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Sample records for ly-alpha selected galaxies

  1. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF [O III] EMISSION FROM Ly{alpha} SELECTED FIELD GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    McLinden, Emily M.; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Hibon, Pascale; Richardson, Mark L. A.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Cresci, Giovanni; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Pasquali, Anna; Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; Woodward, Charles E.

    2011-04-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurements of the [O III] 5007 A line in two z {approx} 3.1 Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) using the new near-infrared instrument LUCIFER1 on the 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope. We also describe the optical imaging and spectroscopic observations used to identify these LAEs. Using the [O III] line we have measured accurate systemic redshifts for these two galaxies, and discovered a velocity offset between the [O III] and Ly{alpha} lines in both, with the Ly{alpha} line peaking 342 and 125 km s{sup -1} redward of the systemic velocity. These velocity offsets imply that there are powerful outflows in high-redshift LAEs. They also ease the transmission of Ly{alpha} photons through the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium around the galaxies. By measuring these offsets directly, we can refine both Ly{alpha}-based tests for reionization, and Ly{alpha} luminosity function measurements where the Ly{alpha} forest affects the blue wing of the line. Our work also provides the first direct constraints on the strength of the [O III] line in high-redshift LAEs. We find [O III] fluxes of 7 and 36 x10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} in two z {approx} 3.1 LAEs. These lines are strong enough to dominate broadband flux measurements that include the line (in this case, K{sub s} -band photometry). Spectral energy distribution fits that do not account for the lines would therefore overestimate the 4000 A (and/or Balmer) break strength in such galaxies, and hence also the ages and stellar masses of such high-z galaxies.

  2. SIZING UP Ly{alpha} AND LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; McLinden, Emily; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hathi, Nimish; Nilsson, Kim; Pirzkal, Norbert

    2012-05-10

    We measure the sizes for a sample of 174 Ly{alpha}-selected galaxies with broadband imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. Over the redshift range 2.25 < z < 6, Ly{alpha}-selected galaxies have a characteristic, constant, small size in rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) light. Coupled with a characteristic star formation intensity (i.e., UV luminosity per unit area), this can explain their non-evolving ultraviolet continuum luminosity function. This is in contrast to Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) over the same redshift range, which have been previously shown to increase in linear size as H(z){sup -1}. The compact physical size seems to be a critical determining factor in whether a galaxy will show Ly{alpha} emission or not. The L{sub *} of LBGs and its evolution with redshift can be derived from a simple model where the star formation intensity has an upper limit set by feedback processes, independent of redshift. The increase in L{sub *} of LBGs is mainly driven by the increase in linear size over redshifts for z = 2-7. Since Ly{alpha} galaxies do not grow in linear size, they do not show an increase in L{sub *}.

  3. A Ly{alpha} GALAXY AT REDSHIFT z = 6.944 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Hibon, Pascale; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cooper, Michael; Weiner, Benjamin E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu

    2012-06-20

    Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies can be used to study cosmological reionization, because a neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) scatters Ly{alpha} photons into diffuse halos whose surface brightness falls below typical survey detection limits. Here, we present the Ly{alpha} emitting galaxy LAE J095950.99+021219.1, identified at redshift z = 6.944 in the COSMOS field using narrowband imaging and follow-up spectroscopy with the IMACS instrument on the Magellan I Baade telescope. With a single object spectroscopically confirmed so far, our survey remains consistent with a wide range of IGM neutral fraction at z Almost-Equal-To 7, but further observations are planned and will help clarify the situation. Meantime, the object we present here is only the third Ly{alpha}-selected galaxy to be spectroscopically confirmed at z {approx}> 7, and is {approx}2-3 times fainter than the previously confirmed z Almost-Equal-To 7 Ly{alpha} galaxies.

  4. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS. II. NEW EFFECTS ON GALAXY CLUSTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Zheng; Cen Renyue; Trac, Hy; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    We study the clustering properties of z {approx} 5.7 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in a cosmological reionization simulation with a full Ly{alpha} radiative transfer calculation. Ly{alpha} radiative transfer substantially modifies the intrinsic Ly{alpha} emission properties, compared to observed ones, depending on the density and velocity structure environment around the Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxy. This environment-dependent Ly{alpha} selection introduces new features in LAE clustering, suppressing (enhancing) the line-of-sight (transverse) density fluctuations and giving rise to scale-dependent galaxy bias. In real space, the contours of the three-dimensional two-point correlation function of LAEs appear to be prominently elongated along the line of sight on large scales, an effect that is opposite to and much stronger than the linear redshift-space distortion effect. The projected two-point correlation function is greatly enhanced in amplitude by a factor of up to a few, compared to the case without the environment-dependent selection effect. The new features in LAE clustering can be understood with a simple, physically motivated model, where Ly{alpha} selection depends on matter density, velocity, and their gradients. We discuss the implications and consequences of the effects on galaxy clustering from Ly{alpha} selection in interpreting clustering measurements and in constraining cosmology and reionization from LAEs.

  5. EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION AROUND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Zheng; Cen Renyue; Weinberg, David; Trac, Hy; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2011-10-01

    Ly{alpha} photons that escape the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies may be resonantly scattered by neutral hydrogen atoms in the circumgalactic and intergalactic media, thereby increasing the angular extent of the galaxy's Ly{alpha} emission. We present predictions of this extended, low surface brightness Ly{alpha} emission based on radiative transfer modeling in a cosmological reionization simulation. The extended emission can be detected from stacked narrowband images of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) or of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Its average surface brightness profile has a central cusp, then flattens to an approximate plateau beginning at an inner characteristic scale below {approx}0.2 Mpc (comoving), then steepens again beyond an outer characteristic scale of {approx}1 Mpc. The inner scale marks the transition from scattered light of the central source to emission from clustered sources, while the outer scale marks the spatial extent of scattered emission from these clustered sources. Both scales tend to increase with halo mass, UV luminosity, and observed Ly{alpha} luminosity. The extended emission predicted by our simulation is already within reach of deep narrowband photometry using large ground-based telescopes. Such observations would test radiative transfer models of emission from LAEs and LBGs, and they would open a new window on the circumgalactic environment of high-redshift star-forming galaxies.

  6. Discovery of a Ly-alpha galaxy near a damped Ly-alpha absorber at z = 2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Hogan, Craig J.; Green, Richard F.; Caulet, Adeline; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Brown, Larry; Foltz, Craig B.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of a galaxy associated with the damped Ly-alpha absorbing cloud seen at z = 2.309 toward the QSO PHL 957 is reported. In addition to a strong but narrow Ly-alpha emission line and weaker C IV and He II lines, the object shows continuum at V about 24, with a slope rising slightly toward the red. This is similar to what is seen in high-redshift radio galaxies, but this galaxy does not correspond to any known radio source. The detected emission lines and continuum are most easily interpreted as light from hot, recently formed stars, implying a sizable star formation rate and a scarcity of dust. The spatial correlation of the absorbing cloud and the companion galaxy supports the interpretation of damped Ly-alpha clouds as objects fundamentally different from the lower column density Ly-alpha forest clouds, which show weak or no clustering.

  7. Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES AS EARLY STAGES IN GALAXY FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Hu, Esther M.

    2011-09-10

    We present optical spectroscopy of two samples of Galaxy Evolution Explorer grism selected Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs): one at z = 0.195-0.44 and the other at z = 0.65-1.25. We have also observed a comparison sample of galaxies in the same redshift intervals with the same UV magnitude distributions but with no detected Ly{alpha}. We use the optical spectroscopy to eliminate active galactic nuclei and to obtain the optical emission-line properties of the samples. We compare the luminosities of the LAEs in the two redshift intervals and show that there is dramatic evolution in the maximum Ly{alpha} luminosity over z = 0-1. Focusing on the z = 0.195-0.44 samples alone, we show that there are tightly defined relations between all of the galaxy parameters and the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of H{alpha}. The higher EW(H{alpha}) sources all have lower metallicities, bluer colors, smaller sizes, and less extinction, consistent with their being in the early stages of the galaxy formation process. We find that 75% {+-} 12% of the LAEs have EW(H{alpha}) >100 A and, conversely, that 31% {+-} 13% of galaxies with EW(H{alpha}) >100 A are LAEs. We correct the broadband magnitudes for the emission-line contributions and use spectral synthesis fits to estimate the ages of the galaxies. We find a median age of 1.1 x 10{sup 8} yr for the LAE sample and 1.4 x 10{sup 9} yr for the UV-continuum sample without detected Ly{alpha}. The median metallicity of the LAE sample is 12 + log (O/H) = 8.24, or about 0.4 dex lower than the UV-continuum sample.

  8. RESOLVING THE GALAXIES WITHIN A GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULA: WITNESSING THE FORMATION OF A GALAXY GROUP?

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brodwin, Mark; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2012-06-20

    Detailed analysis of the substructure of Ly{alpha} nebulae can put important constraints on the physical mechanisms at work and the properties of galaxies forming within them. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of a Ly{alpha} nebula at z Almost-Equal-To 2.656, we have taken a census of the compact galaxies in the vicinity, used optical/near-infrared colors to select system members, and put constraints on the morphology of the spatially extended emission. The system is characterized by (1) a population of compact, low-luminosity ({approx}0.1 L*) sources-17 primarily young, small (R{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 1-2 kpc), disky galaxies including an obscured active galactic nucleus-that are all substantially offset ({approx}>20 kpc) from the line-emitting nebula; (2) the lack of a central galaxy at or near the peak of the Ly{alpha} emission; and (3) several nearly coincident, spatially extended emission components-Ly{alpha}, He II, and UV continuum-that are extremely smooth. These morphological findings are difficult to reconcile with theoretical models that invoke outflows, cold flows, or resonant scattering, suggesting that while all of these physical phenomena may be occurring, they are not sufficient to explain the powering and large extent of Ly{alpha} nebulae. In addition, although the compact galaxies within the system are irrelevant as power sources, the region is significantly overdense relative to the field galaxy population (by at least a factor of four). These observations provide the first estimate of the luminosity function of galaxies within an individual Ly{alpha} nebula system and suggest that large Ly{alpha} nebulae may be the seeds of galaxy groups or low-mass clusters.

  9. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  10. Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FROM z {approx} 0.03 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: THE DOMINANT ROLE OF OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus; Salzer, John

    2013-03-10

    The usefulness of H I Ly{alpha} photons for characterizing star formation in the distant universe is limited by our understanding of the astrophysical processes that regulate their escape from galaxies. These processes can only be observed in detail out to a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Mpc. Past nearby (z < 0.3) spectroscopic studies are based on small samples and/or kinematically unresolved data. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), we observed the Ly{alpha} lines of 20 H{alpha}-selected galaxies located at =0.03. The galaxies cover a broad range of luminosity, oxygen abundance, and reddening. In this paper, we characterize the observed Ly{alpha} lines and establish correlations with fundamental galaxy properties. We find seven emitters. These host young ({<=}10 Myr) stellar populations have rest-frame equivalent widths in the range 1-12 A, and have Ly{alpha} escape fractions within the COS aperture in the range 1%-12%. One emitter has a double-peaked Ly{alpha} with peaks 370 km s{sup -1} apart and a stronger blue peak. Excluding this object, the emitters have Ly{alpha} and O I {lambda}1302 offsets from H{alpha} in agreement with expanding-shell models and Lyman break galaxies observations. The absorbers have offsets that are almost consistent with a static medium. We find no one-to-one correspondence between Ly{alpha} emission and age, metallicity, or reddening. Thus, we confirm that Ly{alpha} is enhanced by outflows and is regulated by the dust and H I column density surrounding the hot stars.

