thermal Evolution and Radiative Output of Solar Flares Observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Milligan, R. O.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to obtain the thermal evolution and radiative output during solar flares as observed by the Extreme u ltraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Ob servatory (SDO). Presented and discussed in detail are how EVE measur ements, due to its temporal cadence, spectral resolution and spectral range, can be used to determine how the thermal plasma radiates at v arious temperatures throughout the impulsive and gradual phase of fla res. EVE can very accurately determine the radiative output of flares due to pre- and in-flight calibrations. Events are presented that sh ow the total radiated output of flares depends more on the flare duration than the typical GOES X-ray peak magnitude classification. With S DO observing every flare throughout its entire duration and over a la rge temperature range, new insights into flare heating and cooling as well as the radiative energy release in EUV wavelengths support exis ting research into understanding the evolution of solar flares.

  12. Overview of Key Results from SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) includes several channels to observe the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance from 1 to 106 nm. These channels include the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A, B, and P channels from the University of Colorado (CU) and the EUV SpectroPhometer (ESP) channels from the University of Southern California (USC). The solar EUV spectrum is rich in many different emission lines from the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. The EVE full-disk irradiance spectra are important for studying the solar impacts in Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere and are useful for space weather operations. In addition, the EVE observations, with its high spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and in collaboration with AIA solar EUV images, have proven valuable for studying active region evolution and explosive energy release during flares and coronal eruptions. These SDO measurements have revealed interesting results such as understanding the flare variability over all wavelengths, discovering and classifying different flare phases, using coronal dimming measurements to predict CME properties of mass and velocity, and exploring the role of nano-flares in continual heating of active regions.

  13. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  14. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  15. CME Mass Estimates via EVE Coronal Dimmings for X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Hannah, Iain; Schrijver, Karel

    2014-06-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range, which is available for most of the 29 X-class flares that have occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejection from the low corona. We estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked"at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. The "maximum" occurred more than one hour after GOES peak. The dimming signature is generally cleanly measurable in the EVE/MEGS-A spectral samples at10 s cadence, with the dominant source of uncertainty stemming from the "sun-as-a-star" integrations; for example flare-related excess emission at a given wavelength tends to compensate for the dimming,and in this sense the mass estimate must be considered a lower limit. We address these uncertainties for the solar case by appealing to the AIA images, but for analogous processes in stellar flares one would not have this luxury.

  16. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  17. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  18. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain

    PubMed Central

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Cort, John R.; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F.; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links. PMID:19191354

  19. EVE (external variance estimation) increases statistical power for detecting differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wille, Anja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter; Hennig, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Accurately identifying differentially expressed genes from microarray data is not a trivial task, partly because of poor variance estimates of gene expression signals. Here, after analyzing 380 replicated microarray experiments, we found that probesets have typical, distinct variances that can be estimated based on a large number of microarray experiments. These probeset-specific variances depend at least in part on the function of the probed gene: genes for ribosomal or structural proteins often have a small variance, while genes implicated in stress responses often have large variances. We used these variance estimates to develop a statistical test for differentially expressed genes called EVE (external variance estimation). The EVE algorithm performs better than the t-test and LIMMA on some real-world data, where external information from appropriate databases is available. Thus, EVE helps to maximize the information gained from a typical microarray experiment. Nonetheless, only a large number of replicates will guarantee to identify nearly all truly differentially expressed genes. However, our simulation studies suggest that even limited numbers of replicates will usually result in good coverage of strongly differentially expressed genes.

  20. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain.

    PubMed

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A; Kennedy, Michael A; Cort, John R; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Rost, Burkhard

    2009-05-15

    We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links.

  1. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He ii 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.

    2016-08-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradiance as a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He ii 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s^{-1} along the line-of-sight.

  2. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He II 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde

    2016-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradianceas a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He II 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s(exp -1) along the line-of-sight.

  3. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He II 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde

    2016-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradianceas a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He II 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s(exp -1) along the line-of-sight.

  4. The p-EVES study design and methodology: a randomised controlled trial to compare portable electronic vision enhancement systems (p-EVES) to optical magnifiers for near vision activities in visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John; Bambrick, Rachel; Dutton, Michelle; Harper, Robert; Ryan, Barbara; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Waterman, Heather; Whitaker, Chris; Dickinson, Chris

    2014-09-01

    To describe the study design and methodology for the p-EVES study, a trial designed to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of portable Electronic Vision Enhancement System (p-EVES) devices and conventional optical low vision aids (LVAs) for near tasks in people with low vision. The p-EVES study is a prospective two-arm randomised cross-over trial to test the hypothesis that, in comparison to optical LVAs, p-EVES can be: used for longer duration; used for a wider range of tasks than a single optical LVA and/or enable users to do tasks that they were not able to do with optical LVAs; allow faster performance of instrumental activities of daily living; and allow faster reading. A total of 100 adult participants with visual impairment are currently being recruited from Manchester Royal Eye Hospital and randomised into either Group 1 (receiving the two interventions A and B in the order AB), or Group 2 (receiving the two interventions in the order BA). Intervention A is a 2-month period with conventional optical LVAs and a p-EVES device, and intervention B is a 2-month period with conventional optical LVAs only. The study adopts a mixed methods approach encompassing a broad range of outcome measures. The results will be obtained from the following primary outcome measures: Manchester Low Vision Questionnaire, capturing device 'usage' data (which devices are used, number of times, for what purposes, and for how long) and the MNRead test, measuring threshold print size, critical print size, and acuity reserve in addition to reading speed at high (≈90%) contrast. Results will also be obtained from a series of secondary outcome measures which include: assessment of timed instrumental activities of daily living and a 'near vision' visual functioning questionnaire. A companion qualitative study will permit comparison of results on how, where, and under what circumstances, p-EVES devices and LVAs are used in daily life. A health economic

  5. Ionospheric model-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo Incorporation of SDO-EVE solar irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the modeling of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric models were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the modeled TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither model captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A model sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these model shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly modeled.

  6. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  7. Primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention using statins: is targeting Adam or Eve equally effective?

    PubMed

    Kakafika, Anna I; Athyros, Vasilios G; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2008-06-01

    Women differ from men in terms of their cardiovascular disease risk. The existing data suggest that primary cardiovascular disease prevention treatment with a statin could be cost effective for women and men with a high cardiovascular disease risk. In secondary cardiovascular disease prevention both men and women seem to benefit equally from statin treatment. However, the relatively small number of women included in several statin trials has limited the evidence available. With regard to the question of whether Eve is becoming Adam, the answer is not yet: we need more evidence!

  8. Behavioral health services in separate CHIP programs on the eve of parity.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Rachel L; Beardslee, William R; Greenfield, Shelly F; Meara, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plays a vital role in financing behavioral health services for low-income children. This study examines behavioral health benefit design and management in separate CHIP programs on the eve of federal requirements for behavioral health parity. Even before parity implementation, many state CHIP programs did not impose service limits or cost sharing for behavioral health benefits. However, a substantial share of states imposed limits or cost sharing that might hinder access to care. The majority of states use managed care to administer behavioral health benefits. It is important to monitor how states adapt their programs to comply with parity.

  9. EUV variability experiment (EVE); multiple EUV grating spectrographs (MEGS), radiometric calibrations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hock, Rachel A.; Crotser, David A.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Furst, Mitch; Triplett, Matthew A.; Woodraska, Donald L.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2007-09-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2009, incorporates a suite of instruments including the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). Two channels of EVE, the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A and B channels use concave reflection gratings to image solar spectra onto CCDs to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 5 to 105 nm. MEGS provides these spectra at 0.1nm spectral resolution every 10 seconds with an absolute accuracy of better than 25% over the SDO 5-year mission. The calibration of the MEGS channels in order to convert the instrument counts in to physical units of W/m2/nm was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Although the final post-environmental calibrations have yet to be performed, preliminary results from the pre-environmental calibrations show very good agreement with the theoretical optical design given by Crotser et al. Further analysis is still needed in regards to the higher order contributions to determine the final first order QT for all channels, but two techniques are currently being analyzed and show promising results.

  10. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variable RNA expression from recently acquired, endogenous viral elements (EVE) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Utari, Heny Budi; Soowannayan, Chumporn; Flegel, Timothy W; Whityachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2017-11-01

    The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations. To test this hypothesis, 128 specimens from a current stock generation were confirmed for freedom from WSSV infection using two nested PCR detection methods. Subsequent nested-PCR testing revealed 33/128 specimens (26%) positive for at least one of the ORF at very high sequence identity (95-99%) to extant WSSV. Positive results for ORF 366 (now known to be a fragment of the WSSV capsid protein gene) dominated (28/33 = 84.8%), so 9 arbitrarily selected 366-positive specimens were tested by strand-specific, nested RT-PCR using DNase-treated RNA templates. This revealed variable RNA expression in individual shrimp including no RNA transcripts (n = 1), sense transcripts only (n = 1), antisense transcripts only (n = 2) or transcripts of both sense (n = 5). The latter 7 expression products indicated specimens producing putative imRNA. The variable types and numbers of the EVE and the variable RNA expression (including potential imRNA) support predictions of the viral accommodation hypothesis that EVE are randomly produced and expressed. Positive nested PCR test results for EVE of ORF 366 using DNA templates derived from shrimp sperm (germ cells), indicated that they were heritable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. dbx mediates neuronal specification and differentiation through cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with eve and hb9.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Haluk; Zhu, Yi; Wilson, Beth A; Skeath, James B

    2009-10-01

    Individual neurons adopt and maintain defined morphological and physiological phenotypes as a result of the expression of specific combinations of transcription factors. In particular, homeodomain-containing transcription factors play key roles in determining neuronal subtype identity in flies and vertebrates. dbx belongs to the highly divergent H2.0 family of homeobox genes. In vertebrates, Dbx1 and Dbx2 promote the development of a subset of interneurons, some of which help mediate left-right coordination of locomotor activity. Here, we identify and show that the single Drosophila ortholog of Dbx1/2 contributes to the development of specific subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and hb9 (exex). dbx is expressed primarily in interneurons of the embryonic, larval and adult central nervous system, and these interneurons tend to extend short axons and be GABAergic. Interestingly, many Dbx(+) interneurons share a sibling relationship with Eve(+) or Hb9(+) motoneurons. The non-overlapping expression of dbx and eve, or dbx and hb9, within pairs of sibling neurons is initially established as a result of Notch/Numb-mediated asymmetric divisions. Cross-repressive interactions between dbx and eve, and dbx and hb9, then help maintain the distinct expression profiles of these genes in their respective pairs of sibling neurons. Strict maintenance of the mutually exclusive expression of dbx relative to that of eve and hb9 in sibling neurons is crucial for proper neuronal specification, as misexpression of dbx in motoneurons dramatically hinders motor axon outgrowth.

  13. 8/9 February 2012 SDO-EVE and Arecibo ISR Ionospheric Capaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA SDO-EVE solar irradiance observations provide unprecedented high resolution in both time cadence and wavelength. The irradiance wavelengths of the highest importance in driving the altitude structure of the E- and F1-regions lie in two bands, a short wavelength XUV, 2 to 20 nm, and an EUV band from about 80 to 103 nm. Because of the low altitude of the E-region, 100-120 km, only remote sensing techniques are able to observe this region. Two main observational techniques are ionosondes and incoherent scatter radars (ISR). However, only the ISR can distinguish the critical valley region between the E- and F1-regions. A first EVE Arecibo ISR campaign was held on 8/9 February 2012. During daylight hours in the Puerto Rico sector the NSF Arecibo ISR operated in a special high resolution altitude mode through the ionosphere's E- and F1-regions. A total of 22 altitude profiles were obtained. The SDO-EVE instrument also operated its full instrument complement during these daylight hours. In terms of geomagnetic activity and solar dynamics, the entire period was very quiet. This study uses the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to explore the challenges of modeling the E- and F1-region under these quiet conditions. The full irradiance, with excellent wavelength resolution, defines the major input to the TDIM. The Arecibo ISR observations provide the ground truth with both excellent plasma line electron density calibration and better than 1 km altitude resolution. The major objective of this first study is to determine both the sensitivity of the model to various other drivers such as photoelectron secondary ionization, [NO], neutral winds, and the neutral atmosphere as represented by a standard thermosphere model, i.e. MSIS86 and determine what is a necessary ISR observation altitude resolution for the E- and F1-region studies. Additional complications are observed in this dataset including a descending layer and also occurrence of sporadic E. Neither of

  14. Polymer-based blood vessel models with micro-temperature sensors in EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hisataka; Sakurai, Junpei; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Cu-based micro-temperature sensors were directly fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blood vessel models in EVE using a combined process of spray coating and femtosecond laser reduction of CuO nanoparticles. CuO nanoparticle solution coated on a PDMS blood vessel model are thermally reduced and sintered by focused femtosecond laser pulses in atmosphere to write the sensors. After removing the non-irradiated CuO nanoparticles, Cu-based microtemperature sensors are formed. The sensors are thermistor-type ones whose temperature dependences of the resistance are used for measuring temperature inside the blood vessel model. This fabrication technique is useful for direct-writing of Cu-based microsensors and actuators on arbitrary nonplanar substrates.

  15. Plant protection in Poland on the eve of obligatory integrated pest management implementation.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) will be obligatory in all European Union (EU) member states from January 1, 2014. Successful IPM implementation will depend not only on the sound guidelines and goodwill of the farmers, but also on conditions in farmers' environment. This paper presents the most important factors influencing IPM implementation in Poland. The most favorable aspects on the eve of obligatory IPM implementation are the relatively low use of plant protection products and popularity of some non-chemical methods of pest control, such as sowing cereal in mixture. The most important challenges are the improvement of advisory service and the crop structure with almost three-quarters of sown area covered by cereals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  17. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  18. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  19. Korean epithelial ovarian cancer study (Ko-EVE): protocols and interim report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2012-01-01

    There have been few studies of Asian ovarian cancer and benign tumors. The primary aim of this paper was to report the protocol of the Ko-EVE study to examine epidemiological and molecular factors for ovarian cancer and benign neoplasms and to ascertain the major risk factors for ovarian cancer control in Korea. This case-control study covers incident epithelial ovarian cancers and benign neoplasms, four major centers participating in enrolling incident cases and 3 hospitals enrolling healthy controls among health examinees. Standardized questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, including sections on socio-demographics characteristics, past medical history, medication usage, family history, lifetime consumption of alcohol and tobacco, diet, physical activity, and reproductive factors for women. Various biological specimens were collected in the biorepository according to the standardized protocol. Annual follow-up for cancer cases and follow-up at the 1st year for benign tumor cases are performing to evaluate treatment effect and progression. Passive follow to see long-term survival will be conducting using record linkage with national data. The total number recruited in 2010-2011 was 246 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 362 benign epithelial tumors and 345 controls. We are planning to collect subjects for at least 1,500 sets of ovarian cancer, 2,000 benign tumors and 1,500 controls till 2018. The Ko-EVE will provide unique and important data to probe the etiology and natural history of Korean epithelial ovarian cancer. It will be continued by genomic and proteomic epidemiological analyses and future intervention studies for the prevention of ovarian cancer among Koreans.

  20. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  1. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flare observations and findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Mason, James P.

    New solar soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provide full coverage from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 seconds for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution. These observations during flares can usually be decomposed into four distinct characteristics: impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase. Over 6000 flares have been observed during the SDO mission; some flares show all four phases, and some only show the gradual phase. The focus is on the newer results about the EUV late phase and coronal dimming and its relationship to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These EVE flare measurements are based on observing the sun-as-a-star, so these results could exemplify stellar flares. Of particular interest is that new coronal dimming measurements of stars could be used to estimate mass and velocity of stellar CMEs.

  2. 77 FR 75557 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing three temporary safety zones during New Year's Eve fireworks displays on certain navigable waterways in Biscayne Bay and Palm Beach, Florida. These safety zones are necessary to protect the public from the hazards associated with launching fireworks over navigable waters of the United States. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the three safety zones unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Miami or a designated representative.

  3. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve festival in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. © 2013 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUA DURING AN X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE USING SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Woods, Thomas N.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kowalski, Adam F.

    2012-03-20

    Observations of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15 at 01:44 UT are presented, obtained using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The complete EVE spectral range covers the free-bound continua of H I (Lyman continuum), He I, and He II, with recombination edges at 91.2, 50.4, and 22.8 nm, respectively. By fitting the wavelength ranges blueward of each recombination edge with an exponential function, light curves of each of the integrated continua were generated over the course of the flare, as was emission from the free-free continuum (6.5-37 nm). The He II 30.4 nm and Ly{alpha} 121.6 nm lines, and soft X-ray (SXR; 0.1-0.8 nm) emission from GOES are also included for comparison. Each free-bound continuum was found to have a rapid rise phase at the flare onset similar to that seen in the 25-50 keV light curves from RHESSI, suggesting that they were formed by recombination with free electrons in the chromosphere. However, the free-free emission exhibited a slower rise phase seen also in the SXR emission from GOES, implying a predominantly coronal origin. By integrating over the entire flare the total energy emitted via each process was determined. We find that the flare energy in the EVE spectral range amounts to at most a few percent of the total flare energy, but EVE gives us a first comprehensive look at these diagnostically important continuum components.

  5. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve Festival in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Methods: Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. Results: 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Conclusions: Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. PMID:21964162

  6. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage.

  7. THERMODYNAMIC SPECTRUM OF SOLAR FLARES BASED ON SDO/EVE OBSERVATIONS: TECHNIQUES AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Zhang, Jie; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-15

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  8. Umbilical cord gases in relation to the neonatal condition: the EveREst plot.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Antoniya; Moulden, Mary; Redman, Christopher W G

    2013-06-01

    To validate umbilical arterial and venous pH and base deficit (pH(UA), pH(UV), BD(UA), and BD(UV), respectively), as well as venous-arterial pH differences, as measures of perinatal condition at birth (in relation to emergency intervention, resuscitation, facial mask, low Apgar, seizures, other cerebral problems or death); to investigate whether BD(UA) or pH(UA) better measures perinatal risk. A novel method (Event Rate Estimate (EveREst) plots) was used to analyze cord blood gases and perinatal outcomes of 34,510 term singleton deliveries: cord blood gas values were grouped into exclusive quantiles (containing equal proportions of cases); the quantiles were plotted against per cent rates (event rates) for perinatal outcomes; the event rates for the different blood gases were compared using the χ² test for difference of proportions. Low pH(UA) predicts poor perinatal outcome better than or comparably to high BD(UA): pH(UA) is significantly better than BD(UA) for predicting low Apgar, resuscitation and facial mask (p<0.001, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). For seizures and other cerebral problems, low pH(UA) is better than high BD(UA) but the difference is not statistically significant. For death, both measures perform equally well. Interventions for the specific reason of "fetal distress" increased as pH(UA) decreased but only where electronic fetal monitoring was used. In acidemic neonates (pH(UA) ≤ 7.05, n=1752), significantly more cord prolapses and placenta abruptions were associated with large and small venous-arterial pH difference (pH(VAD)) respectively (p<0.01). EveREst plots display clearly the diagnostic value of cord gases. They allow for the easy identification of background rates and increases above background, thresholds of interest, and comparison of the blood gas measures. Overall pH(UA) is the best umbilical blood measure of perinatal outcome. BD(UA) is comparable or inferior. Extremes of pH(VAD) (large or small) identify higher proportions

  9. ABVD plus radiotherapy versus EVE plus radiotherapy in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pavone, V; Ricardi, U; Luminari, S; Gobbi, P; Federico, M; Baldini, L; Iannitto, E; Ucci, G; Marcheselli, L; Orsucci, L; Angelucci, E; Liberati, M; Gavarotti, P; Levis, A

    2008-04-01

    In 1997, the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi started a randomized trial to evaluate, in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients, the efficacy and toxicity of the low toxic epirubicin, vinblastine and etoposide (EVE) regimen followed by involved field radiotherapy in comparison to the gold standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen followed by the same radiotherapy program. Patients should be younger than 65 years with unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL (i.e. stage IA or IIA with bulky disease and/or subdiaphragmatic disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate higher than 40, extranodal (E) involvement, hilar involvement and more than three involved lymph node areas). Ninety-two patients were allocated to the ABVD arm and 89 to the EVE arm. Complete remission (CR) rates at the end of treatment program [chemotherapy (CT) + RT] were 93% and 92% for ABVD and EVE arms, respectively (P = NS). The 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was 95% for ABVD and 78% for EVE (P < 0.05). As a consequence of the different relapse rate, the 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was significantly better for ABVD (90%) than for EVE (73%) arm (P < 0.05). No differences in terms of overall survival (OS) were observed for the two study arms. In unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL patients, no differences were observed between ABVD and EVE arms in terms of CR rate and OS. EVE CT, however, was significantly worse than ABVD in terms of RFS and FFS and cannot be recommended as initial treatment for HL.

  10. BioEve Search: A Novel Framework to Facilitate Interactive Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Toufeeq; Davulcu, Hasan; Tikves, Sukru; Nair, Radhika; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent advances in computational and biological methods in last two decades have remarkably changed the scale of biomedical research and with it began the unprecedented growth in both the production of biomedical data and amount of published literature discussing it. An automated extraction system coupled with a cognitive search and navigation service over these document collections would not only save time and effort, but also pave the way to discover hitherto unknown information implicitly conveyed in the texts. Results. We developed a novel framework (named “BioEve”) that seamlessly integrates Faceted Search (Information Retrieval) with Information Extraction module to provide an interactive search experience for the researchers in life sciences. It enables guided step-by-step search query refinement, by suggesting concepts and entities (like genes, drugs, and diseases) to quickly filter and modify search direction, and thereby facilitating an enriched paradigm where user can discover related concepts and keywords to search while information seeking. Conclusions. The BioEve Search framework makes it easier to enable scalable interactive search over large collection of textual articles and to discover knowledge hidden in thousands of biomedical literature articles with ease. PMID:22693501

  11. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants emitted because of Chinese New Year's Eve celebrations in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Quan, J H; Li, Jun; Zhang, Miao

    2014-04-01

    Activities involving firecrackers and fireworks on Chinese New Year's Eve (NYE) are common in Chinese culture. Previous studies revealed that such human activities significantly influence the ambient air quality and negatively impact human health. However, both the academia and the public lack a deep understanding of the extent and consequences of such human-induced air pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of these Spring Festival celebrations on ambient air quality at a large spatial scale and a fine temporal resolution. Data from ten monitoring stations distributed around Wuhan and a Lidar system provide a good opportunity to gain insight into spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants due to the NYE celebrations. Dramatic increases in PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ mass concentrations due to NYE celebrations were observed in this study. Moreover, the ratio of residential to total area was found to be a significant factor in predicting the geographic distributions of contaminants. The vertical distribution of such human-induced and culture-related contaminants was first shown using a Mie Lidar. Contaminants emitted by firecrackers on the ground spread to a distance of over 450 m in the atmosphere. The vertical influence began to fade two hours after celebrations because of dry deposition. Moreover, it took over 15 hours for the contaminant levels to return to pre-celebration levels. Finally, estimations of PM₂.₅ emissions from firecrackers in Wuhan were 39.57 and 43.51 tons, based on regression and time series analyses, respectively.

  12. The Slowly Varying Corona: Findings using DEMs from the EVE MEGS-A Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; Henney, Carl John; McAteer, James

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis of the complete spectral dataset from the Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment (EVE) MEGS-A instrument. With these data we construct daily differential emission measures (DEMs) and use them to analyze the long-term variability of the global corona. We identify a discontinuity in the DEMs separating solar minimum and maximum conditions that suggests a fundamental change in the coronal temperature structure with solar activity. Using the DEMs, we also study the relationship between EUV and F10.7, the 10.7 cm (2.8 GHz) solar activity proxy. We compare the F10.7 predictions from the DEMs and photospheric magnetic field observations with irradiance microwave observations to constrain the source mechanisms of F10.7 and their relative contribution as a function of solar activity. This has serious implications for the use of F10.7 as an activity proxy in terrestrial atmospheric modeling and we discuss our results in the context of previous work. Comparing the DEMs with microwave observations also allows for a determination of the coronal iron abundance and a measurement of the FIP effect.

  13. The Temporal Behaviour of Lyman-alpha During Solar Flares Using SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    The Lyα line of hydrogen at 1216Å is the strongest emission line in the solar spectrum. It is formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere and is a primary driver of changes in terrestrial ionospheric density. It has also recently been shown to dominate the radiative losses during an X-class solar flare (Milligan et al. 2014). Despite the diagnostic potential of Lyα there are relatively few papers in the literature that discuss changes in Lyα emission during solar flares. The MEGS-P broadband (100Å) diode on SDO/EVE measures full-disk Lyα emission at 10s cadence making it ideal for studying such variations. Although formed in the chromosphere, the temporal variations in Lyα appear more gradual in nature, with rise times of tens of minutes, compared to just a few minutes in other chromospheric features, such as Hα, He II, Lyman continuum, C III, etc. In fact, in many large events, emission detected by MEGS-P appears to obey the Neupert Effect; i.e. the time derivate of Lyα closely matches that of impulsive chromospheric emission. Here I will discuss a number of conditions, both solar and instrumental, that may explain why this relationship seems to exist. I shall also compare MEGS-P observations with spectrally and temporally resolved Lyα measurements from SORCE/SOLSTICE.

  14. Ecstasy overdoses at a New Year's Eve rave--Los Angeles, California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-06-11

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) is an illegal synthetic amphetamine used as a stimulant and hallucinogen. On January 4, 2010, the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health (DPH) learned of six MDMA-related emergency department (ED) visits and one death, all linked to a New Year's Eve event attended by approximately 45,000 persons. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to search for additional MDMA-related ED visits, characterize the cases, and determine whether drug contamination was involved. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which determined that 18 patients visited EDs in LAC for MDMA-related illness within 12 hours of the rave. All were aged 16-34 years, and nine were female. In addition to using MDMA, 10 of the 18 had used alcohol, and five had used other drugs. Three patients were admitted to the hospital, including one to intensive care. A tablet obtained from one of the patients contained MDMA and caffeine, without known toxic contaminants. The cluster of apparent ecstasy overdoses occurred in the context of likely increasing MDMA use in the county during 2005-2009, as indicated by increased identification of MDMA-containing forensic specimens and a large increase in LAC residents entering drug treatment programs for MDMA. Collaboration between public health, police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) officials on a comprehensive prevention strategy might reduce the number of overdoses at similar events.

  15. Birds flee en mass from New Year’s Eve fireworks

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E. Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year’s Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive. PMID:22476363

  16. Injuries and deaths at a pub fire in Bangkok, Thailand on New Year's Eve 2009.

    PubMed

    Jongcherdchootrakul, Kanlaya; Henderson, A K; Jiraphongsa, C

    2011-05-01

    This investigation describes the 67 people who died and the 153 who were hospitalized from a New Years' Eve fire in a Bangkok pub. We interviewed survivors and reviewed medical charts and forensic reports of decedents. Survivors were young (median age 27 years), single (84.7%) and lived in Thailand (93.6%). Most were on the concert floor when the fire started (74.0%), became aware of danger when they saw flames (61.5%) and escaped through the main entry door (42.9%). Common injuries were burns (75.6%), smoke inhalation (47.4%) and open wounds (32.1%). The decedents' median age was 27 years and 88.1% lived in Thailand. Most of the dead bodies were found at or near the main entrance. The main causes of death were asphyxia (88.1%) or burn (10.4%). Soot was present in the trachea of 95.5% of the decedents. Carboxyhemoglobin level in 37.5% was in the toxic range. The average percent of body surface burned was 75.0%. Loss of consciousness in the pub (RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.3) was a risk factor for severe injury and smoke inhalation (RR 9.3, 95% CI 3.1-28.0) was a risk factor for death. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Alternatives to the Wright-Fisher model: the robustness of mitochondrial Eve dating.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Krzysztof A; Kimmel, Marek

    2010-11-01

    Methods of calculating the distributions of the time to coalescence depend on the underlying model of population demography. In particular, the models assuming deterministic evolution of population size may not be applicable to populations evolving stochastically. Therefore the study of coalescence models involving stochastic demography is important for applications. One interesting approach which includes stochasticity is the O'Connell limit theory of genealogy in branching processes. Our paper explores how many generations are needed for the limiting distributions of O'Connell to become adequate approximations of exact distributions. We perform extensive simulations of slightly supercritical branching processes and compare the results to the O'Connell limits. Coalescent computations under the Wright-Fisher model are compared with limiting O'Connell results and with full genealogy-based predictions. These results are used to estimate the age of the so-called mitochondrial Eve, i.e., the root of the mitochondrial polymorphisms of the modern humans based on the DNA from humans and Neanderthal fossils. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An assessment of Fe xx-Fe xxii emission lines in SDO/EVE data as diagnostics for high-density solar flare plasmas using EUVE stellar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Milligan, R. O.; Mathioudakis, M.; Christian, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory obtains extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of the full-disc Sun at a spectral resolution of ˜1 Å and cadence of 10 s. Such a spectral resolution would normally be considered to be too low for the reliable determination of electron density (Ne) sensitive emission line intensity ratios, due to blending. However, previous work has shown that a limited number of Fe xxi features in the 90-160 Å wavelength region of EVE do provide useful Ne-diagnostics at relatively low flare densities (Ne ≃ 1011-1012 cm-3). Here, we investigate if additional highly ionized Fe line ratios in the EVE 90-160 Å range may be reliably employed as Ne-diagnostics. In particular, the potential for such diagnostics to provide density estimates for high Ne (˜1013 cm-3) flare plasmas is assessed. Our study employs EVE spectra for X-class flares, combined with observations of highly active late-type stars from the EUVE satellite plus experimental data for well-diagnosed tokamak plasmas, both of which are similar in wavelength coverage and spectral resolution to those from EVE. Several ratios are identified in EVE data, which yield consistent values of electron density, including Fe xx 113.35/121.85 and Fe xxii 114.41/135.79, with confidence in their reliability as Ne-diagnostics provided by the EUVE and tokamak results. These ratios also allow the determination of density in solar flare plasmas up to values of ˜1013 cm-3.

  19. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen A.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Aims: The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. Methods: We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1 nm in the range 37-105 nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the "center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. Results: In a study of 6 flares we find strong signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds measured in Sun-as-a-Star data of around 10 km s-1, and speeds in the flare excess signal of around 30 km s-1. Conclusions: All events showing upflows in Lyman lines are associated with some kind of eruption or coronal flow in imaging data, which may be responsible for the net blueshifts. Events showing downflows in the Lyman lines may be associated with loop contraction or faint downflows, but it is likely that chromospheric condensation flows are also contributing.

  20. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but until recently there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector on board the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1nm in the range 37-105nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the “center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. In a study of 6 flares we find signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds of around 10 km s^‑1 in the line profiles that have not undergone pre-flare subtraction, and speeds in the flare-excess profiles of around 30 km s^‑1 . We include analysis of AIA images of these events in order to understand potential contributions from material ejections, and find that not all upflows can be explained by ejecta. We discuss current and future attempts at modelling these line profiles.

  1. The Slowly Varying Corona. I. Daily Differential Emission Measure Distributions Derived from EVE Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, S. J.; White, S. M.; Hock-Mysliwiec, R. A.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2017-08-01

    Daily differential emission measure (DEM) distributions of the solar corona are derived from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) over a 4 yr period starting in 2010 near solar minimum and continuing through the maximum of solar cycle 24. The DEMs are calculated using six strong emission features dominated by Fe lines of charge states viii, ix, xi, xii, xiv, and xvi that sample the nonflaring coronal temperature range 0.3-5 MK. A proxy for the non-Fe xviii emission in the wavelength band around the 93.9 Å line is demonstrated. There is little variability in the cool component of the corona (T < 1.3 MK) over the 4 yr, suggesting that the quiet-Sun corona does not respond strongly to the solar cycle, whereas the hotter component (T > 2.0 MK) varies by more than an order of magnitude. A discontinuity in the behavior of coronal diagnostics in 2011 February-March, around the time of the first X-class flare of cycle 24, suggests fundamentally different behavior in the corona under solar minimum and maximum conditions. This global state transition occurs over a period of several months. The DEMs are used to estimate the thermal energy of the visible solar corona (of order 1031 erg), its radiative energy loss rate ((2.5-8) × {10}27 erg s-1), and the corresponding energy turnover timescale (about an hour). The uncertainties associated with the DEMs and these derived values are mostly due to the coronal Fe abundance and density and the CHIANTI atomic line database.

  2. Midsummer Eve in Sweden: a natural fluid challenge in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan; Lyngå, Patrik; Karlsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2011-11-01

    Volume overload exacerbations in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are associated with a dismal prognosis and are often triggered by dietary incompliance. We aimed to describe the effects of dietary changes on measures of fluid retention in HF patients. Thirty-one HF patients with an implantable defibrillator (age 64 ± 11 years, ejection fraction 25 ± 12%, median NT-proBNP 2090 ng/L, resynchronization therapy: n= 25) were followed by daily body weight (BW) (telemonitoring) and intrathoracic impedance (by the implanted device) around Swedish Midsummer 2009, a holiday traditionally celebrated with meals including salty fish dishes and ample intake of fluids. Midsummer Eve celebrations caused a distinct and rapid increase in BW and a decrease in impedance indicating increased fluid retention. Compared with baseline values, peak BW increased by 1225 g [interquartile range (IQR) 475-2013 g)] which was accompanied by a decrease in impedance (3 Ω; IQR -5.2 to -1.2) and a clear deflection on the impedance-based fluid detection algorithm (OptiVol) that crossed the preset fluid-alert threshold six times following Midsummer. Body weight and impedance values were normalized after a period of 20 and 8 days, respectively. A clustering of minor clinical events following Midsummer suggests a possible adverse impact of dietary incompliance. However, none of the patients were hospitalized for HF. Dietary incompliance, e.g. on the occasion of a ceremonial meal, may lead to marked disturbances in the fluid balance of patients with HF reflected by increased BW and decreased intrathoracic impedance. These findings underline the importance of maintaining stable volume conditions in HF patients.

  3. Firework-related injuries in Tehran's Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbe Soori).

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Hassan; Khashayar, Patricia; Amoli, Hadi Ahmadi; Esfandiari, Khalil; Ashegh, Hossein; Rezaii, Jalal; Salimi, Javad

    2011-03-01

    Fireworks are the leading cause of injuries such as burns and amputations during the Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbeh Soori). This study was designed to explore the age of the high-risk population, the type of fireworks most frequently causing injury, the pattern of injury, and the frequency of permanent disabilities. This cohort study was performed by Tehran Emergency Medical Services at different medical centers all around Tehran, Iran, in individuals referred due to firework-related injuries during 1 month surrounding the festival in the year 2007. The following information was extracted from the patients' medical records: demographic data, the type of fireworks causing injury, the pattern and severity of the injury, the pre-hospital and hospital care provided for the patient, and the patient's condition at the time of discharge. In addition, information on the severity of the remaining disability was recorded 8 months after the injury. There were 197 patients enrolled in the study with a mean age of 20.94 ± 11.31 years; the majority of them were male. Fuse-detonated noisemakers and homemade grenades were the most frequent causes of injury. Hand injury was reported in 39.8% of the cases. Amputation and long-term disability were found in 6 and 12 cases, respectively. None of the patients died during the study period. The fireworks used during a Chaharshanbe Soori ceremony were responsible for a considerable number of injuries to different parts of the body, and some of them led to permanent disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 72842 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing four temporary safety zones during New Year's Eve fireworks displays on certain navigable waterways in Naples, St. Petersburg, Cape Coral, and Sarasota, Florida. These safety zones are necessary to protect the public from the hazards associated with launching fireworks over navigable waters of the United States. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the four safety zones unless authorized by the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg or a designated representative.

  5. Limits on light WIMPs with a germanium detector at 177 eVee threshold at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. K.; Yue, Q.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Wong, H. T.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. W.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment reports results on light WIMP dark matter searches at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory with a germanium detector array with a total mass of 20 g. The physics threshold achieved is 177 eVee ("ee" represents electron equivalent energy) at 50% signal efficiency. With 0.784 kg-days of data, exclusion region on spin-independent coupling with the nucleon is derived, improving over our earlier bounds at WIMP mass less than 4.6 GeV.

  6. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  7. Further replication studies of the EVE Consortium meta-analysis identifies 2 asthma risk loci in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rachel A; Himes, Blanca E; Gignoux, Christopher R; Yang, James J; Gauderman, W James; Rebordosa, Cristina; Xie, Jianming; Torgerson, Dara G; Levin, Albert M; Baurley, James; Graves, Penelope E; Mathias, Rasika A; Romieu, Isabelle; Roth, Lindsey A; Conti, David; Avila, Lydiana; Eng, Celeste; Vora, Hita; LeNoir, Michael A; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Liu, Jinghua; Celedón, Juan C; Galanter, Joshua M; Farber, Harold J; Kumar, Rajesh; Avila, Pedro C; Meade, Kelley; Serebrisky, Denise; Thyne, Shannon; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Lemanske, Robert F; Bleecker, Eugene R; Meyers, Deborah A; London, Stephanie J; Barnes, Kathleen C; Raby, Benjamin A; Martinez, Fernando D; Gilliland, Frank D; Williams, L Keoki; Burchard, Esteban G; Weiss, Scott T; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2012-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies of asthma have implicated many genetic risk factors, with well-replicated associations at approximately 10 loci that account for only a small proportion of the genetic risk. We aimed to identify additional asthma risk loci by performing an extensive replication study of the results from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis. We selected 3186 single nucleotide polymorphisms for replication based on the P values from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis. These single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in ethnically diverse replication samples from 9 different studies, totaling 7202 cases, 6426 controls, and 507 case-parent trios. Association analyses were conducted within each participating study, and the resulting test statistics were combined in a meta-analysis. Two novel associations were replicated in European Americans: rs1061477 in the KLK3 gene on chromosome 19 (combined odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25) and rs9570077 (combined odds ratio =1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) on chromosome 13q21. We could not replicate any additional associations in the African Americans or Latinos. This extended replication study identified 2 additional asthma risk loci in populations of European descent. The absence of additional loci for African Americans and Latinos highlights the difficulty in replicating associations in admixed populations. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    PubMed

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  9. The Adam and Eve story as exemplar of an early-life variant of the oedipus complex.

    PubMed

    Osman, M P

    2000-01-01

    The Adam and Eve story is construed as having an organizing function that facilitates the analytic understanding of certain patients. In this interpretation, the story epitomizes a psychodynamic in which progressive growth, with separation and individuation, of the young is experienced as perilous--not only to them, but also correspondingly to their procreators. In the myth, the increasing psychic and physical maturation of Adam and Eve produced a crisis. Not only was divine authority flouted, but also apprehensions were aroused that God might be humbled or diminished. This threatened him, evoking his wrath and leading to the punishment by abandonment of his youthful wards. It is suggested that the story depicts an emotional complex of widespread application and is an archaic version of the oedipus complex, continuous with the oedipus complex proper, but from an earlier stage of development. This archaic complex is delineated with clinical vignettes, and a clinical explication of its various components is provided. Clinical management is considered, particularly with reference to the challenge that a closed-system perspective (Fairbairn 1958) presents to a patient's development.

  10. Anomalous temporal behaviour of broadband Lyα observations during solar flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyα emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Lyα emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Lyα data at 10 s cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (Hα, Lyβ, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Lyα lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Lyα observations during flares from SORCE/SOLSTICE peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines and/or continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting broadband Lyα observations of solar flares. Comparisons have also been made with other broadband Lyα photometers such as PROBA2/LYRA and GOES/EUVS-E.

  11. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  12. Constraining Models Of The Solar Chromosphere Using An X2 Flare Observed By SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramanasastry, A.; Murphy, N. A.; Avrett, E.

    2013-12-01

    The GOES X2 solar flare of Feb 15, 2011 is analyzed to draw observational constraints in constructing a model of the chromosphere of the Sun during a solar flare, using the Pandora computer program [1]. Spectra from the MEGS-A&B component of EVE [2] on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used to analyze the lines and continuum [3]. The irradiances before and after the flare are used for modeling the time-evolution of the impulsive and decay phases of the flare. Significant increase in the intensities of multiple coronal and chromospheric emission lines (H, He, C, N, O, Si etc.) is seen. The observed increase in intensities will serve as constraints to the model program. Pandora performs iterative calculations for non-LTE radiative transfer with multiple ions and atoms. It includes the effects of particle diffusion and flow velocities in the equations of radiative transfer and ionization equilibrium. The fraction of the area on the Sun contributing to the chromospheric flare emission is presented. The upper limit for the intensity in the Lyman continuum due to the flare is accounted to be approximately 7% of that due to the entire surface area. The Lyman, He II and He I continua provide strong constraints for characterizing the chromosphere. The emission lines from the CHIANTI atomic database in these wavelength ranges are considered in order to avoid using optically thin emission lines from the corona. The behavior of changes in line features with time is analyzed. The light curves of different lines that contribute substantially to the flare spectra are studied. The temperatures at the peak of the flare with respect to that at the quiet Sun is estimated at different continuum wavelengths. The pre-flare and post-flare values from these light-curves are adapted to construct the model during the rise and decay phases. The effective intensity due to the lines and the relative times at which these lines peak are presented. The observed irradiance values for pre

  13. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  14. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  15. Functional endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of the parasitoid wasp cotesia congregata: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of bracoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracoviruses represent the most complex Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) described to date. Nudiviral genes have been hosted within the genomes of parasitoid wasps since ~ 100 MYA (Million Years Ago) and are functionally integrated in the parasitoid wasp life cycle. They are involved in the producti...

  16. Ecology and Mary: An Ecological Theology of Mary as the New Eve in Response to the Church's Challenge for a Faith-Based Education in Ecological Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    The Church's interpretation of the current ecological crisis as a moral crisis is the catalyst for this essay, which proposes a newly constructed faith-based model for ecological dialogue and education. The exploration and reinterpretation of the traditional Church doctrine of the Virgin Mary as the new Eve provides a theme from which an…

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  18. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of transmission impairments on perceived video quality by exploiting ReTRiEVED dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Pradip; Battisti, Federica; Carli, Marco

    2017-03-01

    The robust design and adaptation of multimedia networks relies on the study of the influence of potential network impairments on the perceived quality. Video quality may be affected by network impairments, such as delay, jitter, packet loss, and bandwidth, and the perceptual impact of these impairments may vary according to the video content. The effects of packet loss and encoding artifacts on the perceived quality have been widely addressed in the literature. However, the relationship between video content and network impairments on the perceived video quality has not been deeply investigated. A detailed analysis of ReTRiEVED test video dataset, designed by considering a set of potential network impairments, is presented, and the effects of transmission impairments on perceived quality are analyzed. Furthermore, the impact on the perceived quality of the video content in the presence of transmission impairments is studied by using video content descriptors. Finally, the performances of well-known quality metrics are tested on the proposed dataset.

