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Sample records for luuk eve pihl

  1. 78 FR 2423 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk Wind Project on the Campo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Action Alternative, would achieve the generation of electricity from wind turbines installed by Invenergy. The manufacturer and model of the wind turbines have not yet been selected for the Shu'luuk Wind... temporary concrete batch plant. The wind power generation facility would operate year-round for a minimum...

  2. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  3. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  4. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  5. After "Eve": whither proxy decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E H

    1987-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing physicians is how to approach proxy decisions made on behalf of congenitally incompetent patients. The author considers two recent court cases that attempt to provide guidelines: Re Stephen Dawson, which opts for a substituted-judgement approach, and Eve v. Mrs E.) which injoins best-interests considerations. The author explores the impact of Eve v. Mrs. E. as superseding Re Stephen Dawson, considers its ethical implications and attempts to clarify the best-interests criterion by sketching some guidelines for its interpretation. In so doing, he tries to reconcile the two decisions by laying bare their common underlying ethical rationale. The author concludes by pointing out some ethically questionable implications of Eve v. Mrs. E. in the area of allocation of health care resources. PMID:3651942

  6. Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE): A Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Amador, E. S.; Carrier, B. L.; Albuja, A.; Bapst, J.; Cahill, K. R. S.; Ebersohn, F.; Gainey, S.; Gartrelle, G.; Greenberger, R. N.; Hale, J. M.; Johnston, S.; Olivares, J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Sheehan, J. P.; Thorpe, A. K.; Zareh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is an intriguing planetary body, which possibly has the ingredients needed for life. Further, it has numerous (over 100) continuously erupting geysers that eject material into the atmosphere which provide a unique opportunity to sample the body's internal chemistry from orbit. At JPL's Planetary Science Summer School, Team X and a group of students developed a mission concept to directly sample Enceladus' plumes. The mission, named Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE), follows NASA's Planetary Science Decadal survey and would assess the potential habitability of Saturn's icy satellite through analysis of the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and the nature of the organic chemistry in the plume. EVE would look at geological and geophysical surface processes of Enceladus by investigating the heat output of Enceladus, plumes' mechanics, the extent of the liquid subsurface reservoir(s), and gravitational variation. The EVE mission concept aimed for a January 2023 launch on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle and would arrive at Saturn July 2031. A two-year-long Saturn moon tour would allow sufficient deceleration to permit a polar orbital insertion around Enceladus in March 2035, remaining stable for 54 weeks of observation. The proposed instrument payload includes: 1) SUb MilliMeter Enceladus Radiometer (SUMMER; equivalent to Rosetta MIRO), 2) Enceladus Dust and Gas Experiment (EDGE; an enhanced version of Rosetta COSIMA), 3) MAGnetometer for Ionic Concentration (MAGIC; equivalent to MMS/ InSIGHT magnetometer), 4) Visual Imaging Camera with Topographic Observational Resolution (VICTOR) and 5) Enceladus Radio Gravity Science (ERGS). Our suggested orbital timeline would allow the most comprehensive dataset yet collected of a moon in the outer solar system, mapping the entire surface twice with SUMMER and VICTOR, while sampling the plume directly 232 times with EDGE. MAGIC would also provide over a year of sampling of the magnetic field variations from orbit

  7. Wavelengths for EVE coronal dimming signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Simoes, P. J. D. A.; Kukstas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range. We have shown that dimmings occurred in most of the 31 X-class flares that occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations, we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejections from the low corona. We can estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked" at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. Because of its high photon throughput, EVE data determine line centroids with precisions of a few km/s equivalent. In the present study we analyze the wavelengths of the dimmed regions, characterizing their displacements from the mean wavelengths as functions of heliographic position, time, event magnitude, and excitation state of Fe.

  8. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  9. The Drosophila eve insulator Homie promotes eve expression and protects the adjacent gene from repression by polycomb spreading.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B

    2013-10-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is "replaced" by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin.

  10. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  11. 75 FR 80717 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks... is establishing a temporary safety zone in support of the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display... Convention and Visitors Bureau will sponsor the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays from 8:45...

  12. 76 FR 78820 - Safety Zone; City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River, Beaufort, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Beaufort, South Carolina, during the City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. The... navigable waters of the United States. Discussion of Rule On New Year's Eve, a fireworks display will...

  13. Doppler-Shifted Flare Emissions Observed by SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap.j. (2011), even with EVE's spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and 'irradiance' measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. This talk will discuss these efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the first results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  14. Measuring and Modeling Solar Flares with SDO EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) currently provides estimations of the solar Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV; 0.1-190 nm) irradiance from 1947 to present at 1 nm bins and 60 second temporal resolution. The accuracy of FISM is limited to 1nm because the TIMED SEE Level 3 and Level 3A measurement, for which the FISM relationships were based on, were at Inm. With the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in Feb 2010, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will provide more accurate, increased spectral resolution (0.1 nm) measurements from 6 nm to 106 nm every 10-seconds and almost 100% duty cycle. EVE also observes additional broadband measurements for 0.1-7 nm, some EUV bands from 16 nm to 40 nm, and Hydrogen Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm. Along with the better spectral resolution of EVE leading to similar spectral resolution improvements in FISM, other significant improvements provide by SDO/EVE measurements will be multi-thermal gradual phase decay, impulsive phase center-to-limb variation characterization, non-flare sub-daily variations, and multi-thermal proxies. SDO/EVE observations of various solar flares with different characteristics will be presented, with the discussion theme focused on how EVE observations will help improve the accuracy of the FISM in the future. The final topic will present the updated FISM website that now has easier access to the FISM results and produce real-time updates that are useful for Space Weather studies.

  15. ADAM binding protein Eve-1 is required for ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonari; Nanba, Daisuke; Mori, Seiji; Shiba, Fumio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Koichiro; Matsuura, Nariaki; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2004-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are implicated in the ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in EGFR transactivation. However, the activation mechanisms of ADAMs remain elusive. To analyze the regulatory mechanisms of ADAM activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM12 as bait, and identified a protein that we designated Eve-1. Two cDNAs were cloned and characterized. They encode alternatively spliced isoforms of Eve-1, called Eve-1a and Eve-1b, that have four and five tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in the carboxyl-terminal region, respectively, and seven proline-rich SH3 domain binding motifs in the amino-terminal region. The short forms of Eve-1, Eve-1c and Eve-1d, translated at Met-371 are human counterparts of mouse Sh3d19. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that Eve-1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Western blot analysis revealed the dominant production of Eve-1c in human cancer cell lines. Knockdown of Eve-1 by small interfering RNA in HT1080 cells reduced the shedding of proHB-EGF induced by angiotensin II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, as well as the shedding of pro-transforming growth factor-alpha, promphiregulin, and proepiregulin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, suggesting that Eve-1 plays a role in positively regulating the activity of ADAMs in the signaling of EGFR-ligand shedding.

  16. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  17. [Calling patients on the eve of their day surgery procedure].

    PubMed

    Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique

    2015-01-01

    In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice.

  18. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ≲2 to ≳50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ∼2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ≳10 MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ∼0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  19. Constraining Solar Flare Differential Emission Measures with EVE and RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-01

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from lsim2 to gsim50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ~2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to gsim10 MK together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ~0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  20. Solar Flare Impulsive Phase Emission Observed with SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-01

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log Te = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  1. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  2. Progress Report on Doppler Shift Results from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2015-04-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap. J. (2011), even with EVE’s spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and ‘irradiance’ measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. Initial results were first presented at the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Meeting in Cambridge, MD in March 2013. This presentation will discuss the progress that has been made since then on the efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the updated results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  3. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve

    PubMed Central

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary. PMID:25914503

  4. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve.

    PubMed

    Plassard, Andrew J; Hinton, Kendra E; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  5. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  6. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Musk, Gabrielle C.; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Methods Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Results Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into

  7. Specification of motoneuron fate in Drosophila: integration of positive and negative transcription factor inputs by a minimal eve enhancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jocelyn A; Fujioka, Miki; Odden, Joanne P; Jaynes, James B; Doe, Chris Q

    2003-11-01

    We are interested in the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity within the Drosophila central nervous system (CNS), and in particular in the development of a single identified motoneuron called RP2. Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Even-skipped (Eve) is required for RP2 to establish proper connectivity with its muscle target. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which eve is specifically expressed within the RP2 motoneuron lineage. Within the NB4-2 lineage, expression of eve first occurs in the precursor of RP2, called GMC4-2a. We identify a small 500 base pair eve enhancer that mediates eve expression in GMC4-2a. We show that four different transcription factors (Prospero, Huckebein, Fushi tarazu, and Pdm1) are all expressed in GMC4-2a, and are required to activate eve via this minimal enhancer, and that one transcription factor (Klumpfuss) represses eve expression via this element. All four positively acting transcription factors act independently, regulating eve but not each other. Thus, the eve enhancer integrates multiple positive and negative transcription factor inputs to restrict eve expression to a single precursor cell (GMC4-2a) and its RP2 motoneuron progeny.

  8. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  9. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species. Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp PMID:27242033

  10. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species.Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp.

  11. Overexpression of EVE1, a novel ubiquitin family protein, arrests inflorescence stem development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hoyeun; Jeong, Young-Min; Choi, Monica Y; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Sang-Gu

    2011-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, inflorescence stem formation is a critical process in phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. Although inflorescence stem development has been reported to depend on the expression of a variety of genes during floral induction and repression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of inflorescence stem formation. By activation T-DNA tagging mutagenesis of Arabidopsis, a dominant gain-of-function mutation, eve1-D (eternally vegetative phase1-Dominant), which has lost the ability to form an inflorescence stem, was isolated. The eve1-D mutation exhibited a dome-shaped primary shoot apical meristem (SAM) in the early vegetative stage, similar to that seen in the wild-type SAM. However, the SAM in the eve1-D mutation failed to transition into an inflorescence meristem (IM) and eventually reached senescence without ever leaving the vegetative phase. The eve1-D mutation also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including lobed and wavy rosette leaves, short petioles, and an increased number of rosette leaves. Genetic analysis indicated that the genomic location of the EVE1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana corresponded to a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) F4C21 from chromosome IV at ∼17cM which encoded a novel ubiquitin family protein (At4g03350), consisting of a single exon. The EVE1 protein is composed of 263 amino acids, contains a 52 amino acid ubiquitin domain, and has no glycine residue related to ubiquitin activity at the C-terminus. The eve1-D mutation provides a way to study the regulatory mechanisms that control phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state.

  12. Birds flee en mass from New Year's Eve fireworks.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year's Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive.

  13. Repression activity of Tailless on h 1 and eve 1 pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Luiz Paulo; Dos Santos, Wesley Silva; Aguiar, Francisco Dos Santos; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio

    2016-10-20

    We investigated the hypothesis that several transcriptional repressors are necessary to set the boundaries of anterior pair-rule stripes in Drosophila. Specifically, we tested whether Tailless (Tll) is part of a repression mechanism that correctly sets the anterior boundaries of hairy 1 (h 1) and even-skipped 1 (eve 1) stripes. Single mutant tll embryos displayed subtle deviations from the normal positions of h 1 and eve 1 stripes. Moreover, we observed stronger stripe deviations in embryos lacking both Tll and Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp 1), a common repressor for anterior pair-rule stripes. Using h 1 and eve 1 reporter constructs in the genetic assays, we provided further evidence that interference with normal mechanisms of stripe expression is mediated by Tll repression. Indeed, Tll represses both h 1 and eve 1 reporter stripes when misexpressed. Investigating the expression of other anterior gap genes in different genetic backgrounds and in the misexpression assays strengthened Tll direct repression in the regulation of h 1 and eve 1. Our results are consistent with tll being a newly-identified component of a combinatorial network of repressor genes that control pair-rule stripe formation in the anterior blastoderm of Drosophila.

  14. 78 FR 77359 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile; Mobile Channel; Mobile, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the City of Mobile New Year's Eve...

  15. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-02-23

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes.

  16. EUV irradiance observations from SDO/EVE as a diagnostic of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    For the past six years, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has been monitoring changes in the Sun's extreme ultraviolet output over a range of timescales. Its primary function is to provide measurements of the solar spectral irradiance that is responsible for driving fluctuations in Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. However, despite its modest spectral resolution and lack of spatial information, the EVE spectral range contains many lines and continua that have become invaluable for diagnosing the response of the lower solar atmosphere itself to an injection of energy, particularly during a flare's impulsive phase. In addition, high temperature emission lines can also be used to track changes in temperature and density of flaring plasma in the corona. The high precision of EVE observations are therefore crucial in helping us understand particle acceleration and energy transport mechanisms during solar flares, as well as the origins of the Sun's most geoeffective emission.

  17. Dynamic regulation of eve stripe 2 expression reveals transcriptional bursts in living Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Esposito, Emilia; Schlissel, Gavin; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2014-07-22

    We present the use of recently developed live imaging methods to examine the dynamic regulation of even-skipped (eve) stripe 2 expression in the precellular Drosophila embryo. Nascent transcripts were visualized via MS2 RNA stem loops. The eve stripe 2 transgene exhibits a highly dynamic pattern of de novo transcription, beginning with a broad domain of expression during nuclear cycle 12 (nc12), and progressive refinement during nc13 and nc14. The mature stripe 2 pattern is surprisingly transient, constituting just ∼15 min of the ∼90-min period of expression. Nonetheless, this dynamic transcription profile faithfully predicts the limits of the mature stripe visualized by conventional in situ detection methods. Analysis of individual transcription foci reveals intermittent bursts of de novo transcription, with duration cycles of 4-10 min. We discuss a multistate model of transcription regulation and speculate on its role in the dynamic repression of the eve stripe 2 expression pattern during development.

  18. An Innovative Aperture Cover Mechanism Used on SDO/EVE and MMS/SDP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steg, Stephen; Vermeer, William; Tucker, Scott; Passe, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aperture cover mechanism that was successfully flown in four locations on SDO/EVE, and is awaiting launch in sixteen locations on MMS. This design uses a paraffin actuator and a latch that secures the cover closed and removes the actuator from the load path. This latch allows the assembly to operate both as a light weight contamination cover (SDO/EVE), and also as a high-strength sensor restraint mechanism (MMS/SDP). The paper provides design/analysis/test information about the mechanism.

  19. EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Learning Suite for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellagher, Emily; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-07-01

    EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a

  20. Prominences in SDO/EVE spectra: contributions from large solar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, Nicolas; Hudson, Hugh; Kazachenko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO is making accurate measurements of the solar spectral irradiance in the EUV between 30 and 1069 Å, with 1 Å spectral resolution and 10 s sampling rate. These data define solar variability in the ``Sun-as-a-star'' mode and reveal many interesting kinds of variation. Its high sensitivity also makes it suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of solar features such as flares. Here we present EVE's potential contribution to the diagnostics of large-scale, slowly evolving features such as prominences and active regions, and what we can learn from this.

  1. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  3. Functional analysis of eve stripe 2 enhancer evolution in Drosophila: rules governing conservation and change.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M Z; Patel, N H; Kreitman, M

    1998-03-01

    Experimental investigations of eukaryotic enhancers suggest that multiple binding sites and trans-acting regulatory factors are often required for wild-type enhancer function. Genetic analysis of the stripe 2 enhancer of even-skipped (eve), an important developmental gene in Drosophila, provides support for this view. Given the importance of even-skipped expression in early Drosophila development, it might be predicted that many structural features of the stripe 2 enhancer will be evolutionarily conserved, including the DNA sequences of protein binding sites and the spacing between them. To test this hypothesis, we compared sequences of the stripe 2 enhancer between four species of Drosophila: D. melanogaster, D. yakuba, D. erecta and D. pseudoobscura. Our analysis revealed a large number of nucleotide substitutions in regulatory protein binding sites for bicoid, hunchback, Kruppel and giant, as well as a systematic change in the size of the enhancer. Some of the binding sites in D. melanogaster are either absent or modified in other species. One functionally important bicoid-binding site in D. melanogaster appears to be recently evolved. We, therefore, investigated possible functional consequences of sequence differences among these stripe 2 enhancers by P-element-mediated transformation. This analysis revealed that the eve stripe 2 enhancer from each of the four species drove reporter gene expression at the identical time and location in D. melanogaster embryos. Double staining of native eve protein and transgene mRNA in early embryos showed that the reporter gene mimicked native eve expression and, in every case, produced sharply defined stripes at the blastoderm stage that were coincident with eve stripe 2 protein. We argue that stripe 2 eve expression in Drosophila evolution can be viewed as being under constant stabilizing selection with respect to the location of the anterior and posterior borders of the stripe. We further hypothesize that the stripe 2

  4. On the possibility to diagnose a kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifcakova, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    X-ray flare emission is strongly affected by the non-thermal part of the electron distribution. RHESSI observations and also recent theoretical derivations showed that the electron distribution function in coronal X-ray sources could be a kappa-distribution. An effect of kappa-distribution on the relative intensities of spectral lines of Fe XVIII - Fe XXIV observed in SDO/EVE flare spectra was calculated using KAPPA package based on the CHIANTI. Together with CHIANTI, this allows us to estimate the influence of the kappa-distributions on the diagnostics of electron density and temperature from the flare spectra. The possibility to diagnose parameters of the kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra is discussed. The synthetic spectra for the kappa-distribution are compared with the observed flare spectra.

  5. The slowly varying corona from DEMs with the EVE data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the slowly varying corona during the first half of solar cycle 24. Using the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the CHIANTI atomic line database we identify strong isolated iron emission lines present in the non-flaring spectrum with peak emissions covering the coronal temperature range of 5.7 < log(T) < 6.5. These lines are used to generate daily DEMs from EVE spectra to observe the long term variability of global coronal thermal properties. We discuss the choice of emission lines and the implications of this data set for the relationship between EUV and the F10.7 radio flux.

  6. 77 FR 75556 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... 34'48.26'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet. Upon the commencement of the...) within a radius of 1,000 feet. These safety zones will be in effect from 9 p.m. to 9:15 p.m. on December... December 31, 2012 until 12:15 a.m. on January 1, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Year's Eve...

  7. CME Mass Estimates via EVE Coronal Dimmings for X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Hannah, Iain; Schrijver, Karel

    2014-06-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range, which is available for most of the 29 X-class flares that have occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejection from the low corona. We estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked"at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. The "maximum" occurred more than one hour after GOES peak. The dimming signature is generally cleanly measurable in the EVE/MEGS-A spectral samples at10 s cadence, with the dominant source of uncertainty stemming from the "sun-as-a-star" integrations; for example flare-related excess emission at a given wavelength tends to compensate for the dimming,and in this sense the mass estimate must be considered a lower limit. We address these uncertainties for the solar case by appealing to the AIA images, but for analogous processes in stellar flares one would not have this luxury.

  8. Thermal Evolution and Radiative Output of Solar Flares Observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Milligan, R. O.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to obtain the thermal evolution and radiative output during solar flares as observed by the Extreme u ltraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Ob servatory (SDO). Presented and discussed in detail are how EVE measur ements, due to its temporal cadence, spectral resolution and spectral range, can be used to determine how the thermal plasma radiates at v arious temperatures throughout the impulsive and gradual phase of fla res. EVE can very accurately determine the radiative output of flares due to pre- and in-flight calibrations. Events are presented that sh ow the total radiated output of flares depends more on the flare duration than the typical GOES X-ray peak magnitude classification. With S DO observing every flare throughout its entire duration and over a la rge temperature range, new insights into flare heating and cooling as well as the radiative energy release in EUV wavelengths support exis ting research into understanding the evolution of solar flares.

  9. EVE (external variance estimation) increases statistical power for detecting differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wille, Anja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter; Hennig, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Accurately identifying differentially expressed genes from microarray data is not a trivial task, partly because of poor variance estimates of gene expression signals. Here, after analyzing 380 replicated microarray experiments, we found that probesets have typical, distinct variances that can be estimated based on a large number of microarray experiments. These probeset-specific variances depend at least in part on the function of the probed gene: genes for ribosomal or structural proteins often have a small variance, while genes implicated in stress responses often have large variances. We used these variance estimates to develop a statistical test for differentially expressed genes called EVE (external variance estimation). The EVE algorithm performs better than the t-test and LIMMA on some real-world data, where external information from appropriate databases is available. Thus, EVE helps to maximize the information gained from a typical microarray experiment. Nonetheless, only a large number of replicates will guarantee to identify nearly all truly differentially expressed genes. However, our simulation studies suggest that even limited numbers of replicates will usually result in good coverage of strongly differentially expressed genes.

  10. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  11. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  12. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain.

    PubMed

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A; Kennedy, Michael A; Cort, John R; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Rost, Burkhard

    2009-05-15

    We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links.

  13. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He ii 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.

    2016-08-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradiance as a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He ii 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s^{-1} along the line-of-sight.

  14. Ionospheric model-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo Incorporation of SDO-EVE solar irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the modeling of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric models were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the modeled TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither model captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A model sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these model shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly modeled.

  15. Behavioral health services in separate CHIP programs on the eve of parity.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Rachel L; Beardslee, William R; Greenfield, Shelly F; Meara, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plays a vital role in financing behavioral health services for low-income children. This study examines behavioral health benefit design and management in separate CHIP programs on the eve of federal requirements for behavioral health parity. Even before parity implementation, many state CHIP programs did not impose service limits or cost sharing for behavioral health benefits. However, a substantial share of states imposed limits or cost sharing that might hinder access to care. The majority of states use managed care to administer behavioral health benefits. It is important to monitor how states adapt their programs to comply with parity.

  16. EUV variability experiment (EVE); multiple EUV grating spectrographs (MEGS), radiometric calibrations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hock, Rachel A.; Crotser, David A.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Furst, Mitch; Triplett, Matthew A.; Woodraska, Donald L.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2007-09-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2009, incorporates a suite of instruments including the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). Two channels of EVE, the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A and B channels use concave reflection gratings to image solar spectra onto CCDs to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 5 to 105 nm. MEGS provides these spectra at 0.1nm spectral resolution every 10 seconds with an absolute accuracy of better than 25% over the SDO 5-year mission. The calibration of the MEGS channels in order to convert the instrument counts in to physical units of W/m2/nm was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Although the final post-environmental calibrations have yet to be performed, preliminary results from the pre-environmental calibrations show very good agreement with the theoretical optical design given by Crotser et al. Further analysis is still needed in regards to the higher order contributions to determine the final first order QT for all channels, but two techniques are currently being analyzed and show promising results.

  17. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve.

  18. dbx mediates neuronal specification and differentiation through cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with eve and hb9.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Haluk; Zhu, Yi; Wilson, Beth A; Skeath, James B

    2009-10-01

    Individual neurons adopt and maintain defined morphological and physiological phenotypes as a result of the expression of specific combinations of transcription factors. In particular, homeodomain-containing transcription factors play key roles in determining neuronal subtype identity in flies and vertebrates. dbx belongs to the highly divergent H2.0 family of homeobox genes. In vertebrates, Dbx1 and Dbx2 promote the development of a subset of interneurons, some of which help mediate left-right coordination of locomotor activity. Here, we identify and show that the single Drosophila ortholog of Dbx1/2 contributes to the development of specific subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and hb9 (exex). dbx is expressed primarily in interneurons of the embryonic, larval and adult central nervous system, and these interneurons tend to extend short axons and be GABAergic. Interestingly, many Dbx(+) interneurons share a sibling relationship with Eve(+) or Hb9(+) motoneurons. The non-overlapping expression of dbx and eve, or dbx and hb9, within pairs of sibling neurons is initially established as a result of Notch/Numb-mediated asymmetric divisions. Cross-repressive interactions between dbx and eve, and dbx and hb9, then help maintain the distinct expression profiles of these genes in their respective pairs of sibling neurons. Strict maintenance of the mutually exclusive expression of dbx relative to that of eve and hb9 in sibling neurons is crucial for proper neuronal specification, as misexpression of dbx in motoneurons dramatically hinders motor axon outgrowth.

  19. 8/9 February 2012 SDO-EVE and Arecibo ISR Ionospheric Capaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA SDO-EVE solar irradiance observations provide unprecedented high resolution in both time cadence and wavelength. The irradiance wavelengths of the highest importance in driving the altitude structure of the E- and F1-regions lie in two bands, a short wavelength XUV, 2 to 20 nm, and an EUV band from about 80 to 103 nm. Because of the low altitude of the E-region, 100-120 km, only remote sensing techniques are able to observe this region. Two main observational techniques are ionosondes and incoherent scatter radars (ISR). However, only the ISR can distinguish the critical valley region between the E- and F1-regions. A first EVE Arecibo ISR campaign was held on 8/9 February 2012. During daylight hours in the Puerto Rico sector the NSF Arecibo ISR operated in a special high resolution altitude mode through the ionosphere's E- and F1-regions. A total of 22 altitude profiles were obtained. The SDO-EVE instrument also operated its full instrument complement during these daylight hours. In terms of geomagnetic activity and solar dynamics, the entire period was very quiet. This study uses the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to explore the challenges of modeling the E- and F1-region under these quiet conditions. The full irradiance, with excellent wavelength resolution, defines the major input to the TDIM. The Arecibo ISR observations provide the ground truth with both excellent plasma line electron density calibration and better than 1 km altitude resolution. The major objective of this first study is to determine both the sensitivity of the model to various other drivers such as photoelectron secondary ionization, [NO], neutral winds, and the neutral atmosphere as represented by a standard thermosphere model, i.e. MSIS86 and determine what is a necessary ISR observation altitude resolution for the E- and F1-region studies. Additional complications are observed in this dataset including a descending layer and also occurrence of sporadic E. Neither of

  20. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  1. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  2. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  3. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flare observations and findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Mason, James P.

    New solar soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provide full coverage from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 seconds for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution. These observations during flares can usually be decomposed into four distinct characteristics: impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase. Over 6000 flares have been observed during the SDO mission; some flares show all four phases, and some only show the gradual phase. The focus is on the newer results about the EUV late phase and coronal dimming and its relationship to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These EVE flare measurements are based on observing the sun-as-a-star, so these results could exemplify stellar flares. Of particular interest is that new coronal dimming measurements of stars could be used to estimate mass and velocity of stellar CMEs.

  4. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve Festival in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Methods: Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. Results: 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Conclusions: Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. PMID:21964162

  5. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage.

  6. THERMODYNAMIC SPECTRUM OF SOLAR FLARES BASED ON SDO/EVE OBSERVATIONS: TECHNIQUES AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Zhang, Jie; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-15

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  7. The Temporal Behaviour of Lyman-alpha During Solar Flares Using SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    The Lyα line of hydrogen at 1216Å is the strongest emission line in the solar spectrum. It is formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere and is a primary driver of changes in terrestrial ionospheric density. It has also recently been shown to dominate the radiative losses during an X-class solar flare (Milligan et al. 2014). Despite the diagnostic potential of Lyα there are relatively few papers in the literature that discuss changes in Lyα emission during solar flares. The MEGS-P broadband (100Å) diode on SDO/EVE measures full-disk Lyα emission at 10s cadence making it ideal for studying such variations. Although formed in the chromosphere, the temporal variations in Lyα appear more gradual in nature, with rise times of tens of minutes, compared to just a few minutes in other chromospheric features, such as Hα, He II, Lyman continuum, C III, etc. In fact, in many large events, emission detected by MEGS-P appears to obey the Neupert Effect; i.e. the time derivate of Lyα closely matches that of impulsive chromospheric emission. Here I will discuss a number of conditions, both solar and instrumental, that may explain why this relationship seems to exist. I shall also compare MEGS-P observations with spectrally and temporally resolved Lyα measurements from SORCE/SOLSTICE.

  8. Alternatives to the Wright-Fisher model: the robustness of mitochondrial Eve dating.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Krzysztof A; Kimmel, Marek

    2010-11-01

    Methods of calculating the distributions of the time to coalescence depend on the underlying model of population demography. In particular, the models assuming deterministic evolution of population size may not be applicable to populations evolving stochastically. Therefore the study of coalescence models involving stochastic demography is important for applications. One interesting approach which includes stochasticity is the O'Connell limit theory of genealogy in branching processes. Our paper explores how many generations are needed for the limiting distributions of O'Connell to become adequate approximations of exact distributions. We perform extensive simulations of slightly supercritical branching processes and compare the results to the O'Connell limits. Coalescent computations under the Wright-Fisher model are compared with limiting O'Connell results and with full genealogy-based predictions. These results are used to estimate the age of the so-called mitochondrial Eve, i.e., the root of the mitochondrial polymorphisms of the modern humans based on the DNA from humans and Neanderthal fossils.

  9. Ecstasy overdoses at a New Year's Eve rave--Los Angeles, California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-06-11

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) is an illegal synthetic amphetamine used as a stimulant and hallucinogen. On January 4, 2010, the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health (DPH) learned of six MDMA-related emergency department (ED) visits and one death, all linked to a New Year's Eve event attended by approximately 45,000 persons. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to search for additional MDMA-related ED visits, characterize the cases, and determine whether drug contamination was involved. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which determined that 18 patients visited EDs in LAC for MDMA-related illness within 12 hours of the rave. All were aged 16-34 years, and nine were female. In addition to using MDMA, 10 of the 18 had used alcohol, and five had used other drugs. Three patients were admitted to the hospital, including one to intensive care. A tablet obtained from one of the patients contained MDMA and caffeine, without known toxic contaminants. The cluster of apparent ecstasy overdoses occurred in the context of likely increasing MDMA use in the county during 2005-2009, as indicated by increased identification of MDMA-containing forensic specimens and a large increase in LAC residents entering drug treatment programs for MDMA. Collaboration between public health, police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) officials on a comprehensive prevention strategy might reduce the number of overdoses at similar events.

  10. Injuries and deaths at a pub fire in Bangkok, Thailand on New Year's Eve 2009.

    PubMed

    Jongcherdchootrakul, Kanlaya; Henderson, A K; Jiraphongsa, C

    2011-05-01

    This investigation describes the 67 people who died and the 153 who were hospitalized from a New Years' Eve fire in a Bangkok pub. We interviewed survivors and reviewed medical charts and forensic reports of decedents. Survivors were young (median age 27 years), single (84.7%) and lived in Thailand (93.6%). Most were on the concert floor when the fire started (74.0%), became aware of danger when they saw flames (61.5%) and escaped through the main entry door (42.9%). Common injuries were burns (75.6%), smoke inhalation (47.4%) and open wounds (32.1%). The decedents' median age was 27 years and 88.1% lived in Thailand. Most of the dead bodies were found at or near the main entrance. The main causes of death were asphyxia (88.1%) or burn (10.4%). Soot was present in the trachea of 95.5% of the decedents. Carboxyhemoglobin level in 37.5% was in the toxic range. The average percent of body surface burned was 75.0%. Loss of consciousness in the pub (RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.3) was a risk factor for severe injury and smoke inhalation (RR 9.3, 95% CI 3.1-28.0) was a risk factor for death.

  11. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants emitted because of Chinese New Year's Eve celebrations in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Quan, J H; Li, Jun; Zhang, Miao

    2014-04-01

    Activities involving firecrackers and fireworks on Chinese New Year's Eve (NYE) are common in Chinese culture. Previous studies revealed that such human activities significantly influence the ambient air quality and negatively impact human health. However, both the academia and the public lack a deep understanding of the extent and consequences of such human-induced air pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of these Spring Festival celebrations on ambient air quality at a large spatial scale and a fine temporal resolution. Data from ten monitoring stations distributed around Wuhan and a Lidar system provide a good opportunity to gain insight into spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants due to the NYE celebrations. Dramatic increases in PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ mass concentrations due to NYE celebrations were observed in this study. Moreover, the ratio of residential to total area was found to be a significant factor in predicting the geographic distributions of contaminants. The vertical distribution of such human-induced and culture-related contaminants was first shown using a Mie Lidar. Contaminants emitted by firecrackers on the ground spread to a distance of over 450 m in the atmosphere. The vertical influence began to fade two hours after celebrations because of dry deposition. Moreover, it took over 15 hours for the contaminant levels to return to pre-celebration levels. Finally, estimations of PM₂.₅ emissions from firecrackers in Wuhan were 39.57 and 43.51 tons, based on regression and time series analyses, respectively.

  12. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen A.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Aims: The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. Methods: We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1 nm in the range 37-105 nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the "center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. Results: In a study of 6 flares we find strong signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds measured in Sun-as-a-Star data of around 10 km s-1, and speeds in the flare excess signal of around 30 km s-1. Conclusions: All events showing upflows in Lyman lines are associated with some kind of eruption or coronal flow in imaging data, which may be responsible for the net blueshifts. Events showing downflows in the Lyman lines may be associated with loop contraction or faint downflows, but it is likely that chromospheric condensation flows are also contributing.

  13. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  14. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    PubMed

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  15. Constraining Models Of The Solar Chromosphere Using An X2 Flare Observed By SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramanasastry, A.; Murphy, N. A.; Avrett, E.

    2013-12-01

    The GOES X2 solar flare of Feb 15, 2011 is analyzed to draw observational constraints in constructing a model of the chromosphere of the Sun during a solar flare, using the Pandora computer program [1]. Spectra from the MEGS-A&B component of EVE [2] on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used to analyze the lines and continuum [3]. The irradiances before and after the flare are used for modeling the time-evolution of the impulsive and decay phases of the flare. Significant increase in the intensities of multiple coronal and chromospheric emission lines (H, He, C, N, O, Si etc.) is seen. The observed increase in intensities will serve as constraints to the model program. Pandora performs iterative calculations for non-LTE radiative transfer with multiple ions and atoms. It includes the effects of particle diffusion and flow velocities in the equations of radiative transfer and ionization equilibrium. The fraction of the area on the Sun contributing to the chromospheric flare emission is presented. The upper limit for the intensity in the Lyman continuum due to the flare is accounted to be approximately 7% of that due to the entire surface area. The Lyman, He II and He I continua provide strong constraints for characterizing the chromosphere. The emission lines from the CHIANTI atomic database in these wavelength ranges are considered in order to avoid using optically thin emission lines from the corona. The behavior of changes in line features with time is analyzed. The light curves of different lines that contribute substantially to the flare spectra are studied. The temperatures at the peak of the flare with respect to that at the quiet Sun is estimated at different continuum wavelengths. The pre-flare and post-flare values from these light-curves are adapted to construct the model during the rise and decay phases. The effective intensity due to the lines and the relative times at which these lines peak are presented. The observed irradiance values for pre

  16. Anomalous temporal behaviour of broadband Lyα observations during solar flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyα emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Lyα emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Lyα data at 10 s cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (Hα, Lyβ, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Lyα lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Lyα observations during flares from SORCE/SOLSTICE peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines and/or continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting broadband Lyα observations of solar flares. Comparisons have also been made with other broadband Lyα photometers such as PROBA2/LYRA and GOES/EUVS-E.

  17. Functional endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of the parasitoid wasp cotesia congregata: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of bracoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracoviruses represent the most complex Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) described to date. Nudiviral genes have been hosted within the genomes of parasitoid wasps since ~ 100 MYA (Million Years Ago) and are functionally integrated in the parasitoid wasp life cycle. They are involved in the producti...

  18. Ecology and Mary: An Ecological Theology of Mary as the New Eve in Response to the Church's Challenge for a Faith-Based Education in Ecological Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    The Church's interpretation of the current ecological crisis as a moral crisis is the catalyst for this essay, which proposes a newly constructed faith-based model for ecological dialogue and education. The exploration and reinterpretation of the traditional Church doctrine of the Virgin Mary as the new Eve provides a theme from which an…

  19. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  20. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  2. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  3. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  4. A substorm-associated enhancement in the XUV radiation measuring channel observed by ESP/EVE/SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; Shen, Chao; Du, Zhan-Le

    2016-06-01

    Comparing the ESP/EVE/SDO flux data of 2011 Feb 6, with the counterparts of XRS/GOES and SEM/SOHO, we find that there is an enhancement that is not apparent in the two latter datasets. The enhancement, possibly regarded as a flare at first glimpse, nevertheless, does not involve an energy-release from the Sun. Based on the enhancement, we combine data from SXI/GOES 15 into a synthesized analysis, and concluded that it arises from a particle-associated enhancement in the channel that measures XUV radiation. Paradoxically, it seems to be somewhat of a particle-avalanching process. Prior to the event, a moderate geomagnetic storm took place. Subsequently, while the event is proceeding, a geomagnetic substorm is simultaneously observed. Therefore, the particles, though unidentified, are probably energetic electrons induced by substorm injection.

  5. Thermal Evolution of Solar Flares During the First Year of SDO as Seen by the EVE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    It is very evident during the first year of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that the Sun awoke from its prolonged minimum and is well into solar cycle 24. There has been tens of moderate M-class flares and a large X-class event (as of abstract submission), with more surely to come as the solar cycle activity increases. With SDO's 24/7 observations, every single flare has been observed through their entire evolution, providing new insights in the thermal evolution of every flare. It is evident that this evolution is extremely different for many of the flares, even for flares with similar X-ray magnitude classifications. Presented and discussed will be these different flares with their varying thermal evolution profiles as observed by the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

  6. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  7. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  8. Ionospheric ionization calculated from combined SolACES-SDO/EVE solar EUV spectra and comparison with global TEC at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Christoph; Unglaub, Claudia; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Schäfer, Robert; Brunner, Raimund; Woods, Tom; Jakowski, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Ionospheric response to solar EUV variability during 2012 - 2014 is shown by the EUV-TEC proxy based on primary ionization calculations using combined solar spectra from SDO/EVE and SolACES on board the ISS. The in flight calibrated SolACES spectra have been used to calibrate the continuous SDO/EVE measurements. The results are compared with global TEC analyses. We found that EUV describes TEC variability better than conventional indices, especially during periods of strong solar flare activity. At time scales of the solar rotation, there is a time lag between EUV and TEC variability of about one day, indicating dynamical processes in the ionosphere. This lag is not seen at shorter time scales.

  9. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  10. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union.