  11. Ly alpha and IR galaxy companions of high redshift damped Ly alpha QSO absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caulet, Adeline; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1993-01-01

    We have used a Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS3) HgCdTe 256x256 array detector with the Infrared (IR) camera on the 2.3m telescope at Steward Observatory to image several Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) fields. The limiting magnitude is K'(2.1 microns) = 21.0 - 21.5 mag per square arcsec for a 3 sigma detection in 3 hours of in-field chopping observations. Each QSO line-of-sight samples several known absorbers with Mg2(lambda)2796-2803 A and/or C4(lambda)1548-1551 A absorption doublets. The equivalent width distributions of the low and high ionization absorption lines of the absorber sample are identical to those of the parent population of all absorbers. This selection process, used already for a spectroscopic survey of Mg2 absorption lines in C4-selected absorption systems at high z, gives a methodical approach to observing, reduces the observer biases, and makes a more efficient use of telescope time. This selection guarantees that imaging of the sample of QSO fields will provide complete sampling of the whole population of high z QSO absorbers. Follow-up optical and IR spectroscopy of these objects is scheduled for redshift measurement and confirmation of the absorbing galaxies and the cluster members.

  12. The Ly(alpha) Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina L.; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Ly(alpha) emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Ly(alpha) profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three H II-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Ly(alpha) line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Ly(alpha) attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Ly(alpha) photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Ly(alpha) and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Ly(alpha) emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H II-dominated ULIRGs.

  13. The Ly(alpha) Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina L.; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Ly(alpha) emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Ly(alpha) profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three H II-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Ly(alpha) line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Ly(alpha) attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Ly(alpha) photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Ly(alpha) and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Ly(alpha) emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H II-dominated ULIRGs.

  14. POLARIZED EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM A z = 2.3 RADIO GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, A.; Vernet, J.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Villar-Martin, M.; Di Serego Alighieri, S.; Cimatti, A.

    2013-05-01

    We present spatially resolved spectropolarimetric measurements of the 100 kpc scale gaseous environment of the z = 2.34 radio galaxy TXS 0211-122. The polarization level of the narrow Ly{alpha} emission is low centrally (P < 5%), but rises to P = 16.4% {+-} 4.6% in the eastern part of the nebula, indicating that the nebula is at least partly powered by the scattering of Ly{alpha} photons by H I. Not only is this the first detection of polarized Ly{alpha} around a radio-loud active galaxy, it is also the second detection to date for any kind of Ly{alpha} nebula. We also detect a pair of diametrically opposed UV continuum sources along the slit, at the outer edges of the Ly{alpha} nebula, which we suggest may be the limb of a dusty shell, related to the large-scale H I absorbers often associated with high-z radio galaxies.

  15. The Ly-alpha/H-alpha ratio in high-redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Elston, Richard; Eisenhardt, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The first spectroscopic detection of H-alpha emission from radio galaxies at z greater than 2 are presented. Strong H-alpha emission is detected at z = 2.429 in B3 0731 + 438, and H-alpha is directed at z = 2.428 in 0406 - 244 at a significant level of greater than 6 sigma. The resulting Ly-alpha/H-alpha ratios for 0731 + 438 and 0406 - 244 are 3.9 and 3.2 with 3 sigma uncertainties of 1.5 for each. A range of possible extinctions is derived depending on the reddening-free Ly-alpha/H-alpha ratio assumed and the extinction curve employed. The most important result of this study is the demonstration that the Ly-alpha/H-alpha ratio in distant galaxies can now be measured with relative ease.

  16. DUST EXTINCTION AND METALLICITIES OF STAR-FORMING Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Moustakas, John

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic study of 12 GALEX-discovered star-forming Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z {approx} 0.3. We measure the emission-line fluxes from these galaxies by fitting their observed spectra to stellar population models in order to correct for underlying stellar absorption. We revisit earlier stellar population model fitting results, finding that excluding now-known active galactic nuclei lowers the typical stellar population age and stellar mass of this sample to {approx}300 Myr and {approx}4 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. We calculate their dust extinction using the Balmer decrement, and find a typical visual attenuation of A{sub V} {approx} 0.3 mag, similar to that seen in some high-redshift LAEs. Comparing the ratios of Ly{alpha}/H{alpha} and the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths to the measured dust extinction, we find that the interstellar media (ISMs) in these objects appear to be neither enhancing nor seriously attenuating the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, as would be the case in a quasi-clumpy ISM. Lastly, we perform a detailed analysis of the gas-phase metallicities of these galaxies, and we find that most galaxies in our sample have Z {approx}< 0.4 Z{sub sun}. We find that at a fixed stellar mass, these low-redshift LAE analogs are offset by {approx}0.3-0.6 dex lower metallicity from the general galaxy population at similar redshifts based on the local mass-metallicity relationship. This implies that galaxies with Ly{alpha} in emission may be systematically more metal-poor than star-forming galaxies at the same stellar mass and redshift, similar to preliminary results at z {approx} 2.

  17. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UV-CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z > 6

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Linhua; Egami, Eiichi; Walth, Gregory; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-12-10

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z > 6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z' = 27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly{alpha} emission lines at 6 {<=} z {<=} 6.4. The median value of the Ly{alpha} rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) is {approx}50 A, with four EWs >100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8 {<=} M{sub UV} {<=} -19.5 (0.6 {approx} 5 L*{sub UV}) and a Ly{alpha} luminosity range of (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-3 L*{sub Ly{alpha}}). We derive the UV and Ly{alpha} luminosity functions (LFs) from our sample at (z) {approx} 6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 5 < z < 7. Our Ly{alpha} LF is also generally in agreement with the results of Ly{alpha}-emitter surveys at z {approx} 5.7 and 6.6. This study shows that deep spectroscopic observations of LBGs can provide unique constraints on both the UV and Ly{alpha} LFs at z > 6.

  18. Cosmic Variance in the Physical Properties of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, R.; Matkovic, A.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Hay, J.; MUSYC Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Mosaic camera of the CTIO 4-m telescope to conduct a deep, narrow- band survey of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAEs) over the redshift ranges 3.10 < z < 3.13 and 2.04 < z < 2.08 in two 0.3 square degree fields, one centered on the Extended Hubble Deep Field South and the other on SDSS 1030+05. These data, combined with our previous surveys of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, give us a total survey volume of 400,000 Mpc^3 in 2.06 and 500,000 Mpc^3 at 3.1 which has been surveyed down to monochromatic line luminosities of log(L) ~42.3 ergs/s. We analyze the samples of Ly-alpha emitters found in the surveys, and present their luminosity, equivalent width, and color distributions as well as internal extinction and star formation rate. We also use these samples to search for diffuse Ly-alpha halos around LAEs at these redshifts. Most importantly, we use the information provided by our three survey fields to investigate the effect that cosmic variance has on these properties and on measurements of their evolution.

  19. A Luminosity Function of Ly(alpha)-Emitting Galaxies at Z [Approx. Equal to] 4.5(Sup 1),(Sup 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Wang, JunXian; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)-emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed in a campaign of Keck DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Are (LALA) narrowband imaging survey.We targeted 97 candidates for spectroscopic follow-up; by accounting for the variety of conditions under which we performed spectroscopy, we estimate a selection reliability of approx.76%. Together with our previous sample of Keck LRIS confirmations, the 59 sources confirmed herein bring the total catalog to 73 spectroscopically confirmed z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)- emitting galaxies in the [approx. equal to] 0.7 deg(exp 2) covered by the LALA imaging. As with the Keck LRIS sample, we find that a nonnegligible fraction of the co rest-frame equivalent widths (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) that exceed the maximum predicted for normal stellar populations: 17%-31%(93%confidence) of the detected galaxies show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) 12%-27% (90% confidence) show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) > 240 A. We construct a luminosity function of z [approx. equal to] 4.5 Ly(alpha) emission lines for comparison to Ly(alpha) luminosity function < 6.6. We find no significant evidence for Ly(alpha) luminosity function evolution from z [approx. equal to] 3 to z [approx. equal to] 6. This result supports the conclusion that the intergalactic me largely reionized from the local universe out to z [approx. equal to] 6.5. It is somewhat at odds with the pronounced drop in the cosmic star formation rate density recently measured between z approx. 3 an z approx. 6 in continuum-selected Lyman-break galaxies, and therefore potentially sheds light on the relationship between the two populations.

  20. A Luminosity Function of Ly(alpha)-Emitting Galaxies at Z [Approx. Equal to] 4.5(Sup 1),(Sup 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Wang, JunXian; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)-emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed in a campaign of Keck DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Are (LALA) narrowband imaging survey.We targeted 97 candidates for spectroscopic follow-up; by accounting for the variety of conditions under which we performed spectroscopy, we estimate a selection reliability of approx.76%. Together with our previous sample of Keck LRIS confirmations, the 59 sources confirmed herein bring the total catalog to 73 spectroscopically confirmed z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)- emitting galaxies in the [approx. equal to] 0.7 deg(exp 2) covered by the LALA imaging. As with the Keck LRIS sample, we find that a nonnegligible fraction of the co rest-frame equivalent widths (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) that exceed the maximum predicted for normal stellar populations: 17%-31%(93%confidence) of the detected galaxies show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) 12%-27% (90% confidence) show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) > 240 A. We construct a luminosity function of z [approx. equal to] 4.5 Ly(alpha) emission lines for comparison to Ly(alpha) luminosity function < 6.6. We find no significant evidence for Ly(alpha) luminosity function evolution from z [approx. equal to] 3 to z [approx. equal to] 6. This result supports the conclusion that the intergalactic me largely reionized from the local universe out to z [approx. equal to] 6.5. It is somewhat at odds with the pronounced drop in the cosmic star formation rate density recently measured between z approx. 3 an z approx. 6 in continuum-selected Lyman-break galaxies, and therefore potentially sheds light on the relationship between the two populations.

  1. Cosmic Variance in the Physical Properties of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwall, Caryl; Matkovic, A.; Ciardullo, R.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Hay, J.; MUSYC Collaboration

    2012-05-01

    We have used the Mosaic camera of the CTIO 4-m telescope to conduct a deep, narrow-band survey of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAEs) over the redshift ranges 3.10 < z < 3.13 and 2.04 < z < 2.08 in two 0.3 square degree fields, one centered on the Extended Hubble Deep Field South and the other on SDSS 1030+05. These data, combined with our previous surveys of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, give us a total survey volume of 400,000 Mpc^3 in z 2.06 and 500,000 Mpc^3 at z 3.1 which has been surveyed down to monochromatic line luminosities of log L 42.3 ergs/s. We analyze the samples of Ly-alpha emitters found in the surveys, and present the LAEs' luminosity, equivalent width, and color distributions, along with some of their physical properties such as internal extinction and star formation rate. Most importantly, we use the information provided by our three survey fields to investigate the effect that cosmic variance has on these quantities, and on measurements of their evolution.

  2. The discovery of six Ly{alpha} emitters near a radio galaxy at z {approx} 5.2

    SciTech Connect

    Venemans, B P; Rottgering, H A; Overzier, R A; Miley, G K; De Breuck, C; Kurk, J D; van Breugel, W; Carilli, C L; Ford, H; Heckman, T; McCarthy, P; Pentericci, L

    2004-09-15

    The authors present the results of narrow-band and broad-band imaging with the Very Large Telescope of the field surrounding the radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 at z = 5.2. 14 candidate Ly{alpha} emitters with an observed equivalent width of at least 124 {angstrom} were detected. Spectroscopy of 8 of these objects revealed 6 having redshifts similar to that of the radio galaxy. The density of emitters near the radio galaxy is a factor 3-4 higher than in the field, and comparable to the density of Ly{alpha} emitters in the protocluster 1338-1942 at z = 4.1. The Ly{alpha} emitters near TN J0924-2201 could therefore be part of a structure that will evolve into a 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}} cluster. These observations confirm that substantial clustering of Ly{alpha} emitters occur at z > 5 and strengthen the idea that radio galaxies in the early Universe pinpoint regions of high density.