  20. A substorm-associated enhancement in the XUV radiation measuring channel observed by ESP/EVE/SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; Shen, Chao; Du, Zhan-Le

    2016-06-01

    Comparing the ESP/EVE/SDO flux data of 2011 Feb 6, with the counterparts of XRS/GOES and SEM/SOHO, we find that there is an enhancement that is not apparent in the two latter datasets. The enhancement, possibly regarded as a flare at first glimpse, nevertheless, does not involve an energy-release from the Sun. Based on the enhancement, we combine data from SXI/GOES 15 into a synthesized analysis, and concluded that it arises from a particle-associated enhancement in the channel that measures XUV radiation. Paradoxically, it seems to be somewhat of a particle-avalanching process. Prior to the event, a moderate geomagnetic storm took place. Subsequently, while the event is proceeding, a geomagnetic substorm is simultaneously observed. Therefore, the particles, though unidentified, are probably energetic electrons induced by substorm injection.

  1. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  2. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  3. Thermal Evolution of Solar Flares During the First Year of SDO as Seen by the EVE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    It is very evident during the first year of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that the Sun awoke from its prolonged minimum and is well into solar cycle 24. There has been tens of moderate M-class flares and a large X-class event (as of abstract submission), with more surely to come as the solar cycle activity increases. With SDO's 24/7 observations, every single flare has been observed through their entire evolution, providing new insights in the thermal evolution of every flare. It is evident that this evolution is extremely different for many of the flares, even for flares with similar X-ray magnitude classifications. Presented and discussed will be these different flares with their varying thermal evolution profiles as observed by the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

  4. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  5. Ionospheric ionization calculated from combined SolACES-SDO/EVE solar EUV spectra and comparison with global TEC at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Christoph; Unglaub, Claudia; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Schäfer, Robert; Brunner, Raimund; Woods, Tom; Jakowski, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Ionospheric response to solar EUV variability during 2012 - 2014 is shown by the EUV-TEC proxy based on primary ionization calculations using combined solar spectra from SDO/EVE and SolACES on board the ISS. The in flight calibrated SolACES spectra have been used to calibrate the continuous SDO/EVE measurements. The results are compared with global TEC analyses. We found that EUV describes TEC variability better than conventional indices, especially during periods of strong solar flare activity. At time scales of the solar rotation, there is a time lag between EUV and TEC variability of about one day, indicating dynamical processes in the ionosphere. This lag is not seen at shorter time scales.

  6. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  7. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union.

  8. Sounding Rocket Observations of Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra Between 0.5 and 2.5 nm Using a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Seth; Didkovsky, Leonid; Woods, Thomas; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Spectrally resolved measurements of individual solar active regions (ARs) in the soft X-ray (SXR) range are important for studying dynamic processes in the solar corona and their associated effects on the Earth's upper atmosphere. They are also a means of evaluating atomic data and elemental abundances used in physics-based solar spectral models. However, very few such measurements are available. We present spectral measurements of two individual ARs in the 0.5 to 2.5 nm range obtained on the NASA 36.290 sounding rocket flight of 21 October 2013 (at about 18:30 UT) using the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a channel of the Extreme Ultaviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) payload designed for underflight calibrations of the orbital EVE on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The EVE rocket instrument is a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, except the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a freestanding transmission grating to provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST/SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. We discuss techniques (incorporating the NIST/SURF data) for determining SXR spectra from the dispersed AR images as well as the resulting spectra for NOAA ARs 11877 and 11875 observed on the 2013 rocket flight. In comparisons with physics-based spectral models using the CHIANTI v8 atomic database we find that both AR spectra are in good agreement with isothermal spectra (4 MK), as well as spectra based on an AR differential emission measure (DEM) included with the CHIANTI distribution, with the exception of the relative intensities of strong Fe xvii lines associated with 2p6-2p53{s} and 2p6-2p

  9. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H.

    2016-12-01

    We combine observations of solar flares from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM). This improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to help to resolve ambiguities in the range where thermal and non-thermal emission overlap. For this current project we are interested in constraining cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. (Previous work by Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well). Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung emission in the soft X-ray (< 10 keV) energy range; at higher hard X-ray energies (> 30 keV) the emission is non-thermal from beams of electrons. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can typically only be loosely quantified. In particular, it is difficult to obtain a lower limit for any possible non-thermal cutoff energy due to the larger amount of thermal emission. In this model, thermal emission is due to a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in Log(T). Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using thin and thick-target emission models. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. Preliminary results have been obtained using a sample of 102 large (GOES X and M class) solar flares observed between February 2011 and February 2013. These results show that it is possible to determine low energy cutoffs and breaks early during large flares, and to get good values for the low energy limit to the non-thermal cutoff.

  10. Adam, Eve and the reflux enigma: age and sex differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux spectrum.

    PubMed

    Royston, Christine; Bardhan, Karna D

    2017-06-01

    We present demographic differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) spectrum in a UK District General Hospital. Data were prospectively collected over 37 years. At endoscopy patients were categorized as: erosive oesophagitis (EO), Barrett's oesophagus (BO) or nonerosive reflux disease (NER). Analysis 1: comparison of EO, BO and NER 1977-2001 when the database for GORD without BO closed. Analysis 2: demographic differences in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in total BO population diagnosed 1977-2011. GORD 1977-2001 (n=11 944): sex, male predominance in EO and BO but not NER; male : female ratios, 1.81, 1.65, 0.87, respectively (P<0.0001); mean age at presentation, EO 54 years, BO 62 years, NER 50 years; women were older than men by 10, 7 and 6 years, respectively.BO 1977-2011: prevalent OAC, 87/1468 (6%); male : female ratio, 4.1 (P<0.0001); incident OAC, 54/1381 (3.9%); male : female ratio, 3.5 (P<0.0001). Among all BO, more men developed OAC (3 vs. 0.9%). Within each sex, proportion of OAC higher among men (4.9 vs. 2.3%); at OAC diagnosis women were slightly but not significantly older (69.9 vs. 72.3 years, P=0.322). Two views may explain our findings. First, women have either milder reflux, or reduced mucosal sensitivity hence reflux remains silent for longer. Alternatively, women genuinely develop reflux later, that is, are more protected and for longer from developing GORD and its complications. Early evidence is emerging that female sex hormones may indeed have a protective role in GORD during the reproductive period. We suggest reflux and its consequences may be an example of 'protection' conferred on Eve.

  11. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Non-thermal Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung from solar flares directly probe the non-thermal electron population. For low energies, however, the spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission and the low energy extent of the non-thermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). For a sample of solar flares, we model the emission using a Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for the thermal emission seen with both instruments and a power law fit for the non-thermal emission observed by RHESSI. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. This improvement over the traditional isothermal approximation for thermal flare emission is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares. It is expected that a low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electron spectrum is in this energy range, but is obscured by thermal emission. For each flare in the sample we establish limits for the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal spectrum. These limits, in turn, can be used to establish limits on the energy of non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flare. This research is supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033 and NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  12. Extensive scaling and nonuniformity of the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition for the spiral-defect chaos state

    SciTech Connect

    Zoldi, S.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.; Greenside, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    By analyzing large-aspect-ratio spiral-defect chaos (SDC) convection images, we show that the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition (KLD) scales extensively for subsystem sizes larger than 4d ({ital d} is the fluid depth), which strongly suggests that SDC is extensively chaotic. From this extensive scaling, the intensive length {xi}{sub KLD} is computed and found to have a different dependence on the Rayleigh number than the two-point correlation length {xi}{sub 2}. Local computations of {xi}{sub KLD} reveal a spatial nonuniformity of SDC images that extends over radii 18d{lt}r{lt}45d in a {Gamma}=109 aspect-ratio cell. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. SOLACES - Presenting the Level 3 dataset and a completion of the years 2010 to 2013 using the SDO/EVE experiment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Nikutowski, Bernd; Erhardt, Christian; Eparvier, Francis G.

    In October 2013 the SolACES Team published the Level 2 dataset. It is a compilation of over 500 spectra ranging from 16-58 nm for the time period of 2008 - 2010. To complete the time period until end of 2013 the SolACES Team will present the process of calculating calibrated spectral data from spectrometer and ionization chamber measurements. We will also present a modelling process generating calibrated spectra directly from ionization chamber measurements. The evaluated dataset is interpolated using time series coming from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) - Extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE) generating a full time series of data from the beginning of 2011 to the end of 2013.

  14. C.T. Jackson's 15 October 1846 letter to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont: Jackson's thoughts on Ether Day's Eve?

    PubMed

    Bause, George S; Sim, Patrick P

    2011-01-01

    As did the previous letter on 30 November 1845 from Charles T. Jackson to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont, this 15 October 1846 missive underscores the cordial professional relationship between the two geologists. Remarkably, in this "Ether Day's Eve" letter, Jackson never reveals whether he had any clue that W.T.G. Morton would be publicly demonstrating ether anesthesia for surgery the next morning. More importantly, since Elie de Beaumont would play a future pivotal role in assigning initial credit for "discovering anesthesia" to his geological colleague Jackson, rather than to Morton, letters such as these from November of 1845 and October of 1846 can only raise more questions about the impartiality of Elie de Beaumont.

  15. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study.

    PubMed

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014. An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9-15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon.

  16. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study

    PubMed Central

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Design Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014 Methods An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. Results In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9–15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. Conclusion The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon. PMID:28264016

  17. OPTIMOS-EVE optical design of a very efficient, high-multiplex, large spectral coverage, fiber-fed spectrograph at EELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.; Tosh, I.; Chemla, F.

    2010-07-01

    OPTIMOS-EVE is a fiber-fed, high-multiplex, high-efficiency, large spectral coverage spectrograph for EELT covering visible and near-infrared simultaneously. More than 200 seeing-limited objects will be observed at the same time over the full 7 arcmin field of view of the telescope, feeding the spectrograph, asking for very large multiplexing at the spectrograph side. The spectrograph consists of two identical units. Each unit will have two optimized channels to observe both visible and near-infrared wavelengths at the same time, covering from 0.37 to 1.7 micron. To maximize the scientific return, a large simultaneous spectral coverage per exposure was required, up to 1/3 of the central wavelength. Moreover, different spectral resolution modes, spanning from 5'000 to 30'000, were defined to match very different sky targets. Many different optical solutions were generated during the initial study phase in order to select that one that will maximize performances within given constraints (mass, space, cost). Here we present the results of this study, with special attention to the baseline design. Efforts were done to keep size of the optical components well within present state-of-the-art technologies. For example, large glass blank sizes were limited to ~35 cm maximum diameter. VPH gratings were selected as dispersers, to improve efficiency, following their superblaze curve. This led to scanning gratings and cameras. Optical design will be described, together with expected performances.

  18. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO’s Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating’s first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of “uncalibrated” first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the “uncalibrated” first-order “solar” component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  19. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-12-09

    Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as alpha-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Rossner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPalpha. Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  20. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Background Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as α-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Results Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Roßner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα. Conclusion Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP. PMID:18067682

  1. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  2. Prediction of response to antiretroviral therapy by human experts and by the EuResist data-driven expert system (the EVE study).

    PubMed

    Zazzi, M; Kaiser, R; Sönnerborg, A; Struck, D; Altmann, A; Prosperi, M; Rosen-Zvi, M; Petroczi, A; Peres, Y; Schülter, E; Boucher, C A; Brun-Vezinet, F; Harrigan, P R; Morris, L; Obermeier, M; Perno, C-F; Phanuphak, P; Pillay, D; Shafer, R W; Vandamme, A-M; van Laethem, K; Wensing, A M J; Lengauer, T; Incardona, F

    2011-04-01

    The EuResist expert system is a novel data-driven online system for computing the probability of 8-week success for any given pair of HIV-1 genotype and combination antiretroviral therapy regimen plus optional patient information. The objective of this study was to compare the EuResist system vs. human experts (EVE) for the ability to predict response to treatment. The EuResist system was compared with 10 HIV-1 drug resistance experts for the ability to predict 8-week response to 25 treatment cases derived from the EuResist database validation data set. All current and past patient data were made available to simulate clinical practice. The experts were asked to provide a qualitative and quantitative estimate of the probability of treatment success. There were 15 treatment successes and 10 treatment failures. In the classification task, the number of mislabelled cases was six for EuResist and 6-13 for the human experts [mean±standard deviation (SD) 9.1±1.9]. The accuracy of EuResist was higher than the average for the experts (0.76 vs. 0.64, respectively). The quantitative estimates computed by EuResist were significantly correlated (Pearson r=0.695, P<0.0001) with the mean quantitative estimates provided by the experts. However, the agreement among experts was only moderate (for the classification task, inter-rater κ=0.355; for the quantitative estimation, mean±SD coefficient of variation=55.9±22.4%). With this limited data set, the EuResist engine performed comparably to or better than human experts. The system warrants further investigation as a treatment-decision support tool in clinical practice. © 2010 British HIV Association.

  3. Updates in SDO/EVE/EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) Data Processing and Inter-comparison of Calibrated ESP Irradiances with Measurements from Other On-orbit EUV Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woodraska, D.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the May 2014 anomaly which indefinitely suspended SDO/EVE Multiple EUV Spectrographs-A (MEGS-A) science operations, MEGS-A spectral distributions were used in the data processing algorithm for determining absolute EUV irradiance values from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) raw data. We discuss a revised ESP data processing algorithm which, in lieu of concurrently measured MEGS-A spectra, adopts reference spectra selected (based on solar activity at the time of the ESP observation) from a discrete set of spectra derived from MEGS-A spectra for various levels of activity observed prior to the anomaly. We present evaluations of the revised algorithm and adopted reference spectra based on comparisons of the resultant ESP irradiance values with EUV measurements from other on-orbit instrumentation including the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). The results of comparisons between ESP irradiances determined using the revised algorithm and those based on the pre-anomaly algorithm which uses concurrent MEGS-A spectra are also presented

  4. Were Adam and Eve Astronauts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1979-01-01

    Describes two ways of teaching mythology in the secondary school social studies classroom: myth as a cultural concept and myth as a fallacy. The first way provides students with an understanding of the concept of culture; the second, an opportunity to develop skills in critical thinking. (Author/KC)

  5. The Adam and Eve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sexton, R O; Maddock, R C

    1978-07-01

    The concept of divine forgiveness is incomprehensible to most, since it involves principles that defy rational interpretation on the level of human cognition. As a result, individuals, and especially those who present themselves for treatment, find themselves caught up in a repetition of self-judgment and selfpunishment, which is a reenactment of the original sin and the disobedience encountered in the Garden of Eden. It can be pointed out to patients that this continuous, repetitious acting out of the functions of self-judgment and selfpunishment represents the worst sin of all-the original sin in which the power and authority of God are usurped and assumed, resulting eventually in a denial of God along with symptoms that are often incapacitating. When these functions are returned to God, punishment can be expected to be much less severe and intense, because of the nature and characteristics of divine forgiveness.

  6. Adam and Eve in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Adrian M.

    1973-01-01

    The present conflict between creationists and evolutionists may appear to be focused on demanding equal time in school curriculum, but an attack may be made in the future on the scientific method itself. Stronger arguments should be made against creationists' viewpoint to uphold the rationale of scientific scrutiny before accepting a belief as…

  7. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies.

  8. Magnetic stratigraphy of the Ordovician in the lower reach of the Kotuy River: the age of the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum and the rate of geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the superchron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Fetisova, A. M.; Bigun, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, the existing data prevented the geophysicists from accurately dating the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, which outcrops in the middle reach of the Kotuy River, constraining the time of its formation to a wide interval from the end of the Late Cambrian to the beginning of the Silurian. The obtained paleomagnetic data unambiguously correlate the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum to the Nyaian regional stage and constrain its formation, at least a considerable part of it, by the Tremadocian. This result perfectly agrees with the data on the Bysy-Yuryakh conodonts studied in this work and yields a spectacular example of the successful application of paleomagnetic studies in solving important tasks of stratigraphy and, correspondingly, petroleum geology. Within the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, we revealed a large normal-polarity interval corresponding to the long (>1 Ma) period when the geomagnetic reversals were absent. This result, in combination with the data for the Tremadocian and Middle-Upper Cambrian sequences of the other regions, indicates that (1) the rate of occurrence of the geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the Ordovician Moyero superchron of reversed polarity was at most one reversal per Ma; (2) the superchron does not switch on instantaneously but is preceded by a certain gradual change in the operation conditions of the dynamo mechanism which, inter alia, manifests itself by the reduction of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals with the approach of the superchron. This finding supports the views according to which a process preparing the establishment of the superchrons takes place at the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Positive Patients on the Waiting List for Liver Transplantation: Turnover and Characteristics of the Population on the Eve of the Therapeutic Revolution With Direct-Acting Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Trapani, S; Rizzato, L; Masiero, L; Ricci, A; Morabito, V; Peritore, D; Fiaschetti, P; Del Sordo, E; Cacciotti, A R; Montemurro, A; Nanni Costa, A

    2017-05-01

    Antivirals direct acting (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have brought a revolution in the field of transplantation. It is likely to think that in the future patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) will no longer be registered for HCV-related cirrhosis but for liver disease from other causes. On the eve of this change, we show a snapshot of the Italian waiting list for LT. From October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013, we estimated the total number of patients on the liver waiting list as intention to treat (ITT), the number of incident cases, and the delistings, particularly in the HCV positive (HCV+) population. Gender, median age, etiology and prognosis of liver disease, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), reason for delisting, mean waiting time for LT, and rate of death on waiting list were evaluated. In the time period, there were 517 new patients who were HCV+ (median age, 53 years): 255 (49.3%) mono-infected with HCV, 236 (45.7%) co-infected with HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), 11 (2.1%) co-infected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 15 (2.9%) co-infected with HCV, HBV, and HIV. The median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at listing was 17 and HCC was present in 206 (39.8%) cases. HCV+ patients delisted were 442 (61.9%), 355 (80.3%) for LT. The mean waiting time to transplantation was 1.9 months; the percentage of death was 7.6%. This snapshot of the waiting list for LT in the year before the advent of DAA drugs will allow us to assess whether and how they will change the waiting list for LT when we start to look at the impact of new therapies on the waiting list. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Baseline characteristics in the Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Chertow, Glenn M; Akizawa, Tadao; Audhya, Paul; Bakris, George L; Goldsberry, Angie; Krauth, Melissa; Linde, Peter; McMurray, John J; Meyer, Colin J; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Christ-Schmidt, Heidi; Toto, Robert D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wanner, Christoph; Wittes, Janet; Wrolstad, Danielle; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most important contributing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, augments estimated glomerular filtration. The Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial was designed to establish whether bardoxolone methyl slows or prevents progression to ESRD. Herein, we describe baseline characteristics of the BEACON population. BEACON is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in 2185 patients with T2DM and chronic kidney disease stage 4 (eGFR between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) designed to test the hypothesis that bardoxolone methyl added to guideline-recommended treatment including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system slows or prevents progression to ESRD or cardiovascular death compared with placebo. Baseline characteristics (mean or percentage) of the population include age 68.5 years, female 43%, Caucasian 78%, eGFR 22.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure 140/70 mmHg. The median urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was 320 mg/g and the frequency of micro- and macroalbuminuria was 30 and 51%, respectively. Anemia, abnormalities in markers of bone metabolism and elevations in cardiovascular biomarkers were frequently observed. A history of cardiovascular disease was present in 56%, neuropathy in 47% and retinopathy in 41% of patients. The BEACON trial enrolled a population heretofore unstudied in an international randomized controlled trial. Enrolled patients suffered with numerous co-morbid conditions and exhibited multiple laboratory abnormalities, highlighting the critical need for new therapies to optimize management of these conditions.

  11. Rewarding effects of the optical isomers of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine ('Ecstasy') and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine ('Eve') measured by conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anja; Mayerhofer, Andreas; Kovar, Karl-Artur; Schmidt, Werner J

    2002-09-27

    3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA) ('Ecstasy') and its analogue 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDE) ('Eve') are well known illicit street drugs mainly abused by young people. In spite of the actual research going on, the classification of their abuse potential remains unclear. Since secondary reinforcers are the main factors responsible for craving and relapse, the aim of our study was to assess the potency of MDMA and MDE in a second order reinforcement paradigm, i.e. conditioned place preference (CPP). For the general assessment of our study conditions, we compared MDMA with amphetamine. Unexpectedly, no significant CPP for MDMA was found in contrast to amphetamine. Detailed analysis of current literature led us to the working hypothesis that social environment is crucial for the development of CPP. In a subsequent experiment we tested the influence of housing conditions on CPP using MDMA and demonstrated that isolated animals show significant CPP compared to group-housed ones. In order to better understand the rewarding mechanisms of Ecstasy-derivatives, we tested both the racemic drugs and the pure isomers in the CPP paradigm. Both MDMA's optical isomers and racemic MDMA showed significant CPP without notable differences, while MDE and its isomers completely failed to show any significant CPP. In conclusion, the mechanism by which MDMA induces addiction is much more complicated than assumed so far and more pronounced in isolated animals. The fact that both optical isomers of MDMA led to CPP implies that at least two pathways by which MDMA induces craving behaviour exist.

  12. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  13. Titan on the eve of Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1981-01-01

    A decade of scientific study of Titan is reviewed with emphasis on the composition and the extent of its atmosphere. Several viable models are briefly discussed including the inversion model of Danielsen et al. (1973), Hunten's model (1978) which includes an extensive troposphere and a warm surface, with nitrogen as the major component, and models with neon, primordial carbon monoxide, or various mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and CH4. Recent observations by Pioneer 11 and other satellites are examined.

  14. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  15. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physics. Collective effects in central heavy-ion collisions / G. I. Lykasov ... [et al.]. Stringy phenomena in Yang-Mills plasma / V. I. Zakharov. Lattice results on gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge / I. L. Bogolubsky ... [et al.]. [symbol] and [symbol] excited states in field correlator method / I. Narodetskii, A. Veselov. Theory of quark-gluon plasma and phase transition / E. V. Komarov, Yu. A. Simonov. Chiral symmetry breaking and the Lorentz nature of confinement / A. V. Nefediev. Structure function moments of proton and neutron / M. Osipenko. Higgs decay to bb: different approaches to resummation of QCD effects / A. L. Kataev, V. T. Kim. A novel integral representation for the Adler function and its behavior at low energies / A. V. Nesterenko. QCD test of z-scaling for [symbol]-meson production in pp collisions at high energies / M. Tokarev, T. Dedovich. Quark mixing in the standard model and the space rotations / G. Dattoli, K. Zhukovsky. Analytic approach to constructing effective theory of strong interactions and its application to pion-nucleon scattering / A. N. Safronov -- New developments in quantum field theory. On the origin of families and their mass matrices with the approach unifying spin and charges, prediction for new families / N. S. Mankoc Borstnik. Z[symbol] electric strings and center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory / M. I. Polikarpov, P. V. Buividovich. Upper bound on the lightest neutralino mass in the minimal non-minimal supersymmetric standard model / S. Hesselbach ... [et al.]. Application of higher derivative regularization to calculation of quantum corrections in N=l supersymmetric theories / K. Stepanyantz. Nonperturbative quantum relativistic effects in the confinement mechanism for particles in a deep potential well / K. A. Sveshnikov, M. V. Ulybyshev. Khalfin's theorem and neutral mesons subsystem / K. Urbanowski. Effective lagrangians and field theory on a lattice / O. V. Pavlovsky. String-like electrostatic interaction from QED with infinite magnetic field / A. E. Shabad, V. V. Usov. QFT systems with 2D spatial defects / I. V. Fialkovsky, V. N. Markov, Yu. M. Pismak. Bound state problems and radiative effects in extended electrodynamics with Lorentz violation / I. E. Frolov, O. G. Kharlanov, V. Ch. Zhukovsky. Particles with low binding energy in a strong stationary magnetic field / E. V. Arbuzova, G. A. Kravtsova, V. N. Rodionov. Triangle anomaly and radiatively induced Lorentz and CPT violation in electrodynamics / A. E. Lobanov, A. P. Venediktov. The comparative analysis of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation for a spinless particle in classic and quantum theories / V. G. Bagrov, A. N. Burimova, A. A. Gusev. Problem of the spin light identification / V. A. Bordovitsyn, V. V. Telushkin. Simulation the nuclear interaction / T. F. Kamalov. Unstable leptons and (u - e - [symbol])-universality / O. Kosmachev. Generalized Dirac equation describing the quark structure of nucleons / A. Rabinowitch. Unique geometrization of material and electromagnetic wave fields / O. Olkhov -- Problems of intelligentsia. The conscience of the intelligentsia / J. K. Bleimaier.

  16. Titan on the eve of Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1981-01-01

    A decade of scientific study of Titan is reviewed with emphasis on the composition and the extent of its atmosphere. Several viable models are briefly discussed including the inversion model of Danielsen et al. (1973), Hunten's model (1978) which includes an extensive troposphere and a warm surface, with nitrogen as the major component, and models with neon, primordial carbon monoxide, or various mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and CH4. Recent observations by Pioneer 11 and other satellites are examined.

  17. Dose intensity and efficacy of the combination of everolimus and exemestane (EVE/EXE) in a real-world population of hormone receptor-positive (ER+/PgR+), HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients: a multicenter Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Mariangela; Fabi, Alessandra; Moscetti, Luca; Cazzaniga, Maria Elena; Petrucelli, Luciana; Forcignanò, Rosachiara; Lupo, Laura Isabella; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Chiuri, Vincenzo Emanuele; Cairo, Giuseppe; Febbraro, Antonio; Giordano, Guido; Giampaglia, Marianna; Bilancia, Domenico; La Verde, Nicla; Maiello, Evaristo; Morritti, Maria; Giotta, Francesco; Lorusso, Vito; Latorre, Agnese; Scavelli, Claudio; Romito, Sante; Cusmai, Antonio; Palmiotti, Gennaro; Surico, Giammarco

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective analysis focused on the effect of treatment with EVE/EXE in a real-world population outside of clinical trials. We examined the efficacy of this combination in terms of PFS and RR related to dose intensity (5 mg daily versus 10 mg daily) and tolerability. 163 HER2-negative ER+/PgR+ ABC patients, treated with EVE/EXE from May 2011 to March 2016, were included in the analysis. The primary endpoints were the correlation between the daily dose and RR and PFS, as well as an evaluation of the tolerability of the combination. Secondary endpoints were RR, PFS, and OS according to the line of treatment. Patients were classified into three different groups, each with a different dose intensity of everolimus (A, B, C). RR was 29.8% (A), 27.8% (B) (p = 0.953), and not evaluable (C). PFS was 9 months (95% CI 7-11) (A), 10 months (95% CI 9-11) (B), and 5 months (95% CI 2-8) (C), p = 0.956. OS was 38 months (95% CI 24-38) (A), median not reached (B), and 13 months (95% CI 10-25) (C), p = 0.002. Adverse events were stomatitis 57.7% (11.0% grade 3-4), asthenia 46.0% (6.1% grade 3-4), hypercholesterolemia 46.0% (0.6% grade 3-4), and hyperglycemia 35.6% (5.5% grade 3-4). The main reason for discontinuation/interruption was grade 2-3 stomatitis. No correlation was found between dose intensity (5 vs. 10 mg labeled dose) and efficacy in terms of RR and PFS. The tolerability of the higher dose was poor in our experience, although this had no impact on efficacy.

  18. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  19. From Atom to Eve: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Karen C.; Letts, Kathleen P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Catholic high school science unit on the origins of energy, matter, stars, planets, and life. Explains how the three- to four-week unit seeks to promote a unifying vision of science and religion, physics and biology, art and chemistry, education and living. (DMM)

  20. Elongated Asteroid Will Safely Pass Earth on Christmas Eve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-23

    The elongated asteroid in this radar image, named 2003 SD220, will safely fly past Earth on Thursday, Dec. 24, 2015, at a distance of 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers). The image was taken on Dec. 22 by scientists using NASA's 230-foot (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone, California, when the asteroid was approaching its flyby distance. This asteroid is at least 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) long. In 2018, it will safely pass Earth at a distance of 1.8 million miles (2.8 million kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20280

  1. All about Eve: Secret Sharing using Quantum Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the nature of light (including classical light and photons), encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), light polarization and beamsplitters and their application to information communication. A quantum of light represents the smallest possible subdivision of radiant energy (light) and is called a photon. The QKD key generation sequence is outlined including the receiver broadcasting the initial signal indicating reception availability, timing pulses from the sender to provide reference for gated detection of photons, the sender generating photons through random polarization while the receiver detects photons with random polarization and communicating via data link to mutually establish random keys. The QKD network vision includes inter-SATCOM, point-to-point Gnd Fiber and SATCOM-fiber nodes. QKD offers an unconditionally secure method of exchanging encryption keys. Ongoing research will focus on how to increase the key generation rate.

  2. Radar Image of Christmas Eve Asteroid 2003 SD2020

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-23

    This image of an asteroid that is at least 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) long was taken on Dec. 17, 2015, by scientists using NASA's 230-foot (70-meter) DSS-14 antenna at Goldstone, California. This asteroid, named 2003 SD2020, will safely fly past Earth on Thursday, Dec. 24, at a distance of 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers). At the time this image was taken, the asteroid was about 7.3 million miles (12 million kilometers) from Earth. In 2018, this asteroid will fly past Earth at a distance of 1.8 million miles (2.8 million kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20279

  3. [Is male violence directed towards Eve or Mary?].

    PubMed

    Noronha, C V; Daltro, M E

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses the different categories of violent death and other injuries occurred in Bahia. In Brazil, traffic accidents, homicides and suicides correspond to the third most common cause of death. Besides, violent acts tend to increase the emergency health services demand. The data were collected from the written press covering all the homicides, grave injuries and notified rapes during 1989. Police violence appeared as responsible for the death of a high proportion (24%) of young males, followed by the disagreement between criminals (18.6%). In relation to females, the quantitative dimension of crimes are lower, more diffused and registered in the family environment. The data point to the importance of male domination in the interpretation of those domestic violent acts. Resisting the ideology of women's inferiority means avoiding both injuries and homicides - a complex task for Brazilian society.

  4. Flavor anomalies on the eve of the Run-2 verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The RK measurement by LHCb suggests nonstandard Lepton-Universality Violation (LUV) to occur in b → sℓ+ℓ- decays with effects in muons rather than electrons. It is intriguing that a number of other measurements of b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions by LHCb and B-factories are consistent in magnitude and sign with the RK effect, and fit a coherent effective-theory picture. Further indications of nonstandard LUV are provided by the long-standing discrepancies in b → cτν transitions via the ratios R(D) and R(D∗). We review in detail the experimental situation and its rich outlook, the theoretical efforts — and their challenges — towards convincing dynamics beyond the effective-theory level, and discuss the many directions of further investigation that propagate from the current situation.

  5. Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension: on the eve of growing up.

    PubMed

    Douwes, Johannes M; Berger, Rolf M F

    2017-09-01

    Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) during childhood are expert opinion based, because of lacking pediatric data. In recent years, however, important pediatric data have emerged on PAH. PAH in children shows similarities as well as differences compared to adults. Neonates and children know specific clinical presentations and a hemodynamic profile that differs from adults with PAH. Children identified as acute vasodilator responders according to the criteria proposed for adults rather than the pediatric criteria have better outcome when treated with calcium channel blockers. For nonresponders, combination PAH-targeted therapy leads to improved outcome compared to monotherapy. In pediatric PAH, WHO functional class, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were identified as surrogates for survival and therefore qualify to be treatment goals in a goal-oriented treatment strategy. In order to refine current pediatric treatment guidelines, data on efficacy of specific treatment regiments and strategies are needed. The recently validated composite endpoint of clinical worsening allows for trials that will provide these data. For the first time, evidence-based treatment goals have been identified that will allow for a goal-oriented treatment strategy. Furthermore, various prognostic predictors have been identified that may prove treatment goals in future.

  6. All about Eve: Secret Sharing using Quantum Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the nature of light (including classical light and photons), encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), light polarization and beamsplitters and their application to information communication. A quantum of light represents the smallest possible subdivision of radiant energy (light) and is called a photon. The QKD key generation sequence is outlined including the receiver broadcasting the initial signal indicating reception availability, timing pulses from the sender to provide reference for gated detection of photons, the sender generating photons through random polarization while the receiver detects photons with random polarization and communicating via data link to mutually establish random keys. The QKD network vision includes inter-SATCOM, point-to-point Gnd Fiber and SATCOM-fiber nodes. QKD offers an unconditionally secure method of exchanging encryption keys. Ongoing research will focus on how to increase the key generation rate.

  7. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  8. JET, the largest tokamak on the eve of DT operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, L. D.

    2016-11-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is the world's largest operating tokamak and the only such machine capable of operating with the fuel mixture (deuterium-tritium) foreseen for a fusion reactor. Since it came into operation in 1983, JET has explored fusion plasmas "in conditions and dimensions approaching those of a fusion reactor" [1]. JET has demonstrated world-record levels of fusion power and energy production, in conditions where the ratio of the fusion power generated to the input power to the plasma, Q, approaches unity.

  9. Evaluating Eve: visceral states influence the evaluation of impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Loran F; van der Pligt, Joop; van Harreveld, Frenk

    2007-07-01

    Impulsive behavior is a common source of stigma. The authors argue that people often stigmatize impulsive behavior because they fail to appreciate the influence visceral impulses have on behavior. Because people tend to underestimate the motivational force of cravings for sex, drugs, food, and so forth, they are prone to stigmatize those who act on these impulses. In line with this reasoning, in 4 studies, the authors found that participants who were in a cold state (e.g., not hungry) made less favorable evaluations of a related impulsive behavior (impulsive eating) than did participants who were in a hot state (e.g., hungry). This empathy gap effect was tested with 3 different visceral states--fatigue, hunger, and sexual arousal--and was found both when participants evaluated others' impulsive behavior (Studies 1 & 2) and when participants evaluated their own impulsive behavior (Study 3). Study 3 also demonstrated that the empathy gap effect is due to different perceptions of the strength of the visceral state itself. Finally, Study 4 revealed that this effect is state specific: Hungry people, for example, evaluated only hunger-driven impulses, and not other forms of impulse, more favorably.

  10. From Atom to Eve: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Karen C.; Letts, Kathleen P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Catholic high school science unit on the origins of energy, matter, stars, planets, and life. Explains how the three- to four-week unit seeks to promote a unifying vision of science and religion, physics and biology, art and chemistry, education and living. (DMM)

  11. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  12. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy®

    PubMed Central

    Galabov, Angel S.

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy. They have also been used in recent times for inactivation of viruses in foodstuffs, detergents or cosmetics. Below is given an overview of the data currently available on the performance of these substances when used for the latter applications (cleaning and cosmetics). These include: hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, cupric and ferric ions, per-acids ethanol, parachlorometaxylenol in a sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate, glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium salts, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine gluconate, curdline sulphate, glycerol, lipids, azodicarbonamide, cicloxolone sodium, dichlorisocyanuric acid (sodium salt), benzalkonium salts, disulfate benzamides and benzisothiazolones, congo red, ascorbic acid, nonoxynol-9, para-aminobenzoic acid, bis(monosuccinamide) derivative of p,p’-bis(2-aminoethyl) diphenlyi-C60) (fullerene). merocyanine, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A, rose bengal, hypericin, hypocrellin A, anthraquinones extracted from plants, sulfonated anthraquinones and other anthraquinone derivatives gramicidine, gossypol, garlic (Allium sativum) extract and its components: ajoene, diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thioulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, extracts of ledium, motherworth, celandine, black currant, coaberry and bilberry, extract of Cordia salicifolia, steam distillate from Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) and its component, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone from Calicarpa japonica, isoscullarein (5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone) from Scutellaria baikalensis and isoscutellarein-8-methylether, alkaloids and phytosteryl ester compounds. PMID:20200679

  13. Pointblank: Acts on the Eve of War, 1938-1939

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    but failed to explore any course in depth. His quick summations of all three phases yielded nine reasons why he thought ACTS’ theory was flawed...Structure,” 18. 18 distribution networks and storage capability made the industry robust and Fairchild concluded it would be difficult to yield ...could be decisive.57 The analysis for the steel industry yielded the same recommendations. Steel was required to build a mechanized army, modern

  14. Russian Pedagogical Thinking on the Eve of October 1917.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikol' skaia, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys some of the more prominent views on education during the final years of tsarist Russia. Russian pedagogical thinking was largely influenced by progressive educational theories popular in the United States and Europe. Discusses the views and efforts of major Russian educational theorists at the time. (MJP)

  15. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... necessary for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project... San Diego, California. Construction of the Shu'luuk Wind Project within the Campo Reservation is...

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 20: CTDI Measurements using a Radiochromic Film-based clinical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, C.; Bekerat, H.; DeBlois, F.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was evaluating accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV-CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2 ® film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air-kerma (up to 10 cGy). Calibration curves for each beam quality were created (Film reflectance change Vs. Air-kerma in air). Film responses for same air-kerma values were compared. Film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured and tabulated CTDIvol values were compared. Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. Measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Results presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. Variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimation if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom, as suggested by TG- 111.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 49: Unexpected Output Drops: Pitted Blackholes in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, A; Pierce, G

    2014-08-15

    During the daily measurement of radiation output of a 6 MV beam on a Varian Trilogy Linear Accelerator the output dropped below 2% and initiated a call to action by physics to determine the cause. Over the course of weeks the cause of the issue was diagnosed to be a defect in the target, resulting in a drop in output and an asymmetry of the beam. Steps were taken to return the machine to clinical service while parts were on order while ensuring the safety of patient treatment. The machine target was replaced and the machine continues to operate as expected. A drop in output is usually a rarity and a defect in the target is possibly more rare. This experience demonstrated the importance of routine QC measurement, recording and analyzing daily output and symmetry values. In addition, this event showcased the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach in a high-pressure situation to effectively troubleshoot unique events to ensure consistence, safety patient treatment.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, 0.4 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 ± 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 ± 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 ± 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. γ-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 08: Rotational errors with on-board cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; Webb, R.; Nyiri, B.

    2014-08-15

    The focus of this study is on the Elekta XVI on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A rotational mismatch as large as 0.5° is observed between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) CBCT scans. The error could affect non-isocentric treatments (e.g., lung SBRT and acoustic neuroma), as well as off-axis organs-at-risk. The error is caused by mislabeling of the projections with a lagging gantry angle, which is caused by the finite image acquisition time and delays in the imaging system. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with 5 mm diameter holes is used for the scanning. CW and CCW scans are acquired for five gantry speeds (360 to 120 deg./min.) on six linacs from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2, and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different x-ray pulse widths for the same mAs. In the automated CBCT analysis (using ImageJ), the CW/CCW mismatch in a series of line profiles is identified and used to calculate the rotational error. Results are consistent among all linacs and indicate that the error varies linearly with gantry speed. The finite width of the x-ray pulses is a major but predictable contributor to the delay causing the error. For 40 ms pulses, the delay is 34 ± 1 ms. A simple solution applied in our clinic is adjusting the gantry angle offset to make the CCW one-minute scans correct. A more involved approach we are currently investigating includes adjustments of pulse width and mA, resulting in focal spot changes, with potential impact on image quality.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  1. Poster - Thur Eve - 38: Review of couch parameters using an FMEA.

    PubMed

    Larouche, R; Doucet, R; Rémy, E; Filion, A; Poirier, L

    2012-07-01

    To improve patient safety during positioning, we undertook a systematic review of the processes used by our center to obtain couch positions. We used a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) framework and fifteen different possible failures were identified and rated. The three major failures were 1) Loss of planned couch position and bias from the previous day's couch position, 2) DICOM origin or isocenter is different between two plans (imaging or treatment), and 3) Patient shift in opposite direction than intended. The main effect of these failures was to cause an override of couch parameters. Based on these results, we modified our processes, introduced new QA and software checks and developed new tolerance tables so as to improve system robustness and increase our success rate at catching failures before they can affect the patient. It has been a year since we made these modifications. Based on our results, we have reduced the number of overrides at our center from a maximum of 20.5% to a maximum of 6.3%, with an average at 4% of daily treatments. Our results suggest that FMEA is an effective tool in improving treatment quality that could be used in other centers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. [The socio-demographic situation of Morocco on the eve of the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Yaakoubd, A I

    1997-01-01

    "Slowing down of demographic growth, acceleration of urbanisation rhythm, pronounced youth of population, high potential of reproduction, continuous decline of fertility, [rising] age at first marriage, persistence of rural exodus, intensification of inter-urban migrations: those are the main features that have marked the demographic evolution of [the] Moroccan population during the last decades." The author discusses trends in literacy, youth unemployment, women's access to contraception, neonatal mortality, and living conditions in rural and urban areas. (EXCERPT)

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 71: A 4D Multimodal Lung Phantom for Regmentation Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, D; Levesque, I R; El Naqa, I

    2014-08-15

    Segmentation and registration of medical imaging data are two processes that can be integrated (a process termed regmentation) to iteratively reinforce each other, potentially improving efficiency and overall accuracy. A significant challenge is presented when attempting to validate the joint process particularly with regards to minimizing geometric uncertainties associated with the ground truth while maintaining anatomical realism. This work demonstrates a 4D MRI, PET, and CT compatible tissue phantom with a known ground truth for evaluating registration and segmentation accuracy. The phantom consists of a preserved swine lung connected to an air pump via a PVC tube for inflation. Mock tumors were constructed from sea sponges contained within two vacuum-sealed compartments with catheters running into each one for injection of radiotracer solution. The phantom was scanned using a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner and a 0.23T Phillips MRI, and resulted in anatomically realistic images. A bifurcation tracking algorithm was implemented to provide a ground truth for evaluating registration accuracy. This algorithm was validated using known deformations of up to 7.8 cm using a separate CT scan of a human thorax. Using the known deformation vectors to compare against, 76 bifurcation points were selected. The tracking accuracy was found to have maximum mean errors of −0.94, 0.79 and −0.57 voxels in the left-right, anterior-posterior and inferior-superior directions, respectively. A pneumatic control system is under development to match the respiratory profile of the lungs to a breathing trace from an individual patient.