  11. Sounding Rocket Observations of Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra Between 0.5 and 2.5 nm Using a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Seth; Didkovsky, Leonid; Woods, Thomas; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Spectrally resolved measurements of individual solar active regions (ARs) in the soft X-ray (SXR) range are important for studying dynamic processes in the solar corona and their associated effects on the Earth's upper atmosphere. They are also a means of evaluating atomic data and elemental abundances used in physics-based solar spectral models. However, very few such measurements are available. We present spectral measurements of two individual ARs in the 0.5 to 2.5 nm range obtained on the NASA 36.290 sounding rocket flight of 21 October 2013 (at about 18:30 UT) using the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a channel of the Extreme Ultaviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) payload designed for underflight calibrations of the orbital EVE on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The EVE rocket instrument is a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, except the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a freestanding transmission grating to provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST/SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. We discuss techniques (incorporating the NIST/SURF data) for determining SXR spectra from the dispersed AR images as well as the resulting spectra for NOAA ARs 11877 and 11875 observed on the 2013 rocket flight. In comparisons with physics-based spectral models using the CHIANTI v8 atomic database we find that both AR spectra are in good agreement with isothermal spectra (4 MK), as well as spectra based on an AR differential emission measure (DEM) included with the CHIANTI distribution, with the exception of the relative intensities of strong Fe xvii lines associated with 2p6-2p53{s} and 2p6-2p

  12. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Non-thermal Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung from solar flares directly probe the non-thermal electron population. For low energies, however, the spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission and the low energy extent of the non-thermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). For a sample of solar flares, we model the emission using a Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for the thermal emission seen with both instruments and a power law fit for the non-thermal emission observed by RHESSI. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. This improvement over the traditional isothermal approximation for thermal flare emission is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares. It is expected that a low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electron spectrum is in this energy range, but is obscured by thermal emission. For each flare in the sample we establish limits for the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal spectrum. These limits, in turn, can be used to establish limits on the energy of non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flare. This research is supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033 and NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  13. Extensive scaling and nonuniformity of the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition for the spiral-defect chaos state

    SciTech Connect

    Zoldi, S.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.; Greenside, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    By analyzing large-aspect-ratio spiral-defect chaos (SDC) convection images, we show that the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition (KLD) scales extensively for subsystem sizes larger than 4d ({ital d} is the fluid depth), which strongly suggests that SDC is extensively chaotic. From this extensive scaling, the intensive length {xi}{sub KLD} is computed and found to have a different dependence on the Rayleigh number than the two-point correlation length {xi}{sub 2}. Local computations of {xi}{sub KLD} reveal a spatial nonuniformity of SDC images that extends over radii 18d{lt}r{lt}45d in a {Gamma}=109 aspect-ratio cell. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. SOLACES - Presenting the Level 3 dataset and a completion of the years 2010 to 2013 using the SDO/EVE experiment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Nikutowski, Bernd; Erhardt, Christian; Eparvier, Francis G.

    In October 2013 the SolACES Team published the Level 2 dataset. It is a compilation of over 500 spectra ranging from 16-58 nm for the time period of 2008 - 2010. To complete the time period until end of 2013 the SolACES Team will present the process of calculating calibrated spectral data from spectrometer and ionization chamber measurements. We will also present a modelling process generating calibrated spectra directly from ionization chamber measurements. The evaluated dataset is interpolated using time series coming from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) - Extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE) generating a full time series of data from the beginning of 2011 to the end of 2013.

  15. C.T. Jackson's 15 October 1846 letter to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont: Jackson's thoughts on Ether Day's Eve?

    PubMed

    Bause, George S; Sim, Patrick P

    2011-01-01

    As did the previous letter on 30 November 1845 from Charles T. Jackson to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont, this 15 October 1846 missive underscores the cordial professional relationship between the two geologists. Remarkably, in this "Ether Day's Eve" letter, Jackson never reveals whether he had any clue that W.T.G. Morton would be publicly demonstrating ether anesthesia for surgery the next morning. More importantly, since Elie de Beaumont would play a future pivotal role in assigning initial credit for "discovering anesthesia" to his geological colleague Jackson, rather than to Morton, letters such as these from November of 1845 and October of 1846 can only raise more questions about the impartiality of Elie de Beaumont.

  16. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study

    PubMed Central

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Design Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014 Methods An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. Results In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9–15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. Conclusion The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon. PMID:28264016

  17. OPTIMOS-EVE optical design of a very efficient, high-multiplex, large spectral coverage, fiber-fed spectrograph at EELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.; Tosh, I.; Chemla, F.

    2010-07-01

    OPTIMOS-EVE is a fiber-fed, high-multiplex, high-efficiency, large spectral coverage spectrograph for EELT covering visible and near-infrared simultaneously. More than 200 seeing-limited objects will be observed at the same time over the full 7 arcmin field of view of the telescope, feeding the spectrograph, asking for very large multiplexing at the spectrograph side. The spectrograph consists of two identical units. Each unit will have two optimized channels to observe both visible and near-infrared wavelengths at the same time, covering from 0.37 to 1.7 micron. To maximize the scientific return, a large simultaneous spectral coverage per exposure was required, up to 1/3 of the central wavelength. Moreover, different spectral resolution modes, spanning from 5'000 to 30'000, were defined to match very different sky targets. Many different optical solutions were generated during the initial study phase in order to select that one that will maximize performances within given constraints (mass, space, cost). Here we present the results of this study, with special attention to the baseline design. Efforts were done to keep size of the optical components well within present state-of-the-art technologies. For example, large glass blank sizes were limited to ~35 cm maximum diameter. VPH gratings were selected as dispersers, to improve efficiency, following their superblaze curve. This led to scanning gratings and cameras. Optical design will be described, together with expected performances.

  18. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  19. Updates in SDO/EVE/EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) Data Processing and Inter-comparison of Calibrated ESP Irradiances with Measurements from Other On-orbit EUV Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woodraska, D.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the May 2014 anomaly which indefinitely suspended SDO/EVE Multiple EUV Spectrographs-A (MEGS-A) science operations, MEGS-A spectral distributions were used in the data processing algorithm for determining absolute EUV irradiance values from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) raw data. We discuss a revised ESP data processing algorithm which, in lieu of concurrently measured MEGS-A spectra, adopts reference spectra selected (based on solar activity at the time of the ESP observation) from a discrete set of spectra derived from MEGS-A spectra for various levels of activity observed prior to the anomaly. We present evaluations of the revised algorithm and adopted reference spectra based on comparisons of the resultant ESP irradiance values with EUV measurements from other on-orbit instrumentation including the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). The results of comparisons between ESP irradiances determined using the revised algorithm and those based on the pre-anomaly algorithm which uses concurrent MEGS-A spectra are also presented

  20. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies.

  1. Rewarding effects of the optical isomers of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine ('Ecstasy') and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine ('Eve') measured by conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anja; Mayerhofer, Andreas; Kovar, Karl-Artur; Schmidt, Werner J

    2002-09-27

    3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA) ('Ecstasy') and its analogue 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDE) ('Eve') are well known illicit street drugs mainly abused by young people. In spite of the actual research going on, the classification of their abuse potential remains unclear. Since secondary reinforcers are the main factors responsible for craving and relapse, the aim of our study was to assess the potency of MDMA and MDE in a second order reinforcement paradigm, i.e. conditioned place preference (CPP). For the general assessment of our study conditions, we compared MDMA with amphetamine. Unexpectedly, no significant CPP for MDMA was found in contrast to amphetamine. Detailed analysis of current literature led us to the working hypothesis that social environment is crucial for the development of CPP. In a subsequent experiment we tested the influence of housing conditions on CPP using MDMA and demonstrated that isolated animals show significant CPP compared to group-housed ones. In order to better understand the rewarding mechanisms of Ecstasy-derivatives, we tested both the racemic drugs and the pure isomers in the CPP paradigm. Both MDMA's optical isomers and racemic MDMA showed significant CPP without notable differences, while MDE and its isomers completely failed to show any significant CPP. In conclusion, the mechanism by which MDMA induces addiction is much more complicated than assumed so far and more pronounced in isolated animals. The fact that both optical isomers of MDMA led to CPP implies that at least two pathways by which MDMA induces craving behaviour exist.

  2. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physics. Collective effects in central heavy-ion collisions / G. I. Lykasov ... [et al.]. Stringy phenomena in Yang-Mills plasma / V. I. Zakharov. Lattice results on gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge / I. L. Bogolubsky ... [et al.]. [symbol] and [symbol] excited states in field correlator method / I. Narodetskii, A. Veselov. Theory of quark-gluon plasma and phase transition / E. V. Komarov, Yu. A. Simonov. Chiral symmetry breaking and the Lorentz nature of confinement / A. V. Nefediev. Structure function moments of proton and neutron / M. Osipenko. Higgs decay to bb: different approaches to resummation of QCD effects / A. L. Kataev, V. T. Kim. A novel integral representation for the Adler function and its behavior at low energies / A. V. Nesterenko. QCD test of z-scaling for [symbol]-meson production in pp collisions at high energies / M. Tokarev, T. Dedovich. Quark mixing in the standard model and the space rotations / G. Dattoli, K. Zhukovsky. Analytic approach to constructing effective theory of strong interactions and its application to pion-nucleon scattering / A. N. Safronov -- New developments in quantum field theory. On the origin of families and their mass matrices with the approach unifying spin and charges, prediction for new families / N. S. Mankoc Borstnik. Z[symbol] electric strings and center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory / M. I. Polikarpov, P. V. Buividovich. Upper bound on the lightest neutralino mass in the minimal non-minimal supersymmetric standard model / S. Hesselbach ... [et al.]. Application of higher derivative regularization to calculation of quantum corrections in N=l supersymmetric theories / K. Stepanyantz. Nonperturbative quantum relativistic effects in the confinement mechanism for particles in a deep potential well / K. A. Sveshnikov, M. V. Ulybyshev. Khalfin's theorem and neutral mesons subsystem / K. Urbanowski. Effective lagrangians and field theory on a lattice / O. V. Pavlovsky. String-like electrostatic interaction from QED with infinite magnetic field / A. E. Shabad, V. V. Usov. QFT systems with 2D spatial defects / I. V. Fialkovsky, V. N. Markov, Yu. M. Pismak. Bound state problems and radiative effects in extended electrodynamics with Lorentz violation / I. E. Frolov, O. G. Kharlanov, V. Ch. Zhukovsky. Particles with low binding energy in a strong stationary magnetic field / E. V. Arbuzova, G. A. Kravtsova, V. N. Rodionov. Triangle anomaly and radiatively induced Lorentz and CPT violation in electrodynamics / A. E. Lobanov, A. P. Venediktov. The comparative analysis of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation for a spinless particle in classic and quantum theories / V. G. Bagrov, A. N. Burimova, A. A. Gusev. Problem of the spin light identification / V. A. Bordovitsyn, V. V. Telushkin. Simulation the nuclear interaction / T. F. Kamalov. Unstable leptons and (u - e - [symbol])-universality / O. Kosmachev. Generalized Dirac equation describing the quark structure of nucleons / A. Rabinowitch. Unique geometrization of material and electromagnetic wave fields / O. Olkhov -- Problems of intelligentsia. The conscience of the intelligentsia / J. K. Bleimaier.

  3. Titan on the eve of Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1981-01-01

    A decade of scientific study of Titan is reviewed with emphasis on the composition and the extent of its atmosphere. Several viable models are briefly discussed including the inversion model of Danielsen et al. (1973), Hunten's model (1978) which includes an extensive troposphere and a warm surface, with nitrogen as the major component, and models with neon, primordial carbon monoxide, or various mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and CH4. Recent observations by Pioneer 11 and other satellites are examined.

  4. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  5. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  6. Evaluating Eve: visceral states influence the evaluation of impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Loran F; van der Pligt, Joop; van Harreveld, Frenk

    2007-07-01

    Impulsive behavior is a common source of stigma. The authors argue that people often stigmatize impulsive behavior because they fail to appreciate the influence visceral impulses have on behavior. Because people tend to underestimate the motivational force of cravings for sex, drugs, food, and so forth, they are prone to stigmatize those who act on these impulses. In line with this reasoning, in 4 studies, the authors found that participants who were in a cold state (e.g., not hungry) made less favorable evaluations of a related impulsive behavior (impulsive eating) than did participants who were in a hot state (e.g., hungry). This empathy gap effect was tested with 3 different visceral states--fatigue, hunger, and sexual arousal--and was found both when participants evaluated others' impulsive behavior (Studies 1 & 2) and when participants evaluated their own impulsive behavior (Study 3). Study 3 also demonstrated that the empathy gap effect is due to different perceptions of the strength of the visceral state itself. Finally, Study 4 revealed that this effect is state specific: Hungry people, for example, evaluated only hunger-driven impulses, and not other forms of impulse, more favorably.

  7. Pointblank: Acts on the Eve of War, 1938-1939

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Throughout this process, I kept my sanity by riding bikes and running with classmates, thanks fellas. The conversations at lunch were riveting and I was...alone provide the means of victory. Sir Winston Churchill The ominous noise of jet engines pierces a calm, late afternoon in the desert as the... self -escort when pursuit assets were unable to escort the bombers deep into enemy territory.12 The bomber was flexible and unafraid, but ACTS also

  8. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy®

    PubMed Central

    Galabov, Angel S.

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy. They have also been used in recent times for inactivation of viruses in foodstuffs, detergents or cosmetics. Below is given an overview of the data currently available on the performance of these substances when used for the latter applications (cleaning and cosmetics). These include: hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, cupric and ferric ions, per-acids ethanol, parachlorometaxylenol in a sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate, glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium salts, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine gluconate, curdline sulphate, glycerol, lipids, azodicarbonamide, cicloxolone sodium, dichlorisocyanuric acid (sodium salt), benzalkonium salts, disulfate benzamides and benzisothiazolones, congo red, ascorbic acid, nonoxynol-9, para-aminobenzoic acid, bis(monosuccinamide) derivative of p,p’-bis(2-aminoethyl) diphenlyi-C60) (fullerene). merocyanine, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A, rose bengal, hypericin, hypocrellin A, anthraquinones extracted from plants, sulfonated anthraquinones and other anthraquinone derivatives gramicidine, gossypol, garlic (Allium sativum) extract and its components: ajoene, diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thioulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, extracts of ledium, motherworth, celandine, black currant, coaberry and bilberry, extract of Cordia salicifolia, steam distillate from Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) and its component, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone from Calicarpa japonica, isoscullarein (5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone) from Scutellaria baikalensis and isoscutellarein-8-methylether, alkaloids and phytosteryl ester compounds. PMID:20200679

  9. Flavor anomalies on the eve of the Run-2 verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The RK measurement by LHCb suggests nonstandard Lepton-Universality Violation (LUV) to occur in b → sℓ+ℓ‑ decays with effects in muons rather than electrons. It is intriguing that a number of other measurements of b → sℓ+ℓ‑ transitions by LHCb and B-factories are consistent in magnitude and sign with the RK effect, and fit a coherent effective-theory picture. Further indications of nonstandard LUV are provided by the long-standing discrepancies in b → cτν transitions via the ratios R(D) and R(D∗). We review in detail the experimental situation and its rich outlook, the theoretical efforts — and their challenges — towards convincing dynamics beyond the effective-theory level, and discuss the many directions of further investigation that propagate from the current situation.

  10. [Is male violence directed towards Eve or Mary?].

    PubMed

    Noronha, C V; Daltro, M E

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses the different categories of violent death and other injuries occurred in Bahia. In Brazil, traffic accidents, homicides and suicides correspond to the third most common cause of death. Besides, violent acts tend to increase the emergency health services demand. The data were collected from the written press covering all the homicides, grave injuries and notified rapes during 1989. Police violence appeared as responsible for the death of a high proportion (24%) of young males, followed by the disagreement between criminals (18.6%). In relation to females, the quantitative dimension of crimes are lower, more diffused and registered in the family environment. The data point to the importance of male domination in the interpretation of those domestic violent acts. Resisting the ideology of women's inferiority means avoiding both injuries and homicides - a complex task for Brazilian society.

  11. From Atom to Eve: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Karen C.; Letts, Kathleen P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Catholic high school science unit on the origins of energy, matter, stars, planets, and life. Explains how the three- to four-week unit seeks to promote a unifying vision of science and religion, physics and biology, art and chemistry, education and living. (DMM)

  12. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  13. JET, the largest tokamak on the eve of DT operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, L. D.

    2016-11-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is the world's largest operating tokamak and the only such machine capable of operating with the fuel mixture (deuterium-tritium) foreseen for a fusion reactor. Since it came into operation in 1983, JET has explored fusion plasmas "in conditions and dimensions approaching those of a fusion reactor" [1]. JET has demonstrated world-record levels of fusion power and energy production, in conditions where the ratio of the fusion power generated to the input power to the plasma, Q, approaches unity.

  14. All about Eve: Secret Sharing using Quantum Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the nature of light (including classical light and photons), encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), light polarization and beamsplitters and their application to information communication. A quantum of light represents the smallest possible subdivision of radiant energy (light) and is called a photon. The QKD key generation sequence is outlined including the receiver broadcasting the initial signal indicating reception availability, timing pulses from the sender to provide reference for gated detection of photons, the sender generating photons through random polarization while the receiver detects photons with random polarization and communicating via data link to mutually establish random keys. The QKD network vision includes inter-SATCOM, point-to-point Gnd Fiber and SATCOM-fiber nodes. QKD offers an unconditionally secure method of exchanging encryption keys. Ongoing research will focus on how to increase the key generation rate.

  15. Russian Pedagogical Thinking on the Eve of October 1917.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikol' skaia, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys some of the more prominent views on education during the final years of tsarist Russia. Russian pedagogical thinking was largely influenced by progressive educational theories popular in the United States and Europe. Discusses the views and efforts of major Russian educational theorists at the time. (MJP)

  16. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... necessary for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project... San Diego, California. Construction of the Shu'luuk Wind Project within the Campo Reservation...

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 74: Distributed, asynchronous, reactive dosimetric and outcomes analysis using DICOMautomaton

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Haley; Wu, Jonn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Thomas, Steven

    2014-08-15

    Many have speculated about the future of computational technology in clinical radiation oncology. It has been advocated that the next generation of computational infrastructure will improve on the current generation by incorporating richer aspects of automation, more heavily and seamlessly featuring distributed and parallel computation, and providing more flexibility toward aggregate data analysis. In this report we describe how a recently created — but currently existing — analysis framework (DICOMautomaton) incorporates these aspects. DICOMautomaton supports a variety of use cases but is especially suited for dosimetric outcomes correlation analysis, investigation and comparison of radiotherapy treatment efficacy, and dose-volume computation. We describe: how it overcomes computational bottlenecks by distributing workload across a network of machines; how modern, asynchronous computational techniques are used to reduce blocking and avoid unnecessary computation; and how issues of out-of-date data are addressed using reactive programming techniques and data dependency chains. We describe internal architecture of the software and give a detailed demonstration of how DICOMautomaton could be used to search for correlations between dosimetric and outcomes data.

  18. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza

    PubMed Central

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2011-01-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat. PMID:22140286

  19. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated...

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 71: A 4D Multimodal Lung Phantom for Regmentation Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, D; Levesque, I R; El Naqa, I

    2014-08-15

    Segmentation and registration of medical imaging data are two processes that can be integrated (a process termed regmentation) to iteratively reinforce each other, potentially improving efficiency and overall accuracy. A significant challenge is presented when attempting to validate the joint process particularly with regards to minimizing geometric uncertainties associated with the ground truth while maintaining anatomical realism. This work demonstrates a 4D MRI, PET, and CT compatible tissue phantom with a known ground truth for evaluating registration and segmentation accuracy. The phantom consists of a preserved swine lung connected to an air pump via a PVC tube for inflation. Mock tumors were constructed from sea sponges contained within two vacuum-sealed compartments with catheters running into each one for injection of radiotracer solution. The phantom was scanned using a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner and a 0.23T Phillips MRI, and resulted in anatomically realistic images. A bifurcation tracking algorithm was implemented to provide a ground truth for evaluating registration accuracy. This algorithm was validated using known deformations of up to 7.8 cm using a separate CT scan of a human thorax. Using the known deformation vectors to compare against, 76 bifurcation points were selected. The tracking accuracy was found to have maximum mean errors of −0.94, 0.79 and −0.57 voxels in the left-right, anterior-posterior and inferior-superior directions, respectively. A pneumatic control system is under development to match the respiratory profile of the lungs to a breathing trace from an individual patient.

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 50: Common Regulatory Non-Compliances and How to Avoid Them

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), is responsible for the oversight of radiotherapy facilities containing Class II prescribed equipment in Canada. Over the past several years, ACFD has been performing compliance inspections of Class II nuclear facilities across the country (medical and otherwise), and in that time, has issued several hundred corrective actions to licensees due to non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Recently, a study was done to determine the most common regulatory non-compliances. The purpose of this poster presentation is to disseminate information to the licensee community about the nature of these non-compliances, and how they can be avoided by licensees in the future.

  2. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT

    SciTech Connect

    Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F.; Bouchard, H.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.

  4. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, 0.4 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 ± 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 ± 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 ± 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. γ-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 58: Dosimetric validation of electronic compensation for radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gräfe, James; Khan, Rao; Meyer, Tyler

    2014-08-15

    In this study we investigate the deliverability of dosimetric plans generated by the irregular surface compensator (ISCOMP) algorithm for 6 MV photon beams in Eclipse (Varian Medical System, CA). In contrast to physical tissue compensation, the electronic ISCOMP uses MLCs to dynamically modulate the fluence of a photon beam in order to deliver a uniform dose at a user defined plane in tissue. This method can be used to shield critical organs that are located within the treatment portal or improve dose uniformity by tissue compensation in inhomogeneous regions. Three site specific plans and a set of test fields were evaluated using the γ-metric of 3%/ 3 mm on Varian EPID, MapCHECK, and Gafchromic EBT3 film with a clinical tolerance of >95% passing rates. Point dose measurements with an NRCC calibrated ionization chamber were also performed to verify the absolute dose delivered. In all cases the MapCHECK measured plans met the gamma criteria. The mean passing rate for the six EBT3 film field measurements was 96.2%, with only two fields at 93.4 and 94.0% passing rates. The EPID plans passed for fields encompassing the central ∼10 × 10 cm{sup 2} region of the detector; however for larger fields and greater off-axis distances discrepancies were observed and attributed to the profile corrections and modeling of backscatter in the portal dose calculation. The magnitude of the average percentage difference for 21 ion chamber point dose measurements and 17 different fields was 1.4 ± 0.9%, and the maximum percentage difference was −3.3%. These measurements qualify the algorithm for routine clinical use subject to the same pre-treatment patient specific QA as IMRT.

  7. Getting It All Together: Career Education. A Teacher Handbook Developed by Project EVE. [Elementary Vocational Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Palatine, IL.

    The teaching developed handbook was designed to assist teachers in implementing career education instructional programs at all levels of primary and junior high school instruction. The first section provides career education concepts and materials for primary grades, offering suggested activities and a unit outline for kindergarten students.…

  8. [Borders, immigration, and international relations on the eve of World War II].

    PubMed

    Pierre, C

    1997-01-01

    The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economic crisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas." (EXCERPT)

  9. Manifest Destiny and Competing Voices on the Eve of the Cherokee Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Prentice T.

    2011-01-01

    Manifest Destiny, the idea that Providence guided the conquest and settlement of North America, is one of the most contested ideas in American culture and history. One's opinion about this central aspect of American mythology depends heavily on one's point of view. Exploring westward expansion and the Cherokee Trail of Tears with primary sources…

  10. 78 FR 75898 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... 34'49.98'' N, 121 30'29.61'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet. At the conclusion of the... receives notice of a lawful order or direction issued by an official patrol vessel shall ] obey the order... issued under authority of 33 CFR 165.1191 and 5 U.S.C. 552(a). In addition to this notice in the...

  11. 76 FR 81827 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... fireworks launch site near position 38 34'48.26'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet....84'' N, 121 30'29.59'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet. Under the provisions of 33 CFR 165... December 31, 2011 to 12:15 a.m. on January 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have...

  12. 78 FR 75248 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...: 38 34'49.98'' N, 121 30'29.61'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet. At the conclusion of the... receives notice of a lawful order or direction issued by an official patrol vessel shall obey the order or... under authority of 33 CFR 165.1191 and 5 U.S.C. 552 (a). In addition to this publication in the...

  13. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2009-11-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat.

  14. Mirrors for the Queen: A Letter from Christine de Pizan on the Eve of Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    As a rhetorical figure, the example is constitutively split between the structural vocations of the Greek "paradeigma" (emphasizing illumination and belonging) and the Latin "exemplum" (emphasizing detachment and exclusion). This bifurcation enables the example to function as a strategic resource of ambiguity. Christine de…

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 49: Unexpected Output Drops: Pitted Blackholes in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, A; Pierce, G

    2014-08-15

    During the daily measurement of radiation output of a 6 MV beam on a Varian Trilogy Linear Accelerator the output dropped below 2% and initiated a call to action by physics to determine the cause. Over the course of weeks the cause of the issue was diagnosed to be a defect in the target, resulting in a drop in output and an asymmetry of the beam. Steps were taken to return the machine to clinical service while parts were on order while ensuring the safety of patient treatment. The machine target was replaced and the machine continues to operate as expected. A drop in output is usually a rarity and a defect in the target is possibly more rare. This experience demonstrated the importance of routine QC measurement, recording and analyzing daily output and symmetry values. In addition, this event showcased the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach in a high-pressure situation to effectively troubleshoot unique events to ensure consistence, safety patient treatment.

  16. Life, Death, and Society in the Maritimes at the Eve of Confederation. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Outlines activities using the 1867 quarterly returns for the Registry of Deaths for Pictou County, Nova Scotia, to link population themes in early Canada to today's global issues. Learning activities include having students research the age of mortality, cause of death, human migration, and occupational profile. (MJP)

  17. Work and Relationship: Is Vocational Psychology on the Eve of Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…

  18. On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuhai; Laflamme, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Ediacara fossils document an important evolutionary episode just before the Cambrian explosion and hold critical information about the early evolution of macroscopic and complex multicellular life. They also represent an enduring controversy in paleontology. How are the Ediacara fossils related to living animals? How did they live? Do they share any evolutionary patterns with other life forms? Recent developments indicate that Ediacara fossils epitomize a phylogenetically diverse biosphere, probably including animals, protists, algae, fungi and others. Their simple ecology is dominated by epibenthic osmotrophs, deposit feeders and grazers, but few if any predators. Their evolution started with an early morphospace expansion followed by taxonomic diversification within confined morphospace, and concluded by extinction of many taxa at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 37: Respiratory gating with an Elekta flattening filter free photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Péloquin, S; Furstoss, C; Munger, P; Wierzbicki, W; Carrier, J-F

    2014-08-15

    In cases where surgery is not possible for lung cancer treatment, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be an option. One problem when treating this type of cancer is the motion of the lungs caused by the patient's respiration. It is possible to reduce the impact of this movement with the use of respiratory gating. By combining respiratory gating with a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam linac, the increased treatment time caused by a reduced beam-on time of respiratory gating methods can be compensated by the inherent increased dose rate of FFF beams. This project's aim is to create hardware and software interfaces allowing free respiration gating on an Elekta Synergy-S linac specially modified to deliver 6 MV FFF photon beams. First, a printed circuit board was created for reading the signal from a Bellows Belt from Philips (a respiration monitor belt) and transmitting an On/Off signal to the accelerator. A software was also developed to visualize patient respiration. Secondly, a FFF model was created with the Pinnacle treatment planning system from Philips. Gamma (Γ) analysis (2%, 2 mm) was used to evaluate model. For fields going from 5.6 × 5.6 to 12 × 12 cm{sup 2}, central axis depth dose model fitting shows an average gamma value of 0.2 and 100% of gamma values remain under the Γ = 1 limit. For smaller fields (0.8 × 0.8 and 1.6 × 1.6 cm{sup 2}), Pinnacle has more trouble trying to fit the measurements, overestimating dose in penumbra and buildup regions.

  20. Bretton Woods Institution Narratives about Inequality and Economic Vulnerability on the Eve of South African Austerity.

    PubMed

    Bond, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, at a time when National Health Insurance should be generously funded (7 years after its approval as public policy by the ruling party), state fiscal austerity appears certain to nip the initiative in the bud. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund issued separate reports about South Africa in late 2014, following a new finance minister's mid-term budget speech. In justifying austerity, they revealed 2 important conceptual blockages regarding inequality and international financial relations. The resulting political bias in the macroeconomic debate has, in turn, given neoliberal policy advocates intellectual weaponry to impose deeper austerity. In contrast, the rise of a "united front" of labor, community-based, and social movement activists, along with a vigorous left opposition party in Parliament, ensure that one of the world's most visible class struggles ratchets up in intensity in the years ahead.

  1. The two faces of Eve: gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cameron R; Spiess, Bruce D

    2010-06-01

    Gaseous anaesthesia has been a great boon for medicine. These drugs form a foundation from which modern surgery has sprung, yet their mechanism(s) of actions remains poorly understood. Inert gas narcosis is a limitation of deep sea diving, and its mechanisms also remain poorly understood. In this review article we summarise what is known about the mechanisms of both gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis, including both lipid-based biophysical models and protein-based biochemical models, as well as explore some striking similarities between the two. These two phenomena may, in reality, be gradations of the same underlying mechanism. Recent findings include biochemical evidence suggesting that both gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis may be mediated by the occupation of minute spaces within the structure of many biologically important proteins, impairing their ability to undergo conformational changes and biological actions. This is exemplified by exploring the effects of the noble gas xenon, which can behave as either a narcotic gas or gaseous anaesthetic, depending on the partial pressure in which it is present.

  2. Mending the Butterfly: The New Historicism and Keats's "Eve of St. Agnes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Argues that among the branches of historicism practiced by literary critics today, a branch of New Historicism that is broadly humanistic as opposed to narrowly political is the most illuminating. Describes the development and theoretical premises of this branch. Shows how it may be applied to the analysis of a literary work such as Keats's…

  3. Citizenship Education in the Seattle Schools on the Eve of the Japanese American Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Yoon K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the approach to citizenship education within the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools when Japanese American citizenship status was being questioned. Addresses the World War II era experiences of Japanese American students, focusing on two primary source documents: (1) a 1930's curriculum guide; and (2) a collection of classroom…

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 22: A water calorimeter for low-energy particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, J; Sarfehnia, A; Seuntjens, J; Rossomme, S; Vynckier, S

    2014-08-15

    In this work, the feasibility of absolute dose to water measurements in low-energy electron beams using a water calorimeter specifically developed for shallow measurements is established. The calorimeter design consists of a cylindrical glass vessel encased in a block of expanded polystyrene. The vessel has a front window thickness of 1.1 mm, a 4 cm radius, and is 2.5 cm in depth. The vessel-block assembly sits inside a thermally-insulated box and is air-cooled to an operating temperature of 4 °C. Radiation-induced thermal gradients were simulated in a geometric model of the calorimeter using a finite element analysis software package. 52 absorbed dose to water measurements were performed in a 6 and 8 MeV electron beam (z{sub max} of 1.32 and 1.76 cm, respectively) for 60 seconds at a repetition rate of 400 MU/min and an SSD of 120 cm. Within the vessel, the depth of measurement was set to 1.08 cm relative to the inner front window. The average measured dose to water was 59.6 ± 0.2 cGy/100 MU (6 MeV), and 63.7 ± 0.3 cGy/100 MU (8 MeV). The associated heat transfer corrections were determined to be 1.026 ± 0.003 and 1.017 ± 0.004 for the 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The most significant source of uncertainty in this study was the repeatability (type A, 0.42%). It is expected that performing fewer consecutive measurements under higher dose rate conditions will improve the stability of the thermal background, thereby improving the repeatability and reducing the overall standard uncertainty.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 20: CTDI Measurements using a Radiochromic Film-based clinical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, C.; Bekerat, H.; DeBlois, F.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was evaluating accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV-CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2 ® film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air-kerma (up to 10 cGy). Calibration curves for each beam quality were created (Film reflectance change Vs. Air-kerma in air). Film responses for same air-kerma values were compared. Film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured and tabulated CTDIvol values were compared. Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. Measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Results presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. Variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimation if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom, as suggested by TG- 111.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 08: Rotational errors with on-board cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; Webb, R.; Nyiri, B.

    2014-08-15

    The focus of this study is on the Elekta XVI on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A rotational mismatch as large as 0.5° is observed between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) CBCT scans. The error could affect non-isocentric treatments (e.g., lung SBRT and acoustic neuroma), as well as off-axis organs-at-risk. The error is caused by mislabeling of the projections with a lagging gantry angle, which is caused by the finite image acquisition time and delays in the imaging system. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with 5 mm diameter holes is used for the scanning. CW and CCW scans are acquired for five gantry speeds (360 to 120 deg./min.) on six linacs from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2, and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different x-ray pulse widths for the same mAs. In the automated CBCT analysis (using ImageJ), the CW/CCW mismatch in a series of line profiles is identified and used to calculate the rotational error. Results are consistent among all linacs and indicate that the error varies linearly with gantry speed. The finite width of the x-ray pulses is a major but predictable contributor to the delay causing the error. For 40 ms pulses, the delay is 34 ± 1 ms. A simple solution applied in our clinic is adjusting the gantry angle offset to make the CCW one-minute scans correct. A more involved approach we are currently investigating includes adjustments of pulse width and mA, resulting in focal spot changes, with potential impact on image quality.

  7. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  8. "Eve Did No Wrong": Effective Literacy at a Public College for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I test claims made about rhetorical education for women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by examining Florida State College for Women (FSCW), one of eight public women's colleges in the South. I recover the voices of instructors and students by looking both at the interweaving strands of literature, journalism,…

  9. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 54: Radiotherapy and Non-Radiotherapy Safety Practices Beyond Licensing Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Kosierb, Rick

    2014-08-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In order to perform this regulatory activity, the CNSC issue licences and has its staff perform inspections to verify conformity to the aspects of those licences. Within the CNSC, the Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) is responsible for the regulatory oversight of Class II Prescribed Equipment used in medical, academic, and industrial sectors in Canada. In performing inspections, ACFD has encountered licensees with practices that are either below, meet or exceed regulatory expectations in specific areas. Unfortunately, none of these practices are ever communicated to the broader Class II community to help other licensees avoid the same problem or achieve high standards. In this poster, ACFD will highlight safety practices that go beyond expectations. These practices are taken from observations during site inspections between 2007 and 2013 and will be presented in six areas: Procedures, Participation, Awareness, Equipment, Servicing and Software. Each area briefly discusses a number of practices that the CNSC feels went beyond the expectations dictated by the licence. Where possible, names are added of the contact people at the centres who can be reached for full details of their implementations. It is hoped that this communication will assist other licensees to achieve these same high levels of compliance and possibly go beyond.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  12. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  13. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M[sub 2] often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best. The subject, however, is in a state of flux, and one may expect rapid advancement over the next several years.

  14. Professional Schools of International Affairs on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Louis W.; And Others

    This report offers a descriptive and prescriptive discussion of changes under way at member schools of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA). It analyzes data provided by a 1994 survey of all 15 member schools on the manner and extent to which they are adapting their programs to better prepare their students to…

  15. The Y2K Problem: Will It Just Be Another New Year's Eve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanowski, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Potential problems for college and university computing functions posed by arrival of the year 2000 (Y2K) are discussed, including arithmetic calculations and sorting functions based on two-digit year dates, embedding of two-digit dates in archival data, system coordination for data exchange, unique number generation, and leap year calculations. A…

  16. The Social Studies Classroom on the Eve of the Cyber Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to integrate technology into the classroom in order to take advantage of the benefits technology has to offer students, teachers, and parents. Describes how to create a class website that enables students and parents to view information about class activities, assignments, and Internet resources. Offers some technology-based…

  17. Jupiter's Thermal Structure on the Eve of Juno's Arrival and an NEB Expansion Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Irwin, Patrick; Rogers, John; Encrenaz, Therese

    2016-04-01

    We report on a continuing program of ground-based thermal-infrared imaging spectroscopy to explore variability in Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, winds, clouds and composition in support of the NASA/Juno mission, scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Observations during the 2015/16 apparition, centred on opposition on March 8th 2016, will be presented from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) as part of a world-wide campaign to characterise the Jovian atmosphere to support Juno. Thermal and chemical contrasts, combined with the visible-light record from the amateur community, show that Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB) is presently expanding northwards. The combination of thermal and visible observations will allow us to determine the environmental conditions underlying this belt/zone variability. Radiometrically calibrated spectral scan maps of Jupiter have been regularly obtained using the TEXES instrument (Texas Echelon cross Echelle Spectrograph, Lacy et al. 2002, PASP 114, p153-168) on the IRTF since 2012, and observations are planned in January and April 2016. Ten settings between 5 and 25 μm (10-20 cm-1 wide settings at spectral resolutions of 2000-10000) were selected to be sensitive to jovian temperatures (via H2, CH4 and CH3D), tropospheric phosphine and ammonia, tropospheric haze opacity and stratospheric hydrocarbons ethane and acetylene. These will be supplemented by photometric imaging from the VLT/VISIR instrument (Lagage et al., 2004, Messenger 117, p12-16) in ten narrow-band filters to determine temperatures associated with discrete phenomena (vortices, plumes, waves) at higher diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Spectra and images are inverted via the NEMESIS retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., 2008, JSQRT 109, p1136-1150) to map temperatures at multiple altitudes (1-600 mbar), winds, aerosol opacity and gaseous composition. Our most recent observations (November 2015) revealed (i) a regular stratospheric wave pattern in stratospheric temperatures between 20 and 30°N (i.e., above the North Tropical Zone and Temperate Belt, NTropZ and NTB, respectively), possibly associated with the northward expansion of the broad North Equatorial Belt (NEB); (ii) tropospheric thermal variability along the NEB itself with correlations between aerosol variability in the 600-mbar region (sensed at 8.6 μm) and the 2-3 bar region (sensed at 5 μm). This appears to coincide with similar NEB and NTropZ wave structure observed in reflected sunlight near 2 μm, based on images from the SpeX instrument on the IRTF. Zonal mean distributions of temperature, phosphine, ammonia, aerosols and hydrocarbons will be compared to those derived by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 15 years earlier. High-resolution VLT images of the Great Red Spot will be compared between 2008 and 2016 to understand the thermochemical changes associated with its recent shrinkage. All images and maps of retrieved properties will be assembled as a database (JCliD) to aid in the interpretation of Juno data during 2016-2017.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  19. [Pierre-François Nicolas (1743-1816), apothecary, physician, chemistry teacher on the eve of the French Revolution].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Pierre-François Nicolas, was born in Saint-Mihiel in 1743, studied in this town and in St-Nicolas-de-Port near Nancy. At first he has been a military apothecary during the "Guerre de Sept-Ans". Then he studied pharmacy in Nancy and was received in 1768 at the "Maîtrise de pharmacie". With the physician Henri Michel du Tennatar, he created a teaching of chemistry for medicine students and became the professor of chemistry of the Faculty of Medicine in 1781. During these years, he published some research results about hydrology, distillery, biochemistry (phosphorus in bone), toxicology, dyeing... At the end of 1783, he succeeded in the realization of a balloon and he played an important part in Nancy during the French Revolution. Professor at the "Ecole de médecine" in Strasbourg for some weeks, then in Nancy at the "Ecole centrale" and at the "Société de santé", he left Nancy towards the mid-1798. Staying in Paris for two or three years he probably worked with Fourcroy and perhaps Chaptal and Berthollet. In the early years of the nineteenth century he was appointed professor in the "Ecole centrale" du Calvados" and some years after at the "Faculté des sciences" in Caen. His latest significant work with Gueudeville was devoted to the detection of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Retired in 1811 Pierre-François Nicolas died in Caen in 1816.