  3. Ly-alpha emission from disk absorption systems at high redshift - Star formation in young galaxy disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harding E.; Cohen, Ross D.; Burns, Joseph E.; Moore, David J.; Uchida, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging observations are reported which were made in an attempt to detect Ly-alpha emission from high-redshift candidate galaxy disk systems discovered as high column density absorbers of background QSOs. For four systems with z = 2.3-2.8, no emission is detected to a limit of about 10 to the -16th ergs/sq cm/s, corresponding to luminosity limits of about 10 exp 42-43 ergs/s for the material producing the absorption. The inferred Ly-alpha luminosities lie one to two orders of magnitude below estimates of the Ly-alpha luminosities for active star-forming epochs of many prescriptions for galaxy formation and also considerably below measured Ly-alpha luminosities for other candidate young galaxies detected in radio surveys. A limiting star-formation rate in these systems of about 2-7 solar masses/yr is set; the limit may be about 10 times larger with small but observationally allowable amounts of dust.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF THREE z-DROPOUT GALAXIES AT z = 6.844-7.213: DEMOGRAPHICS OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION IN z {approx} 7 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Penner, Kyle; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Stern, Daniel; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Spinrad, Hyron

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of our ultra-deep Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of z-dropout galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey's northern field. For 3 out of 11 objects, we detect an emission line at {approx}1 {mu}m with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}10. The lines show asymmetric profiles with high weighted skewness values, consistent with being Ly{alpha}, yielding redshifts of z = 7.213, 6.965, and 6.844. Specifically, we confirm the z = 7.213 object in two independent DEIMOS runs with different spectroscopic configurations. The z = 6.965 object is a known Ly{alpha} emitter, IOK-1, for which our improved spectrum at a higher resolution yields a robust skewness measurement. The three z-dropouts have Ly{alpha} fluxes of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and rest-frame equivalent widths EW{sup Ly{alpha}}{sub 0} = 33-43 A. Based on the largest spectroscopic sample of 43 z-dropouts, which is the combination of our and previous data, we find that the fraction of Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies (EW{sup Ly{alpha}}{sub 0} > 25 A) is low at z {approx} 7; 17% {+-} 10% and 24% {+-} 12% for bright (M{sub UV} {approx_equal} -21) and faint (M{sub UV} {approx_equal} -19.5) galaxies, respectively. The fractions of Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies drop from z {approx} 6 to 7 and the amplitude of the drop is larger for faint galaxies than for bright galaxies. These two pieces of evidence would indicate that the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium increases from z {approx} 6 to 7 and that the reionization proceeds from high- to low-density environments, as suggested by an inside-out reionization model.

  5. Exploring Damped Ly Alpha System Host Galaxies Using Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Veilleux, Sylvain; Fumagalli, Michele; Rafelski, Marc; Rahmati, Alireza; Cenko, S. Bradley; Capone, John I.; Pasham, Dheeraj R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 45 Damped Ly-Alpha system [DLA; H I-N is greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp. 20) cm(exp. -2)] counterparts (33 detections, 12 upper limits) which host gamma-ray bursts (GRB-DLAs) in order to investigate star formation and metallicity within galaxies hosting DLAs. Our sample spans z is approx. 2 - 6 and is nearly three times larger than any previously detected DLA counterparts survey based on quasar line-of-sight searches (QSO-DLAs). We report star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame UV photometry and spectral energy distribution modeling. We find that DLA counterpart SFRs are not correlated with either redshift or H I column density. Thanks to the combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations, we also investigate DLA host star formation efficiency. Our GRB-DLA counterpart sample spans both higher efficiency and low efficiency star formation regions compared to the local Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, local star formation laws, and z is approximately 3 cosmological simulations. We also compare the depletion times of our DLA hosts sample to other objects in the local universe; our sample appears to deviate from the star formation efficiencies measured in local spiral and dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we find similar efficiencies as local inner disks, SMC, and Lyman-break galaxy outskirts. Finally, our enrichment time measurements show a spread of systems with under- and over-abundance of metals, which may suggest that these systems had episodic star formation and a metal enrichment/depletion as a result of strong stellar feedback and/or metal inflow/outflow.

  6. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-09-20

    The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering the average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.

  7. The z = 0.8596 damped Ly-alpha absorbing galaxy toward PKS 0454+039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Bowen, David V.; Blades, J. Chris; Dickenson, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based data on the Z(sub abs) = 0.8596 metal-line absorption system along the line of sight to PKS 0454+0356. The system is a moderate-redshift damped Ly-alpha system, with N(H I) = (5.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 20)/sq cm as measured from the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectrum. We also present ground-based images which we use to identify the galaxy which most probably gives rise to the damped system; the most likely candidate is relatively underluminous by QSO absorber standards M(sub B) approximately -19.0 for A(sub 0) = 0.5 and H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) and lies approximately 8.5/h kpc in projection from the QSO sight line. Ground-based measurements of Zn II, Cr II, and Fe II absorption lines from this system allow us to infer abundances of (Zn/H) = -1.1, (Cr/H) = -1.2, and (Fe/H) = -1.2 indicating overall metallicity similar to damped systems at z is greater than 2, and that the depletion of Cr and Fe onto dust grains may be even less important than in many of the high-redshift systems of comparable metallicity. Limits previously placed on the 21 cm optical depth in the z = 0.8596 system, together with our new N(H I) measurement, suggest a very high spin temperature for the H I, T(sub s) is greater than 580 K.

  8. PRESENT-DAY DESCENDANTS OF z = 3 Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II HALO MERGER TREES

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Soler, Jean P.; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold

    2012-06-20

    Using the Millennium-II Simulation dark matter sub-halo merger histories, we created mock catalogs of Ly{alpha}-emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 3.1 to study the properties of their descendants. Several models were created by selecting the sub-halos to match the number density and typical dark matter mass determined from observations of these galaxies. We used mass-based and age-based selection criteria to study their effects on descendant populations at z {approx_equal} 2, 1, and 0. For the models that best represent LAEs at z = 3.1, the z = 0 descendants have a median dark matter halo mass of 10{sup 12.7} M{sub Sun }, with a wide scatter in masses (50% between 10{sup 11.8} and 10{sup 13.7} M{sub Sun }). Our study differentiated between central and satellite sub-halos and found that {approx}55% of z = 0 descendants are central sub-halos with M{sub Median} {approx} 10{sup 12}. This confirms that central z = 0 descendants of z = 3.1 LAEs have halo masses typical of L*-type galaxies. The satellite sub-halos reside in group/cluster environments with dark matter masses around 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. The median descendant mass is robust to various methods of age determination, but it could vary by a factor of five due to current observational uncertainties in the clustering of LAEs used to determine their typical z = 3.1 dark matter mass.

  9. Imaging of Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, K. T. C.; Roth, K. C.

    1998-05-01

    Intervening H I gas clouds toward QSOs give rise to damped Ly-alpha absorption. Because of the high column density (N(H I)>= 2*E(20) cm(-2) ) these systems have been thought to be galactic disks in some stage of formation. However, because potential optical counterparts have not been identified for most damped Ly-alpha systems, it is possible that some of the absorbing systems could be dwarf irregular galaxies or low surface brightness galaxies, and are thus difficult to image. In any case, the absorbers are expected to have small angular separation from the QSOs, and so high resolution imaging is required to differentiate the absorbers from the QSOs. Because previous studies have not shown any dominant morphological form for the few candidate objects known, our images are obtained with the Hawaii tip-tilt system in order to achieve the best possible morphological classification. By imaging in the NIR and optical bands that bracket the 4000 Angstroms break of these Ly-alpha absorbers, we can more readily select candidate objects by photometrically constraining their redshifts. In our sample of 14 QSOs with abosorbers from 1selected QSOs with damped Ly-alpha absorption systems which have no previously optically-identified counterparts, and for some of which we have Keck HIRES spectra. Companion papers in this session present the spectral analysis of two of these QSO's (Roth et al., Bauer et al.) and studies of M81 as a possible local analog of the Ly-alpha absorbers (Kolhatkar et al.)

  10. THE EVOLUTION OF Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES BETWEEN z = 2.1 AND z = 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; McCathran, Emily; Matkovic, Ana; and others

    2012-01-10

    We describe the results of a new, wide-field survey for z = 3.1 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). By using a nearly top-hat 5010 A filter and complementary broadband photometry from the MUSYC survey, we identify a complete sample of 141 objects with monochromatic fluxes brighter than 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and observers-frame equivalent widths (EWs) greater than {approx}80 A (i.e., 20 A in the rest frame of Ly{alpha}). The bright end of this data set is dominated by X-ray sources and foreground objects with Galaxy Evolution Explorer detections, but when these interlopers are removed, we are still left with a sample of 130 LAE candidates, 39 of which have spectroscopic confirmations. This sample overlaps the set of objects found in an earlier ECDF-S survey, but due to our filter's redder bandpass, it also includes 68 previously uncataloged sources. We confirm earlier measurements of the z = 3.1 LAE emission-line luminosity function and show that an apparent anticorrelation between EW and continuum brightness is likely due to the effect of correlated errors in our heteroskedastic data set. Finally, we compare the properties of z = 3.1 LAEs to LAEs found at z = 2.1. We show that in the {approx}1 Gyr after z {approx} 3, the LAE luminosity function evolved significantly, with L* fading by {approx}0.4 mag, the number density of sources with L > 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} declining by {approx}50%, and the EW scale length contracting from 70{sup +7}{sub -5} A to 50{sup +9}{sub -6} A. When combined with literature results, our observations demonstrate that over the redshift range z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 4, LAEs contain less than {approx}10% of the star formation rate density of the universe.

  11. DETECTIONS OF FAINT Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 5.7: GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS AND ENGINES OF REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Martin, Crystal L.; Henry, Alaina; Sawicki, Marcin E-mail: sawicki@ap.smu.ca

    2011-10-20

    We report results of an unprecedentedly deep, blind search for Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS), with the goal of identifying missing sources of reionization that could also be basic building blocks for today's L* galaxies. We describe how improvements in wide field imaging with the Baade telescope, upgrades to IMACS, and the accumulation of {approx}20 hr of integration per field in excellent seeing led to the detection of single-emission-line sources as faint as F {approx} 2 x 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, a sensitivity five times deeper than our first search. A reasonable correction for foreground interlopers implies a steep rise of approximately an order of magnitude in source density for a factor of four drop in flux, from F = 10{sup -17.0} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to F = 10{sup -17.6} (2.5 x 10{sup -18}) erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. At this flux the putative LAEs have reached a surface density of {approx}1 arcmin{sup -2}-a comoving volume density of 4 x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3}, several times the density of L* galaxies today. Such a population of faint LAEs would account for a significant fraction of the critical flux density required to complete reionization at this epoch, and would be good candidates for building blocks of stellar mass {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub sun} for the young galaxies of this epoch.