  4. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 54: Radiotherapy and Non-Radiotherapy Safety Practices Beyond Licensing Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Kosierb, Rick

    2014-08-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In order to perform this regulatory activity, the CNSC issue licences and has its staff perform inspections to verify conformity to the aspects of those licences. Within the CNSC, the Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) is responsible for the regulatory oversight of Class II Prescribed Equipment used in medical, academic, and industrial sectors in Canada. In performing inspections, ACFD has encountered licensees with practices that are either below, meet or exceed regulatory expectations in specific areas. Unfortunately, none of these practices are ever communicated to the broader Class II community to help other licensees avoid the same problem or achieve high standards. In this poster, ACFD will highlight safety practices that go beyond expectations. These practices are taken from observations during site inspections between 2007 and 2013 and will be presented in six areas: Procedures, Participation, Awareness, Equipment, Servicing and Software. Each area briefly discusses a number of practices that the CNSC feels went beyond the expectations dictated by the licence. Where possible, names are added of the contact people at the centres who can be reached for full details of their implementations. It is hoped that this communication will assist other licensees to achieve these same high levels of compliance and possibly go beyond.

  6. Poster - Thur Eve - 15: Production and assessment of astatine-211 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J; Beckham, W; Jirasek, A; Ruth, T

    2012-07-01

    Biologically-targeted alpha-particle radiation is the basis of new and promising treatments for eliminating disseminated micrometastases and the residual microscopic malignancies that remain after surgery or radiation therapy. The short-range alpha-particles are highly cytotoxic and capable of inactivating single, isolated cancer cells which may otherwise cause recurrence. Astatine-211 is a promising alpha emitter for therapy; the 7.2 hour half-life of (211) At provides sufficient time for biological-targeting to take place. However, this radionuclide is in short supply and future treatment strategies still require extensive preclinical evaluation. The present work aims to develop technologies that (1) increase the world-wide availability of (211) At for clinical use, and (2) assess the risks of (211) At-based therapies by quantifying the activity distributions in animal models. At TRIUMF (Vancouver, BC), the feasibility of a novel generator system for (211) At is under investigation which would allow distribution of (211) At across Canada and internationally. Briefly, a longer-lived parent radionuclide of (211) At, radon-211, would be produced and allowed to decay in containment to yield (211) At in solution. Additionally, a supplementary study is underway in collaboration with the University of Washington to evaluate the sub-organ biodistributions of astatinated targeting biomolecules, with cell-level resolution. These measurements involve high resolution quantitative alpha-particle imaging in thin tissue samples and can be done for a selection of applications (eg. lymphoma, metastatic prostate cancer, etc) using animal models. The planned alpha-camera measurements are primarily designed to predict and assess the risk of toxicity associated with (211) At-based therapies and aid in developing the future clinical applications. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  8. Professional Schools of International Affairs on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Louis W.; And Others

    This report offers a descriptive and prescriptive discussion of changes under way at member schools of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA). It analyzes data provided by a 1994 survey of all 15 member schools on the manner and extent to which they are adapting their programs to better prepare their students to…

  9. The Y2K Problem: Will It Just Be Another New Year's Eve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanowski, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Potential problems for college and university computing functions posed by arrival of the year 2000 (Y2K) are discussed, including arithmetic calculations and sorting functions based on two-digit year dates, embedding of two-digit dates in archival data, system coordination for data exchange, unique number generation, and leap year calculations. A…

  10. The Social Studies Classroom on the Eve of the Cyber Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to integrate technology into the classroom in order to take advantage of the benefits technology has to offer students, teachers, and parents. Describes how to create a class website that enables students and parents to view information about class activities, assignments, and Internet resources. Offers some technology-based…

  11. The two faces of Eve: gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cameron R; Spiess, Bruce D

    2010-06-01

    Gaseous anaesthesia has been a great boon for medicine. These drugs form a foundation from which modern surgery has sprung, yet their mechanism(s) of actions remains poorly understood. Inert gas narcosis is a limitation of deep sea diving, and its mechanisms also remain poorly understood. In this review article we summarise what is known about the mechanisms of both gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis, including both lipid-based biophysical models and protein-based biochemical models, as well as explore some striking similarities between the two. These two phenomena may, in reality, be gradations of the same underlying mechanism. Recent findings include biochemical evidence suggesting that both gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis may be mediated by the occupation of minute spaces within the structure of many biologically important proteins, impairing their ability to undergo conformational changes and biological actions. This is exemplified by exploring the effects of the noble gas xenon, which can behave as either a narcotic gas or gaseous anaesthetic, depending on the partial pressure in which it is present.

  12. Life, Death, and Society in the Maritimes at the Eve of Confederation. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Outlines activities using the 1867 quarterly returns for the Registry of Deaths for Pictou County, Nova Scotia, to link population themes in early Canada to today's global issues. Learning activities include having students research the age of mortality, cause of death, human migration, and occupational profile. (MJP)

  13. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  14. Electrodynamic model of atmospheric and ionospheric processes on the eve of an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, V. M.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.

    2015-09-01

    Electric field generation and its accompanying phenomena in the atmosphere-ionosphere system have been intensively studied in recent years. This paper considers the results of these studies, which have served as the physical basis for the model of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. According to our model, the intensive processes in the lower atmosphere and lithosphere have an electrodynamic effect on the ionospheric plasma. The model was used to conduct theoretical studies of plasma and electromagnetic effects accompanying the generation of conduction current in the global circuit. It has been shown that the electrodynamic model of the influence of seismic and meteorological processes on cosmic plasma can serve as a physical basis for a satellite system to monitor earthquake precursors and the catastrophic phase of typhoon development. The model makes it possible to couple the satellite data of electromagnetic and plasma measurements with electrophysical and meteorological characteristics of the lower atmosphere at the stage of earthquake preparation and typhoon initiation. The model suggests that the numerous effects in the cosmic plasma have a single source: a change in the conduction current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit.

  15. Poster - Thur Eve - 04: Online review of beam output and profile constancy using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, R; Abbas, A; Yeung, I

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to create a comprehensive online tool to evaluate and review the performance of quality assurance measurements that assess beam output and profile constancy as soon as they are acquired using statistical process control. As part of routine quality assurance: output, flatness and symmetry measurements are acquired daily and weekly with DQA3 and the Matrix and symmetry and flatness are acquired on a monthly basis with Profiler2. An individuals control chart and a moving range control chart was plotted for each set of data. Upper and lower control limits were calculated using measurements acquired during a several month period when the linear accelerators were operating optimally. The existing action levels, established according to TG142 and CAPCA guidelines were compared with the calculated statistical control limits. Tighter tolerance limits were recommended for output, symmetry and flatness Matrix measurements and DQA3 flatness measurements. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Poster - Thur Eve - 71: Improved dose accuracy for plan checking IMRT breast plans.

    PubMed

    Corns, R; Thomas, S; Dubrowski, P; Huang, V; Shahine, L

    2012-07-01

    Dose verification as part of plan checking is a critical component of high quality patient care. IMSure QA is a software platform used at the BC Cancer Agency that facilitates dose verification for both conformal and IMRT plans. We have recently initiated treating breast tangents using IMRT at the Fraser Valley Centre and noted increased dose discrepancies (mean difference of -3%) between Eclipse and IMSure's QA module. We identified two potential sources of error: air flash and tissue heterogeneity. We extend our generated fluences 3cm past the breast contour and into air to account for breathing, set-up uncertainties and swelling. IMSure does not account for the fluence in air or air flash. We present an air-flash-correction factor based on the ratios of TMRs and Phantom Scatter Factors which use the field sizes of fields with and without the air flash. In addition, we present a method to improve the heterogeneity correction used by IMSure to better match that used by AAA. Effectively we remove the IMSure's inherent heterogeneity correction and manually apply a AAA-based heterogeneity-correction factor. We evaluated our correction factors on a sample of 8 patients (32 fields) using ANOVA methods to determine which dose corrections most accurately reproduce Eclipse's values. We found the air-flash correction coupled with IMSure's inherent-heterogeneity correction has the best dose accuracy (mean difference improved from -3% to 0.3%). The AAA-heterogeneity correction alone also improved the accuracy (mean difference improved from -3% to - 1.5%), which is acceptable for plan checking purposes. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Poster - Thur Eve - 27: Scattering foil redesign for modulated electron radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Connell, T; Seuntjens, J

    2012-07-01

    This work serves to build on existing work that discussed the advantages of removing the scattering foil from the beamline for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) much like flattening filter-free beams in photon IMRT. Due to concerns about the ability of the accelerators transmission ionization chamber to function normally with narrow, minimally-scattered beams as well as a limited maximum field size, this study focused on the design of a new custom scattering foil that was optimized for MERT applications. Different foil parameters such as material, thickness and shape were investigated to produce a minimally scattered beam, as opposed to a flat beam in the case of the clinical foil, while preserving the dosimetric benefits of a reduced thickness foil such as dramatically higher dose rate and reduced photon contamination in the bremsstrahlung tail. Using a Monte Carlo model that was verified against measured data, fluence profiles at the level of the transmission ionization chamber were produced and analyzed for all foil configurations, as well as PDDs and profiles in a water phantom. It was found that a simple foil of slab geometry made of low to medium Z material with the thickness determined by the maximum desirable field size and chosen electron energy produced a sufficiently scattered beam that maintained the dosimetric advantages of a scattering-foil-free beamline. These new foils, when applied to MERT, have the advantage of reducing treatment time due to higher dose rates and reducing dose to healthy tissue due to reduced dose in the bremsstrahlung tail. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Poster - Thur Eve - 36: Out-of-Field dose in craniospinal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jalbout, W; Howell, R; Newhauser, W; Geara, F; Khater, N; Taddei, P

    2012-07-01

    The risk of radiotherapy induced secondary cancer depends on the integral dose delivered to the patient where the dose delivered within the radiation field is accounted for, as well as dose to out-of-field organs from scattered and leakage radiation. While commercial treatment planning systems allow accurate determination of in-field dose, they are generally not capable of accurate out-of-field dose prediction. Secondary cancer risk is especially an issue in craniospinal treatments where involved patients are often children or young adults. In this work we therefore propose a mathematical model that accurately predicts out-of-field dose for patients treated by craniospinal irradiation at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged, planned and treated, with thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in the phantom at in-field and out-of-field locations. The measurements showed that our treatment planning system calculated accurately (within 2%) dose inside the field, but did not perform well at points just outside the field edge and consistently underestimated the dose at points further away from the field edge. From the out-of-field measured data, a model was developed that predicts out-of-field dose at a point in the patient based on the distance of that point to the treatment field edge. The developed model is of the double-gaussian type; it contains parameters that can be tuned to make it applicable in other centers where linac geometry and treatment techniques may differ. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Poster - Thur Eve - 21: ROC analysis in patient specific quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Carlone, M; Cruje, C; McCabe, R; Nielsen, M; Macpherson, M

    2012-07-01

    Many institutions rely on a patient specific measurement for IMRT/VMAT patient QA. In diagnostic imaging, radiologists use Receiver Operator Curves (ROC) to help quantify the value of a diagnostic imaging test. The purpose of this work is to investigate the value or ROC methodology for patient specific IMRT QA. Beam fluences for 34 prostate IMRT patients were analyzed using gamma analysis. For half of these, measurements were done using the planned beam fluences. For the rest, perturbations to the MLC leaf positions were introduced. Gamma analysis was then used to measure fluence differences. Assuming that the unperturbed fluencies were positive measurements, distributions of true positive and false negatives were calculated. For poorly performing beam delivery systems the choice of γ-DTA criterion has little effect on test sensitivity and specificity. The AUC is increased by about 10% for high performance beam delivery systems. For a 3%/3mm γ-DTA condition, ideal cut off values are reasonably independent of MLC performance. At a tighter γ-DTA condition of 2%/2mm, then the optimal sensitivity and specificity of the test is more dependent on MLC performance. For a pass-fail test such as the γ-DTA map is, it is important to choose an optimal cut off value to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of the test. ROC methodology allows users to follow a prescriptive method to obtain ideal cut-off values for gamma analysis, and to assess improvements in sensitivity and specificity for higher performing beam delivery system. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  1. Poster - Thur Eve - 49: Application of plastic scintillating detectors to orthovoltage x-ray measurements.

    PubMed

    Nasonkin, S; Syme, A

    2012-07-01

    Plastic scintillating detectors (PSDs) have found numerous dosimetric applications in radiotherapy due to their approximate water equivalence at high energies and their small physical size. At low photon energies, however, the ratio of mass attenuation coefficients (PSD : water) deviates from unity, which potentially limits their utility in this range. In this work, measurements of orthovoltage cutout factors were made with PSDs and and ion chamber. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the same geometry. Results indicated that the PSDs performed better than the IC in almost all field sizes. Further work is required to more thoroughly characterize the Monte Carlo model of the x-ray unit and to investigate any discrepancies that might have resulted from slight differences in the effective point of measurement of the two detector systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Poster - Thur Eve - 02: Regulatory oversight of the robotic radiosurgery facilities.

    PubMed

    Broda, K

    2012-07-01

    Following a recent review of the Class II Nuclear Facilities and Prescribed Equipment Regulations and regulatory oversight of particle accelerators, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has changed its policy concerning the regulation of particle accelerators. In November 2011, the CNSC began to exercise its regulatory authority with respect to all particle accelerators operating at a beam energy of 1 (one) MeV or greater. The CNSC already licences and inspects particle accelerators capable of operating at or above 10 MeV. The decision to now include low energy particle accelerators (i.e., those operating at or above 1 MeV) ensures adequate, uniform and consistent regulatory oversight for all Class II accelerators. The CNSC expects these facilities to comply with CNSC requirements by December 2013. Besides conventional linear accelerators of lower energy (6 MeV or below) typically found in cancer clinics, two types of equipment now fall under the CNSC's regulatory oversight as a result of the above change: robotic radiosurgery and tomotherapy equipment and facilities. A number of clinics in Canada already operates these types of equipment and facilities. The safety aspects of radiosurgery equipment differ slightly from those for conventional linear accelerators. This poster aims to present an approach taken by the CNSC to regulate robotic radiosurgery equipment and facilities. The presentation will explain how to meet regulatory requirements of the Class II Nuclear Facilities and Prescribed Equipment Regulations by licensees operating or planning to acquire these types of equipment and facilities. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Primary care access for new patients on the eve of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Karin V; Kenney, Genevieve M; Friedman, Ari B; Saloner, Brendan; Lawson, Charlotte C; Chearo, David; Wissoker, Douglas; Polsky, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Current measures of access to care have intrinsic limitations and may not accurately reflect the capacity of the primary care system to absorb new patients. To assess primary care appointment availability by state and insurance status. We conducted a simulated patient study. Trained field staff, randomly assigned to private insurance, Medicaid, or uninsured, called primary care offices requesting the first available appointment for either routine care or an urgent health concern. The study included a stratified random sample of primary care practices treating nonelderly adults within each of 10 states (Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas), selected for diversity along numerous dimensions. Collectively, these states comprise almost one-third of the US nonelderly, Medicaid, and currently uninsured populations. Sampling was based on enrollment by insurance type by county. Analyses were weighted to obtain population-based estimates for each state. The ability to schedule an appointment and number of days to the appointment. We also examined cost and payment required at the visit for the uninsured. Between November 13, 2012, and April 4, 2013, we made 12,907 calls to 7788 primary care practices requesting new patient appointments. Across the 10 states, 84.7% (95% CI, 82.6%-86.8%) of privately insured and 57.9% (95% CI, 54.8%-61.0%) of Medicaid callers received an appointment. Appointment rates were 78.8% (95% CI, 75.6%-82.0%) for uninsured patients with full cash payment but only 15.4% (95% CI, 13.2%-17.6%) if payment required at the time of the visit was restricted to $75 or less. Conditional on getting an appointment, median wait times were typically less than 1 week (2 weeks in Massachusetts), with no differences by insurance status or urgency of health concern. Although most primary care physicians are accepting new patients, access varies widely across states and insurance status. Navigator programs are needed, not only to help patients enroll but also to identify practices accepting new patients within each plan's network. Tracking new patient appointment availability over time can inform policies designed to strengthen primary care capacity and enhance the effectiveness of the coverage expansions with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  4. Poster - Thur Eve - 39: SBRT imaging analysis - patient results and QA of imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Mason, D; Neath, C

    2012-07-01

    Our centre began offering stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments for peripheral lung lesions in 2011. As a high-precision technique, SBRT requires precise positioning of the target, and precise quality assurance (QA) of the imaging systems; these may be dependent on local equipment and procedures. We aimed to maintain target position within 3 mm throughout each treatment, and imaging and mechanical systems to at least 2 mm accuracy. A retrospective analysis was done of patient cone-beam (CB) data, and of our imaging system QA, to assess our spatial objectives and look for opportunities for improvement. The data indicated that, using our immobilization and imaging procedures, target position was maintained within 3 mm 96% of the time, and 75% within 2 mm, similar to results from other centres. Imaging system QA using the standard ball-bearing test showed system accuracy was maintained well within 1 mm. These results were compared with a simpler daily QA procedure using a Pentaguide phantom. The mean and standard deviation of the radial difference in the kV-MV isocenter coincidence for the two techniques was 0.62mm +/- 0.23mm. With appropriate choice of tolerance and action level, the morning QA was sufficient for identifying outliers requiring further investigation. This analysis gives us confidence in understanding the performance of our SBRT lung treatments, and gives baselines for analyzing changes to patient immobilization or imaging procedures. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 22: Bone heterogeneity in kV x-ray radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Grigorov, G

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the dosimetric impact of bone heterogeneity on the surface dose and dose prescription, when dose is assumed to be prescribed on a homogeneous medium in kV x-ray radiotherapy. A heterogeneous phantom containing a thin water layer (thickness = 1-5 mm) over a bone (thickness =1 cm) was used to mimic treatment sites of forehead, knee and chest wall. The phantom was irradiated by a 220 kVp photon beam with field size of 5 cm diameter. Percentage depth dose, surface dose and photon energy spectrum with different thicknesses of water were determined using Monte Carlo simulations (the EGSnrc code) with experimental verifications using parallel-plate ionization chamber and radiochormatic film. Our results (treatment cone of 5 cm diameter) showed that the surface dose increased in a range of 2.5-3.7% when the water layer above the bone was increased from 1 to 5 mm. However, the surface dose did not increase linearly with the increase of water thickness, and the maximum increase of surface dose was found at a water thickness of 3 mm. Results of the percentage depth dose showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210% higher than the surface dose in the heterogeneous phantom. It is concluded that in treatment sites having a thin layer of tissue over a bone in kV x-ray radiotherapy, if increased surface dose due to bone heterogeneity is not considered, this will result in an additional dosimetric uncertainty narrowing down the total error margin (5%). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Poster - Thur Eve - 65: Optimization of an automatic image contouring system for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T; Nedialkov, N; Wierzbicki, M

    2012-07-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced technique used to concentrate the prescribed dose in the tumour while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues. Success in IMRT is greatly dependent upon the localization of the target volume and normal tissue, thus accurate contouring is crucial. In this paper, we describe an automated atlas-based image contouring system and our approach for improving the system by performing a full-scale optimization of registration parameters using high-performance computing. To achieve this, we use manually pre-contoured CT images of ten head and neck patients. For any parameter set, each patient data is registered with the remaining patients. Accuracy of the resulting contours is determined automatically by comparing their overlap with manually defined targets using Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC). This allows us to compare all permutations of the image registration parameter sets and input data to investigate their impact on final contour accuracy. Investigating the parameter space required 27,000 image registrations and 216,000 DSC computations. To perform these registrations we introduced a large cluster of high-performance computers and developed a parallel testing harness. The metrics collected from the tests show a wide range of performance, indicating that parameter selection is crucial in our contouring system. By selecting an optimized parameter set, we increased the mean overlap of the automatically contoured regions of interest by 50% and reduced registration time by 50% compared to the original parameters. Our findings illustrate that full-scale optimization is an effective method for improving the performance of the automated image contouring system. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Poster - Thur Eve - 25: In vivo dosimetric verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chytyk-Praznik, K; Van Uytven, E; Van Beek, T; McCurdy, Bmc

    2012-07-01

    Dosimetric verification of patient treatment plans has become increasingly important due to the widespread use of complicated delivery techniques. IMRT and VMAT treatments are typically verified prior to start of the patient's course of treatment, using a point dose and/or a film measurement. Pre-treatment verification will not detect patient or machine-related errors; therefore, in vivo dosimetric verification is the only way to determine if the patient's treatment was delivered correctly. Portal images were acquired throughout the course of five prostate and six head-and-neck patient IMRT treatments. The corresponding predicted images were calculated using a previously developed portal dose image prediction algorithm, which combines a versatile fluence model with a patient scatter and EPID dose prediction model. The prostate patient image agreement was found to vary day-to-day due to rectal gas pockets and the effect of adjustable support rails on the patient couch. The head-and-neck patient images were observed to be more consistent daily, but an increased measured dose was evident at the periphery of the patient, likely due to patient weight loss. The majority of the fields agreed within 3% and 3 mm for greater than 90% of the pixels, as established by the χ-comparison. This work demonstrates the changes in patient anatomy that are detectable with the portal dose image prediction model. Prior to clinical implementation, the effect of the couch must be incorporated into the model, the image acquisition must be automatically scheduled and routine EPID QA must be undertaken to ensure the collection of high-quality EPID images. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 29: Detecting changes in IMRT QA using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Drever, L; Salomons, G

    2012-07-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) methods were used to analyze 239 measurement based individual IMRT QA events. The selected IMRT QA events were all head and neck (H&N) cases with 70Gy in 35 fractions, and all prostate cases with 76Gy in 38 fractions planned between March 2009 and 2012. The results were used to determine if the tolerance limits currently being used for IMRT QA were able to indicate if the process was under control. The SPC calculations were repeated for IMRT QA of the same type of cases that were planned after the treatment planning system was upgraded from Eclipse version 8.1.18 to version 10.0.39. The initial tolerance limits were found to be acceptable for two of the three metrics tested prior to the upgrade. After the upgrade to the treatment planning system the SPC analysis found that the a priori limits were no longer capable of indicating control for 2 of the 3 metrics analyzed. The changes in the IMRT QA results were clearly identified using SPC, indicating that it is a useful tool for finding changes in the IMRT QA process. Routine application of SPC to IMRT QA results would help to distinguish unintentional trends and changes from the random variation in the IMRT QA results for individual plans. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Poster - Thur Eve - 24: Clinical application of the new dosimetry formalism for composite nonstandard beams.

    PubMed

    Chung, E; Conneely, E; Ruo, R; Foley, M; Seuntjens, J

    2012-07-01

    The IAEA-AAPM new dosimetry formalism [Med. Phys. 35, 5179 (2008)] was applied to clinical IMRT quality assurance (QA). Twenty different IMRT QA fields were created on the CT images of a 30×30×17 cm(3) Solid Water™ phantom. Two Farmer-type chambers, Exradin A12 and NE2571, and a smaller Exradin A1SL ionization chamber were cross-calibrated against a reference detector, the PTW micro liquid ion chamber (microLion), in the lowest dose gradient region in each IMRT QA field delivery. Based on the new dosimetry formalism, the clinical correction factor was measured in a fully-rotated delivery and a delivery at a single gantry angle, a collapsed delivery. For the calibrated Exradin A12, the measured dose with the clinical correction factor was compared with a calculated dose using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The clinical correction factor deviated from unity by up to 2.4% and 3.7% in the fully-rotated and collapsed deliveries, respectively, depending on the dose distribution in the chamber collecting volume. For the Exradin A1SL, the correction factor was generally closer to unity due to the reduced dose gradient on the smaller collecting volume. In the fully-rotated delivery, the measured dose with the clinical correction factor is different from the MC-calculated dose to within 4%; while the discrepancy was greater, up to 8%, in the collapsed delivery due to the much heterogeneous dose distribution in the chamber collecting volume. This work proves that the suggested dosimetry technique is effective to improve the dosimetric consistency of clinical IMRT QA. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Poster - Thur Eve - 32: Water tank referenced calibration method for detector array devices.

    PubMed

    Foottit, C; Gerig, L

    2012-07-01

    Detector array devices, such as the I'mRT Matrixx (IBA Dosimetry), provide a means of evaluating beam profiles with respect to gantry for a range of dose rates and monitor units. The relative calibration of these devices is typically highly susceptible to even relatively small variations in beam output. An alternative method is proposed here, which directly references the device detector response to water tank data. The Matrixx response was measured at the four cardinal angles for three devices. A calibration factor was determined for each orientation of the Matrixx device by dividing a water tank measured profile by the Matrixx response for the in-plane and cross-plane detectors. A geometric mean of each orientation was used as the estimate of the calibration coefficient. Before calibration, the three-detector average of the deviation from the profile measured in the water tank centered on each of the horns was 0.4% (SD 0.2%); applying the calibration procedure reduced this to 0.1% (SD 0.1%). The energy independence of the proposed relative calibration was also confirmed. A comparison of the linac output for relatively short Matrixx acquisitions to the longer water tank acquisition suggested some difference. This difference was mitigated by averaging. The proposed water tank reference calibration procedure is an effective means of determining the relative calibration of a detector array and mitigates the effect of compound error by avoiding the recursive algorithm of typical calibration methods. In addition it has the benefit of being directly relatable to commissioning beam data. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Poster - Thur Eve - 35: Characterization of performance of two deformable registration software.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, J-F; Varfalvy, N; Cyr, M F; Archambault, L

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of two deformable registration softwares (a commercial and an open source software) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. We used a set of 34 lung patients with generally large tumors each having between 1 and 20 CBCT scans. A radiation oncologist resident contoured GTVs on each CBCTs using planning CT contours as reference. Deformable registrations were performed on CT scans to adapt it to the first CBCT of each patient independently with both software. Then each CBCT was registered to the next CBCT. Contour structures have been deformed in the process for the commercial software and for the open source software contours have been drawn manually on deformed images. Mean remaining volume (±SD) for manual GTV contours was 59 ± 32 %. GTVs obtained with the open source software were closer to the manual GTV in size than the commercial software. Mean relative errors on volume were 45 ± 60 % for the commercial system (33 patients) and 9 ± 2 % for the open source software (6 patients). Relative errors for the commercial software increased exponentially with the volume reduction but were constant over all CBCT for the open source software. Mean Jaccard and Dice's index were 0.57 and 0.71 for the commercial software (24 patients) and 0.80 and 0.88 for the open source software (6 patients). Open source software shown tendency to give better results than commercial software but was slower than the commercial software. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. "Eve Did No Wrong": Effective Literacy at a Public College for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I test claims made about rhetorical education for women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by examining Florida State College for Women (FSCW), one of eight public women's colleges in the South. I recover the voices of instructors and students by looking both at the interweaving strands of literature, journalism,…

  13. Safe Sex in the 1970s: Community Practitioners on the Eve of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blair, Thomas R

    2017-06-01

    In the 1970s, groups of gay and gay-allied health professionals began to formulate guidelines for safer sexual activity, several years before HIV/AIDS. Through such organizations as the National Coalition of Gay Sexually Transmitted Disease Services, Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights, and the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, these practitioners developed materials that would define sexual health education for the next four decades, as well as such concepts as "bodily fluids" and the "safe sex hanky." To do so, they used their dual membership in the community and the health professions. Although the dichotomy between the gay community and the medical establishment helped define the early history of HIV/AIDS, the creative work of these socially "amphibious" activists played an equally important part. Amid current debates over preexposure prophylaxis against HIV and Zika virus transmission, lessons for sexual health include the importance of messaging, the difficulty of behavioral change, and the vitality of community-driven strategies to mitigate risk.

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 54: A software solution for ongoing DVH quality assurance in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Annis, S-L; Zeng, G; Wu, X; Macpherson, M

    2012-07-01

    A program has been developed in MATLAB for use in quality assurance of treatment planning of radiation therapy. It analyzes patient DVH files and compiles dose volume data for review, trending, comparison and analysis. Patient DVH files are exported from the Eclipse treatment planning system and saved according to treatment sites and date. Currently analysis is available for 4 treatment sites; Prostate, Prostate Bed, Lung, and Upper GI, with two functions for data report and analysis: patient-specific and organ-specific. The patient-specific function loads one patient DVH file and reports the user-specified dose volume data of organs and targets. These data can be compiled to an external file for a third party analysis. The organ-specific function extracts a requested dose volume of an organ from the DVH files of a patient group and reports the statistics over this population. A graphical user interface is utilized to select clinical sites, function and structures, and input user's requests. We have implemented this program in planning quality assurance at our center. The program has tracked the dosimetric improvement in GU sites after VMAT was implemented clinically. It has generated dose volume statistics for different groups of patients associated with technique or time range. This program allows reporting and statistical analysis of DVH files. It is an efficient tool for the planning quality control in radiation therapy. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Poster - Thur Eve - 19: Risk assessment of clinical radiation processes using failure modes and effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Angers, C; Studinski, R; La Russa, D; Bahm, J; Renaud, J; Clark, B G

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to apply failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) to assess risk in two radiation planning and treatment processes; our on-call (out-of-clinical hours) process and our tomotherapy process. The motivation was provided by analysis of 2506 adverse incidents reported over a 5 year period, the on-call process for giving rise to a higher than expected number of incidents and our tomotherapy process for the reverse. For the on-call scenario, three separate processes were analysed: our current process, our current process incorporating a software upgrade eliminating several planning steps and a fully integrated process in which the patient is imaged, planned and treated on a single platform (TomoTherapy Hi Art, Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA). After construction of a detailed process map for each case, a multidisciplinary group identified potential failure modes for each process step, the effects of each failure and existing controls. Risk probability numbers were determined from severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability scores assigned to each failure mode according to a standard scale. The results were analysed to identify and prioritise feasible and effective process improvements. For the on-call process, our current workflow was identified as incurring the highest risk of the three processes analysed, demonstrating quantitatively the value of the software upgrade and providing a clear rationale for the associated expense. In summary, we have found FMEA to be a feasible tool for assessing relative risk in a clinical process. However, operational and resource issues must be considered separately. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Poster - Thur Eve - 30: Comparison of treatment planning and delivery performance of VMAT versus IMRT.

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Vollans, E; Duzenli, C

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether VMAT (Varian RapidArc ™) treatment planning and delivery performance is in compliance with accepted quality assurance tolerances developed for sliding window IMRT. We present an analysis of data for over 1300 patients treated with VMAT and IMRT over a period of three years. Data was acquired on 6 dosimetrically matched linacs for sites including head and neck, brain, gynaecological, and a variety of other cancer cases treated with 6 MV. We have demonstrated that it is possible to dosimetrically match multiple Varian iX linacs with the millennium series MLC using a sliding gap and intercept test. QA is performed by Monte Carlo simulation and ion chamber measurement comparisons with Varian Eclipse TPS as well as linac log file analysis of MLC positions, gantry angles and monitor units on each patient. Point dose and 3D gamma analysis indicate that agreement between Eclipse and measurement or Monte Carlo calculation is site specific, with the dosimetric leaf gap parameter in Eclipse optimized for the most frequently treated site Point dose agreement within 2% and gamma pass rate of > 95% (3%/ 3 mm) is achievable for all sites for both IMRT and VMAT. Linac log file analysis indicates that planned MLC positions are achieved within 2 mm >99.7% of the time for both sliding window IMRT and VMAT. Planned gantry angles are achieved within 0.6 mm 99.8% of the time and planned MU's within 0.1 mm are achieved 99.8% of the time for VMAT. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Mirrors for the Queen: A Letter from Christine de Pizan on the Eve of Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    As a rhetorical figure, the example is constitutively split between the structural vocations of the Greek "paradeigma" (emphasizing illumination and belonging) and the Latin "exemplum" (emphasizing detachment and exclusion). This bifurcation enables the example to function as a strategic resource of ambiguity. Christine de…

  18. Work and Relationship: Is Vocational Psychology on the Eve of Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…

  19. Poster - Thur Eve - 12: Dosimetric manifestation of harmonic mode imaging for seed implant brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, G; Angyalfi, S; Dunscombe, P; Khan, R

    2012-07-01

    To demonstrate the dosimetric effects of observer variability in defining the prostate and critical organs, using Tissue Harmonic (H) ultrasound imaging mode for permanent seed implant brachytherapy. Images were acquired using a B -K medical 8848 probe with Brightness (B) and H mode for ten prostate brachytherapy patients. The prostate, rectum and urethra were contoured independently by five observers. The clinically used treatment plans based on B mode imaging fulfilling the dosimetric criteria were applied on these contours. Dosimetric parameters (prostate: D90, V100 and V200; rectum: V100; urethra: V140, V150 and V160) were computed using SPOT PRO™ planning system. Interobserver variability in dosimetric parameters was tested using standard deviations as percentages of means. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant (p<0.05) interobserver variability in all dosimetric parameters for both modes. Interobserver agreement in dosimetric parameters improves in H mode due to improved interobserver consistency in contouring these organs on H mode images compared to B mode. There is no significant difference observed (paired student t test, p>0.05) in the mean values of dosimetric parameters in H and B mode for prostate and critical organs. H mode due to its better image quality helped to improve the interobserver agreement in contouring the prostate and critical organs and hence better interobserver consistency in all dosimetric parameter. Because the difference in the mean value of dosimetric parameters between two imaging modes is not statistically significant, H mode does not appear to offer any clinical advantages in terms of improving the dosimetric outcome. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Poster - Thur Eve - 60: Physical and dynamic wedges in radiotherapy for rectal cancer: A dosimetric comparison.

    PubMed

    Isa, M; Iqbal, K; Afzal, M; Buzdar, S; Chow, J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry of the physical wedge (PW) and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) in radiotherapy of rectal cancer. Two wedge angles of 45° and 60° were used in the comparison due to the size of the pelvis contour. 6 and 15 MV photon beams produced from a Varian 21 CD linear accelerator were used. Thirty rectum patients were investigated using the three-field technique. Treatment plans using the PWs and EDWs were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Monitor units, plan normalization value, maximum and minimum doses in the planning target volume (PTV), dose conformity index, dose homogeneity index and uniformity index were determined for each treatment plan. The average dose coverage for the PTV with EDW and PW plans were compared. The PTV received prescription doses of 100.9±0.74%, 101.01±1.63% for the EDW (45°, 60°) compared to 101.2±1.65%, 101.3±1.33% for the PW (45°, 60°). Homogeneity indices were (0.11±0.02%, 0.11±0.05%) for the EDW (45°, 60°), and (0.15±0.1%, 0.16±0.11%) for the PW (45°, 60°), respectively. The EDW at 45° had better target coverage with higher conformity index value of 0.98 ± 0.01 compared to the other wedges. A statistically significant (p < 0.01) change in plan normalization values and fewer monitor units were found using the EDW at 45°. We conclude that the EDW at 45° results in an improvement to the plan evaluation parameters presented and thus increases dose efficacy for radiotherapy of rectal cancer. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Poster - Thur Eve - 42: Dynamic delivery quality assurance on Elekta linacs.

    PubMed

    Munger, P; Nicol, S

    2012-07-01

    Introduction Recently, Elekta linacs have gained the capability to deliver dynamic fields, such as sliding window IMRT or VMAT fields. Because of the potential complexity of such delivery modes, linac QA and patient-specific QA are of prime importance. The aim of this paper is to explain the fundamental concepts of this new mode of operation on Elekta linacs as well as to introduce the linear-α slit, a novel dynamic QA sequence which allows the performance of the delivery system to be objectively aassessed against dosimetric measurements. In the Elekta dynamic mode, dose rate can only take a limited number of discontinuous values. We have used the uniform slit, a simple slit moving at a constant speed across the field to verify how the linac selects leaf speed and dose rate for a given MU setting. Based on this, we expose the principles behind the linear-α slit, which exhibits two main characteristics: 1) it exercises the linac over a range of dose rates and 2) it produces a dose distribution which is theoretically equivalent to the uniform slit. Discrepancies between measurements of the linear-α slit and the uniform slit directly reflects problems with the delivery. The linear-α slit has been recently introduced in our routine monthly linac QA. We hope it will nicely complement patient-specific QA, and exising linac-QA. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Randomized controlled study on resistive vibration exercise (EVE study): protocol, implementation and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Å; Rosenberger, A; Weber, T; Zange, J; May, F; Schoenau, E; Mester, J; Bloch, W; Rittweger, J

    2013-06-01

    A training intervention comparing resistance exercise with or without whole-body vibration (WBV) was conducted to compare acute and chronic effects on functional and molecular parameters. A six-week training intervention was performed including 26 healthy males (26 years, SD=4). Two groups were analyzed in a parallel design performing either resistive exercise (RE, n=13) or resistive vibration exercise (RVE, n=13) training with weekly increasing vibration frequencies (20-40Hz). Resting and exercising blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. Both training interventions decreased resting systolic blood pressure (P=0.003). Resting diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased only in the RVE group (P=0.01). Exercising diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased during the final training (P<0.001) with no additional effect of superimposed vibrations. Resistance exercise with superimposed vibrations evoked back pain to a higher degree than resistance exercise alone when training at frequencies above 30Hz (P<0.01). These data suggest positive effects of resistance exercise upon cardiovascular health and vascular responsiveness and a further beneficial effect of superimposed vibrations in decreasing resting diastolic blood pressure. Finally, development of back pain may be fostered by superimposed vibrations to high training loads, particularly at higher frequencies.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT

    SciTech Connect

    Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F.; Bouchard, H.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.

  4. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  5. Manifest Destiny and Competing Voices on the Eve of the Cherokee Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Prentice T.

    2011-01-01

    Manifest Destiny, the idea that Providence guided the conquest and settlement of North America, is one of the most contested ideas in American culture and history. One's opinion about this central aspect of American mythology depends heavily on one's point of view. Exploring westward expansion and the Cherokee Trail of Tears with primary sources…

  6. On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuhai; Laflamme, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Ediacara fossils document an important evolutionary episode just before the Cambrian explosion and hold critical information about the early evolution of macroscopic and complex multicellular life. They also represent an enduring controversy in paleontology. How are the Ediacara fossils related to living animals? How did they live? Do they share any evolutionary patterns with other life forms? Recent developments indicate that Ediacara fossils epitomize a phylogenetically diverse biosphere, probably including animals, protists, algae, fungi and others. Their simple ecology is dominated by epibenthic osmotrophs, deposit feeders and grazers, but few if any predators. Their evolution started with an early morphospace expansion followed by taxonomic diversification within confined morphospace, and concluded by extinction of many taxa at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary.

  7. Getting It All Together: Career Education. A Teacher Handbook Developed by Project EVE. [Elementary Vocational Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Palatine, IL.

    The teaching developed handbook was designed to assist teachers in implementing career education instructional programs at all levels of primary and junior high school instruction. The first section provides career education concepts and materials for primary grades, offering suggested activities and a unit outline for kindergarten students.…

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 37: Respiratory gating with an Elekta flattening filter free photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Péloquin, S; Furstoss, C; Munger, P; Wierzbicki, W; Carrier, J-F

    2014-08-15

    In cases where surgery is not possible for lung cancer treatment, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be an option. One problem when treating this type of cancer is the motion of the lungs caused by the patient's respiration. It is possible to reduce the impact of this movement with the use of respiratory gating. By combining respiratory gating with a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam linac, the increased treatment time caused by a reduced beam-on time of respiratory gating methods can be compensated by the inherent increased dose rate of FFF beams. This project's aim is to create hardware and software interfaces allowing free respiration gating on an Elekta Synergy-S linac specially modified to deliver 6 MV FFF photon beams. First, a printed circuit board was created for reading the signal from a Bellows Belt from Philips (a respiration monitor belt) and transmitting an On/Off signal to the accelerator. A software was also developed to visualize patient respiration. Secondly, a FFF model was created with the Pinnacle treatment planning system from Philips. Gamma (Γ) analysis (2%, 2 mm) was used to evaluate model. For fields going from 5.6 × 5.6 to 12 × 12 cm{sup 2}, central axis depth dose model fitting shows an average gamma value of 0.2 and 100% of gamma values remain under the Γ = 1 limit. For smaller fields (0.8 × 0.8 and 1.6 × 1.6 cm{sup 2}), Pinnacle has more trouble trying to fit the measurements, overestimating dose in penumbra and buildup regions.

  9. Work and Relationship: Is Vocational Psychology on the Eve of Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…

  10. "Eve Did No Wrong": Effective Literacy at a Public College for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I test claims made about rhetorical education for women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by examining Florida State College for Women (FSCW), one of eight public women's colleges in the South. I recover the voices of instructors and students by looking both at the interweaving strands of literature, journalism,…

  11. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  12. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  13. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza

    PubMed Central

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2011-01-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat. PMID:22140286

  14. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2009-11-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat.

  15. Mending the Butterfly: The New Historicism and Keats's "Eve of St. Agnes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Argues that among the branches of historicism practiced by literary critics today, a branch of New Historicism that is broadly humanistic as opposed to narrowly political is the most illuminating. Describes the development and theoretical premises of this branch. Shows how it may be applied to the analysis of a literary work such as Keats's…

  16. The café fire on New Year's Eve in Volendam, the Netherlands: description of events.

    PubMed

    Welling, L; van Harten, S M; Patka, P; Bierens, J J L M; Boers, M; Luitse, J S K; Mackie, D P; Trouwborst, A; Gouma, D J; Kreis, R W

    2005-08-01

    The café fire at Volendam occurred shortly after midnight on the first of January 2001 and resulted in one of the worst mass burn incidents in recent Dutch history. The aim of this study was to provide insight into medical and organisational requirements of a major burns incident. Shortly after the fire, two university hospitals and a burn center in the region of the accident developed a plan for evaluation of medical care given during and after this major burn incident. A multidisciplinary research group investigated the management of victims at the scene, in the emergency departments (ED) and during admission in the hospitals. All 245 casualties were included in this study. A brief severe fire occurred in a crowded cafe with around 350 young visitors on a small embankment of a relatively isolated town, resulting in a unusually high number of severely injured burn victims. Four died immediately. The ensuing rescue effort was hampered by poor access and chaotic circumstances. At the scene of the incident, mobile medical teams ensured orderly transport and treatment priority for the injured. There were 245 victims with a median total body surface area burned of 12%. Inhalation injury was present in 96 patients. A total of 182 victims were admitted, with 112 to intensive care. Ten patients died in the hospital. Seventy-eight patients were secondarily transported, many to specialised centers in the Netherlands and abroad. In total, 36 hospitals in three countries participated. An incident with high numbers of burn victims poses a challenge to any health care system. The difficult circumstances at the site demonstrated the need for robust organisational structures. The primary and secondary distribution of patients required coordination, general hospitals were able to provide initial medical care to these major burn casualties.