  20. [The Republic of Letters and French physicians on the eve of the French Revolution: the case of Esprit Calvet].

    PubMed

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    In the broad Republic of Letters of the second half of the eighteenth century, physicians played an important but singular role. The majority of them were forced to earn their daily bread, so only belonged to the Republic in their leisure hours. Inhabiting a double universe--the everyday world of their profession and the more refined world of their intellectual hobbies--they had to negotiate continually between the two. This liminal position of the citizen-physician is recaptured in this article through the example of a physician of the Midi, Esprit Calvet of Avignon (1728--1810). Calvet left a huge correspondence, thanks to which this duality between the practising physician and the citizen of the Republic of Letters can be studied in detail. On the one hand, this is a correspondence between the physician and his patients, augmented by letters between the physician and other physicians on medical topics. On the other hand, it is a correspondence between the physician and other men of science on non-medical subjects (archaeology, botany, bibliophily, poetry, etc.).

  1. 77 FR 75557 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... USCG-2012-1041. To view documents mentioned in this preamble as being available in the docket, go to.... 0 2. Add a temporary Sec. 165.T07-1041 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T07-1041 Safety Zones; New...

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 57: Evaluation of laryngeal mucosal dose with conventional linac and TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nusrat, H; Lekx, K; Eapen, L

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not underdosing occurs in the mucosal layer during treatment of glottis cancer. A larynx phantom was produced and regions at risk of recurrence due to suspected underdosing were identified and wells drilled into the phantom for flush placement of TLDs. Seven interest points were chosen. CT simulation was completed prior to the wells being drilled, and again afterwards with the TLD locations indicated using BBs. Treatment plans created for this investigation included: 3DCRT using Elekta-XiO (n=9) and VMAT created using Elekta-Monaco (n=9), both delivered on an Elekta linac; standard TomoTherapy plan (n=11) and a directionally blocked TomoTherapy plan to approximate a 3D-conformal approach (n=5). Imaging dose during TomoTherapy deliveries was accounted for. The average TLD result at each interest point was compared to the planned value using a paired t-test. There was no significant difference between the planned and measured 3DCRT dose (268.9 vs. 267.0 cGy, respectively; p>0.05). Similarly, the planned and measured TomoTherapy treatment did not show any significant differences (271.7 vs 269.7 cGy; p>0.05). In the blocked TomoTherapy plan, significant overdosing was seen (274.5 vs 294.9 cGy; p<0.05) and underdosing was not seen in the VMAT treatment (303.5 vs 321.8 cGy; p>0.05). Further investigation is ongoing to ensure appropriate normalization of results and to investigate the overdosing noted with the blocked TomoTherapy plan. Results from this study suggest that significant underdosing does not occur in the conventional treatment of early glottic cancer using 6MV photons.

  3. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 7: Philosophy behind a Map: Macrobius, A.D. 1483.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the first map to divide the globe into five symmetrical climatic zones. Discusses Ambrosius Macrobius's map as a statement of earthly limitations rather than physical reality. Suggests its significance for teaching world history is as an example of deductive cartography that influenced and challenged late medieval Christian thought. (DK)

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 40: Automated Quality Assurance for Remote-Afterloading High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anthony; Ravi, Ananth

    2014-08-15

    High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading brachytherapy involves sending a small, high-activity radioactive source attached to a cable to different positions within a hollow applicator implanted in the patient. It is critical that the source position within the applicator and the dwell time of the source are accurate. Daily quality assurance (QA) tests of the positional and dwell time accuracy are essential to ensure that the accuracy of the remote afterloader is not compromised prior to patient treatment. Our centre has developed an automated, video-based QA system for HDR brachytherapy that is dramatically superior to existing diode or film QA solutions in terms of cost, objectivity, positional accuracy, with additional functionalities such as being able to determine source dwell time and transit time of the source. In our system, a video is taken of the brachytherapy source as it is sent out through a position check ruler, with the source visible through a clear window. Using a proprietary image analysis algorithm, the source position is determined with respect to time as it moves to different positions along the check ruler. The total material cost of the video-based system was under $20, consisting of a commercial webcam and adjustable stand. The accuracy of the position measurement is ±0.2 mm, and the time resolution is 30 msec. Additionally, our system is capable of robustly verifying the source transit time and velocity (a test required by the AAPM and CPQR recommendations), which is currently difficult to perform accurately.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 18: Cherenkov Emission By High-Energy Radiation Therapy Beams: A Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zlateva, Y.; El Naqa, I.; Quitoriano, N.

    2014-08-15

    We investigate Cherenkov emission (CE) by radiotherapy beams via radiation dose-versus-CE correlation analyses, CE detection optimization by means of a spectral shift towards the near-infrared (NIR) window of biological tissue, and comparison of CE to on-board MV imaging. Dose-CE correlation was investigated via simulation and experiment. A Monte Carlo (MC) CE simulator was designed using Geant4. Experimental phantoms include: water; tissue-simulating phantom composed of water, Intralipid®, and beef blood; plastic phantom with solid water insert. The detector system comprises an optical fiber and diffraction-grating spectrometer incorporating a front/back-illuminated CCD. The NIR shift was carried out with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), emitting at (650±10) nm. CE and MV images were acquired with a CMOS camera and electronic portal imaging device. MC and experimental studies indicate a strong linear dose-CE correlation (Pearson coefficient > 0.99). CE by an 18-MeV beam was effectively NIR-shifted in water and a tissue-simulating phantom, exhibiting a significant increase at 650 nm for QD depths up to 10 mm. CE images exhibited relative contrast superior to MV images by a factor of 30. Our work supports the potential for application of CE in radiotherapy online imaging for patient setup and treatment verification, since CE is intrinsic to the beam and non-ionizing and QDs can be used to improve CE detectability, potentially yielding image quality superior to MV imaging for the case of low-density-variability, low-optical-attenuation materials (ex: breast/oropharynx). Ongoing work involves microenvironment functionalization of QDs and application of multi-channel spectrometry for simultaneous acquisition of dosimetric and tumor oxygenation signals.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-08-15

    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 13: Inter-Fraction Target Movement in Image-Guided Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Congwu; Zeng, Grace G.

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the setup variations over the treatment courses of 113 patients with intact prostate treated with 78Gy/39fx. Institutional standard bladder and bowel preparation and image guidance protocols were used in CT simulation and treatment. The RapidArc treatment plans were optimized in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system and delivered on Varian 2100X Clinacs equipped with On-Board Imager to localize the target before beam-on. The setup variations were calculated in terms of mean and standard deviation of couch shifts. No correlation was observed between the mean shift and standard deviation over the treatment course and patient age, initial prostate volume and rectum size. The mean shifts in the first and last 5 fractions are highly correlated (P < 10{sup −10}) while the correlation of the standard deviations cannot be determined. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate trends of the mean daily Ant-Post and Sup-Inf shifts of the group. The target is inferior by ∼1mm to the planned position when the treatment starts and moves superiorly, approaching the planned position at 10th fraction, and then gradually moves back inferiorly by ∼1mm in the remain fractions. In the Ant-Post direction, the prostate gradually moves posteriorly during the treatment course from a mean shift of ∼2.5mm in the first fraction to ∼1mm in the last fraction. It may be related to a systematic rectum size change in the progress of treatment. The biased mean shifts in Ant-Post and Sup-Inf direction of most patients suggest systematically larger rectum and smaller bladder during the treatment than at CT simulation.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 43: Monte Carlo Modeling of Flattening Filter Free Beams and Studies of Relative Output Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams have been adopted by many clinics and used for patient treatment. However, compared to the traditional flattened beams, we have limited knowledge of FFF beams. In this study, we successfully modeled the 6 MV FFF beam for Varian TrueBeam accelerator with the Monte Carlo (MC) method. Both the percentage depth dose and profiles match well to the Golden Beam Data (GBD) from Varian. MC simulations were then performed to predict the relative output factors. The in-water output ratio, Scp, was simulated in water phantom and data obtained agrees well with GBD. The in-air output ratio, Sc, was obtained by analyzing the phase space placed at isocenter, in air, and computing the ratio of water Kerma rates for different field sizes. The phantom scattering factor, Sp, can then be obtained from the traditional way of taking the ratio of Scp and Sc. We also simulated Sp using a recently proposed method based on only the primary beam dose delivery in water phantom. Because there is no concern of lateral electronic disequilibrium, this method is more suitable for small fields. The results from both methods agree well with each other. The flattened 6 MV beam was simulated and compared to 6 MV FFF. The comparison confirms that 6 MV FFF has less scattering from the Linac head and less phantom scattering contribution to the central axis dose, which will be helpful for improving accuracy in beam modeling and dose calculation in treatment planning systems.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 52: A Web-based Platform for Collaborative Document Management in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kildea, J.; Joseph, A.

    2014-08-15

    We describe DepDocs, a web-based platform that we have developed to manage the committee meetings, policies, procedures and other documents within our otherwise paperless radiotherapy clinic. DepDocs is essentially a document management system based on the popular Drupal content management software. For security and confidentiality, it is hosted on a linux server internal to our hospital network such that documents are never sent to the cloud or outside of the hospital firewall. We used Drupal's in-built role-based user rights management system to assign a role, and associated document editing rights, to each user. Documents are accessed for viewing using either a simple Google-like search or by generating a list of related documents from a taxonomy of categorization terms. Our system provides document revision tracking and an document review and approval mechanism for all official policies and procedures. Committee meeting schedules, agendas and minutes are maintained by committee chairs and are restricted to committee members. DepDocs has been operational within our department for over six months and has already 45 unique users and an archive of over 1000 documents, mostly policies and procedures. Documents are easily retrievable from the system using any web browser within our hospital's network.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 25: Sensitivity to inhomogeneities for an in-vivo EPID dosimetry method

    SciTech Connect

    Peca, Stefano; Brown, Derek

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: The electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has the potential to be used for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy as an additional dose delivery check. We recently proposed a simple method of using the EPID for 2D-IVD based on correlation ratios. In this work we have investigated the sensitivity of our EPID-IVD to inhomogeneities. Methods: We used slab phantoms that simulate water, bone, and lung, arranged in various geometries. To simulate body contours non-orthogonal to the field, we used a water wedge. CT data of these phantoms was imported into MATLAB, in conjunction with EPID images acquired during irradiation, to calculate dose inside the phantom in isocenter plane. Each phantom was irradiated using a linear accelerator while images were acquired with the EPID (cine mode). Comparisons between EPID-calculated and TPS dose maps were: pixel-by-pixel dose difference, and 3%,3mm gamma evaluation. Results: In the homogeneous case, CAX dose difference was <1%, and 3%,3mm gamma analysis yielded 99% of points with gamma<1. For the inhomogeneous phantoms, agreement decreased with increasing inhomogeneity reaching up to 10% CAX dose difference with 10cm of lung. Results from the water wedge phantom suggest that the EPID-calculated dose can account for surface irregularities of approximately ±3cm. Conclusions: The EPID-based IVD investigated has limitations in the presence of large inhomogeneities. Nonetheless, CAX doses never differed by >15% from the TPS. This suggests that this EPID-IVD is capable of detecting gross dose delivery errors even in the presence of inhomogeneities, supporting its utility as an additional patient safety device.

  12. Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning: The Case of EVE Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouras, Christos; Triglianos, Vasileios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional Collaborative Virtual Environments are a powerful form of collaborative telecommunication applications, enabling the users to share a common three-dimensional space and interact with each other as well as with the environment surrounding them, in order to collaboratively solve problems or aid learning processes. Such an…

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 59: Atlas Selection for Automated Segmentation of Pelvic CT for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mallawi, A; Farrell, T; Diamond, K; Wierzbicki, M

    2014-08-15

    Automated atlas-based segmentation has recently been evaluated for use in planning prostate cancer radiotherapy. In the typical approach, the essential step is the selection of an atlas from a database that best matches the target image. This work proposes an atlas selection strategy and evaluates its impact on the final segmentation accuracy. Prostate length (PL), right femoral head diameter (RFHD), and left femoral head diameter (LFHD) were measured in CT images of 20 patients. Each subject was then taken as the target image to which all remaining 19 images were affinely registered. For each pair of registered images, the overlap between prostate and femoral head contours was quantified using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Finally, we designed an atlas selection strategy that computed the ratio of PL (prostate segmentation), RFHD (right femur segmentation), and LFHD (left femur segmentation) between the target subject and each subject in the atlas database. Five atlas subjects yielding ratios nearest to one were then selected for further analysis. RFHD and LFHD were excellent parameters for atlas selection, achieving a mean femoral head DSC of 0.82 ± 0.06. PL had a moderate ability to select the most similar prostate, with a mean DSC of 0.63 ± 0.18. The DSC obtained with the proposed selection method were slightly lower than the maximums established using brute force, but this does not include potential improvements expected with deformable registration. Atlas selection based on PL for prostate and femoral diameter for femoral heads provides reasonable segmentation accuracy.

  14. General circulation models of the dynamics of Pluto's volatile transport on the eve of the New Horizons encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; French, Richard G.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Guzewich, Scott D.; Zhu, Xun; Richardson, Mark I.

    2015-07-01

    Pluto's atmospheric dynamics occupy an interesting regime in which the radiative time constant is quite long, the combined effects of high obliquity and a highly eccentric orbit can produce strong seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure, and the strong coupling between the atmosphere and volatile transport on the surface results in atmospheric flows that are quite sensitive to surface and subsurface properties that at present are poorly constrained by direct observations. In anticipation of the New Horizons encounter with the Pluto system in July 2015, we present a Pluto-specific three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM), PlutoWRF, incorporating the most accurate current radiative transfer models of Pluto's atmosphere, a physically robust treatment of nitrogen volatile transport, and the flexibility to accommodate richly detailed information about the surface and subsurface conditions as new data become available. We solve for a physically self-consistent, equilibrated combination of surface, subsurface, and atmospheric conditions to specify the boundary conditions and initial state values for each GCM run. This is accomplished using two reduced versions of PlutoWRF: a two-dimensional surface volatile exchange model to specify the properties of surface nitrogen ice and the initial atmospheric surface pressure, and a one-dimensional radiative-conductive-convective model that uses the two-dimensional model predictions to determine the corresponding global-mean atmospheric thermal profile. We illustrate the capabilities of PlutoWRF in predicting Pluto's general circulation, thermal state, and volatile transport of nitrogen by calculating the dynamical response of Pluto's atmosphere, based on four different idealized models of Pluto's surface ice distribution from Young (Young, L.A. [2013]. Astrophys. J. 766, L22) and Hansen et al. (Hansen, C.J., Paige, D.A., Young, L.A. [2015]. Icarus 246, 183). Our GCM runs typically span 30 years, from 1985 to 2015, covering the period from the discovery of Pluto's atmosphere to present. For most periods simulated, zonal winds are strongly forced by a gradient wind balance, relaxing in later (recent) years to an angular momentum conservation balance of the seasonal polar cap sublimation flow. Near-surface winds generally follow a sublimation flow from the sunlit polar cap to the polar night cap, with a Coriolis turning of the wind as the air travels from pole to pole. We demonstrate the strong contribution of nitrogen sublimation and deposition to Pluto's atmospheric circulation. As New Horizons data become available, PlutoWRF can be used to construct models of Pluto's atmospheric dynamics and surface wind regimes more constrained by physical observations.

  15. 76 FR 72842 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... displays on certain navigable waterways in Naples, St. Petersburg, Cape Coral, and Sarasota, Florida. These... from 8:30 p.m. on December 31, 2011 until 12:30 a.m. on January 1, 2012. 3. Cape Coral, Florida. All..., 2012. (3) Cape Coral, FL. All waters within a 235 yard radius of position 26 32'15'' N., 81 59'57''...

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 27: Flattening Filter Free VMAT Quality Assurance: Dose Rate Considerations for Detector Response

    SciTech Connect

    Viel, Francis; Duzenli, Cheryl; Camborde, Marie-Laure; Strgar, Vincent; Horwood, Ron; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias; Karan, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Radiation detector responses can be affected by dose rate. Due to higher dose per pulse and wider range of mu rates in FFF beams, detector responses should be characterized prior to implementation of QA protocols for FFF beams. During VMAT delivery, the MU rate may also vary dramatically within a treatment fraction. This study looks at the dose per pulse variation throughout a 3D volume for typical VMAT plans and the response characteristics for a variety of detectors, and makes recommendations on the design of QA protocols for FFF VMAT QA. Materials and Methods: Linac log file data and a simplified dose calculation algorithm are used to calculate dose per pulse for a variety of clinical VMAT plans, on a voxel by voxel basis, as a function of time in a cylindrical phantom. Diode and ion chamber array responses are characterized over the relevant range of dose per pulse and dose rate. Results: Dose per pulse ranges from <0.1 mGy/pulse to 1.5 mGy/pulse in a typical VMAT treatment delivery using the 10XFFF beam. Diode detector arrays demonstrate increased sensitivity to dose (+./− 3%) with increasing dose per pulse over this range. Ion chamber arrays demonstrate decreased sensitivity to dose (+/− 1%) with increasing dose rate over this range. Conclusions: QA protocols should be designed taking into consideration inherent changes in detector sensitivity with dose rate. Neglecting to account for changes in detector response with dose per pulse can lead to skewed QA results.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 69: Computational Study of DVH-guided Cancer Treatment Planning Optimization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomi, Pooyan Shirvani; Zinchenko, Yuriy

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare methods to incorporate the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) curves into the treatment planning optimization. Method: The performance of three methods, namely, the conventional Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model, a convex moment-based constrained optimization approach, and an unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach, is compared using anonymized data of a prostate cancer patient. Three plans we generated using the corresponding optimization models. Four Organs at Risk (OARs) and one Tumor were involved in the treatment planning. The OARs and Tumor were discretized into total of 50,221 voxels. The number of beamlets was 943. We used commercially available optimization software Gurobi and Matlab to solve the models. Plan comparison was done by recording the model runtime followed by visual inspection of the resulting dose volume histograms. Conclusion: We demonstrate the effectiveness of the moment-based approaches to replicate the set of prescribed DVH curves. The unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach is concluded to have the greatest potential to reduce the computational effort and holds a promise of substantial computational speed up.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 09: Evaluation of electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion algorithms using an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Brige Paul; Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-08-15

    Integration of biological conductivity information provided by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with anatomical information provided by Computed Tomography (CT) imaging could improve the ability to characterize tissues in clinical applications. In this paper, we report results of our study which compared the fusion of EIT with CT using three different image fusion algorithms, namely: weighted averaging, wavelet fusion, and ROI indexing. The ROI indexing method of fusion involves segmenting the regions of interest from the CT image and replacing the pixels with the pixels of the EIT image. The three algorithms were applied to a CT and EIT image of an anthropomorphic phantom, constructed out of five acrylic contrast targets with varying diameter embedded in a base of gelatin bolus. The imaging performance was assessed using Detectability and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). Wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing resulted in lower Detectability (by 35% and 47%, respectively) yet higher SSIM (by 66% and 73%, respectively) than weighted averaging. Our results suggest that wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing yielded more consistent and optimal fusion performance than weighted averaging.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-08-15

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 56: Design of Quality Assurance Methodology for VMAT system on Agility System equipped with CVDR

    SciTech Connect

    Thind, K; Tolakanahalli, R

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of designing comprehensive QA plans using iComCAT for Elekta machines equipped with Agility multileaf collimator and continuously variable dose rate. Test plans with varying MLC speed, gantry speed, and dose rate were created and delivered in a controlled manner. A strip test was designed with three 1 cm MLC positions and delivered using dynamic, StepNShoot and VMAT techniques. Plans were also designed to test error in MLC position with various gantry speeds and various MLC speeds. The delivery fluence was captured using the electronic portal-imaging device. Gantry speed was found to be within tolerance as per the Canadian standards. MLC positioning errors at higher MLC speed with gravity effects does add more than 2 mm discrepancy. More tests need to be performed to evaluate MLC performance using independent measurement systems. The treatment planning system with end-to-end testing necessary for commissioning was also investigated and found to have >95% passing rates within 3%/3mm gamma criteria. Future studies involve performing off-axis gantry starshot pattern and repeating the tests on three matched Elekta linear accelerators.

  1. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 3. The First Printed World Map, 1472 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the first printed world map from 1472. Discusses the style development consisting of a circle of land surrounded by ocean and divided into three continents by water. Includes explanations of the ocean sea, continents, decorations, and locations, and the map's significance as a representation of a unified world view. (DK)

  2. Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnard, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

  3. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 5: Ptolemy's Map of the World, A.D. 1478.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes Ptolemy's map of the world. Discusses the idea of mapping the ecumene or known world. Lists Ptolemy's map making conventions still in use today including location of north at the top, 90 degrees latitude between the equator and each pole, and style of representing physical features. Emphasizes Ptolemy's view of the world as dynamic. (DK)

  4. Dimitrios Mavrokordatos (1811-1839), the eve of the Hellenic School of Anatomy in modern era Greece.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Androutsos, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Dimitrios Alexandrou Mavrokordatos was the first regular professor of Anatomy and Physiology of the Hellenic "Othonian" University of Athens. He had completed his studies in Germany and thus he had been chosen to stimulate the empirical physicians of Greece to awaken. He died young, but his passion was so great that he had published a masterpiece in the new Greece, "On the anatomy of the human body", and left his fortune for his pupils, even though they had rebelled against him sometime before his death. With his teaching and book he established a kind of Greek "nomina anatomica" which formed the basis for medicine in the newly born country.

  5. The Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Set-point theory is the main research paradigm in the field of subjective well-being (SWB). It has been extended and refined for 30 years to take in new results. The central plank of the theory is that adult set-points do not change, except temporarily in the face of major life events. There was always some "discordant data," including…

  6. The Wisdom of Eve: On Differentiating the Colours of Emotion that May Be Threats to Good Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Williams A.; Adetoun, Bolanle Eliz; Adewuyi, Modupe Fal; Akande, Titilola Ikeoluwa E.; Ntshanga, L. P. Z.; Dlamini, Balin; Williamson, James T.; Dladla, Nomvul; Hlongwane, Zama; Ibeagu, Osad; Osagie, Erh J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion's twin roles-"unite and divide" our daily life, thus motivating the good and the worst in human behaviour. The way one "feels" does influence the way one "acts" toward others. If this reasoning is correct, then behaviour can never be without motive or "motiveless." Given the importance of emotions in human communication and decision…

  7. A Review of Extra-Syllabus Programmes of Government College of Teacher Education, Trivandrum on the Eve of Its Centenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    Most teacher education institutions in India have charted out programmes well in tune with the syllabus prescribed by the University to which they are affiliated. But some institutions have tended to tread a different path. These are institutions which are over fifty years old and have set a tradition of its own. A closer study of older teacher…

  8. Helping Eve overcome ADAM: G-quadruplexes in the ADAM-15 promoter as new molecular targets for breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert V; Gaerig, Vanessa C; Simmons, Taesha; Brooks, Tracy A

    2013-12-05

    ADAM-15, with known zymogen, secretase, and disintegrin activities, is a catalytically active member of the ADAM family normally expressed in early embryonic development and aberrantly expressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate and lung. ADAM-15 promotes extracellular shedding of E-cadherin, a soluble ligand for the HER2/neu receptor, leading to activation, increased motility, and proliferation. Targeted downregulation of both ADAM-15 and HER2/neu function synergistically kills breast cancer cells, but to date there are no therapeutic options for decreasing ADAM-15 function or expression. In this vein, we have examined a unique string of guanine-rich DNA within the critical core promoter of ADAM-15. This region of DNA consists of seven contiguous runs of three or more consecutive guanines, which, under superhelical stress, can relax from duplex DNA to form an intrastrand secondary G-quadruplex (G4) structure. Using biophysical and biological techniques, we have examined the G4 formation within the entire and various truncated regions of the ADAM-15 promoter, and demonstrate strong intrastrand G4 formation serving to function as a biological silencer element. Characterization of the predominant G4 species formed within the ADAM-15 promoter will allow for specific drug targeting and stabilization, and the further development of novel, targeted therapeutics.

  9. An introduction to guinea worm on the eve of its departure: dracunculiasis transmission, health effects, ecology and control.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1996-11-01

    A broad ranging discussion of the basic nature of guinea worm disease, fused with personal field observations in Ghana, shows its long-overlooked serious clinical aspects, and the many environmental and social influences that explain its persistence in the face of control efforts. It is a disease of neglect par excellence in remote rural areas. The global eradication campaign (which is not reviewed here) may be expected to come to closure over the next half decade. This account offers an overview, synthesis, and interpretation of a fascinating example in disease ecology at the time of its global vanishing.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 66: Robustness Assessment of a Novel IMRT Planning Method for Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanj, M.; Bissonnette, J.-P.; Heath, E.; McCann, C.

    2014-08-15

    Conventional radiotherapy treatment planning for lung cancer accounts for tumour motion by increasing the beam apertures. We recently developed an IMRT planning strategy which uses reduced beam apertures in combination with an edge enhancing boost of 110% of the prescription dose to the volume that corresponds to the portion of the CTV that moves outside of the reduced beam. Previous results showed that this approach ensures target coverage while reducing lung dose. In the current study, we evaluate the robustness of this boost volume approach to changes in respiratory motion, including amplitude and phase weight variations. ITV and boost volume plans were generated for 5 NSCLC patients with respiratory motion amplitudes ranging from 1 to 2 cm. A standard 5mm PTV margin was used for all plans. The ORBIT treatment planning tool was used to plan and accumulate dose over 10 respiratory phases defined by the 4DCT datasets. For the phase weight variation study, dose was accumulated for three scenarios: equally-weighted-phases, higher weight assigned to exhale phases and higher weight assigned to inhale phases. For the amplitude variation study, a numerical phantom was used to generate 4DCT datasets corresponding to 7 mm, 10 mm and 14 mm motion amplitudes. Preliminary results found that delivered plans for all phase weight scenarios were clinically acceptable. When normalized to mean lung dose, the boost volume plan delivered 5% more dose to the CTV which indicates the potential for dose escalation using this approach.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 16: 4DCT simulation with synchronized contrast injection of liver SBRT patients

    SciTech Connect

    Karotki, A.; Korol, R.; Milot, L.; Chu, W.; Chung, H. T.; Erler, D.

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as a valid option for treating liver metastases. SBRT delivers highly conformai dose over a small number of fractions. As such it is particularly sensitive to the accuracy of target volume delineation by the radiation oncologist. However, contouring liver metastases remains challenging for the following reasons. First, the liver usually undergoes significant motion due to respiration. Second, liver metastases are often nearly indistinguishable from the surrounding tissue when using computed tomography (CT) for imaging making it difficult to identify and delineate them. Both problems can be overcome by using four dimensional CT (4DCT) synchronized with intravenous contrast injection. We describe a novel CT simulation process which involves two 4DCT scans. The first scan captures the tumor and immediately surrounding tissue which in turn reduces the 4DCT scan time so that it can be optimally timed with intravenous contrast injection. The second 4DCT scan covers a larger volume and is used as the primary CT dataset for dose calculation, as well as patient setup verification on the treatment unit. The combination of two 4DCT scans, short and long, allows visualization of the liver metastases over all phases of breathing cycle while simultaneously acquiring long enough 4DCT dataset suitable for planning and patient setup verification.

  13. 76 FR 78154 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... on certain navigable waterways in Miami Beach and West Palm Beach, Florida. These safety zones are... from 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2011 until 12:30 a.m. on January 1, 2012. 3. West Palm Beach, Florida... 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2011 until 12:30 a.m. on January 1, 2012. (3) West Palm Beach, FL....

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 76: Dosimetric Comparison of Pinnacle and iPlan Algorithms with an Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.; Tambasco, M.; LaFontaine, R.; Burns, L.

    2014-08-15

    Our goal is to compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms in an anthropomorphic lung phantom using measurement as the gold standard. Ion chamber measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a CIRS E2E SBRT Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom, which mimics lung, spine, ribs, and tissue. The plan implemented six beams with a 5×5 cm{sup 2} field size, delivering a total dose of 48 Gy. Data from the planning systems were computed at the treatment isocenter in the left lung, and two off-axis points, the spinal cord and the right lung. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber. The best results between data from the algorithms and our measurements occur at the treatment isocenter. For the 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 0.3%, 0.2%, and 4.2% absolute percent difference from measurement, respectively. Differences between our measurements and algorithm data are much greater for the off-axis points. The best agreement seen for the right lung and spinal cord is 11.4% absolute percent difference with 6 MV iPlan 4.1 PB and 18 MV iPlan 4.1 MC, respectively. As energy increases absolute percent difference from measured data increases up to 54.8% for the 18 MV CCCS algorithm. This study suggests that iPlan 4.1 MC computes peripheral dose and target dose in the lung more accurately than the iPlan 4.1 PB and Pinnicale CCCS algorithms.

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 41: Considerations for Patients with Permanently Implant Radioactive Sources Requiring Unrelated Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Basran, P. S; Beckham, WA; Baxter, P

    2014-08-15

    Permanent implant of sealed radioactive sources is an effective technique for treating cancer. Typically, the radioactive sources are implanted in and near the disease, depositing dose locally over several months. There may be instances where these patients must undergo unrelated surgical procedures when the radioactive material remains active enough to pose risks. This work explores these risks, discusses strategies to mitigate those risks, and describes a case study for a permanent I-125 prostate brachytherapy implant patient who developed colo-rectal cancer and required surgery 6 months after brachytherapy. The first consideration is identifying the risk from unwarranted radiation to the patient and staff before, during, and after the surgical procedure. The second is identifying the risk the surgical procedure may have on the efficacy of the brachytherapy implant. Finally, there are considerations for controlling for radioactive substances from a regulatory perspective. After these risks are defined, strategies to mitigate those risks are considered. These strategies may include applying the concepts of ALARA, the use of protective equipment and developing a best practice strategy with the operating room team. We summarize this experience with some guidelines: If the surgical procedure is near (ex: 5 cm) of the implant; and, the surgical intervention may dislodge radioisotopes enough to compromise treatment or introduces radiation safety risks; and, the radioisotope has not sufficiently decayed to background levels; and, the surgery cannot be postponed, then a detailed analysis of risk is advised.

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 53: Novel Technique for the Measurement of Ultra-Superficial Doses Using Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos, M.; Devic, S.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Dose build-up and electron contamination are two closely related quantities with important implications in radiotherapy, yet they are quite difficult to measure with great certainty. We present a novel technique for measuring ultra-superficial doses. Method and Materials: We used Gafchromic EBT-3 film which have an effective point of measurement of roughly 153 micros (effective depth in water). By peeling off one of the polyester layers, the active layer becomes the top layer and we obtain a film with a effective point of measurement of 15 microns (effective depth in water). A film calibration was performed using a 180 kVp orthovoltage beam. Since the active layer of the film may have been compressed or perturbed during the peeling of clear polyester we use a triple-channel film calibration technique to minimize the effects of non-uniformity in the active layer. We measured surface doses of orthovoltage beams with lead cutouts in place to introduce contaminant photoelectrons. Results: Our measurements show that the dose enhancement near the edges of the lead were about 125% relative to central axis for 6 cm diameter cutouts up to 170% for 2 cm diameter cutouts, which were within 5% of our EGSnrc based Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 70: Automatic lung bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Labine, Alexandre; Carrier, Jean-François; Bedwani, Stéphane; Chav, Ramnada; De Guise, Jacques

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate an automatic bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration (DIR) assessment to improve lung cancer radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT datasets were acquired and exported to Varian treatment planning system (TPS) EclipseTM for contouring. The lungs TPS contour was used as the prior shape for a segmentation algorithm based on hierarchical surface deformation that identifies the deformed lungs volumes of the 10 breathing phases. Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold filter was applied within the segmented lung volumes to identify blood vessels and airways. Segmented blood vessels and airways were skeletonised using a hierarchical curve-skeleton algorithm based on a generalized potential field approach. A graph representation of the computed skeleton was generated to assign one of three labels to each node: the termination node, the continuation node or the branching node. Results: 320 ± 51 bifurcations were detected in the right lung of a patient for the 10 breathing phases. The bifurcations were visually analyzed. 92 ± 10 bifurcations were found in the upper half of the lung and 228 ± 45 bifurcations were found in the lower half of the lung. Discrepancies between ten vessel trees were mainly ascribed to large deformation and in regions where the HU varies. Conclusions: We established an automatic method for DIR assessment using the morphological information of the patient anatomy. This approach allows a description of the lung's internal structure movement, which is needed to validate the DIR deformation fields for accurate 4D cancer treatment planning.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 61: A new framework for MPERT plan optimization using MC-DAO

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M; Lloyd, S AM; Townson, R; Bush, K; Gagne, I M; Zavgorodni, S

    2014-08-15

    This work combines the inverse planning technique known as Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and combined electron and photon therapy plans. In particular, determining conditions under which Modulated Photon/Electron Radiation Therapy (MPERT) produces better dose conformality and sparing of organs at risk than traditional IMRT plans is central to the project. Presented here are the materials and methods used to generate and manipulate the DAO procedure. Included is the introduction of a powerful Java-based toolkit, the Aperture-based Monte Carlo (MC) MPERT Optimizer (AMMO), that serves as a framework for optimization and provides streamlined access to underlying particle transport packages. Comparison of the toolkit's dose calculations to those produced by the Eclipse TPS and the demonstration of a preliminary optimization are presented as first benchmarks. Excellent agreement is illustrated between the Eclipse TPS and AMMO for a 6MV photon field. The results of a simple optimization shows the functioning of the optimization framework, while significant research remains to characterize appropriate constraints.

  19. 75 FR 78726 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... miscellaneous pieces of plastic trim, which are assembled together in the United States with U.S.-made battery..., bolts, screws, and plastic push-ins. Station 2: The batteries, motor, controller, solenoid, wiring... assembly rack. Station 4: The deep cycle batteries, upright canopy supports, canopy top, seat bottom...

  20. Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Staller, Max V; Vincent, Ben J; Bragdon, Meghan D J; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H

    2015-01-20

    Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA--it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two "shadow enhancers" use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern.

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 35: The impact of intensity- and energy-modulated photon radiotherapy (XMRT) optimization on a variety of organ geometries

    SciTech Connect

    McGeachy, P.; Villarreal-Barajas, J. E.; Khan, R.; Zinchenko, Y.

    2014-08-15

    We previously reported on a novel, modulated in both energy and intensity; photon radiotherapy (XMRT) optimization technique. The purpose of this investigation was to test this XMRT optimization against conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) optimization on four different organ test geometries. All geometries mimicked clinically relevant scenarios. Both IMRT and XMRT were based on a linear programming approach where the objective function was the mean dose to healthy organs and organ-specific linear dose-point constraints were used. For IMRT, the beam energy was fixed to 6 MV while XMRT optimized in terms of both 6 and 18 MV beams. All plans consisted of a seven beam coplanar arrangement. All organ geometries were contoured on a 25cm diameter cylindrical water phantom in open source radiotherapy research software known as CERR. Solutions for both IMRT and XMRT were obtained for each geometry using a numerical solver Gurobi. Analyzing the quality of the solutions was done by comparing dose distributions and dose volume histograms calculated using CERR. For all four geometries, IMRT and XMRT solutions were comparable in terms of target coverage. For two of the geometries, IMRT provided an advantage in terms of reduced dose to the healthy structures. XMRT showed improved dose reduction to healthy organs for one geometry and a comparable dose distribution to IMRT for the remaining geometry. The inability to exploit the benefits of using multiple energies may be attributed to limited water phantom diameter and having the majority of the organs in close proximity to the transverse axis.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 46: Monte Carlo model of the Novalis Classic 6MV stereotactic linear accelerator using the GATE simulation platform

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J; Ploquin, N

    2014-08-15

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is accepted as the most accurate method to predict dose deposition when compared to other methods in radiation treatment planning. Current dose calculation algorithms used for treatment planning can become inaccurate when small radiation fields and tissue inhomogeneities are present. At our centre the Novalis Classic linear accelerator (linac) is used for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS). The first MC model to date of the Novalis Classic linac was developed at our centre using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) simulation platform. GATE is relatively new, open source MC software built from CERN's Geometry and Tracking 4 (Geant4) toolkit. The linac geometry was modeled using manufacturer specifications, as well as in-house measurements of the micro MLC's. Among multiple model parameters, the initial electron beam was adjusted so that calculated depth dose curves agreed with measured values. Simulations were run on the European Grid Infrastructure through GateLab. Simulation time is approximately 8 hours on GateLab for a complete head model simulation to acquire a phase space file. Current results have a majority of points within 3% of the measured dose values for square field sizes ranging from 6×6 mm{sup 2} to 98×98 mm{sup 2} (maximum field size on the Novalis Classic linac) at 100 cm SSD. The x-ray spectrum was determined from the MC data as well. The model provides an investigation into GATE'S capabilities and has the potential to be used as a research tool and an independent dose calculation engine for clinical treatment plans.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 67: Tangential Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT): A Novel Technique using Megavoltage Photons for the Treatment of Superficial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hadsell, M; Xing, L; Bush, K

    2014-08-15

    We propose a new type of treatment that employs a modulated tangential photon field to provide superior coverage of complex superficial targets when compared to other commonly employed methods, and drastically reduce dose to the underlying sensitive structures often present in these cases. TMAT plans were formulated for a set of four representative cases: 1. Scalp sarcoma, 2. Posterior chest-wall sarcoma, 3. Pleural mesothelioma with intact lung, 4. Chest-wall with deep inframammary nodes. For these cases, asymmetric jaw placement, angular limitations, and central isocenter placements were used to force optimization solutions with beam lines tangential to the body surface. When compared with unrestricted modulated arcs, the tangential arc scalp treatment reduced the max and mean doses delivered to the brain by 33Gy (from 55Gy to 22Gy) and 6Gy (from 14Gy to 8Gy), respectively. In the posterior chest wall case, the V10 for the ipsilateral lung was kept below 5% impressively while retaining the 45Gy target prescription coverage by over 97%. For the breast chest-wall case, the TMAT plan achieved reductions in high dose to the ipsilateral lung and heart by a factor of 2–3 when compared to classic, laterally opposed, tangents and reduced the V5 by 40% when compared to standard modulated arcs. TMAT has outperformed the conventional modalities of treatment for superficial lesions used in our clinic. We hope that with the advent of digitally controlled linear accelerators, we can uncover further benefits of this new technique and extend its applicability to a wider section of the patient population.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 30: 4D VMAT dose calculation methodology to investigate the interplay effect: experimental validation using TrueBeam Developer Mode and Gafchromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Teke, T; Milette, MP; Huang, V; Thomas, SD

    2014-08-15

    The interplay effect between the tumor motion and the radiation beam modulation during a VMAT treatment delivery alters the delivered dose distribution from the planned one. This work present and validate a method to accurately calculate the dose distribution in 4D taking into account the tumor motion, the field modulation and the treatment starting phase. A QUASAR™ respiratory motion phantom was 4D scanned with motion amplitude of 3 cm and with a 3 second period. A static scan was also acquired with the lung insert and the tumor contained in it centered. A VMAT plan with a 6XFFF beam was created on the averaged CT and delivered on a Varian TrueBeam and the trajectory log file was saved. From the trajectory log file 10 VMAT plans (one for each breathing phase) and a developer mode XML file were created. For the 10 VMAT plans, the tumor motion was modeled by moving the isocentre on the static scan, the plans were re-calculated and summed in the treatment planning system. In the developer mode, the tumor motion was simulated by moving the couch dynamically during the treatment. Gafchromic films were placed in the QUASAR phantom static and irradiated using the developer mode. Different treatment starting phase were investigated (no phase shift, maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation). Calculated and measured isodose lines and profiles are in very good agreement. For each starting phase, the dose distribution exhibit significant differences but are accurately calculated with the methodology presented in this work.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 44: Linearization of Compartmental Models for More Robust Estimates of Regional Hemodynamic, Metabolic and Functional Parameters using DCE-CT/PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, AR; Dekaban, M; Lee, T-Y

    2014-08-15

    Quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data usually involves minimizing a cost function with nonlinear regression, wherein the choice of starting parameter values and the presence of local minima affect the bias and variability of the estimated kinetic parameters. These nonlinear methods can also require lengthy computation time, making them unsuitable for use in clinical settings. Kinetic modeling of PET aims to estimate the rate parameter k{sub 3}, which is the binding affinity of the tracer to a biological process of interest and is highly susceptible to noise inherent in PET image acquisition. We have developed linearized kinetic models for kinetic analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT)/PET imaging, including a 2-compartment model for DCE-CT and a 3-compartment model for PET. Use of kinetic parameters estimated from DCE-CT can stabilize the kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data, allowing for more robust estimation of k{sub 3}. Furthermore, these linearized models are solved with a non-negative least squares algorithm and together they provide other advantages including: 1) only one possible solution and they do not require a choice of starting parameter values, 2) parameter estimates are comparable in accuracy to those from nonlinear models, 3) significantly reduced computational time. Our simulated data show that when blood volume and permeability are estimated with DCE-CT, the bias of k{sub 3} estimation with our linearized model is 1.97 ± 38.5% for 1,000 runs with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. In summary, we have developed a computationally efficient technique for accurate estimation of k{sub 3} from noisy dynamic PET data.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 36: Implementation of constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) for thoracic esophageal carcinoma on Varian 23EX

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ruohui; Fan, Xiaomei; Bai, Wenwen; Han, Chun

    2014-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to propose an alternative planning approach for VMAT using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) implementation on conventional Linac Varian 23EX and used IMRT as a benchmark to evaluate the performance. Methods and materials: Eighteen patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma who were previously treated with IMRT on Varian 23EX were retrospectively planned for CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. Dose prescription was set to 60 Gy to PTVs in 30 fractions. The planning objectives for PTVs and OAR were corresponding with the IMRT plans. Dose to the PTVs and OAR were compared to IMRT with respect to plan quality, MU, treatment time and delivery accuracy. Results: CDR-CAS-IMAT plans led to equivalent or superior plan quality as compared to IMRT, PTV's CI relative increased 16.2%, while small deviations were observed on minimum dose for PTV. Volumes in the cord receiving 40Gy were increased from 3.6% with IMRT to 7.0%. Treatment times were reduced significantly with CDR-CAS-IMAT(mean 85.7s vs. 232.1s, p < .05), however, MU increased by a factor of 1.3 and lung V10/5/3.5/aver were relative increase 6.7%,12%,17.9%,4.2%, respectively. And increased the E-P low dose area volume decreased the hight dose area. There were no significant difference in Delta4 measurements results between both planning techniques. Conclusion: CDR-CAS-IMAT plans can be implemented smoothly and quickly into a busy cancer center, which improved PTV CI and reduces treatment time but increased the MU and low dose irradiated area. An evaluation of weight loss must be performed during treatment for CDR-CAS-IMAT patients.