  12. Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES AT z = 2.1: STELLAR MASSES, DUST, AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES FROM SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING

    SciTech Connect

    Guaita, Lucia; Padilla, Nelson; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Kurczynski, Peter; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Treister, Ezequiel; Lira, Paulina; Schawinski, Kevin E-mail: lguai@astro.su.se

    2011-06-01

    We study the physical properties of 216 z {approx_equal} 2.1 Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies (LAEs) discovered in an ultra-deep narrow- MUSYC image of the ECDF-S. We fit their stacked spectral energy distribution (SED) using Charlot and Bruzual templates. We consider star formation histories (SFHs) parameterized by the e-folding time parameter {tau}, allowing for exponentially decreasing ({tau} > 0), exponentially increasing ({tau} < 0), and constant star formation rates (SFRs). We estimated the average flux at 5015 A of our LAE sample, finding a non-detection, which translates into negligible He II line emission at z {approx_equal} 2.1. In addition to this, the lack of high equivalent width (EW) Ly{alpha} line objects ruled out the hypothesis of a top-heavy initial mass function in LAEs. The typical LAEs of our sample are characterized by best-fit parameters and 68% confidence intervals of log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun}) = 8.6[8.4-9.1], E(B - V) = 0.22[0.00-0.31], {tau} = -0.02[(- 4)-18] Gyr, and age{sub SF} = 0.018[0.009-3] Gyr. Thus, we obtain robust measurements of low stellar mass and dust content, but we cannot place meaningful constraints on the age or SFH of the LAEs. We also calculate the instantaneous SFR to be 35[0.003-170] M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, with its average over the last 100 Myr before observation giving (SFR){sub 100} = 4[2-30] M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. When we compare the results for the same SFH, typical LAEs at z {approx_equal} 2.1 appear dustier and show higher instantaneous SFRs than z {approx_equal} 3.1 LAEs, while the observed stellar masses of the two samples seem consistent. Because the majority are low-mass galaxies, our typical LAEs appear to occupy the low-mass end of the distribution of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2. We perform SED fitting on several sub-samples selected based on photometric properties and find that LAE sub-samples at z {approx_equal} 2.1 exhibit heterogeneous properties. The typical IRAC-bright, UV-bright, and red LAEs

  13. STATISTICS OF 207 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT A REDSHIFT NEAR 7: CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION AND GALAXY FORMATION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, Masami; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Makiko; Ono, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Sadanori; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Kodama, Tadayuki; Saito, Tomoki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Yamada, Toru; Simpson, Chris; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2010-11-01

    We present the Ly{alpha} luminosity function (LF), clustering measurements, and Ly{alpha} line profiles based on the largest sample to date of 207 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 6.6 on the 1 deg{sup 2} sky of Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field. Our z = 6.6 Ly{alpha} LF including cosmic variance estimates yields the best-fit Schechter parameters of {phi}* = 8.5{sup +3.0}{sub -2.2} x 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3} and L*{sub Ly{alpha}} = 4.4{sup +0.6}{sub -0.6} x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} with a fixed {alpha} = -1.5, and indicates a decrease from z = 5.7 at the {approx}>90% confidence level. However, this decrease is not large, only {approx_equal}30% in Ly{alpha} luminosity, which is too small to have been identified in the previous studies. A clustering signal of z = 6.6 LAEs is detected for the first time. We obtain the correlation length of r{sub 0}= 2-5 h {sup -1}{sub 100} Mpc and a bias of b= 3-6, and find no significant boost of clustering amplitude by reionization at z = 6.6. The average hosting dark halo mass inferred from clustering is 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, and a duty cycle of LAE population is roughly {approx}1%, albeit with large uncertainties. The average of our high-quality Keck/DEIMOS spectra shows an FWHM velocity width of 251 {+-} 16 km s{sup -1}. We find no large evolution of the Ly{alpha} line profile from z = 5.7 to 6.6, and no anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} luminosity and line width at z = 6.6. The combination of various reionization models and our observational results about the LF, clustering, and line profile indicates that there would exist a small decrease of the intergalactic medium's (IGM's) Ly{alpha} transmission owing to reionization, but that the hydrogen IGM is not highly neutral at z = 6.6. Our neutral-hydrogen fraction constraint implies that the major reionization process took place at z {approx}> 7.

  14. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 4.86: A COMPARISON TO z {approx} 5 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Makiko; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-09-10

    We present a study of a stellar population of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 4.86 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field and its flanking field. The LAEs are selected based on optical narrowband (NB711) and broadband (V, I{sub c} , and z') observations by the Suprime-Cam attached to the Subaru Telescope. With the publicly available Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data in GOODS-N and further IRAC observations in the flanking fields, we select five LAEs that are not contaminated by neighboring objects in IRAC images and construct their observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with I{sub c} , z', IRAC 3.6 {mu}m, and 4.5 {mu}m band photometries. The SEDs cover the rest-frame UV-to-optical wavelengths. We derive the stellar masses, ages, color excesses, and star formation rates (SFRs) of the five LAEs using an SED fitting method. Assuming a constant star formation history, we find that the stellar masses range from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} M {sub sun} with the median value of 2.5 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. The derived ages range from very young (7.4 Myr) to 437 Myr, with a median age of 25 Myr. The color excess E(B - V) is between 0.1and0.4 mag. SFRs are 55-209 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. A comparison of the stellar populations is made between 3 LAEs and 88 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at the same redshift, in the same observed field, and down to the same limit of the rest-frame UV luminosity. These three LAEs are the brightest and reddest samples of all the LAE samples at z = 4.86. The LAEs are distributed at the relatively faint part of the UV-luminosity distribution of LBGs. Deriving the stellar properties of the LBGs by fitting their SEDs with the same model ensures that model difference does not affect the comparison. It is found that the stellar properties of the LAEs are located in the region where the properties of LBGs are distributed. On average, the LAEs show less dust extinction and lower SFRs than LBGs, while the stellar

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. II. MORPHOLOGY OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Linhua; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-20

    We present a detailed structural and morphological study of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6 using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-IR broad-band images and Subaru Telescope optical narrow-band images. The galaxy sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. These galaxies exhibit a wide range of rest-frame UV continuum morphology in the HST images, from compact features to multiple component systems. The fraction of merging/interacting galaxies reaches 40%-50% at the brightest end of M{sub 1500} {<=} -20.5 mag. The intrinsic half-light radii r{sub hl,in}, after correcting for point-spread function (PSF) broadening, are roughly between r{sub hl,in} {approx_equal} 0.''05 (0.3 kpc) and 0.''3 (1.7 kpc) at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The median r{sub hl,in} value is 0.''16 ({approx}0.9 kpc). This is consistent with the sizes of bright LAEs and LBGs at z {>=} 6 found in previous studies. In addition, more luminous galaxies tend to be larger and exhibit a weak size-luminosity relation, r{sub hl,in}{proportional_to}L {sup 0.14} at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The slope of 0.14 is significantly flatter than those in fainter LBG samples. We discuss the morphology of z {>=} 6 galaxies with nonparametric methods, including the concentration, asymmetry, and smoothness system and the Gini and M{sub 20} parameters, and demonstrate their validity through simulations. We search for extended Ly{alpha} emission halos around LAEs at z {approx_equal} 5.7 and 6.5 by stacking a number of narrow-band images. We do not find evidence of extended Ly{alpha} halos predicted by cosmological simulations. Such halos, if they exist, could be weaker than predicted. Finally, we investigate positional misalignment between the UV continuum and Ly{alpha} emissions in LAEs. While the two positions are generally consistent, several merging galaxies show significant

  16. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. I. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Linhua; Mechtley, Matthew; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR observations of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6. The sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. The near-IR images were mostly obtained with WFC3 in the F125W and F160W bands, and the mid-IR images were obtained with IRAC in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Our galaxies also have deep optical imaging data from Subaru Suprime-Cam. We utilize the multi-band data and secure redshifts to derive their rest-frame UV properties. These galaxies have steep UV-continuum slopes roughly between {beta} {approx_equal} -1.5 and -3.5, with an average value of {beta} {approx_equal} -2.3, slightly steeper than the slopes of LBGs in previous studies. The slope shows little dependence on UV-continuum luminosity except for a few of the brightest galaxies. We find a statistically significant excess of galaxies with slopes around {beta} {approx_equal} -3, suggesting the existence of very young stellar populations with extremely low metallicity and dust content. Our galaxies have moderately strong rest-frame Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) in a range of {approx}10 to {approx}200 A. The star formation rates are also moderate, from a few to a few tens of solar masses per year. The LAEs and LBGs in this sample share many common properties, implying that LAEs represent a subset of LBGs with strong Ly{alpha} emission. Finally, the comparison of the UV luminosity functions between LAEs and LBGs suggests that there exists a substantial population of faint galaxies with weak Ly{alpha} emission (EW < 20 A) that could be the dominant contribution to the total ionizing flux at z {>=} 6.

  17. A clear patch in the dark age Universe? Looking for reionization sources around two bright Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at z=7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The last few years have seen a number of discoveries that provided the first glimpse of the Universe at z>7 using both space and ground-based telescopes. The spectroscopic determination of a significant decrease at z>6 of the Ly-alpha emitter fraction among Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) has been interpreted as evidence for a rapid increase of the neutral HI in the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Among the different lines of sight explored so far, the BDF field stands out as a peculiar area since it contains two bright, high EW, Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at z=7.008 and z=7.109. However, their UV luminosity is not sufficient to generate an ionized region large enough to explain the observability of their Ly-alpha lines: the close physical distance between the two objects (4.4Mpc) thus suggests that they might be included in the same, large HII bubble which is ionized thanks to contribution of a yet undetected population of fainter sources. Indeed, theoretical models predict that a factor of 4-10 overdensity of z-dropout galaxies with respect to the available, robust determinations of the z~7 UV LF, should be detected by pushing the detection limits to Y=27.5 (M(UV)=-19.5).A small investment of HST time will allow us to perform a direct test of these theoretical predictions by searching for additional ionizing sources through standard optical/near IR photometric criteria. With the proposed observations we will be able to confirm whether the BDF area is the first re-ionized "bubble'' ever detected in the early Universe. This will help us to understand the earliest phases of galaxy formation and see the process of reionization caught in the act.

  18. AN ATLAS OF z = 5.7 AND z = 6.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Trouille, L. E-mail: cowie@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: trouille@astro.wisc.ed E-mail: kakazu@astro.caltech.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present an atlas of 88 z {approx} 5.7 and 30 z {approx} 6.5 Ly{alpha} emitters obtained from a wide-field narrowband survey. We combined deep narrowband imaging in 120 A bandpass filters centered at 8150 A and 9140 A with deep BVRIz broadband imaging to select high-redshift galaxy candidates over an area of 4180 arcmin{sup 2}. The goal was to obtain a uniform selection of comparable depth over the seven targeted fields in the two filters. For the GOODS-North region of the Hubble Deep Field-North field, we also selected candidates using a 120 A filter centered at 9210 A. We made spectroscopic observations with Keck DEIMOS of nearly all the candidates to obtain the final sample of Ly{alpha} emitters. At the 3.3 A resolution of the DEIMOS observations the asymmetric profile for Ly{alpha} emission can be clearly seen in the spectra of nearly all the galaxies. We show that the spectral profiles are surprisingly similar for many of the galaxies and that the composite spectral profiles are nearly identical at z = 5.7 and z = 6.5. We analyze the distributions of line widths and Ly{alpha} equivalent widths and find that the lines are marginally narrower at the higher redshift, with median values of 0.77 A at z = 6.5 and 0.92 A at z = 5.7. The line widths have a dependence on the Ly{alpha} luminosity of the form {approx}L {sup 0.3}{sub {alpha}}. We compare the surface densities and the luminosity functions at the two redshifts and find that there is a multiplicative factor of two decrease in the number density of bright Ly{alpha} emitters from z = 5.7 to z = 6.5, while the characteristic luminosity is unchanged.

  19. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 6-7: CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS FROM GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Masami Ouchi; Dunlop, James; Farrah, Duncan; McLure, Ross

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the stellar populations of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 and 6.6 in a 0.65 deg{sup 2} sky of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) Field, using deep images taken with the Subaru/Suprime-Cam, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Infrared Camera, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We produce stacked multiband images at each redshift from 165 (z = 5.7) and 91 (z = 6.6) IRAC-undetected objects to derive typical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of z {approx} 6-7 LAEs for the first time. The stacked LAEs have as blue UV continua as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) z-dropout galaxies of similar M{sub UV}, with a spectral slope {beta} {approx} -3, but at the same time they have red UV-to-optical colors with detection in the 3.6 {mu}m band. Using SED fitting we find that the stacked LAEs have low stellar masses of {approx}(3-10) x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, very young ages of {approx}1-3 Myr, negligible dust extinction, and strong nebular emission from the ionized interstellar medium, although the z = 6.6 object is fitted similarly well with high-mass models without nebular emission; inclusion of nebular emission reproduces the red UV-to-optical colors while keeping the UV colors sufficiently blue. We infer that typical LAEs at z {approx} 6-7 are building blocks of galaxies seen at lower redshifts. We find a tentative decrease in the Ly{alpha} escape fraction from z = 5.7 to 6.6, which may imply an increase in the intergalactic medium neutral fraction. From the minimum contribution of nebular emission required to fit the observed SEDs, we place an upper limit on the escape fraction of ionizing photons of f {sup ion}{sub esc} {approx} 0.6 at z = 5.7 and {approx}0.9 at z = 6.6. We also compare the stellar populations of our LAEs with those of stacked HST/WFC3 z-dropout galaxies.