  17. [Borders, immigration, and international relations on the eve of World War II].

    PubMed

    Pierre, C

    1997-01-01

    The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economic crisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas." (EXCERPT)

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 22: A water calorimeter for low-energy particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, J; Sarfehnia, A; Seuntjens, J; Rossomme, S; Vynckier, S

    2014-08-15

    In this work, the feasibility of absolute dose to water measurements in low-energy electron beams using a water calorimeter specifically developed for shallow measurements is established. The calorimeter design consists of a cylindrical glass vessel encased in a block of expanded polystyrene. The vessel has a front window thickness of 1.1 mm, a 4 cm radius, and is 2.5 cm in depth. The vessel-block assembly sits inside a thermally-insulated box and is air-cooled to an operating temperature of 4 °C. Radiation-induced thermal gradients were simulated in a geometric model of the calorimeter using a finite element analysis software package. 52 absorbed dose to water measurements were performed in a 6 and 8 MeV electron beam (z{sub max} of 1.32 and 1.76 cm, respectively) for 60 seconds at a repetition rate of 400 MU/min and an SSD of 120 cm. Within the vessel, the depth of measurement was set to 1.08 cm relative to the inner front window. The average measured dose to water was 59.6 ± 0.2 cGy/100 MU (6 MeV), and 63.7 ± 0.3 cGy/100 MU (8 MeV). The associated heat transfer corrections were determined to be 1.026 ± 0.003 and 1.017 ± 0.004 for the 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The most significant source of uncertainty in this study was the repeatability (type A, 0.42%). It is expected that performing fewer consecutive measurements under higher dose rate conditions will improve the stability of the thermal background, thereby improving the repeatability and reducing the overall standard uncertainty.

  19. Citizenship Education in the Seattle Schools on the Eve of the Japanese American Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Yoon K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the approach to citizenship education within the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools when Japanese American citizenship status was being questioned. Addresses the World War II era experiences of Japanese American students, focusing on two primary source documents: (1) a 1930's curriculum guide; and (2) a collection of classroom…

  20. Poster - Thur Eve - 46: The upcoming international code of practice for small static photon field dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Palmans, H; Alfonso, R; Andreo, P; Capote, R; Huq, M S; Izewska, J; Johansson, J; Kilby, W; Mackie, T R; Meghzifene, A; Rosser, K; Seuntjens, J; Ullrich, W

    2012-07-01

    The increased use of small photon fields in stereotactic and intensity-modulated radiotherapy has raised the need for standardizing the dosimetry of such fields using procedures consistent with those for conventional radiotherapy. An international working group, established by the IAEA in collaboration with AAPM and IPEM, is finalising a Code of Practice for the dosimetry of small static photon fields. Procedures for reference dosimetry in nonstandard machine specific reference (msr) fields are provided following the formalism of Alfonso et al. (Med. Phys. 35: 5179; 2008). Reference dosimetry using ionization chambers in machines that cannot establish a conventional 10 cm × 10 cm reference field is based on either a direct calibration in the msr field traceable to primary standards, a calibration in a reference field and a generic correction factor or the product of a correction factor for a virtual reference field and a correction factor for the difference between the msr and virtual fields. For the latter method, procedures are provided for determining the beam quality in non-reference conditions. For the measurement of field output factors in small fields, procedures for connecting large field measurements using ionization chambers to small field measurements using high-resolution detectors such as diodes, diamond, liquid ion chambers, organic scintillators and radiochromic film are given. The Code of Practice also presents consensus data on correction factors for use in conjunction with measured, detector-specific output factors. Further research to determine missing data according to the proposed framework will be strongly encouraged by publication of this document. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 74: Distributed, asynchronous, reactive dosimetric and outcomes analysis using DICOMautomaton

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Haley; Wu, Jonn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Thomas, Steven

    2014-08-15

    Many have speculated about the future of computational technology in clinical radiation oncology. It has been advocated that the next generation of computational infrastructure will improve on the current generation by incorporating richer aspects of automation, more heavily and seamlessly featuring distributed and parallel computation, and providing more flexibility toward aggregate data analysis. In this report we describe how a recently created — but currently existing — analysis framework (DICOMautomaton) incorporates these aspects. DICOMautomaton supports a variety of use cases but is especially suited for dosimetric outcomes correlation analysis, investigation and comparison of radiotherapy treatment efficacy, and dose-volume computation. We describe: how it overcomes computational bottlenecks by distributing workload across a network of machines; how modern, asynchronous computational techniques are used to reduce blocking and avoid unnecessary computation; and how issues of out-of-date data are addressed using reactive programming techniques and data dependency chains. We describe internal architecture of the software and give a detailed demonstration of how DICOMautomaton could be used to search for correlations between dosimetric and outcomes data.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 58: Dosimetric validation of electronic compensation for radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gräfe, James; Khan, Rao; Meyer, Tyler

    2014-08-15

    In this study we investigate the deliverability of dosimetric plans generated by the irregular surface compensator (ISCOMP) algorithm for 6 MV photon beams in Eclipse (Varian Medical System, CA). In contrast to physical tissue compensation, the electronic ISCOMP uses MLCs to dynamically modulate the fluence of a photon beam in order to deliver a uniform dose at a user defined plane in tissue. This method can be used to shield critical organs that are located within the treatment portal or improve dose uniformity by tissue compensation in inhomogeneous regions. Three site specific plans and a set of test fields were evaluated using the γ-metric of 3%/ 3 mm on Varian EPID, MapCHECK, and Gafchromic EBT3 film with a clinical tolerance of >95% passing rates. Point dose measurements with an NRCC calibrated ionization chamber were also performed to verify the absolute dose delivered. In all cases the MapCHECK measured plans met the gamma criteria. The mean passing rate for the six EBT3 film field measurements was 96.2%, with only two fields at 93.4 and 94.0% passing rates. The EPID plans passed for fields encompassing the central ∼10 × 10 cm{sup 2} region of the detector; however for larger fields and greater off-axis distances discrepancies were observed and attributed to the profile corrections and modeling of backscatter in the portal dose calculation. The magnitude of the average percentage difference for 21 ion chamber point dose measurements and 17 different fields was 1.4 ± 0.9%, and the maximum percentage difference was −3.3%. These measurements qualify the algorithm for routine clinical use subject to the same pre-treatment patient specific QA as IMRT.

  4. 'Mary' and 'Eve's' Social Reproduction in the 'Big Apple'; Colombian Voices. Occasional Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Mary Garcia

    This paper presents research on the immigration, employment, familial, and social experiences of Colombian women in New York City. The data discussed are derived from both a literature review and extensive interviews with Colombian women residing in the city during recent years. It is hypothesized that Colombian women's perceptions of their actual…

  5. Characteristics of acute heart failure in very elderly patients - EVE study (EAHFE very elderly).

    PubMed

    Herrero-Puente, Pablo; Marino-Genicio, Rocio; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Vázquez-Alvarez, Joaquín; Jacob, Javier; Bermudez, Manuel; Llorens, Pere; Miró, Oscar; Pérez-Durá, María José; Gil, Victor; Alonso-Morilla, Ana

    2014-06-01

    To determine the characteristics and prognostic factors of early death in the very elderly with acute heart failure (AHF). We performed a prospective, observational study of AHF patients attended in Emergency Departments (ED), analyzing 45 variables collected in ED and studying troponin, natriuretic peptides and echocardiographies, not always available in the ED. The patients were divided into 2 groups: nonagenarian (age ≥ 90 years) and controls (age < 90 years). The study variables were mortality and death or reconsultation to the ED for AHF within 30 days after inclusion. We included 4700 patients (nonagenarians: 520, 11.1%). The 30-day mortality was 21.5% and 8.7% (p<0.01), respectively with a combined event of 33.3% and 26.7% (p=0.001). Age ≥ 90 years was maintained in all the models associated with death (OR: 1.94, CI 95%: 1.40-2.70). In nonagenarians, chronic kidney insufficiency (OR: 2.07, CI95%: 1.16-3.69), severe functional dependence (OR: 2.18, CI95%; 1.30-3.64) and basal oxygen saturation <90% (OR: 1.97, CI95%: 1.17-3.32) and hyponatremia <135 mEq/L (OR: 1.89, CI95%: 1.05-3.42) were predictive variables of mortality. We observed an association between elevated troponin levels and natriuretic peptide values > 5,180 pg/mL and mortality (OR: 4.26, CI95%: 1.83-9.89; and OR: 3.51, CI95%: 1.45-8.48; respectively). The profile of nonagenarians with AHF differs from that of younger patients. Although very advanced age is an independent prognostic factor of mortality, these patients have fewer predictive factors of mortality, being only functional deterioration, basal kidney disease, hyponatremia and respiratory insufficiency on arrival at the ED and probably troponin values and elevated natriuretic peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Manifest Destiny and Competing Voices on the Eve of the Cherokee Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Prentice T.

    2011-01-01

    Manifest Destiny, the idea that Providence guided the conquest and settlement of North America, is one of the most contested ideas in American culture and history. One's opinion about this central aspect of American mythology depends heavily on one's point of view. Exploring westward expansion and the Cherokee Trail of Tears with primary sources…

  7. Mirrors for the Queen: A Letter from Christine de Pizan on the Eve of Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    As a rhetorical figure, the example is constitutively split between the structural vocations of the Greek "paradeigma" (emphasizing illumination and belonging) and the Latin "exemplum" (emphasizing detachment and exclusion). This bifurcation enables the example to function as a strategic resource of ambiguity. Christine de…

  8. A new gene for asthma: would you ADAM and Eve it?

    PubMed

    Cookson, William

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a novel gene was reported to underlie asthma. Linkage to the short arm of chromosome 20 in a genome screen was followed by positive tests of association that centre on the gene for a membrane-anchored zinc-dependent metalloproteinase known as ADAM33. The domain structure of the ADAM33 protein gives capabilities of proteolysis, adhesion, cell fusion and intracellular signalling. Although its function is at present unknown, these potential actions of ADAM33 provide many possibilities for further research.

  9. The Three Faces of Eve (or Adam): The Integration of "Our Other Lives" with Our Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Integrating one's career as an adult educator with the other parts of one's life is not an easy task for many adult educators. One reason for the difficulty is that there are many facets to this integration process: time, emotionality, conflict, complexity, change, and situational factors. Individuals need to decide what faces or roles are…

  10. Adam (MDMA) and Eve (MDEA) misuse: an immunohistochemical study on three fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Centini, F; Mazzeo, E; Turillazzi, E

    1999-09-30

    Three fatal cases of MDMA/MDEA misuse have been examined. These referred to white males between 19 and 20 years of age, in which post-mortem toxicology showed the presence of MDMA (in one case), MDEA (in one case) and both (in one case). The clinical data were analysed and the histopathological findings were studied following immunohistochemical investigations. A complete immunohistochemical study has made it possible to demonstrate rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria with alterations of the organs typical of a DIC. Clinical, histopathological and toxicological data suggest that severe or fatal complications following ecstasy ingestion could be related to idiosyncratic response.

  11. [Eve and Adam--is a partnership between the male and female actually possible?].

    PubMed

    Günzel, S

    1989-03-01

    Whereas the girl can pattern the formation of her post-oedipal gender-typical selfrepresentation on the model of her mother, the boy must give up the maternal object and turn to the father. The author believes that the reorientation consumes energy which the boy lacks when forming his ego structures, his frustration tolerance, his capacity for relationships. This deficit model is invoked to explain the commonly deplored typically male behavioral and attitudinal characteristics.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 72: Clinical Subtleties of Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Corns, Robert; Thomas, Steven; Huang, Vicky

    2014-08-15

    Flattening-filter-free (fff) beams offer superior dose rates, reducing treatment times for important techniques that utilize small field sizes, such as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The impact of ion collection efficiency (P{sub ion}) on the percent depth dose (PDD) has been discussed at length in the literature. Relative corrections of the order of l%–2% are possible. In the process of commissioning 6fff and 10fff beams, we identified a number of other important details that influence commissioning. We looked at the absolute dose difference between corrected and uncorrected PDD. We discovered a curve with a broad maximum between 10 and 20 cm. We wondered about the consequences of this PDD correction on the absolute dose calibration of the linac because the TG-51 protocol does not correct the PDD curve. The quality factor k{sub Q} depends on the PDD, so in principle, a correction to the PDD will alter the absolute calibration of the linac. Finally, there are other clinical tables, such as TMR, which are derived from PDD. Attention to details on how this computation is performed is important because different corrections are possible depending the method of calculation.

  13. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  14. Life, Death, and Society in the Maritimes at the Eve of Confederation. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Outlines activities using the 1867 quarterly returns for the Registry of Deaths for Pictou County, Nova Scotia, to link population themes in early Canada to today's global issues. Learning activities include having students research the age of mortality, cause of death, human migration, and occupational profile. (MJP)

  15. Point contact germanium detectors at 500 eVee threshold for light dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Arun Kumar; Li, Hau-Bin; Lin, Shin-Ted; Wong, Henry Tsz-King; TEXONO Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities can probe low-mass WIMP Dark Matter. This experimental approach is pursued at Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Laboratory (KSNL) in Taiwan and at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China via TEXONO and CDEX programs, respectively. The highlights of R&D efforts on point contact germanium detectors and in particular the differentiation of surface and bulk events by pulse shape analysis are described. The latest results on WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-sections are also presented. Some of the allowed parameter space implied by other experiments are probed and excluded.

  16. Invisible transmission in quantum cryptography using continuous variables: A proof of Eve's vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navez, Patrick; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi A.

    2002-03-01

    By analogy to classical cryptography, we develop a quantum cryptographic scheme in which the two public and private keys consist in each of two entangled beams of squeezed light. An analog secret information is encrypted by modulating the phase of the beam sent in public. The knowledge of the degree of nonclassical correlation between the beam quadratures measured in private and in public allows only the receiver to decrypt the secret information. Finally, in a view towards absolute security, we formally prove that any external intervention of an eavesdropper makes him vulnerable to any subsequent detection.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 47: Monte Carlo Simulation of Scp, Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    The in-water output ratio (Scp), in-air output ratio (Sc), and phantom scattering factor (Sp) are important parameters for radiotherapy dose calculation. Experimentally, Scp is obtained by measuring the dose rate ratio in water phantom, and Sc the water Kerma rate ratio in air. There is no method that allows direct measurement of Sp. Monte Carlo (MC) method has been used to simulate Scp and Sc in literatures, similar to experimental setup, but no MC direct simulation of Sp available yet to the best of our knowledge. We propose in this report a method of performing direct MC simulation of Sp. Starting from the definition, we derived that Sp of a clinical photon beam can be approximated by the ratio of the dose rates contributed from the primary beam for a given field size to the reference field size. Since only the primary beam is used, any Linac head scattering should be excluded from the simulation, which can be realized by using the incident electron as a scoring parameter for MU. We performed MC simulations for Scp, Sc and Sp. Scp matches well with golden beam data. Sp obtained by the proposed method agrees well with what is obtained using the traditional method, Sp=Scp/Sc. Since the smaller the field size, the more the primary beam dominates, our Sp simulation method is accurate for small field. By analyzing the calculated data, we found that this method can be used with no problem for large fields. The difference it introduced is clinically insignificant.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 50: Common Regulatory Non-Compliances and How to Avoid Them

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), is responsible for the oversight of radiotherapy facilities containing Class II prescribed equipment in Canada. Over the past several years, ACFD has been performing compliance inspections of Class II nuclear facilities across the country (medical and otherwise), and in that time, has issued several hundred corrective actions to licensees due to non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Recently, a study was done to determine the most common regulatory non-compliances. The purpose of this poster presentation is to disseminate information to the licensee community about the nature of these non-compliances, and how they can be avoided by licensees in the future.

  19. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M[sub 2] often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best. The subject, however, is in a state of flux, and one may expect rapid advancement over the next several years.

  20. Bretton Woods Institution Narratives about Inequality and Economic Vulnerability on the Eve of South African Austerity.

    PubMed

    Bond, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, at a time when National Health Insurance should be generously funded (7 years after its approval as public policy by the ruling party), state fiscal austerity appears certain to nip the initiative in the bud. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund issued separate reports about South Africa in late 2014, following a new finance minister's mid-term budget speech. In justifying austerity, they revealed 2 important conceptual blockages regarding inequality and international financial relations. The resulting political bias in the macroeconomic debate has, in turn, given neoliberal policy advocates intellectual weaponry to impose deeper austerity. In contrast, the rise of a "united front" of labor, community-based, and social movement activists, along with a vigorous left opposition party in Parliament, ensure that one of the world's most visible class struggles ratchets up in intensity in the years ahead.

  1. Jupiter's Thermal Structure on the Eve of Juno's Arrival and an NEB Expansion Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Irwin, Patrick; Rogers, John; Encrenaz, Therese

    2016-04-01

    We report on a continuing program of ground-based thermal-infrared imaging spectroscopy to explore variability in Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, winds, clouds and composition in support of the NASA/Juno mission, scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Observations during the 2015/16 apparition, centred on opposition on March 8th 2016, will be presented from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) as part of a world-wide campaign to characterise the Jovian atmosphere to support Juno. Thermal and chemical contrasts, combined with the visible-light record from the amateur community, show that Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB) is presently expanding northwards. The combination of thermal and visible observations will allow us to determine the environmental conditions underlying this belt/zone variability. Radiometrically calibrated spectral scan maps of Jupiter have been regularly obtained using the TEXES instrument (Texas Echelon cross Echelle Spectrograph, Lacy et al. 2002, PASP 114, p153-168) on the IRTF since 2012, and observations are planned in January and April 2016. Ten settings between 5 and 25 μm (10-20 cm-1 wide settings at spectral resolutions of 2000-10000) were selected to be sensitive to jovian temperatures (via H2, CH4 and CH3D), tropospheric phosphine and ammonia, tropospheric haze opacity and stratospheric hydrocarbons ethane and acetylene. These will be supplemented by photometric imaging from the VLT/VISIR instrument (Lagage et al., 2004, Messenger 117, p12-16) in ten narrow-band filters to determine temperatures associated with discrete phenomena (vortices, plumes, waves) at higher diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Spectra and images are inverted via the NEMESIS retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., 2008, JSQRT 109, p1136-1150) to map temperatures at multiple altitudes (1-600 mbar), winds, aerosol opacity and gaseous composition. Our most recent observations (November 2015) revealed (i) a regular stratospheric wave pattern in stratospheric temperatures between 20 and 30°N (i.e., above the North Tropical Zone and Temperate Belt, NTropZ and NTB, respectively), possibly associated with the northward expansion of the broad North Equatorial Belt (NEB); (ii) tropospheric thermal variability along the NEB itself with correlations between aerosol variability in the 600-mbar region (sensed at 8.6 μm) and the 2-3 bar region (sensed at 5 μm). This appears to coincide with similar NEB and NTropZ wave structure observed in reflected sunlight near 2 μm, based on images from the SpeX instrument on the IRTF. Zonal mean distributions of temperature, phosphine, ammonia, aerosols and hydrocarbons will be compared to those derived by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 15 years earlier. High-resolution VLT images of the Great Red Spot will be compared between 2008 and 2016 to understand the thermochemical changes associated with its recent shrinkage. All images and maps of retrieved properties will be assembled as a database (JCliD) to aid in the interpretation of Juno data during 2016-2017.

  2. [Burns in childhood. Social implications in the eve of the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Abad, P; Acosta, D; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Lloret, J; Patiño, B; Gubern, L; Carol, J; Boix Ochoa, J

    2000-07-01

    The thermic wounds in childhood are the third cause of morbility at hospital in our ambiance. The knowledge about incidence, the causal agents more frequent, and the detailed analysis of different variants about the subject are the unique manner to try to establish precautions against. The aim of this project is to analyse the factors and situations associated with thermic wound, through the retrospective study about the patients admitted. During three years, 362 patients were admitted at hospital, between 0 and 14 years old, following the criterion: barge burn size more than 10%, critical location (hands, face, neck), causal agent (electricity, chemical) or social situation. Different facts were analyzed about provenance, place, causal agent, burned part of the body, degree of lesion and the average stay at hospital. There were 59.6% males, and 40.3% females. Children between 1 and 5 years old, represented the largest group of patients, 205 cases. The 66% were from other hospital were they receive the first aid. The 98.7% were burned at home, and the place more frequent was kitchen, 51%. The causal agent was liquid in 65.4%, specially scald with water about 104 cases. The zones more affected were the face (39.2%), and the superior extremities, about 81% second degree superficial or deep. The size was 10 to 20% in 19% of patients, and more than 40% in 0.2% of children. The average stay was 17.47 days at hospital.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 69: Computational Study of DVH-guided Cancer Treatment Planning Optimization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomi, Pooyan Shirvani; Zinchenko, Yuriy

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare methods to incorporate the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) curves into the treatment planning optimization. Method: The performance of three methods, namely, the conventional Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model, a convex moment-based constrained optimization approach, and an unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach, is compared using anonymized data of a prostate cancer patient. Three plans we generated using the corresponding optimization models. Four Organs at Risk (OARs) and one Tumor were involved in the treatment planning. The OARs and Tumor were discretized into total of 50,221 voxels. The number of beamlets was 943. We used commercially available optimization software Gurobi and Matlab to solve the models. Plan comparison was done by recording the model runtime followed by visual inspection of the resulting dose volume histograms. Conclusion: We demonstrate the effectiveness of the moment-based approaches to replicate the set of prescribed DVH curves. The unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach is concluded to have the greatest potential to reduce the computational effort and holds a promise of substantial computational speed up.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 41: Considerations for Patients with Permanently Implant Radioactive Sources Requiring Unrelated Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Basran, P. S; Beckham, WA; Baxter, P

    2014-08-15

    Permanent implant of sealed radioactive sources is an effective technique for treating cancer. Typically, the radioactive sources are implanted in and near the disease, depositing dose locally over several months. There may be instances where these patients must undergo unrelated surgical procedures when the radioactive material remains active enough to pose risks. This work explores these risks, discusses strategies to mitigate those risks, and describes a case study for a permanent I-125 prostate brachytherapy implant patient who developed colo-rectal cancer and required surgery 6 months after brachytherapy. The first consideration is identifying the risk from unwarranted radiation to the patient and staff before, during, and after the surgical procedure. The second is identifying the risk the surgical procedure may have on the efficacy of the brachytherapy implant. Finally, there are considerations for controlling for radioactive substances from a regulatory perspective. After these risks are defined, strategies to mitigate those risks are considered. These strategies may include applying the concepts of ALARA, the use of protective equipment and developing a best practice strategy with the operating room team. We summarize this experience with some guidelines: If the surgical procedure is near (ex: 5 cm) of the implant; and, the surgical intervention may dislodge radioisotopes enough to compromise treatment or introduces radiation safety risks; and, the radioisotope has not sufficiently decayed to background levels; and, the surgery cannot be postponed, then a detailed analysis of risk is advised.

  5. An introduction to guinea worm on the eve of its departure: dracunculiasis transmission, health effects, ecology and control.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1996-11-01

    A broad ranging discussion of the basic nature of guinea worm disease, fused with personal field observations in Ghana, shows its long-overlooked serious clinical aspects, and the many environmental and social influences that explain its persistence in the face of control efforts. It is a disease of neglect par excellence in remote rural areas. The global eradication campaign (which is not reviewed here) may be expected to come to closure over the next half decade. This account offers an overview, synthesis, and interpretation of a fascinating example in disease ecology at the time of its global vanishing.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 09: Evaluation of electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion algorithms using an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Brige Paul; Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-08-15

    Integration of biological conductivity information provided by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with anatomical information provided by Computed Tomography (CT) imaging could improve the ability to characterize tissues in clinical applications. In this paper, we report results of our study which compared the fusion of EIT with CT using three different image fusion algorithms, namely: weighted averaging, wavelet fusion, and ROI indexing. The ROI indexing method of fusion involves segmenting the regions of interest from the CT image and replacing the pixels with the pixels of the EIT image. The three algorithms were applied to a CT and EIT image of an anthropomorphic phantom, constructed out of five acrylic contrast targets with varying diameter embedded in a base of gelatin bolus. The imaging performance was assessed using Detectability and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). Wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing resulted in lower Detectability (by 35% and 47%, respectively) yet higher SSIM (by 66% and 73%, respectively) than weighted averaging. Our results suggest that wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing yielded more consistent and optimal fusion performance than weighted averaging.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 66: Robustness Assessment of a Novel IMRT Planning Method for Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanj, M.; Bissonnette, J.-P.; Heath, E.; McCann, C.

    2014-08-15

    Conventional radiotherapy treatment planning for lung cancer accounts for tumour motion by increasing the beam apertures. We recently developed an IMRT planning strategy which uses reduced beam apertures in combination with an edge enhancing boost of 110% of the prescription dose to the volume that corresponds to the portion of the CTV that moves outside of the reduced beam. Previous results showed that this approach ensures target coverage while reducing lung dose. In the current study, we evaluate the robustness of this boost volume approach to changes in respiratory motion, including amplitude and phase weight variations. ITV and boost volume plans were generated for 5 NSCLC patients with respiratory motion amplitudes ranging from 1 to 2 cm. A standard 5mm PTV margin was used for all plans. The ORBIT treatment planning tool was used to plan and accumulate dose over 10 respiratory phases defined by the 4DCT datasets. For the phase weight variation study, dose was accumulated for three scenarios: equally-weighted-phases, higher weight assigned to exhale phases and higher weight assigned to inhale phases. For the amplitude variation study, a numerical phantom was used to generate 4DCT datasets corresponding to 7 mm, 10 mm and 14 mm motion amplitudes. Preliminary results found that delivered plans for all phase weight scenarios were clinically acceptable. When normalized to mean lung dose, the boost volume plan delivered 5% more dose to the CTV which indicates the potential for dose escalation using this approach.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 13: Inter-Fraction Target Movement in Image-Guided Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Congwu; Zeng, Grace G.

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the setup variations over the treatment courses of 113 patients with intact prostate treated with 78Gy/39fx. Institutional standard bladder and bowel preparation and image guidance protocols were used in CT simulation and treatment. The RapidArc treatment plans were optimized in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system and delivered on Varian 2100X Clinacs equipped with On-Board Imager to localize the target before beam-on. The setup variations were calculated in terms of mean and standard deviation of couch shifts. No correlation was observed between the mean shift and standard deviation over the treatment course and patient age, initial prostate volume and rectum size. The mean shifts in the first and last 5 fractions are highly correlated (P < 10{sup −10}) while the correlation of the standard deviations cannot be determined. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate trends of the mean daily Ant-Post and Sup-Inf shifts of the group. The target is inferior by ∼1mm to the planned position when the treatment starts and moves superiorly, approaching the planned position at 10th fraction, and then gradually moves back inferiorly by ∼1mm in the remain fractions. In the Ant-Post direction, the prostate gradually moves posteriorly during the treatment course from a mean shift of ∼2.5mm in the first fraction to ∼1mm in the last fraction. It may be related to a systematic rectum size change in the progress of treatment. The biased mean shifts in Ant-Post and Sup-Inf direction of most patients suggest systematically larger rectum and smaller bladder during the treatment than at CT simulation.

  9. The Burden of Trafalgar: Decisive Battle and Naval Strategic Expectations on the Eve of the First World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    enemies’ motive power, capture, risk, destroy.,,6 But what exactly was a victorious bataille royaZe to decide? What were its aims, and how did one tell a...Empire (London: George Bell and Sons, 1 895) , p. 47 . 53 . Helmut Pemsel, A History of War at Sea, tra ns. Maj . D.G . Smith (Annapolis: Naval I...1 803- 1 4 (London : George Allen & Unwin Ltd. , 1 973) , p. 1 4 . The author’s data are taken from Edouard D esbriere’s Projects et Tentilles

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  11. "Imagine All the People, Sharing. . ." or a (Not so) Modest Proposal Made on the Eve of IDEA Reauthorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuna, Nina; Turnbull, Rud

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a brief commentary and analysis of two problems related to 30 years of IDEA implementation: an increasing schism between general education and special education, and the unequal treatment of an entire class of students. Over the years, special education has become its own microcosm of programs and practices, making it difficult…

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-08-15

    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage.

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 59: Atlas Selection for Automated Segmentation of Pelvic CT for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mallawi, A; Farrell, T; Diamond, K; Wierzbicki, M

    2014-08-15

    Automated atlas-based segmentation has recently been evaluated for use in planning prostate cancer radiotherapy. In the typical approach, the essential step is the selection of an atlas from a database that best matches the target image. This work proposes an atlas selection strategy and evaluates its impact on the final segmentation accuracy. Prostate length (PL), right femoral head diameter (RFHD), and left femoral head diameter (LFHD) were measured in CT images of 20 patients. Each subject was then taken as the target image to which all remaining 19 images were affinely registered. For each pair of registered images, the overlap between prostate and femoral head contours was quantified using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Finally, we designed an atlas selection strategy that computed the ratio of PL (prostate segmentation), RFHD (right femur segmentation), and LFHD (left femur segmentation) between the target subject and each subject in the atlas database. Five atlas subjects yielding ratios nearest to one were then selected for further analysis. RFHD and LFHD were excellent parameters for atlas selection, achieving a mean femoral head DSC of 0.82 ± 0.06. PL had a moderate ability to select the most similar prostate, with a mean DSC of 0.63 ± 0.18. The DSC obtained with the proposed selection method were slightly lower than the maximums established using brute force, but this does not include potential improvements expected with deformable registration. Atlas selection based on PL for prostate and femoral diameter for femoral heads provides reasonable segmentation accuracy.

  14. Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnard, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 18: Cherenkov Emission By High-Energy Radiation Therapy Beams: A Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zlateva, Y.; El Naqa, I.; Quitoriano, N.

    2014-08-15

    We investigate Cherenkov emission (CE) by radiotherapy beams via radiation dose-versus-CE correlation analyses, CE detection optimization by means of a spectral shift towards the near-infrared (NIR) window of biological tissue, and comparison of CE to on-board MV imaging. Dose-CE correlation was investigated via simulation and experiment. A Monte Carlo (MC) CE simulator was designed using Geant4. Experimental phantoms include: water; tissue-simulating phantom composed of water, Intralipid®, and beef blood; plastic phantom with solid water insert. The detector system comprises an optical fiber and diffraction-grating spectrometer incorporating a front/back-illuminated CCD. The NIR shift was carried out with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), emitting at (650±10) nm. CE and MV images were acquired with a CMOS camera and electronic portal imaging device. MC and experimental studies indicate a strong linear dose-CE correlation (Pearson coefficient > 0.99). CE by an 18-MeV beam was effectively NIR-shifted in water and a tissue-simulating phantom, exhibiting a significant increase at 650 nm for QD depths up to 10 mm. CE images exhibited relative contrast superior to MV images by a factor of 30. Our work supports the potential for application of CE in radiotherapy online imaging for patient setup and treatment verification, since CE is intrinsic to the beam and non-ionizing and QDs can be used to improve CE detectability, potentially yielding image quality superior to MV imaging for the case of low-density-variability, low-optical-attenuation materials (ex: breast/oropharynx). Ongoing work involves microenvironment functionalization of QDs and application of multi-channel spectrometry for simultaneous acquisition of dosimetric and tumor oxygenation signals.

  16. General circulation models of the dynamics of Pluto's volatile transport on the eve of the New Horizons encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; French, Richard G.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Guzewich, Scott D.; Zhu, Xun; Richardson, Mark I.

    2015-07-01

    Pluto's atmospheric dynamics occupy an interesting regime in which the radiative time constant is quite long, the combined effects of high obliquity and a highly eccentric orbit can produce strong seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure, and the strong coupling between the atmosphere and volatile transport on the surface results in atmospheric flows that are quite sensitive to surface and subsurface properties that at present are poorly constrained by direct observations. In anticipation of the New Horizons encounter with the Pluto system in July 2015, we present a Pluto-specific three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM), PlutoWRF, incorporating the most accurate current radiative transfer models of Pluto's atmosphere, a physically robust treatment of nitrogen volatile transport, and the flexibility to accommodate richly detailed information about the surface and subsurface conditions as new data become available. We solve for a physically self-consistent, equilibrated combination of surface, subsurface, and atmospheric conditions to specify the boundary conditions and initial state values for each GCM run. This is accomplished using two reduced versions of PlutoWRF: a two-dimensional surface volatile exchange model to specify the properties of surface nitrogen ice and the initial atmospheric surface pressure, and a one-dimensional radiative-conductive-convective model that uses the two-dimensional model predictions to determine the corresponding global-mean atmospheric thermal profile. We illustrate the capabilities of PlutoWRF in predicting Pluto's general circulation, thermal state, and volatile transport of nitrogen by calculating the dynamical response of Pluto's atmosphere, based on four different idealized models of Pluto's surface ice distribution from Young (Young, L.A. [2013]. Astrophys. J. 766, L22) and Hansen et al. (Hansen, C.J., Paige, D.A., Young, L.A. [2015]. Icarus 246, 183). Our GCM runs typically span 30 years, from 1985 to 2015, covering the period from the discovery of Pluto's atmosphere to present. For most periods simulated, zonal winds are strongly forced by a gradient wind balance, relaxing in later (recent) years to an angular momentum conservation balance of the seasonal polar cap sublimation flow. Near-surface winds generally follow a sublimation flow from the sunlit polar cap to the polar night cap, with a Coriolis turning of the wind as the air travels from pole to pole. We demonstrate the strong contribution of nitrogen sublimation and deposition to Pluto's atmospheric circulation. As New Horizons data become available, PlutoWRF can be used to construct models of Pluto's atmospheric dynamics and surface wind regimes more constrained by physical observations.

  17. Poster - Thur Eve - 13: Quantifying specific absorption rate of shielded RF coils through electromagnetic simulations for 7-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, J-G; Gilbert, K M; Abou-Khousa, M; Menon, R S

    2012-07-01

    Ultra-high field MRI has many advantages such as increasing spatial resolution and exploiting contrast never before seen in-vivo. This contrast has been shown to be beneficial for many applications such as monitoring early and late effect to radiation therapy and transient changes during disease to name a few. However, at higher field strengths the RF wave, needed to for transmitting and receiving signal, approaches that of the head. This leads to constructive and deconstructive interference and a non -uniform flip angle over the volume being imaged. A transmit or transceive RF surface coil arrays is currently a method of choice to overcome this problem; however, mutual inductance between elements poses a significant challenge for the designer. A method to decouple elements in such an array is by using circumferential shielding; however, the potential benefits and/or disadvantages have not been investigated. This abstract primarily focuses on understanding power deposition - measured through Specific Absorption Rate - in the sample using circumferentially shielded RF coils. Various geometries of circumferentially shielded coils are explored to determine the behaviour of shield width and its effect on required transmit power and power deposition to the sample. Our results indicate that there is an optimization on shield width depending on the imaging depth. Additionally, the circumferential shield focuses the field more than unshielded coils, meaning that slight SAR may even be lower for circumferential shielded RF coils in array. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Poster - Thur Eve - 47: Evaluation of the ArcCHECK device for commissioning and patient-specific QA.

    PubMed

    Shahine, B; Badragan, I; Ramaseshan, R

    2012-07-01

    The most promising method of accurately verifying VMAT treatments is by direct dose measurement over the three dimensions of irradiated volume. ArcCHECK device (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) have the potential to detect delivery errors on the treatment machine due to mechanical problems resulting from gantry and MLC motion. The estimation of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) parameter for Varian MLC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was attempted using ArcCHECK. Finding the optimal DLG value for use in TPS requires a measuring device like ArcCHECK to be employed especially in highly intensity modulated fields. In addition, ArcCHECK was used to assess the effect of positional error of MLC leaf in a given VMAT plan. Patient-specific QA tests were performed using the ArcCHECK device. QA results of patient plans that failed considering portal dosimetry technique were reassessed with ArcCHECK measurements for IMRT plans. The preliminary test results and performance of the ArcCHECK device were very encouraging. VMAT plans for head and neck cases were generated and their delivery was evaluated using ArcCHECK. Results have shown a success rate greater than 90% in the quality assurance of individual plans. Optimal DLG value was detected using ArcCHECK. Also, the device showed enough sensitivity to identify failed QA plans. Moreover, MLC central leaf pair position offset in a VMAT plan of the order of 1mm was fairly distinguished by ArcCHECK measurements. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. The Wisdom of Eve: On Differentiating the Colours of Emotion that May Be Threats to Good Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Williams A.; Adetoun, Bolanle Eliz; Adewuyi, Modupe Fal; Akande, Titilola Ikeoluwa E.; Ntshanga, L. P. Z.; Dlamini, Balin; Williamson, James T.; Dladla, Nomvul; Hlongwane, Zama; Ibeagu, Osad; Osagie, Erh J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion's twin roles-"unite and divide" our daily life, thus motivating the good and the worst in human behaviour. The way one "feels" does influence the way one "acts" toward others. If this reasoning is correct, then behaviour can never be without motive or "motiveless." Given the importance of emotions in human communication and decision…

  20. The Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Set-point theory is the main research paradigm in the field of subjective well-being (SWB). It has been extended and refined for 30 years to take in new results. The central plank of the theory is that adult set-points do not change, except temporarily in the face of major life events. There was always some "discordant data," including…

  1. Poster - Thur Eve - 67: Clinical results of deep inspiration breath hold radiation treatment for the left breast patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, R; Zhan, L; Gopaul, D; Osei, E

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy for left breast cancers increases local tumor control, but also increases the risk of radiation-induced cardiac disease. Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) can minimize dose to the heart for left breast patients where the heart is within the tangential field. In this study, we evaluated the dosimetric benefit of DIBH technique comparing to free breathing (FB) radiotherapy for left breast cancer patients. Five patients with left breast cancer treated with DIBH technique were selected randomly. The CT scans of breath hold (BH) and FB were taken for every DIBH patient. Standard clinical DIBH intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were generated with BH scan dataset using the Varian Eclipse TP system. The prescription dose is 4250 cGy in 16 fractions. The BH plan was copied to the FB scan dataset and shifted accordingly to have the same coverage for the breast tissue, and the dose was re-calculated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the heart and lung; mean dose and maximum dose of the heart were calculated and compared from the BH and FB plans for every patient. The lung volume is increased during BH and hence the heart is moved out of the field, resulting in the lower heart maximum dose. The mean dose is almost less than 1 Gy for all BH plans. The average mean heart dose is 0.8 Gy for BH plan compared to 1.6 Gy for FB plan. Patients benefit significantly from DIBH technique due to the very low heart dose. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Poster - Thur Eve - 18: Characterization of a camera and LED lightbox imaging system for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K; Percy, E; Olding, T; Schreiner, L J; Salomons, G

    2012-07-01

    Radiation therapy treatment modalities continue to develop and have become increasingly complex. With this, dose verification and quality assurance (QA) is of great importance to ensure that a prescribed dose is accurately and precisely delivered to a patient. Radiochromic film dosimetry has been adopted as a convenient option for QA, because it is relatively energy independent, is near tissue equivalent, and has high spatial resolution. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to use. In this study, preliminary work towards developing a novel method of imaging radiochromic film is presented. The setup consists of a camera mounted vertically above a lightbox containing red LEDs, interfaced with computer image acquisition software. Imaging results from this system will be compared with imaging performed using an Epson Expression 10000XL scanner (a device in common clinical use). The lightbox imaging technique with camera readout is much faster relative to a flatbed scanner. The film measurements made using the camera are independent of film orientation, and show reduced artifacts, so that there are fewer corrections required compared to the use of flatbed scanners. Optical scatter also appears to be less of an issue with this design than with the flat bed scanner. While further work needs to be done to optimize the lightbox imaging system, the lightbox system shows great promise for a rapid, simple, and orientation independent setup, improving on existing film scanning systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Poster - Thur Eve - 40: Dynamic arc sliding window tests for checking MLC gap consistency in rapid arc delivery.

    PubMed

    Mei, X; Konieczny, J; Leszczynsky, K

    2012-07-01

    MLC gap control is critical for dosimetric accuracy in rotational IMRT (RapidArc, VMAT) treatments. Systematic MLC gap change of 1 mm may cause 3-4% change of EUD to PTV for a typical H&N RapidArc plan. Therefore it is important to monitor MLC gap through QC procedures. For this purpose, we have created dynamic arc sliding window (SW) plans with fixed width MLC slits sliding across a jaw defined field. Plans with MLC slit widths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, respectively, and the same length of 20 cm (in Y direction) were created with 6MV photons in a single arc of gantry angles from 182° to 178°. Dose delivered from these SW plans was measured using an ion chamber in a cylindrical phantom placed at isocentre, and values for dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) were derived based on relative dose measurements. DLG measured in dynamic arc SW tests agrees with that measured in fixed gantry angle SW fields to within 0.02 mm. We also extracted the MLC leaf gaps during MLC travels in these dynamic arc SW deliveries from MLC positions recorded in dynalog files, and compared to the MLC gaps in fixed gantry SW fields. We found that MLC leaf gaps were maintained excellently constant whether in dynamic arc or fixed gantry angle SW delivery, with typical standard deviation of MLC gaps of only ∼0.01mm for all involved leaf pairs. We believe these dynamic arc SW tests are very useful for checking MLC leaf constancy for RapidArc delivery. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Poster - Thur Eve - 75: Towards MR only simulation: MR based digitally reconstructed radiograph of head and neck.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Mah, K; Balogh, J

    2012-07-01

    To develop a practical method to obtain bony structures from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images and to create MR- based digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for MR only simulation. Using T1-weighted MR images, air regions including the sinuses and the airway in the head and neck were manually contoured. The bone and soft tissue masks were automatically generated based on the statistical data calculated from the air contour and MR intensities. "CT like" MR images were generated by mapping the MR intensities of the voxels within these masks into the CT number ranges of these tissues. The MR-based DRRs created from "CT like" MR images were quantitatively evaluated using the co-registered MR and CT images of 10 stereotactic radiosurgery CNS patients. Ten anatomical control points, set on the contours of the skull segmented using a threshold of 300 HU were used to determine the differences in distance between MR-based DRRs and CT-based DRRs, and to evaluate the geometrical accuracy of MR-based DRRs. The bony structures were visible in the MR-based DRRs. The mean geometric difference and standard deviation between the ten anatomical control points on MR- based and CT-based DRRs were -0.03±1.11 mm (including uncertainty of image fusion). The maximum distance difference was 1.67mm. The study provides a practical method to generate MR- based DRRs from MR-only simulations of the head and neck regions. The image quality and anatomical accuracy of MR-based DRRs is comparable to that of CT-based DRRs. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 51: Three-dimensional in-vivo EPID dosimetry of IMRT and VMAT treatments.