  7. Joint U.S. Army-Navy War Planning on the Eve of the First World War: Its Origins and Its Legacy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    American hemisphere. At the beginning of the century the Mexican government was in the hands of the dictator Porfirio Diaz , who ran Mexican affairs...1913, the country faced two crises in foreign affairs. The first was the murder of Francisco Madero, Diaz ’ successor in Mexico. Wilson, who regarded

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 39: Feasibility of Commissioning HybridArc with the Delta 4 two plane diode phantom: comparisons with Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bojechko, C.; Ploquin, N.; Hudson, A.; Sayous, Y.

    2014-08-15

    HybridArc is a relatively novel radiation therapy technique which combines optimized dynamic conformai arcs (DCA) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HybridArc has possible dosimetry and efficiency advantages over stand alone DCA and IMRT treatments and can be readily implemented on any linac capable of DCA and IMRT, giving strong motivation to commission the modality. The Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) has been used for IMRT and VMAT clinical dosimetric verification making it a candidate for HybridArc commissioning. However the HybridArc modality makes use of several non co-planar arcs which creates setup issues due to the geometry of the Delta4, resulting in possible phantom gantry collisions for plans with non-zero couch angles. An analysis was done determining the feasibility of using the Delta4 fixed at 0° couch angle compared with results obtained using Gafchromic ETB2 film (Ashland, Covington Kentucky) in an anthropomorphic phantom at the planned couch angles. A gamma index analysis of the measured and planned dose distributions was done using Delta4 and DoseLab Pro (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston Texas) software. For both arc and IMRT sub-fields there is reasonable correlation between the gamma index found from the Delta4 and Gafchromic film. All results show the feasibility of using the Delta4 for HybridArc commissioning.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 28: Enabling trajectory-based radiotherapy on a TrueBeam accelerator with the Eclipse treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J; Asiev, K; DeBlois, F; Morcos, M; Seuntjens, J; Syme, A

    2014-08-15

    The TrueBeam linear accelerator platform has a developer's mode which permits the user dynamic control over many of the machine's mechanical and radiation systems. Using this research tool, synchronous couch and gantry motion can be programmed to simulate isocentric treatment with a shortened SAD, with benefits such as smaller projected MLC leaf widths and an increased dose rate. In this work, water tank measurements were used to commission a virtual linear accelerator with an 85 cm SAD in Eclipse, from which several arc-based radiotherapy treatments were generated, including an inverse optimized VMAT delivery. For each plan, the pertinent treatment delivery information was extracted from control points specified in the Eclipse-exported DICOM files using the pydicom package in Python, allowing construction of an XML control file. The dimensions of the jaws and MLC positions, defined for an 85 cm SAD in Eclipse, were scaled for delivery on a conventional SAD linear accelerator, and translational couch motion was added as a function of gantry angle to simulate delivery at 85 cm SAD. Ionization chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were used to compare the radiation delivery to dose calculations in Eclipse. With the exception of the VMAT delivery, ionization chamber measurements agreed within 3.3% of the Eclipse calculations. For the VMAT delivery, the ionization chamber was located in an inhomogeneous region, but gamma evaluation of the Gafchromic film plane resulted in a 94.5% passing rate using criteria of 3 mm/3%. The results indicate that Eclipse calculation infrastructure can be used.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 11: Validation of the orthopedic metallic artifact reduction tool for CT simulations at the Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J; Foottit, C

    2014-08-15

    Metallic implants in patients can produce image artifacts in kilovoltage CT simulation images which can introduce noise and inaccuracies in CT number, affecting anatomical segmentation and dose distributions. The commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction algorithm (O-MAR) (Philips Healthcare System) was recently made available on CT simulation scanners at our institution. This study validated the clinical use of O-MAR by investigating its effects on CT number and dose distributions. O-MAR corrected and uncorrected images were acquired with a Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT simulator of a cylindrical solid water phantom that contained various plugs (including metal) of known density. CT number accuracy was investigated by determining the mean and standard deviation in regions of interest (ROI) within each plug for uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images and comparing with no-metal image values. Dose distributions were calculated using the Monaco treatment planning system. Seven open fields were equally spaced about the phantom around a ROI near the center of the phantom. These were compared to a “correct” dose distribution calculated by overriding electron densities a no-metal phantom image to produce an image containing metal but no artifacts. An overall improvement in CT number and dose distribution accuracy was achieved by applying the O-MAR correction. Mean CT numbers and standard deviations were found to be generally improved. Exceptions included lung equivalent media, which is consistent with vendor specified contraindications. Dose profiles were found to vary by ±4% between uncorrected or O-MAR corrected images with O-MAR producing doses closer to ground truth.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 17: In-phantom and Fluence-based Measurements for Quality Assurance of Volumetric-driven Adaptation of Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaly, B; Hoover, D; Mitchell, S; Wong, E

    2014-08-15

    During volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) of head and neck cancer, some patients lose weight which may result in anatomical deviations from the initial plan. If these deviations are substantial a new treatment plan can be designed for the remainder of treatment (i.e., adaptive planning). Since the adaptive treatment process is resource intensive, one possible approach to streamlining the quality assurance (QA) process is to use the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to measure the integrated fluence for the adapted plans instead of the currently-used ArcCHECK device (Sun Nuclear). Although ArcCHECK is recognized as the clinical standard for patient-specific VMAT plan QA, it has limited length (20 cm) for most head and neck field apertures and has coarser detector spacing than the EPID (10 mm vs. 0.39 mm). In this work we compared measurement of the integrated fluence using the EPID with corresponding measurements from the ArcCHECK device. In the past year nine patients required an adapted plan. Each of the plans (the original and adapted) is composed of two arcs. Routine clinical QA was performed using the ArcCHECK device, and the same plans were delivered to the EPID (individual arcs) in integrated mode. The dose difference between the initial plan and adapted plan was compared for ArcCHECK and EPID. In most cases, it was found that the EPID is more sensitive in detecting plan differences. Therefore, we conclude that EPID provides a viable alternative for QA of the adapted head and neck plans and should be further explored.

  12. Cenozoic Evolution of the Central Part of the Mexican Subduction Zone From Geologic and Geophysical Data - In the Eve of the Result From the "Mase" Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Meso America Subduction Experiments (MASE), carried out jointly by Caltech, UCLA and UNAM (Institute of Geophysics and Center for Geoscience) is about to provide a detailed image of the crust and upper mantle in the central part of the Mexican subduction zone (Acapulco, Gro. Huejutla, Hgo.). Preliminary results show that the Cocos plate between the coast and the volcanic front is horizontal and placed just beneath the upper plate Moho. Further north, beneath the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), seismicity is scarce or absent and the geometry of the subducted plate is poorly defined. This part of the TMVB also displays a large geochemical variability, including lavas with scarce to none evidence of fluids from the subducting plate (OIB in Sierra Chichinautzin) and lavas with slab melting signature (adakites of Nevado de Toluca and Apan area) that coexist with the more abundant products showing clear evidence of fluids from the subduting plate. These peculiarities led several workers to formulate models that depart from a classic subduction scenario for the genesis of the TMVB. These include the presence of a rootless mantle plume, the development of a continental rift, a more or less abrupt increase of the subduction angle and a detached slab. While waiting from the final results of the MASE project the data available from potential methods, thermal modeling and the geologic record of the TMVB provide some constraints to evaluate these models. Gravimetric and magnetotelluric data consistently indicate that beneath the TMVB the upper mantle has a relatively low density and high temperatures/conductivity. Thermal modeling also indicates a low viscosity and high temperature mantle beneath the arc. All the above seems to indicate that the slab must increase rapidly its dip beneath the volcanic front leaving space for a hot asthenospheric mantle. The fate of the slab further to the north is unclear from geophysical data alone. Global and regional tomographic models provide contradicting views: an almost vertical slab or a detached slab. The geologic record of the TMVB, however, provides some indications. From 20 to 10 Ma an andesitic arc migrated away from the trench, toward the NE. The youngest (12-10 Ma) and most inland centers form a WNW-ESE belt with an adakitic signature. The progressively inland position of the arc and the slab melt signature suggest that the subducted slab changed from moderately dipping to flat at this time. From ~9 to 3.5 Ma volcanism is absent in the region between Mexico City and Pachuca but a mafic volcanic episode is observed to the north between ~8 and 6.5 Ma. This occurred as a short-lived and eastward propagating pulse of mafic lavas, which is consistent with the lateral propagation of a slab detachment from the Gulf of California to the east. After this episode volcanism starts a return toward the trench with regional ignimbrites and dacitic to rhyolitic domes emplaced between 7.5 and 3 Ma and a more intermediate composition in Plio-Quaternary times. The trenchward migration of volcanism and the geochemistry of Quaternary lavas suggest that the leading edge of the slab rolled back while it is dehydrating and melting. At the same time enriched sub-slab asthenosphere may be flowing around the edge of the slab.

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 23: Dose and Position Quality Assurance using the RADPOS System for 4D Radiotherapy with CyberKnife

    SciTech Connect

    Marants, R; Vandervoort, E; Cygler, J E

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: RADPOS 4D dosimetry system consists of a microMOSFET dosimeter combined with an electromagnetic positioning sensor, which allows for performing real-time dose and position measurements simultaneously. In this report the use of RADPOS as an independent quality assurance (QA) tool during CyberKnife 4D radiotherapy treatment is described. In addition to RADPOS, GAFCHROMIC® films were used for simultaneous dose measurement. Methods: RADPOS and films were calibrated in a Solid Water® phantom at 1.5 cm depth, SAD= 80 cm, using 60 mm cone. CT based treatment plan was created for a Solid Water® breast phantom containing metal fiducials and RADPOS probe. Dose calculations were performed using iPlan pencil beam algorithm. Before the treatment delivery, GAFCHROMIC® film was inserted inside the breast phantom, next to the RADPOS probe. Then the phantom was positioned on the chest platform of the QUASAR, to which Synchrony LED optical markers were also attached. Position logging began for RADPOS and the Synchrony tracking system, the QUASAR motion was initiated and the treatment was delivered. Results: RADPOS position measurements very closely matched the LED marker positions recorded by the Synchrony camera tracking system. The RADPOS measured dose was 2.5% higher than the average film measured dose, which is within the experimental uncertainties. Treatment plan calculated dose was 4.1 and 1.6% lower than measured by RADPOS and film, respectively. This is most likely due to the inferior nature of the dose calculation algorithm. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that RADPOS system is a useful tool for independent QA of CyberKnife treatments.

  14. Properties of Discrete and Axisymmetric Features in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission: Recent Updates on the Eve of the Juno Mission Arrival at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Giles, R.; Sinclair, J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Momary, T.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fisher, B.; Payne, A.; Seede, R.; Simon, J.; Lai, M.; Nguyen, M.; Fernandez, J.; Baines, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    We have derived the spatial distribution and evolution of key properties of Jupiter's atmosphere through the analysis of imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopy of its thermal emission. These observations and their analysis represent a source of data we plan to acquire as a key component of support for the Juno mission's atmospheric investigation. From thermal imaging and spectroscopy in the 7-25 µm region, we can derive temperatures between 10 and 500 mbar atmospheric pressure, cloud opacities between 500 mbar and 5 bars, the para-H2 fraction near 300 mbar, the 100-400 mbar distributions of ammonia and phosphine, and the distribution of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere (~1 µbar - 10 mbar). Earlier work determined atmospheric properties of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Fletcher et al. 2010, Icarus 208, 306) and the evolution of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) fade (whitening) in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al. 2011 Icarus, 213, 564). We will illustrate recent results from an examination of (1) the revival (re-darkening) of the SEB in 2010-2011, (2) discovery of uniquely dry regions of the atmosphere that are identified with visible "brown barges" typically located at the northern edge of Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB), (3) vertical structure of stratospheric waves constituting Jupiter's Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380), and (4) previously unsuspected long-term tropospheric thermal waves uncovered in our multi-year program covering well over a Jovian year. Efforts are underway to provide mission-supporting observations using mid-infrared facility and guest instruments at several observatories during the 14-day orbits of the Juno mission, particularly - but not exclusively - the early orbits dedicated to remote sensing observations.

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 65: A dosimetric comparison of isocentric and non-isocentric coplanar SBRT VMAT plans for peripheral lung tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, L; Liu, HW; Lau, H; Smith, WL

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers lung sterotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in shorter treatment time and less monitor units with comparable coverage and organ at risk sparing compared to conventional SBRT treatments. Isocentric VMAT treatment of peripheral lung tumours occasionally requires couch shifts that can inhibit 360° gantry rotation, resulting in additional imaging shifts for each treatment session, and increased potential for involuntary in-fraction motion. Here, we investigate whether non-isocentric VMAT plans can achieve comparable plan quality to isocentric plans for peripheral lung tumours. Three patient plans were selected with targets displaced > 8.5 cm (range: 8.8 – 9.9 cm) laterally from patient midline. For each patient, a plan with isocentre placed within the target volume (isocentric plan) was created and optimized. The same optimization parameters were then used to create a plan with the isocentre at patient midline (non-isocentric plan). Plan quality was evaluated and compared based on planning target volume (PTV) coverage, high dose spillage, dose homogeneity, intermediate dose spillage, dose fall-off gradient, and organ at risk contraints. Non-isocentric plans of equivalent plan quality to isocentric plans were achieved for all patients by optimizing collimator rotations. Field isocentres can be placed at patient midline, as opposed to inside the target volume, with no significant degradation in VMAT plan quality for lateral tumour displacements up to 10 cm. Non-isocentric treatment of peripheral lung tumours could result in decreased overall treatment session time and eliminate the need for imaging shifts prior to VMAT treatment.

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 26: Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film

    SciTech Connect

    Sanier, M; Wronski, M; Yeboah, C

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this work is twofold: 1) to measure dose profiles under lead shielding at the level of the lens for a range of clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and, 2) to assess the validity of the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) in calculating the penumbral doses under lead shielding with the heterogeneous electron algorithm. First, a film calibration curve that spanned the electron energies of interest, 6–18MeV, was created. Next, EBT3 film and lead shielding were incorporated into a solid water phantom with the film positioned 7mm below the lead and a variable thickness of bolus on top. This geometry was reproduced in the Pinnacle TPS and used to calculate dose profiles using the heterogeneous electron algorithm. The measured vs. calculated dose profiles were normalized to d{sub max} in a homogeneous phantom with no lead shielding and compared. Pinnacle consistently overestimated the dose distal to the lead shielding with significant discrepancies occurring near the edge of the lead shield reaching 25% at the edge and 35% in the open field region. The film measurements showed that a minimum lead margin of 5mm extending beyond the diameter of the lens is required to adequately shield the lens to ≤10% of the dose at d{sub max}. These measurements allow for a reasonable estimate of the dose to the lens from anterior electron beams. They also allow for clinicians to assess the extent of the lead margin required to reduce the lens dose to an acceptable amount prior to radiotherapy treatment.

  17. Energy spectra of plasma sheet ions and electrons from about 50 eV/e to about 1 MeV during plamsa temperature transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    ISEE-1 charged-particle measurements obtained during eight plasma temperature transitions (PTTs) in 1978-1979 are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail, comparing the ion and electron differential energy spectra with the predictions of theoretical models. PTTs are defined as approximately 1-h periods of low bulk plasma velocity and steadily increasing or decreasing thermal energy. A Maxwellian distribution is found to be inadequate in describing the PTT energy spectra, but velocity-exponential and kappa distributions are both successful, the latter especially at higher energies. The power-law index kappa varies from PTT to PTT, but the high-energy spectral index and overall shape of the distribution remain constant during a PTT; both spatial and temporal effects are observed.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 48: Dosimetric dependence on bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo photon fluence spectral study

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J; Grigor, G

    2014-08-15

    This study investigated dosimetric impact due to the bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate depth doses and photon fluence spectra using the EGSnrc-based code. Inhomogeneous bone phantom containing a thin water layer (1–3 mm) on top of a bone (1 cm) to mimic the treatment sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap was irradiated by the 220 kVp photon beam produced by the Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine. Percentage depth doses and photon energy spectra were determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Results of percentage depth doses showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210–230% larger than the surface dose in the phantoms with different water thicknesses. Surface dose was found to be increased from 2.3 to 3.5%, when the distance between the phantom surface and bone was increased from 1 to 3 mm. This increase of surface dose on top of a bone was due to the increase of photon fluence intensity, resulting from the bone backscatter in the energy range of 30 – 120 keV, when the water thickness was increased. This was also supported by the increase of the intensity of the photon energy spectral curves at the phantom and bone surface as the water thickness was increased. It is concluded that if the bone inhomogeneity during the dose prescription in the sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap with soft tissue thickness = 1–3 mm is not considered, there would be an uncertainty in the dose delivery.

  19. "As I deeply understand the importance and greatly admire the poetry of experiment..." (on the eve of P N Lebedev's anniversary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Whatever we think of the eminent Russian physicist P N Lebedev, whatever our understanding of how his work was affected by circumstances in and outside of Russia, whatever value is placed on the basic elements of his twenty-year career and personal life and of his great successes and, happily, not so great failures, and whatever the stories of his happy times and his countless misfortunes, one thing remains clear — P N Lebedev's skill and talent served well to foster the development of global science and to improve the reputation of Russia as a scientific nation.

  20. Reading Zolotov: a source of knowledge, inspiration and pleasure--thoughts and emotions on the eve of the 80th jubilee of Academician Yuri Aleksandrovich Zolotov.

    PubMed

    Tsalev, Dimiter L

    2012-12-15

    Academician Yuri Aleksandrovich Zolotov is a world-wide recognized man in analytical science and chemical analysis. This paper is an appreciation by the author for the long term influence of Professor Zolotov scientific ideas and creative publications on his raising up as scientist during his early studies at Moscow State University and generally on his professional life. The article is a hybrid of personal tribute, historical reminiscence, and a brief tutorial mostly aimed at juniors in science. Paper is illustrated by several photographs and supplemented by references to several of most influencial books by Zolotov. Several Bulgarian analytical chemists share their impressions from Professor Zolotov personality and achievements in science.

  1. Review of the Italian current legislation on research biobanking activities on the eve of the participation of national biobanks’ network in the legal consortium BBMRI-ERIC.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both "soft" nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level.

  2. Do we need cephalic spread of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section? A different approach to CSE-EVE for reducing hypotension.

    PubMed

    Fabris, L K; Belci, D; Zdravčević, K Š; Hrgović, Z; Sacic, L

    2013-08-01

    Spinal anaesthesia is the most preferred anaesthetic technique for elective as well as for unplanned Caesarean sections. Spinal-induced hypotension remains the most important side effect with a reported incidence between 20% and 100%. It can cause -maternal discomfort (nausea and vomiting) and impaired utero-placental perfusion. The present study was designed to examine the influence of epidural volume effect on the spread and duration of low-dose hyperbaric levobupivacaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidural restriction (injection of saline) on the distribution of anaesthesia as well as the incidence of hypotension during the spinal anaesthesia.After the approval by the ethics committee, 60 full-term parturient women (ASA I or II) with uncomplicated pregnancies were prospectively randomized into 2 groups: the SA group (single shot spinal anaesthesia) included 37 patients and the CSE-EVR group (combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia) included 39 patients in whom we induced the restriction of the spinal space by epidural volume compression. The blocks were performed at the L2/3 or L3/4 level in a sitting position, in the CSE-EVR group using the needle-through-needle technique. The initial dose for CSE-EVR was exactly half of the SA dose (0.5 mg per 10 cm height of hyperbaric levobupivacaine and 20 microg fentanyl). After spinal injection, an epidural catheter was located in the CSE-EVR and a volume of 20 mL saline solution injected. After injection, the women were turned supine with a left uterine displacement. Surgery was allowed when a sensory block at or above the T8 dermatome was established. We evaluated the height of the block by the pinprick method and the motor block by the Bromage scale, 10 min after spinal injection, during the operation time and at the end of surgery. Haemodynamic monitoring (NIBP, HR) was assessed every 2 min until the childbirth, then every 5 min during operative time. Anaesthetic efficacy was evaluated for breakthrough pain by visual analogue pain score (VAPS), Apgar score at birth, umbilical artery pH, and epinephrine consumption.The level of anaesthesia 10 min after the induction was significantly higher in the spinal group (SA) than in the CSE-EVR T5 (T4-T7) vs. T7 (T6-T8) group.The SA group experienced complete motor block during the time of anaesthesia, while the CSE-EVR group demonstrated significantly faster motor recovery. The incidence of hypotension and ephedrine supplementation was significantly lower in the CSE-EVR group (19 vs. 35 patients) than in the SA group (p<0.05).The neonatal outcome and umbilical artery pH were higher in the CSE-EVR group. Both groups were comparable in demographic data, VAS scores, preloading and infusion volume, atropine or ephedrine use, and adverse effects such as nausea or skin pruritus.We demonstrated a possible restriction of the spread of spinal anaesthesia by using epidural volume restriction with 20 mL saline as part of a combined spinal epidural technique. The study shows that CSE with EVR using only 50% of the levobupivacaine dose provided adequate anaesthesia for elective Caesarean delivery, as well as better maternal haemodynamic stability.

  3. Toxicological detection of the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE, "Eve") and its metabolites in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, H K; Kovar, K A; Maurer, H H

    1996-08-30

    Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the designer drug methylenedioxyethylamphetamine [MDE, rac-N-ethyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-2-amine] in urine after a single oral dose of 140 mg of MDE by GC-MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). After acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation MDE and its metabolites could be detected by mass chromatography with the selected ions m/z 72, 86, 114, 150, 162 and 164, followed by identification of the peaks underlying full mass spectra by computer library search. The following metabolites could be detected: unchanged MDE and 3,4-dihydroxyethylamphetamine (DHE) for 33-62 h, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) for 32-36 h and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyethylamphetamine (HME) for 7-8 days. 3,4-Dihydroxyamphetamine (DHA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), piperonyl acetone, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetone and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl acetone could only be detected in trace amounts within the first few hours. The Abbott TD x FPIA assay amphetamine/metamphetamine II gave positive results in urine for 33-62 h. Therefore, positive immunoassay results could be confirmed by the GC-MS procedure which also allowed the differentiation of MDE and its homologues 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and MDA as well as other amphetamine derivatives interfering with the TD x assay. Furthermore, this GC-MS procedure allowed the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 06: Dose assessment of cone beam CT imaging protocols as part of SPECT/CT examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopi, E; Ross, AA

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To assess radiation dose from the cone beam CT (CBCT) component of SPECT/CT studies and to compare with other CT examinations performed in our institution. Methods: We used an anthropomorphic chest phantom and the 6 cc ion chamber to measure entrance breast dose for several CBCT and diagnostic CT acquisition protocols. The CBCT effective dose was calculated with ImPACT software; the CT effective dose was evaluated from the DLP value and conversion factor, dependent on the anatomic region. The RADAR medical procedure radiation dose calculator was used to assess the nuclear medicine component of exam dose. Results: The entrance dose to the breast measured with the anthropomorphic phantom was 0.48 mGy and 9.41 mGy for cardiac and chest CBCT scans; and 4.59 mGy for diagnostic thoracic CT. The effective doses were 0.2 mSv, 3.2 mSv and 2.8 mSv respectively. For a small patient represented by the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose from the diagnostic CT was lower than from the CBCT scan, as a result of the exposure reduction options available on modern CT scanners. The CBCT protocols used the same fixed scanning techniques. The diagnostic CT dose based on the patient data was 35% higher than the phantom dose. For most SPECT/CT studies the dose from the CBCT component was comparable with the dose from the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusions: The patient radiation dose from the cone beam CT scan can be higher than that from a diagnostic CT and should be taken into consideration in evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  5. Review of the Italian Current Legislation on Research Biobanking Activities on the Eve of the Participation of National Biobanks' Network in the Legal Consortium BBMRI-ERIC

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2013-01-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both “soft” nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level. PMID:23840925

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 31: Dosimetric Effect of Respiratory Motion on RapidArc Lung SBRT Treatment Delivered by TrueBeam Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Runqing; Zhan, Lixin; Osei, Ernest

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allows fast delivery of stereotactic radiotherapy. However, the discrepancies between the calculated and delivered dose distributions due to respiratory motion and dynamic multileaf collimators (MLCs) interplay are not avoidable. The purpose of this study is to investigate RapidArc lung SBRT treatment delivered by the flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and flattened beam with Varian TrueBeam machine. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom with in-house made lung tumor insertion was CT scanned both in free breathing and 4DCT. 4DCT was used to determine the internal target volume. The free breathing CT scan was used for treatment planning. A 5 mm margin was given to ITV to generate a planning target volume. Varian Eclipse treatment planning was used to generate RapidArc plans based on the 6 MV flattened beam and 6MV FFF beam. The prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. At least 95% of PTV was covered by the prescribed dose. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV flattened beam and 6MV FFF beam were delivered with Varian TrueBeam machine. The dosimetric measurements were performed with Gafchromic XR-RV3 film, which was placed in the lung tumor insertion. The interplay between the dynamic MLC-based delivery of VMAT and the respiratory motion of the tumor degraded target coverage and created undesired hot or cold dose spots inside the lung tumor. Lung SBRT RapidArc treatments delivered by the FFF beam of TrueBeam linear accelerator is superior to the flattened beam. Further investigation will be performed by Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-08-15

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.

  9. Howitzer Ammunition System Procurement (HASP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Commanding General John Foss contrasted two acquisition scenarios-traditional and future. His perspective is presented in viewgraph form in Figure 4-2...Older Systems E49030-17MDII Figure 4-2. Future acquisition and equipment trends. (Source: General John Foss, Commander, TRADOC, 1991 Presentation) The...ARDEC DA D. Botticelli Dr. T. Davidson Dr. Jay Sculley - Former ASARDA Dale Adams (PEO Armament) LTG Donald Pihl (USA-ASARDA, Ret) George Batchis COL

  10. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  11. 77 FR 10775 - United States v. SG Interests I LTD., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... (the ``MOU'') on the eve of the ] auction pursuant to which they agreed not to compete for the leases..., GEC and SGI executed a Memorandum of Understanding (the ``MOU'') on the eve of the auction pursuant...

  12. A Teacher Training Model and Educational Guidelines for Environmental Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caduto, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes educational guidelines and a teacher training model for Environmental Values Education (EVE). Suggests proficiency areas to consider for EVE program development and implementation. Parameters involving student and teacher background and type of program strategy are discussed. (ML)

  13. 77 FR 60004 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wtewael's Adam and Eve”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wtewael's Adam and Eve'' SUMMARY... object to be included in the exhibition ``Wtewael's Adam and Eve,'' imported from abroad for...

  14. Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Staller, Max V.; Vincent, Ben J.; Bragdon, Meghan D. J.; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H.

    2015-01-01

    Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA—it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two “shadow enhancers” use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern. PMID:25564665

  15. A Guide on Environmental Values Education. Environmental Education Series 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudto, Michael J.

    A theoretical basis and practical guidelines for developing a wholistic program in environmental values education (EVE) are provided in this guide. Part I approaches EVE from a philosophical perspective and provides information related to the nature of human values and behavior, EVE strategies, and the development of a positive environmental…

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-08-15

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 03: Application of the non-negative matrix factorization technique to [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET data for the early detection of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Jans, Hans; McEwan, Sandy; Riauka, Terence; Martin, Wayne; Wieler, Marguerite

    2014-08-15

    In this work, a class of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique known as alternating non-negative least squares, combined with the projected gradient method, is used to analyze twenty-five [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET/CT brain data. For each subject, a two-factor model is assumed and two factors representing the striatum (factor 1) and the non-striatum (factor 2) tissues are extracted using the proposed NMF technique and commercially available factor analysis software “Pixies”. The extracted factor 1 and 2 curves represent the binding site of the radiotracer and describe the uptake and clearance of the radiotracer by soft tissues in the brain, respectively. The proposed NMF technique uses prior information about the dynamic data to obtain sample time-activity curves representing the striatum and the non-striatum tissues. These curves are then used for “warm” starting the optimization. Factor solutions from the two methods are compared graphically and quantitatively. In healthy subjects, radiotracer uptake by factors 1 and 2 are approximately 35–40% and 60–65%, respectively. The solutions are also used to develop a factor-based metric for the detection of early, untreated Parkinson's disease. The metric stratifies healthy subjects from suspected Parkinson's patients (based on the graphical method). The analysis shows that both techniques produce comparable results with similar computational time. The “semi-automatic” approach used by the NMF technique allows clinicians to manually set a starting condition for “warm” starting the optimization in order to facilitate control and efficient interaction with the data.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 12: Implementation of a Clinical Lung Tumour High Dose Containment Verification Procedure using Respiratory Cone-Beam CT (4DCBCT) on a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J.; Bergman, A.

    2014-08-15

    Lung tumours move due to respiratory motion. This is managed during planning by acquiring a 4DCT and capturing the excursion of the GTV (gross tumour volume) throughout the breathing cycle within an IGTV (Internal Gross Tumour Volume) contour. Patients undergo a verification cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan immediately prior to treatment. 3D reconstructed images do not consider tumour motion, resulting in image artefacts, such as blurring. This may lead to difficulty in identifying the tumour on reconstructed images. It would be valuable to create a 4DCBCT reconstruction of the tumour motion to confirm that does indeed remain within the planned IGTV. CBCT projections of a Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom are acquired in Treatment mode (half-fan scan) on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. This phantom contains a mobile, low-density lung insert with an embedded 3cm diameter tumour object. It is programmed to create a 15s periodic, 2cm (sup/inf) displacement. A Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) tracking-box is placed on the phantom breathing platform. Breathing phase information is automatically integrated into the projection image files. Using in-house Matlab programs and RTK (Reconstruction Tool Kit) open-source toolboxes, the projections are re-binned into 10 phases and a 4DCBCT scan reconstructed. The planning IGTV is registered to the 4DCBCT and the tumour excursion is verified to remain within the planned contour. This technique successfully reconstructs 4DCBCT images using clinical modes for a breathing phantom. UBC-BCCA ethics approval has been obtained to perform 4DCBCT reconstructions on lung patients (REB#H12-00192). Clinical images will be accrued starting April 2014.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 21: Off-axis dose perturbation effects in water in a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} 18 MV photon beam for the PTW microLion and Exradin A1SL ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    O'Grady, K; Davis, S D; Papaconstadopoulos, P; Seuntjens, J

    2014-08-15

    A PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber and an Exradin A1SL air-filled ionization chamber have been modeled using the egs-chamber user code of the EGSnrc system to determine their perturbation effects in water in a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} 18 MV photon beam. A model of the Varian CL21EX linear accelerator was constructed using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code, and was validated by comparing measured PDDs and profiles from the microLion and A1SL chambers to calculated results that included chamber models. Measured PDDs for a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} field for the microLion chamber agreed with calculations to within 1.5% beyond a depth of 0.5 cm, and the A1SL PDDs agreed within 1.0% beyond 1.0 cm. Measured and calculated profiles at 10 cm depth agreed within 1.0% for both chambers inside the field, and within 4.0% near the field edge. Local percent differences increased up to 15% at 4 cm outside the field. The ratio of dose to water in the absence of the chamber relative to dose in the chamber's active volume as a function of off-axis distance was calculated using the egs-chamber correlated sampling technique. The dose ratio was nearly constant inside the field and consistent with the stopping power ratios of water to detector material, but varied up to 3.3% near the field edge and 5.2% at 4 cm outside the field. Once these perturbation effects are fully characterized for more field sizes and detectors, they could be applied to clinical water tank measurements for improved dosimetric accuracy.

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 64: Preliminary investigation of arc configurations for optimal sparing of normal tissue in hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HF-SRT) of multiple brain metastases using a 5mm interdigitating micro-multileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Leavens, C; Wronski, M; Lee, YK; Ruschin, M; Soliman, H; Sahgal, A

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue sparing in intra-cranial HF-SRT, comparing various arc configurations with the Synergy Beam Modulator (SynBM) and Agility linacs, the latter incorporating leaf interdigitation and backup jaws. Methods: Five patients with multiple brain metastases (BMs), (5 BMs (n=2), 3 BMs (n=3)) treated with HF-SRT using 25 Gy (n=2) or 30 Gy (n=3) in 5 fractions, were investigated. Clinical treatment plans used the SynBM. Each patient was retrospectively re-planned on Agility, employing three planning strategies: (A) one isocenter and dedicated arc for each BM; (B) a single isocenter, centrally placed with respect to BMs; (C) the isocenter and arc configuration used in the SynBM plan, where closely spaced (<5cm) BMs used a dedicated isocenter and arcs. Agility plans were normalized for PTV coverage and heterogeneity. Results and Conclusion: Strategy A obtained the greatest improvements over the SynBM plan, where the maximum OAR dose, and mean dose to normal brain (averaged for all patients) were reduced by 55cGy and 25cGy, respectively. Strategy B was limited by having a single isocenter, hence less jaw shielding and increased MLC leakage. The maximum OAR dose was reduced by 13cGy, however mean dose to normal brain increased by 84cGy. Strategy C reduced the maximum OAR dose and mean dose to normal brain by 32cGy and 9cGy, respectively. The results from this study indicate that, for intra-cranial HF-SRT of multiple BMs, Agility plans are equal or better than SynBM plans. Further planning is needed to investigate dose sparing using Strategy A and the SynBM.

  2. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916

    PubMed Central

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  3. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 62: A Retrospective Assessment of the Prevalence and Dosimetric Effect of Lateral Electron Disequilibrium in a Population of Lung Cancer Patients Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Disher, Brandon; Wade, Laura; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.; Palma, David

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SBRT uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to ablate the tumour. However, small MV x-ray fields may produce lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) within lung tissue, which can reduce the dose to tumour. The goal of this work is to estimate the prevalence of LED in NSCLC patients treated with SBRT, and determine dose effects for patients prone or averse to LED. Thirty NSCLC patients were randomly selected for analysis. 4-dimensional CT lung images were segmented into the right and left upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL, LUL, LLL), and the right middle lobe. Dose calculations were performed using volume-modulated arc therapy in the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS. Most tumours were located in the upper lobes (RUL 53%, LUL 27%) where density was significantly lower (RUL −808±46 HU vs. RLL −743±71 HU; LUL −808 ±56 HU vs. LLL −746±70 HU; p<0.001). In general, the prevalence of LED increased with higher beam energy. Using 6MV photons, patients with a RUL tumour experienced moderate (81 %), and mild (19%) levels of LED. At 18MV, LED became more prominent with severe (50%) and moderate (50%) LED exhibited. Dosimetrically, for patients prone to LED, poorer target coverage (i.e. increased R100 by 20%) and improved lung sparing (i.e. reduced V20 by −46%) was observed. The common location of lung cancers in the upper lobes, coupled with lower lung density, results in the potential occurrence of LED, which may underdose the tumour.

  5. Even-Skipped(+) Interneurons Are Core Components of a Sensorimotor Circuit that Maintains Left-Right Symmetric Muscle Contraction Amplitude.