  20. Directly Imaging Damped Ly-Alpha Galaxies at Redshifts Greater Than 2. III: The Star Formation Rates of Neutral Gas Reservoirs at Redshifts of Approximately 2.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; OMeara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Rafelski, Marc; Kanekar, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a survey designed to probe the star formation properties of 32 damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs) at redshifts of approximately 2.7. By using the "double-DLA" technique that eliminates the glare of the bright background quasars, we directly measure the rest-frame FUV flux from DLAs and their neighbouring galaxies. At the position of the absorbing gas, we place stringent constraints on the unobscured star formation rates (SFRs) of DLAs to 2 sigma limits of psi less than 0.09-0.27 solar mass yr(exp -1), corresponding to SFR surface densities sigma(sub sfr) less than 10(exp -2.6)-10(exp -1.5) solar mass yr(exp -1) kpc(exp -2). The implications of these limits for the star formation law, metal enrichment, and cooling rates of DLAs are examined. By studying the distribution of impact parameters as a function of SFRs for all the galaxies detected around these DLAs, we place new direct constraints on the bright end of the UV luminosity function of DLA hosts. We find that less than or equal to 13% of the hosts have psi greater than or equal to 2 solar mass yr(exp -1) at impact parameters b(sub dla) less than or equal to (psi/solar mass yr(exp -1))(exp 0.8) + 6 kpc, differently from current samples of confirmed DLA galaxies. Our observations also disfavor a scenario in which the majority of DLAs arise from bright LBGs at distances 20 less than or equal to b(sub dla) less than 100 kpc. These new findings corroborate a picture in which DLAs do not originate from highly star forming systems that are coincident with the absorbers, and instead suggest that DLAs are associated with faint, possibly isolated, star-forming galaxies. Potential shortcomings of this scenario and future strategies for further investigation are discussed.

  1. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. II. THE EVOLUTION OF THE Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FRACTION FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET SLOPE AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF 1.9 < z < 3.8 LAEs

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Adams, Joshua J.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao Lei; Fry, Alexander B.; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; MacQueen, Phillip; Roth, Martin M.

    2011-07-20

    We study the escape of Ly{alpha} photons from Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) and the overall galaxy population using a sample of 99 LAEs at 1.9 < z < 3.8 detected through integral-field spectroscopy of blank fields by The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. For 89 LAEs with broadband counterparts we measure ultraviolet (UV) luminosities and UV slopes, and estimate E(B - V) under the assumption of a constant intrinsic UV slope for LAEs. These quantities are used to estimate dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Comparison between the observed Ly{alpha} luminosity and that predicted by the dust-corrected SFR yields the Ly{alpha} escape fraction. We also measure the Ly{alpha} luminosity function and luminosity density ({rho}{sub Ly{alpha}}) at 2 < z < 4. Using this and other measurements from the literature at 0.3 < z < 7.7 we trace the redshift evolution of {rho}{sub Ly{alpha}.} We compare it to the expectations from the star formation history of the universe and characterize the evolution of the Ly{alpha} escape fraction of galaxies. LAEs at 2 < z < 4 selected down to a luminosity limit of L(Ly{alpha}) > (3-6) x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (0.25-0.5 L*), have a mean (E(B - V)) = 0.13 {+-} 0.01, implying an attenuation of {approx}70% in the UV. They show a median UV uncorrected SFR = 11 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, dust-corrected SFR = 34 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, and Ly{alpha} equivalent widths (EWs) which are consistent with normal stellar populations. We measure a median Ly{alpha} escape fraction of 29%, with a large scatter and values ranging from a few percent to 100%. The Ly{alpha} escape fraction in LAEs correlates with E(B - V) in a way that is expected if Ly{alpha} photons suffer from similar amounts of dust extinction as UV continuum photons. This result implies that a strong enhancement of the Ly{alpha} EW with dust, due to a clumpy multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM), is not a common process in LAEs at these redshifts. It also

  2. Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT SOURCES IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Mallery, Ryan P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Capak, Peter; Kakazu, Yuko; Masters, Dan; Scoville, Nick; Scarlata, Claudia; Salvato, Mara; McCracken, Henry

    2012-12-01

    We investigate spectroscopically measured Ly{alpha} equivalent widths (EWs) and escape fractions of 244 sources of which 95 are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 106 Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) at z {approx} 4.2, z {approx} 4.8, and z {approx} 5.6 selected from intermediate and narrowband observations. The sources were selected from the Cosmic Evolution Survey and observed with the DEIMOS spectrograph. We find that the distribution of EWs shows no evolution with redshift for both the LBG selected sources and the intermediate/narrowband LAEs. We also find that the Ly{alpha} escape fraction of intermediate/narrowband LAEs is on average higher and has a larger variation than the escape fraction of LBG selected sources. The escape fraction does not show a dependence with redshift. Similar to what has been found for LAEs at low redshifts, the sources with the highest extinctions show the lowest escape fractions. The range of escape fractions increases with decreasing extinction. This is evidence that the dust extinction is the most important factor affecting the escape of Ly{alpha} photons, but at low extinctions other factors, such as the H I covering fraction and gas kinematics, can be just as effective at inhibiting the escape of Ly{alpha} photons.

  3. Galaxy Formation in Action: A Multi-Wavelength Study of Ly-alpha Nebulae in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2012-01-01

    Lyman-alpha blobs are mysterious objects in the distant Universe extending over 50-100 kpc. Because these gigantic gas clouds have been detected only in optically thick and highly resonant Lyman-alpha emission, their power source remains a puzzle. Due to the rarity of blobs, the form of their evolution to the present day is also unknown. We are conducting multi-wavelength, deep, and large area surveys to identify tens of blobs at redshifts 2-5. These surveys have now produced the first constraints on blob clustering, showing that blobs occupy massive halos likely to evolve into rich clusters today. Blobs are not only tracers of the most overdense environments at early times, but also may mark the sites of brightest cluster galaxy formation. By targeting the optically-thin lines such as Halpha, we have obtained the first measurements of gas kinematics in blobs, excluding strong outflows as the source of Lyman-alpha emission.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION AT z {approx} 4.4

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finkelstein, Keely D.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Ryan, Russell E.; Hathi, Nimish P.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Anderson, Jay; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-07-01

    We present the highest redshift detections of resolved Ly{alpha} emission, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F658N narrowband-imaging data taken in parallel with the Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science program in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. We detect Ly{alpha} emission from three spectroscopically confirmed z = 4.4 Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs), more than doubling the sample of LAEs with resolved Ly{alpha} emission. Comparing the light distribution between the rest-frame ultraviolet continuum and narrowband images, we investigate the escape of Ly{alpha} photons at high redshift. While our data do not support a positional offset between the Ly{alpha} and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission, the half-light radius in one out of the three galaxies is significantly (>1{sigma}) larger in Ly{alpha} than in the rest-frame UV continuum. Stacking the three LAEs in both the narrowband and UV continuum images, we find that the Ly{alpha} light appears larger than the rest-frame UV at 4.2{sigma} significance. This Ly{alpha} flux detected with HST is a factor of 4-10 less than observed in similar filters from the ground. These results together imply that the Ly{alpha} emission is not strictly confined to its indigenous star-forming regions. Rather, for at least one object the Ly{alpha} emission is more extended, with the missing HST flux possibly existing in a diffuse outer halo. This suggests that the radiative transfer of Ly{alpha} photons in high-redshift LAEs is complicated, with the interstellar-medium geometry and/or outflows playing a significant role in galaxies at these redshifts.

  5. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations.

  6. Spectral Energy Distribution Fitting of Hetdex Pilot Survey Ly-alpha Emitters in Cosmos and Goods-N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Alex; Ciardullo, Robin; Cronwall, Caryl; Acquaviva, Viviana; Bridge, Joanna; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Blanc, Guillermo; Bond, Nicholas; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Song, Mimi; Gawiser, Eric; Fox, Derek B.; Gebhardt, Henry; Malz, A. I; Schneider, Donald P.; Drory, Niv; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    We use broadband photometry extending from the rest-frame UV to the near-IR to fit the individual spectral energy distributions of 63 bright (L(Ly-alpha) greater than 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1) Ly-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the redshift range 1.9 less than z less than 3.6. We find that these LAEs are quite heterogeneous, with stellar masses that span over three orders of magnitude, from 7.5 greater than logM/solar mass less than 10.5. Moreover, although most LAEs have small amounts of extinction, some high-mass objects have stellar reddenings as large as E(B - V ) is approximately 0.4. Interestingly, in dusty objects the optical depths for Ly-alpha and the UV continuum are always similar, indicating that Lya photons are not undergoing many scatters before escaping their galaxy. In contrast, the ratio of optical depths in low-reddening systems can vary widely, illustrating the diverse nature of the systems. Finally, we show that in the star-formation-rate-log-mass diagram, our LAEs fall above the "main-sequence" defined by z is approximately 3 continuum selected star-forming galaxies. In this respect, they are similar to submillimeter-selected galaxies, although most LAEs have much lower mass.

  7. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NARROWBAND SEARCH FOR EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION AROUND TWO z > 6 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Yang Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Venemans, Bram P.; Carilli, Chris L.; Fan Xiahoui; Kurk, Jaron; Riechers, Dominik; Strauss, Michael A.

    2012-09-10

    We search for extended Ly{alpha} emission around two z > 6 quasars, SDSS J1030+0524 (z = 6.309) and SDSS J1148+5251 (z = 6.419) using Wide Field Camera 3 narrowband filters on board the Hubble Space Telescope. For each quasar, we collected two deep, narrowband images, one sampling the Ly{alpha} line+continuum at the quasar redshifts and one of the continuum emission redward of the line. After carefully modeling the point-spread function, we find no evidence for extended Ly{alpha} emission. These observations set 2{sigma} limits of L(Ly{alpha}, extended) <3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} for J1030+0524 and L(Ly{alpha}, extended) <2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} for J1148+5251. Given the star formation rates typically inferred from (rest-frame) far-infrared measurements of z {approx} 6 quasars, these limits are well below the intrinsic bright Ly{alpha} emission expected from the recombination of gas photoionized by the quasars or by the star formation in the host galaxies, and point toward significant Ly{alpha} suppression or dust attenuation. However, small extinction values have been observed along the line of sight to the nuclei, thus reddening has to be coupled with other mechanisms for Ly{alpha} suppression (e.g., resonance scattering). No Ly{alpha} emitting companions are found, down to a 5{sigma} sensitivity of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2} (surface brightness) and {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (assuming point sources).

  8. Evolution in the Continuum Morphological Properties of Ly alpha-Emitting Galaxies from Z=3.1 to Z=2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Padilla, Nelson; Gronwall, Chile Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Lai, Kamson

    2011-01-01

    We present a rest-frame ultraviolet morphological analysis of 108 z = 2.1 Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) and compare it to a similar sample of 171 LAEs at z = 3.1 . Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken as part of the Galaxy Evolution From Morphology and SEDs survey, Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, and Hubble Ultradeep Field surveys, we measure the size and photometric component distributions, where photo- metric components are defined as distinct clumps of UV-continuum emission. At both redshifts, the majority of LAEs have observed half-light radii < 2 kpc, but the median half-light radius rises from 0.97 kpc at z = 3.1 to 1.41 kpc at z = 2.1. A similar evolution is seen in the sizes of individual rest-UV components, but there is no evidence for evolution in the number of mUlti-component systems. In the z = 2.1 LAE sample, we see clear correlations between the LAE size and other physical properties derived from its SED. LAEs are found to be larger for galaxies with larger stellar mass, larger star formation rate, and larger dust obscuration, but there is no evidence for a trend between equivalent width and half-light radius at either redshift. The presence of these correlations suggests that a wide range of objects are being selected by LAE surveys at that redshift, including a significant fraction of objects for which a massive and moderately extended population of old stars underlies the young starburst giving rise to the Lya emission.