    PubMed

    Van Uytven, E; Van Beek, T; Chytyk, K; McCurdy, Bmc

    2012-07-01

    As radiation treatment delivery becomes more complex, including dynamic IMRT and VMAT, the argument for routine patient dose verification becomes more compelling. This work demonstrates a technique that utilizes our pre-existing portal dose image prediction algorithm to compute 3D patient dose from recorded on-treatment portal images. This approach can be applied on CT simulation data or daily cone-beam CT data sets. Here we demonstrate the robustness of our dose reconstruction technique with phantom and patient examples, with delivery schemes including IMRT and VMAT. For an example prostate treatment site, 3D dose distributions reconstructed in the patient model are computed for each fraction, and DVHs presented. Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For patient examples the 3D chi comparison values (similar to the gamma comparison) ranged from 94.5% to 100% agreement for voxels > 10% maximum dose for all treatments and phantom cases. We show an example where the DVH for fraction nine of a prostate treatment fails acceptability criteria, due to a previously unnoticed positioning error. Future work involves building our patient dose reconstruction into a QA package, subsequently integrating it into a clinical workflow. We are also investigating the use of this tool as a backbone for an in-house adaptive radiotherapy implementation. This work is supported by Varian Medical Systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. A Review of Extra-Syllabus Programmes of Government College of Teacher Education, Trivandrum on the Eve of Its Centenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    Most teacher education institutions in India have charted out programmes well in tune with the syllabus prescribed by the University to which they are affiliated. But some institutions have tended to tread a different path. These are institutions which are over fifty years old and have set a tradition of its own. A closer study of older teacher…

  7. Poster - Thur Eve - 58: The clinical significance of couch top modeling in VMAT and IMRT treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Chan, G H; Chin, L

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, carbon fibre couch tops have become popular in radiation therapy with marketed attributes such as high tensile strength, light weight, and relative radiotranslucence. We have performed a detailed analysis of the iBEAM evo couch top using two models created in the Pinnacle v9.0 treatment planning system. The first model is a single ROI, and its thickness and shape was determined based on attenuation factor measurements in cylindrical phantoms. The second model is a thin shell made of two ROIs with exact outer dimensions as the real couch top. The couch top attenuation was found to range from 2% to 6.5% for a 6 MV beam energy. The two models were found to match the attenuation factor measurements to within 4.2% and 1.7%, respectively. The clinical impact of the couch top models was examined in 4 VMAT and 4 IMRT prostate plans by comparing mean and maximum point doses, DVHs, and measurements (VMAT plans only) using Gamma analysis. A very small, but clinically insignificant difference was observed between the two couch top models for both VMAT and IMRT plans. The lack of a couch top model in treatment planning was also examined and found to result in ∼ 1% average underdose to the PTV. This study suggests that the iBEAM evo couch top is relatively radiotranslucent for typical VMAT and IMRT delivery as long as the number of control points with extremely oblique beam angles is relatively small. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 45: Commissioning of the Varian ECLIPSE eMC algorithm for clinical electron treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Serban, M; Ruo, R; Sarfehnia, A; Parker, W; Evans, M

    2012-07-01

    Fast electron Monte Carlo systems have been developed commercially, and implemented for clinical practice in radiation therapy clinics. In this work the Varian eMC (electron Monte Carlo) algorithm was commissioned for clinical electron beams of energies between 6 MeV and 20 MeV. Beam outputs, PDDs and profiles were measured for 29 regular and irregular cutouts using the IC-10 (Wellhöfer) ionization chamber. Detailed percentage depth dose comparisons showed that the agreement between measurement and eMC for different characteristic points on the PDD are generally less than 1 mm and always less than 2 mm, with the eMC calculated values being lower than the measured values. Of the 145 measured output factors, 19 cases fail a ±2% agreement but only 8 cases fail a ±3% agreement between calculation and measurement. Comparison of central axis dose distributions for two electron energies (9, and 20 MeV) for a 10 × 10 cm(2) field, centrally shielded with Pb of width 0 cm (open), 1, 2 and 3 cm, shows agreement to within 3% except near the surface. Comparison of central axis dose distributions for 9 MeV in heterogeneous phantoms including bone and lung inserts showed agreement of 1 mm and 3 mm respectively with measured TLD data. The overall agreement between measurement and eMC calculation has enabled us to begin implementing this calculation model for clinical use. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Poster - Thur Eve - 55: Monte Carlo simulations of variations in planned dose distributions in a prostate patient population.

    PubMed

    Balderson, M J; Brown, D W; Quirk, S; Ghasroddashti, E; Kirkby, C

    2012-07-01

    Clinical outcome studies with clear and objective endpoints are necessary to make informed radiotherapy treatment decisions. Commonly, clinical outcomes are established after lengthy and costly clinical trials are performed and the data are analyzed and published. One the challenges with obtaining meaningful data from clinical trials is that by the time the information gets to the medical profession the results may be less clinically relevant than when the trial began, An alternative approach is to estimate clinical outcomes through patient population modeling. We are developing a mathematical tool that uses Monte Carlo techniques to simulate variations in planned and delivered dose distributions of prostate patients receiving radiotherapy. Ultimately, our simulation will calculate a distribution of Tumor Control Probabilities (TCPs) for a population of patients treated under a given protocol. Such distributions can serve as a metric for comparing different treatment modalities, planning and setup approaches, and machine parameter settings or tolerances with respect to outcomes on broad patient populations. It may also help researchers understand differences one might expect to find before actually doing the clinical trial. As a first step and for the focus of this abstract we wanted to see if we could answer the question: "Can a population of dose distributions of prostate patients be accurately modeled by a set of randomly generated Gaussian functions?" Our results have demonstrated that using a set of randomly generated Gaussian functions can simulate a distribution of prostate patients. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Poster - Thur Eve - 63: Dosimetric impact of breathing motion in lung SBRT: Dual vs single volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Johnson, C; Chen, J; Gaede, S

    2012-07-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a time efficient treatment delivery platform capable of producing highly conformal dose distributions with a single 360° arc. However, additional arcs can be used to further improve the conformal dose distribution. For these reasons, VMAT is often used for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the treatment deliveries are hypofractionated. The dosimetric impact of tumour motion, especially in lung SBRT where tumour motion is most significant and treatments are hypofractionated, has always been a clinical concern. Through the use of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), 4D dose distributions can be calculated that account for dosimetric errors due to motion and temporal variation in lung density that are not accounted for in clinical treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to quantify the dosimetric differences that arise due to tumour motion and variations in lung density between single and dual VMAT SBRT treatment plans. Six patients previously treated for stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer with SBRT were included in this retrospective study. 3D and 4D dose distributions were calculated for both single and dual arc plans for each of the six patients. Dose-volume histogram metrics are reported for the target and critical structures. The results show significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the 3D and 4D dose distributions for the ratio of the prescription isodose volume to the primary target volume (PTV). This result was consistent for both single and dual arc VMAT plans. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning: The Case of EVE Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouras, Christos; Triglianos, Vasileios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional Collaborative Virtual Environments are a powerful form of collaborative telecommunication applications, enabling the users to share a common three-dimensional space and interact with each other as well as with the environment surrounding them, in order to collaboratively solve problems or aid learning processes. Such an…

  12. Poster - Thur Eve - 01: Development of simple and fast EBT2 film calibration procedure using PDD table.

    PubMed

    Alhakeem, E; Zavgorodni, S

    2012-07-01

    Standard calibration procedure for EBT films is laborious and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to develop a simple and fast approach of EBT2 film calibration using PDD tables. EBT2 sheet is cut into 3 stripes of 5×25.5cm(2) . The strips were exposed to dose of 600, 200 and 70cGy at dmax each while placed horizontally in the middle of a 30×30×30cm(3) solid water phantom. Varian 21EX 6MV 10×10cm(2) beam was used with the gantry rotated to 90° and SSD of 100cm to the phantom surface. After at least 24 hours, the films were digitized with flatbed scanner (Epson10000XL), according to a modified ISP scanning protocol. All images were analysed using an in-house Matlab code and ImageJ software. The net-optical densities against depths in the solid phantom were calibrated using PDD tables measured with ionization chamber for same machine. For verification, another calibration curve was generated for the same film batch following the same calibration protocol. Seven pieces of films were exposed to known doses and these doses were reconstructed using two derived calibration curves. The proposed approach was 3.6 times faster than the standard considering the number of films used in each methods, 3 stripes compared to11 pieces. The mean relative dose difference calculated for these films using the PDD calibration and the standard methods was 1.0±1.2% and 0.5±2.2% with maximum relative differences of 3.0% and 4.7% respectively. Our results show that PDD calibration approach is much easier, faster and predicts dose more reproducibly and accurately than the standard approach. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. One pedigree we all may have come from - did Adam and Eve have the chromosome 2 fusion?

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to Great Apes, who have 48 chromosomes, modern humans and likely Neandertals and Denisovans have and had, respectively, 46 chromosomes. The reduction in chromosome number was caused by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes to form human chromosome 2 (HSA2) and may have contributed to the reproductive barrier with Great Apes. Next generation sequencing and molecular clock analyses estimated that this fusion arose prior to our last common ancestor with Neandertal and Denisovan hominins ~ 0.74 - 4.5 million years ago. I propose that, unlike recurrent Robertsonian translocations in humans, the HSA2 fusion was a single nonrecurrent event that spread through a small polygamous clan population bottleneck. Its heterozygous to homozygous conversion, fixation, and accumulation in the succeeding populations was likely facilitated by an evolutionary advantage through the genomic loss rather than deregulation of expression of the gene(s) flanking the HSA2 fusion site at 2q13. The origin of HSA2 might have been a critical evolutionary event influencing higher cognitive functions in various early subspecies of hominins. Next generation sequencing of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo erectus genomes and complete reconstruction of DNA sequence of the orthologous subtelomeric chromosomes in Great Apes should enable more precise timing of HSA2 formation and better understanding of its evolutionary consequences.

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 37: Improved clustering MLC leaf-sequencing algorithm for step-and-shoot IMRT.

    PubMed

    Jing, J; Lin, H; Chow, J

    2012-07-01

    This study examines how to reduce the complexity of fluence map generated using an improved clustering leaf-sequencing method, and evaluates such method in step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Based on the current equal-space grouping algorithm for multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequence, we proposed an improved K-means grouping algorithm which can replace the stratification routine in the program of existing leaf sequence. The improved algorithm can be thought of as a gradient descent procedure, which begins at starting cluster centroids, and iteratively updates these centroids to decrease the objective function. The K-means always converge to a local minimum depending on the starting cluster centroids. The K-means algorithm continuously updates cluster centroids until the local minimum is reached. We compare the leaf-sequencing results in term of numerical values from the improved K-means and equal-space grouping algorithm. A representative 1D intensity map from a clinical treatment plan was investigated and optimized by the K-means and equal-space grouping algorithm. It was found that the K-means algorithm decreased the dose square error from 53.67 to 35.27. Moreover, the normalized square differences of the equal-space and K-means algorithm are equal to 2881 and 1244, respectively. The results demonstrated an improvement in accuracy achievable by allowing the fluence map to be defined in an optimal way rather than using the pre-defined criteria. Therefore, the K-means leaf-sequencing algorithm can better simulate the distributions of the input fluence data compared to the traditional grouping algorithm in step-and-shoot IMRT. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Dimitrios Mavrokordatos (1811-1839), the eve of the Hellenic School of Anatomy in modern era Greece.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Androutsos, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Dimitrios Alexandrou Mavrokordatos was the first regular professor of Anatomy and Physiology of the Hellenic "Othonian" University of Athens. He had completed his studies in Germany and thus he had been chosen to stimulate the empirical physicians of Greece to awaken. He died young, but his passion was so great that he had published a masterpiece in the new Greece, "On the anatomy of the human body", and left his fortune for his pupils, even though they had rebelled against him sometime before his death. With his teaching and book he established a kind of Greek "nomina anatomica" which formed the basis for medicine in the newly born country.

  16. Poster - Thur Eve - 09: Novel radiation safety challenges of a brachytherapy redevelopment at the Credit Valley Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M; Sankreacha, R; MacPherson, M

    2012-07-01

    Carlo Fidani Peel Regional Cancer Center at the Credit Valley Site of the Credit Valley Hospital and Trillium Health Center is currently undergoing a redevelopment to build a brachytherapy suite and associated areas with a projected start date of April 2013. The new brachytherapy suite will be located in the PRCC, and is a redevelopment of office area into clinical space. The workload for the full brachytherapy program is expected to be 20 patients per week, in cervix, prostate, skin, lung and other sites. There were challenges for shielding due services in the slab to the renal clinic located above the redevelopment area. The presence of over 30 voids in the slab and upper walls made the solution to add shielding to the underside of the current slab unsuitable. To overcome this, a second ceiling built below the slab to allow for an uninterrupted shielding for the brachytherapy suite. The additional ceiling allows for a crawl space between slab and shielding allowing for servicing if needed for the drains from the renal clinic. The appropriate finalized shielding design is 69mm of lead brick supported by steel plate and steel beams. Final shielding for the walls is 690mm of concrete that allows public access to all hallways around the facility. The final design for the new brachytherapy site at the PRCC all services for the room are located within the shielding and all services for areas outside the room are located outside the shielding. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Helping Eve overcome ADAM: G-quadruplexes in the ADAM-15 promoter as new molecular targets for breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert V; Gaerig, Vanessa C; Simmons, Taesha; Brooks, Tracy A

    2013-12-05

    ADAM-15, with known zymogen, secretase, and disintegrin activities, is a catalytically active member of the ADAM family normally expressed in early embryonic development and aberrantly expressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate and lung. ADAM-15 promotes extracellular shedding of E-cadherin, a soluble ligand for the HER2/neu receptor, leading to activation, increased motility, and proliferation. Targeted downregulation of both ADAM-15 and HER2/neu function synergistically kills breast cancer cells, but to date there are no therapeutic options for decreasing ADAM-15 function or expression. In this vein, we have examined a unique string of guanine-rich DNA within the critical core promoter of ADAM-15. This region of DNA consists of seven contiguous runs of three or more consecutive guanines, which, under superhelical stress, can relax from duplex DNA to form an intrastrand secondary G-quadruplex (G4) structure. Using biophysical and biological techniques, we have examined the G4 formation within the entire and various truncated regions of the ADAM-15 promoter, and demonstrate strong intrastrand G4 formation serving to function as a biological silencer element. Characterization of the predominant G4 species formed within the ADAM-15 promoter will allow for specific drug targeting and stabilization, and the further development of novel, targeted therapeutics.

  18. Poster - Thur Eve - 57: Craniospinal irradiation with jagged-junction IMRT approach without beam edge matching for field junctions.

    PubMed

    Cao, F; Ramaseshan, R; Corns, R; Harrop, S; Nuraney, N; Steiner, P; Aldridge, S; Liu, M; Carolan, H; Agranovich, A; Karva, A

    2012-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation were traditionally treated the central nervous system using two or three adjacent field sets. A intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan (Jagged-Junction IMRT) which overcomes problems associated with field junctions and beam edge matching, improves planning and treatment setup efficiencies with homogenous target dose distribution was developed. Jagged-Junction IMRT was retrospectively planned on three patients with prescription of 36 Gy in 20 fractions and compared to conventional treatment plans. Planning target volume (PTV) included the whole brain and spinal canal to the S3 vertebral level. The plan employed three field sets, each with a unique isocentre. One field set with seven fields treated the cranium. Two field sets treated the spine, each set using three fields. Fields from adjacent sets were overlapped and the optimization process smoothly integrated the dose inside the overlapped junction. For the Jagged-Junction IMRT plans vs conventional technique, average homogeneity index equaled 0.08±0.01 vs 0.12±0.02, and conformity number equaled 0.79±0.01 vs 0.47±0.12. The 95% isodose surface covered (99.5±0.3)% of the PTV vs (98.1±2.0)%. Both Jagged-Junction IMRT plans and the conventional plans had good sparing of the organs at risk. Jagged-Junction IMRT planning provided good dose homogeneity and conformity to the target while maintaining a low dose to the organs at risk. Jagged-Junction IMRT optimization smoothly distributed dose in the junction between field sets. Since there was no beam matching, this treatment technique is less likely to produce hot or cold spots at the junction in contrast to conventional techniques. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning: The Case of EVE Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouras, Christos; Triglianos, Vasileios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional Collaborative Virtual Environments are a powerful form of collaborative telecommunication applications, enabling the users to share a common three-dimensional space and interact with each other as well as with the environment surrounding them, in order to collaboratively solve problems or aid learning processes. Such an…

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 25: Sensitivity to inhomogeneities for an in-vivo EPID dosimetry method

    SciTech Connect

    Peca, Stefano; Brown, Derek

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: The electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has the potential to be used for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy as an additional dose delivery check. We recently proposed a simple method of using the EPID for 2D-IVD based on correlation ratios. In this work we have investigated the sensitivity of our EPID-IVD to inhomogeneities. Methods: We used slab phantoms that simulate water, bone, and lung, arranged in various geometries. To simulate body contours non-orthogonal to the field, we used a water wedge. CT data of these phantoms was imported into MATLAB, in conjunction with EPID images acquired during irradiation, to calculate dose inside the phantom in isocenter plane. Each phantom was irradiated using a linear accelerator while images were acquired with the EPID (cine mode). Comparisons between EPID-calculated and TPS dose maps were: pixel-by-pixel dose difference, and 3%,3mm gamma evaluation. Results: In the homogeneous case, CAX dose difference was <1%, and 3%,3mm gamma analysis yielded 99% of points with gamma<1. For the inhomogeneous phantoms, agreement decreased with increasing inhomogeneity reaching up to 10% CAX dose difference with 10cm of lung. Results from the water wedge phantom suggest that the EPID-calculated dose can account for surface irregularities of approximately ±3cm. Conclusions: The EPID-based IVD investigated has limitations in the presence of large inhomogeneities. Nonetheless, CAX doses never differed by >15% from the TPS. This suggests that this EPID-IVD is capable of detecting gross dose delivery errors even in the presence of inhomogeneities, supporting its utility as an additional patient safety device.

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 16: 4DCT simulation with synchronized contrast injection of liver SBRT patients

    SciTech Connect

    Karotki, A.; Korol, R.; Milot, L.; Chu, W.; Chung, H. T.; Erler, D.

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as a valid option for treating liver metastases. SBRT delivers highly conformai dose over a small number of fractions. As such it is particularly sensitive to the accuracy of target volume delineation by the radiation oncologist. However, contouring liver metastases remains challenging for the following reasons. First, the liver usually undergoes significant motion due to respiration. Second, liver metastases are often nearly indistinguishable from the surrounding tissue when using computed tomography (CT) for imaging making it difficult to identify and delineate them. Both problems can be overcome by using four dimensional CT (4DCT) synchronized with intravenous contrast injection. We describe a novel CT simulation process which involves two 4DCT scans. The first scan captures the tumor and immediately surrounding tissue which in turn reduces the 4DCT scan time so that it can be optimally timed with intravenous contrast injection. The second 4DCT scan covers a larger volume and is used as the primary CT dataset for dose calculation, as well as patient setup verification on the treatment unit. The combination of two 4DCT scans, short and long, allows visualization of the liver metastases over all phases of breathing cycle while simultaneously acquiring long enough 4DCT dataset suitable for planning and patient setup verification.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 27: Flattening Filter Free VMAT Quality Assurance: Dose Rate Considerations for Detector Response

    SciTech Connect

    Viel, Francis; Duzenli, Cheryl; Camborde, Marie-Laure; Strgar, Vincent; Horwood, Ron; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias; Karan, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Radiation detector responses can be affected by dose rate. Due to higher dose per pulse and wider range of mu rates in FFF beams, detector responses should be characterized prior to implementation of QA protocols for FFF beams. During VMAT delivery, the MU rate may also vary dramatically within a treatment fraction. This study looks at the dose per pulse variation throughout a 3D volume for typical VMAT plans and the response characteristics for a variety of detectors, and makes recommendations on the design of QA protocols for FFF VMAT QA. Materials and Methods: Linac log file data and a simplified dose calculation algorithm are used to calculate dose per pulse for a variety of clinical VMAT plans, on a voxel by voxel basis, as a function of time in a cylindrical phantom. Diode and ion chamber array responses are characterized over the relevant range of dose per pulse and dose rate. Results: Dose per pulse ranges from <0.1 mGy/pulse to 1.5 mGy/pulse in a typical VMAT treatment delivery using the 10XFFF beam. Diode detector arrays demonstrate increased sensitivity to dose (+./− 3%) with increasing dose per pulse over this range. Ion chamber arrays demonstrate decreased sensitivity to dose (+/− 1%) with increasing dose rate over this range. Conclusions: QA protocols should be designed taking into consideration inherent changes in detector sensitivity with dose rate. Neglecting to account for changes in detector response with dose per pulse can lead to skewed QA results.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 56: Design of Quality Assurance Methodology for VMAT system on Agility System equipped with CVDR

    SciTech Connect

    Thind, K; Tolakanahalli, R

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of designing comprehensive QA plans using iComCAT for Elekta machines equipped with Agility multileaf collimator and continuously variable dose rate. Test plans with varying MLC speed, gantry speed, and dose rate were created and delivered in a controlled manner. A strip test was designed with three 1 cm MLC positions and delivered using dynamic, StepNShoot and VMAT techniques. Plans were also designed to test error in MLC position with various gantry speeds and various MLC speeds. The delivery fluence was captured using the electronic portal-imaging device. Gantry speed was found to be within tolerance as per the Canadian standards. MLC positioning errors at higher MLC speed with gravity effects does add more than 2 mm discrepancy. More tests need to be performed to evaluate MLC performance using independent measurement systems. The treatment planning system with end-to-end testing necessary for commissioning was also investigated and found to have >95% passing rates within 3%/3mm gamma criteria. Future studies involve performing off-axis gantry starshot pattern and repeating the tests on three matched Elekta linear accelerators.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-08-15

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm.

  6. The Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Set-point theory is the main research paradigm in the field of subjective well-being (SWB). It has been extended and refined for 30 years to take in new results. The central plank of the theory is that adult set-points do not change, except temporarily in the face of major life events. There was always some "discordant data," including…

  7. The Wisdom of Eve: On Differentiating the Colours of Emotion that May Be Threats to Good Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Williams A.; Adetoun, Bolanle Eliz; Adewuyi, Modupe Fal; Akande, Titilola Ikeoluwa E.; Ntshanga, L. P. Z.; Dlamini, Balin; Williamson, James T.; Dladla, Nomvul; Hlongwane, Zama; Ibeagu, Osad; Osagie, Erh J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion's twin roles-"unite and divide" our daily life, thus motivating the good and the worst in human behaviour. The way one "feels" does influence the way one "acts" toward others. If this reasoning is correct, then behaviour can never be without motive or "motiveless." Given the importance of emotions in human communication and decision…

  8. Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnard, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

  9. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 3. The First Printed World Map, 1472 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the first printed world map from 1472. Discusses the style development consisting of a circle of land surrounded by ocean and divided into three continents by water. Includes explanations of the ocean sea, continents, decorations, and locations, and the map's significance as a representation of a unified world view. (DK)

  10. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 7: Philosophy behind a Map: Macrobius, A.D. 1483.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the first map to divide the globe into five symmetrical climatic zones. Discusses Ambrosius Macrobius's map as a statement of earthly limitations rather than physical reality. Suggests its significance for teaching world history is as an example of deductive cartography that influenced and challenged late medieval Christian thought. (DK)

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  12. Poster - Thur Eve - 76: A quality control to achieve planning consistency in arc radiotherapy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, G; Murphy, J; Annis, S-L; Wu, X; Wang, Y; McGowan, T; Macpherson, M

    2012-07-01

    To report a quality control program in prostate radiation therapy at our center that includes semi-automated planning process to generate high quality plans and in-house software to track plan quality in the subsequent clinical application. Arc planning in Eclipse v10.0 was preformed for both intact prostate and post-prostatectomy treatments. The planning focuses on DVH requirements and dose distributions being able to tolerate daily setup variations. A modified structure set is used to standardize the optimization, including short rectum and bladder in the fields to effectively tighten dose to target and a rectum expansion with 1cm cropped from PTV to block dose and shape posterior isodose lines. Structure, plan and optimization templates are used to streamline plan generation. DVH files are exported from Eclipse to a quality tracking software with GUI written in Matlab that can report the dose-volume data either for an individual patient or over a patient population. For 100 intact prostate patients treated with 78Gy, rectal D50, D25, D15 and D5 are 30.1±6.2Gy, 50.6±7.9Gy, 65.9±6.0Gy and 76.6±1.4Gy respectively, well below the limits 50Gy, 65Gy, 75Gy and 78Gy respectively. For prostate bed with prescription of 66Gy, rectal D50 is 35.9±6.9Gy. In both sites, PTV is covered by 95% prescription and the hotspots are less than 5%. The semi-automated planning method can efficiently create high quality plans while the tracking software can monitor the feedback from clinical application. It is a comprehensive and robust quality control program in radiation therapy. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. [Pierre-François Nicolas (1743-1816), apothecary, physician, chemistry teacher on the eve of the French Revolution].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Pierre-François Nicolas, was born in Saint-Mihiel in 1743, studied in this town and in St-Nicolas-de-Port near Nancy. At first he has been a military apothecary during the "Guerre de Sept-Ans". Then he studied pharmacy in Nancy and was received in 1768 at the "Maîtrise de pharmacie". With the physician Henri Michel du Tennatar, he created a teaching of chemistry for medicine students and became the professor of chemistry of the Faculty of Medicine in 1781. During these years, he published some research results about hydrology, distillery, biochemistry (phosphorus in bone), toxicology, dyeing... At the end of 1783, he succeeded in the realization of a balloon and he played an important part in Nancy during the French Revolution. Professor at the "Ecole de médecine" in Strasbourg for some weeks, then in Nancy at the "Ecole centrale" and at the "Société de santé", he left Nancy towards the mid-1798. Staying in Paris for two or three years he probably worked with Fourcroy and perhaps Chaptal and Berthollet. In the early years of the nineteenth century he was appointed professor in the "Ecole centrale" du Calvados" and some years after at the "Faculté des sciences" in Caen. His latest significant work with Gueudeville was devoted to the detection of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Retired in 1811 Pierre-François Nicolas died in Caen in 1816.

  14. [The Republic of Letters and French physicians on the eve of the French Revolution: the case of Esprit Calvet].

    PubMed

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    In the broad Republic of Letters of the second half of the eighteenth century, physicians played an important but singular role. The majority of them were forced to earn their daily bread, so only belonged to the Republic in their leisure hours. Inhabiting a double universe--the everyday world of their profession and the more refined world of their intellectual hobbies--they had to negotiate continually between the two. This liminal position of the citizen-physician is recaptured in this article through the example of a physician of the Midi, Esprit Calvet of Avignon (1728--1810). Calvet left a huge correspondence, thanks to which this duality between the practising physician and the citizen of the Republic of Letters can be studied in detail. On the one hand, this is a correspondence between the physician and his patients, augmented by letters between the physician and other physicians on medical topics. On the other hand, it is a correspondence between the physician and other men of science on non-medical subjects (archaeology, botany, bibliophily, poetry, etc.).

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 43: Monte Carlo Modeling of Flattening Filter Free Beams and Studies of Relative Output Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams have been adopted by many clinics and used for patient treatment. However, compared to the traditional flattened beams, we have limited knowledge of FFF beams. In this study, we successfully modeled the 6 MV FFF beam for Varian TrueBeam accelerator with the Monte Carlo (MC) method. Both the percentage depth dose and profiles match well to the Golden Beam Data (GBD) from Varian. MC simulations were then performed to predict the relative output factors. The in-water output ratio, Scp, was simulated in water phantom and data obtained agrees well with GBD. The in-air output ratio, Sc, was obtained by analyzing the phase space placed at isocenter, in air, and computing the ratio of water Kerma rates for different field sizes. The phantom scattering factor, Sp, can then be obtained from the traditional way of taking the ratio of Scp and Sc. We also simulated Sp using a recently proposed method based on only the primary beam dose delivery in water phantom. Because there is no concern of lateral electronic disequilibrium, this method is more suitable for small fields. The results from both methods agree well with each other. The flattened 6 MV beam was simulated and compared to 6 MV FFF. The comparison confirms that 6 MV FFF has less scattering from the Linac head and less phantom scattering contribution to the central axis dose, which will be helpful for improving accuracy in beam modeling and dose calculation in treatment planning systems.

  16. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 5: Ptolemy's Map of the World, A.D. 1478.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes Ptolemy's map of the world. Discusses the idea of mapping the ecumene or known world. Lists Ptolemy's map making conventions still in use today including location of north at the top, 90 degrees latitude between the equator and each pole, and style of representing physical features. Emphasizes Ptolemy's view of the world as dynamic. (DK)

  17. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 3. The First Printed World Map, 1472 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the first printed world map from 1472. Discusses the style development consisting of a circle of land surrounded by ocean and divided into three continents by water. Includes explanations of the ocean sea, continents, decorations, and locations, and the map's significance as a representation of a unified world view. (DK)

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 70: Automatic lung bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Labine, Alexandre; Carrier, Jean-François; Bedwani, Stéphane; Chav, Ramnada; De Guise, Jacques

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate an automatic bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration (DIR) assessment to improve lung cancer radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT datasets were acquired and exported to Varian treatment planning system (TPS) EclipseTM for contouring. The lungs TPS contour was used as the prior shape for a segmentation algorithm based on hierarchical surface deformation that identifies the deformed lungs volumes of the 10 breathing phases. Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold filter was applied within the segmented lung volumes to identify blood vessels and airways. Segmented blood vessels and airways were skeletonised using a hierarchical curve-skeleton algorithm based on a generalized potential field approach. A graph representation of the computed skeleton was generated to assign one of three labels to each node: the termination node, the continuation node or the branching node. Results: 320 ± 51 bifurcations were detected in the right lung of a patient for the 10 breathing phases. The bifurcations were visually analyzed. 92 ± 10 bifurcations were found in the upper half of the lung and 228 ± 45 bifurcations were found in the lower half of the lung. Discrepancies between ten vessel trees were mainly ascribed to large deformation and in regions where the HU varies. Conclusions: We established an automatic method for DIR assessment using the morphological information of the patient anatomy. This approach allows a description of the lung's internal structure movement, which is needed to validate the DIR deformation fields for accurate 4D cancer treatment planning.

  19. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 5: Ptolemy's Map of the World, A.D. 1478.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes Ptolemy's map of the world. Discusses the idea of mapping the ecumene or known world. Lists Ptolemy's map making conventions still in use today including location of north at the top, 90 degrees latitude between the equator and each pole, and style of representing physical features. Emphasizes Ptolemy's view of the world as dynamic. (DK)

  20. Is Adam worth more than Eve? The financial impact of gender bias in the federal reimbursement of gynecological procedures.

    PubMed

    Goff, B A; Muntz, H G; Cain, J M

    1997-03-01

    On January 1, 1992, Congress implemented a Medicare payment system based on relative value units (RVU). The RVU multiplied by a dollar conversion factor sets the reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare and many other private insurers. This study was undertaken to evaluate discrepancies in federal reimbursement for gender-specific procedures. Using the December 1995 Federal Register and the regional Medicare conversion factor ($40.08/RVU), we compared the work RVU and total reimbursement of 24 groups of gender-specific surgical procedures. The groups were matched as carefully as possible so that the amount of work and level of difficulty would be similar, if not identical. Some examples of comparisons are as follows: biopsy of male vs female genitals, hysterectomy vs prostatectomy, staging for ovarian vs testicular cancer, and exenteration for cervical vs prostate cancer. In the 24 matched procedures, the male-specific procedures were reimbursed at a higher amount in 19 (79%) cases. The female-specific procedures were reimbursed at a higher amount in 3 (12%) cases (P = 0.004). There was no difference in reimbursement for two of the comparisons. Overall, we found that male-specific procedures are reimbursed at an amount which is 44% higher than female-specific procedures. Comparison of work RVU revealed that male-specific procedures were assigned higher values in 19 cases and, overall, male gender-related surgeries had work RVU that were 50% higher than female gender-related surgeries. There is significant gender bias against the Medicare reimbursement of female-specific services. This results in a lower net reimbursement for gynecologic procedures. In addition, since many private sector insurance carriers now use the resource-based relative value scale system, this gender bias is further potentiated.

  1. Comparison of 1997 Medicare relative value units for gender-specific procedures: is Adam still worth more than Eve?

    PubMed

    Goff, B A; Muntz, H G; Cain, J M

    1997-08-01

    On January 1, 1992, Congress implemented a Medicare payment system based on relative value units (RVUs). The total RVU (which is made up of work, practice, and malpractice RVUs) is multiplied by a dollar conversion factor to set the reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare. In a previous study, we found that significant gender bias exists in Medicare reimbursement for female-specific services. Recently, HCFA approved increases (beginning January 1997) in the work RVU for many gynecologic procedures. This study was undertaken to compare work and total RVUs for gender-specific procedures effective January 1, 1997. Using the May 1996 Federal Register, we compared work and total RVUs for 24 pairs of gender-specific procedures. The groups were matched so that the amount of work and level of difficulty would be similar, if not identical. We validated our selection of procedures for comparison by also evaluating the average time required to perform these procedures. Comparison of work RVUs for the 24 paired procedures revealed that in 19 cases (80%), male-specific procedures had a higher RVU; in 3 cases (12%), female-specific procedures were higher; and in 2 cases, there was no difference. On average, work RVUs were 49% higher for urologic procedures than for gynecologic procedures. Comparison of total RVUs revealed that in 20 cases (83%), urologic procedures had a higher total RVU and in 3 cases (12%), gynecologic procedures were higher. On average, male-specific surgeries are reimbursed at an amount which is 37% higher than that for female-specific surgeries. Recent increases in work RVUs for many gynecologic procedures have resulted in improved reimbursement. However, even with these improvements, significant gender bias still exists in the Medicare reimbursement of female-specific procedures. This gender bias is further magnified as more private insurance carriers use the system to set reimbursement.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 42: Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Sloboda, R

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of radiochromic film calibration procedures used in external beam radiotherapy when applied to I-125 brachytherapy sources delivering higher doses, and to determine any necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. GafChromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 6 MV, 75 kVp and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. A custom phantom was used for the I-125 irradiations to obtain a larger film area with nearly constant dose to reduce the effects of film heterogeneities on the optical density (OD) measurements. RGB transmission images were obtained with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner, and calibration curves relating OD and dose using a rational function were determined for each colour channel and at each energy using a non-linear least square minimization method. Differences found between the 6 MV calibration curve and those for the lower energy sources are large enough that 6 MV beams should not be used to calibrate film for low-energy sources. However, differences between the 75 kVp and I-125 calibration curves were quite small; indicating that 75 kVp is a good choice. Compared with I-125 irradiation, this gives the advantages of lower type B uncertainties and markedly reduced irradiation time. To obtain high accuracy calibration for the dose range up to 35 Gy, two-segment piece-wise fitting was required. This yielded absolute dose measurement accuracy above 1 Gy of ∼2% for 75 kVp and ∼5% for I-125 seed exposures.

  3. On the Eve of Change: The Making of a Family Leave Policy at the University of Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Southern California's process for revising maternity leave to include fathers and adoptive parents is chronicled, including separate changes in staff and faculty policies. Proposed policies are outlined. Status of the proposed changes during a period of administrative change and future prospects for policy development are…

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 61: A new framework for MPERT plan optimization using MC-DAO

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M; Lloyd, S AM; Townson, R; Bush, K; Gagne, I M; Zavgorodni, S

    2014-08-15

    This work combines the inverse planning technique known as Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and combined electron and photon therapy plans. In particular, determining conditions under which Modulated Photon/Electron Radiation Therapy (MPERT) produces better dose conformality and sparing of organs at risk than traditional IMRT plans is central to the project. Presented here are the materials and methods used to generate and manipulate the DAO procedure. Included is the introduction of a powerful Java-based toolkit, the Aperture-based Monte Carlo (MC) MPERT Optimizer (AMMO), that serves as a framework for optimization and provides streamlined access to underlying particle transport packages. Comparison of the toolkit's dose calculations to those produced by the Eclipse TPS and the demonstration of a preliminary optimization are presented as first benchmarks. Excellent agreement is illustrated between the Eclipse TPS and AMMO for a 6MV photon field. The results of a simple optimization shows the functioning of the optimization framework, while significant research remains to characterize appropriate constraints.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 76: Dosimetric Comparison of Pinnacle and iPlan Algorithms with an Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.; Tambasco, M.; LaFontaine, R.; Burns, L.

    2014-08-15

    Our goal is to compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms in an anthropomorphic lung phantom using measurement as the gold standard. Ion chamber measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a CIRS E2E SBRT Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom, which mimics lung, spine, ribs, and tissue. The plan implemented six beams with a 5×5 cm{sup 2} field size, delivering a total dose of 48 Gy. Data from the planning systems were computed at the treatment isocenter in the left lung, and two off-axis points, the spinal cord and the right lung. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber. The best results between data from the algorithms and our measurements occur at the treatment isocenter. For the 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 0.3%, 0.2%, and 4.2% absolute percent difference from measurement, respectively. Differences between our measurements and algorithm data are much greater for the off-axis points. The best agreement seen for the right lung and spinal cord is 11.4% absolute percent difference with 6 MV iPlan 4.1 PB and 18 MV iPlan 4.1 MC, respectively. As energy increases absolute percent difference from measured data increases up to 54.8% for the 18 MV CCCS algorithm. This study suggests that iPlan 4.1 MC computes peripheral dose and target dose in the lung more accurately than the iPlan 4.1 PB and Pinnicale CCCS algorithms.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 52: A Web-based Platform for Collaborative Document Management in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kildea, J.; Joseph, A.

    2014-08-15

    We describe DepDocs, a web-based platform that we have developed to manage the committee meetings, policies, procedures and other documents within our otherwise paperless radiotherapy clinic. DepDocs is essentially a document management system based on the popular Drupal content management software. For security and confidentiality, it is hosted on a linux server internal to our hospital network such that documents are never sent to the cloud or outside of the hospital firewall. We used Drupal's in-built role-based user rights management system to assign a role, and associated document editing rights, to each user. Documents are accessed for viewing using either a simple Google-like search or by generating a list of related documents from a taxonomy of categorization terms. Our system provides document revision tracking and an document review and approval mechanism for all official policies and procedures. Committee meeting schedules, agendas and minutes are maintained by committee chairs and are restricted to committee members. DepDocs has been operational within our department for over six months and has already 45 unique users and an archive of over 1000 documents, mostly policies and procedures. Documents are easily retrievable from the system using any web browser within our hospital's network.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 53: Novel Technique for the Measurement of Ultra-Superficial Doses Using Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos, M.; Devic, S.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Dose build-up and electron contamination are two closely related quantities with important implications in radiotherapy, yet they are quite difficult to measure with great certainty. We present a novel technique for measuring ultra-superficial doses. Method and Materials: We used Gafchromic EBT-3 film which have an effective point of measurement of roughly 153 micros (effective depth in water). By peeling off one of the polyester layers, the active layer becomes the top layer and we obtain a film with a effective point of measurement of 15 microns (effective depth in water). A film calibration was performed using a 180 kVp orthovoltage beam. Since the active layer of the film may have been compressed or perturbed during the peeling of clear polyester we use a triple-channel film calibration technique to minimize the effects of non-uniformity in the active layer. We measured surface doses of orthovoltage beams with lead cutouts in place to introduce contaminant photoelectrons. Results: Our measurements show that the dose enhancement near the edges of the lead were about 125% relative to central axis for 6 cm diameter cutouts up to 170% for 2 cm diameter cutouts, which were within 5% of our EGSnrc based Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 57: Evaluation of laryngeal mucosal dose with conventional linac and TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nusrat, H; Lekx, K; Eapen, L

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not underdosing occurs in the mucosal layer during treatment of glottis cancer. A larynx phantom was produced and regions at risk of recurrence due to suspected underdosing were identified and wells drilled into the phantom for flush placement of TLDs. Seven interest points were chosen. CT simulation was completed prior to the wells being drilled, and again afterwards with the TLD locations indicated using BBs. Treatment plans created for this investigation included: 3DCRT using Elekta-XiO (n=9) and VMAT created using Elekta-Monaco (n=9), both delivered on an Elekta linac; standard TomoTherapy plan (n=11) and a directionally blocked TomoTherapy plan to approximate a 3D-conformal approach (n=5). Imaging dose during TomoTherapy deliveries was accounted for. The average TLD result at each interest point was compared to the planned value using a paired t-test. There was no significant difference between the planned and measured 3DCRT dose (268.9 vs. 267.0 cGy, respectively; p>0.05). Similarly, the planned and measured TomoTherapy treatment did not show any significant differences (271.7 vs 269.7 cGy; p>0.05). In the blocked TomoTherapy plan, significant overdosing was seen (274.5 vs 294.9 cGy; p<0.05) and underdosing was not seen in the VMAT treatment (303.5 vs 321.8 cGy; p>0.05). Further investigation is ongoing to ensure appropriate normalization of results and to investigate the overdosing noted with the blocked TomoTherapy plan. Results from this study suggest that significant underdosing does not occur in the conventional treatment of early glottic cancer using 6MV photons.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 40: Automated Quality Assurance for Remote-Afterloading High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anthony; Ravi, Ananth

    2014-08-15

    High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading brachytherapy involves sending a small, high-activity radioactive source attached to a cable to different positions within a hollow applicator implanted in the patient. It is critical that the source position within the applicator and the dwell time of the source are accurate. Daily quality assurance (QA) tests of the positional and dwell time accuracy are essential to ensure that the accuracy of the remote afterloader is not compromised prior to patient treatment. Our centre has developed an automated, video-based QA system for HDR brachytherapy that is dramatically superior to existing diode or film QA solutions in terms of cost, objectivity, positional accuracy, with additional functionalities such as being able to determine source dwell time and transit time of the source. In our system, a video is taken of the brachytherapy source as it is sent out through a position check ruler, with the source visible through a clear window. Using a proprietary image analysis algorithm, the source position is determined with respect to time as it moves to different positions along the check ruler. The total material cost of the video-based system was under $20, consisting of a commercial webcam and adjustable stand. The accuracy of the position measurement is ±0.2 mm, and the time resolution is 30 msec. Additionally, our system is capable of robustly verifying the source transit time and velocity (a test required by the AAPM and CPQR recommendations), which is currently difficult to perform accurately.