    PubMed

    Heckscher, Ellie S; Zarin, Aref Arzan; Faumont, Serge; Clark, Matthew Q; Manning, Laurina; Fushiki, Akira; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Fetter, Richard D; Truman, James W; Zwart, Maarten F; Landgraf, Matthias; Cardona, Albert; Lockery, Shawn R; Doe, Chris Q

    2015-10-21

    Bilaterally symmetric motor patterns--those in which left-right pairs of muscles contract synchronously and with equal amplitude (such as breathing, smiling, whisking, and locomotion)--are widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the underlying neural circuits. We performed a thermogenetic screen to identify neurons required for bilaterally symmetric locomotion in Drosophila larvae and identified the evolutionarily conserved Even-skipped(+) interneurons (Eve/Evx). Activation or ablation of Eve(+) interneurons disrupted bilaterally symmetric muscle contraction amplitude, without affecting the timing of motor output. Eve(+) interneurons are not rhythmically active and thus function independently of the locomotor CPG. GCaMP6 calcium imaging of Eve(+) interneurons in freely moving larvae showed left-right asymmetric activation that correlated with larval behavior. TEM reconstruction of Eve(+) interneuron inputs and outputs showed that the Eve(+) interneurons are at the core of a sensorimotor circuit capable of detecting and modifying body wall muscle contraction.

  6. Early and late periodic patterns of even skipped expression are controlled by distinct regulatory elements that respond to different spatial cues.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Macdonald, P; Maniatis, T

    1989-05-05

    We have identified the regulatory sequences required for the periodic expression of the Drosophila pair rule gene even skipped (eve). We find that the gradually changing pattern of periodic eve expression during early embryogenesis is directed by two distinct regulatory programs. Initially, eve expression in individual stripes is established by different regulatory elements, each of which responds to nonperiodic spatial cues provided, at least in part, by the gap genes. Later, coordinate expression of eve in all seven stripes is directed by a single regulatory region that responds to periodic cues provided by primary pair rule genes, including eve itself. As a consequence of this two-step regulatory program, eve functions both in the establishment of the periodic pattern of gene expression and in the subsequent specification of parasegmental boundaries.

  7. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  8. Parvovirus-Derived Endogenous Viral Elements in Two South American Rodent Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver. PMID:25078696

  9. Parvovirus-derived endogenous viral elements in two South American rodent genomes.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Gloria; Gifford, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver.

  10. The Spectra of Des S-Boxes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    1900s. William R. Hamilton first described a complex number system coined the quaternions, in which he at- tempted to apply vector algebra to 3... Alice and Bob, want to communicate with each other. Meanwhile, a potential adversary named Eve (Eve for eavesdropper), wants to intercept this...message.The B sic Secure Communication Scenario Alice Bob Eve Encrypt Decrypt Encryption Key Decryption Key ciphertext plaintext Alice communicates with Bob

  11. Weak randomness seriously limits the security of quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, Jan; Pivoluska, Matej; Plesch, Martin; Wilmott, Colin

    2012-12-01

    In usual security proofs of quantum protocols the adversary (Eve) is expected to have full control over any quantum communication between any communicating parties (Alice and Bob). Eve is also expected to have full access to an authenticated classical channel between Alice and Bob. Unconditional security against any attack by Eve can be proved even in the realistic setting of device and channel imperfection. In this paper we show that the security of quantum key distribution protocols is ruined if one allows Eve to possess a very limited access to the random sources used by Alice. Such knowledge should always be expected in realistic experimental conditions via different side channels.

  12. Embryonic even skipped-Dependent Muscle and Heart Cell Fates Are Required for Normal Adult Activity, Heart Function, and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Miki; Wessells, Robert J.; Han, Zhe; Liu, Jiandong; Fitzgerald, Kerry; Yusibova, Galina L.; Zamora, Monica; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Bodmer, Rolf; Jaynes, James B.

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila pair-rule gene even skipped (eve) is required for embryonic segmentation and later in specific cell lineages in both the nervous system and the mesoderm. We previously generated eve mesoderm-specific mutants by combining an eve null mutant with a rescuing transgene that includes the entire locus, but with the mesodermal enhancer removed. This allowed us to analyze in detail the defects that result from a precisely targeted elimination of mesodermal eve expression in the context of an otherwise normal embryo. Absence of mesodermal eve causes a highly selective loss of the entire eve-expressing lineage in this germ layer, including those progeny that do not continue to express eve, suggesting that mesodermal eve precursor specification is not implemented. Despite the resulting absence of a subset of muscles and pericardial cells, mesoderm-specific eve mutants survive to fertile adulthood, providing an opportunity to examine the effects of these developmental abnormalities on adult fitness and heart function. We find that in these mutants, flying ability, myocardial performance under normal and stressed conditions, and lifespan are severely reduced. These data imply a nonautonomous role of the affected pericardial cells and body wall muscles in developing and/or maintaining cardiac performance and possibly other functions contributing to normal lifespan. Given the similarities of molecular-genetic control between Drosophila and vertebrates, these findings suggest that peri/epicardial influences may well be important for proper myocardial function. PMID:16239588

  13. Anti-PD-L1 treatment enhances antitumor effect of everolimus in a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Yukiyoshi; Gi, Min; Yamano, Shotaro; Tachibana, Hirokazu; Okuno, Takahiro; Tamada, Satoshi; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Immunotherapy based on blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has shown promising clinical activity for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients; however, the most effective use of these agents in combination with conventional targeted therapy remains to be resolved. Here we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE) and anti-PD-L1 using an immunocompetent mouse model of RCC. We first assessed the in vitro effect of EVE on PD-L1 expression in the human 786-O and mouse RENCA RCC cell lines and found that EVE upregulated PD-L1 expression in these RCC cell lines. We then treated RENCA tumor-bearing mice with EVE and found that PD-L1 expression was also increased in tumor cells after EVE treatment. To determine the antitumor effects of EVE alone, anti-PD-L1 alone, and EVE in combination with anti-PD-L1, we evaluated their antitumor effects on RENCA tumor-bearing mice. A significant decrease in the tumor burden was observed in the EVE alone but not in the anti-PD-L1 alone treatment group compared with the control group. Importantly, the combination of EVE with anti-PD-L1 significantly reduced tumor burden compared with the EVE alone treatment, increasing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the ratio of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells to TILs. The results of the present study demonstrated that anti-PD-L1 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of EVE in a mouse model, supporting a direct translation of this combination strategy to the clinic for the treatment of RCC.

  14. even-skipped has gap-like, pair-rule-like, and segmental functions in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a basal, intermediate germ insect (Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Mito, Taro; Kobayashi, Chiharu; Sarashina, Isao; Zhang, Hongjie; Shinahara, Wakako; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Shinmyo, Yohei; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2007-03-01

    Developmental mechanisms of segmentation appear to be varied among insects in spite of their conserved body plan. Although the expression patterns of the segment polarity genes in all insects examined imply well conserved function of this class of genes, expression patterns and function of the pair-rule genes tend to exhibit diversity. To gain further insights into the evolution of the segmentation process and the role of pair-rule genes, we have examined expression and function of an ortholog of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) in a phylogenetically basal insect, Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera, intermediate germ cricket). We find that Gryllus eve (Gb'eve) is expressed as stripes in each of the prospective gnathal, thoracic, and abdominal segments and as a broad domain in the posterior growth zone. Dynamics of stripe formation vary among Gb'eve stripes, representing one of the three modes, the segmental, incomplete pair-rule, and complete pair-rule mode. Furthermore, we find that RNAi suppression of Gb'eve results in segmentation defects in both anterior and posterior regions of the embryo. Mild depletion of Gb'eve shows a pair-rule-like defect in anterior segments, while stronger depletion causes a gap-like defect showing deletion of anterior and posterior segments. These results suggest that Gb'eve acts as a pair-rule gene at least during anterior segmentation and also has segmental and gap-like functions. Additionally, Gb'eve may be involved in the regulation of hunchback and Krüppel expression. Comparisons with eve functions in other species suggest that the Gb'eve function may represent an intermediate state of the evolution of pair-rule patterning by eve in insects.

  15. Future of Department of Defense Cloud Computing Amid Cultural Confusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    printablearticale.htm (accessed December 21, 2012). 51 Sam Forgione, “ Netflix suffers Christmas Eve outage, points to Amazon,” NBC News, December 25, 2012, http...www.nbcnews.com/technology/technolog/ netflix -suffers-christmas- eve-outage-points-amazon-1C7662774 (accessed December 26, 2012). 52 Endnotes 33

  16. Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter Stuart Eves (SSTL), David Carter (EADS- Astrium ), David Beard (Dstl) Email: s.eves@sstl.co.uk Tel... Astrium Ltd Earth Observation & Science Anchorage Road Portsmouth, Hampshire PO3 5PU UK davidj.carter@astrium.eads.net David Beard DSTL

  17. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  18. Evidence of sympatric speciation of elderberry carlaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new carlavirus species infecting elderberry were characterized and tentatively named as elderberry virus A-E (EVA-EVE). The genome organization of the viruses ranges between 8,540-8,628 nucleotides, excluding the polyadenylated tail. EVA, EVB and EVD share a common ancestor as do EVC and EVE, i...

  19. 76 FR 79067 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... necessary to allow community celebration of New Year's Eve. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in... from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2011 to allow community celebration of New Year's Eve....

  20. Designing a Table both Swinging and Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Greg N.

    2008-01-01

    Howard Eves captured people's imagination by proposing a hinged table whose top could swing around to be either an equilateral triangle or a square. But is Eves's mathematically motivated design actually good furniture design? This paper identifies potential design flaws in that hinged table and proposes an intriguing new design. Both the original…

  1. Expression and function of an even-skipped homolog in the leech Helobdella robusta.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi Hye; Huang, Françoise Z; Chang, Gwendolen Y; Weisblat, David A

    2002-08-01

    We have identified homologs of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even-skipped in the glossiphoniid leeches Helobdella robusta and Theromyzon trizonare. In leech embryos, segments arise sequentially from five pairs of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts) that undergo iterated divisions to generate columns (bandlets) of segmental founder cells (primary blast cells), which in turn generate segmentally iterated sets of definitive progeny. In situ hybridization revealed that Hro-eve is expressed in the teloblasts and primary blast cells, and that these transcripts appear to be associated with mitotic chromatin. In more advanced embryos, Hro-eve is expressed in segmentally iterated sets of cells in the ventral nerve cord. Lineage analysis revealed that neurons expressing Hro-eve arise from the N teloblast. To assess the function of Hro-eve, we examined embryos in which selected blastomeres had been injected with antisense Hro-eve morpholino oligonucleotide (AS-Hro-eve MO), concentrating on the primary neurogenic (N teloblast) lineage. Injection of AS-Hro-eve MO perturbed the normal patterns of teloblast and blast cell divisions and disrupted gangliogenesis. These results suggest that Hro-eve is important in regulating early cell divisions through early segmentation, and that it also plays a role in neuronal differentiation.

  2. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  3. Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae on coriander leaves to liquid- and vapor-phase ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krusong, Warawut; Pornpukdeewatana, Soisuda; Teerarak, Montinee

    2016-05-01

    The bio-control of ethanol on Klebsiella pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves for significantly reducing consumer health risk was investigated. Washed and sterilized leaves of coriander were inoculated with K. pneumoniae cultured in Trypticase Soy broth. Susceptibility of the K. pneumoniae to liquid- and evaporated vapor-phase ethanol (EVE) was then examined in vitro Complete inhibition of K. pneumoniae was found with 18% (v/v) liquid ethanol. Exposure for 15 min to EVE (9.00 ± 0.8 mmol L(-1)) completely destroyed K. pneumoniae (4.04 ± 0.02 log CFU/ml) spread on Mueller Hilton agar at 30 ± 2°C. The effect of EVE with and without evaporated water vapor (EWV) on the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves was examined. While exposure to EVE affected the survival of K. pneumoniae, the degree of reduction depended on both the inoculation level and the EWV. Complete reduction of K. pneumoniae was achieved for the low inoculation level by EVE alone (37 ± 2% relative humidity; RH) but susceptibility was reduced with EWV (high RH; 80 ± 2%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inoculated coriander leaves confirm the effects of EVE in reducing levels of K. pneumoniae Exposure to EVE alone proved an effective bio-control for K. pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves.

  4. Job Attitudes Toward the New Maintenance Concept of the Airway Facilities Service,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Sched. -.014 Facility -.137 Q47-Time on Rotating Sched. .086 Occupational Identification -.199 Q48-Productivity on Eve -Shifts -.018 Al’ Program .026 Q49...Productivity on Mid-Shifts -.011 Region -.118 Q53-Diff. Keep Awake in Eve . -.026 Supervisor/Nonsupervisor .236 Q55-Most Efficient Work Time .121 *Q7...165 Q68-Amt. of Sleep Aft. Eve -Shift -.147 *QiS-Sat. with Employment .241 A-State Anxiety .198 Q18-Sat. With Working Cond. .275 A-Trait Anxiety

  5. Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-06-05

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from RNA viruses with no DNA stage are rare, especially those where the parental viruses possess single-strand positive-sense (ssRNA+) genomes. Here we provide evidence that EVEs that share a sequence similarity to ssRNA+viruses of plants are integrated into the genomes of a number of insects, including mosquito, fruit flies, bees, ant, silkworm, pea aphid, Monarch butterfly, and wasps. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis places these EVEs as divergent relatives of the Virgaviridae and three currently unclassified plant viral species.

  6. A Compilation of Field Strength Formulas for ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Radio Wave Propagation in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-08

    components are related by EVE iw~o 2/2’ - - he e ," eZW ~e) (32) EVE in(c/v- (t) + . )H2) (x) HVE xG(u) L. iTX H(2)(X) ] and EVE ino(c/v) V(t) + 2 G(u)x H) (x...HEADERS FOR OUTPUT TABLE’ wRITEC 10.570)FREQ IF(TOD.EQ.’D’) WRITE( 1D .211) aA-. *a% .\\-- 1z 02 ’ -: R1.f .L~ :tA A X t TR 7S21 IF(TOD.EQ.’N’) WRITE(1O

  7. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, December 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, December 31, 1927 Photocopy by Lyle E. Winkle, 1969 WEATHERLY BUILDING AND ORIENTAL THEATRE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (TAKEN EVE OF THEATRE OPENING). - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. Successful First J-2X Combustion Stability Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than eve...

  9. The emotional male victim: effects of presentation mode on judged credibility.

    PubMed

    Landström, Sara; Ask, Karl; Sommar, Charlotte

    2015-02-01

    The emotional victim effect (EVE, i.e., that the emotionality of a victim's demeanor affects perceived credibility) is a robust research finding for female victims of rape but much less explored for other types of victims and crimes. In this article, we investigate the EVE with a male assault complainant. In addition, we vary the presentation mode via which the complainant is shown to the assessors. A sample of law students (N = 81) participated in an experiment where they viewed and assessed credibility of a male complainant who appeared either live or on video. The complainant behaved either in an emotional or a neutral manner. Result showed that the presentation mode but not the EVE affected the assessors' credibility assessments: The complainant was perceived as more truthful when communicating live, as opposed to via video. Practical implications, as well as the generality of the EVE, are discussed.

  10. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams ceremonially handed over command of the International Space Station on Saturday to fellow NASA astronaut Kevin Ford on the eve of her departure from the comple...

  11. Less of a Gardener, More of a Bee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Beale, Christopher

    1975-01-01

    On the eve of his eightieth birthday, the author talked to Christian Schiller, an inspector for fifty years, who has perhaps had more influence than any other individual on the development of British primary education. (Editor/RK)

  12. Conversation Currents: Learning from Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Gregory, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This column features two prominent literacy scholars, Catherine Compton-Lilly and Eve Gregory. They discuss their recent research studies in various contexts and describe the reciprocal relationships between school, home, and community literacy practices.

  13. Post-quantum key exchange protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Leung, Lin; Kwan, Andis Chi-Tung; Zhang, Xiaowen; Kahanda, Dammika; Anshel, Michael

    2006-05-01

    If an eavesdropper Eve is equipped with quantum computers, she can easily break the public key exchange protocols used today. In this paper we will discuss the post-quantum Diffie-Hellman key exchange and private key exchange protocols.

  14. Engineering trade studies for a quantum key distribution system over a 30  km free-space maritime channel.

    PubMed

    Gariano, John; Neifeld, Mark; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2017-01-20

    Here, we present the engineering trade studies of a free-space optical communication system operating over a 30 km maritime channel for the months of January and July. The system under study follows the BB84 protocol with the following assumptions: a weak coherent source is used, Eve is performing the intercept resend attack and photon number splitting attack, prior knowledge of Eve's location is known, and Eve is allowed to know a small percentage of the final key. In this system, we examine the effect of changing several parameters in the following areas: the implementation of the BB84 protocol over the public channel, the technology in the receiver, and our assumptions about Eve. For each parameter, we examine how different values impact the secure key rate for a constant brightness. Additionally, we will optimize the brightness of the source for each parameter to study the improvement in the secure key rate.

  15. 77 FR 3287 - Proposed Information Collection of the Tax Performance System Handbook ETA 407; Extension Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... address below on or before March 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Eve MacDonald, Office of..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information...

  16. Identification and characterization of endogenous viral elements for the three key schistosomes of humans.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Li, Quhuan

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are widely distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes, and their evolution and potential function have attracted a lot of interest. Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium are now available; however, information about EVEs in blood flukes of the genus schistosoma is scanty. Here, genome-wide survey into the putative EVE sequences of the three key schistosome genomes were present. Totally 4, 117 gene sequences were identified, including retrovirus-like gypsy elements, RNA viruses and dsDNA viruses. Compared with S. japonicum and S. haematobium, S. mansoni appeared to greatly out numbered by gypsy members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one novel endogenous retrovirus element in S. mansoni. This initial characterization of schistosomes showed that schistosomes harbour distinct EVEs that may have played an important evolutionary role. Studies of schistosomes' endogenous viruses helped us to glance at an earlier viral event in the class Trematoda, greatly broadening the field of palaeovirology.

  17. 78 FR 51171 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given to all comments received by October 21, 2013... Activity), ATTN: Robert Eves, 4800 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22350-4000 or submit an email...

  18. Toward Cyber Omniscience: Deterring Cyber Attacks by Hostile Individuals in 2035

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    Neuro-Avatar). Eve slowed her pace and then stopped. Eve was used to Hal’s dry sense of humor and constant pranks, but his voice and the emoticons ...iNeu users constantly transmit and receive information for enhanced awareness. 13 Unlike the ear bud, this personal communications device is...personal information will be readily available through an individual‘s iNeu-like implant which may create a near-constant communication and learning

  19. Open Source and These United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    from http://www.computerworld.com. Cringely, Robert X. Nerds 2.0.1. National Public Television, 1998. Curie , Eve. (translated by Vincent Sheean) Madame ...get the most out of their work, and, without forgetting the general good, safeguard their own interests. Eve Curie There’s a term in a the... Curie . New York: Pocket books, Simon and Schuster, 1946. Cusuman, Michael and Richard Selby. "How Microsoft Builds Software". Communications of the

  20. Cooperative binding at a distance by even-skipped protein correlates with repression and suggests a mechanism of silencing.

    PubMed

    TenHarmsel, A; Austin, R J; Savenelli, N; Biggin, M D

    1993-05-01

    In this study, we examined how the Drosophila developmental control gene even-skipped (eve) represses transcription. Tissue culture cells were used to show that eve contains domains which inhibit transcriptional activators present at the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) proximal promoter when bound up to 1.5 kb away from these activators. Different portions of eve were fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain to show that three adjacent regions of eve contribute to silencing. There appear to be two mechanisms by which eve protein represses transcription. In this study, we used in vitro transcription and DNA binding experiments to provide evidence for one of these mechanisms. Repression in vitro correlates with binding of eve protein to two low-affinity sites in the Ubx proximal promoter. Occupancy of these low-affinity sites is dependent upon cooperative binding of other eve molecules to a separate high-affinity site. Some of these sites are separated by over 150 bp of DNA, and the data suggest that this intervening DNA is bent to form a looped structure similar to those caused by prokaryotic repressors. One of the low-affinity sites overlaps an activator element bound by the zeste transcription factor. Binding of eve protein is shown to exclude binding by zeste protein. These data suggest a mechanism for silencing whereby a repressor protein would be targeted to DNA by a high-affinity element, which itself does not overlap activator elements. Cooperative binding of further repressor molecules to distant low-affinity sites, and competition with activators bound at these sites lead to repression at a distance.

  1. Everolimus plus exemestane as first-line therapy in HR⁺, HER2⁻ advanced breast cancer in BOLERO-2.

    PubMed

    Beck, J Thaddeus; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Campone, Mario; Lebrun, Fabienne; Deleu, Ines; Rugo, Hope S; Pistilli, Barbara; Masuda, Norikazu; Hart, Lowell; Melichar, Bohuslav; Dakhil, Shaker; Geberth, Matthias; Nunzi, Martina; Heng, Daniel Y C; Brechenmacher, Thomas; El-Hashimy, Mona; Douma, Shyanne; Ringeisen, Francois; Piccart, Martine

    2014-02-01

    The present exploratory analysis examined the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life effects of everolimus (EVE) + exemestane (EXE) in the subgroup of patients in BOLERO-2 whose last treatment before study entry was in the (neo)adjuvant setting. In BOLERO-2, patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive EVE (10 mg/day) + EXE (25 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) + EXE. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment. Overall, 137 patients received first-line EVE + EXE (n = 100) or PBO + EXE (n = 37). Median PFS by local investigator assessment nearly tripled to 11.5 months with EVE + EXE from 4.1 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio = 0.39; 95 % CI 0.25-0.62), while maintaining quality of life. This was confirmed by central assessment (15.2 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.32; 95 % CI 0.18-0.57). The marked PFS improvement in patients receiving EVE + EXE as first-line therapy for disease recurrence during or after (neo)adjuvant NSAI therapy supports the efficacy of this combination in the first-line setting. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefit of early introduction of EVE + EXE in the management of HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.

  2. Characterization and localization of the even-skipped protein of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M; Hoey, T; Rushlow, C; Doyle, H; Levine, M

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of homeo box cross-homology we have isolated the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) of Drosophila. The eve transcription unit appears to be less than 1.5 kb in length, and encodes a single mRNA of approximately 1.4 kb. The nucleotide sequence of genomic and cDNA clones indicates that the eve protein is composed of 376 amino acid residues, and that its homeo domain shares only approximately 50% amino acid identity with the homeo domains of previously characterized genes. Using antibodies raised against a beta-galactosidase fusion protein we show that the eve protein is distributed in a series of seven transverse stripes at the cellular blastoderm stage, and is localized primarily within the nuclear regions of those embryonic cells that express the gene. After gastrulation, seven weakly stained stripes of eve expression appear, resulting in a transient pattern that consists of a total of 14 evenly spaced stripes. Both the original and new stripes gradually disappear during germ band elongation. A second expression pattern emerges during neurogenesis, whereby eve protein is detected in discrete subsets of neurons in each of the ventral ganglia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2884106

  3. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  4. Endovascular Embolization of Bronchial Artery Originating from the Upper Portion of Aortic Arch in Patients with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-05-15

    PurposeOur experience with endovascular embolization (EVE) of the bronchial artery (BA) originating from the upper portion of the aortic arch (AA) in six patients is described.MethodsAltogether, 818 patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) before EVE or AA angiography during EVE. Aberrant BAs originating from the upper portion of the AA were the source of massive hemoptysis in six patients (0.73 %). MDCT angiograms and/or Digital subtraction angiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Selective catheterization and embolization were performed.ResultsThe ostia of the BAs were located on the superior surface of the AA between the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery in three patients, the junction of the aorta and medial surface of the left subclavian artery in two, and the posterior wall of the upper portion of the AA in one. The six BAs comprised two common trunks, three single right sides, and one single left side. The targeted vessels were successfully catheterized and embolized by a coaxial microcatheter system using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Other pathologic BAs and nonbronchial systemic arteries also were embolized. Bleeding was immediately controlled in all patients with no recurrence of hemoptysis. No procedure-related complications occurred.ConclusionsApplication of EVE of anomalous origin of BAs in patients with hemoptysis is important, as demonstrated in the six reported patients. MDCTA before EVE or AA angiography during EVE is critical to avoid missing a rare aberrant BA originating from the upper portion of the AA.

  5. Sex differences in interactions between nucleus accumbens and visual cortex by explicit visual erotic stimuli: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Jeong, B S; Choi, J; Kim, J-W

    2015-01-01

    Men tend to have greater positive responses than women to explicit visual erotic stimuli (EVES). However, it remains unclear, which brain network makes men more sensitive to EVES and which factors contribute to the brain network activity. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of sex difference on brain connectivity patterns by EVES. We also investigated the association of testosterone with brain connection that showed the effects of sex difference. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, 14 males and 14 females were asked to see alternating blocks of pictures that were either erotic or non-erotic. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was performed to investigate the functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NA) as it related to EVES. Men showed significantly greater EVES-specific functional connection between the right NA and the right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). In addition, the right NA and the right LOC network activity was positively correlated with the plasma testosterone level in men. Our results suggest that the reason men are sensitive to EVES is the increased interaction in the visual reward networks, which is modulated by their plasma testosterone level.

  6. Posterior patterning by the Caenorhabditis elegans even-skipped homolog vab-7.

    PubMed

    Ahringer, J

    1996-05-01

    Patterning of the posterior end in animals is not well understood. Homologs of Drosophila even-skipped (eve) have a similar posterior expression pattern in many animals, and in vertebrates they are linked physically to the "posterior" ends of homeotic clusters (HOM-C), suggesting a conserved role in posterior development. However, the function of this posterior expression is not known. Here I show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene vab-7 encodes an eve homolog that is required for posterior development and expressed in a pattern strikingly similar to that of vertebrate eve genes. Using a four-dimensional recording system, I found that posterior body muscles and the posterior epidermis are patterned abnormally in vab-7 mutants, but commitment to muscle and epidermal fates is normal. Furthermore, vab-7 activity is required for the complete expression of the most posterior HOM-C gene egl-5 in muscle cells, supporting the idea that eve homologs may act with the HOM-C to determine posterior cell fates. The conservation of sequence and expression pattern between vab-7 and eve homologs in other animals argues that most eve genes have posterior mesodermal and ectodermal patterning functions.

  7. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.

    PubMed

    Ruginsk, S G; Uchoa, E T; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2012-02-01

    The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates the effects of dexamethasone on hormone release induced by changes in circulating volume and osmolality. Male adult rats were administered with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/Kg, p.o.), followed or not in 1 hour by dexamethasone (1 mg/Kg, i.p.). Extracellular volume expansion (EVE, 2 mL/100 g of body weight, i.v.) was performed 2 hours after dexamethasone or vehicle treatment using either isotonic (I-EVE, 0.15 mol/L) or hypertonic (H-EVE, 0.30 mol/L) NaCl solution. Five minutes after EVE, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected for all plasma measurements. Rimonabant potentiated oxytocin (OT) secretion induced by H-EVE and completely reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in response to the same stimulus. These data suggest that glucocorticoid modulation of OT release is mediated by the CB(1) receptor. Although dexamethasone did not affect vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by H-EVE, the administration of rimonabant potentiated AVP release in response to the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor regulates AVP secretion independently of glucocorticoid-mediated signalling. Dexamethasone alone did not affect atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by I-EVE or H-EVE. However, pretreatment with rimonabant potentiated ANP secretion induced by H-EVE, suggesting a possible role for the CB(1) receptor in the control of peripheral factors that modulate cardiovascular function. Rimonabant also reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on H-EVE-induced corticosterone secretion, reinforcing the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor may be involved in the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that the CB(1) receptor modulates neurohypophyseal hormone secretion and

  8. Germline viral “fossils” guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard H.; Hallwirth, Claus V.; Westerman, Michael; Hetherington, Nicola A.; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Ziegler, Mona-Larissa; Rogozin, Igor B.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kotin, Robert M.; Alexander, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    Germline endogenous viral elements (EVEs) genetically preserve viral nucleotide sequences useful to the study of viral evolution, gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived endogenous viral element (mAAV-EVE1) found within the germline of numerous closely related marsupial species. Molecular screening of a marsupial DNA panel indicated that mAAV-EVE1 occurs specifically within the marsupial suborder Macropodiformes (present-day kangaroos, wallabies, and related macropodoids), to the exclusion of other Diprotodontian lineages. Orthologous mAAV-EVE1 locus sequences from sixteen macropodoid species, representing a speciation history spanning an estimated 30 million years, facilitated compilation of an inferred ancestral sequence that recapitulates the genome of an ancient marsupial AAV that circulated among Australian metatherian fauna sometime during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic timescale. Characterisation of AAV-EVE loci among disparate species affords insight into AAV evolution and, in the case of macropodoid species, may offer an additional genetic basis for assignment of phylogenetic relationships among the Macropodoidea. From an applied perspective, the identified AAV “fossils” provide novel capsid sequences for use in translational research and clinical applications. PMID:27377618

  9. A Transcription Factor Network Coordinates Attraction, Repulsion, and Adhesion Combinatorially to Control Motor Axon Pathway Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zarin, Aref Arzan; Asadzadeh, Jamshid; Hokamp, Karsten; McCartney, Daniel; Yang, Long; Bashaw, Greg J.; Labrador, Juan-Pablo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Combinations of transcription factors (TFs) instruct precise wiring patterns in the developing nervous system; however, how these factors impinge on surface molecules that control guidance decisions is poorly understood. Using mRNA profiling, we identified the complement of membrane molecules regulated by the homeobox TF Even-skipped (Eve), the major determinant of dorsal motor neuron (dMN) identity in Drosophila. Combinatorial loss- and gain-of-function genetic analyses of Eve target genes indicate that the integrated actions of attractive, repulsive, and adhesive molecules direct eve-dependent dMN axon guidance. Furthermore, combined misexpression of Eve target genes is sufficient to partially restore CNS exit and can convert the guidance behavior of interneurons to that of dMNs. Finally, we show that a network of TFs, comprised of eve, zfh1, and grain, induces the expression of the Unc5 and Beaten-path guidance receptors and the Fasciclin 2 and Neuroglian adhesion molecules to guide individual dMN axons. PMID:24560702

  10. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Ryan, Daniel; Warren, Harry

    2015-10-01

    We compare the ability of 11 differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite/ X-ray Sensor (GOES/XRS). The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial-synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov Chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/ X-Ray Telescope (XRT) method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature Tw^{fit}/Tw^{sim}=0.9±0.1, the peak emission measure EMp^{fit}/EMp^{sim}=0.6±0.2, the total emission measure EMt^{fit}/EMt^{sim}=0.8±0.3, and the multi-thermal energies E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{approx}=1.2±0.4. We find that the AIA spatial-synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yield the most accurate results.

  11. Germline viral "fossils" guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard H; Hallwirth, Claus V; Westerman, Michael; Hetherington, Nicola A; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Ziegler, Mona-Larissa; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kotin, Robert M; Alexander, Ian E

    2016-07-05

    Germline endogenous viral elements (EVEs) genetically preserve viral nucleotide sequences useful to the study of viral evolution, gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived endogenous viral element (mAAV-EVE1) found within the germline of numerous closely related marsupial species. Molecular screening of a marsupial DNA panel indicated that mAAV-EVE1 occurs specifically within the marsupial suborder Macropodiformes (present-day kangaroos, wallabies, and related macropodoids), to the exclusion of other Diprotodontian lineages. Orthologous mAAV-EVE1 locus sequences from sixteen macropodoid species, representing a speciation history spanning an estimated 30 million years, facilitated compilation of an inferred ancestral sequence that recapitulates the genome of an ancient marsupial AAV that circulated among Australian metatherian fauna sometime during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic timescale. Characterisation of AAV-EVE loci among disparate species affords insight into AAV evolution and, in the case of macropodoid species, may offer an additional genetic basis for assignment of phylogenetic relationships among the Macropodoidea. From an applied perspective, the identified AAV "fossils" provide novel capsid sequences for use in translational research and clinical applications.

  12. Analysis of pattern precision shows that Drosophila segmentation develops substantial independence from gradients of maternal gene products.

    PubMed

    Holloway, David M; Harrison, Lionel G; Kosman, David; Vanario-Alonso, Carlos E; Spirov, Alexander V

    2006-11-01

    We analyze the relation between maternal gradients and segmentation in Drosophila, by quantifying spatial precision in protein patterns. Segmentation is first seen in the striped expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, such as even-skipped (eve). We compare positional precision between Eve and the maternal gradients of Bicoid (Bcd) and Caudal (Cad) proteins, showing that Eve position could be initially specified by the maternal protein concentrations but that these do not have the precision to specify the mature striped pattern of Eve. By using spatial trends, we avoid possible complications in measuring single boundary precision (e.g., gap gene patterns) and can follow how precision changes in time. During nuclear cleavage cycles 13 and 14, we find that Eve becomes increasingly correlated with egg length, whereas Bcd does not. This finding suggests that the change in precision is part of a separation of segmentation from an absolute spatial measure, established by the maternal gradients, to one precise in relative (percent egg length) units.

  13. An essential role of even-skipped for homeotic gene expression in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Tremml, G; Bienz, M

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed homeotic gene expression in the embryonic visceral mesoderm of segmentation mutants by antibody staining against Ultrabithorax, Antennapedia and Sex combs reduced protein. We found that even-skipped (eve) function is crucially required for homeotic gene expression, whereas most other segmentation mutations have only minor effects on position and/or width of the homeotic expression domains in this germ layer. Analysis of pair-rule double mutants indicates that complete loss of homeotic gene activity in the visceral mesoderm, as observed in amorphic eve mutants, correlates with loss of engrailed (en) expression in the epidermis and loss of segmentation. We suggest that the establishment of parasegment borders, a consequence of eve expression and witnessed by subsequent en expression, is a necessary precondition for homeotic gene expression in the visceral mesoderm. Images PMID:2573527

  14. Two-step orthogonal-state-based protocol of quantum secure direct communication with the help of order-rearrangement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Srikanth, R.; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-12-01

    The Goldenberg-Vaidman (GV) protocol for quantum key distribution uses orthogonal encoding states of a particle. Its security arises because operations accessible to Eve are insufficient to distinguish the two states encoding the secret bit. We propose a two-particle cryptographic protocol for quantum secure direct communication, wherein orthogonal states encode the secret, and security arises from restricting Eve from accessing any two-particle operations. However, there is a non-trivial difference between the two cases. While the encoding states are perfectly indistinguishable in GV, they are partially distinguishable in the bipartite case, leading to a qualitatively different kind of information-versus-disturbance trade-off and also options for Eve in the two cases.

  15. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-11-15

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  16. Adapting the Lagrangian speckle model estimator for endovascular elastography: Theory and validation with simulated radio-frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Roch L.; Ohayon, Jacques; Finet, Gérard; Cloutier, Guy

    2004-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is known to be the reference tool for preoperative vessel lesion assessments and for endovascular therapy planning. Nevertheless, IVUS echograms only provide subjective information about vessel wall lesions. Since changes in the vascular tissue stiffness are characteristic of vessel pathologies, catheter-based endovascular ultrasound elastography (EVE) has been proposed in the literature as a method for outlining the elastic properties of vessel walls. In this paper, the Lagrangian Speckle Model Estimator (LSME) is formulated for investigations in EVE, i.e., using a polar coordinate system. The method was implemented through an adapted version of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm, using the optical flow equations to compute the Jacobbian matrix. The theoretical framework was validated with simulated ultrasound rf data of mechanically complex vessel wall pathologies. The results, corroborated with Ansys finite element software, demonstrated the potential of EVE to provide useful information about the heterogeneous nature of atherosclerotic plaques.

  17. Adapting the Lagrangian speckle model estimator for endovascular elastography: theory and validation with simulated radio-frequency data.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Roch L; Ohayon, Jacques; Finet, Gérard; Cloutier, Guy

    2004-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is known to be the reference tool for preoperative vessel lesion assessments and for endovascular therapy planning. Nevertheless, IVUS echograms only provide subjective information about vessel wall lesions. Since changes in the vascular tissue stiffness are characteristic of vessel pathologies, catheter-based endovascular ultrasound elastography (EVE) has been proposed in the literature as a method for outlining the elastic properties of vessel walls. In this paper, the Lagrangian Speckle Model Estimator (LSME) is formulated for investigations in EVE, i.e., using a polar coordinate system. The method was implemented through an adapted version of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm, using the optical flow equations to compute the Jacobbian matrix. The theoretical framework was validated with simulated ultrasound rf data of mechanically complex vessel wall pathologies. The results, corroborated with Ansys finite element software, demonstrated the potential of EVE to provide useful information about the heterogeneous nature of atherosclerotic plaques.

  18. The Origin of the EUV Late Phase: A Case Study of the C8.8 Flare on 2010 May 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jones, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2010 February 11, the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) has observed numerous flares. One interesting feature observed by EVE is that a subset of flares exhibit an additional enhancement of the 2-3 million K emission several hours after the flares soft X-ray emission. From the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, we observe that this secondary emission, dubbed the EUV late phase, occurs in the same active region as the flare but not in the same coronal loops. Here, we examine the C8.8 flare that occurred on 2010 May 5 as a case study of EUV late phase flares. In addition to presenting detailed observations from both AIA and EVE, we develop a physical model of this flare and test it using the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) model.

  19. Applications of the Galton Watson process to human DNA evolution and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Armando G. M.; Moreira, Carlos H. C.

    2006-08-01

    We show that the problem of existence of a mitochondrial Eve can be understood as an application of the Galton-Watson process and presents interesting analogies with critical phenomena in Statistical Mechanics. In the approximation of small survival probability, and assuming limited progeny, we are able to find for a genealogic tree the maximum and minimum survival probabilities over all probability distributions for the number of children per woman constrained to a given mean. As a consequence, we can relate existence of a mitochondrial Eve to quantitative demographic data of early mankind. In particular, we show that a mitochondrial Eve may exist even in an exponentially growing population, provided that the mean number of children per woman Nbar is constrained to a small range depending on the probability p that a child is a female. Assuming that the value p≈0.488 valid nowadays has remained fixed for thousands of generations, the range where a mitochondrial Eve occurs with sizeable probability is 2.0492Eve and a Y chromosome Adam. We remark why this problem may not be treated by two independent Galton-Watson processes and present some simulation results suggesting that joint existence of Eve and Adam occurs with sizeable probability in the same Nbar range. Finally, we show that the Galton-Watson process may be a useful approximation in treating biparental population models, allowing us to reproduce some results previously obtained by Chang and Derrida et al.

  20. Regioselective photocycloaddition of pyridine derivatives to electron-rich alkenes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masami; Sano, Takeru; Fujita, Shohei; Ando, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Mino, Takashi; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2003-02-21

    Irradiation of a benzene solution of 3-cyano-2,6-dimethoxypyridine in the presence of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) gave 1:1 photoadducts, 3-cyano-5-ethoxy-2,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dihydroazocine, in good yields, whose structure was established by X-ray single-crystal analysis. The photoadduct was produced via cycloaddition between the C3-C4 position of the pyridine derivatives and an alkene chromophore. On the other hand, 3-cyano-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylpyridine cycloadds to EVE at the C2-C3 position of the pyridine ring upon irradiation. The difference is explained on the basis of the steric effect.