  9. First Results from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (Figs): First Simultaneous Detection of Ly Alpha Emission and Lyman Break From a Galaxy at Z =7.51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts provide a valuable tool to study cosmic dawn, and therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyman-Alpha emission and the Lyman break from a z = 7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with G102 grism on Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6 Sigma) in two observational position angles (PA), with Lyman-Alpha line flux of 1.06 +/- 0.19 x 10(exp -17) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyman-Alpha measurements. A 4-Alpha detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found.These observations from the Hubble Space Telescope thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy to study the epoch of reionization.

  10. THE FAINT-END SLOPE OF THE REDSHIFT 5.7 Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Sawicki, Marcin

    2012-01-10

    Using new Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we examine the origin of the steep number counts of ultra-faint emission-line galaxies recently reported by Dressler et al. We confirm six Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs), three of which have significant asymmetric line profiles with prominent wings extending 300-400 km s{sup -1} redward of the peak emission. With these six LAEs, we revise our previous estimate of the number of faint LAEs in the Dressler et al. survey. Combining these data with the density of bright LAEs in the Cosmic Evolution Survey and Subaru Deep Field provides the best constraints to date on the redshift 5.7 LAE luminosity function (LF). Schechter function parameters, {phi}* = 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}, L* = 9.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, and {alpha} = -1.70, are estimated using a maximum likelihood technique with a model for slit-losses. To place this result in the context of the UV-selected galaxy population, we investigate how various parameterizations of the Ly{alpha} equivalent width distribution, along with the measured UV-continuum LF, affect shape and normalization of the Ly{alpha} LF. The nominal model, which uses z {approx} 6 equivalent widths from the literature, falls short of the observed space density of LAEs at the bright end, possibly indicating a need for higher equivalent widths. This parameterization of the equivalent width distribution implies that as many as 50% of our faintest LAEs should have M{sub UV} > -18.0, rendering them undetectable in even the deepest Hubble Space Telescope surveys at this redshift. Hence, ultra-deep emission-line surveys find some of the faintest galaxies ever observed at the end of the reionization epoch. Such faint galaxies likely enrich the intergalactic medium with metals and maintain its ionized state in the post-reionization era. Observations of these objects provide a glimpse of the building blocks of present-day galaxies at an early time.

  11. X-RAY CONSTRAINTS ON THE Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Zhenya; Wang Junxian; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Guaita, Lucia; Nilsson, Kim K.

    2012-02-10

    We have co-added the X-ray flux of all known Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) region, achieving the tightest upper limits yet on the X-ray to Ly{alpha} ratio. We use the X-ray data to place sensitive upper limits on the average unobscured star formation rate (SFR{sub X}) in these galaxies. A very small fraction of Ly{alpha} galaxies in the field are individually detected in the X-rays, implying a low fraction of active galactic nucleus activity. After excluding the few X-ray-detected LAEs, we stack the undetected LAEs located in the 4 Ms CDF-S data and 250 ks Extended CDF-S (ECDF-S) data, and compute a 1{sigma} upper limit on SFR{sub X} < 1.6, 14, 28, 28, 140, 440, 880 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for LAEs located at z {approx} 0.3 and z = 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.5, 5.7, and 6.5, respectively. The upper limit of SFR{sub X} in LAEs can be then compared to SFR{sub Ly{alpha}} derived from Ly{alpha} line and thus can constrain on the Ly{alpha} escape fraction (f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}}). The f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} from X-ray at z {approx} 0.3 is substantially larger than that from UV or H{alpha}. Three X-ray-detected LAE galaxies at z {approx} 0.3 show f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} {approx} 3%-22%, and the average Ly{alpha} escape fraction from stacking the X-ray-undetected LAEs show f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 28% at 3{sigma} significance level at the same redshift. We derive a lower limit on f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 14% (84% confidence level, 1{sigma} lower limit) for LAEs at redshift z {approx} 2.1 and z {approx} 3.1-3.2. At z > 4, the current LAE samples are not of sufficient size to constrain SFR{sub X} well. By averaging all the LAEs at z > 2, the X-ray non-detection constrains f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 17% (84% confidence level, 1{sigma} lower limit), and rejects f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} < 5.7% at the 99.87% confidence level from 2.1 < z < 6.5.

  12. Extended Ly-alpha emission associated with 3C 294

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Spinrad, Hyron; Dickinson, Mark; Van Breugel, Wil; Liebert, James; Djorgovski, S.; Eisenhardt, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Optical, IR, and radio observations of the powerful radio source 3C 294, which is surrounded by a large cloud of ionized gas, are presented. The galaxy is faint in the rest-frame UV, yet has a near-IR luminosity that is typical of radio galaxies at redshifts of order two. In contrast to the large extent of the ionized gas, the K-band image is quite compact. The emission-line cloud is closely aligned with the radio source axis and has an ionization state indicative of ionization by a nonstellar source. The velocity field of the gas has both large ordered motions and large turbulent components. The total mass required to keep the gas bound to the system is comparable to present-day massive galaxies and their halos. The velocity fields of the high-ionization lines are systematically different from Ly-alpha in a manner that is not easily understood.

  13. PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION LINES OF THE EMITTERS AT z = 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Morimoto, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kousai, K.; Hayashino, T.; Umemura, M.

    2012-05-20

    We present the results of the observations of the Ly{alpha} line profiles of 91 emission-line galaxies at z = 3.1 with a spectral resolution of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}(FWHM) Almost-Equal-To 1700 or 180 km s{sup -1}. A significant fraction of {approx}50% of the observed objects show the characteristic double peaks in their Ly{alpha} profile. The red peak is much stronger than the blue one for most of the cases. The red peaks themselves also show weak but significant asymmetry and their widths are correlated with the velocity separation of the red and the blue peaks. This implies that the peaks are not isolated multiple components with different velocities but parts of a single line that are modified by the absorption and/or scattering by the associated neutral hydrogen gas. The characteristic profile can be naturally explained by scattering in the expanding shell of the neutral hydrogen surrounding the Ly{alpha} emitting region while the attenuation by the intergalactic medium should also be considered. Our results suggest that the star formation in these Ly{alpha} emitters are dominated by young burst-like events that produce the intrinsic Ly{alpha} emission as well as the gas outflow.

  14. AVERAGE METALLICITY AND STAR FORMATION RATE OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS PROBED BY A TRIPLE NARROWBAND SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Sadanori; Ouchi, Masami; Lee, Janice C.; Ly, Chun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Dale, Daniel A.; Salim, Samir; Finn, Rose; Almaini, Omar

    2012-01-20

    We present the average metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) measured from our large-area survey with three narrowband (NB) filters covering the Ly{alpha}, [O II]{lambda}3727, and H{alpha}+[N II] lines of LAEs at z = 2.2. We select 919 z = 2.2 LAEs from Subaru/Suprime-Cam NB data in conjunction with Magellan/IMACS spectroscopy. Of these LAEs, 561 and 105 are observed with KPNO/NEWFIRM near-infrared NB filters whose central wavelengths are matched to redshifted [O II] and H{alpha} nebular lines, respectively. By stacking the near-infrared images of the LAEs, we successfully obtain average nebular-line fluxes of LAEs, the majority of which are too faint to be identified individually by NB imaging or deep spectroscopy. The stacked object has an H{alpha} luminosity of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} corresponding to an SFR of 14 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We place, for the first time, a firm lower limit to the average metallicity of LAEs of Z {approx}> 0.09 Z{sub Sun} (2{sigma}) based on the [O II]/(H{alpha}+[N II]) index together with photoionization models and empirical relations. This lower limit of metallicity rules out the hypothesis that LAEs, so far observed at z {approx} 2, are extremely metal-poor (Z < 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Z{sub Sun }) galaxies at the 4{sigma} level. This limit is higher than a simple extrapolation of the observed mass-metallicity relation of z {approx} 2 UV-selected galaxies toward lower masses (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }), but roughly consistent with a recently proposed fundamental mass-metallicity relation when the LAEs' relatively low SFR is taken into account. The H{alpha} and Ly{alpha} luminosities of our NB-selected LAEs indicate that the escape fraction of Ly{alpha} photons is {approx}12%-30%, much higher than the values derived for other galaxy populations at z {approx} 2.

  15. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee; Okamura, Sadanori

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  16. A NEW POPULATION OF HIGH-z, DUSTY Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AND BLOBS DISCOVERED BY WISE: FEEDBACK CAUGHT IN THE ACT?

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Carrie R.; Blain, Andrew; Borys, Colin J. K.; Griffith, Roger L.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Petty, Sara; Farrah, Duncan; Benford, Dominic; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Wu Jingwen; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol; Stanford, Spencer A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-06-01

    By combining data from the NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission with optical spectroscopy from the W. M. Keck telescope, we discover a mid-IR color criterion that yields a 78% success rate in identifying rare, typically radio-quiet, 1.6 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.6 dusty Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs). Of these, at least 37% have emission extended on scales of 30-100 kpc and are considered Ly{alpha} ''blobs'' (LABs). The objects have a surface density of only {approx}0.1 deg{sup -2}, making them rare enough that they have been largely missed in deep, small area surveys. We measured spectroscopic redshifts for 92 of these galaxies, and find that the LAEs (LABs) have a median redshift of 2.3 (2.5). The WISE photometry coupled with data from Herschel (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) reveals that these galaxies are in the Hyper Luminous IR galaxy regime (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} L{sub Sun }) and have warm colors. They are typically more luminous and warmer than other dusty, z {approx} 2 populations such as submillimeter-selected galaxies and dust-obscured galaxies. These traits are commonly associated with the dust being illuminated by intense active galactic nucleus activity. We hypothesize that the combination of spatially extended Ly{alpha}, large amounts of warm IR-luminous dust, and rarity (implying a short-lived phase) can be explained if the galaxies are undergoing brief, intense ''feedback'' transforming them from an extreme dusty starburst/QSO into a mature galaxy.

  17. ON THE (NON-)ENHANCEMENT OF THE Ly{alpha} EQUIVALENT WIDTH BY A MULTIPHASE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Laursen, Peter; Duval, Florent; Oestlin, Goeran

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that radiative transfer effects may explain the unusually high equivalent widths (EWs) of the Ly{alpha} line, observed occasionally from starburst galaxies, especially at high redshifts. If the dust is locked up inside high-density clouds dispersed in an empty intercloud medium, the Ly{alpha} photons could scatter off of the surfaces of the clouds, effectively having their journey confined to the dustless medium. The continuum radiation, on the other hand, does not scatter, and would thus be subject to absorption inside the clouds. This scenario is routinely invoked when Ly{alpha} EWs higher than what is expected theoretically are observed, although the ideal conditions under which the results are derived usually are not considered. Here we systematically examine the relevant physical parameters in this idealized framework, testing whether any astrophysically realistic scenarios may lead to such an effect. It is found that although clumpiness indeed facilitates the escape of Ly{alpha}, it is highly unlikely that any real interstellar media should result in a preferential escape of Ly{alpha} over continuum radiation. Other possible causes are discussed, and it is concluded that the observed high EWs are more likely to be caused by cooling radiation from cold accretion and/or anisotropic escape of the Ly{alpha} radiation.