  10. 76 FR 78154 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... on certain navigable waterways in Miami Beach and West Palm Beach, Florida. These safety zones are... from 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2011 until 12:30 a.m. on January 1, 2012. 3. West Palm Beach, Florida... 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2011 until 12:30 a.m. on January 1, 2012. (3) West Palm Beach, FL....

  11. Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Staller, Max V; Vincent, Ben J; Bragdon, Meghan D J; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H

    2015-01-20

    Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA--it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two "shadow enhancers" use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern.

  12. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  13. Poster - Thurs Eve-37: Energy and irradiation modality independence of calibration coefficients for water equivalent plastic scintillation detectors in the megavoltage range.

    PubMed

    Guillot, M; Lacroix, F; Thériault, F; Beaulieu, L; Gingras, L

    2008-07-01

    To demonstrate that the independence of the calibration coefficients of plastic scintillation detector (PSD) for both photon and electron beams in the megavoltage energy range. The PSD consists in a small 1 mm diameter and 2 mm long plastic scintillating fiber made of a polystyrene core (BCF-12, Saint-Gobain, inc.). The scintillator was coupled to a 2 meters long non-scintillating plastic optical fiber and a color CCD camera (Apogee instruments inc.) was used as photodetector. The calibration coefficients of the PSD where extracted for 6 MV, 23 MV photon beams and 9,12,15 and 18 MeV electron beams using a Farmer ionization chamber (Exradin). Complete removal of the Cerenkov radiation produced in the optical fiber was performed with a chromatic discrimination technique using the blue and green channel of the CCD camera. All measurements were performed according to the recommendations of the AAPM TG-51 protocol for clinical dosimetry. The PSD exhibits a maximum deviation of less than 1.7 % (about the mean) of its calibration coefficients over the measured energy range for both irradiation modalities. The energy independence of the calibration coefficients for PSD was demonstrated experimentally for the first time for both photons and electrons. PSDs have the potential to simplify and improve accuracy of dose measurements in clinical situations where photons and electrons are both present in the beam such as electron contamination in photon beams or bremsstrahlung contaminated electron beams. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 31: Dosimetric Effect of Respiratory Motion on RapidArc Lung SBRT Treatment Delivered by TrueBeam Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Runqing; Zhan, Lixin; Osei, Ernest

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allows fast delivery of stereotactic radiotherapy. However, the discrepancies between the calculated and delivered dose distributions due to respiratory motion and dynamic multileaf collimators (MLCs) interplay are not avoidable. The purpose of this study is to investigate RapidArc lung SBRT treatment delivered by the flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and flattened beam with Varian TrueBeam machine. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom with in-house made lung tumor insertion was CT scanned both in free breathing and 4DCT. 4DCT was used to determine the internal target volume. The free breathing CT scan was used for treatment planning. A 5 mm margin was given to ITV to generate a planning target volume. Varian Eclipse treatment planning was used to generate RapidArc plans based on the 6 MV flattened beam and 6MV FFF beam. The prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. At least 95% of PTV was covered by the prescribed dose. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV flattened beam and 6MV FFF beam were delivered with Varian TrueBeam machine. The dosimetric measurements were performed with Gafchromic XR-RV3 film, which was placed in the lung tumor insertion. The interplay between the dynamic MLC-based delivery of VMAT and the respiratory motion of the tumor degraded target coverage and created undesired hot or cold dose spots inside the lung tumor. Lung SBRT RapidArc treatments delivered by the FFF beam of TrueBeam linear accelerator is superior to the flattened beam. Further investigation will be performed by Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 06: Dose assessment of cone beam CT imaging protocols as part of SPECT/CT examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopi, E; Ross, AA

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To assess radiation dose from the cone beam CT (CBCT) component of SPECT/CT studies and to compare with other CT examinations performed in our institution. Methods: We used an anthropomorphic chest phantom and the 6 cc ion chamber to measure entrance breast dose for several CBCT and diagnostic CT acquisition protocols. The CBCT effective dose was calculated with ImPACT software; the CT effective dose was evaluated from the DLP value and conversion factor, dependent on the anatomic region. The RADAR medical procedure radiation dose calculator was used to assess the nuclear medicine component of exam dose. Results: The entrance dose to the breast measured with the anthropomorphic phantom was 0.48 mGy and 9.41 mGy for cardiac and chest CBCT scans; and 4.59 mGy for diagnostic thoracic CT. The effective doses were 0.2 mSv, 3.2 mSv and 2.8 mSv respectively. For a small patient represented by the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose from the diagnostic CT was lower than from the CBCT scan, as a result of the exposure reduction options available on modern CT scanners. The CBCT protocols used the same fixed scanning techniques. The diagnostic CT dose based on the patient data was 35% higher than the phantom dose. For most SPECT/CT studies the dose from the CBCT component was comparable with the dose from the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusions: The patient radiation dose from the cone beam CT scan can be higher than that from a diagnostic CT and should be taken into consideration in evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  16. "As I deeply understand the importance and greatly admire the poetry of experiment..." (on the eve of P N Lebedev's anniversary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Whatever we think of the eminent Russian physicist P N Lebedev, whatever our understanding of how his work was affected by circumstances in and outside of Russia, whatever value is placed on the basic elements of his twenty-year career and personal life and of his great successes and, happily, not so great failures, and whatever the stories of his happy times and his countless misfortunes, one thing remains clear — P N Lebedev's skill and talent served well to foster the development of global science and to improve the reputation of Russia as a scientific nation.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 17: In-phantom and Fluence-based Measurements for Quality Assurance of Volumetric-driven Adaptation of Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaly, B; Hoover, D; Mitchell, S; Wong, E

    2014-08-15

    During volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) of head and neck cancer, some patients lose weight which may result in anatomical deviations from the initial plan. If these deviations are substantial a new treatment plan can be designed for the remainder of treatment (i.e., adaptive planning). Since the adaptive treatment process is resource intensive, one possible approach to streamlining the quality assurance (QA) process is to use the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to measure the integrated fluence for the adapted plans instead of the currently-used ArcCHECK device (Sun Nuclear). Although ArcCHECK is recognized as the clinical standard for patient-specific VMAT plan QA, it has limited length (20 cm) for most head and neck field apertures and has coarser detector spacing than the EPID (10 mm vs. 0.39 mm). In this work we compared measurement of the integrated fluence using the EPID with corresponding measurements from the ArcCHECK device. In the past year nine patients required an adapted plan. Each of the plans (the original and adapted) is composed of two arcs. Routine clinical QA was performed using the ArcCHECK device, and the same plans were delivered to the EPID (individual arcs) in integrated mode. The dose difference between the initial plan and adapted plan was compared for ArcCHECK and EPID. In most cases, it was found that the EPID is more sensitive in detecting plan differences. Therefore, we conclude that EPID provides a viable alternative for QA of the adapted head and neck plans and should be further explored.

  18. Energy spectra of plasma sheet ions and electrons from about 50 eV/e to about 1 MeV during plamsa temperature transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    ISEE-1 charged-particle measurements obtained during eight plasma temperature transitions (PTTs) in 1978-1979 are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail, comparing the ion and electron differential energy spectra with the predictions of theoretical models. PTTs are defined as approximately 1-h periods of low bulk plasma velocity and steadily increasing or decreasing thermal energy. A Maxwellian distribution is found to be inadequate in describing the PTT energy spectra, but velocity-exponential and kappa distributions are both successful, the latter especially at higher energies. The power-law index kappa varies from PTT to PTT, but the high-energy spectral index and overall shape of the distribution remain constant during a PTT; both spatial and temporal effects are observed.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 44: Linearization of Compartmental Models for More Robust Estimates of Regional Hemodynamic, Metabolic and Functional Parameters using DCE-CT/PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, AR; Dekaban, M; Lee, T-Y

    2014-08-15

    Quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data usually involves minimizing a cost function with nonlinear regression, wherein the choice of starting parameter values and the presence of local minima affect the bias and variability of the estimated kinetic parameters. These nonlinear methods can also require lengthy computation time, making them unsuitable for use in clinical settings. Kinetic modeling of PET aims to estimate the rate parameter k{sub 3}, which is the binding affinity of the tracer to a biological process of interest and is highly susceptible to noise inherent in PET image acquisition. We have developed linearized kinetic models for kinetic analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT)/PET imaging, including a 2-compartment model for DCE-CT and a 3-compartment model for PET. Use of kinetic parameters estimated from DCE-CT can stabilize the kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data, allowing for more robust estimation of k{sub 3}. Furthermore, these linearized models are solved with a non-negative least squares algorithm and together they provide other advantages including: 1) only one possible solution and they do not require a choice of starting parameter values, 2) parameter estimates are comparable in accuracy to those from nonlinear models, 3) significantly reduced computational time. Our simulated data show that when blood volume and permeability are estimated with DCE-CT, the bias of k{sub 3} estimation with our linearized model is 1.97 ± 38.5% for 1,000 runs with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. In summary, we have developed a computationally efficient technique for accurate estimation of k{sub 3} from noisy dynamic PET data.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 30: 4D VMAT dose calculation methodology to investigate the interplay effect: experimental validation using TrueBeam Developer Mode and Gafchromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Teke, T; Milette, MP; Huang, V; Thomas, SD

    2014-08-15

    The interplay effect between the tumor motion and the radiation beam modulation during a VMAT treatment delivery alters the delivered dose distribution from the planned one. This work present and validate a method to accurately calculate the dose distribution in 4D taking into account the tumor motion, the field modulation and the treatment starting phase. A QUASAR™ respiratory motion phantom was 4D scanned with motion amplitude of 3 cm and with a 3 second period. A static scan was also acquired with the lung insert and the tumor contained in it centered. A VMAT plan with a 6XFFF beam was created on the averaged CT and delivered on a Varian TrueBeam and the trajectory log file was saved. From the trajectory log file 10 VMAT plans (one for each breathing phase) and a developer mode XML file were created. For the 10 VMAT plans, the tumor motion was modeled by moving the isocentre on the static scan, the plans were re-calculated and summed in the treatment planning system. In the developer mode, the tumor motion was simulated by moving the couch dynamically during the treatment. Gafchromic films were placed in the QUASAR phantom static and irradiated using the developer mode. Different treatment starting phase were investigated (no phase shift, maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation). Calculated and measured isodose lines and profiles are in very good agreement. For each starting phase, the dose distribution exhibit significant differences but are accurately calculated with the methodology presented in this work.

  1. Statistical Physics on the Eve of the 21st Century: in Honour of J B McGuire on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Murray T.; Wille, Luc T.

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Modelling the Immune System - An Example of the Simulation of Complex Biological Systems * Brief Overview of Quantum Computation * Quantal Information in Statistical Physics * Modeling Economic Randomness: Statistical Mechanics of Market Phenomena * Essentially Singular Solutions of Feigenbaum- Type Functional Equations * Spatiotemporal Chaotic Dynamics in Coupled Map Lattices * Approach to Equilibrium of Chaotic Systems * From Level to Level in Brain and Behavior * Linear and Entropic Transformations of the Hydrophobic Free Energy Sequence Help Characterize a Novel Brain Polyprotein: CART's Protein * Dynamical Systems Response to Pulsed High-Frequency Fields * Bose-Einstein Condensates in the Light of Nonlinear Physics * Markov Superposition Expansion for the Entropy and Correlation Functions in Two and Three Dimensions * Calculation of Wave Center Deflection and Multifractal Analysis of Directed Waves Through the Study of su(1,1)Ferromagnets * Spectral Properties and Phases in Hierarchical Master Equations * Universality of the Distribution Functions of Random Matrix Theory * The Universal Chiral Partition Function for Exclusion Statistics * Continuous Space-Time Symmetries in a Lattice Field Theory * Quelques Cas Limites du Problème à N Corps Unidimensionnel * Integrable Models of Correlated Electrons * On the Riemann Surface of the Three-State Chiral Potts Model * Two Exactly Soluble Lattice Models in Three Dimensions * Competition of Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Order in the Spin-l/2 XXZ Chain at Finite Temperature * Extended Vertex Operator Algebras and Monomial Bases * Parity and Charge Conjugation Symmetries and S Matrix of the XXZ Chain * An Exactly Solvable Constrained XXZ Chain * Integrable Mixed Vertex Models Ftom the Braid-Monoid Algebra * From Yang-Baxter Equations to Dynamical Zeta Functions for Birational Tlansformations * Hexagonal Lattice Directed Site Animals * Direction in the Star-Triangle Relations * A Self-Avoiding Walk Through Exactly Solved Lattice Models in Statistical Mechanics

  2. Properties of Discrete and Axisymmetric Features in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission: Recent Updates on the Eve of the Juno Mission Arrival at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Giles, R.; Sinclair, J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Momary, T.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fisher, B.; Payne, A.; Seede, R.; Simon, J.; Lai, M.; Nguyen, M.; Fernandez, J.; Baines, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    We have derived the spatial distribution and evolution of key properties of Jupiter's atmosphere through the analysis of imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopy of its thermal emission. These observations and their analysis represent a source of data we plan to acquire as a key component of support for the Juno mission's atmospheric investigation. From thermal imaging and spectroscopy in the 7-25 µm region, we can derive temperatures between 10 and 500 mbar atmospheric pressure, cloud opacities between 500 mbar and 5 bars, the para-H2 fraction near 300 mbar, the 100-400 mbar distributions of ammonia and phosphine, and the distribution of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere (~1 µbar - 10 mbar). Earlier work determined atmospheric properties of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Fletcher et al. 2010, Icarus 208, 306) and the evolution of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) fade (whitening) in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al. 2011 Icarus, 213, 564). We will illustrate recent results from an examination of (1) the revival (re-darkening) of the SEB in 2010-2011, (2) discovery of uniquely dry regions of the atmosphere that are identified with visible "brown barges" typically located at the northern edge of Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB), (3) vertical structure of stratospheric waves constituting Jupiter's Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380), and (4) previously unsuspected long-term tropospheric thermal waves uncovered in our multi-year program covering well over a Jovian year. Efforts are underway to provide mission-supporting observations using mid-infrared facility and guest instruments at several observatories during the 14-day orbits of the Juno mission, particularly - but not exclusively - the early orbits dedicated to remote sensing observations.

  3. Applying new seismic analysis techniques to the lunar seismic dataset: New information about the Moon and planetary seismology on the eve of InSight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.; Knapmeyer-Endrun, B.; Arnold, R.; Savage, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The field of planetary science is poised for a major advance with the upcoming InSight mission to Mars due to launch in May 2018. Seismic analysis techniques adapted for use on planetary data are therefore highly relevant to the field. The heart of this project is in the application of new seismic analysis techniques to the lunar seismic dataset to learn more about the Moon's crust and mantle structure, with particular emphasis on `deep' moonquakes which are situated half-way between the lunar surface and its core with no surface expression. Techniques proven to work on the Moon might also be beneficial for InSight and future planetary seismology missions which face similar technical challenges. The techniques include: (1) an event-detection and classification algorithm based on `Hidden Markov Models' to reclassify known moonquakes and look for new ones. Apollo 17 gravimeter and geophone data will also be included in this effort. (2) Measurements of anisotropy in the lunar mantle and crust using `shear-wave splitting'. Preliminary measurements on deep moonquakes using the MFAST program are encouraging, and continued evaluation may reveal new structural information on the Moon's mantle. (3) Probabilistic moonquake locations using NonLinLoc, a non-linear hypocenter location technique, using a modified version of the codes designed to work with the Moon's radius. Successful application may provide a new catalog of moonquake locations with rigorous uncertainty information, which would be a valuable input into: (4) new fault plane constraints from focal mechanisms using a novel approach to Bayes' theorem which factor in uncertainties in hypocenter coordinates and S-P amplitude ratios. Preliminary results, such as shear-wave splitting measurements, will be presented and discussed.

  4. Do we need cephalic spread of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section? A different approach to CSE-EVE for reducing hypotension.

    PubMed

    Fabris, L K; Belci, D; Zdravčević, K Š; Hrgović, Z; Sacic, L

    2013-08-01

    Spinal anaesthesia is the most preferred anaesthetic technique for elective as well as for unplanned Caesarean sections. Spinal-induced hypotension remains the most important side effect with a reported incidence between 20% and 100%. It can cause -maternal discomfort (nausea and vomiting) and impaired utero-placental perfusion. The present study was designed to examine the influence of epidural volume effect on the spread and duration of low-dose hyperbaric levobupivacaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidural restriction (injection of saline) on the distribution of anaesthesia as well as the incidence of hypotension during the spinal anaesthesia.After the approval by the ethics committee, 60 full-term parturient women (ASA I or II) with uncomplicated pregnancies were prospectively randomized into 2 groups: the SA group (single shot spinal anaesthesia) included 37 patients and the CSE-EVR group (combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia) included 39 patients in whom we induced the restriction of the spinal space by epidural volume compression. The blocks were performed at the L2/3 or L3/4 level in a sitting position, in the CSE-EVR group using the needle-through-needle technique. The initial dose for CSE-EVR was exactly half of the SA dose (0.5 mg per 10 cm height of hyperbaric levobupivacaine and 20 microg fentanyl). After spinal injection, an epidural catheter was located in the CSE-EVR and a volume of 20 mL saline solution injected. After injection, the women were turned supine with a left uterine displacement. Surgery was allowed when a sensory block at or above the T8 dermatome was established. We evaluated the height of the block by the pinprick method and the motor block by the Bromage scale, 10 min after spinal injection, during the operation time and at the end of surgery. Haemodynamic monitoring (NIBP, HR) was assessed every 2 min until the childbirth, then every 5 min during operative time. Anaesthetic efficacy was evaluated for breakthrough pain by visual analogue pain score (VAPS), Apgar score at birth, umbilical artery pH, and epinephrine consumption.The level of anaesthesia 10 min after the induction was significantly higher in the spinal group (SA) than in the CSE-EVR T5 (T4-T7) vs. T7 (T6-T8) group.The SA group experienced complete motor block during the time of anaesthesia, while the CSE-EVR group demonstrated significantly faster motor recovery. The incidence of hypotension and ephedrine supplementation was significantly lower in the CSE-EVR group (19 vs. 35 patients) than in the SA group (p<0.05).The neonatal outcome and umbilical artery pH were higher in the CSE-EVR group. Both groups were comparable in demographic data, VAS scores, preloading and infusion volume, atropine or ephedrine use, and adverse effects such as nausea or skin pruritus.We demonstrated a possible restriction of the spread of spinal anaesthesia by using epidural volume restriction with 20 mL saline as part of a combined spinal epidural technique. The study shows that CSE with EVR using only 50% of the levobupivacaine dose provided adequate anaesthesia for elective Caesarean delivery, as well as better maternal haemodynamic stability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 72: Conversion of helical tomotherapy plans into clinically favourable step-and-shoot IMRT plans deliverable on a c-arm linac.

    PubMed

    Studinski, Rcn; Alexander, A; La Russa, D

    2012-07-01

    The treatment planning software SharePlan is designed to convert dose distributions generated by the TomoTherapy planning station into step-and-shoot IMRT plans deliverable on a c-arm linear accelerator. Five anal canal patients who were planned for TomoTherapy treatments were exported into a SharePlan system and plans were generated for delivery on an Elekta Synergy unit. A total of 80 plans were generated for those five patients, with either seven, nine, eleven or twenty-one gantry angles and different priorities between focusing on matching either the target doses or healthy tissue sparing of the TomoTherapy plan. The plans generated by SharePlan, while often not matching target coverage at prescription, matched well the TomoTherapy coverage at 95% and 105% of the prescription dose. Organ at risk dose, when heavily emphazied in the SharePlan calculations matched or bettered the TomoTherapy dose due to the placement of the beams and the sharper sup-inf fall off of the dose distribution on a linac. For one of the patients, it was possible to produce a better DVH with SharePlan than the original TomoTherapy plan for those reasons. The TomoTherapy plans boasted significantly shorter delivery times than the plans generated with SharePlan. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. HIV testing experiences and their implications for patient engagement with HIV care and treatment on the eve of 'test and treat': findings from a multicountry qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wringe, Alison; Moshabela, Mosa; Nyamukapa, Constance; Bukenya, Dominic; Ondenge, Ken; Ddaaki, William; Wamoyi, Joyce; Seeley, Janet; Church, Kathryn; Zaba, Basia; Hosegood, Victoria; Bonnington, Oliver; Skovdal, Morten; Renju, Jenny

    2017-07-01

    In view of expanding 'test and treat' initiatives, we sought to elicit how the experience of HIV testing influenced subsequent engagement in HIV care among people diagnosed with HIV. As part of a multisite qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews in Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe with 5-10 health workers and 28-59 people living with HIV, per country. Topic guides covered patient and provider experiences of HIV testing and treatment services. Themes were derived through deductive and inductive coding. Various practices and techniques were employed by health workers to increase HIV testing uptake in line with national policies, some of which affected patients' subsequent engagement with HIV services. Provider-initiated testing was generally appreciated, but rarely considered voluntary, with instances of coercion and testing without consent, which could lead to disengagement from care.Conflicting rationalities for HIV testing between health workers and their clients caused tensions that undermined engagement in HIV care among people living with HIV. Although many health workers helped clients to accept their diagnosis and engage in care, some delivered static, morally charged messages regarding sexual behaviours and expectations of clinic use which discouraged future care seeking. Repeat testing was commonly reported, reflecting patients' doubts over the accuracy of prior results and beliefs that antiretroviral therapy may cure HIV. Repeat testing provided an opportunity to develop familiarity with clinical procedures, address concerns about HIV services and build trust with health workers. The principles of consent and confidentiality that should underlie HIV testing and counselling practices may be modified or omitted by health workers to achieve perceived public health benefits and policy expectations. While such actions can increase HIV testing rates, they may also jeopardise efforts to connect people diagnosed with HIV to long-term care, and undermine the potential of test and treat interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Poster - Thur Eve - 43: Is faster always better? An evaluation of frame rate effects on continuous acquisition mode EPID imaging for dose verification.

    PubMed

    Peca, S; Granville, D; Brown, D

    2012-07-01

    As radiotherapy moves towards intensity modulated arc therapy (arc-IMRT), there is a need for electronic portal imaging (EPID) to move towards continuous acquisition (cine) mode for dosimetric verification purposes. However, as the EPID resolution and frame rate (fps) increase, so does the computational burden of image processing. We investigated the reliability of cine mode EPID imaging in IMRT as a function of frame rate. We acquired EPID images continuously while running an IMRT plan (6MV photons, 150MU, dose rate = 300MU/min) with frame rates ranging from 1-12 fps, as well as a single integrated mode image. Each cine dataset was then averaged to form a single image, which was compared with the integrated mode image by means of a pixel-by-pixel absolute value subtraction. Although a greater frame rate gave better agreement with the integrated mode image in all cases, the relative benefit diminished with increasing frame rate. In particular, for the IMRT plan delivered, there was little benefit of imaging faster than 6 fps, and virtually no benefit in increasing from 9 to 12 fps. In contrast, 12 fps produces twice the number of images as 6 fps which significantly increases the image processing and data storage burdens. Increasing frame rate in cine mode EPID imaging may be beneficial in some cases, but there is likely a threshold level above which no relevant additional information is obtained. Further research to determine the ideal frame rate for any particular IMRT or arc-IMRT plan is warranted. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 52: Clinical use of nanoDots: In-vivo dosimetry and treatment validation for stereotactic targets with VMAT techniques.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, W; Nicol, S; Furstoss, C; Brunet-Benkhoucha, M; Leduc, V

    2012-07-01

    A newly acquired nanoDot In-Light system was compared with TLD-100 dosimeters to confirm the treatment dose in the multiple cases: an electron eye treatment, H&N IMRT and VMAT validation for small targets. Eye tumour treatment with 9 MeV electrons A dose of 1.8 Gy per fraction was prescribed to the 85% isodose. The average dose measured by three TLDs and three Dots was 1.90 and 1.97 Gy. Both detectors overestimated dose, by 2.9% and 6.7% respectively. H&N IMRT treatment of skin cancer with 6 MV photons Dose per fraction is 2.5 Gy. The average doses measured by two TLDs and two Dots were 2.48 and 2.56 Gy, which represent errors of -0.8% and 2.2%, respectively. VMAT validation for small targets using an Agarose phantom, dose 15 Gy A single-tumour brain treatment was delivered using two coplanar arcs to an Agarise phantom containing a large plastic insert holding 3 nanoDots and 4 TLDs. The difference between the average Pinnacle dose and the average dose of the corresponding detectors was -0.6% for Dots and -1.7% for TLDs. A two-tumour brain treatment was delivered using three non-coplanar arcs. Small and large plastic inserts separated by 5 cm were used to validate the dose. The difference between the average Pinnacle dose and the average dose of the corresponding detectors was the following; small phantom 0.7% for Dots and 0.3% for TLDs, large phantom-1.9% for Dots and -0.6% for TLDs. In conclusion, nanoDot detectors are suitable for in-vivo dosimetry with photon and electron beams. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Review of the Italian current legislation on research biobanking activities on the eve of the participation of national biobanks’ network in the legal consortium BBMRI-ERIC.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both "soft" nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level.

  10. Reading Zolotov: a source of knowledge, inspiration and pleasure--thoughts and emotions on the eve of the 80th jubilee of Academician Yuri Aleksandrovich Zolotov.

    PubMed

    Tsalev, Dimiter L

    2012-12-15

    Academician Yuri Aleksandrovich Zolotov is a world-wide recognized man in analytical science and chemical analysis. This paper is an appreciation by the author for the long term influence of Professor Zolotov scientific ideas and creative publications on his raising up as scientist during his early studies at Moscow State University and generally on his professional life. The article is a hybrid of personal tribute, historical reminiscence, and a brief tutorial mostly aimed at juniors in science. Paper is illustrated by several photographs and supplemented by references to several of most influencial books by Zolotov. Several Bulgarian analytical chemists share their impressions from Professor Zolotov personality and achievements in science. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Poster - Thur Eve - 68: Evaluation and analytical comparison of different 2D and 3D treatment planning systems using dosimetry in anthropomorphic phantom.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, H R; Nodehi, Mr Golrokh; Asnaashari, Kh; Mahdavi, S R; Shirazi, A R; Gholami, S

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and analytically compare different calculation algorithms applied in our country radiotherapy centers base on the methodology developed by IAEA for treatment planning systems (TPS) commissioning (IAEA TEC-DOC 1583). Thorax anthropomorphic phantom (002LFC CIRS inc.), was used to measure 7 tests that simulate the whole chain of external beam TPS. The dose were measured with ion chambers and the deviation between measured and TPS calculated dose was reported. This methodology, which employs the same phantom and the same setup test cases, was tested in 4 different hospitals which were using 5 different algorithms/ inhomogeneity correction methods implemented in different TPS. The algorithms in this study were divided into two groups including correction based and model based algorithms. A total of 84 clinical test case datasets for different energies and calculation algorithms were produced, which amounts of differences in inhomogeneity points with low density (lung) and high density (bone) was decreased meaningfully with advanced algorithms. The number of deviations outside agreement criteria was increased with the beam energy and decreased with advancement of the TPS calculation algorithm. Large deviations were seen in some correction based algorithms, so sophisticated algorithms, would be preferred in clinical practices, especially for calculation in inhomogeneous media. Use of model based algorithms with lateral transport calculation, is recommended. Some systematic errors which were revealed during this study, is showing necessity of performing periodic audits on TPS in radiotherapy centers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Poster - Thur Eve - 33: A comprehensive analysis of the effect of respiratory motion on the delivery of IMRT to advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, G; Goosheh, S; Gaede, S

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work was to quantify the interplay effect of various IMRT delivery techniques in the treatment of Stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Five patients with significant tumour motion were retrospectively planned on the average 4D-CT dataset with eight different IMRT techniques: three Tomotherapy techniques with different beam-widths, two step-and-shoot (SS-IMRT) with different complexity, one sliding-window (SW-IMRT), and two VMAT techniques (RapidArc and SmartArc). Each plan was calculated on a delivery verification phantom that was mounted on a programmable respiratory motion platform and delivered under the following motion conditions: 1) Static; 2) sinusoidal with 4 different amplitudes; 3) Real Patient Breathing. A standard 3%/3mm gamma analysis compared the sum of all 30 fractions to their corresponding 60Gy/30fx plan. One-way ANOVA was conducted for respiratory motion amplitude and IMRT modality, separately. There were no significant differences amongst the modalities at any amplitude level. However, for individual modalities, there were significant differences amongst different amplitudes except for Tomo-2.5cm (p=0.260). Post-hoc Tukey tests determined that detectable significant differences amongst any motion level, including real-patient breathing, were observed when compared to the 20mm amplitude for all modalities except Tomo-2.5cm and SmartArc. SW-IMRT showed significant differences at 15mm when compared to both static (p=0.033) and 5mm (p=0.008). All methods except for RapidArc averaged out to clinically acceptable gamma pass rates up to 15mm. In conclusion, for motion levels above 15mm, the interplay effect can be clinically unacceptable. However, the interplay effect at these motion levels does not appear to be modality dependent. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Poster - Thur Eve - 17: Control point analysis comparison of three different treatment planning and delivery complexity levels using a commercial three dimensional diode array.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, A; Kempe, J; Johnson, C; Gaede, S

    2012-07-01

    To use Control Point Analysis (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida, USA) to analyze and compare delivered VMAT plans for three different treatment planning complexity levels. Nineteen patients were chosen and fully anonymized for the purpose of this study. Ten SBRT, six H&N, one breast and two prostate VMAT plans were generated on Pinnacle(3) and delivered on a Varian LINAC. The delivered dose was measured using ArcCHECK™. Each plan was analyzed using SNC Patient 6 and Control Point Analysis. Gamma passing percentage was used to assess the differences between the measured and planned dose distributions and to assess the role of various control point binning scenarios. The prostate cases reported the highest gamma passing percentages for SNC Patient 6 (99.3%-99.5%,3%/3mm) and Control Point Analysis (99.1--99.3%,3%/3mm). The mean percentage of passing control point sectors for the prostate cases increased from 48.9±3.1% for individual control points to 69.5 ± 3.9% for 5 control points binned together to 100±0% for 10 control points binned together. Over all, there was a trend in the percentage of sectors passing gamma analysis increasing with the increase of the number of control points binned together in one sector for both passing criteria considered (48.9±3.1% for individual control points to 69.5±3.9% for 5 control points binned together in one sector to 100±0% for 10 control points binned together in one sector for the prostate). The delivery accuracy per control point depends on the MU/control point (SBRT) and the plan degree of modulation (H&N). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 74: A set of tests designed for electron dose calculation algorithm verification during a treatment planning system upgrade.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Nielsen, M; MacPherson, M S

    2012-07-01

    A set of tests were designed to verify an electron algorithm effectively and quickly during a treatment planning system upgrade. Based on TG-53 report's suggestion and the assumption that the algorithm is well commissioned before the upgrade, the tests spot-check the output factors, depth doses, off-axis doses and treatment field sizes. The field sizes of 4×4, 6×6, 10×10, 15×15, 20×20 and 25×25 are to be tested. Four test plans are created for each field size, i.e., for open field, for extended SSD, for shaped field, and for bolus field. Fixed MU setting is recommended to avoid a possible plan normalization issue. The parameters to be recorded and compared include doses at dmax , R50 and Rp along central axis, which contain output and depth dose information, doses at four off-axis points in dmax plane, which contain off-axis dose and beam symmetry information, and FWHMs at dmax . For the plans other than open field only doses at dmax are checked. The tests were performed successfully during a planning system upgrade. The whole test can be completed in approximately 12 hours if the workload is distributed into multiple task carriers. It was found that most of the data agree very well between the old and the new version of the algorithm while some of the Rp or R50 doses deviated more than other data, which prompted a depth dose check. PDD comparisons were performed for the involved fields and it was found there were less than 0.5 mm PDD shifts occurred. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Poster - Thur Eve - 05: Safety systems and failure modes and effects analysis for a magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy system.

    PubMed

    Lamey, M; Carlone, M; Alasti, H; Bissonnette, J P; Borg, J; Breen, S; Coolens, C; Heaton, R; Islam, M; van Proojen, M; Sharpe, M; Stanescu, T; Jaffray, D

    2012-07-01

    An online Magnetic Resonance guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) system is under development. The system is comprised of an MRI with the capability of travel between and into HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy vaults. The system will provide on-line MR images immediately prior to radiation therapy. The MR images will be registered to a planning image and used for image guidance. With the intention of system safety we have performed a failure modes and effects analysis. A process tree of the facility function was developed. Using the process tree as well as an initial design of the facility as guidelines possible failure modes were identified, for each of these failure modes root causes were identified. For each possible failure the assignment of severity, detectability and occurrence scores was performed. Finally suggestions were developed to reduce the possibility of an event. The process tree consists of nine main inputs and each of these main inputs consisted of 5 - 10 sub inputs and tertiary inputs were also defined. The process tree ensures that the overall safety of the system has been considered. Several possible failure modes were identified and were relevant to the design, construction, commissioning and operating phases of the facility. The utility of the analysis can be seen in that it has spawned projects prior to installation and has lead to suggestions in the design of the facility. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  17. Poster - Thur Eve - 06: Comparison of an open source genetic algorithm to the commercially used IPSA for generation of seed distributions in LDR prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    McGeachy, P; Khan, R

    2012-07-01

    In early stage prostate cancer, low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy is a favorable treatment modality, where small radioactive seeds are permanently implanted throughout the prostate. Treatment centres currently rely on a commercial optimization algorithm, IPSA, to generate seed distributions for treatment plans. However, commercial software does not allow the user access to the source code, thus reducing the flexibility for treatment planning and impeding any implementation of new and, perhaps, improved clinical techniques. An open source genetic algorithm (GA) has been encoded in MATLAB to generate seed distributions for a simplified prostate and urethra model. To assess the quality of the seed distributions created by the GA, both the GA and IPSA were used to generate seed distributions for two clinically relevant scenarios and the quality of the GA distributions relative to IPSA distributions and clinically accepted standards for seed distributions was investigated. The first clinically relevant scenario involved generating seed distributions for three different prostate volumes (19.2 cc, 32.4 cc, and 54.7 cc). The second scenario involved generating distributions for three separate seed activities (0.397 mCi, 0.455 mCi, and 0.5 mCi). Both GA and IPSA met the clinically accepted criteria for the two scenarios, where distributions produced by the GA were comparable to IPSA in terms of full coverage of the prostate by the prescribed dose, and minimized dose to the urethra, which passed straight through the prostate. Further, the GA offered improved reduction of high dose regions (i.e hot spots) within the planned target volume. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Toxicological detection of the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE, "Eve") and its metabolites in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, H K; Kovar, K A; Maurer, H H

    1996-08-30

    Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the designer drug methylenedioxyethylamphetamine [MDE, rac-N-ethyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-2-amine] in urine after a single oral dose of 140 mg of MDE by GC-MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). After acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation MDE and its metabolites could be detected by mass chromatography with the selected ions m/z 72, 86, 114, 150, 162 and 164, followed by identification of the peaks underlying full mass spectra by computer library search. The following metabolites could be detected: unchanged MDE and 3,4-dihydroxyethylamphetamine (DHE) for 33-62 h, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) for 32-36 h and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyethylamphetamine (HME) for 7-8 days. 3,4-Dihydroxyamphetamine (DHA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), piperonyl acetone, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetone and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl acetone could only be detected in trace amounts within the first few hours. The Abbott TD x FPIA assay amphetamine/metamphetamine II gave positive results in urine for 33-62 h. Therefore, positive immunoassay results could be confirmed by the GC-MS procedure which also allowed the differentiation of MDE and its homologues 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and MDA as well as other amphetamine derivatives interfering with the TD x assay. Furthermore, this GC-MS procedure allowed the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs.

  19. Cenozoic Evolution of the Central Part of the Mexican Subduction Zone From Geologic and Geophysical Data - In the Eve of the Result From the "Mase" Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Meso America Subduction Experiments (MASE), carried out jointly by Caltech, UCLA and UNAM (Institute of Geophysics and Center for Geoscience) is about to provide a detailed image of the crust and upper mantle in the central part of the Mexican subduction zone (Acapulco, Gro. Huejutla, Hgo.). Preliminary results show that the Cocos plate between the coast and the volcanic front is horizontal and placed just beneath the upper plate Moho. Further north, beneath the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), seismicity is scarce or absent and the geometry of the subducted plate is poorly defined. This part of the TMVB also displays a large geochemical variability, including lavas with scarce to none evidence of fluids from the subducting plate (OIB in Sierra Chichinautzin) and lavas with slab melting signature (adakites of Nevado de Toluca and Apan area) that coexist with the more abundant products showing clear evidence of fluids from the subduting plate. These peculiarities led several workers to formulate models that depart from a classic subduction scenario for the genesis of the TMVB. These include the presence of a rootless mantle plume, the development of a continental rift, a more or less abrupt increase of the subduction angle and a detached slab. While waiting from the final results of the MASE project the data available from potential methods, thermal modeling and the geologic record of the TMVB provide some constraints to evaluate these models. Gravimetric and magnetotelluric data consistently indicate that beneath the TMVB the upper mantle has a relatively low density and high temperatures/conductivity. Thermal modeling also indicates a low viscosity and high temperature mantle beneath the arc. All the above seems to indicate that the slab must increase rapidly its dip beneath the volcanic front leaving space for a hot asthenospheric mantle. The fate of the slab further to the north is unclear from geophysical data alone. Global and regional tomographic models provide contradicting views: an almost vertical slab or a detached slab. The geologic record of the TMVB, however, provides some indications. From 20 to 10 Ma an andesitic arc migrated away from the trench, toward the NE. The youngest (12-10 Ma) and most inland centers form a WNW-ESE belt with an adakitic signature. The progressively inland position of the arc and the slab melt signature suggest that the subducted slab changed from moderately dipping to flat at this time. From ~9 to 3.5 Ma volcanism is absent in the region between Mexico City and Pachuca but a mafic volcanic episode is observed to the north between ~8 and 6.5 Ma. This occurred as a short-lived and eastward propagating pulse of mafic lavas, which is consistent with the lateral propagation of a slab detachment from the Gulf of California to the east. After this episode volcanism starts a return toward the trench with regional ignimbrites and dacitic to rhyolitic domes emplaced between 7.5 and 3 Ma and a more intermediate composition in Plio-Quaternary times. The trenchward migration of volcanism and the geochemistry of Quaternary lavas suggest that the leading edge of the slab rolled back while it is dehydrating and melting. At the same time enriched sub-slab asthenosphere may be flowing around the edge of the slab.

  20. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries. Part 6: A World Map for Home and School, A.D. 1480.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a woodcut of the earliest map printed in a vernacular language, circa 1480. Discusses the location and representation of paradise, the winds, rivers, the world sea and islands, countries, and cities. Emphasizes the map as a world view of the late Middle Ages representing the popular culture of the time. (DK)

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 26: Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film

    SciTech Connect

    Sanier, M; Wronski, M; Yeboah, C

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this work is twofold: 1) to measure dose profiles under lead shielding at the level of the lens for a range of clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and, 2) to assess the validity of the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) in calculating the penumbral doses under lead shielding with the heterogeneous electron algorithm. First, a film calibration curve that spanned the electron energies of interest, 6–18MeV, was created. Next, EBT3 film and lead shielding were incorporated into a solid water phantom with the film positioned 7mm below the lead and a variable thickness of bolus on top. This geometry was reproduced in the Pinnacle TPS and used to calculate dose profiles using the heterogeneous electron algorithm. The measured vs. calculated dose profiles were normalized to d{sub max} in a homogeneous phantom with no lead shielding and compared. Pinnacle consistently overestimated the dose distal to the lead shielding with significant discrepancies occurring near the edge of the lead shield reaching 25% at the edge and 35% in the open field region. The film measurements showed that a minimum lead margin of 5mm extending beyond the diameter of the lens is required to adequately shield the lens to ≤10% of the dose at d{sub max}. These measurements allow for a reasonable estimate of the dose to the lens from anterior electron beams. They also allow for clinicians to assess the extent of the lead margin required to reduce the lens dose to an acceptable amount prior to radiotherapy treatment.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 28: Enabling trajectory-based radiotherapy on a TrueBeam accelerator with the Eclipse treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J; Asiev, K; DeBlois, F; Morcos, M; Seuntjens, J; Syme, A

    2014-08-15

    The TrueBeam linear accelerator platform has a developer's mode which permits the user dynamic control over many of the machine's mechanical and radiation systems. Using this research tool, synchronous couch and gantry motion can be programmed to simulate isocentric treatment with a shortened SAD, with benefits such as smaller projected MLC leaf widths and an increased dose rate. In this work, water tank measurements were used to commission a virtual linear accelerator with an 85 cm SAD in Eclipse, from which several arc-based radiotherapy treatments were generated, including an inverse optimized VMAT delivery. For each plan, the pertinent treatment delivery information was extracted from control points specified in the Eclipse-exported DICOM files using the pydicom package in Python, allowing construction of an XML control file. The dimensions of the jaws and MLC positions, defined for an 85 cm SAD in Eclipse, were scaled for delivery on a conventional SAD linear accelerator, and translational couch motion was added as a function of gantry angle to simulate delivery at 85 cm SAD. Ionization chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were used to compare the radiation delivery to dose calculations in Eclipse. With the exception of the VMAT delivery, ionization chamber measurements agreed within 3.3% of the Eclipse calculations. For the VMAT delivery, the ionization chamber was located in an inhomogeneous region, but gamma evaluation of the Gafchromic film plane resulted in a 94.5% passing rate using criteria of 3 mm/3%. The results indicate that Eclipse calculation infrastructure can be used.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 67: Tangential Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT): A Novel Technique using Megavoltage Photons for the Treatment of Superficial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hadsell, M; Xing, L; Bush, K

    2014-08-15

    We propose a new type of treatment that employs a modulated tangential photon field to provide superior coverage of complex superficial targets when compared to other commonly employed methods, and drastically reduce dose to the underlying sensitive structures often present in these cases. TMAT plans were formulated for a set of four representative cases: 1. Scalp sarcoma, 2. Posterior chest-wall sarcoma, 3. Pleural mesothelioma with intact lung, 4. Chest-wall with deep inframammary nodes. For these cases, asymmetric jaw placement, angular limitations, and central isocenter placements were used to force optimization solutions with beam lines tangential to the body surface. When compared with unrestricted modulated arcs, the tangential arc scalp treatment reduced the max and mean doses delivered to the brain by 33Gy (from 55Gy to 22Gy) and 6Gy (from 14Gy to 8Gy), respectively. In the posterior chest wall case, the V10 for the ipsilateral lung was kept below 5% impressively while retaining the 45Gy target prescription coverage by over 97%. For the breast chest-wall case, the TMAT plan achieved reductions in high dose to the ipsilateral lung and heart by a factor of 2–3 when compared to classic, laterally opposed, tangents and reduced the V5 by 40% when compared to standard modulated arcs. TMAT has outperformed the conventional modalities of treatment for superficial lesions used in our clinic. We hope that with the advent of digitally controlled linear accelerators, we can uncover further benefits of this new technique and extend its applicability to a wider section of the patient population.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 39: Feasibility of Commissioning HybridArc with the Delta 4 two plane diode phantom: comparisons with Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bojechko, C.; Ploquin, N.; Hudson, A.; Sayous, Y.