  1. Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.

  2. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  3. The Impact of Scaling on a Multimedia Connection Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    underlying network services. Particpants Eve, Steverand Joe Teleconf Application Audio: high qua Video:adixquate qual spewe: rmoemte coat moxdo Connection...Conferencing in the Etherphone Environment". IEEE Computer, Vol.24, No.10 (Oct 1991). [321 Weider , C., Reynolds, I., "Technical Overview of Directory

  4. Tools for Employers: Making Equal Pay a Reality in Your Workplace. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents six primary tools employers can use to narrow or eliminate pay gaps in their workplaces. After each tool is a discussion of the problem and examples of "best practices" by employers that have won the Department of Labor's Opportunity 2000 and EVE (Exemplary Voluntary Efforts) awards. The report is divided into six tools:…

  5. From Mars Curiosity to Times Square - Happy New Year

    NASA Video Gallery

    New Year's Eve revelers watching giant screens in New York's TimesSquare saw a special Happy New Year greeting from Mars, currently 206million miles away.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech    › Curi...

  6. Streaming potential and electroviscous effects in soft nanochannels beyond Debye-Hückel linearization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we model the streaming potential (SP) and the electroviscous effects (EVE) in a soft nanochannel for system parameters that forbid the use of linearized Debye-Hückel (DH) treatment. This linear treatment, which is an essential ingredient in electrokinetics modeling, necessitates that the system parameters must be such that the electrostatic potential in the entire system must be much smaller than k(B)T/ez (where k(B)T is the thermal energy, z is the ion valence and e is the electronic charge). In our previous paper we provided analytical results for the SP and the EVE in a soft nanochannel considering the DH treatment. Therefore, in this paper we extend this previous calculation; our numerical approach allows studying much wider ranges of parameters. This numerical treatment is based on solution of an integro-differential equation governing the flow velocity; to the best of our knowledge such an approach has never been previously used for SP modeling. In our previous study, we have witnessed an enhanced SP and an enhanced EVE for the soft nanochannel for the case of small electrostatic potential. Here our numerical results help us predict a breakdown of these trends for the case of larger potentials. These findings are important to probe the problem of SP and EVE in soft nanochannels across a sufficiently large range of electrostatic potentials, with implications in issues such as electrochemomechanical energy conversion.

  7. Communication, Social Structural Change, and Capital Formation in People's Republic of China. Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Godwin C.

    Focusing on economic development in the People's Republic of China beginning at the eve of the communist takeover, this monograph analyzes the ways and patterns in which mass media and interpersonal communication were used to change economically relevant social structures in the interclass confrontation and the part these patterns played in the…

  8. Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaworth, Angela

    2012-01-01

    According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…

  9. The Soviet and the Falklands War: Opportunity in Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    newly independent state of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata (forerunner of Argentina) dispatched a frigate to the islands to claim them as part...Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The attack, which took place on Christmas Eve, invoked anger in President Carter, and resulted in the consideration

  10. Mechanisms Linking Phonological Development to Lexical Development--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika; Parra, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    When Roger Brown selected Adam, Eve and Sarah to be the first three participants in the modern study of child language, one of the criteria was the intelligibility of their speech (Brown, 1973). According to the prevailing view at the time, accuracy of pronunciation was a peripheral phenomenon that had nothing to do with the development of…

  11. 7. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST OF HEADWALL THAT TERMINATES THE FORECOURT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST OF HEADWALL THAT TERMINATES THE FORECOURT; VIEW INCLUDES THE OCEANUS FOUNTAIN ON THE TERRACE LEVEL, THE DOUBLE STAIRS, RADIAL PAVING, AND THE ADAM AND EVE FOUNTAIN, IN PINK GRANITE, TUCKED INTO A CENTRAL NICHE CARVED OUT OF HEADWALL - Kykuit, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  12. Cyclone Tracy and the Darwin Educators: A Case in Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Hedley

    The story of successful crisis management teaches some lessons applicable not only to surmounting crises but to everyday management decisions as well. On Christmas eve, 1974, a cyclone demolished 90 percent of the city of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory. As thousands gathered in neighborhood schools, a team of educational administrators…

  13. Solar Dynamics Observatory Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Rachel; Uhl, Andrew; Secunda, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Mission is to study how solar activity is created and how space weather results from that activity. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA): High Resolution Images of 10 wavelengths every 10 seconds. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Measure Sun's brightness in EUV. Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI): Measures Doppler shift to study waves of the Sun. Launched February 11, 2010.

  14. 24 Hours to Save the NHS - The Chief Executive's Account of Reform 2000 to 2006 Crisp Nigel 24 Hours to Save the NHS - The Chief Executive's Account of Reform 2000 to 2006 248pp Oxford University Press 9780199639953 0199639957 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-02-22

    The title of this book comes from Tony Blair's political slogan on the eve of the 1997 election when he told voters they had '24 hours to save the NHS' by voting for a Labour government. The new millennium, however, still found the NHS in decline.

  15. 3 CFR 8473 - Proclamation 8473 of January 15, 2010. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the United States of America A Proclamation The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., challenged... America a better Nation,” Dr. King said on the eve of his death. “I may not get there with you. But I want... strides since the turbulent era of Dr. King’s movement, his work and our journey remain unfinished....

  16. 75 FR 3839 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King... opportunity to make America a better Nation,'' Dr. King said on the eve of his death. ``I may not get there... we have made great strides since the turbulent era of Dr. King's movement, his work and our...

  17. Beyond Rhetoric: A Recipe for Civil Society Action on Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanvir, Mohammad Muntasim

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of CONFINTEA VI, discussion and debates on promoting literacy is being revived. However, in most cases, the discussion limits itself to the definitional nuances of literacy and falls short of critiquing the global policy making inertia that violates the human rights obligations to the millions of adults remaining illiterate. This…

  18. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Shihai; Jiang Musheng; Liang Linmei

    2011-06-15

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  19. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-09-15

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  20. Prescreening Military Officer Candidates for High Level Security Clearances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    eo6S Cr.9s o, ’arcot Cs, Wve yo,. eve., teen :eatod or undergone rehioil,tat on, $or cr.c or alcohoi at"#’C SECTION III STATEMENTS OF UNDERSTANDING INM...INVOLVEMENT INVOLVEMENT AUTHORITY/COURT ANO SENTENCE WERE YOU DETAINED. CONrINED. WASYTHEUSE OPDRUSSOR ACTION BY PAS OR" PLACED ON PROBATION PORn ALCOHOL

  1. The Management of the Knowledge Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanassiades, John C.

    This essay on the management of information presents areas of agreement and disagreement about the "knowledge revolution", its general effect on the world population, and its particular effect on libraries and other information systems, as well as on those who are charged with its management. The myth of Adam and Eve is used to symbolize the…

  2. A Blind Analysis of Another Case of Multiple Personality Using the Semantic Differential Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Charles E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In 1954 Osgood and Luria reported a blind analysis of a case of triple personality, popularly known as "The Three Faces of Eve," that had been analyzed by Thigpen and Cleckley. Here they combined with Robert Jeans to do a similar blind analysis of a case Jeans was treating in the late 1960s. (Editor/RK)

  3. VULNERABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, USA, TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the distribution of vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were explored for two climate-change scenarios. The equilibrium vegetation ecology (EVE) model was used to project the distribution of life forms and to combine these into biomes for a doubl...

  4. "Asking "How" Instead of "Why"": Exploring Inclusive Approaches to Teaching and Learning through Pupil and Teacher Responses to a School Link Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Eve

    2009-01-01

    The association of inclusive education with an equity discourse means that the question of "how" to include is one currently faced by many teachers in the UK. Written by Eve Griffiths, who teaches English, literacy, media studies and drama in a special school in Wolverhampton, this article constructs a set of inclusive principles for…

  5. Remarkable diversity of endogenous viruses in a crustacean genome.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa.

  6. USDA's Vick tells radio audience wind farms mean huge water savings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since most of the electricity in the U.S. is generated using coal and natural gas as fuel, almost every wind farm announcement includes the estimated amount of carbon dioxide which was not released to the atmosphere. According to Wikipedia, 2.25 tons of CO2 and 1.14 tons of CO2 were released for eve...

  7. An Online Image Analysis Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeside, L.; Busschots, B.; Waddington, S.; Keating, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an online image analysis tool developed as part of an iterative, user-centered development of an online Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) called the Education through Virtual Experience (EVE) Portal. The VLE provides a Web portal through which schoolchildren and their teachers create scientific proposals, retrieve images and…

  8. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  9. Army Strong, Superintendent Savvy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Brigadier General Anthony "Tony" Tata of the U.S. Army had one of those "ah-ha" moments in April 2006 when, on the eve of an operation he was heading in Afghanistan, an Al Qaeda rocket shattered a nearby school. The attack killed a teacher and seven students and wounded dozens more. The rocket incident eventually nudged Tata…

  10. Towards a History of the Encyclopedia from Jerome to Isidor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, S.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the idea of an encyclopedia from Jerome, who worked mainly in Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the Roman Empire, through the work of Augustine, Martianus Capella, Boethius, and Cassiodorus Senator, to Isidor, who worked in Seville on the eve of the Carolingian Renaissance. (LLS)

  11. A Developmental Switch for Hebbian Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Marijn B.; Celikel, Tansu; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.

    2015-01-01

    Hebbian forms of synaptic plasticity are required for the orderly development of sensory circuits in the brain and are powerful modulators of learning and memory in adulthood. During development, emergence of Hebbian plasticity leads to formation of functional circuits. By modeling the dynamics of neurotransmitter release during early postnatal cortical development we show that a developmentally regulated switch in vesicle exocytosis mode triggers associative (i.e. Hebbian) plasticity. Early in development spontaneous vesicle exocytosis (SVE), often considered as 'synaptic noise', is important for homogenization of synaptic weights and maintenance of synaptic weights in the appropriate dynamic range. Our results demonstrate that SVE has a permissive, whereas subsequent evoked vesicle exocytosis (EVE) has an instructive role in the expression of Hebbian plasticity. A timed onset for Hebbian plasticity can be achieved by switching from SVE to EVE and the balance between SVE and EVE can control the effective rate of Hebbian plasticity. We further show that this developmental switch in neurotransmitter release mode enables maturation of spike-timing dependent plasticity. A mis-timed or inadequate SVE to EVE switch may lead to malformation of brain networks thereby contributing to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26172394

  12. Educational Journeys on the Web Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1998-01-01

    Presents a guiding framework (Relate-Create-Donate) for integrating World Wide Web technology into higher education and describes two specific strategies: "Encyclopedia Of" and "Open Projects." The Encyclopedia of Virtual Environments (EVE), Online Library of Information Visualization Environments (OLIVE), and Student HCI Online Research…

  13. Eventos de Diciembre (December Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains information on three events occurring in the month of December: winter, Christmas, and New Year's Eve. Winter is briefly discussed. The section on Christmas includes a short story ("La Nochebuena"); a poem about Christmas in Puerto Rico; a legend about the poinsettia; brief discussion of Santa…

  14. Don Quixote at 400: Still Conquering Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavans, Ilan

    2005-01-01

    The Knight of the Sorrowful Countenance is turning 400. By some accounts, the first part of Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece, was available in Valladolid by Christmas Eve 1604, although Madrid did not get copies until January 1605. Thus came to life the "ingenious gentleman" who, ill equipped with antiquated armor "stained with rust…

  15. Arts-Based Leadership: Theatrical Tributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soumerai, Eve Nussbaum; Mazer, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this article describes how, as an independent educator, Eve Nussbaum Soumerai developed numerous theatrical tributes to inspirational historical figures (Anne Frank, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Dalai Lama, for example). By participating in these productions, young people learned about the lives of these figures and shared…

  16. Assessment Practices in Foreign Language Education: Dimension 2004. Selected Proceedings of the 2004 Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the Alabama Association of Foreign Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, C. Maurice, Ed.; Bradley, Lee, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Dimension" is the annual volume containing the selected, refereed, edited proceedings of each year's conference. On the eve of its 40th anniversary, the Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT) plans a special series of articles on assessment within the foreign language profession. The 2004 edition of "Dimension"…

  17. South African Academia in Crisis: The Spread of "Contrived Collegial Managerialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, on the eve of rationalisation of South African higher education, J. M. Coetzee published a book entitled "Disgrace". In this publication he narrates the tale of a Classics and Modern Languages professor transformed into an adjunct professor of Communications, a marketable identity, as a consequence of rationalisation. Coetzee,…

  18. Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research--research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to…

  19. Which "It" is It? The Acquisition of Referential and Expletive It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Susannah; Becker, Misha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the natural order of acquisition of the proform "it," comparing deictic pronoun "it," anaphoric pronoun "it" and expletive "it." Files from four children (Adam, Eve, Nina and Peter) aged 1 ; 6-3 ; 0 in the CHILDES database were coded for occurrences of NP it (here it is) and expletive it (it's raining).…

  20. A Snapshot of Title I Schools Serving Migrant Students, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sheila Nataraj; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Naftel, Scott

    This report uses a series of exhibits to present a snaphot of Title I schools serving migrant students on the eve of the passage of NCLB. In addition to updating the information provided in the earlier report, this report also focuses on a third evaluation question: What progress did these schools make over time between 1998-99 and 2000-01 in…

  1. Spill Sleuths: An Interdisciplinary Environmental Health Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudensey, Lyle; Whidden, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    "We are on the eve of total contamination," said an eighth grade "toxicologist" at a mock town meeting at Mount Baker Middle School in Mount Vernon, Washington. The meeting was the culmination of a month-long investigation by students to determine why some of the townspeople were getting sick. During the unit, students used skills from several…

  2. Rational and Boundedly Rational Behavior in a Binary Choice Sender-Receiver Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landi, Massimiliano; Colucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate the strategic rationale behind the message sent by Osama bin Laden on the eve of the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections. They model this situation as a signaling game in which a population of receivers takes a binary choice, the outcome is decided by majority rule, sender and receivers have conflicting interests, and there is…

  3. Gambling on a Settlement: The Baltimore City Schools Adequacy Litigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipollone, Diane W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1983, Maryland's highest court rejected a constitutional challenge to the state's education finance system. In 1994, the American Civil Liberties Union and Baltimore City instituted new adequacy suits against the state. An eve-of-trial settlement provided a moderate school funding increase in return for changes in school governance structure.…

  4. Education and the Historiography of Ibero-American Independence: Elusive Presences, Many Absences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimenta, Joao Paulo G.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution analyses recent historiographical tendencies in research in the field of education at the time of the political emancipation of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America. The article briefly presents the complex educational scene in Latin America on the eve of the movements for independence. Due to the…

  5. Religion, Sexual Orientation, and School Policy: How the Christian Right Frames Its Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2008-01-01

    The Christian Right opposes the inclusion of sexual orientation in school policies, charging that the schools are legitimating and promoting homosexuality. The arguments have moved past the trite, "God created Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve," to claims of violations of parental rights and the First Amendment, often positioning…

  6. The Big Apple's Core: Exploring Manhattan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groce, Eric C.; Groce, Robin D.; Colby, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of images related to New York City through various media outlets. They may have seen glimpses of Manhattan by watching movies such as Spiderman or Stuart Little or by taking in annual television events such as the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade or the Times Square New Year's Eve celebration. Additionally,…

  7. Hilary Putnam Interviewed by Naoko Saito and Paul Standish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Philosophy of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The interview, which took place on the eve of the 2012 American presidential election, coincides with the publication of three major works by or about Hilary Putnam. It begins and ends with the topic of science, drawing attention to science's profound importance but also to its contemporary forms of distortion. It explores Putnam's…

  8. Remarkable Diversity of Endogenous Viruses in a Crustacean Genome

    PubMed Central

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25084787

  9. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, The Life of a General

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    the war he was selected by a women’s magazine as "Mr. America" in 1948 Vandenberg crowned the Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival Queen; he presented the...a cherry pie in the eve- nings, which he was occasionally known to share with his family. He enjoyed argu- ing with his children at the dinner table

  10. Viscera and muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than by continuous feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous and intermittent bolus orogastric feedings are strategies used in infants unable to tolerate normal feeds. To determine the effects of feeding modality on protein synthesis in different tissues, neonatal pigs received a balanced formula by orogastric tube as an intermittent bolus feed eve...

  11. EPA Initiates Second Review of Hudson River PCB Cleanup, Public Encouraged to Participate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Albany, NY) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has initiated its second review of the cleanup of the Hudson River PCBs Superfund site. The purpose of this review, which is called a five year review and is legally required under the Superfund law eve

  12. An Intelligence Collection Management Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    classification of inteligence collection requirements in terms of. the a-.- metnodo"c, .ev--e in Chaster Five. 116 APPgENDIX A A METHOD OF RANKING...of Artificial Intelligence Tools and Technigues to!TN’X n~l is n rs aa~emfft-.3-ufnyva: ’A TZ Ashby W. Ecss. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York

  13. Reform of School Science Curriculum for the 21st Century: Science-Technology-Society Theme in Japanese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Genzo

    Today, on the eve of the 21st century, Japan is becoming an internationalized, information centered civilization. The sophistication of modern science and technology will create a demand for people who are highly productive in handling knowledge and sensitive in their manipulation of it. This advance of science and technology will also require an…

  14. New Initiatives in Vocational Education. A Progress Report on the Implementation of "Education for the World of Work in the State of Maine" and "Career and Occupational Education in Maine for the 'Third American Century.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta. Bureau of Adult and Secondary Vocational Education.

    This 2-year status report focuses on the implementation in Maine of the recommendations of two reports--the report of the Commissioner's Task Force to Study Secondary Vocational Education in Maine and Commissioner Eve Bither's response to the report. New initiatives, now being implemented at many sites throughout the state, are designed to enhance…

  15. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-06

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax.

  16. International Leaders Summit: Using Dialogue to Center the Conversation on the Education of Deaf Children and Youth in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    On July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current…

  17. The WTO and the Millennium Round: What Is at Stake for Public Education? Common Concerns for Workers in Education and the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    On the eve of the year 2000, global public spending on education tops one trillion dollars. Against the backdrop of globalization, public education is currently being subjected to attacks by proponents of privatization and deregulation. The process is already underway, as is apparent from an important agreement reached by the World Trade…

  18. Artificial selection on egg size perturbs early pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miles, Cecelia M; Lott, Susan E; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Ludwig, Michael Z; Manu; Williams, Calvin L; Kreitman, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern formation in Drosophila embryogenesis has been widely investigated as a developmental and evolutionary model of robustness. To ask whether genetic variation for pattern formation is suppressed in this system, artificial selection for divergent egg size was used to challenge the scaling of even-skipped (eve) pattern formation in mitotic cycle 14 (stage 5) embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Three-dimensional confocal imaging revealed shifts in the allometry of eve pair-rule stripes along both anterior–posterior (A–P) and dorsoventral (D–V) axes as a correlated response to egg size selection, indicating the availability of genetic variation for this buffered trait. Environmental perturbation was not required for the manifestation of this variation. The number of nuclei at the cellular blastoderm stage also changed in response to selection, with large-egg selected lines having more than 1000 additional nuclei relative to small-egg lines. This increase in nuclear number in larger eggs does not scale with egg size, however, as nuclear density is inversely correlated with egg length. Nuclear density varies along the A–P axis but does not correlate with the shift in eve stripe allometry between the selection treatments. Despite its macroevolutionary conservation, both eve stripe patterning and blastoderm cell number vary genetically both within and between closely related species.

  19. Effect of Water Logging Conditions on Solubility of Soil Nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide use of herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers, and soil amendments affect the rhizosphere biochemistry and ecology. Soils in the Midwest of the US tend to be saturated in the early spring when snow and ice melt, and frequent rain occurs. Saturated conditions also occur after heavy rainfall eve...

  20. Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Systemic Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the advances and application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) since its development in 1984 and its enhancements and applications to detection of viruses, viroids and phytoplasma in pome and stone fruits. PCR is probably the most rapidly and widely adopted technology eve...

  1. "From Behind the Veil": Teaching the Literature of the Enemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbert, Claude Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dramatizes what can happen when educators teach literature for cross-cultural understanding, especially when the literature being taught is written by citizens of a country with which the students' country is at war. Describes the events of one class in the United States in 1990 on the eve of the first Gulf War, and it theorizes these vents in…

  2. Adjuncts Fight Back over Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Bitterman was fired by his school after he offended his students for telling them that they could easily appreciate the biblical story of Adam and Eve if they considered it a myth. Several adjunct and full-time professors who work off the tenure track have been fired after saying something, as Mr. Bitterman did, that offended students or…

  3. Inappropriate Utilization of the Emergency Treatment Room at DeWitt Army Community Hospital Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-16

    Septicemia herpetic meningococcal anthrax Serum hepatitis Shock Shortness of breath Shunt malfunction Sickle cell crisis Speech disturbance Spleen...reducin; th-• -’xp:i, t dIsea e (Yeat ana, I I )S. In e.p,)onle t:) the incon l st ency of c,.?,ne within emerency departments, ;eve.a . ,2ner•:ncy

  4. The homeobox transcription factor Even-skipped regulates acquisition of electrical properties in Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pym, Edward CG; Southall, Tony D; Mee, Christopher J; Brand, Andrea H; Baines, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Background While developmental processes such as axon pathfinding and synapse formation have been characterized in detail, comparatively less is known of the intrinsic developmental mechanisms that regulate transcription of ion channel genes in embryonic neurons. Early decisions, including motoneuron axon targeting, are orchestrated by a cohort of transcription factors that act together in a combinatorial manner. These transcription factors include Even-skipped (Eve), islet and Lim3. The perdurance of these factors in late embryonic neurons is, however, indicative that they might also regulate additional aspects of neuron development, including the acquisition of electrical properties. Results To test the hypothesis that a combinatorial code transcription factor is also able to influence the acquisition of electrical properties in embryonic neurons we utilized the molecular genetics of Drosophila to manipulate the expression of Eve in identified motoneurons. We show that increasing expression of this transcription factor, in two Eve-positive motoneurons (aCC and RP2), is indeed sufficient to affect the electrical properties of these neurons in early first instar larvae. Specifically, we observed a decrease in both the fast K+ conductance (IKfast) and amplitude of quantal cholinergic synaptic input. We used charybdotoxin to pharmacologically separate the individual components of IKfast to show that increased Eve specifically down regulates the Slowpoke (a BK Ca2+-gated potassium channel), but not Shal, component of this current. Identification of target genes for Eve, using DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, revealed strong binding sites in slowpoke and nAcRα-96Aa (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit). Verification using real-time PCR shows that pan-neuronal expression of eve is sufficient to repress transcripts for both slo and nAcRα-96Aa. Conclusion Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that Eve is sufficient to regulate

  5. The Characteristics of Air Pollutants during Two Distinct Episodes of Fireworks Burning in a Valley City of North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Wan, Xiaoming; Bai, Shuoxin; Guo, Dong; Ren, Ci; Zeng, Yu; Li, Yirui; Li, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Background The elevation and dissipation of pollutants after the ignition of fireworks in different functional areas of a valley city were investigated. Methods The Air Quality Index (AQI) as well as inter-day and intra-day concentrations of various air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) were measured during two episodes that took place during Chinese New Year festivities. Results For the special terrain of Jinan, the mean concentrations of pollutants increased sharply within 2–4 h of the firework displays, and concentrations were 4–6 times higher than the usual levels. It took 2–3 d for the pollutants to dissipate to background levels. Compared to Preliminary Eve (more fireworks are ignited on New Year’s Eve, but the amounts of other human activities are also lesser), the primary pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and CO reached higher concentrations on New Year’s Eve, and the highest concentrations of these pollutants were detected in living quarters. All areas suffered from serious pollution problems on New Year’s Eve (rural = urban for PM10, but rural > urban for PM2.5). However, SO2 and NO2 levels were 20%–60% lower in living quarters and industrial areas compared to the levels in these same areas on Preliminary Eve. In contrast to the other pollutants, O3 concentrations fell instead of rising with the firework displays. Conclusion Interactions between firework displays and other human activities caused different change trends of pollutants. PM2.5 and PM10 were the main pollutants, and the rural living quarter had some of the highest pollution levels. PMID:28045925

  6. Photometric and Thermal Cross-calibration of Solar EUV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, P. F.; Testa, P.; Warren, H.; Weber, M. A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    2014-06-01

    We present an assessment of the accuracy of the calibration measurements and atomic physics models that go into calculating the SDO/AIA response as a function of wavelength and temperature. The wavelength response is tested by convolving SDO/EVE and Hinode/EIS spectral data with the AIA effective area functions and by comparing the predictions with AIA observations. For most channels, the AIA intensities summed over the disk agree with the corresponding measurements derived from the current version (V2) of the EVE data to within the estimated 25 % calibration error. This agreement indicates that the AIA effective areas are generally stable in time. The AIA 304 Å channel, however, does show degradation by a factor of almost 3 from May 2010 through September 2011, when the throughput apparently reached a minimum. We also found some inconsistencies in the 335 Å passband, possibly due to higher-order contamination of the EVE data. The intensities in the AIA 193 Å channel agree to within the uncertainties with the corresponding measurements from EIS full CCD observations. Analysis of high-resolution X-ray spectra of the solar-like corona of Procyon and of EVE spectra allowed us to investigate the accuracy and completeness of the CHIANTI database in the AIA shorter wavelength passbands. We found that in the 94 Å channel, the spectral model significantly underestimates the plasma emission owing to a multitude of missing lines. We derived an empirical correction for the AIA temperature responses by performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversion on a broad set of EVE spectra and adjusting the AIA response functions so that the count rates predicted by the full-disk DEMs match the observations.

  7. Defining the Clinical Target Volume for Bladder Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter; Anjarwalla, Salim; Gilbert, Hugh; Kinder, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: There are currently no data for the expansion margin required to define the clinical target volume (CTV) around bladder tumors. This information is particularly relevant when perivesical soft tissue changes are seen on the planning scan. While this appearance may reflect extravesical extension (EVE), it may also be an artifact of previous transurethral resection (TUR). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone radical cystectomy were studied. All patients underwent preoperative TUR and staging computed tomography (CT) scans. The presence and extent of tumor growth beyond the outer bladder wall was measured radiologically and histopathologically. Results: Forty one (51%) patients had histologically confirmed tumor extension into perivesical fat. The median and mean extensions beyond the outer bladder wall were 1.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. Thirty five (44%) patients had EVE, as seen on CT scans. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for EVE were 56% and 79%, respectively. False-positive results were infrequent and not affected by either the timing or the amount of tissue resected at TUR. CT scans consistently tended to overestimate the extent of EVE. Tumor size and the presence of either lymphovascular invasion or squamoid differentiation predict a greater extent of EVE. Conclusions: In patients with radiological evidence of extravesical disease, the CTV should comprise the outer bladder wall plus a 10-mm margin. In patients with no evidence of extravesical disease on CT scans, the CTV should be restricted to the outer bladder wall plus a 6-mm margin. These recommendations would encompass microscopic disease extension in 90% of cases.

  8. Efficient method for high-throughput virtual screening based on flexible docking: discovery of novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Miho Yamada; Itai, Akiko

    2004-09-23

    A method of easily finding ligands, with a variety of core structures, for a given target macromolecule would greatly contribute to the rapid identification of novel lead compounds for drug development. We have developed an efficient method for discovering ligand candidates from a number of flexible compounds included in databases, when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the drug target is available. The method, named ADAM&EVE, makes use of our automated docking method ADAM, which has already been reported. Like ADAM, ADAM&EVE takes account of the flexibility of each molecule in databases, by exploring the conformational space fully and continuously. Database screening has been made much faster than with ADAM through the tuning of parameters, so that computational screening of several hundred thousand compounds is possible in a practical time. Promising ligand candidates can be selected according to various criteria based on the docking results and characteristics of compounds. Furthermore, we have developed a new tool, EVE-MAKE, for automatically preparing the additional compound data necessary for flexible docking calculation, prior to 3D database screening. Among several successful cases of lead discovery by ADAM&EVE, the finding of novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is presented here. We performed a virtual screening of about 160 000 commercially available compounds against the X-ray crystallographic structure of AChE. Among 114 compounds that could be purchased and assayed, 35 molecules with various core structures showed inhibitory activities with IC(50) values less than 100 microM. Thirteen compounds had IC(50) values between 0.5 and 10 microM, and almost all their core structures are very different from those of known inhibitors. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and validity of the ADAM&EVE approach and provide a starting point for development of novel drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures.

    PubMed

    Lim, Issel Anne L; Faria, Andreia V; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T C; Airan, Raag D; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a "deep gray matter parcellation map" (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established "white matter parcellation map" (WMPM) from the same subject's T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the "Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space," also known as the "EvePM." It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting "almost perfect" agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron concentrations in gray

  10. Complete physical simulation of the entangling-probe attack on the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Stork Genannt Wersborg, Ingo; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2007-04-01

    We have used deterministic single-photon two-qubit quantum logic to implement the most powerful individual-photon attack against the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol. Our measurement results, including physical source and gate errors, are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for the Rényi information obtained by Eve as a function of the errors she imparts to Alice and Bob’s sifted key bits. The current experiment is a physical simulation of a true attack, because Eve has access to Bob’s physical receiver module. Nevertheless, the physical simulation allows investigation of the fundamental security limit of the BB84 protocol against eavesdropping in the presence of realistic physical errors, and it affords the opportunity to study the effectiveness of error correction and privacy amplification when the BB84 protocol is attacked.

  11. EUV dynamic spectral map-a new tool to look into the variety of solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    As The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Launched on February 11, 2010 , the instrument EVE aboard on it has measured the solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations for three years. Due to flares solar radiation varies rapidly and for different spectrums has different responses . So the different type flares viewed by the EVE present different morphology . As for a longer term, the solar radiation also changes for solar rotation in 28 days and solar cycles for 11-year sunspot cycle. We come up with a new tool to display these changes-EUV dynamic spectral map.This paper will briefly present how we produce this map and make a classification of the solar flare base on the EUV map and shows the long-term EUV background emission variations of three years during the Solar Cycle 24.

  12. Comment on “Deterministic six states protocol for quantum communication” [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Orany, Faisal A. A.

    2010-02-01

    In [J.S. Shaari, M. Lucamarini, M.R.B. Wahiddin, Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] the deterministic six states protocol (6DP) for quantum communication has been developed. This protocol is based on three mutually unbiased bases and four encoding operators. Information is transmitted between the users via two qubits from different bases. Three attacks have been studied; namely intercept-resend attack (IRA), double-CNOT attack (2CNOTA) and quantum man-in-the-middle attack. In this Letter, we show that the IRA and 2CNOTA are not properly addressed. For instance, we show that the probability of detecting Eve in the control mode of the IRA is 70% instead of 50% in the previous study. Moreover, in the 2CNOTA, Eve can only obtain 50% of the data not all of it as argued earlier.

  13. Bell's inequality, random sequence, and quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Won-Young

    2005-05-15

    The Ekert 1991 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol appears to be secure regardless of whatever devices legitimate users adopt for the protocol, as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell's inequality. However, this is not the case if they ignore nondetection events because Eve can make use of the detection loophole, as Larrson showed [Quantum Inf. Comput. 2, 434 (2002)]. We show that even when legitimate users take into account nondetection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the QKD system has been appropriately designed by the manufacturer. A loophole utilized here is that of 'free choice' (or 'real randomness'). Local QKD devices with a pseudorandom sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell's inequality.

  14. Wearable design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joe

    2006-09-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, visual impairment will overtake a significant portion of the US population. At the same time, more and more of our world is becoming digital. These two trends, coupled with the continuing advances in digital electronics, argue for a rethinking in the design of aids for the visually impaired. This paper discusses design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (EVES) [R.C. Peterson, J.S. Wolffsohn, M. Rubinstein, et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136 1129 (2003)] that will facilitate their wearability and continuous use. We briefly discuss the factors affecting a person's acceptance of wearable devices. We define the concept of operational inertia which plays an important role in our design of wearable devices and systems. We then discuss how design principles based upon operational inertia can be applied to the design of EVES.

  15. Quantum key distribution with prepare-and-measure Bell test.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yong-Gang

    2016-10-13

    The prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) has the merits of fast speed, high key generation rate, and easy implementation. However, the detector side channel attacks greatly undermine the security of the key bits. The eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the flaws of the detectors to obtain illegal information without violating quantum principles. It means that she can intervene in the communication without being detected. A prepare-and-measure Bell test protocol will be proposed. By randomly carrying out Bell test at the side of the information receiver, Bob, Eve's illegal information gain within the detector side channel attack can be well bounded. This protocol does not require any improvement on the detectors used in available prepare-and-measure QKD. Though we only illustrate its application in the BB84 protocol, it is applicable for any prepare-and-measure QKD.

  16. Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi; Fung, Chi-Hang F.; Qi, Bing; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2009-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can send signals over more than 100 km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally for the first time a technologically feasible attack, namely the time-shift attack, against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (˜4%) to break the security of the system. Eve's success is due to the well-known detection efficiency loophole in the experimental testing of Bell inequalities. Therefore, the detection efficiency loophole plays a key role not only in fundamental physics, but also in technological applications such as QKD. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 78:042333 (2008).

  17. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  18. Intercept-resend attack on six-state quantum key distribution over collective-rotation noise channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.

  19. A Looping-Based Model for Quenching Repression.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Goldberg, Sarah; Amit, Roee

    2017-01-01

    We model the regulatory role of proteins bound to looped DNA using a simulation in which dsDNA is represented as a self-avoiding chain, and proteins as spherical protrusions. We simulate long self-avoiding chains using a sequential importance sampling Monte-Carlo algorithm, and compute the probabilities for chain looping with and without a protrusion. We find that a protrusion near one of the chain's termini reduces the probability of looping, even for chains much longer than the protrusion-chain-terminus distance. This effect increases with protrusion size, and decreases with protrusion-terminus distance. The reduced probability of looping can be explained via an eclipse-like model, which provides a novel inhibitory mechanism. We test the eclipse model on two possible transcription-factor occupancy states of the D. melanogaster eve 3/7 enhancer, and show that it provides a possible explanation for the experimentally-observed eve stripe 3 and 7 expression patterns.

  20. Eavesdropping in chaotic optical communication using the feedback length of an external-cavity laser as a key.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingchun; Wang, Yuncai; Wang, Anbang

    2009-06-20

    An external-cavity laser (ECL) operating in a chaotic state is usually used in a chaotic optical secure communication system and its feedback length (FL) is often regarded as an additional key. Our analyses show that an eavesdropper's (Eve) laser can synchronize with a transmitter (Alice) without any knowledge of the FL by simply increasing the injection strength. A sequence of a 1 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero message encoded by the FL as the key is successfully eavesdropped. The reason for the synchronization deviation between Alice's and Eve's lasers is given. Our results indicate that the FL as a key cannot enhance the security of chaotic optical communication using long-ECLs.

  1. Intrinsic imperfection of self-differencing single-photon detectors harms the security of high-speed quantum cryptography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2013-12-01

    Thanks to the high-speed self-differencing single-photon detector (SD-SPD), the secret key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), which can, in principle, offer unconditionally secure private communications between two users (Alice and Bob), can exceed 1 Mbit/s. However, the SD-SPD may contain loopholes, which can be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to hack into the unconditional security of the high-speed QKD systems. In this paper, we analyze the fact that the SD-SPD can be remotely controlled by Eve in order to spy on full information without being discovered, then proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. Here, we point out that this loophole is introduced directly by the operating principle of the SD-SPD, thus, it cannot be removed, except for the fact that some active countermeasures are applied by the legitimate parties.

  2. The Banning of You and Machines: Competing Discourses of Educational Technology during the New Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Jes R.

    2008-01-01

    While the spectacle of book burnings in Nazi Germany was something that most Americans recoiled from in the 1930s, by the end of the decade, on the eve of America's entry into the Second World War, the symbolic power of destroying books by fire was unfortunately something that certain Americans were not above seizing upon. In the 1930s and 1940s,…

  3. The Effect of Structured Contextual Tones on Psychophysical Frequency Discrimination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-14

    The absence of timbre and Musical structure, as well as the short-duration of the tones in the current experiment certainly contribute to the absence...contextual constraints top-down processing 20. ABSTRACT (Continua a evee side Of nooeceep muW Identify S b eaki nobo) ---->Six musically and six non- musically ...patterns in the structured condition were arranged to reflect structural rules. Musical training made no difference, but magnitude of the frequency

  4. The subjective cut: sex reassignment surgery in 1960s and 1970s science fiction.

    PubMed

    Sellberg, Karin

    2016-12-01

    This article considers the way in which ethical concerns about sex reassignment surgery and especially the research and clinical practice of the sexologist Dr John Money (1921-2006) is being negotiated in the 1960s and 1970s novels Myra Breckinridge and Myron by Gore Vidal and The Passion of New Eve by Angela Carter. Drawing on the theories of gender and embodiment developed by Money, the article reads the novels as a critical response and discursive interaction with emergent sexological concepts.

  5. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Homo sapiens , Pt = Pan troglodytes, Mm = Mus musculus, Md = Monodelphus domesticus, Gg = Gallus gallus. (D) Correlation of Twist1 and PDGFRa in four...induces local invasion and metastasis via the formation of structures called invadopodia. Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions on the basal surface of...promotes formation of invadopodia by phosphorylating a variety of structural proteins, including cortactin and Tks5 (Seals et al. 2005; Webb, Eves

  6. The Faults of the Generals: How Great Britain Lost the War for America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    commanders. Because this case is rich with theoretical explanations, Pulitzer- prize winning historiographies and years of scholarly work , the information at...Chapter II will provide a historical narrative of the conditions on the eve of the American Insurgency. Surveys of prominent works citing how...cites Major General James Wolfe, a British officer, as saying the American militias were “the dirtiest most contemptible cowardly dogs that you can

  7. Department of Defense Manpower Requirements Report, FY 1985. Volume III. Force Readiness Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    were imprisoned in FY 1983 because a more stringent drug screening program and stricter enforcement of stan- dards of conduct were implemented. This...The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology developed a pro- cedure for confirming urine samples screened positive for cannabis in 1981 and urine testing...Alcohol and Drug Abuse 20. A 0TR ACT (Cmft~u* 110 900 ,eve N i necsemy an Identity by block nunber) This report explains the Department of Defense Manpower

  8. Airpower and the Environment: The Ecological Implications of Modern Air Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    mission along the lines of Operation Desert Fox against Iraq in December 1998. Indeed, Pen- tagon spokesman Kenneth Bacon announced on the eve of the rst...International Peace Research Institute. Warfare in a Fragile World: Military Impact on the Human Environment. London: Taylor & Francis Group, Inc... Francis A. Schiermeier, 741–43. New York: Springer Publishing, 2001. Wall, Robert, and Douglas Barrie. “US, UK Eye Upgrades to Newest Weapons.” Aviation

  9. Integrating Distributed Interactive Simulations With the Project Darkstar Open-Source Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG) Middleware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    operations by their nature involve many heterogeneous interacting units. Historically , due to system complexity and hardware costs, as well as the...EverQuest Dark Age of Camelot RuneScape Final Fantasy XI EVE Online Star Wars Galaxies Lineage II Dofus EverQuest II World of Warcraft The Lord of the...belief that composability (reusability and interoperability) leads to better simulations at reduced cost. Based upon the historical trend towards

  10. MSW Variable Time-Delay Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Phase Measurements Delay Dispersion Angle YIG Epitaxy Microwaves Films 20. ABSTRACT (Coninv. an r..eves side it nocesomr and identUify by Nocak ne...Work performed during the first year of a program to investigate magneto- static wave device techniques for phased arrays and microwave signal...device techniques for phased antenna arrays and microwave signal processing. At the start of this " program, initial experiments on variable delay(1

  11. On the Oregon trail.

    PubMed

    Kitzhaber, J; Kemmy, A M

    1995-10-01

    On the eve of the 21st century, governments around the world are struggling to resolve the dual problems of health care cost and access. My own experience in addressing these issues as they manifest themselves in the US, and particularly in the state of Oregon, convinces me that successful health care reform, anywhere in the world, must sooner or later grapple with two questions: what are we buying with our health care dollars, and how do these expenditures relate to health?