  18. Clustering of galaxies near damped Lyman-alpha systems with (z) = 2.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, A. M

    1993-01-01

    The galaxy two-point correlation function, xi, at (z) = 2.6 is determined by comparing the number of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies in narrowband CCD fields selected for the presence of damped L-alpha absorption to their number in randomly selected control fields. Comparisons between the presented determination of (xi), a density-weighted volume average of xi, and model predictions for (xi) at large redshifts show that models in which the clustering pattern is fixed in proper coordinates are highly unlikely, while better agreement is obtained if the clustering pattern is fixed in comoving coordinates. Therefore, clustering of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies around damped Ly-alpha systems at large redshifts is strong. It is concluded that the faint blue galaxies are drawn from a parent population different from normal galaxies, the presumed offspring of damped Ly-alpha systems.

  19. Survey for z>3 damped Ly alpha absorption systems: the evolution of neutral gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Wolfe, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    We have completed spectroscopic observations using LRIS on the Keck 1 telescope of 30 very high redshift quasars, 11 selected for the presence of damped Ly alpha absorption systems and 19 with redshifts z>3.5 not previously surveyed for absorption systems.

  20. COMPLETING THE CENSUS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT THE REIONIZATION EPOCH

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Matsuda, Yuichi; Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua; Nagao, Tohru; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Ota, Kazuaki; Malkan, Matthew A.; Hattori, Takashi; Ly, Chun; Furusawa, Hisanori; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Toshikawa, Jun

    2011-06-20

    We carried out extended spectroscopic confirmations of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 6.5 and 5.7 in the Subaru Deep Field. Now, the total number of spectroscopically confirmed LAEs is 45 and 54 at z = 6.5 and 5.7, respectively, and at least 81% (70%) of our photometric candidates at z = 6.5 (5.7) have been spectroscopically identified as real LAEs. We made careful measurements of the Ly{alpha} luminosity, both photometrically and spectroscopically, to accurately determine the Ly{alpha} and rest-UV luminosity functions (LFs). The substantially improved evaluation of the Ly{alpha} LF at z = 6.5 shows an apparent deficit from z = 5.7 at least at the bright end, and a possible decline even at the faint end, though small uncertainties remain. The rest-UV LFs at z = 6.5 and 5.7 are in good agreement, at least at the bright end, in clear contrast to the differences seen in the Ly{alpha} LF. These results imply an increase in the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium from z = 5.7 to 6.5. The rest-frame equivalent width (EW{sub 0}) distribution at z = 6.5 seems to be systematically smaller than z = 5.7, and it shows an extended tail toward larger EW{sub 0}. The bright end of the rest-UV LF can be reproduced from the observed Ly{alpha} LF and a reasonable EW{sub 0}-UV luminosity relation. Integrating this rest-UV LF provides the first measurement of the contribution of LAEs to the photon budget required for reionization. The derived UV LF suggests that the fractional contribution of LAEs to the photon budget among Lyman break galaxies significantly increases toward faint magnitudes. Low-luminosity LAEs could dominate the ionizing photon budget, though this inference depends strongly on the uncertain faint-end slope of the Ly{alpha} LF.

  1. Doppler shifted H Ly alpha emission from Jupiter's aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, John T.; Trauger, John; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    High-spectral-resolution IUE observations of the aurora on Jupiter were obtained in order to search for Doppler shifted H-Ly-alpha emission produced through charge exchange by fast precipitating protons. Although no emission has been observed corresponding to proton energies greater than 200 eV, a large fraction of the H-Ly-alpha emission has appeared Doppler shifted, mainly toward the blue, by about 50 km/s. These results show that the acceleration of ionospheric plasma in an H2 atmosphere can lead to bright Ly-alpha emission, setting constraints on the production of the outer planet airglow emissions.

  2. The Local Ly(alpha) Forest: Association of Clouds with Superclusters and Voids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Penton, Steve; Donahue, Megan; Carilli, Chris

    1995-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope was used with the G160M grating to obtain high-resolution (6.2 A) spectra of three very bright active galactic nuclei located behind voids in the nearby distribution of bright galaxies (i.e., CfA and Arecibo redshift survey regions). A total of eight definite (greater than or equal to 4 sigma) Ly(alpha) absorption lines were discovered ranging in equivalent width from 26 to 240 mA at Galactocentric velocities 1740-7740 km/s. Of these eight systems, we locate seven in supercluster structures and one, in the sight line of Mrk 501 at 7740 km/s, in a void. In addition, one of two tentative (3-4 sigma) Ly(alpha) absorption lines are found in voids. Thus, the voids are not entirely devoid of matter, and not all Ly(alpha) clouds are associated with galaxies. Also, since the path lengths through voids and superclusters probed by our observations thus far are nearly equal, there is some statistical evidence that the Ly(alpha) clouds avoid the voids. The nearest galaxy neighbors to these absorbing clouds are 0.45-5.9 Mpc away, too far to be physically associated by most models. The lower equivalent width absorption lines (W(sub lambda) less than or equal to 100 mA) are consistent with random locations with respect to galaxies and may be truly intergalactic, similar to the bulk of the Ly(alpha) forest seen at high z. These results on local Ly(alpha) clouds are in full agreement with those found by Morris et al. (1993) for the 3C 273 sight line but are different from the results for higher equivalent width systems where closer cloud-galaxy associations were found by Lanzetta et al. (1994). Pencil-beam optical and 21 cm radio line observations of the area of sky surrounding Mrk 501 fail to find faint galaxies near the velocities of the Ly(alpha) clouds in that sight line. Specifically, for the 'void absorption' system at 7740 km/s, we find no galaxy at comparable redshift to the absorber within 100 h

  3. DISCOVERY OF A GIANT Ly{alpha} EMITTER NEAR THE REIONIZATION EPOCH

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, Masami; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Dressler, Alan; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Hayashi, Masao; Egami, Eiichi; Saito, Tomoki; Oguri, Masamune; Farrah, Duncan; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Furusawa, Hisanori; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dunlop, James S.; Mortier, Angela M. J.; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2009-05-10

    We report the discovery of a giant Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE) with a Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) counterpart near the reionization epoch at z = 6.595. The giant LAE is found from the extensive 1 deg{sup 2} Subaru narrowband survey for z = 6.6 LAEs in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field, and subsequently identified by deep spectroscopy of Keck/DEIMOS and Magellan/IMACS. Among our 207 LAE candidates, this LAE is not only the brightest narrowband object with L(Ly{alpha}) = 3.9 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} in our survey volume of 10{sup 6} Mpc{sup 3}, but also a spatially extended Ly{alpha} nebula with the largest isophotal area whose major axis is at least {approx_equal}3''. This object is more likely to be a large Ly{alpha} nebula with a size of {approx}>17 kpc than to be a strongly lensed galaxy by a foreground object. Our Keck spectrum with medium-high spectral and spatial resolutions suggests that the velocity width is v {sub FWHM} = 251 {+-} 21 km s{sup -1}, and that the line-center velocity changes by {approx_equal}60 km s{sup -1} in a 10 kpc range. The stellar mass and star formation rate are estimated to be 0.9-5.0 x 10{sup 10} M {sub sun} and >34 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}, respectively, from the combination of deep optical to infrared images of Subaru, UKIDSS-Ultra Deep Survey, and Spitzer/IRAC. Although the nature of this object is not yet clearly understood, this could be an important object for studying cooling clouds accreting onto a massive halo, or forming-massive galaxies with significant outflows contributing to cosmic reionization and metal enrichment of intergalactic medium.

  4. THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-05-20

    Using a sample of 100 H I-selected damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems, observed with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I telescope, we present evidence that the scatter in the well-studied correlation between the redshift and metallicity of a DLA is largely due to the existence of a mass-metallicity relationship at each redshift. To describe the fundamental relations that exist between redshift, metallicity, and mass, we use a fundamental plane description, which is described by the following equation: [M/H] = (- 1.9 {+-} 0.5) + (0.74 {+-} 0.21) {center_dot} log {Delta}v{sub 90} - (0.32 {+-} 0.06) {center_dot} z. Here, we assert that the velocity width, {Delta}v{sub 90}, which is defined as the velocity interval containing 90% of the integrated optical depth, traces the mass of the underlying dark matter halo. This description provides two significant improvements over the individual descriptions of the mass-metallicity correlation and metallicity-redshift correlation. Firstly, the fundamental equation reduces the scatter around both relationships by about 20%, providing a more stringent constraint on numerical simulations modeling DLAs. Secondly, it confirms that the dark matter halos that host DLAs satisfy a mass-metallicity relationship at each redshift between redshifts 2 through 5.

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF FAINT LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES NEAR REDSHIFT FIVE IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Grogin, Norman; Hathi, Nimish; Ryan, Russell; Straughn, Amber; Windhorst, Rogier A. Pirzkal, Norbert; Xu Chun; Koekemoer, Anton; Panagia, Nino; Dickinson, Mark; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Meurer, Gerhardt; Pasquali, Anna; Yan, H.-J.

    2009-05-20

    We present the faintest spectroscopically confirmed sample of z {approx} 5 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to date. The sample is based on slitless grism spectra of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region from the Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) and Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) projects, using the G800L grism on the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. We report here confirmations of 39 galaxies, preselected as candidate LBGs using photometric selection criteria. We compare a 'traditional' V-dropout selection, based on the work of Giavalisco et al., to a more liberal one (with V - i > 0.9), and find that the traditional criteria are about 64% complete and 81% reliable. We also study the Ly{alpha} emission properties of our sample. We find that Ly{alpha} emission is detected in {approx}1/4 of the sample, and that the liberal V-dropout color selection includes {approx}55% of previously published line-selected Ly{alpha} sources. Finally, we examine our stacked two-dimensional spectra. We demonstrate that strong, spatially extended ({approx}1'') Ly{alpha} emission is not a generic property of these LBGs, but that a modest extension of the Ly{alpha} photosphere (compared to the starlight) may be present in those galaxies with prominent Ly{alpha} emission.

  6. Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD: PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami; Iye, Masanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Totani, Tomonori; Nagashima, Masahiro; Harayama, Atsushi; Kodaka, Natsuki; Tajitsu, Akito; Hattori, Takashi

    2010-10-10

    We conducted a deep narrowband NB973 (FWHM = 200 A centered at 9755 A) survey of z = 7 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field, using the fully depleted CCDs newly installed on the Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam, which is twice more sensitive to z = 7 Ly{alpha} at {approx}1 {mu}m than the previous CCDs. Reaching the depth 0.5 mag deeper than our previous survey in the Subaru Deep Field that led to the discovery of a z = 6.96 LAE, we detected three probable z = 7 LAE candidates. Even if all the candidates are real, the Ly{alpha} luminosity function (LF) at z = 7 shows a significant deficit from the LF at z = 5.7 determined by previous surveys. The LAE number and Ly{alpha} luminosity densities at z = 7 are {approx}7.7%-54% and {approx}5.5%-39%, respectively, of those at z = 5.7, to the Ly{alpha} line luminosity limit of L(Ly{alpha}) {approx}> 9.2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. This could be due to evolution of the LAE population at these epochs as a recent galaxy evolution model predicts that the LAE modestly evolves from z = 5.7 to 7. However, even after correcting for this effect of galaxy evolution on the decrease in LAE number density, the z = 7 Ly{alpha} LF still shows a deficit from z = 5.7 LF. This might reflect the attenuation of Ly{alpha} emission by neutral hydrogen remaining at the epoch of reionization and suggests that reionization of the universe might not be complete yet at z = 7. If we attribute the density deficit to reionization, the intergalactic medium transmission for Ly{alpha} photons at z = 7 would be 0.4 {<=} T {sup IGM}{sub Ly{alpha} {<=}} 1, supporting the possible higher neutral fraction at the earlier epochs at z > 6 suggested by the previous surveys of z = 5.7-7 LAEs, z {approx} 6 quasars, and z > 6 gamma-ray bursts.