    2014-08-15

    HybridArc is a relatively novel radiation therapy technique which combines optimized dynamic conformai arcs (DCA) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HybridArc has possible dosimetry and efficiency advantages over stand alone DCA and IMRT treatments and can be readily implemented on any linac capable of DCA and IMRT, giving strong motivation to commission the modality. The Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) has been used for IMRT and VMAT clinical dosimetric verification making it a candidate for HybridArc commissioning. However the HybridArc modality makes use of several non co-planar arcs which creates setup issues due to the geometry of the Delta4, resulting in possible phantom gantry collisions for plans with non-zero couch angles. An analysis was done determining the feasibility of using the Delta4 fixed at 0° couch angle compared with results obtained using Gafchromic ETB2 film (Ashland, Covington Kentucky) in an anthropomorphic phantom at the planned couch angles. A gamma index analysis of the measured and planned dose distributions was done using Delta4 and DoseLab Pro (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston Texas) software. For both arc and IMRT sub-fields there is reasonable correlation between the gamma index found from the Delta4 and Gafchromic film. All results show the feasibility of using the Delta4 for HybridArc commissioning.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 46: Monte Carlo model of the Novalis Classic 6MV stereotactic linear accelerator using the GATE simulation platform

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J; Ploquin, N

    2014-08-15

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is accepted as the most accurate method to predict dose deposition when compared to other methods in radiation treatment planning. Current dose calculation algorithms used for treatment planning can become inaccurate when small radiation fields and tissue inhomogeneities are present. At our centre the Novalis Classic linear accelerator (linac) is used for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS). The first MC model to date of the Novalis Classic linac was developed at our centre using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) simulation platform. GATE is relatively new, open source MC software built from CERN's Geometry and Tracking 4 (Geant4) toolkit. The linac geometry was modeled using manufacturer specifications, as well as in-house measurements of the micro MLC's. Among multiple model parameters, the initial electron beam was adjusted so that calculated depth dose curves agreed with measured values. Simulations were run on the European Grid Infrastructure through GateLab. Simulation time is approximately 8 hours on GateLab for a complete head model simulation to acquire a phase space file. Current results have a majority of points within 3% of the measured dose values for square field sizes ranging from 6×6 mm{sup 2} to 98×98 mm{sup 2} (maximum field size on the Novalis Classic linac) at 100 cm SSD. The x-ray spectrum was determined from the MC data as well. The model provides an investigation into GATE'S capabilities and has the potential to be used as a research tool and an independent dose calculation engine for clinical treatment plans.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 11: Validation of the orthopedic metallic artifact reduction tool for CT simulations at the Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J; Foottit, C

    2014-08-15

    Metallic implants in patients can produce image artifacts in kilovoltage CT simulation images which can introduce noise and inaccuracies in CT number, affecting anatomical segmentation and dose distributions. The commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction algorithm (O-MAR) (Philips Healthcare System) was recently made available on CT simulation scanners at our institution. This study validated the clinical use of O-MAR by investigating its effects on CT number and dose distributions. O-MAR corrected and uncorrected images were acquired with a Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT simulator of a cylindrical solid water phantom that contained various plugs (including metal) of known density. CT number accuracy was investigated by determining the mean and standard deviation in regions of interest (ROI) within each plug for uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images and comparing with no-metal image values. Dose distributions were calculated using the Monaco treatment planning system. Seven open fields were equally spaced about the phantom around a ROI near the center of the phantom. These were compared to a “correct” dose distribution calculated by overriding electron densities a no-metal phantom image to produce an image containing metal but no artifacts. An overall improvement in CT number and dose distribution accuracy was achieved by applying the O-MAR correction. Mean CT numbers and standard deviations were found to be generally improved. Exceptions included lung equivalent media, which is consistent with vendor specified contraindications. Dose profiles were found to vary by ±4% between uncorrected or O-MAR corrected images with O-MAR producing doses closer to ground truth.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 48: Dosimetric dependence on bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo photon fluence spectral study

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J; Grigor, G

    2014-08-15

    This study investigated dosimetric impact due to the bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate depth doses and photon fluence spectra using the EGSnrc-based code. Inhomogeneous bone phantom containing a thin water layer (1–3 mm) on top of a bone (1 cm) to mimic the treatment sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap was irradiated by the 220 kVp photon beam produced by the Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine. Percentage depth doses and photon energy spectra were determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Results of percentage depth doses showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210–230% larger than the surface dose in the phantoms with different water thicknesses. Surface dose was found to be increased from 2.3 to 3.5%, when the distance between the phantom surface and bone was increased from 1 to 3 mm. This increase of surface dose on top of a bone was due to the increase of photon fluence intensity, resulting from the bone backscatter in the energy range of 30 – 120 keV, when the water thickness was increased. This was also supported by the increase of the intensity of the photon energy spectral curves at the phantom and bone surface as the water thickness was increased. It is concluded that if the bone inhomogeneity during the dose prescription in the sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap with soft tissue thickness = 1–3 mm is not considered, there would be an uncertainty in the dose delivery.

  8. Poster - Thurs Eve-08: Passive shimming optimization of a permanent magnet structure for a prototype coupled MRI-medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Tadic, T; Fallone, B G

    2008-07-01

    The ultimate goal of radiation therapy is to increase tumor control while reducing normal tissue complications. This is accomplished by conforming the radiation dose delivered to a patient to the tumor geometry, permitting the delivery of higher doses to the target volume while decreasing the dose in surrounding normal tissues. In order to best achieve this goal, our group is pursuing the design of a 0.2T biplanar magnetic resonance imager (MRI) coupled with a medical linear accelerator, which will be capable of performing real-time image guided radiotherapy. In a simplified design of the permanent magnet structure for this system, large paramagnetic plates which affect the characteristics of the magnetic field in the imaging volume are used to hold the magnetic material in place. Since the sole purpose of the MRI module of this unit is to provide geometrical information regarding the shape and position of the target volume during irradiation, obtaining distortion-free images is critical. In the present work, we seek a particular surface topology on the pole plates of the permanent magnet structure which minimizes the overall size of the pole plates while maximizing the homogeneity of the magnetic field in the imaging volume. A rose ring design is investigated with the aid of finite element analysis and the results indicate that a significant improvement in field uniformity is obtained as compared to the simplest design possible. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Energy spectra of plasma sheet ions and electrons from about 50 eV/e to about 1 MeV during plamsa temperature transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    ISEE-1 charged-particle measurements obtained during eight plasma temperature transitions (PTTs) in 1978-1979 are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail, comparing the ion and electron differential energy spectra with the predictions of theoretical models. PTTs are defined as approximately 1-h periods of low bulk plasma velocity and steadily increasing or decreasing thermal energy. A Maxwellian distribution is found to be inadequate in describing the PTT energy spectra, but velocity-exponential and kappa distributions are both successful, the latter especially at higher energies. The power-law index kappa varies from PTT to PTT, but the high-energy spectral index and overall shape of the distribution remain constant during a PTT; both spatial and temporal effects are observed.

  10. Final 2 year results of the vascular imaging of acute stroke for identifying predictors of clinical outcome and recurrent ischemic eveNts (VISION) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Among patients with ischemic stroke, little attention has been paid to differentiation between stroke progression and recurrence. We assessed the role of MR imaging in predicting stroke progression, recurrent stroke, and death within 2 years of symptom onset. Methods Ischemic stroke or TIA patients were prospectively enrolled. They were examined within 12 hours and had a stroke MR completed within 24 hours of symptom onset. Patients were closely followed neurologically and examined if there was any deterioration in neurological status. Relationships between baseline clinical and imaging factors and outcomes were assessed. We also examined whether baseline stroke/TIA severity (NIHSS 0-5 versus NIHSS > 5) modified these relationships. Results A total of 334 patients were enrolled. The overall rates of progression, 2-year recurrence, and 2-year death were 8.7%, 8.0%, and 6.6%, respectively. Event rates were similar among patients with mild compared to more severe strokes: 8.3% versus 9.5% (p = 0.73) for progression, and 7.3% versus 9.9% (p = 0.59) for recurrence. The effect of baseline glucose > 8 mmol/l was consistent in predicting stroke progression, recurrent stroke and death, regardless of baseline stroke severity. In multivariable analyses, DWI lesion and intracranial occlusion predicted stroke progression only in the minor stroke/TIA group; symptomatic Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) stenosis predicted stroke recurrence only in the minor stroke/TIA group. Conclusions In a prospective study with early assessment and imaging we have found that stroke progression is different than stroke recurrence. Different imaging factors predict stroke progression versus stroke recurrence. Baseline hyperglycemia, a potentially modifiable factor, consistently predicted all three outcomes (stroke progression, recurrent stroke or death) regardless of baseline stroke severity. PMID:21513559

  11. On the origin of C3 nephritic factor (antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase): evidence for the Adam and Eve concept of autoantibody production.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, R E; Stitzel, A E; Tsokos, G

    1992-09-01

    The antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase, designated C3 nephritic factor or C3NeF, is an autoantibody that is produced in everyone from the time of birth. The elaboration of C3NeF utilizes germline V-region genes which undergo antigen-driven affinity maturation, resulting in an autoantibody that is produced in large amounts with high affinity and narrow specificity. Our data also suggest that under normal conditions, the idiotypic network may play an important part in the control of this autoantibody. Further, a defect in the network with loss of control or inappropriate stimulation may be an underlying mechanism in the unrestricted production of C3NeF in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

  12. Why Eve is not Adam: prospective follow-up in 149650 women and men of cholesterol and other risk factors related to cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Hanno; Kelleher, Cecily; Diem, Günter; Concin, Hans

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of sex-specific patterns in cholesterol levels on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Promotion Programme (VHM&PP). In this study, 67413 men and 82237 women (aged 20-95 years) underwent 454448 standardized examinations, which included measures of blood pressure, height, weight, and fasting samples for cholesterol, triglycerides, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and glucose in the 15-year period 1985-1999. Relations between these variables and risk of death were analyzed using two approaches of multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazard and GEE models). Patterns of cholesterol levels showed marked differences between men and women in relation to age and cause of death. The role of high cholesterol in predicting death from coronary heart disease could be confirmed in men of all ages and in women under the age of 50. In men, across the entire age range, although of borderline significance under the age of 50, and in women from the age of 50 onward only, low cholesterol was significantly associated with all-cause mortality, showing significant associations with death through cancer, liver diseases, and mental diseases. Triglycerides > 200 mg/dl had an effect in women 65 years and older but not in men. This large-scale population-based study clearly demonstrates the contrasting patterns of cholesterol level in relation to risk, particularly among those less well studied previously, that is, women of all ages and younger people of both sexes. For the first time, we demonstrate that the low cholesterol effect occurs even among younger respondents, contradicting the previous assessments among cohorts of older people that this is a proxy or marker for frailty occurring with age.

  13. Joint U.S. Army-Navy War Planning on the Eve of the First World War: Its Origins and Its Legacy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    American hemisphere. At the beginning of the century the Mexican government was in the hands of the dictator Porfirio Diaz , who ran Mexican affairs...1913, the country faced two crises in foreign affairs. The first was the murder of Francisco Madero, Diaz ’ successor in Mexico. Wilson, who regarded

  14. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 36: Implementation of constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) for thoracic esophageal carcinoma on Varian 23EX

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ruohui; Fan, Xiaomei; Bai, Wenwen; Han, Chun

    2014-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to propose an alternative planning approach for VMAT using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) implementation on conventional Linac Varian 23EX and used IMRT as a benchmark to evaluate the performance. Methods and materials: Eighteen patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma who were previously treated with IMRT on Varian 23EX were retrospectively planned for CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. Dose prescription was set to 60 Gy to PTVs in 30 fractions. The planning objectives for PTVs and OAR were corresponding with the IMRT plans. Dose to the PTVs and OAR were compared to IMRT with respect to plan quality, MU, treatment time and delivery accuracy. Results: CDR-CAS-IMAT plans led to equivalent or superior plan quality as compared to IMRT, PTV's CI relative increased 16.2%, while small deviations were observed on minimum dose for PTV. Volumes in the cord receiving 40Gy were increased from 3.6% with IMRT to 7.0%. Treatment times were reduced significantly with CDR-CAS-IMAT(mean 85.7s vs. 232.1s, p < .05), however, MU increased by a factor of 1.3 and lung V10/5/3.5/aver were relative increase 6.7%,12%,17.9%,4.2%, respectively. And increased the E-P low dose area volume decreased the hight dose area. There were no significant difference in Delta4 measurements results between both planning techniques. Conclusion: CDR-CAS-IMAT plans can be implemented smoothly and quickly into a busy cancer center, which improved PTV CI and reduces treatment time but increased the MU and low dose irradiated area. An evaluation of weight loss must be performed during treatment for CDR-CAS-IMAT patients.

  16. Review of the Italian Current Legislation on Research Biobanking Activities on the Eve of the Participation of National Biobanks' Network in the Legal Consortium BBMRI-ERIC

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2013-01-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both “soft” nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level. PMID:23840925

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 65: A dosimetric comparison of isocentric and non-isocentric coplanar SBRT VMAT plans for peripheral lung tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, L; Liu, HW; Lau, H; Smith, WL

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers lung sterotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in shorter treatment time and less monitor units with comparable coverage and organ at risk sparing compared to conventional SBRT treatments. Isocentric VMAT treatment of peripheral lung tumours occasionally requires couch shifts that can inhibit 360° gantry rotation, resulting in additional imaging shifts for each treatment session, and increased potential for involuntary in-fraction motion. Here, we investigate whether non-isocentric VMAT plans can achieve comparable plan quality to isocentric plans for peripheral lung tumours. Three patient plans were selected with targets displaced > 8.5 cm (range: 8.8 – 9.9 cm) laterally from patient midline. For each patient, a plan with isocentre placed within the target volume (isocentric plan) was created and optimized. The same optimization parameters were then used to create a plan with the isocentre at patient midline (non-isocentric plan). Plan quality was evaluated and compared based on planning target volume (PTV) coverage, high dose spillage, dose homogeneity, intermediate dose spillage, dose fall-off gradient, and organ at risk contraints. Non-isocentric plans of equivalent plan quality to isocentric plans were achieved for all patients by optimizing collimator rotations. Field isocentres can be placed at patient midline, as opposed to inside the target volume, with no significant degradation in VMAT plan quality for lateral tumour displacements up to 10 cm. Non-isocentric treatment of peripheral lung tumours could result in decreased overall treatment session time and eliminate the need for imaging shifts prior to VMAT treatment.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 23: Dose and Position Quality Assurance using the RADPOS System for 4D Radiotherapy with CyberKnife

    SciTech Connect

    Marants, R; Vandervoort, E; Cygler, J E

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: RADPOS 4D dosimetry system consists of a microMOSFET dosimeter combined with an electromagnetic positioning sensor, which allows for performing real-time dose and position measurements simultaneously. In this report the use of RADPOS as an independent quality assurance (QA) tool during CyberKnife 4D radiotherapy treatment is described. In addition to RADPOS, GAFCHROMIC® films were used for simultaneous dose measurement. Methods: RADPOS and films were calibrated in a Solid Water® phantom at 1.5 cm depth, SAD= 80 cm, using 60 mm cone. CT based treatment plan was created for a Solid Water® breast phantom containing metal fiducials and RADPOS probe. Dose calculations were performed using iPlan pencil beam algorithm. Before the treatment delivery, GAFCHROMIC® film was inserted inside the breast phantom, next to the RADPOS probe. Then the phantom was positioned on the chest platform of the QUASAR, to which Synchrony LED optical markers were also attached. Position logging began for RADPOS and the Synchrony tracking system, the QUASAR motion was initiated and the treatment was delivered. Results: RADPOS position measurements very closely matched the LED marker positions recorded by the Synchrony camera tracking system. The RADPOS measured dose was 2.5% higher than the average film measured dose, which is within the experimental uncertainties. Treatment plan calculated dose was 4.1 and 1.6% lower than measured by RADPOS and film, respectively. This is most likely due to the inferior nature of the dose calculation algorithm. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that RADPOS system is a useful tool for independent QA of CyberKnife treatments.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 35: The impact of intensity- and energy-modulated photon radiotherapy (XMRT) optimization on a variety of organ geometries

    SciTech Connect

    McGeachy, P.; Villarreal-Barajas, J. E.; Khan, R.; Zinchenko, Y.

    2014-08-15

    We previously reported on a novel, modulated in both energy and intensity; photon radiotherapy (XMRT) optimization technique. The purpose of this investigation was to test this XMRT optimization against conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) optimization on four different organ test geometries. All geometries mimicked clinically relevant scenarios. Both IMRT and XMRT were based on a linear programming approach where the objective function was the mean dose to healthy organs and organ-specific linear dose-point constraints were used. For IMRT, the beam energy was fixed to 6 MV while XMRT optimized in terms of both 6 and 18 MV beams. All plans consisted of a seven beam coplanar arrangement. All organ geometries were contoured on a 25cm diameter cylindrical water phantom in open source radiotherapy research software known as CERR. Solutions for both IMRT and XMRT were obtained for each geometry using a numerical solver Gurobi. Analyzing the quality of the solutions was done by comparing dose distributions and dose volume histograms calculated using CERR. For all four geometries, IMRT and XMRT solutions were comparable in terms of target coverage. For two of the geometries, IMRT provided an advantage in terms of reduced dose to the healthy structures. XMRT showed improved dose reduction to healthy organs for one geometry and a comparable dose distribution to IMRT for the remaining geometry. The inability to exploit the benefits of using multiple energies may be attributed to limited water phantom diameter and having the majority of the organs in close proximity to the transverse axis.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-08-15

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.

  1. A Teacher Training Model and Educational Guidelines for Environmental Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caduto, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes educational guidelines and a teacher training model for Environmental Values Education (EVE). Suggests proficiency areas to consider for EVE program development and implementation. Parameters involving student and teacher background and type of program strategy are discussed. (ML)

  2. 77 FR 10775 - United States v. SG Interests I LTD., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... (the ``MOU'') on the eve of the ] auction pursuant to which they agreed not to compete for the leases..., GEC and SGI executed a Memorandum of Understanding (the ``MOU'') on the eve of the auction pursuant...

  3. A Teacher Training Model and Educational Guidelines for Environmental Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caduto, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes educational guidelines and a teacher training model for Environmental Values Education (EVE). Suggests proficiency areas to consider for EVE program development and implementation. Parameters involving student and teacher background and type of program strategy are discussed. (ML)

  4. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  5. A Guide on Environmental Values Education. Environmental Education Series 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudto, Michael J.

    A theoretical basis and practical guidelines for developing a wholistic program in environmental values education (EVE) are provided in this guide. Part I approaches EVE from a philosophical perspective and provides information related to the nature of human values and behavior, EVE strategies, and the development of a positive environmental…

  6. A Guide on Environmental Values Education. Environmental Education Series 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudto, Michael J.

    A theoretical basis and practical guidelines for developing a wholistic program in environmental values education (EVE) are provided in this guide. Part I approaches EVE from a philosophical perspective and provides information related to the nature of human values and behavior, EVE strategies, and the development of a positive environmental…

  7. Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Staller, Max V.; Vincent, Ben J.; Bragdon, Meghan D. J.; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H.

    2015-01-01

    Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA—it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two “shadow enhancers” use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern. PMID:25564665

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 21: Off-axis dose perturbation effects in water in a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} 18 MV photon beam for the PTW microLion and Exradin A1SL ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    O'Grady, K; Davis, S D; Papaconstadopoulos, P; Seuntjens, J

    2014-08-15

    A PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber and an Exradin A1SL air-filled ionization chamber have been modeled using the egs-chamber user code of the EGSnrc system to determine their perturbation effects in water in a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} 18 MV photon beam. A model of the Varian CL21EX linear accelerator was constructed using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code, and was validated by comparing measured PDDs and profiles from the microLion and A1SL chambers to calculated results that included chamber models. Measured PDDs for a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} field for the microLion chamber agreed with calculations to within 1.5% beyond a depth of 0.5 cm, and the A1SL PDDs agreed within 1.0% beyond 1.0 cm. Measured and calculated profiles at 10 cm depth agreed within 1.0% for both chambers inside the field, and within 4.0% near the field edge. Local percent differences increased up to 15% at 4 cm outside the field. The ratio of dose to water in the absence of the chamber relative to dose in the chamber's active volume as a function of off-axis distance was calculated using the egs-chamber correlated sampling technique. The dose ratio was nearly constant inside the field and consistent with the stopping power ratios of water to detector material, but varied up to 3.3% near the field edge and 5.2% at 4 cm outside the field. Once these perturbation effects are fully characterized for more field sizes and detectors, they could be applied to clinical water tank measurements for improved dosimetric accuracy.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 64: Preliminary investigation of arc configurations for optimal sparing of normal tissue in hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HF-SRT) of multiple brain metastases using a 5mm interdigitating micro-multileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Leavens, C; Wronski, M; Lee, YK; Ruschin, M; Soliman, H; Sahgal, A

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue sparing in intra-cranial HF-SRT, comparing various arc configurations with the Synergy Beam Modulator (SynBM) and Agility linacs, the latter incorporating leaf interdigitation and backup jaws. Methods: Five patients with multiple brain metastases (BMs), (5 BMs (n=2), 3 BMs (n=3)) treated with HF-SRT using 25 Gy (n=2) or 30 Gy (n=3) in 5 fractions, were investigated. Clinical treatment plans used the SynBM. Each patient was retrospectively re-planned on Agility, employing three planning strategies: (A) one isocenter and dedicated arc for each BM; (B) a single isocenter, centrally placed with respect to BMs; (C) the isocenter and arc configuration used in the SynBM plan, where closely spaced (<5cm) BMs used a dedicated isocenter and arcs. Agility plans were normalized for PTV coverage and heterogeneity. Results and Conclusion: Strategy A obtained the greatest improvements over the SynBM plan, where the maximum OAR dose, and mean dose to normal brain (averaged for all patients) were reduced by 55cGy and 25cGy, respectively. Strategy B was limited by having a single isocenter, hence less jaw shielding and increased MLC leakage. The maximum OAR dose was reduced by 13cGy, however mean dose to normal brain increased by 84cGy. Strategy C reduced the maximum OAR dose and mean dose to normal brain by 32cGy and 9cGy, respectively. The results from this study indicate that, for intra-cranial HF-SRT of multiple BMs, Agility plans are equal or better than SynBM plans. Further planning is needed to investigate dose sparing using Strategy A and the SynBM.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 12: Implementation of a Clinical Lung Tumour High Dose Containment Verification Procedure using Respiratory Cone-Beam CT (4DCBCT) on a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J.; Bergman, A.

    2014-08-15

    Lung tumours move due to respiratory motion. This is managed during planning by acquiring a 4DCT and capturing the excursion of the GTV (gross tumour volume) throughout the breathing cycle within an IGTV (Internal Gross Tumour Volume) contour. Patients undergo a verification cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan immediately prior to treatment. 3D reconstructed images do not consider tumour motion, resulting in image artefacts, such as blurring. This may lead to difficulty in identifying the tumour on reconstructed images. It would be valuable to create a 4DCBCT reconstruction of the tumour motion to confirm that does indeed remain within the planned IGTV. CBCT projections of a Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom are acquired in Treatment mode (half-fan scan) on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. This phantom contains a mobile, low-density lung insert with an embedded 3cm diameter tumour object. It is programmed to create a 15s periodic, 2cm (sup/inf) displacement. A Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) tracking-box is placed on the phantom breathing platform. Breathing phase information is automatically integrated into the projection image files. Using in-house Matlab programs and RTK (Reconstruction Tool Kit) open-source toolboxes, the projections are re-binned into 10 phases and a 4DCBCT scan reconstructed. The planning IGTV is registered to the 4DCBCT and the tumour excursion is verified to remain within the planned contour. This technique successfully reconstructs 4DCBCT images using clinical modes for a breathing phantom. UBC-BCCA ethics approval has been obtained to perform 4DCBCT reconstructions on lung patients (REB#H12-00192). Clinical images will be accrued starting April 2014.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    SciTech Connect

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  13. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 03: Application of the non-negative matrix factorization technique to [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET data for the early detection of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Jans, Hans; McEwan, Sandy; Riauka, Terence; Martin, Wayne; Wieler, Marguerite

    2014-08-15

    In this work, a class of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique known as alternating non-negative least squares, combined with the projected gradient method, is used to analyze twenty-five [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET/CT brain data. For each subject, a two-factor model is assumed and two factors representing the striatum (factor 1) and the non-striatum (factor 2) tissues are extracted using the proposed NMF technique and commercially available factor analysis software “Pixies”. The extracted factor 1 and 2 curves represent the binding site of the radiotracer and describe the uptake and clearance of the radiotracer by soft tissues in the brain, respectively. The proposed NMF technique uses prior information about the dynamic data to obtain sample time-activity curves representing the striatum and the non-striatum tissues. These curves are then used for “warm” starting the optimization. Factor solutions from the two methods are compared graphically and quantitatively. In healthy subjects, radiotracer uptake by factors 1 and 2 are approximately 35–40% and 60–65%, respectively. The solutions are also used to develop a factor-based metric for the detection of early, untreated Parkinson's disease. The metric stratifies healthy subjects from suspected Parkinson's patients (based on the graphical method). The analysis shows that both techniques produce comparable results with similar computational time. The “semi-automatic” approach used by the NMF technique allows clinicians to manually set a starting condition for “warm” starting the optimization in order to facilitate control and efficient interaction with the data.

  15. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916

    PubMed Central

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 62: A Retrospective Assessment of the Prevalence and Dosimetric Effect of Lateral Electron Disequilibrium in a Population of Lung Cancer Patients Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Disher, Brandon; Wade, Laura; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.; Palma, David

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SBRT uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to ablate the tumour. However, small MV x-ray fields may produce lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) within lung tissue, which can reduce the dose to tumour. The goal of this work is to estimate the prevalence of LED in NSCLC patients treated with SBRT, and determine dose effects for patients prone or averse to LED. Thirty NSCLC patients were randomly selected for analysis. 4-dimensional CT lung images were segmented into the right and left upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL, LUL, LLL), and the right middle lobe. Dose calculations were performed using volume-modulated arc therapy in the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS. Most tumours were located in the upper lobes (RUL 53%, LUL 27%) where density was significantly lower (RUL −808±46 HU vs. RLL −743±71 HU; LUL −808 ±56 HU vs. LLL −746±70 HU; p<0.001). In general, the prevalence of LED increased with higher beam energy. Using 6MV photons, patients with a RUL tumour experienced moderate (81 %), and mild (19%) levels of LED. At 18MV, LED became more prominent with severe (50%) and moderate (50%) LED exhibited. Dosimetrically, for patients prone to LED, poorer target coverage (i.e. increased R100 by 20%) and improved lung sparing (i.e. reduced V20 by −46%) was observed. The common location of lung cancers in the upper lobes, coupled with lower lung density, results in the potential occurrence of LED, which may underdose the tumour.

  17. Schizophrenia-spectrum patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone in real-life clinical settings: functional recovery in remitted versus stable, non-remitted patients (the EVeREST prospective observational cohort study).

    PubMed

    Giraud-Baro, Elisabeth; Dassa, Daniel; De Vathaire, Florent; Garay, Ricardo P; Obeid, Joelle

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies showed functional improvement in stable patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone long-acting injection (LAI). We therefore re-investigated functional improvement with risperidone LAI in remitted patients, in comparison with stable patients. The study was conducted in real-life conditions because of the high heterogeneity of the patients' situations. This was a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study involving adult schizophrenia-spectrum chronic patients who were previously treated with risperidone LAI for 6 months. Remission was evaluated using the consensus criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG). The primary endpoint was global functioning (assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, GAF) after one year of treatment. Social functioning was a secondary outcome. The analysis included 1490 patients. Attrition rate was 9.1 % at the end of the study. 27.7 % of patients were in remission after one year of risperidone LAI treatment. The mean GAF rating score (62.5 ± 1.5) was higher than the cut-off previously used to identify patients with satisfactory functioning (60) and significantly higher than the mean GAF score in stable, non-remitted patients (48.3, p < 0.001). Social functioning was also high in remitted patients (21.0 ± 3.6 vs. 17.2 ± 3.7 in non-remitted patients, p < 0.001). The results clearly show that after one year of treatment with risperidone LAI, RSWG-remitted patients have a high level of global functioning, which is significantly higher than in stable, non-remitted patients. Social functioning was also higher in remitted patients as compared with stable, non-remitted patients.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-08-15

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  19. Early and late periodic patterns of even skipped expression are controlled by distinct regulatory elements that respond to different spatial cues.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Macdonald, P; Maniatis, T

    1989-05-05

    We have identified the regulatory sequences required for the periodic expression of the Drosophila pair rule gene even skipped (eve). We find that the gradually changing pattern of periodic eve expression during early embryogenesis is directed by two distinct regulatory programs. Initially, eve expression in individual stripes is established by different regulatory elements, each of which responds to nonperiodic spatial cues provided, at least in part, by the gap genes. Later, coordinate expression of eve in all seven stripes is directed by a single regulatory region that responds to periodic cues provided by primary pair rule genes, including eve itself. As a consequence of this two-step regulatory program, eve functions both in the establishment of the periodic pattern of gene expression and in the subsequent specification of parasegmental boundaries.

  20. Even-Skipped(+) Interneurons Are Core Components of a Sensorimotor Circuit that Maintains Left-Right Symmetric Muscle Contraction Amplitude.

    PubMed

    Heckscher, Ellie S; Zarin, Aref Arzan; Faumont, Serge; Clark, Matthew Q; Manning, Laurina; Fushiki, Akira; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Fetter, Richard D; Truman, James W; Zwart, Maarten F; Landgraf, Matthias; Cardona, Albert; Lockery, Shawn R; Doe, Chris Q

    2015-10-21

    Bilaterally symmetric motor patterns--those in which left-right pairs of muscles contract synchronously and with equal amplitude (such as breathing, smiling, whisking, and locomotion)--are widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the underlying neural circuits. We performed a thermogenetic screen to identify neurons required for bilaterally symmetric locomotion in Drosophila larvae and identified the evolutionarily conserved Even-skipped(+) interneurons (Eve/Evx). Activation or ablation of Eve(+) interneurons disrupted bilaterally symmetric muscle contraction amplitude, without affecting the timing of motor output. Eve(+) interneurons are not rhythmically active and thus function independently of the locomotor CPG. GCaMP6 calcium imaging of Eve(+) interneurons in freely moving larvae showed left-right asymmetric activation that correlated with larval behavior. TEM reconstruction of Eve(+) interneuron inputs and outputs showed that the Eve(+) interneurons are at the core of a sensorimotor circuit capable of detecting and modifying body wall muscle contraction.

  1. The Spectra of Des S-Boxes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    1900s. William R. Hamilton first described a complex number system coined the quaternions, in which he at- tempted to apply vector algebra to 3... Alice and Bob, want to communicate with each other. Meanwhile, a potential adversary named Eve (Eve for eavesdropper), wants to intercept this...message.The B sic Secure Communication Scenario Alice Bob Eve Encrypt Decrypt Encryption Key Decryption Key ciphertext plaintext Alice communicates with Bob

  2. Parvovirus-derived endogenous viral elements in two South American rodent genomes.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Gloria; Gifford, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver.

  3. Parvovirus-Derived Endogenous Viral Elements in Two South American Rodent Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver. PMID:25078696

  4. ere—2R ere—2Q ere—2P ere—2S ere—2T ere—2I

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-02-08

    Page 1. e†i eve r2ƒtreet ‡rs„xi‰2‚yeh ieƒ„ QrdF2eveF sxq‚e2ƒ„F †susxq2h‚F ‚ii†iƒ ... iƒ„ Qrd p2ƒtreet gr‚sƒ„ixƒix ‡iƒ„ eve Pnd hrive eve ‡iƒ„ ieƒ„ ...

  5. Embryonic even skipped-Dependent Muscle and Heart Cell Fates Are Required for Normal Adult Activity, Heart Function, and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Miki; Wessells, Robert J.; Han, Zhe; Liu, Jiandong; Fitzgerald, Kerry; Yusibova, Galina L.; Zamora, Monica; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Bodmer, Rolf; Jaynes, James B.

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila pair-rule gene even skipped (eve) is required for embryonic segmentation and later in specific cell lineages in both the nervous system and the mesoderm. We previously generated eve mesoderm-specific mutants by combining an eve null mutant with a rescuing transgene that includes the entire locus, but with the mesodermal enhancer removed. This allowed us to analyze in detail the defects that result from a precisely targeted elimination of mesodermal eve expression in the context of an otherwise normal embryo. Absence of mesodermal eve causes a highly selective loss of the entire eve-expressing lineage in this germ layer, including those progeny that do not continue to express eve, suggesting that mesodermal eve precursor specification is not implemented. Despite the resulting absence of a subset of muscles and pericardial cells, mesoderm-specific eve mutants survive to fertile adulthood, providing an opportunity to examine the effects of these developmental abnormalities on adult fitness and heart function. We find that in these mutants, flying ability, myocardial performance under normal and stressed conditions, and lifespan are severely reduced. These data imply a nonautonomous role of the affected pericardial cells and body wall muscles in developing and/or maintaining cardiac performance and possibly other functions contributing to normal lifespan. Given the similarities of molecular-genetic control between Drosophila and vertebrates, these findings suggest that peri/epicardial influences may well be important for proper myocardial function. PMID:16239588

  6. Weak randomness seriously limits the security of quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, Jan; Pivoluska, Matej; Plesch, Martin; Wilmott, Colin

    2012-12-01

    In usual security proofs of quantum protocols the adversary (Eve) is expected to have full control over any quantum communication between any communicating parties (Alice and Bob). Eve is also expected to have full access to an authenticated classical channel between Alice and Bob. Unconditional security against any attack by Eve can be proved even in the realistic setting of device and channel imperfection. In this paper we show that the security of quantum key distribution protocols is ruined if one allows Eve to possess a very limited access to the random sources used by Alice. Such knowledge should always be expected in realistic experimental conditions via different side channels.

  7. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  8. even-skipped has gap-like, pair-rule-like, and segmental functions in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a basal, intermediate germ insect (Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Mito, Taro; Kobayashi, Chiharu; Sarashina, Isao; Zhang, Hongjie; Shinahara, Wakako; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Shinmyo, Yohei; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2007-03-01

    Developmental mechanisms of segmentation appear to be varied among insects in spite of their conserved body plan. Although the expression patterns of the segment polarity genes in all insects examined imply well conserved function of this class of genes, expression patterns and function of the pair-rule genes tend to exhibit diversity. To gain further insights into the evolution of the segmentation process and the role of pair-rule genes, we have examined expression and function of an ortholog of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) in a phylogenetically basal insect, Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera, intermediate germ cricket). We find that Gryllus eve (Gb'eve) is expressed as stripes in each of the prospective gnathal, thoracic, and abdominal segments and as a broad domain in the posterior growth zone. Dynamics of stripe formation vary among Gb'eve stripes, representing one of the three modes, the segmental, incomplete pair-rule, and complete pair-rule mode. Furthermore, we find that RNAi suppression of Gb'eve results in segmentation defects in both anterior and posterior regions of the embryo. Mild depletion of Gb'eve shows a pair-rule-like defect in anterior segments, while stronger depletion causes a gap-like defect showing deletion of anterior and posterior segments. These results suggest that Gb'eve acts as a pair-rule gene at least during anterior segmentation and also has segmental and gap-like functions. Additionally, Gb'eve may be involved in the regulation of hunchback and Krüppel expression. Comparisons with eve functions in other species suggest that the Gb'eve function may represent an intermediate state of the evolution of pair-rule patterning by eve in insects.

  9. Anti-PD-L1 treatment enhances antitumor effect of everolimus in a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Yukiyoshi; Gi, Min; Yamano, Shotaro; Tachibana, Hirokazu; Okuno, Takahiro; Tamada, Satoshi; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Immunotherapy based on blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has shown promising clinical activity for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients; however, the most effective use of these agents in combination with conventional targeted therapy remains to be resolved. Here we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE) and anti-PD-L1 using an immunocompetent mouse model of RCC. We first assessed the in vitro effect of EVE on PD-L1 expression in the human 786-O and mouse RENCA RCC cell lines and found that EVE upregulated PD-L1 expression in these RCC cell lines. We then treated RENCA tumor-bearing mice with EVE and found that PD-L1 expression was also increased in tumor cells after EVE treatment. To determine the antitumor effects of EVE alone, anti-PD-L1 alone, and EVE in combination with anti-PD-L1, we evaluated their antitumor effects on RENCA tumor-bearing mice. A significant decrease in the tumor burden was observed in the EVE alone but not in the anti-PD-L1 alone treatment group compared with the control group. Importantly, the combination of EVE with anti-PD-L1 significantly reduced tumor burden compared with the EVE alone treatment, increasing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the ratio of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells to TILs. The results of the present study demonstrated that anti-PD-L1 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of EVE in a mouse model, supporting a direct translation of this combination strategy to the clinic for the treatment of RCC.

  10. Evidence of sympatric speciation of elderberry carlaviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five new carlavirus species infecting elderberry were characterized and tentatively named as elderberry virus A-E (EVA-EVE). The genome organization of the viruses ranges between 8,540-8,628 nucleotides, excluding the polyadenylated tail. EVA, EVB and EVD share a common ancestor as do EVC and EVE, i...

  11. Expression and function of an even-skipped homolog in the leech Helobdella robusta.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi Hye; Huang, Françoise Z; Chang, Gwendolen Y; Weisblat, David A

    2002-08-01

    We have identified homologs of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even-skipped in the glossiphoniid leeches Helobdella robusta and Theromyzon trizonare. In leech embryos, segments arise sequentially from five pairs of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts) that undergo iterated divisions to generate columns (bandlets) of segmental founder cells (primary blast cells), which in turn generate segmentally iterated sets of definitive progeny. In situ hybridization revealed that Hro-eve is expressed in the teloblasts and primary blast cells, and that these transcripts appear to be associated with mitotic chromatin. In more advanced embryos, Hro-eve is expressed in segmentally iterated sets of cells in the ventral nerve cord. Lineage analysis revealed that neurons expressing Hro-eve arise from the N teloblast. To assess the function of Hro-eve, we examined embryos in which selected blastomeres had been injected with antisense Hro-eve morpholino oligonucleotide (AS-Hro-eve MO), concentrating on the primary neurogenic (N teloblast) lineage. Injection of AS-Hro-eve MO perturbed the normal patterns of teloblast and blast cell divisions and disrupted gangliogenesis. These results suggest that Hro-eve is important in regulating early cell divisions through early segmentation, and that it also plays a role in neuronal differentiation.

  12. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  13. Designing a Table both Swinging and Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Greg N.

    2008-01-01

    Howard Eves captured people's imagination by proposing a hinged table whose top could swing around to be either an equilateral triangle or a square. But is Eves's mathematically motivated design actually good furniture design? This paper identifies potential design flaws in that hinged table and proposes an intriguing new design. Both the original…

  14. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  15. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  16. 76 FR 79067 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... necessary to allow community celebration of New Year's Eve. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in... from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2011 to allow community celebration of New Year's Eve....

  17. Designing a Table both Swinging and Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Greg N.

    2008-01-01

    Howard Eves captured people's imagination by proposing a hinged table whose top could swing around to be either an equilateral triangle or a square. But is Eves's mathematically motivated design actually good furniture design? This paper identifies potential design flaws in that hinged table and proposes an intriguing new design. Both the original…

  18. Future of Department of Defense Cloud Computing Amid Cultural Confusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    printablearticale.htm (accessed December 21, 2012). 51 Sam Forgione, “ Netflix suffers Christmas Eve outage, points to Amazon,” NBC News, December 25, 2012, http...www.nbcnews.com/technology/technolog/ netflix -suffers-christmas- eve-outage-points-amazon-1C7662774 (accessed December 26, 2012). 52 Endnotes 33

  19. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  20. Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter Stuart Eves (SSTL), David Carter (EADS- Astrium ), David Beard (Dstl) Email: s.eves@sstl.co.uk Tel... Astrium Ltd Earth Observation & Science Anchorage Road Portsmouth, Hampshire PO3 5PU UK davidj.carter@astrium.eads.net David Beard DSTL

  1. Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae on coriander leaves to liquid- and vapor-phase ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krusong, Warawut; Pornpukdeewatana, Soisuda; Teerarak, Montinee

    2016-05-01

    The bio-control of ethanol on Klebsiella pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves for significantly reducing consumer health risk was investigated. Washed and sterilized leaves of coriander were inoculated with K. pneumoniae cultured in Trypticase Soy broth. Susceptibility of the K. pneumoniae to liquid- and evaporated vapor-phase ethanol (EVE) was then examined in vitro Complete inhibition of K. pneumoniae was found with 18% (v/v) liquid ethanol. Exposure for 15 min to EVE (9.00 ± 0.8 mmol L(-1)) completely destroyed K. pneumoniae (4.04 ± 0.02 log CFU/ml) spread on Mueller Hilton agar at 30 ± 2°C. The effect of EVE with and without evaporated water vapor (EWV) on the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves was examined. While exposure to EVE affected the survival of K. pneumoniae, the degree of reduction depended on both the inoculation level and the EWV. Complete reduction of K. pneumoniae was achieved for the low inoculation level by EVE alone (37 ± 2% relative humidity; RH) but susceptibility was reduced with EWV (high RH; 80 ± 2%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inoculated coriander leaves confirm the effects of EVE in reducing levels of K. pneumoniae Exposure to EVE alone proved an effective bio-control for K. pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves.