  12. Upper bound on the secret key rate distillable from effective quantum correlations with imperfect detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2006-01-15

    We provide a simple method to obtain an upper bound on the secret key rate that is particularly suited to analyze practical realizations of quantum key distribution protocols with imperfect devices. We consider the so-called trusted device scenario where Eve cannot modify the actual detection devices employed by Alice and Bob. The upper bound obtained is based on the available measurements results, but it includes the effect of the noise and losses present in the detectors of the legitimate users.

  13. Performance of different polishing techniques for direct CAD/CAM ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the performance of three ceramic and two commonly used polishing methods on two CAD/CAM ceramics. Surface roughness and quality were compared. A glazed group (GLGR) of each ceramic material served as reference. One-hundred and twenty specimens of VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA) and 120 specimens of IPS Empress CAD (IPS) were roughened in a standardized manner. Twenty VITA and 20 IPS specimens were glazed (VITA Akzent Glaze/Empress Universal Glaze). Five polishing methods were investigated (n=20/group): 1) EVE Diacera W11DC-Set (EVE), 2) JOTA 9812-Set (JOTA), 3) OptraFine-System (OFI), 4) Sof-Lex 2382 discs (SOF) and 5) Brownie/Greenie/Occlubrush (BGO). Polishing quality was measured with a surface roughness meter (Ra and Rz values). The significance level was set at alpha=0.05. Kruskal Wallis tests and pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment were used. Qualitative surface evaluation of representative specimens was done with SEM. On VITA ceramics, SOF produced lower Ra (p<0.00001) but higher Rz values than GLGR (p=0.003); EVE, JOTA, OFI and BGO yielded significantly higher Ra and Rz values than GLGR. On IPS ceramics, SOF and JOTA exhibited lower Ra values than GLGR (p<0.0001). Equivalent Ra but significantly higher Rz values occurred between GLGR and EVE, OFI or BGO. VITA and IPS exhibited the smoothest surfaces when polished with SOF. Nevertheless, ceramic polishing systems are still of interest to clinicians using CAD/CAM, as these methods are universally applicable and showed an increased durability compared to the investigated silicon polishers.

  14. A study of the formation and dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet using ion composition data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1994-01-01

    Over two years of data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft, covering ion energies between 100 eV/e and about 16 keV/e, have been analyzed in an attempt to extract new information about three geophysical issues: (1) solar wind penetration of the Earth's magnetic tail; (2) relationship between plasma sheet and tail lobe ion composition; and (3) possible effects of heavy terrestrial ions on plasma sheet stability.

  15. Visual Results after Cataract Surgery by a Military Resident Surgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    mos Persistent uveitis >1 month 2 of 41 4.9% Kratz 1000 91.2% 6-24 mos , Stark et al 614 89% 1 yr Jaffe 800 92% 1 yr Kraff 1216 90% No mention...20/15. Straatsma 28 81.2% 12 1 Two eves had mild persistent uveitis 4 weeks post- et al 144 88% 5 E operatively. In one patient, this resolved with

  16. Tramping Trail with Elroy in the Early Years of CELP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Krafka, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is sipping tea on the eve of a week-long winter trip--over a decade since she first tramped trail with Mike Elrick into the winter wilderness. This evening holds for her the same electricity that it did in 1997--anxiety and excitement--when Elroy guided a motley crew of teens (his gang) into the woods and frozen waters of Algonquin…

  17. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    names, and noted their Chinese ownership. Even South Vietnam-published geography textbooks also acknowledged this fact. On the eve of the...concerning an "International Symposium on 10 Years of China’s Reform and Opening to the Outside" to be held in Shenzhen . The organizing committee con...and females, are seeking employment in Shenzhen and Hainan? The result is that in both those places, qualified personnel are in surplus. What can be

  18. Gaussian operations and privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-07-15

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states.

  19. The ASPERA experiment on the Soviet Phobos spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.; Olsen, S.; Pellinen, R.; Liede, I.; Zakharov, A.; Dubinin, E.; Pissarenko, N.

    ASPERA (Automatic Space Plasma Experiment with a Rotating Analyzer) is a three-dimensional plasma composition experiment for the Soviet mission to Mars and its moon Phobos in 1988 - 1989. Two spacecraft are targeted for a close flyby over the Phobos surface. ASPERA measures the composition of ions with energies 0.5 eV/e - 25 keV/e and electrons with energies 1 eV - 50 keV. The properties of the experiment are described in detail.

  20. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    modes of transportation. Some examples in 2004 included the FARC’s Christmas Eve kidnapping of seven people in Antioquia Department (Province) and New... Antioquia , which killed five and injured almost 100; the suspected FARC bombing in August of Medellin’s annual flower festival that injured approximately 38...Location/Area of Operation AUC forces are strongest in the northwest of Colombia in Antioquia , Cordoba, Sucre, Atlantico, Magdelena, Cesar, La

  1. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  2. A History of the Huntsville Division U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 15 October 1967 - 31 December 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-06

    Malmstrom lay in zones of continental climate characterized by rather short summers with long, hot daylight hours and a lengthy, severe winter season...frustrated on Christmas Eve --after the kiddies are in bed - trying frantically to assemble all the loose nuts, bolts, washers, and panels of a doll...panels. Test bed facilities nearby housing complexes of pumps, heat exchangers, fans, cooling coils, a cooling tower, electric hot water boilers

  3. El Dia de la Independencia, September 16, 1810: El Grito de Dolores (Independence Day, September 16, 1810: The Cry of Dolores).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Each year on the eve of September 16, when the President of the Republic of Mexico has rung the church bell that once hung in the belfry at the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows in the small town of Dolores Hidalgo, he has once more proclaimed Independence Day. When Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang that same bell on September 16, 1810, he rang it…

  4. CHINA Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    8217 United Front Work Department, Comrade Zhang Jingwu [1728 4842 2976] orally reported the chaotic situation to Comrade Li Fuchun. But 1 was convinced...REGION TEA PARTY HK150455 Lhasa Xizang Regional Service in Mandarin 0500 GMT 13 Feb 85 [Excerpts] On the eve of the new year of the Zang nationality...political commissar of the Xizang Military Region, presided over the tea party. The Xizang regional ensemble, the regional Zang opera troupe, and the

  5. Ultra-High Efficiency / Low Hydrogen Embrittlement Nanostructured Zn-Based Electrodeposits as Environmentally Benign Cd-Replacement Coatings for High Strength Steel Fasteners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    X - Ray Diffraction XRF X - Ray Fluorescence Zn Zinc ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Integran Technologies Inc. would like to...Energy-Dispersive X - Ray Spectroscopy EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program Fe...exam 18 chemical bo eve good adh tivation as w ating TDS) w tment was f some deep c ted that a res XRF analys increase in w for initial tria te

  6. Striking at the Underbelly: Influencing Would-Be Terrorists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Mommy I’m Home: ‘Homecoming of a Suicide Bomber’] (Eminonu, Istanbul: Karakutu, 2007), 34. 30 Maleckova posit, “There is little direct...32. 57 Bayraktutan, Anne Ben Geldim: ‘Intihar Eylemcisinin Eve Donusu’ [Mommy I’m Home: ‘Homecoming of a Suicide Bomber’], 124–125. 58 Alan B...even the society in the losses frame. In his book, Mommy I’m Home: Homecoming of a Suicide Bomber, Serdar Bayraktutan quotes a leading PKK

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-14

    expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. The people can no longer be fooled. We need to return to values which evolved naturally and which link us with...early childhood, puberty, and adolescence. Preschool indoctrination and instruction, which have indisputable value in their own right, act, not only...sonal notification. 28. The suasive measures prescribed by a school’s regu- lations, including expulsion from school, may be applied in cases of

  8. Naval Research Reviews. Volume XXXIV. Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    polyethoxy- Packard Co., USA ethanol 20 NR Reviews Examining the eve of a hammerhead shark respiration permit substances to be introduced via sodium dodecyl...UNCLASSIFIEO EEHESI~MIEi-- E!!EIlE8 i laval R wscarcf Office of Naval Research~Two/1982 viewsVol XXXIV ɜ SE 1982 A Bioassay of Surfactants as Shark ...18 Bioassay of Surfactants DEPARTM ENTS Y as Shark Repellents 17 Profiles in Science, by Samuel H. Gruber by Allen Newell and Efiahu Zlotkin b

  9. Patterns of Global Terrorism 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    on 17 October outside the Chief Minister’s residence compound in Srinagar. Attacks took place in other parts of the country as well . Indian police...South Sulawesi, in December 2002; as well as 46 members of JI for involvement in the church bombings on Christmas Eve 2000, the bombing of the...soccer match). Exercise groups concentrated on the broad range of public health , law enforcement, political-military, socio-economic, and human

  10. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  11. Evolutionary Visual Exploration: Evaluation of an IEC Framework for Guided Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Boukhelifa, N; Bezerianos, A; Cancino, W; Lutton, E

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate and analyse a framework for evolutionary visual exploration (EVE) that guides users in exploring large search spaces. EVE uses an interactive evolutionary algorithm to steer the exploration of multidimensional data sets toward two-dimensional projections that are interesting to the analyst. Our method smoothly combines automatically calculated metrics and user input in order to propose pertinent views to the user. In this article, we revisit this framework and a prototype application that was developed as a demonstrator, and summarise our previous study with domain experts and its main findings. We then report on results from a new user study with a clearly predefined task, which examines how users leverage the system and how the system evolves to match their needs. While we previously showed that using EVE, domain experts were able to formulate interesting hypotheses and reach new insights when exploring freely, our new findings indicate that users, guided by the interactive evolutionary algorithm, are able to converge quickly to an interesting view of their data when a clear task is specified. We provide a detailed analysis of how users interact with an evolutionary algorithm and how the system responds to their exploration strategies and evaluation patterns. Our work aims at building a bridge between the domains of visual analytics and interactive evolution. The benefits are numerous, in particular for evaluating interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) techniques based on user study methodologies.

  12. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  13. The HeI2(ion-pair states) van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturo, V. V.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.; Zhironkin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    The T-shaped HeI2 (E0g+) van der Waals complexes populated in the HeI2(E,vE = 0-2,nE = 0 ← B,19,nB = 0 ← X,0,nX) excitation pathway have been studied. Analysis of the luminescence excitation spectra as well as the I2(E0g+ → B0u+, D0u + → X0g+, and D‧2g → A‧2u) luminescence spectra themselves has been carried out. It has been shown that the I2(D → X, and D‧ → A‧) luminescence is due to HeI2(E ← B) transitions with subsequent electronic predissociation. We have determined dissociation energies of the HeI2(E,vE = 0-2) complexes, vibrational populations of the E, D states and branching ratios of vibrational and electronic predissociations. One can suppose that luminescence of the HeI2(E,vE = 0,nE = 0) complexes occurs.

  14. Rutherford's curriculum vitae, 1894-1907.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M

    1995-06-01

    A single page, handwritten document was discovered when the Macdonald Physics building of McGill University in Montreal was gutted in 1978. This proved to be the draft of Ernest Rutherford's curriculum vitae (C.V.) covering the years 1894-1907, probably written in the autumn of 1906 when Rutherford was preparing to leave McGill. The C.V. contains 21 headings in chronological order, referring to research and other activities of Rutherford and his coauthors (especially Soddy and Barnes), plus a further set of headings relating to the associated investigations of Rutherford's team, including Eve and Hahn. A transcript of the document is provided, although in several places, Rutherford's handwriting is difficult to interpret, and the significance of his abbreviations is not always clear. Each of the items in the C.V. is discussed briefly in this review, in the light both of Rutherford's personal career and of the contribution of his team to the development and understanding of radioactivity. This contribution included the cause and nature of radioactivity (with Soddy), energy aspects of radioactive decay (with Barnes), elucidation of the uranium-radium, thorium and actinium series (Godlewski and Hahn), the radioactivity of the earth and atmosphere (Eve), the nature of the gamma rays (Eve) and, perhaps most important of all, the nature and properties of the alpha particle (Rutherford himself). The latter investigations led directly to Rutherford's later work in Manchester, including the nuclear model of the atom and artificial disintegration of the nucleus.

  15. When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Herniou, Elisabeth A; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-19

    The Polydnaviridae (PDV), including the Bracovirus (BV) and Ichnovirus genera, originated from the integration of unrelated viruses in the genomes of two parasitoid wasp lineages, in a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Functionally active PDVs represent the most compelling evolutionary success among endogenous viral elements (EVEs). BV evolved from the domestication by braconid wasps of a nudivirus 100 Ma. The nudivirus genome has become an EVE involved in BV particle production but is not encapsidated. Instead, BV genomes have co-opted virulence genes, used by the wasps to control the immunity and development of their hosts. Gene transfers and duplications have shaped BV genomes, now encoding hundreds of genes. Phylogenomic studies suggest that BVs contribute largely to wasp diversification and adaptation to their hosts. A genome evolution model explains how multidirectional wasp adaptation to different host species could have fostered PDV genome extension. Integrative studies linking ecological data on the wasp to genomic analyses should provide new insights into the adaptive role of particular BV genes. Forthcoming genomic advances should also indicate if the associations between endoparasitoid wasps and symbiotic viruses evolved because of their particularly intimate interactions with their hosts, or if similar domesticated EVEs could be uncovered in other parasites.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A.; Mariska, John T.

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  17. The EUV spectrum of the Sun: Irradiances during 1998-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Andretta, V.

    2015-12-01

    We present calibrated EUV spectral irradiances obtained from observations with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer (CDS) Normal Incidence Spectrometer (NIS) during the 1998-2014 period, which spans the cycle 23 maximum and minimum and the cycle 24 maximum. We revise the corrections for the burn-in of the strong lines and our previous long-term calibration of the NIS. We find no indications of further overall degradation of the instrument responsivities after 2010. We compare the CDS irradiances with those obtained by the prototype and flight instruments aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) EUV Grating Spectrograph (EGS). We find overall excellent agreement (to within a relative 10-20%) with the EVE data (especially during 2010-2012), but point out inconsistencies in some of the prototype and flight EVE irradiances. There is overall agreement with some of the TIMED SEE EGS data. We confirm the small variations in the irradiances of low-temperature lines (except the helium lines) and show that the irradiances in the hot (2-3 MK) lines are significantly lower for the cycle 24 maximum compared to the previous one.

  18. EUV Irradiance from the Sun-as-a-Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    For the past five years, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has been monitoring changes in the Sun’s extreme ultra-violet output. Its primary function is to provide measurements of the solar irradiance that is responsible for driving fluctuations in Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere during solar flares. However, despite its modest spectral resolution and lack of spatial information, the EVE spectral range contains many lines and continua that have become invaluable for diagnosing the response of the lower solar atmosphere to an injection of energy, particularly during a flare’s impulsive phase. In addition, high temperature emission lines can also be used to track changes in temperature and density of flaring plasma in the corona. The high precision of EVE observations are therefore crucial in helping us understand particle acceleration and energy transport mechanisms during solar flares, as well as the origins of the Sun’s most geoeffective emission. In this talk I shall highlight many of the scientific advances made using this unique instrument since launch, as well as coordinated observations with other instruments and comparisons with radiative hydrodynamical modelling.

  19. Countermeasure against probabilistic blinding attack in practical quantum key distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yong-Jun; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-09-01

    In a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, imperfect equipment, especially the single-photon detector, can be eavesdropped on by a blinding attack. However, the original blinding attack may be discovered by directly detecting the current. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blinding attack model, where Eve probabilistically applies a blinding attack without being caught by using only an existing intuitive countermeasure. More precisely, our countermeasure solves the problem of how to define the bound in the limitation of precision of current detection, and then we prove security of the practical system by considering the current parameter. Meanwhile, we discuss the bound of the quantum bit error rate (QBER) introduced by Eve, by which Eve can acquire information without the countermeasure. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475148, 61201239, 61205118, and 11304397), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M540514).

  20. Masking property of quantum random cipher with phase mask encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation (CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.

  1. Analyses of interactions among pair-rule genes and the gap gene Krüppel in Bombyx segmentation.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hajime

    2015-09-01

    In the short-germ insect Tribolium, a pair-rule gene circuit consisting of the Tribolium homologs of even-skipped, runt, and odd-skipped (Tc-eve, Tc-run and Tc-odd, respectively) has been implicated in segment formation. To examine the application of the model to other taxa, I studied the expression and function of pair-rule genes in Bombyx mori, together with a Bombyx homolog of Krüppel (Bm-Kr), a known gap gene. Knockdown embryos of Bombyx homologs of eve, run and odd (Bm-eve, Bm-run and Bm-odd) exhibited asegmental phenotypes similar to those of Tribolium knockdowns. However, pair-rule gene interactions were similar to those of both Tribolium and Drosophila, which, different from Tribolium, shows a hierarchical segmentation mode. Additionally, the Bm-odd expression pattern shares characteristics with those of Drosophila pair-rule genes that receive upstream regulatory input. On the other hand, Bm-Kr knockdowns exhibited a large posterior segment deletion as observed in short-germ insects. However, a detailed analysis of these embryos indicated that Bm-Kr modulates expression of pair-rule genes like in Drosophila, although the mechanisms appear to be different. This suggested hierarchical interactions between Bm-Kr and pair-rule genes. Based on these results, I concluded that the pair-rule gene circuit model that describes Tribolium development is not applicable to Bombyx.

  2. Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nitin; Anisimova, Elena; Khan, Imran; Makarov, Vadim; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    A quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be probed by an eavesdropper Eve by sending in bright light from the quantum channel and analyzing the back-reflections. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a setup for mounting such a Trojan-horse attack. We show it in operation against the quantum cryptosystem Clavis2 from ID Quantique, as a proof-of-principle. With just a few back-reflected photons, Eve discerns Bob's (secret) basis choice, and thus the raw key bit in the Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocol, with higher than 90% probability. This would clearly breach the security of the cryptosystem. Unfortunately, Eve's bright pulses have a side effect of causing a high level of afterpulsing in Bob's single-photon detectors, resulting in a large quantum bit error rate that effectively protects this system from our attack. However, in a Clavis2-like system equipped with detectors with less-noisy but realistic characteristics, an attack strategy with positive leakage of the key would exist. We confirm this by a numerical simulation. Both the eavesdropping setup and strategy can be generalized to attack most of the current QKD systems, especially if they lack proper safeguards. We also propose countermeasures to prevent such attacks.

  3. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, Guilherme N.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre F.

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ˜1 % of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes.

  4. Computational study on the mechanisms and rate constants of the OH-initiated oxidation of ethyl vinyl ether in atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Cao, Haijie; Li, Jing; Li, Mingyue; He, Maoxia; Hu, Jingtian

    2014-09-01

    The hydroxylation reactions of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) in the present of O2 and NO are analyzed by using MPWB1K/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. According to the calculated thermodynamic data, the detailed reaction mechanisms of EVE and OH are proposed. All of the ten possible reaction pathways are discussed. The major products of the title reaction are ethyl formate and formaldehyde, which is in accordance with experimental detection. The rate constants of the primary reactions over the temperature of 250-400K and the pressure range of 100-2000Torr are computed by employing MESMER program. At 298K and 760Torr, OH-addition channels are predominate and the total rate constant is ktot=4.53×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1). The Arrhenius equation is obtained as ktot=6.27×10(-12)exp(611.5/T), according to the rate constants given at different temperatures. Finally, the atmospheric half life of EVE with respect to OH is estimated to be 2.13h.

  5. Viral diseases of wild and farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla with particular reference to the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, Steven J; Engelsma, Marc Y; Roozenburg, Ineke; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; van Tulden, Peter W; Kerkhoff, Sonja; van Nieuwstadt, Anton P; Davidse, Aart; Haenen, Olga L M

    2012-10-10

    Diseases are an important cause of losses and decreased production rates in freshwater eel farming, and have been suggested to play a contributory role in the worldwide decline in wild freshwater eel stocks. Three commonly detected pathogenic viruses of European eel Anguilla anguilla are the aquabirnavirus eel virus European (EVE), the rhabdovirus eel virus European X (EVEX), and the alloherpesvirus anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1). In general, all 3 viruses cause a nonspecific haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality rates. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the aetiology, prevalence, clinical signs and gross pathology of these 3 viruses. Reported experimental infections showed the temperature dependency and potential pathogenicity of these viruses for eels and other fish species. In addition to the published literature, an overview of the isolation of pathogenic viruses from wild and farmed A. anguilla in the Netherlands during the past 2 decades is given. A total of 249 wild A. anguilla, 39 batches of glass eels intended for farming purposes, and 239 batches of farmed European eels were necropsied and examined virologically. AngHV1 was isolated from wild yellow and silver A. anguilla from the Netherlands from 1998 until the present, while EVEX was only found sporadically, and EVE was never isolated. In farmed A. anguilla AngHV1 was also the most commonly isolated virus, followed by EVE and EVEX.

  6. Molecular epidemiological study of enteroviruses associated with encephalitis in children from Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Qiong, Zhang; Xiao-Ting, Shen; Yu-Jie, Liu; Jian-Hua, Mao; Qiang, Shu; Shi-Qiang, Shang

    2016-10-01

    Enterovirus (EV) has over 100 serotypes of species A-D, which can cause various symptoms in infants. Enterovirus encephalitis (EVE) is serve disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. To well define the epidemiology of EVE, we wanted to know more about EV and EV molecular typing by conducting this study in Hangzhou.Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from children with diagnosis of encephalitis. Meanwhile, one-step real-time RT-PCR was used for the detection of EV, and we also identified the serotypes of EV by using gene sequencing of VP1 or 5'UTR region.A total of 126 CSF specimens were tested and EV was detected in 26 specimens (20.6%). The molecular typing results showed different types of EV strains including Coxsackievirus B2, Coxsackievirus B3, Echovirus 5, Echovirus 16, Echovirus 18, Echovirus 30, and all EV isolates belonging to the human EV species B.According to the sequence of VP1 and 5'UTR region, E30 may be major cause of children's EVE in Hangzhou, China.

  7. Predicting Ancestral Segmentation Phenotypes from Drosophila to Anopheles Using In Silico Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Jeremy B.; Tsimiklis, Panagiotis; Siggia, Eric D.; François, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular evolution is an established technique for inferring gene homology but regulatory DNA turns over so rapidly that inference of ancestral networks is often impossible. In silico evolution is used to compute the most parsimonious path in regulatory space for anterior-posterior patterning linking two Dipterian species. The expression pattern of gap genes has evolved between Drosophila (fly) and Anopheles (mosquito), yet one of their targets, eve, has remained invariant. Our model predicts that stripe 5 in fly disappears and a new posterior stripe is created in mosquito, thus eve stripe modules 3+7 and 4+6 in fly are homologous to 3+6 and 4+5 in mosquito. We can place Clogmia on this evolutionary pathway and it shares the mosquito homologies. To account for the evolution of the other pair-rule genes in the posterior we have to assume that the ancestral Dipterian utilized a dynamic method to phase those genes in relation to eve. PMID:27227405

  8. The Effect of Everolimus in an In Vitro Model of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Mercatali, Laura; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Liverani, Chiara; De Vita, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease has a major impact on morbidity of breast cancer (BC) patients. Alterations in mTOR signaling are involved both in cancer progression and in osteoclast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of mTOR inhibitor Everolimus (Eve) on osteoclastogenesis induced by triple negative BC cells. To this aim, we developed an in vitro human model of osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood monocytes co-cultured with the triple negative SCP2 and the hormonal receptor positive MCF7 cell lines. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by TRAP staining, evaluation of F actin rings and Calcitonin Receptor expression. Eve significantly reduced differentiation induced by cancer cells and resulted more effective when evaluated in combination with Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid (Zol). Combination with Zol showed a total abrogation of osteoclast differentiation induced by the triple negative cell line, not by MCF7. Finally, we observed that Eve was active in the inhibition of the crosstalk between cancer cells and osteoclasts reproduced by our model, highlighting a new therapeutic choice for the subsetting of triple negative BC patients. We observed a difference in the response to bone-targeted therapy with respect to BC subtypes. Our model may represent a valid platform for preclinical trials on bone-targeted drugs and for the study of the interplay of BC with bone stromal cells. PMID:27809291

  9. Molecular epidemiological study of enteroviruses associated with encephalitis in children from Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Qiong, Zhang; Xiao-ting, Shen; Yu-jie, Liu; Jian-hua, Mao; Qiang, Shu; Shi-qiang, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enterovirus (EV) has over 100 serotypes of species A–D, which can cause various symptoms in infants. Enterovirus encephalitis (EVE) is serve disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. To well define the epidemiology of EVE, we wanted to know more about EV and EV molecular typing by conducting this study in Hangzhou. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from children with diagnosis of encephalitis. Meanwhile, one-step real-time RT-PCR was used for the detection of EV, and we also identified the serotypes of EV by using gene sequencing of VP1 or 5′UTR region. A total of 126 CSF specimens were tested and EV was detected in 26 specimens (20.6%). The molecular typing results showed different types of EV strains including Coxsackievirus B2, Coxsackievirus B3, Echovirus 5, Echovirus 16, Echovirus 18, Echovirus 30, and all EV isolates belonging to the human EV species B. According to the sequence of VP1 and 5′UTR region, E30 may be major cause of children's EVE in Hangzhou, China. PMID:27749541

  10. Three-step semiquantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiangFu; Qiu, DaoWen

    2014-09-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without need for establishing a shared secret key first. In the existing schemes, quantum secure direct communication is possible only when both parties are quantum. In this paper, we construct a three-step semiquantum secure direct communication (SQSDC) protocol based on single photon sources in which the sender Alice is classical. In a semiquantum protocol, a person is termed classical if he (she) can measure, prepare and send quantum states only with the fixed orthogonal quantum basis {|0>, |1>}. The security of the proposed SQSDC protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of semiquantum key distribution protocols and the unconditional security of classical one-time pad encryption. Therefore, the proposed SQSDC protocol is also completely robust. Complete robustness indicates that nonzero information acquired by an eavesdropper Eve on the secret message implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. In the proposed protocol, we suggest a method to check Eves disturbing in the doves returning phase such that Alice does not need to announce publicly any position or their coded bits value after the photons transmission is completed. Moreover, the proposed SQSDC protocol can be implemented with the existing techniques. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication protocols, the proposed SQSDC protocol has two merits: firstly the sender only needs classical capabilities; secondly to check Eves disturbing after the transmission of quantum states, no additional classical information is needed.

  11. Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bing; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2007-09-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is "time-shift" attack, which is applicable to QKD systems with gated single photon detectors (SPDs). In this attack, the eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the time mismatch between the open windows of the two SPDs. She can acquire a significant amount of information on the final key by simply shifting the quantum signals forwards or backwards in time domain. Our experimental results in [9] with a commercial QKD system demonstrate that, under this attack, the original QKD system is breakable. This is the first experimental demonstration of a feasible attack against a commercial QKD system. This is a surprising result. The second one is "phase-remapping" attack [10]. Here, Eve exploits the fact that a practical phase modulator has a finite response time. In principle, Eve could change the encoded phase value by time-shifting the signal pulse relative to the reference pulse.

  12. Thandai and chilam: traditional Hindu beliefs about the proper uses of Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Morningstar, P J

    1985-01-01

    Hindu beliefs about appropriate use of cannabis illustrate the capacity of cultural systems to order and direct the course of complex phenomenal events. Cannabis manifests diverse and contradictory effects. These depend not only on dose, frequency and route of administration, but also on subjective and cultural contexts (e.g., Pihl, Shea & Costa 1979). It may very well be that the contradictory results of modern research investigations on cannabis stem from the intricacy of these interactions. Given the current state of the art, paradigms of research methodology may very well be inadequate to develop an understanding of such a paradoxical drug. The Hindu cultural system, on the other hand, accommodates the ambiguities of cannabis through its own complex nature. It provides diverse niches through which antithetical effects of the drug are expressed. Cannabis is said to both interfere with motivation to work and facilitate it. A closer examination reveals that these actions are probably related to the way in which this motivation toward action is defined, and the level of use of the drug. While cannabis appears to interfere with execution of highly complex tasks and the long-range planning that accompanies them, it may facilitate concentrated focus on repetitive endeavors. In some commonsense way, it may be quite simply that it changes a user's sense of time and the span of the present as well as the sense of relative importance of present and future. So long as an individual is under the influence of this effect (and living in the context that s/he has structured as a result of it), the urgency of accomplishment in the Western sense is diminished. The Hindu belief system accommodates this by prescribing use in such a way that this effect becomes beneficial. A key factor is that low potency preparations (bhang, thandai) are available. It allows individuals with complex life tasks, goals and obligations to indulge in moderation. The drug is also taken in a ritualized

  13. Ionospheric Change and Solar EUV Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Schunk, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The ionosphere has been quantitatively monitored for the past six solar cycles. The past few years of observations are showing trends that differ from the prior cycles! Our good statistical relationships between the solar radio flux index at 10.7 cm, the solar EUV Irradiance, and the ionospheric F-layer peak density are showing indications of divergence! Present day discussion of the Sun-Earth entering a Dalton Minimum would suggest change is occurring in the Sun, as the driver, followed by the Earth, as the receptor. The dayside ionosphere is driven by the solar EUV Irradiance. But different components of this spectrum affect the ionospheric layers differently. For a first time the continuous high cadence EUV spectra from the SDO EVE instrument enable ionospheric scientists the opportunity to evaluate solar EUV variability as a driver of ionospheric variability. A definitive understanding of which spectral components are responsible for the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere will enable assessments of how over 50 years of ionospheric observations, the solar EUV Irradiance has changed. If indeed the evidence suggesting the Sun-Earth system is entering a Dalton Minimum periods is correct, then the comprehensive EVE solar EUV Irradiance data base combined with the ongoing ionospheric data bases will provide a most fortuitous fiduciary reference baseline for Sun-Earth dependencies. Using the EVE EUV Irradiances, a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and 50 plus years of ionospheric observation from Wallops Island (Virginia) the above Sun-Earth ionospheric relationship will be reported on.

  14. A quantitative atlas of Even-skipped and Hunchback expression in Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae) blastoderm embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative studies of developmental processes are one of the main approaches to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Over recent years, there has been a shift of focus from the comparative study of particular regulatory genes to the level of whole gene networks. Reverse-engineering methods can be used to computationally reconstitute and analyze the function and dynamics of such networks. These methods require quantitative spatio-temporal expression data for model fitting. Obtaining such data in non-model organisms remains a major technical challenge, impeding the wider application of data-driven mathematical modeling to evo-devo. Results We have raised antibodies against four segmentation gene products in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, a non-drosophilid dipteran species. We have used these antibodies to create a quantitative atlas of protein expression patterns for the gap gene hunchback (hb), and the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve). Our data reveal differences in the dynamics of Hb boundary positioning and Eve stripe formation between C. albipunctata and Drosophila melanogaster. Despite these differences, the overall relative spatial arrangement of Hb and Eve domains is remarkably conserved between these two distantly related dipteran species. Conclusions We provide a proof of principle that it is possible to acquire quantitative gene expression data at high accuracy and spatio-temporal resolution in non-model organisms. Our quantitative data extend earlier qualitative studies of segmentation gene expression in C. albipunctata, and provide a starting point for comparative reverse-engineering studies of the evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the segmentation gene system. PMID:24393251

  15. Evaluation of a gaze-controlled vision enhancement system for reading in visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2017-01-01

    People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL), need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES) offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning). We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1). Two other conditions were implemented that mimicked commercially available advanced systems known as CCTV (closed-circuit television systems)-conditions 2 and 3. In these two conditions, magnification was uniformly applied to the whole text without any possibility to specifically select a region of interest. The three conditions were implemented on the same computer to remove differences that might have been induced by dissimilar equipment. A gaze-contingent artificial 10° scotoma (a mask continuously displayed in real time on the screen at the gaze location) was used in the three conditions in order to simulate macular degeneration. Ten healthy subjects with a gaze-contingent scotoma read aloud sentences from a French newspaper in nine experimental one-hour sessions. Reading speed was measured and constituted the main dependent variable to compare the three conditions. All subjects were able to use condition 1 and they found it slightly more comfortable to use than condition 2 (and similar to condition 3). Importantly, reading speed results did not show any significant difference between the three systems. In addition, learning curves were similar in the three conditions. This proof of concept study suggests that the principles underlying the gaze-controlled enhanced system might be further developed and fruitfully incorporated in different kinds of EVES for low vision reading.

  16. EUV Coronal Dimming and its Relationship to Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) departs from the inner solar atmosphere, it leaves behind a void. This region of depleted plasma results in a corresponding decrease in coronal emissions that can be observed by instruments tuned to measure the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These coronal dimmings can be observed with EUV imagers and EUV spectral irradiance instruments. Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) provide complementary observations; together they can be used to obtain high spatial and spectral resolution. AIA provides information about the location, extent, and spatial evolution of the dimming while EVE data are important to understand plasma temperature evolution. Concurrent processes with similar timescales to mass-loss dimming also impact the observations, which makes a deconvolution method necessary for the irradiance time series in order to have a “clean” mass-loss dimming light curve that can be parameterized and compared with CME kinematics. This presentation will first provide background on these various physical processes and the deconvolution method developed. Two case studies will then be presented, followed by a semi-statistical study (~30 events) to establish a correlation between dimming and CME parameters. In particular, the slope of the deconvolved irradiance dimming light curve is representative of the CME speed, and the irradiance dimming depth can serve as a proxy for CME mass. Finally, plans and early results from a more complete statistical study of all dimmings in the SDO era, based on an automated detection routine using EVE data, will be described and compared with independently derived dimmings automatically detected with AIA data.

  17. Phylogenetic ANOVA: The Expression Variance and Evolution Model for Quantitative Trait Evolution.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-09-01

    A number of methods have been developed for modeling the evolution of a quantitative trait on a phylogeny. These methods have received renewed interest in the context of genome-wide studies of gene expression, in which the expression levels of many genes can be modeled as quantitative traits. We here develop a new method for joint analyses of quantitative traits within- and between species, the Expression Variance and Evolution (EVE) model. The model parameterizes the ratio of population to evolutionary expression variance, facilitating a wide variety of analyses, including a test for lineage-specific shifts in expression level, and a phylogenetic ANOVA that can detect genes with increased or decreased ratios of expression divergence to diversity, analogous to the famous Hudson Kreitman Aguadé (HKA) test used to detect selection at the DNA level. We use simulations to explore the properties of these tests under a variety of circumstances and show that the phylogenetic ANOVA is more accurate than the standard ANOVA (no accounting for phylogeny) sometimes used in transcriptomics. We then apply the EVE model to a mammalian phylogeny of 15 species typed for expression levels in liver tissue. We identify genes with high expression divergence between species as candidates for expression level adaptation, and genes with high expression diversity within species as candidates for expression level conservation and/or plasticity. Using the test for lineage-specific expression shifts, we identify several candidate genes for expression level adaptation on the catarrhine and human lineages, including genes putatively related to dietary changes in humans. We compare these results to those reported previously using a model which ignores expression variance within species, uncovering important differences in performance. We demonstrate the necessity for a phylogenetic model in comparative expression studies and show the utility of the EVE model to detect expression divergence

  18. Effects of measurement dependence on generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell test in the single-run and multiple-run scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei; Li, Xin-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Bell tests, as primitive tools to detect nonlocality in bipartite systems, rely on an assumption, i.e., measurement independence. Since ensuring measurement independence in a practical Bell test is difficult, it is crucial to explore the effects of relaxing this assumption. Recently, in the simplest Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell (CHSH-Bell) test, Koh et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 160404 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.160404] built the relation among measurement dependence, guessing probability, and the maximum value of CHSH-Bell correlation function that an adversary (Eve) can fake. As well, Pope et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 032110 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.032110] and Yuan et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 91, 032111 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032111] settled the same problem in the multiple-run scenario with the general input distribution and the factorizable one, respectively. However, pertinent results in the generalized CHSH-Bell test are still missing. Here, we study this problem and establish the relation among measurement dependence, guessing probability, and the maximum value of the generalized CHSH-Bell correlation function that Eve can fake. Furthermore, we also consider the multiple-run scenario and show the relations in both input distributions. Interestingly, compared with the simplest CHSH-Bell test, we find that it is more difficult for Eve to fake a violation in the generalized CHSH-Bell test in some special cases. We expect that our conclusions will serve as a reference for quantum information processing tasks such as quantum key distribution, randomness expansion, and other tasks in the device-independent framework.