  2. Stable Control of Physiological Parameters, But Not Infection, in Preterm Lambs Maintained on Ex Vivo Uterine Environment Therapy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Woodward, Eleanor; Saito, Masatoshi; Musk, Gabrielle C; Kallapur, Suhas G; Sato, Shinichi; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P; Stock, Sarah J; Kemp, Matthew W

    2017-09-11

    Ex vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy wherein gas exchange is performed by membranous oxygenators attached to the umbilical vessels. Our aim was to assess the ability of a newly refined EVE system to maintain key physiological parameters in preterm lambs within optimal ranges for 48 h. EVE group; n = 6: Preterm lambs were delivered under general anesthesia at 115 ± 2 days of gestational age. Animals were submerged in a bath of artificial amniotic fluid on EVE therapy for 48 h. Physiological parameters were monitored in real-time over the length of the experiment. Control group; n = 11: Ewes carrying a single fetus (115 ± 2 days of gestational age) underwent recovery surgery to allow placement of a fetal carotid artery catheter. Fetuses received an infusion of sterile saline only. After euthanasia, EVE and Control group fetuses underwent necroscopy to perform static pressure-volume curves and for sampling of lung and cord blood plasma for molecular analyses. Five out of six fetuses in the EVE group completed the study period with key physiological variables remaining within their respective reference ranges for the duration of the 48 h study. Bacteremia was identified in four out of five EVE fetuses, and was associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Using our refined EVE therapy platform, preterm lambs were maintained in a stable physiological condition for 48 h. These findings represent a significant advance over earlier work with this system; however, the identification of bacteremia and a fetal inflammatory response suggests that further refinement to the EVE therapy platform is required. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Compilation of Field Strength Formulas for ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Radio Wave Propagation in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-08

    components are related by EVE iw~o 2/2’ - - he e ," eZW ~e) (32) EVE in(c/v- (t) + . )H2) (x) HVE xG(u) L. iTX H(2)(X) ] and EVE ino(c/v) V(t) + 2 G(u)x H) (x...HEADERS FOR OUTPUT TABLE’ wRITEC 10.570)FREQ IF(TOD.EQ.’D’) WRITE( 1D .211) aA-. *a% .\\-- 1z 02 ’ -: R1.f .L~ :tA A X t TR 7S21 IF(TOD.EQ.’N’) WRITE(1O

  4. Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-06-05

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from RNA viruses with no DNA stage are rare, especially those where the parental viruses possess single-strand positive-sense (ssRNA+) genomes. Here we provide evidence that EVEs that share a sequence similarity to ssRNA+viruses of plants are integrated into the genomes of a number of insects, including mosquito, fruit flies, bees, ant, silkworm, pea aphid, Monarch butterfly, and wasps. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis places these EVEs as divergent relatives of the Virgaviridae and three currently unclassified plant viral species.

  5. Efficacy and safety of Everolimus and Exemestane in hormone-receptor positive (HR+) human-epidermal-growth-factor negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer patients: New insights beyond clinical trials. The EVA study.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, M E; Airoldi, M; Arcangeli, V; Artale, S; Atzori, F; Ballerio, A; Bianchi, G V; Blasi, L; Campidoglio, S; Ciccarese, M; Cursano, M C; Piezzo, M; Fabi, A; Ferrari, L; Ferzi, A; Ficorella, C; Frassoldati, A; Fumagalli, A; Garrone, O; Gebbia, V; Generali, D; La Verde, N; Maur, M; Michelotti, A; Moretti, G; Musolino, A; Palumbo, R; Pistelli, M; Porpiglia, M; Sartori, D; Scavelli, C; Schirone, A; Turletti, A; Valerio, M R; Vici, P; Zambelli, A; Clivio, L; Torri, V

    2017-10-01

    The BOLERO-2 trial reported efficacy and safety of Everolimus (EVE) and Exemestane (EXE) combination in HR+ advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients. The BALLET trial further evaluated the safety of EVE-EXE in HR+ ABC patients, without reporting efficacy data. Aim of the EVA real-life study was to collect data of efficacy and safety of EVE-EXE combination in the clinical setting, as well as exploring efficacy according to EVE Dose-Intensity (DI) and to previous treatment with Fulvestrant. This study aimed to describe the outcome of ABC pts treated with EVE-EXE combination in terms of median duration of EVE treatment and ORR in a real-life setting. From July 2013 to December 2015, the EVA study enrolled 404 pts. Median age was 61 years (33-83). Main metastatic sites were: bone (69.1%), soft tissue (34.7%) and viscera (33.2%). Median number of previous treatments was 2 (1-7). 43.3% of the pts had received Fulvestrant. Median exposure to EVE was 31.0 weeks (15.4-58.3) in the whole population. No difference was observed in terms of EVE exposure duration according to DI (p for trend = 0.27) or type of previous treatments (p = 0.33). ORR and Disease Control Rate (DCR) were observed in 31.6% and 60.7% of the patients, respectively, with the lowest ORRs confined in CHT pre-treated patients or in those who received the lowest DI of EVE. Grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 37.9% of the patients. Main AEs were: stomatitis (11.2%), non-infectious pneumonitis - NIP (3.8%), anaemia (3.8%) and fatigue (3.2%). The EVA study provided new insights in the use of EVE-EVE combination in HR+ ABC pts many years after the publication of the pivotal trial. The combination is safe and the best response could be obtained in patients receiving the full dose of EVE and/or after hormone-therapy as Fulvestrant in ABC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mars Orbiter Sees Rover Opportunity at Crater Edge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-04

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter acquired this image of the Opportunity rover on the southwest rim of Santa Maria crater on New Year Eve 2010. Opportunity is imaging the crater interior to better reveal the geometry of rock layers.

  7. Engineering trade studies for a quantum key distribution system over a 30  km free-space maritime channel.

    PubMed

    Gariano, John; Neifeld, Mark; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2017-01-20

    Here, we present the engineering trade studies of a free-space optical communication system operating over a 30 km maritime channel for the months of January and July. The system under study follows the BB84 protocol with the following assumptions: a weak coherent source is used, Eve is performing the intercept resend attack and photon number splitting attack, prior knowledge of Eve's location is known, and Eve is allowed to know a small percentage of the final key. In this system, we examine the effect of changing several parameters in the following areas: the implementation of the BB84 protocol over the public channel, the technology in the receiver, and our assumptions about Eve. For each parameter, we examine how different values impact the secure key rate for a constant brightness. Additionally, we will optimize the brightness of the source for each parameter to study the improvement in the secure key rate.

  8. 77 FR 3287 - Proposed Information Collection of the Tax Performance System Handbook ETA 407; Extension Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... address below on or before March 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Eve MacDonald, Office of..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information...

  9. Identification and characterization of endogenous viral elements for the three key schistosomes of humans.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Li, Quhuan

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are widely distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes, and their evolution and potential function have attracted a lot of interest. Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium are now available; however, information about EVEs in blood flukes of the genus schistosoma is scanty. Here, genome-wide survey into the putative EVE sequences of the three key schistosome genomes were present. Totally 4, 117 gene sequences were identified, including retrovirus-like gypsy elements, RNA viruses and dsDNA viruses. Compared with S. japonicum and S. haematobium, S. mansoni appeared to greatly out numbered by gypsy members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one novel endogenous retrovirus element in S. mansoni. This initial characterization of schistosomes showed that schistosomes harbour distinct EVEs that may have played an important evolutionary role. Studies of schistosomes' endogenous viruses helped us to glance at an earlier viral event in the class Trematoda, greatly broadening the field of palaeovirology.

  10. 78 FR 51171 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given to all comments received by October 21, 2013... Activity), ATTN: Robert Eves, 4800 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22350-4000 or submit an email...

  11. Post-quantum key exchange protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Leung, Lin; Kwan, Andis Chi-Tung; Zhang, Xiaowen; Kahanda, Dammika; Anshel, Michael

    2006-05-01

    If an eavesdropper Eve is equipped with quantum computers, she can easily break the public key exchange protocols used today. In this paper we will discuss the post-quantum Diffie-Hellman key exchange and private key exchange protocols.

  12. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, December 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, December 31, 1927 Photocopy by Lyle E. Winkle, 1969 WEATHERLY BUILDING AND ORIENTAL THEATRE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (TAKEN EVE OF THEATRE OPENING). - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Less of a Gardener, More of a Bee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Beale, Christopher

    1975-01-01

    On the eve of his eightieth birthday, the author talked to Christian Schiller, an inspector for fifty years, who has perhaps had more influence than any other individual on the development of British primary education. (Editor/RK)

  14. Conversation Currents: Learning from Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Gregory, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This column features two prominent literacy scholars, Catherine Compton-Lilly and Eve Gregory. They discuss their recent research studies in various contexts and describe the reciprocal relationships between school, home, and community literacy practices.

  15. Cardiovascular hospitalizations and associations with environmental quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a condition that may be associated with environmental factors. Air pollution in particular has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which can increase the likelihood of cardiovascular eve...

  16. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams ceremonially handed over command of the International Space Station on Saturday to fellow NASA astronaut Kevin Ford on the eve of her departure from the comple...

  17. Successful First J-2X Combustion Stability Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than eve...

  18. The emotional male victim: effects of presentation mode on judged credibility.

    PubMed

    Landström, Sara; Ask, Karl; Sommar, Charlotte

    2015-02-01

    The emotional victim effect (EVE, i.e., that the emotionality of a victim's demeanor affects perceived credibility) is a robust research finding for female victims of rape but much less explored for other types of victims and crimes. In this article, we investigate the EVE with a male assault complainant. In addition, we vary the presentation mode via which the complainant is shown to the assessors. A sample of law students (N = 81) participated in an experiment where they viewed and assessed credibility of a male complainant who appeared either live or on video. The complainant behaved either in an emotional or a neutral manner. Result showed that the presentation mode but not the EVE affected the assessors' credibility assessments: The complainant was perceived as more truthful when communicating live, as opposed to via video. Practical implications, as well as the generality of the EVE, are discussed.

  19. Less of a Gardener, More of a Bee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Beale, Christopher

    1975-01-01

    On the eve of his eightieth birthday, the author talked to Christian Schiller, an inspector for fifty years, who has perhaps had more influence than any other individual on the development of British primary education. (Editor/RK)

  20. Conversation Currents: Learning from Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Gregory, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This column features two prominent literacy scholars, Catherine Compton-Lilly and Eve Gregory. They discuss their recent research studies in various contexts and describe the reciprocal relationships between school, home, and community literacy practices.

  1. Cooperative binding at a distance by even-skipped protein correlates with repression and suggests a mechanism of silencing.

    PubMed

    TenHarmsel, A; Austin, R J; Savenelli, N; Biggin, M D

    1993-05-01

    In this study, we examined how the Drosophila developmental control gene even-skipped (eve) represses transcription. Tissue culture cells were used to show that eve contains domains which inhibit transcriptional activators present at the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) proximal promoter when bound up to 1.5 kb away from these activators. Different portions of eve were fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain to show that three adjacent regions of eve contribute to silencing. There appear to be two mechanisms by which eve protein represses transcription. In this study, we used in vitro transcription and DNA binding experiments to provide evidence for one of these mechanisms. Repression in vitro correlates with binding of eve protein to two low-affinity sites in the Ubx proximal promoter. Occupancy of these low-affinity sites is dependent upon cooperative binding of other eve molecules to a separate high-affinity site. Some of these sites are separated by over 150 bp of DNA, and the data suggest that this intervening DNA is bent to form a looped structure similar to those caused by prokaryotic repressors. One of the low-affinity sites overlaps an activator element bound by the zeste transcription factor. Binding of eve protein is shown to exclude binding by zeste protein. These data suggest a mechanism for silencing whereby a repressor protein would be targeted to DNA by a high-affinity element, which itself does not overlap activator elements. Cooperative binding of further repressor molecules to distant low-affinity sites, and competition with activators bound at these sites lead to repression at a distance.

  2. Open Source and These United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    from http://www.computerworld.com. Cringely, Robert X. Nerds 2.0.1. National Public Television, 1998. Curie , Eve. (translated by Vincent Sheean) Madame ...get the most out of their work, and, without forgetting the general good, safeguard their own interests. Eve Curie There’s a term in a the... Curie . New York: Pocket books, Simon and Schuster, 1946. Cusuman, Michael and Richard Selby. "How Microsoft Builds Software". Communications of the

  3. Economic Evaluations of Everolimus Versus Other Hormonal Therapies in the Treatment of HR+/HER2- Advanced Breast Cancer From a US Payer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jipan; Hao, Yanni; Zhou, Zheng-Yi; Qi, Cynthia Z; De, Gourab; Glück, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of EVE+EXE versus endocrine monotherapies in the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) ABC after failure of treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors from a US third-party payer perspective. A Markov model was developed to evaluate the costs and effectiveness associated with EVE+EXE, exemestane (EXE), fulvestrant (FUL), and tamoxifen (TAM) over a 10-year time horizon. The model included 3 health states: responsive/stable disease, progression, or death. Monthly transition probabilities were estimated based on the BOLERO-2 (Breast cancer trials of OraL EveROlimus-2) data and network meta-analyses. Costs included drug acquisition and administration costs, medical costs associated health states, and costs for managing adverse events (AEs). Utilities for each health state and disutilities for AEs were derived from the literature. Incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) were estimated by comparing EVE+EXE with each endocrine monotherapy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, EVE+EXE was associated with 1.99 QALYs and total direct costs of $258,648 over 10 years. The incremental cost per QALY of EVE+EXE was $139,740 compared with EXE, $157,749 compared with FUL, and $115,624 compared with TAM. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $130,000/QALY or above, EVE+EXE appeared to be the most cost-effective treatment among all drugs. Everolimus with EXE demonstrated QALY improvements compared with 3 other endocrine monotherapies. Benchmarked by the economic value of other novel cancer therapies, EVE+EXE might be considered a cost-effective option compared with endocrine therapies for HR(+)/HER2(-) ABC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Obliging Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Horn, Florian; Löding, Christof

    Graph games of infinite length provide a natural model for open reactive systems: one player (Eve) represents the controller and the other player (Adam) represents the environment. The evolution of the system depends on the decisions of both players. The specification for the system is usually given as an ω-regular language L over paths and Eve's goal is to ensure that the play belongs to L irrespective of Adam's behaviour.

  5. Sex-Specific Pattern Formation During Early Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Manu; Ludwig, Michael Z.; Kreitman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of different X-chromosome dosage in males and females are buffered by a process called dosage compensation, which in Drosophila is achieved through a doubling of X-linked transcription in males. The male-specific lethal complex mediates this process, but is known to act only after gastrulation. Recent work has shown that the transcription of X-linked genes is also upregulated in males prior to gastrulation; whether it results in functional dosage compensation is not known. Absent or partial early dosage compensation raises the possibility of sex-biased expression of key developmental genes, such as the segmentation genes controlling anteroposterior patterning. We assess the functional output of early dosage compensation by measuring the expression of even-skipped (eve) with high spatiotemporal resolution in male and female embryos. We show that eve has a sexually dimorphic pattern, suggesting an interaction with either X-chromosome dose or the sex determination system. By manipulating the gene copy number of an X-linked transcription factor, giant (gt), we traced sex-biased eve patterning to gt dose, indicating that early dosage compensation is functionally incomplete. Despite sex-biased eve expression, the gene networks downstream of eve are able to produce sex-independent segmentation, a point that we establish by measuring the proportions of segments in elongated germ-band embryos. Finally, we use a whole-locus eve transgene with modified cis regulation to demonstrate that segment proportions have a sex-dependent sensitivity to subtle changes in Eve expression. The sex independence of downstream segmentation despite this sensitivity to Eve expression implies that additional autosomal gene- or pathway-specific mechanisms are required to ameliorate the effects of partial early dosage compensation. PMID:23410834

  6. Posterior patterning by the Caenorhabditis elegans even-skipped homolog vab-7.

    PubMed

    Ahringer, J

    1996-05-01

    Patterning of the posterior end in animals is not well understood. Homologs of Drosophila even-skipped (eve) have a similar posterior expression pattern in many animals, and in vertebrates they are linked physically to the "posterior" ends of homeotic clusters (HOM-C), suggesting a conserved role in posterior development. However, the function of this posterior expression is not known. Here I show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene vab-7 encodes an eve homolog that is required for posterior development and expressed in a pattern strikingly similar to that of vertebrate eve genes. Using a four-dimensional recording system, I found that posterior body muscles and the posterior epidermis are patterned abnormally in vab-7 mutants, but commitment to muscle and epidermal fates is normal. Furthermore, vab-7 activity is required for the complete expression of the most posterior HOM-C gene egl-5 in muscle cells, supporting the idea that eve homologs may act with the HOM-C to determine posterior cell fates. The conservation of sequence and expression pattern between vab-7 and eve homologs in other animals argues that most eve genes have posterior mesodermal and ectodermal patterning functions.

  7. Sex differences in interactions between nucleus accumbens and visual cortex by explicit visual erotic stimuli: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Jeong, B S; Choi, J; Kim, J-W

    2015-01-01

    Men tend to have greater positive responses than women to explicit visual erotic stimuli (EVES). However, it remains unclear, which brain network makes men more sensitive to EVES and which factors contribute to the brain network activity. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of sex difference on brain connectivity patterns by EVES. We also investigated the association of testosterone with brain connection that showed the effects of sex difference. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, 14 males and 14 females were asked to see alternating blocks of pictures that were either erotic or non-erotic. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was performed to investigate the functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NA) as it related to EVES. Men showed significantly greater EVES-specific functional connection between the right NA and the right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). In addition, the right NA and the right LOC network activity was positively correlated with the plasma testosterone level in men. Our results suggest that the reason men are sensitive to EVES is the increased interaction in the visual reward networks, which is modulated by their plasma testosterone level.

  8. Effect of external volume expansion on the survival of fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raghuveer; Iyer, Subramania; Sharma, Mohit; Vijayaraghavan, Sundeep; Kishore, P; Mathew, Jimmy; Unni, A K K; Reshmi, P; Sharma, Rakesh; Prasad, Chaya

    2016-01-01

    External volume expansion (EVE) is one method, which has been utilised for increasing the survival of adipose tissue grafts. EVE releases positive pressure from the graft and also induces intense levels of edema that decreases diffusion of metabolites essential for graft survival initially. The ideal timing of external volume expansion in relation to the injection of the fat to facilitate survival is not yet clear. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the efficacy of external volume expansion applied at variable time points in relation to the injection of the fat. Athymic mouse was the animal model and human lipo-aspirate mixed with PRP was used as graft. An indigenous dome shaped silicone device was fabricated to deliver a negative pressure of -30 mm of Hg. The EVE was applied at variable time intervals. At the end of 4 weeks visual, histological and radiological features of the injected fat were compared. The adipose tissue was stained with human vimentin to ascertain the origin of the retained fat. All the grafts, which had EVE, had significantly better volume retention and vascularity. The groups which underwent a delayed EVE or prior expansion followed by concomitant graft injection and expansion showed the most optimal vascularity and graft retention. A delayed EVE or prior expansion followed by concomitant graft injection and expansion may be the most ideal combinations to optimize graft take. However, on account of the relatively small sample size, there was a limitation in drawing statistically significant conclusions for certain variables.

  9. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  10. Endovascular Embolization of Bronchial Artery Originating from the Upper Portion of Aortic Arch in Patients with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-05-15

    PurposeOur experience with endovascular embolization (EVE) of the bronchial artery (BA) originating from the upper portion of the aortic arch (AA) in six patients is described.MethodsAltogether, 818 patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) before EVE or AA angiography during EVE. Aberrant BAs originating from the upper portion of the AA were the source of massive hemoptysis in six patients (0.73 %). MDCT angiograms and/or Digital subtraction angiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Selective catheterization and embolization were performed.ResultsThe ostia of the BAs were located on the superior surface of the AA between the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery in three patients, the junction of the aorta and medial surface of the left subclavian artery in two, and the posterior wall of the upper portion of the AA in one. The six BAs comprised two common trunks, three single right sides, and one single left side. The targeted vessels were successfully catheterized and embolized by a coaxial microcatheter system using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Other pathologic BAs and nonbronchial systemic arteries also were embolized. Bleeding was immediately controlled in all patients with no recurrence of hemoptysis. No procedure-related complications occurred.ConclusionsApplication of EVE of anomalous origin of BAs in patients with hemoptysis is important, as demonstrated in the six reported patients. MDCTA before EVE or AA angiography during EVE is critical to avoid missing a rare aberrant BA originating from the upper portion of the AA.

  11. Characterization and localization of the even-skipped protein of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M; Hoey, T; Rushlow, C; Doyle, H; Levine, M

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of homeo box cross-homology we have isolated the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) of Drosophila. The eve transcription unit appears to be less than 1.5 kb in length, and encodes a single mRNA of approximately 1.4 kb. The nucleotide sequence of genomic and cDNA clones indicates that the eve protein is composed of 376 amino acid residues, and that its homeo domain shares only approximately 50% amino acid identity with the homeo domains of previously characterized genes. Using antibodies raised against a beta-galactosidase fusion protein we show that the eve protein is distributed in a series of seven transverse stripes at the cellular blastoderm stage, and is localized primarily within the nuclear regions of those embryonic cells that express the gene. After gastrulation, seven weakly stained stripes of eve expression appear, resulting in a transient pattern that consists of a total of 14 evenly spaced stripes. Both the original and new stripes gradually disappear during germ band elongation. A second expression pattern emerges during neurogenesis, whereby eve protein is detected in discrete subsets of neurons in each of the ventral ganglia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2884106

  12. Even-skipped+ interneurons are core components of a sensorimotor circuit that maintains left-right symmetric muscle contraction amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Heckscher, Ellie S.; Zarin, Aref Arzan; Faumont, Serge; Clark, Matthew Q.; Manning, Laurina; Fushiki, Akira; Schneider-Mizel, Casey M.; Fetter, Richard D.; Truman, James W.; Zwart, Maarten F.; Landgraf, Matthias; Cardona, Albert; Lockery, Shawn R.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bilaterally symmetric motor patterns—those in which left-right pairs of muscles contract synchronously and with equal amplitude (such as breathing, smiling, whisking, locomotion)—are widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet surprisingly little is known about the underlying neural circuits. We performed a thermogenetic screen to identify neurons required for bilaterally symmetric locomotion in Drosophila larvae, and identified the evolutionarily-conserved Even-skipped+ interneurons (Eve/Evx). Activation or ablation of Eve+ interneurons disrupted bilaterally symmetric muscle contraction amplitude, without affecting the timing of motor output. Eve+ interneurons are not rhythmically active, and thus function independently of the locomotor CPG. GCaMP6 calcium imaging of Eve+ interneurons in freely-moving larvae showed left-right asymmetric activation that correlated with larval behavior. TEM reconstruction of Eve+ interneuron inputs and outputs showed that the Eve+ interneurons are at the core of a sensorimotor circuit capable of detecting and modifying body wall muscle contraction. PMID:26439528

  13. Everolimus plus exemestane as first-line therapy in HR⁺, HER2⁻ advanced breast cancer in BOLERO-2.

    PubMed

    Beck, J Thaddeus; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Campone, Mario; Lebrun, Fabienne; Deleu, Ines; Rugo, Hope S; Pistilli, Barbara; Masuda, Norikazu; Hart, Lowell; Melichar, Bohuslav; Dakhil, Shaker; Geberth, Matthias; Nunzi, Martina; Heng, Daniel Y C; Brechenmacher, Thomas; El-Hashimy, Mona; Douma, Shyanne; Ringeisen, Francois; Piccart, Martine

    2014-02-01

    The present exploratory analysis examined the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life effects of everolimus (EVE) + exemestane (EXE) in the subgroup of patients in BOLERO-2 whose last treatment before study entry was in the (neo)adjuvant setting. In BOLERO-2, patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive EVE (10 mg/day) + EXE (25 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) + EXE. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment. Overall, 137 patients received first-line EVE + EXE (n = 100) or PBO + EXE (n = 37). Median PFS by local investigator assessment nearly tripled to 11.5 months with EVE + EXE from 4.1 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio = 0.39; 95 % CI 0.25-0.62), while maintaining quality of life. This was confirmed by central assessment (15.2 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.32; 95 % CI 0.18-0.57). The marked PFS improvement in patients receiving EVE + EXE as first-line therapy for disease recurrence during or after (neo)adjuvant NSAI therapy supports the efficacy of this combination in the first-line setting. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefit of early introduction of EVE + EXE in the management of HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.

  14. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.

    PubMed

    Ruginsk, S G; Uchoa, E T; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2012-02-01

    The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates the effects of dexamethasone on hormone release induced by changes in circulating volume and osmolality. Male adult rats were administered with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/Kg, p.o.), followed or not in 1 hour by dexamethasone (1 mg/Kg, i.p.). Extracellular volume expansion (EVE, 2 mL/100 g of body weight, i.v.) was performed 2 hours after dexamethasone or vehicle treatment using either isotonic (I-EVE, 0.15 mol/L) or hypertonic (H-EVE, 0.30 mol/L) NaCl solution. Five minutes after EVE, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected for all plasma measurements. Rimonabant potentiated oxytocin (OT) secretion induced by H-EVE and completely reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in response to the same stimulus. These data suggest that glucocorticoid modulation of OT release is mediated by the CB(1) receptor. Although dexamethasone did not affect vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by H-EVE, the administration of rimonabant potentiated AVP release in response to the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor regulates AVP secretion independently of glucocorticoid-mediated signalling. Dexamethasone alone did not affect atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by I-EVE or H-EVE. However, pretreatment with rimonabant potentiated ANP secretion induced by H-EVE, suggesting a possible role for the CB(1) receptor in the control of peripheral factors that modulate cardiovascular function. Rimonabant also reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on H-EVE-induced corticosterone secretion, reinforcing the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor may be involved in the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that the CB(1) receptor modulates neurohypophyseal hormone secretion and

  15. Epidural Volume Extension During Combined Spinal-Epidural Labor Analgesia Does Not Increase Sensory Block.

    PubMed

    Zaphiratos, Valerie; George, Ronald B; Macaulay, Bruce; Bolleddula, Prasad; McKeen, Dolores M

    2016-09-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia is widely used for delivering labor analgesia. Epidural volume extension (EVE) involves the injection of fluid into the epidural space compressing the dural sac, causing cephalad shift of the cerebral spinal fluid. Our hypothesis was that EVE with 10 mL normal saline during CSE would increase the sensory block height at 15 minutes after intrathecal injection. We expected EVE to decrease pain scores, decrease analgesia onset time, and decrease motor block compared with performing CSE without EVE (NEVE). We randomly assigned 60 healthy term laboring nulliparous parturients with cervical dilation <5 cm to receive CSE either with EVE of 10 mL normal saline through the Tuohy needle before catheter insertion or CSE NEVE. Intrathecal analgesia consisted of 2 mg plain bupivacaine and 10 μg fentanyl (1 mL total). A blinded researcher assessed sensory dermatome level, analgesia, and motor blockade at regular intervals for 30 minutes. The primary outcome measure was the median peak sensory dermatome level at 15 minutes. Fifty-four parturients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in peak sensory dermatome levels at 15 minutes (median difference, 1 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval of median difference, 0 to 2; P = 0.22) and 30 minutes (median difference, 0 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval, -2 to 2; P = 0.76). There was no difference in the time to peak dermatome, minimum pain score, or the time to minimum pain score between groups. We found no significant difference between groups with regard to sensory dermatome level or pain scores when using EVE compared with NEVE. Our study demonstrates that addition of EVE does not offer superior analgesia when using a CSE technique for parturients requesting labor analgesia.

  16. Analysis of pattern precision shows that Drosophila segmentation develops substantial independence from gradients of maternal gene products.

    PubMed

    Holloway, David M; Harrison, Lionel G; Kosman, David; Vanario-Alonso, Carlos E; Spirov, Alexander V

    2006-11-01

    We analyze the relation between maternal gradients and segmentation in Drosophila, by quantifying spatial precision in protein patterns. Segmentation is first seen in the striped expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, such as even-skipped (eve). We compare positional precision between Eve and the maternal gradients of Bicoid (Bcd) and Caudal (Cad) proteins, showing that Eve position could be initially specified by the maternal protein concentrations but that these do not have the precision to specify the mature striped pattern of Eve. By using spatial trends, we avoid possible complications in measuring single boundary precision (e.g., gap gene patterns) and can follow how precision changes in time. During nuclear cleavage cycles 13 and 14, we find that Eve becomes increasingly correlated with egg length, whereas Bcd does not. This finding suggests that the change in precision is part of a separation of segmentation from an absolute spatial measure, established by the maternal gradients, to one precise in relative (percent egg length) units.

  17. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Ryan, Daniel; Warren, Harry

    2015-10-01

    We compare the ability of 11 differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite/ X-ray Sensor (GOES/XRS). The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial-synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov Chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/ X-Ray Telescope (XRT) method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature Tw^{fit}/Tw^{sim}=0.9±0.1, the peak emission measure EMp^{fit}/EMp^{sim}=0.6±0.2, the total emission measure EMt^{fit}/EMt^{sim}=0.8±0.3, and the multi-thermal energies E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{approx}=1.2±0.4. We find that the AIA spatial-synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yield the most accurate results.

  18. Germline viral "fossils" guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard H; Hallwirth, Claus V; Westerman, Michael; Hetherington, Nicola A; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Ziegler, Mona-Larissa; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kotin, Robert M; Alexander, Ian E

    2016-07-05

    Germline endogenous viral elements (EVEs) genetically preserve viral nucleotide sequences useful to the study of viral evolution, gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived endogenous viral element (mAAV-EVE1) found within the germline of numerous closely related marsupial species. Molecular screening of a marsupial DNA panel indicated that mAAV-EVE1 occurs specifically within the marsupial suborder Macropodiformes (present-day kangaroos, wallabies, and related macropodoids), to the exclusion of other Diprotodontian lineages. Orthologous mAAV-EVE1 locus sequences from sixteen macropodoid species, representing a speciation history spanning an estimated 30 million years, facilitated compilation of an inferred ancestral sequence that recapitulates the genome of an ancient marsupial AAV that circulated among Australian metatherian fauna sometime during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic timescale. Characterisation of AAV-EVE loci among disparate species affords insight into AAV evolution and, in the case of macropodoid species, may offer an additional genetic basis for assignment of phylogenetic relationships among the Macropodoidea. From an applied perspective, the identified AAV "fossils" provide novel capsid sequences for use in translational research and clinical applications.

  19. A Transcription Factor Network Coordinates Attraction, Repulsion, and Adhesion Combinatorially to Control Motor Axon Pathway Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zarin, Aref Arzan; Asadzadeh, Jamshid; Hokamp, Karsten; McCartney, Daniel; Yang, Long; Bashaw, Greg J.; Labrador, Juan-Pablo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Combinations of transcription factors (TFs) instruct precise wiring patterns in the developing nervous system; however, how these factors impinge on surface molecules that control guidance decisions is poorly understood. Using mRNA profiling, we identified the complement of membrane molecules regulated by the homeobox TF Even-skipped (Eve), the major determinant of dorsal motor neuron (dMN) identity in Drosophila. Combinatorial loss- and gain-of-function genetic analyses of Eve target genes indicate that the integrated actions of attractive, repulsive, and adhesive molecules direct eve-dependent dMN axon guidance. Furthermore, combined misexpression of Eve target genes is sufficient to partially restore CNS exit and can convert the guidance behavior of interneurons to that of dMNs. Finally, we show that a network of TFs, comprised of eve, zfh1, and grain, induces the expression of the Unc5 and Beaten-path guidance receptors and the Fasciclin 2 and Neuroglian adhesion molecules to guide individual dMN axons. PMID:24560702

  20. Germline viral “fossils” guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard H.; Hallwirth, Claus V.; Westerman, Michael; Hetherington, Nicola A.; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Ziegler, Mona-Larissa; Rogozin, Igor B.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kotin, Robert M.; Alexander, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    Germline endogenous viral elements (EVEs) genetically preserve viral nucleotide sequences useful to the study of viral evolution, gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived endogenous viral element (mAAV-EVE1) found within the germline of numerous closely related marsupial species. Molecular screening of a marsupial DNA panel indicated that mAAV-EVE1 occurs specifically within the marsupial suborder Macropodiformes (present-day kangaroos, wallabies, and related macropodoids), to the exclusion of other Diprotodontian lineages. Orthologous mAAV-EVE1 locus sequences from sixteen macropodoid species, representing a speciation history spanning an estimated 30 million years, facilitated compilation of an inferred ancestral sequence that recapitulates the genome of an ancient marsupial AAV that circulated among Australian metatherian fauna sometime during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic timescale. Characterisation of AAV-EVE loci among disparate species affords insight into AAV evolution and, in the case of macropodoid species, may offer an additional genetic basis for assignment of phylogenetic relationships among the Macropodoidea. From an applied perspective, the identified AAV “fossils” provide novel capsid sequences for use in translational research and clinical applications. PMID:27377618

  1. Adapting the Lagrangian speckle model estimator for endovascular elastography: Theory and validation with simulated radio-frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Roch L.; Ohayon, Jacques; Finet, Gérard; Cloutier, Guy

    2004-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is known to be the reference tool for preoperative vessel lesion assessments and for endovascular therapy planning. Nevertheless, IVUS echograms only provide subjective information about vessel wall lesions. Since changes in the vascular tissue stiffness are characteristic of vessel pathologies, catheter-based endovascular ultrasound elastography (EVE) has been proposed in the literature as a method for outlining the elastic properties of vessel walls. In this paper, the Lagrangian Speckle Model Estimator (LSME) is formulated for investigations in EVE, i.e., using a polar coordinate system. The method was implemented through an adapted version of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm, using the optical flow equations to compute the Jacobbian matrix. The theoretical framework was validated with simulated ultrasound rf data of mechanically complex vessel wall pathologies. The results, corroborated with Ansys finite element software, demonstrated the potential of EVE to provide useful information about the heterogeneous nature of atherosclerotic plaques.

  2. Adapting the Lagrangian speckle model estimator for endovascular elastography: theory and validation with simulated radio-frequency data.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Roch L; Ohayon, Jacques; Finet, Gérard; Cloutier, Guy

    2004-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is known to be the reference tool for preoperative vessel lesion assessments and for endovascular therapy planning. Nevertheless, IVUS echograms only provide subjective information about vessel wall lesions. Since changes in the vascular tissue stiffness are characteristic of vessel pathologies, catheter-based endovascular ultrasound elastography (EVE) has been proposed in the literature as a method for outlining the elastic properties of vessel walls. In this paper, the Lagrangian Speckle Model Estimator (LSME) is formulated for investigations in EVE, i.e., using a polar coordinate system. The method was implemented through an adapted version of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm, using the optical flow equations to compute the Jacobbian matrix. The theoretical framework was validated with simulated ultrasound rf data of mechanically complex vessel wall pathologies. The results, corroborated with Ansys finite element software, demonstrated the potential of EVE to provide useful information about the heterogeneous nature of atherosclerotic plaques.

  3. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-11-15

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  4. The Origin of the EUV Late Phase: A Case Study of the C8.8 Flare on 2010 May 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jones, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2010 February 11, the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) has observed numerous flares. One interesting feature observed by EVE is that a subset of flares exhibit an additional enhancement of the 2-3 million K emission several hours after the flares soft X-ray emission. From the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, we observe that this secondary emission, dubbed the EUV late phase, occurs in the same active region as the flare but not in the same coronal loops. Here, we examine the C8.8 flare that occurred on 2010 May 5 as a case study of EUV late phase flares. In addition to presenting detailed observations from both AIA and EVE, we develop a physical model of this flare and test it using the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) model.

  5. Two-step orthogonal-state-based protocol of quantum secure direct communication with the help of order-rearrangement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Srikanth, R.; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-12-01

    The Goldenberg-Vaidman (GV) protocol for quantum key distribution uses orthogonal encoding states of a particle. Its security arises because operations accessible to Eve are insufficient to distinguish the two states encoding the secret bit. We propose a two-particle cryptographic protocol for quantum secure direct communication, wherein orthogonal states encode the secret, and security arises from restricting Eve from accessing any two-particle operations. However, there is a non-trivial difference between the two cases. While the encoding states are perfectly indistinguishable in GV, they are partially distinguishable in the bipartite case, leading to a qualitatively different kind of information-versus-disturbance trade-off and also options for Eve in the two cases.

  6. An essential role of even-skipped for homeotic gene expression in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Tremml, G; Bienz, M

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed homeotic gene expression in the embryonic visceral mesoderm of segmentation mutants by antibody staining against Ultrabithorax, Antennapedia and Sex combs reduced protein. We found that even-skipped (eve) function is crucially required for homeotic gene expression, whereas most other segmentation mutations have only minor effects on position and/or width of the homeotic expression domains in this germ layer. Analysis of pair-rule double mutants indicates that complete loss of homeotic gene activity in the visceral mesoderm, as observed in amorphic eve mutants, correlates with loss of engrailed (en) expression in the epidermis and loss of segmentation. We suggest that the establishment of parasegment borders, a consequence of eve expression and witnessed by subsequent en expression, is a necessary precondition for homeotic gene expression in the visceral mesoderm. Images PMID:2573527

  7. Applications of the Galton Watson process to human DNA evolution and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Armando G. M.; Moreira, Carlos H. C.

    2006-08-01

    We show that the problem of existence of a mitochondrial Eve can be understood as an application of the Galton-Watson process and presents interesting analogies with critical phenomena in Statistical Mechanics. In the approximation of small survival probability, and assuming limited progeny, we are able to find for a genealogic tree the maximum and minimum survival probabilities over all probability distributions for the number of children per woman constrained to a given mean. As a consequence, we can relate existence of a mitochondrial Eve to quantitative demographic data of early mankind. In particular, we show that a mitochondrial Eve may exist even in an exponentially growing population, provided that the mean number of children per woman Nbar is constrained to a small range depending on the probability p that a child is a female. Assuming that the value p≈0.488 valid nowadays has remained fixed for thousands of generations, the range where a mitochondrial Eve occurs with sizeable probability is 2.0492Eve and a Y chromosome Adam. We remark why this problem may not be treated by two independent Galton-Watson processes and present some simulation results suggesting that joint existence of Eve and Adam occurs with sizeable probability in the same Nbar range. Finally, we show that the Galton-Watson process may be a useful approximation in treating biparental population models, allowing us to reproduce some results previously obtained by Chang and Derrida et al.

  8. Regioselective photocycloaddition of pyridine derivatives to electron-rich alkenes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masami; Sano, Takeru; Fujita, Shohei; Ando, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Mino, Takashi; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2003-02-21

    Irradiation of a benzene solution of 3-cyano-2,6-dimethoxypyridine in the presence of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) gave 1:1 photoadducts, 3-cyano-5-ethoxy-2,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dihydroazocine, in good yields, whose structure was established by X-ray single-crystal analysis. The photoadduct was produced via cycloaddition between the C3-C4 position of the pyridine derivatives and an alkene chromophore. On the other hand, 3-cyano-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylpyridine cycloadds to EVE at the C2-C3 position of the pyridine ring upon irradiation. The difference is explained on the basis of the steric effect.

  9. ere—2R ere—2Q ere—2P ere—2S ere—2T ere—2I

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-02-08

    Page 1. e†i eve r2ƒtreet ‡rs„xi‰2‚yeh ieƒ„ QrdF2eveF sxq‚e2ƒ„F †susxq2h‚F ‚ii†iƒ ... yƒ„ ƒrs€ gyxg‚i„i22ƒt ‚o—d ieƒ„ ‡rs„xi‰ ‚o—d xy‚„r ‚esv‚yeh ...

  10. Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.

  11. The first privately produced map in Norway with a geodetic reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.

    2009-04-01

    A map of the district surrounding lake Mjøsa in Norway was published in 1796 by the Topographical Society of Norway. Their members contributed private funds for this unique map and for the publication of the Topographical Journal, containing multidisciplinary descriptions, including environmental, of many regions of the country. The map was produced by Niels S. Darre, an army surveyor and cartographer, as a private undertaking in his own home district. The geodetic reference point of the map is the church at Vang, the position of which had been determined by repeated astronomical observations by its vicar, Abraham Pihl. He had been trained as an astronomical observer by professor Thomas Bugge at the Round Tower Observatory in Copenhagen. A supporting latitude determination near Lillehammer is also noted on the map, obtained by Maximillian Hell in 1769 on his return from Vardø in North-Norway to Vienna after a successful observation of the transit of Venus. The observed magnetic deviation from astronomically determined north is given. The map also identifies a marker of the great flood of the river Glomma in 1789, causing environmental and social devastation.

  12. Army Strong, Superintendent Savvy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Brigadier General Anthony "Tony" Tata of the U.S. Army had one of those "ah-ha" moments in April 2006 when, on the eve of an operation he was heading in Afghanistan, an Al Qaeda rocket shattered a nearby school. The attack killed a teacher and seven students and wounded dozens more. The rocket incident eventually nudged Tata…

  13. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  14. Can a falling bullet be lethal at terminal velocity? Cardiac injury caused by a celebratory bullet.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Angelo N; Poulos, Despina M; Jones, Robert N; Tschirhart, James M

    2007-01-01

    This is a case report of rare cardiac and abdominal organ injuries sustained by an innocent bystander from a New Year's Eve celebratory gun shooting. The force and velocity of a projectile fired into the air as it ascends and returns to earth, along with its potential for bodily injury will be reviewed.

  15. Prescreening Military Officer Candidates for High Level Security Clearances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    eo6S Cr.9s o, ’arcot Cs, Wve yo,. eve., teen :eatod or undergone rehioil,tat on, $or cr.c or alcohoi at"#’C SECTION III STATEMENTS OF UNDERSTANDING INM...INVOLVEMENT INVOLVEMENT AUTHORITY/COURT ANO SENTENCE WERE YOU DETAINED. CONrINED. WASYTHEUSE OPDRUSSOR ACTION BY PAS OR" PLACED ON PROBATION PORn ALCOHOL

  16. USDA's Vick tells radio audience wind farms mean huge water savings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since most of the electricity in the U.S. is generated using coal and natural gas as fuel, almost every wind farm announcement includes the estimated amount of carbon dioxide which was not released to the atmosphere. According to Wikipedia, 2.25 tons of CO2 and 1.14 tons of CO2 were released for eve...

  17. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095619 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  18. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095617 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  19. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095612 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.

  20. Russian Space Suits ready

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-17

    ISS040-E-095609 (17 Aug. 2014) --- Unoccupied Russian Orlan spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev (blue stripes) and Alexander Skvortsov (red stripes), both Expedition 40 flight engineers, are pictured in the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on the eve of the spacewalk scheduled for Aug. 18, 2014.