  19. Non-additive interactions involving two distinct elements mediate sloppy-paired regulation by pair-rule transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Prazak, Lisa; Fujioka, Miki; Gergen, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    The relatively simple combinatorial rules responsible for establishing the initial metameric expression of sloppy-paired-1 (slp1) in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo make this system an attractive model for investigating the mechanism of regulation by pair rule transcription factors. This investigation of slp1 cis-regulatory architecture identifies two distinct elements, a proximal early stripe element (PESE) and a distal early stripe element (DESE) located from −3.1 kb to −2.5 kb and from −8.1 kb to −7.1 kb upstream of the slp1 promoter, respectively, that mediate this early regulation. The proximal element expresses only even-numbered stripes and mediates repression by Even-skipped (Eve) as well as by the combination of Runt and Fushi-tarazu (Ftz). A 272 basepair sub-element of PESE retains Eve-dependent repression, but is expressed throughout the even-numbered parasegments due to the loss of repression by Runt and Ftz. In contrast, the distal element expresses both odd and even-numbered stripes and also drives inappropriate expression in the anterior half of the odd-numbered parasegments due to an inability to respond to repression by Eve. Importantly, a composite reporter gene containing both early stripe elements recapitulates pair-rule gene-dependent regulation in a manner beyond what is expected from combining their individual patterns. These results indicate interactions involving distinct cis-elements contribute to the proper integration of pair-rule regulatory information. A model fully accounting for these results proposes that metameric slp1 expression is achieved through the Runt-dependent regulation of interactions between these two pair-rule response elements and the slp1 promoter. PMID:20435028

  20. Anterior and posterior centers jointly regulate Bombyx embryo body segmentation.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hajime

    2012-11-15

    Insect embryo segmentation is largely divided into long and short germ types. In the long germ type, each segment primordium is represented on a large embryonic rudiment of the blastoderm, and segmental patterning occurs nearly simultaneously in the syncytium. In the short germ type, however, only anterior segments are represented in the small embryonic rudiment, usually located on the egg posterior, and the rest of the segments are added sequentially from the posterior growth zone in a cellular context. The long germ type is thought to have evolved from the short germ type. It is proposed that this transition, which appears to have occurred multiple times over the course of evolution, was realized through the acquisition of a localized anterior instruction center. Here, I examined the early segmentation process in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran insect, in which the mechanisms of anterior-posterior (AP) axis formation have not been well analyzed. In this insect, both the long germ and short germ features have been reported. The mRNAs for two key genes involved in insect AP axis formation, orthodenticle (Bm-otd) and caudal (Bm-cad), are localized maternally in the germ anlage, where they act as anterior and posterior instruction centers, respectively. RNAi studies indicate that, while Bm-cad affects the formation of all the even skipped (Bm-eve) stripes, there is also anterior Bm-eve stripe formation activity that involves Bm-otd. Thus, there is redundancy in Bm-eve stripe formation activity that must be coordinated. Some genetic interactions, identified either experimentally or hypothetically, are also introduced, which might enable robust AP formation in this organism.

  1. A segmentation clock operating in blastoderm and germband stages of Tribolium development.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Ezzat; Averof, Michalis; Brown, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    In Drosophila, all segments form in the blastoderm where morphogen gradients spanning the entire anterior-posterior axis of the embryo provide positional information. However, in the beetle Tribolium castaneum and most other arthropods, a number of anterior segments form in the blastoderm, and the remaining segments form sequentially from a posterior growth zone during germband elongation. Recently, the cyclic nature of the pair-rule gene Tc-odd-skipped was demonstrated in the growth zone of Tribolium, indicating that a vertebrate-like segmentation clock is employed in the germband stage of its development. This suggests that two mechanisms might function in the same organism: a Drosophila-like mechanism in the blastoderm, and a vertebrate-like mechanism in the germband. Here, we show that segmentation at both blastoderm and germband stages of Tribolium is based on a segmentation clock. Specifically, we show that the Tribolium primary pair-rule gene, Tc-even-skipped (Tc-eve), is expressed in waves propagating from the posterior pole and progressively slowing until they freeze into stripes; such dynamics are a hallmark of clock-based segmentation. Phase shifts between Tc-eve transcripts and protein confirm that these waves are due to expression dynamics. Moreover, by tracking cells in live embryos and by analyzing mitotic profiles, we found that neither cell movement nor oriented cell division could explain the observed wave dynamics of Tc-eve. These results pose intriguing evolutionary questions, as Drosophila and Tribolium segment their blastoderms using the same genes but different mechanisms.

  2. Quantum hacking on a practical continuous-variable quantum cryptosystem by inserting an external light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alleaume, Romain

    2015-10-01

    We report here a new side channel attack on a practical continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Inspired by blinding attack in discrete-variable QKD, we formalize an attack strategy by inserting an external light into a CV QKD system implemented Gaussian-modulated coherent state protocol and show that our attack can compromise its practical security. In this attack, we concern imperfections of a balanced homodyne detector used in CV QKD. According to our analysis, if one inserts an external light into Bob's signal port, due to the imperfect subtraction from the homodyne detector, the leakage of the external light contributes a displacement on the homodyne signal which causes detector electronics saturation. In consequence, Bob's quadrature measurement is not linear with the quadrature sent by Alice. By considering such vulnerability, a potential Eve can launch a full intercept-resend attack meanwhile she inserts an external light into Bob's signal port. By selecting proper properties of the external light, Eve actively controls the induced displacement value from the inserted light which results saturation of homodyne detection. In consequence, Eve can bias the excess noise due to the intercept-resend attack and the external light, such that Alice and Bob believe their excess noise estimation is below the null key threshold and they can still share a secret key. Our attack shows that the detector loopholes also exist in CV QKD, and it seems influence all the CV QKD systems using homodyne detection, since all the practical detectors have finite detection range.

  3. Status of the DAMIC Direct Dark Matter Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; et al.

    2015-09-30

    The DAMIC experiment uses fully depleted, high resistivity CCDs to search for dark matter particles. With an energy threshold $\\sim$50 eV$_{ee}$, and excellent energy and spatial resolutions, the DAMIC CCDs are well-suited to identify and suppress radioactive backgrounds, having an unrivaled sensitivity to WIMPs with masses $<$6 GeV/$c^2$. Early results motivated the construction of a 100 g detector, DAMIC100, currently being installed at SNOLAB. This contribution discusses the installation progress, new calibration efforts near the threshold, a preliminary result with 2014 data, and the prospects for physics results after one year of data taking.

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Hillside Beach (MA 00600) Connecticut River Basin, South Hadley, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Coninrue an evee side It noseev and DdeADDip by blocknb er~) THe dam is a 332 ft. long, 21 ft. high, gravity earth embankment structure with a concrete...April 12, 1979 The dam is a 332k foot long, 21* foot high, gravity earth e bankment structure with a concrete core wall, concrete intake structure and...VISUAL INSPECTION . 3.1 Findings a. General Hillside Beach Dam was inspected April 12, 1979. Water (1"± deep) was discharging through the spillway

  5. Eaton to be sworn in as USGS Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On the eve of the U.S. Geological Survey's 115th anniversary, Gordon P. Eaton was confirmed as the survey's 12th director by unanimous consent of the U.S. Senate. His swearing-in ceremony is tentatively scheduled for March 14. Eaton, 64, is a distinguished Earth scientist, administrator, and former employee of USGS. His most recent post was director of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. He has been an AGU member since 1963. Eaton follows in the footsteps of Dallas Peck, who held the post from 1981 to 1993, and interim director Robert M. Hirsch, who followed Peck.

  6. The Supreme Soviet and Soviet Defense Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    planning and threat assessment," appeared to increase.’ But as Stephen Foye points out, Mikhail Gorbachev’s coming to power and his policy of perestroika...it is also true of the military’s influence in determining defense policy.) Stephen Foye , "The Soviet Armed Forces in 1989," Report on the USSR... Foye points out that Yazov’s promotion, coming on the eve of celebrations marking the 45th anniversary of the Soviet victory in World War II

  7. Annual variation in Internet keyword searches: Linking dieting interest to obesity and negative health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the annual variation in Internet searches regarding dieting. Time-series analysis was first used to examine the annual trends of Google keyword searches during the past 7 years for topics related to dieting within the United States. The results indicated that keyword searches for dieting fit a consistent 12-month linear model, peaking in January (following New Year's Eve) and then linearly decreasing until surging again the following January. Additional state-level analyses revealed that the size of the December-January dieting-related keyword surge was predictive of both obesity and mortality rates due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

  8. Characterization and performance of germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities for neutrino and dark matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, A. K.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, L.; Kumar, G. Kiran; Lin, F. K.; Du, Q.; Jiang, H.; Liu, S. K.; Ma, J. L.; Sharma, V.; Wang, L.; Wu, Y. C.; Yang, L. T.; Zhao, W.; Agartioglu, M.; Asryan, G.; Chang, Y. Y.; Chen, J. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deniz, M.; Hsu, C. L.; Hsu, Y. H.; Huang, T. R.; Jia, L. P.; Kerman, S.; Li, H. B.; Li, J.; Liao, F. T.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, C. W.; Lin, S. T.; Marian, V.; Ruan, X. C.; Sevda, B.; Shen, Y. T.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, V.; Sonay, A.; Su, J.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. J.; Wong, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Yang, S. W.; Yu, C. X.; Yue, Q.; Zeyrek, M.

    2016-11-01

    Germanium ionization detectors with sensitivities as low as 100 eVee (electron-equivalent energy) open new windows for studies on neutrino and dark matter physics. The relevant physics subjects are summarized. The detectors have to measure physics signals whose amplitude is comparable to that of pedestal electronic noise. To fully exploit this new detector technique, various experimental issues including quenching factors, energy reconstruction and calibration, signal triggering and selection as well as evaluation of their associated efficiencies have to be attended. The efforts and results of a research program to address these challenges are presented.

  9. On the security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-10-01

    A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the second law of thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit guessing is found to converge toward 0.5—i.e., the perfect security level—when ideal conditions are approached.

  10. Reshaping Time: Recommendations for Suicide Prevention in LBGT Populations. Reflections on "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations" from Journal of Homosexuality 58(1).

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the journal's 2011 consensus recommendations for the prevention of LGBT suicide. Invoking the axiom approach of Eve Kosovsky Sedgwick's seminal Epistemology of the Closet, the author argues that merely offering practical guidelines at the level of the demonstrative and the instructive may not be sufficient models to address the urgency of suicide rates in LGBTQ youth populations.

  11. Hormonal Control of Systems Associated with Egg Development in Phycitid Moths.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-12

    RD-Ai5i 688 HORMONAL CONTROL OF SYSTEMS ASSOCIATED WITH EGG i/i DEVELOPMENT IN PHYCITID MOTNS(IJ) OREGON STATE UNIV CORVALLIS DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY V J...md Subtitlo) ,5. TVPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 110 ,0",0. CO:’ :OL OF SY?,TEIi ASSO IATED WIH EGG f OR T D V !)EVE,0PNOF’fl’ IN Di YCITID NOTHS / 9...OF SYSTEMS ASSOCIATED WITH EGG DEVELOPMENT IN PHYCITID MOTHS FINAL REPORT VICTOR JACK BROOKES DECEMBER 12, 1984 U. S. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE DAAG 27 -81

  12. Predicting Virtual World User Population Fluctuations with Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Bin; Park, Nuri; Zhang, Qimeng; Kim, Jun Gi; Kang, Shin Jin; Kim, Chang Hun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a system for predicting increases in virtual world user actions. The virtual world user population is a very important aspect of these worlds; however, methods for predicting fluctuations in these populations have not been well documented. Therefore, we attempt to predict changes in virtual world user populations with deep learning, using easily accessible online data, including formal datasets from Google Trends, Wikipedia, and online communities, as well as informal datasets collected from online forums. We use the proposed system to analyze the user population of EVE Online, one of the largest virtual worlds.

  13. Averting Regulatory Enforcement: Evidence from New Source Review

    SciTech Connect

    Keohane, N.O.; Mansur, E.T.; Voynov, A.

    2009-09-15

    This paper explores firms' response to regulatory enforcement. New Source Review (NSR), a provision of the Clean Air Act, imposes stringent emissions limitations on significantly modified older power plants. In 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sued owners of 46 plants for NSR violations. We study how electricity companies respond to both the perceived threat of future action, and the action itself. A discrete choice model estimates plants likelihood of being named in lawsuits increases with large historic emissions and investments. On the eve of the lawsuits, emissions at plants with a one standard deviation greater probability of being sued fell approximately 10%.

  14. Predicting Virtual World User Population Fluctuations with Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nuri; Zhang, Qimeng; Kim, Jun Gi; Kang, Shin Jin; Kim, Chang Hun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a system for predicting increases in virtual world user actions. The virtual world user population is a very important aspect of these worlds; however, methods for predicting fluctuations in these populations have not been well documented. Therefore, we attempt to predict changes in virtual world user populations with deep learning, using easily accessible online data, including formal datasets from Google Trends, Wikipedia, and online communities, as well as informal datasets collected from online forums. We use the proposed system to analyze the user population of EVE Online, one of the largest virtual worlds. PMID:27936009

  15. A Partial Index to the Mission San Gabriel Baptism, Marriage, and Death Registers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    13 . NUMBER OF PAGES P.O. Box 2711, Los Angeles, CA 90053 P 148 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(I different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY...block number) DO 13 EveTIow oF NOV GS 6 OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) S! PREFACE This study was made in partial...Cucamonga............................... 13 ii INTRODUCTION ’iThe purpose of this study is to provide data from the Mission San Gabriel registers in a

  16. Friction of Plastic Rotating Bands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    for speeds eve ., the rdnge: 10 - 300 cm/s. Overwhelming evidence was presented to support a melt phenomena. Melt depth of: polymer, pins on a glass disk...Polymers," Proc. Roy. Soc., (London),. A291 (1966), p. 186. 24. Rabinowicz , S., et al., "The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shear Yield Behavior of...34 Proc. Roy.,Soc., (London), A269. (19620 p. 368. 51. Carignan, F. J., and Rabinowicz , E., "Friction and Wear at ligh Sliding Speeds," ASLE Trans., 24

  17. A Solution Method for Large Deformation Contact Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    number) Contact Problem Algorithm Implicit Solution Technique 20. ANSTNACT’ (rntftae r eves aIi N yaeemy mrd identify by block numnber) P. solution...WITHOUT oL0 H! 0-CONTACT ALGORITHM Z w 00 0 ev 0.8- w kL 0.0 0 U< O0.26 U)_ * z Z OBTINE 0H53 56 59 ANGE,4 Ficure~~~~~ ~*A G RI H 17 Peitdtatoso iesi itrae...41, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard Univ., March 1983. [20] Rabinowicz , E., Friction and Wear of Materials, J. Wiley and Sons, 1965. [21

  18. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, Diana; Orr, Martin; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the need for a shared definitional model of long duration human spaceflight, that would provide a framework and vision to facilitate communication, research and practice In 1956, on the eve of human space travel, Hubertus Strughold first proposed a "simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight" that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Here we describe our preliminary findings and outline potential approaches for the future development of a definition and broader classification system

  19. The Multi-Instrument, Comprehensive Differential Emission Measure (DEM) of the Solar Corona During Flares and Quiescent Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James; Warren, Harry; Woods, Thomas N.

    2014-06-01

    Thermal plasma in the solar corona, while often modeled as isothermal for ease of analysis, is in fact decidedly multi-thermal, ranging from ~1-2 MK in the quiescent corona to ~30-50 MK in intensely flaring loops. It has proven difficult to obtain a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) from a single instrument, as the wavelength ranges of individual instruments, even those with broadband coverage, provide sensitivity to only a limited range of plasma temperatures. Recently, we developed a new technique using combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft and hard X-ray (SXR, HXR) data from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), respectively, to obtain a self-consistent DEM that is strongly constrained across the full range of coronal plasma temperatures (<2 to >50 MK). An accurate, precise determination of the plasma temperature distribution enables not only studies of plasma heating and thermal plasma evolution, but can also provide strong constraints on the non-thermal accelerated electron population, including the low-energy cutoff which is typically determined only as a loose upper limit.We present EVE+RHESSI DEM results from selected intense (X-class) flares from solar cycle 24, including determining the non-thermal low-energy cutoff and examining how this evolves with the temperature distribution. We also apply this technique to combine EUV data from EVE with SXR data from the GOES X-ray Sensor (XRS) and the X123, a new SXR spectrometer flown on two recent SDO/EVE calibration sounding rockets, to examine the DEM during quiescent (non-flaring) times with varying activity levels; the X-ray data provide crucial constraints on the high-temperate extent of the DEM and any potential non-thermal emission. We compare these results with those from a parallel technique to derive DEMs from imaging data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA

  20. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 19D. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    FRPI1D I FRRDORs I ESTALif SH I FtTAR1. 151ff I. ESTR *1 IN IHG I FSTlM4ATtON I FTEN I F IrR 14 1 rYAOF I FVALUIATE L EVE.RYDNE I r VI417pl I EY.V4I’lAT I...011 1 JECT 2 ONEEYCIVE c CP ITCT % I CBS E INARIE 1O npSERVATION 9 nqSTRpF I r’ps.QvP 2 nRSFRVFR 1 CIS EPV FS 1 OBSTACLE I nPSTACLES I eSTR IXTIfln I

  1. Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherinezhad, Saber; Karimipour, Vahid

    2003-04-01

    We introduce a protocol for quantum secret sharing based on reusable entangled states. The entangled state between the sender and the receiver acts only as a carrier to which data bits are entangled by the sender and disentangled from it by the receivers, all by local actions of simple gates. We also show that the interception by Eve or the cheating of one of the receivers introduces a quantum bit error rate larger than 25% which can be detected by comparing a subsequence of the bits.

  2. Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo; Long, G.L.

    2003-10-01

    A technique is devised to perform orthogonal state quantum key distribution. In this scheme, entangled parts of a quantum information carrier are sent from Alice to Bob through two quantum channels. However, before the transmission, the order of the quantum information carrier in one channel is reordered so that Eve cannot steal useful information. At the receiver's end, the order of the quantum information carrier is restored. The order rearrangement operation in both parties is controlled by a prior shared control key which is used repeatedly in a quantum key distribution session.

  3. PhyLIS: a simple GNU/Linux distribution for phylogenetics and phyloinformatics.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Robert C

    2009-07-30

    PhyLIS is a free GNU/Linux distribution that is designed to provide a simple, standardized platform for phylogenetic and phyloinformatic analysis. The operating system incorporates most commonly used phylogenetic software, which has been pre-compiled and pre-configured, allowing for straightforward application of phylogenetic methods and development of phyloinformatic pipelines in a stable Linux environment. The software is distributed as a live CD and can be installed directly or run from the CD without making changes to the computer. PhyLIS is available for free at http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/rcthomson/phylis/.

  4. Information Dominance: Special Operations Forces in MOOTW.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bauIaipai towed ~mconvmdauaI werfm wilb fiang Slobal turrozlw dnag urfficki ngmd prolifraidas vf weapo of mass destsuction (YJMD). Thoe second vaed b tdm...dianipton otMoxico’s less~mwWte ownputo fiarwa network to undermine diul woomy or adssting with do e coam mklcisio ruqtilrms of LAtin Azerican 14 &4g MWOl& A...The packadsWai in of 0 aMd SO am DOD sume s b at eveed to be Miowuy oaukldd Unil the -t Q0R;"brha , I’, oglraoraandoocmopwaul chop willpWnMammaunIn 0

  5. Analysis of a Data Communication Network’s Performance under Varying Retransmission Disciplines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    SB1 EVE\\NT,5,i; ACT,,XX(5) .EQ. O,QBI; ACT,, ,DMP2; SB2 EVENT,5,1; ACT,,XX(5) .EQ. O,Q32; A CT .. ,DM P2; 5i33 EVENTr,5,1; ACT,,XX(5) .EQ. O, QB3 ; ACT...DMi2; QBI QUEUE( 23) ... ,NTHB; QB2 QUEUE(24),,,,TlI3; Q33 QUEUE( 25) ... 57 HTHB MATCH,6,QB1/NB1,QB2/NBi, QB3 /NB1; NB1 ACCU$%,,3,3,HIGH(9

  6. The AMPTE/CCE Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Ghielmetti, A.; Hertzberg, E.; Battel, S. J.; Altwegg-von Burg, K.; Balsiger, H.

    1985-05-01

    The Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) on the AMPTE-CCE spacecraft consists of an energetic ions-mass spectrometer and an electron background-environment monitor (EBEM). The mass spectrometer covers the entire mass per charge range from below 1 to greater than 150 amu/e and the energy per charge range from 0 eV/e (spacecraft potential) to 17 keV/e. The EBEM measures electrons between 50 eV and 25 keV in eight broad energy bands. The ion and electron data are processed into color spectrogram formats for the data pool.

  7. Building Global Partnerships: 112 Gripes about the French Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    such weapons and that, with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, we are no longer worried about a nuclear exchange with the Russians. Nor are we...the blue (no pun intended), an impromptu joke—and, of course, it was “just a joke.” However, it wasn’t so much the joke but the resultant laughter ...of the Atlantic Ocean in North Africa. On the eve of the D-day invasion of Normandy, young GIs waited to risk their lives for their country, an act

  8. Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP) for Solar Soft X-Ray Spectra and Images from a Cube Sat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Chao, Weilun

    2016-05-01

    We describe the Soft X-ray Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP), a novel spectrophotometer with four times narrower transmission grating period (about 50 nm) compared to the MIT-designed 200 nm gratings successfully used for the SOHO/SEM, the SDO/EVE/ESP, and the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) onboard the EVE sounding rocket suite of instruments. The new grating is based on technology developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and provides four to five time greater diffraction dispersion than the 200 nm period gratings. Such new technology will provide detection of both 0.1 nm - resolved solar spectra in about 1.0 to 7.0 nm spectral range and a soft X-ray pin-hole solar image from the I-GRASP instrument that is appropriately sized for a CubeSat platform. The solar observations of this soft X-ray range do not currently have spectral resolution, so I-GRASP concurrent spectral and imaging X-ray observations will be important for:Improvements in modeling of coronal dynamics and heating by comparing measured and modeled spectra through identifying changes in abundances from different active regions- Resolving some differences in certain iron spectral line intensity ratios observed with SAM, identifying key emission lines, and comparing to those modeled with the CHIANTI atomic database- Studying SXR spectral variability for different solar activity periods including solar flares and the 27-day solar rotation- Studying of the Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere responses using as input the detailed soft X-ray spectra from I-GRASP- Improving solar soft X-ray reference spectra for accurate calculations of absolute solar irradiance from the SDO/EVE/ESP, SDO/EVE/SAM, TIMED/SEE/XPS, and SORCE/XPS channels that have broadband measurements of the 1-7 nm band- Providing validation for the soft X-Ray observations from the MinXSS CubeSat X123 spectrometer (0.04 to 2.5 nm) with the I-GRASP spectral observations from 1.0 to 7.0 nm- Comparing I

  9. Web-based scientific simulation tools for E-ELT instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disseau, K.; Puech, M.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.; Pentericci, L.

    2013-11-01

    In the frame of the EAGLE & OPTIMOS-EVE phase A studies, we have developped a scientific simulator which has been used to constrain the instrument high level specifications. The simulator is coupled to a web interface to allow an easier access by the science teams and run specific simulations covering the scientific objectives. This simulator is now used to constrain the design of MOSAIC, a new MOS concept for the E-ELT. We give a functional description of the simulator and illustrate how it is used in practice to constrain the pixel size of the IFU of MOSAIC.

  10. Original CIN: reviewing roles for APC in chromosome instability.

    PubMed

    Rusan, Nasser M; Peifer, Mark

    2008-06-02

    You may have seen the bumper sticker "Eve was framed." Thousands of years of being blamed for original sin and still many wonder, where's the evidence? Today, the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) may have the same complaint about accusations of a different type of CIN, chromosome instability. A series of recent papers, including three in this journal, propose that loss of APC function plays an important role in the CIN seen in many colon cancer cells. However, a closer look reveals a complex story that raises more questions than answers.

  11. Relational ethics in the novels of Charles Williams.

    PubMed

    Vande Kemp, H

    1987-06-01

    In the novels of Charles Williams, characters are faced with the mundane but profound choice between "charity and selfishness," the City and Infamy. Williams' "way of exchange" and "doctrine of substitution" have direct parallels in contextual family therapy. In Descent Into Hell, he explores the long-term effects of legacy and the balancing of the relational ledger through the process of "substituted" love. In All Hallows' Eve, the focus is on forgiveness and the opportunity to correct relational mistakes while one is in a purgatorial state. Both novels include parallel processes of relational stagnation/disjunction and rejunction, illustrating the fact that our simple, everyday choices have ultimate significance.

  12. Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.

  13. Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala

    1999-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands consist of a basement of dacitic, tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and charnockitic rocks that constitute the Losee metamorphic suite. These rocks are unconformably overlain by a layered supracrustal sequence of quartzo-feldspathic and calcareous rocks. Abundant sheets of hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks of the Byram intrusive suite and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks of the Lake Hopatcong intrusive suite were synkinematically emplaced at about 1,090 Ma. These intrusive suites constitute the Vernon Supersuite. The postorogenic Mount Eve Granite has been dated at 1,020?4 Ma and is confined to the extreme northern Highlands.

  14. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elezov, M. S.; Ozhegov, R. V.; Goltsman, G. N.; Makarov, V.

    2016-12-01

    Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a "backdoor" in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains "latched" in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.

  15. Instrumentation and Software for the Collection Analysis, and Interpretation of Eye Movement Data During Reading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    comzoosed of both tetand aict-ures. Also des cribes a procedure -or collecting eve-movement: DD cjcNś 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 55 15 OBSOLETE Unc lass ifiec...ficerUniversity of California at San Diego Naval Research Laboratory La Jolla, CA 92093 Code 2627 Wahington, DC 20390 LT Steven 0. Harris , MSC, USN Code 5021...Medical Research Laborat Alexandria.VA 22333 Pensacola, FL 32508 1 DR. FRANK J. HARRIS U.S. ARMY RESEARCH 4ISTITUTE 1 Dr. Gary Poock 5001 EISENHOWER AVENUE

  16. Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

  17. Single-photon continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on the energy-time uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bing

    2006-09-01

    We propose a new quantum key distribution protocol in which information is encoded on continuous variables of a single photon. In this protocol, Alice randomly encodes her information on either the central frequency of a narrowband single-photon pulse or the time delay of a broadband single-photon pulse, while Bob randomly chooses to do either frequency measurement or time measurement. The security of this protocol rests on the energy-time uncertainty relation, which prevents Eve from simultaneously determining both frequency and time information with arbitrarily high resolution. Since no interferometer is employed in this scheme, it is more robust against various channel noises, such as polarization and phase fluctuations.

  18. The AMPTE/CCE Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Ghielmetti, A.; Hertzberg, E.; Battel, S. J.; Altwegg-Von Burg, K.; Balsiger, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) on the AMPTE-CCE spacecraft consists of an energetic ions-mass spectrometer and an electron background-environment monitor (EBEM). The mass spectrometer covers the entire mass per charge range from below 1 to greater than 150 amu/e and the energy per charge range from 0 eV/e (spacecraft potential) to 17 keV/e. The EBEM measures electrons between 50 eV and 25 keV in eight broad energy bands. The ion and electron data are processed into color spectrogram formats for the data pool.

  19. The Seasonal Variation of Undercurrent and Temperature in the Equatorial Pacific Jointly Derived from Buoy Measurement and Assimilation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    SST. Numerous cb.:mlcterisli<:s were studied in the zonal ocean - atmosphere interactions, e.g., the role ofwester- Iy burst in the western tropicnl...of ~easonal change in the In)picill I> acific is westward. The warmt’S\\ SSTs in till.’ cold tongue OCCUi’ in boreal spring. :md the coolest SSTs...averaged n:suh in these depths ca n represent mor~ information of the EVe. (2) Monthlymcan temperature and \\-l!loc i- t)’ provided by a simple ocean data

  20. An ontology for description of drug discovery investigations.

    PubMed

    Qi, Da; King, Ross D; Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G Richard J; Soldatova, Larisa N

    2010-03-25

    The paper presents an ontology for the description of Drug Discovery Investigation (DDI).This has been developed through the use of a Robot Scientist "Eve", and in consultation with industry. DDI aims to define the principle entities and the relations in the research and development phase of the drug discovery pipeline. DDI is highly transferable and extendable due to its adherence to accepted standards, and compliance with existing ontology resources. This enables DDI to be integrated with such related ontologies as the Vaccine Ontology, the Advancing Clinico-Genomic Trials on Cancer Master Ontology, etc. DDI is available at http://purl.org/ddi/wikipedia or http://purl.org/ddi/home.

  1. Common Rules of Engagement for the Armies of the United States and Australia: A Proposal Stranded on the Moral High Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    Spangled Banner, "then conquer we must when our cause is justඕ to President Clinton’s speech on the eve of the Haitian 75 NORMAN A. GRAEBNER ED...rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there; Oh, say, does that star- spangled banner yet...conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning’s first beam, In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream; ’Tis the star- spangled

  2. Three worlds of relief: race, immigration, and public and private social welfare spending in American cities, 1929.

    PubMed

    Fox, Cybelle

    2010-09-01

    Using a data set of public and private relief spending for 295 cities, this article examines the racial and ethnic patterning of social welfare provision in the United States in 1929. On the eve of the Depression, cities with more blacks or Mexicans spent the least on social assistance and relied more heavily on private money to fund their programs. Cities with more European immigrants spent the most on relief and relied more heavily on public funding. Distinct political systems, labor market relations, and racial ideologies about each group's proclivity to use relief best explain relief spending differences across cities.

  3. An Assessment of Public Law 95-507.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    thereunder, were to be performed entirely outside the United States, its possessions and Puerto Rico, and to contracts for services which were personal in...Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - is for services which are personal in nature 1. Contracts Over $1,000,000 for Construction and .500,000 for...rimo~ , Viitdrot, for M1itinrty Stmi Iltu~ tesi amid (’at 1 itl Owner’. shid! D eve’onnent". 112 - - - -.M PUBLIC LAW 95-507-OCT. 24, 1978 92 STAT. 1767

  4. A Unified Framework for Multi-level Processing of Complex Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    each point representing an image thumb-nail, highlight of a medical record , spectral cmve for eve1y pixel of an HSI cube, etc. A weighted graph...thumb-nail, highlight of a medical record , spectral curve for every pixel of an HSI cube, etc. A weighted graph, with data similarities as weights, is...other than abstracts): 6.00 1 Invited Speaker , two lectures: "Multi-level methods for image inpainting" and "Manifold approach to high-dimensional data

  5. Spatially-Resolved System for Polarimetric Measurements at Subwavelength Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    8217 Cj>a:: .. nao .-. ic lie "•eepe no.eve-t ippei :can-«i see be c.-. \\ stepoe: TOIO- :Uje j-" rr-lri-je. Elecii ca conntctor: seep 32’ \\ ::eppe...involve performing near-field tomographic reconstruction, measuring low refractive index contrast materials , measuring the polarimetric response of...field tomography: The fields from an NSOM scan penetrate a finite depth into the material , giving one the ability to see structures below the surface of

  6. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  7. A Looping-Based Model for Quenching Repression

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Yaroslav; Goldberg, Sarah; Amit, Roee

    2017-01-01

    We model the regulatory role of proteins bound to looped DNA using a simulation in which dsDNA is represented as a self-avoiding chain, and proteins as spherical protrusions. We simulate long self-avoiding chains using a sequential importance sampling Monte-Carlo algorithm, and compute the probabilities for chain looping with and without a protrusion. We find that a protrusion near one of the chain’s termini reduces the probability of looping, even for chains much longer than the protrusion–chain-terminus distance. This effect increases with protrusion size, and decreases with protrusion-terminus distance. The reduced probability of looping can be explained via an eclipse-like model, which provides a novel inhibitory mechanism. We test the eclipse model on two possible transcription-factor occupancy states of the D. melanogaster eve 3/7 enhancer, and show that it provides a possible explanation for the experimentally-observed eve stripe 3 and 7 expression patterns. PMID:28085884

  8. Understanding Coronal Dimming and its Relation to Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J. P.; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Hock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    When extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting material in the corona is lost during a coronal mass ejection (CME), the solar spectral irradiance is impacted and these effects are observed in data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). This process is one of the physical mechanisms that can lead to the observation of 'coronal dimming,' a phenomenon lasting eight hours on average and rarely persisting longer than one day. Other mechanisms that can cause observed dimming include obscuration of bright material (e.g., flare arcade) by dark material (e.g., filament), temperature evolution (e.g., cool plasma being heated causing transient decreases in characteristic emission lines), and propagation of global waves. Each of these processes has a unique spectral signature, which will be explained and exemplified. In particular, the 7 August 2010 M1.0 flare with associated ~870 km/s CME will be analyzed in detail using both AIA and EVE to demonstrate new techniques for isolating dimming due to the CME ('core dimming'). Further analysis will estimate CME mass and velocity using only parameterization of core dimming and compare these estimates to traditionally calculated CME kinetics.

  9. The EUV spectrum of the Sun: long-term variations in the SOHO CDS NIS spectral responsivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Andretta, V.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Thompson, W. T.

    2010-07-01

    We present SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) normal incidence, extreme-ultraviolet spectra of the Sun taken from the beginning of the mission in 1996 until now. We use various methods to study the performance of the instrument during such a long time span. Assuming that the basal chromospheric-transition region emission in the quiet parts of the Sun does not vary over the cycle, we find a slow decrease in the instrument sensitivity over time. We applied a correction to the NIS (Normal Incidence Spectrograph) data, using as a starting reference the NIS absolute calibration obtained from a comparison with a rocket flight in May 1997. We then obtained NIS full-Sun spectral irradiances from observations in 2008 and compared them with the EUV irradiances obtained from the rocket that flew on April 14, 2008 a prototype of the Solar Dynamics Observatory EVE instrument. Excellent agreement is found between the EUV irradiances from NIS and from the EVE-prototype, confirming the NIS radiometric calibration. The NIS instrument over 13 years has performed exceptionally well, with only a factor of about 2 decrease in responsivity for most wavelengths.

  10. Variations in EUV Irradiance: Comparison between LYRA, ESP, and SWAP Integrated Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalim, Mehmet Sarp; Poedts, Stefaan

    The Sun Watcher Using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope and Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) are the two Sun observation instruments on-board PROBA2. SWAP extreme ultraviolet images, if presented in terms of the integrated flux over solar disk, in general, correlate well with LYRA channel 2-4 (zirconium filter) and channels QD and 18 of EVE/ESP on-board SDO between 2010 and 2013. Hence, SWAP can be considered as an additional radiometric channel. We compare in detail LYRA channel 2-4 and SWAP integrated flux in July 2010 and in particular during the solar eclipse that occurred on July 11, 2010. During this eclipse, the discrepancy between the two data channels can be explained to be related to the occultation of active region 11087 by the Moon. In the second half of July 2010, LYRA channel 2-4 and SWAP integrated flux deviate from each other, but these differences can also be explained in terms of features appearing on the solar disk such as coronal holes and active regions. By additionally comparing with timeline of EVE/ESP, we can preliminarily interpret these differences in terms of the difference between the broad bandpass of LYRA channel 2-4 and the, relatively speaking, narrower bandpass of SWAP.

  11. Solar Flare Impulsive Phase Observations from SDO and Other Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Schrijver, Karel; Warren, Harry; Milligan, Ryan; Christe, Steven; Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    With the start of normal operations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory in May 2010, the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) have been returning the most accurate solar XUV and EUV measurements every 10 and 12 seconds, respectively, at almost 100% duty cycle. The focus of the presentation will be the solar flare impulsive phase observations provided by EVE and AIA and what these observations can tell us about the evolution of the initial phase of solar flares. Also emphasized throughout is how simultaneous observations with other instruments, such as RHESSI, SOHO-CDS, and HINODE-EIS, will help provide a more complete characterization of the solar flares and the evolution and energetics during the impulsive phase. These co-temporal observations from the other solar instruments can provide information such as extending the high temperature range spectra and images beyond that provided by the EUV and XUV wavelengths, provide electron density input into the lower atmosphere at the footpoints, and provide plasma flows of chromospheric evaporation, among other characteristics.

  12. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  13. Mechanisms and Observations of Coronal Dimming for the 2010 August 7 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Hock, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  14. Soft X-ray irradiance measured by the Solar Aspect Monitor on the Solar Dynamic Observatory Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Bailey, S. M.; Jones, A.; Woodraska, D.; Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.

    2016-04-01

    The Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) is a pinhole camera on the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. SAM projects the solar disk onto the CCD through a metallic filter designed to allow only solar photons shortward of 7 nm to pass. Contamination from energetic particles and out-of-band irradiance is, however, significant in the SAM observations. We present a technique for isolating the 0.01-7 nm integrated irradiance from the SAM signal to produce the first results of broadband irradiance for the time period from May 2010 to May 2014. The results of this analysis agree with a similar data product from EVE's EUV SpectroPhotometer to within 25%. We compare our results with measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Solar X-ray Photometer and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Solar EUV Experiment at similar levels of solar activity. We show that the full-disk SAM broadband results compared well to the other measurements of the 0.01-7 nm irradiance. We also explore SAM's capability toward resolving spatial contribution from regions of solar disk in irradiance and demonstrate this feature with a case study of several strong flares that erupted from active regions on 11 March 2011.

  15. Mechanisms and Observations of Coronal Dimming for the 2010 August 7 Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James P.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Thompson, Barbara J.; Hock, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's (SoHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's (STEREO) COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  16. Characterization of ambient black carbon and wood burning particles in two urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Hopke, Philip K; Rattigan, Oliver V; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-07-01

    Previously it has been suggested that certain organic aerosol components of wood smoke have enhanced ultraviolet absorption at 370 nm relative to 880 nm in two-wavelength aethalometer measurements. This enhanced absorption could serve as an indicator of wood burning particles. Two-wavelength (370 nm and 880 nm) aethalometer measurements were made at urban sites in Rochester, New York and Laredo, Texas from August 1 to December 31, 2009 and from December 23, 2007 to January 2, 2008, respectively. In Rochester, Delta-C (UVBC(370 nm)- BC(880 nm)) values were higher by a factor of 3 during the night than during the day in November and December when residential wood burning was common. In Laredo, particularly high Delta-C values were observed on Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve and were attributed to biomass burning and firework emissions. Exponential decay was found to be a good estimator for predicting BC concentrations at different wind speeds regardless of wind directions.

  17. Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-02-15

    Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.

  18. Discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in Anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens. Whether such observations reflect occasional spillover or laboratory contamination or whether Anopheles mosquitoes are natural hosts of flaviviruses is unknown. Here, we provide in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis. Such non-retroviral endogenization of RNA viruses is consistent with a shared evolutionary history between flaviviruses and Anopheles mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two newly described EVEs support the existence of a distinct clade of Anopheles-associated ISFs.

  19. Endogenous Viral Elements in Animal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized. PMID:21124940

  20. Conical pitch angle distributions of very low-energy ion fluxes observed by ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.

    1982-04-01

    Observations are presented of conical distributions of low-energy ion fluxes from throughout the magnetosphere. The data were provided by the plasma composition experiment (PCE) on ISEE 1. ISEE 1 was launched in October 1977 into a highly elliptical orbit with a 30 deg inclination to the equator and 22.5 earth radii apogee. Particular attention is given to data taken when the instrument was in its thermal plasma mode, sampling ions in the energy per charge range 0-100 eV/e. Attention is given to examples of conical distributions in 0- to 100-eV/e ions, the occurrence of conical distributions of 0- to 100-eV ions in local time-geocentric distance and latitude-geocentric distance coordinates, the cone angles in 0- to 100-eV ion conics, Kp distributions of 0- to 100-eV ion conics, and some compositional aspects of 0- to 100-eV ion conics.