  7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 0.3 FROM UV-TO-FIR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Ederoclite, A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Altieri, B.; Perez-Martinez, R.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Cimatti, A.; and others

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of the physical properties of low-redshift Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) can provide clues in the study of their high-redshift analogs. At z {approx} 0.3, LAEs are bright enough to be detected over almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum and it is possible to carry out a more precise and complete study than at higher redshifts. In this work, we examine the UV and IR emission, dust attenuation, star formation rate (SFR), and morphology of a sample of 23 GALEX-discovered star-forming LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 with direct UV (GALEX), optical (ACS), and FIR (PACS and MIPS) data. Using the same UV and IR limiting luminosities, we find that LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 tend to be less dusty, have slightly higher total SFRs, have bluer UV continuum slopes, and are much smaller than other galaxies that do not exhibit Ly{alpha} emission in their spectrum (non-LAEs). These results suggest that at z {approx} 0.3, Ly{alpha} photons tend to escape from small galaxies with low dust attenuation. Regarding their morphology, LAEs belong to Irr/merger classes, unlike non-LAEs. Size and morphology represent the most noticeable difference between LAEs and non-LAEs at z {approx} 0.3. Furthermore, the comparison of our results with those obtained at higher redshifts indicates either that the Ly{alpha} technique picks up different kind of galaxies at different redshifts or that the physical properties of LAEs are evolving with redshift.

  8. THE LYMAN ALPHA MORPHOLOGY OF LOCAL STARBURST GALAXIES: RELEASE OF CALIBRATED IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlin, Goeran; Hayes, Matthew; Kunth, Daniel; Atek, Hakim; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Petrosian, Artashes E-mail: matthew.hayes@unige.ch

    2009-09-15

    We present reduced and calibrated high resolution Lyman-alpha (Ly{alpha}) images for a sample of six local star-forming galaxies. Targets were selected to represent a range in luminosity and metallicity and to include both known Ly{alpha} emitters and nonemitters. Far ultraviolet imaging was carried out with the Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the F122M (Ly{alpha} online) and F140LP (continuum) filters. The resulting Ly{alpha} images are the product of careful modeling of both the stellar and nebular continua, facilitated by supporting HST imaging at {lambda} {approx} 2200, 3300, 4400, 5500, H{alpha}, and 8000 A, combined with Starburst 99 evolutionary synthesis models, and prescriptions for dust extinction on the continuum. In all, the resulting morphologies in Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and UV continuum are qualitatively very different and we show that the bulk of Ly{alpha} emerges in a diffuse component resulting from resonant scattering events. Ly{alpha} escape fractions, computed from integrated H{alpha} luminosities and recombination theory, are found never to exceed 14%. Internal dust extinction is estimated in each pixel and used to correct Ly{alpha} fluxes. However, the extinction corrections are far too small (by factors from 2.6 to infinity) to reconcile the emerging global Ly{alpha} luminosities with standard recombination predictions. Surprisingly, when comparing the global equivalent widths of Ly{alpha} and H{alpha}, the two quantities appear to be anticorrelated, which may be due to the evolution of mechanical feedback from the starburst. This calls for caution in the interpretation of Ly{alpha} observations in terms of star formation rates. The images presented have a physical resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than attainable at high redshifts from the ground with current instrumentation and our images may therefore serve as useful templates for comparing with observations and modeling of

  9. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN THE CARBON-ENHANCED DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM BY POPULATION III SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2011-04-01

    We show that the recently observed elemental abundance pattern of the carbon-rich metal-poor damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system is in excellent agreement with the nucleosynthesis yields of faint core-collapse supernovae of primordial stars. The observed abundance pattern is not consistent with the nucleosynthesis yields of pair-instability supernovae. The DLA abundance pattern is very similar to that of carbon-rich extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, and the contributions from low-mass stars and/or binary effects should be very small in DLAs. This suggests that chemical enrichment by the first stars in the first galaxies is driven by core-collapse supernovae from {approx}20 to 50 M{sub sun} stars and also supports the supernova scenario as the enrichment source of EMP stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.

  10. Measurement of water vapor in the stratosphere by photodissociation with Ly alpha (1216 A) light.

    PubMed

    Kley, D; Stone, E J

    1978-06-01

    Photodissociation of polyatomic molecules by vacuum-uv light often results in the formation of electronically excited diatomic molecular fragments. Based on this, instruments that measure mixing ratios or densities of selected polyatomic species in the stratosphere and higher troposphere can be constructed. This is demonstrated by an instrument to detect and measure stratospheric water mixing ratios utilizing H(2)O photodissociation by Ly alpha (1216 A) light and detecting OH(A(2)J(+)X(2)Pi) emission. Also, detectors for H(2)O(2), HNO(3), and NO(2) are discussed.

  11. ASYMMETRIC ABSORPTION PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} AND Ly{beta} IN DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee-Won

    2013-08-01

    Damped Ly{alpha} systems observed in the quasar spectra are characterized by a high neutral hydrogen column density, N{sub HI} > 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The absorption wing profiles are often fitted using the Voigt function due to the fact that the scattering cross section near the resonant line center is approximately described by the Lorentzian function. Since a hydrogen atom has infinitely many p states that participate in the electric dipole interaction, the cross section starts to deviate from the Lorentzian in an asymmetric way in the line wing regions. We investigate this asymmetry in the absorption line profiles around Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} as a function of the neutral hydrogen column density N{sub HI}. In terms of {Delta}{lambda} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {alpha}}, we expand the Kramers-Heisenberg formula around Ly{alpha} to find {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} (0.5f{sub 12}){sup 2}{sigma}{sub T}({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}}){sup -2}[1 + 3.792({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}})], where f{sub 12} and {sigma}{sub T} are the oscillator strength of Ly{alpha} and the Thomson scattering cross section, respectively. In terms of {Delta}{lambda}{sub 2} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {beta}} in the vicinity of Ly{beta}, the total scattering cross section, given as the sum of cross sections for Rayleigh and Raman scattering, is shown to be {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} {sigma}{sub T}(0.5f{sub 13}){sup 2}(1 + R{sub 0})({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}}){sup -2}[1 - 24.68({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}})] with f{sub 13} and the factor R{sub 0} = 0.1342 being the oscillator strength for Ly{beta} and the ratio of the Raman cross section to Rayleigh cross section, respectively. A redward asymmetry develops around Ly{alpha}, whereas a blue asymmetry is obtained for Ly{beta}. The absorption center shifts are found to be almost proportional to the neutral hydrogen column density.

  12. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3>z>7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: A HIGH FRACTION OF LINE EMITTERS AT REDSHIFT SIX

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-02-10

    As Ly{alpha} photons are scattered by neutral hydrogen, a change with redshift in the Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) distribution of distant galaxies offers a promising probe of the degree of ionization in the intergalactic medium and hence when cosmic reionization ended. This simple test is complicated by the fact that Ly{alpha} emission can also be affected by variations in the kinematics and dust content of the host galaxies. In the first paper in this series, we demonstrated both a luminosity- and redshift-dependent trend in the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitters seen within color-selected 'Lyman break' galaxies (LBGs) over the range 3 < z < 6; lower luminosity galaxies and those at higher redshift show an increased likelihood of strong emission. Here, we present the results from 12.5 hr exposures with the Keck DEIMOS spectrograph focused primarily on LBGs at z {approx_equal} 6 which enable us to confirm the redshift dependence of line emission more robustly and to higher redshift than was hitherto possible. We find that 54% {+-} 11% of faint z {approx_equal} 6 LBGs show strong (W{sub Ly{alpha},0}>25 A) emission, an increase of 55% from a sample of similarly luminous z {approx_equal} 4 galaxies. With a total sample of 74 z {approx_equal} 6 LBGs, we determine the luminosity-dependent Ly{alpha} EW distribution. Assuming continuity in these trends to the new population of z {approx_equal} 7 sources located with the Hubble WFC3/IR camera, we predict that unless the neutral fraction rises in the intervening 200 Myr, the success rate for spectroscopic confirmation using Ly{alpha} emission should be high.

  13. Ly(alpha) Photolysis in the Primitive Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for the third year of work on this project. Our proposal was to quantitatively investigate the importance of photochemistry in the solar nebula. In the generally accepted theory for the chemical evolution of the primitive solar nebula, Prinn and Fegley argued that photochemistry is unimportant, and that thermochemistry controls the relative abundances of molecular species throughout the planet-forming region. They provided useful estimates of the chemical energy available to the solar nebula from a variety of sources, and established that even the small photolysis rate due to starlight is more important than the photolysis rate from direct sunlight (although small, the UV flux from starlight could have processed a non-negligible fraction of the solar nebula. The reason for this is that the opacity of the disk was so large that direct sunlight could only penetrate to 0.1 AU or so, despite the expectation that the protosun, if comparable to a T-Tauri star, would be emitting up to 10(exp 4) more H I Ly(alpha) photons than the current sun. We developed a Monte Carlo resonance fine radiative transfer code, capable of accurately calculating the radiation field of H I Ly(alpha), He I 584 A, and He II 304 A emissions throughout the nebula and the nearby interstellar medium in which it is embedded. We applied the code to two appropriate models of the primitive solar nebula. Our model provided the photolysis rates of various species over the entire surface layer of the nebula, and from this we evaluated the importance of UV photochemistry due to backscattered solar UV resonance line emissions on different parts of the nebula. The results discussed below were presented.

  14. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  15. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  16. FIR MEASUREMENTS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx}< 1.0: DUST ATTENUATION FROM PACS-HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Altieri, B.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Le Floc'h, E.; Pozzi, F.; Daddi, E.; Riguccini, L.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Cimatti, A.

    2011-07-01

    One remaining open question regarding the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) is their dust content and evolution with redshift. The variety of results is large and with those reported by now it is difficult to establish clear relations between dust, other fundamental parameters of galaxies (star formation rate, metallicity, or age), and redshift. In this Letter, we report Herschel PACS-100 {mu}m, PACS-160 {mu}m, and Spitzer MIPS-24 {mu}m detections of a sample of spectroscopically GALEX selected LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 and {approx}1.0. Five out of ten and one out of two LAEs are detected in, at least, one PACS band at z {approx} 0.3 and {approx}1.0, respectively. These measurements have a great importance given that they allow us to quantify, for the first time, the dust content in LAEs from direct FIR observations. MIPS-24 {mu}m detections allow us to determine the IR properties of the PACS-undetected LAEs. We obtain that mid-IR/FIR-detected star-forming (SF) LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 have dust content within 0.75 {approx}< A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx}< 2.0, with a median value of A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx} 1.1. This range broadens up to 0.75 {approx}< A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx}< 2.5 when considering the LAEs at z {approx} 1.0. Only one SF LAE is undetected both in MIPS-24 {mu}m and PACS, with A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx}< 0.75. These results seem to be larger than those reported for high-redshift LAEs and, therefore, although an evolutionary trend is not clearly seen, it could point out that low-redshift LAEs are dustier than high-redshift ones. However, the diverse methods used could introduce a systematic offset in the results.

  17. Studying Lyman-alpha escape and reionization in Green Pea galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Gronke, Max; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Dijkstra, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Green Pea galaxies are low-redshift galaxies with extreme [OIII]5007 emission line. We built the first statistical sample of Green Peas observed by HST/COS and used them as analogs of high-z Lyman-alpha emitters to study Ly-alpha escape and Ly-alpha sizes. Using the HST/COS 2D spectra, we found that Ly-alpha sizes of Green Peas are larger than the UV continuum sizes. We found many correlations between Ly-alpha escape fraction and galactic properties -- dust extinction, Ly-alpha kinematic features, [OIII]/[OII] ratio, and gas outflow velocities. We fit an empirical relation to predict Ly-alpha escape fraction from dust extinction and Ly-alpha red-peak velocity. In the JWST era, we can use this relation to derive the IGM HI column density along the line of sight of each high-z Ly-alpha emitter and probe the reionization process.

  18. A SEARCH FOR OXYGEN IN THE LOW-DENSITY Ly{alpha} FOREST USING THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Pieri, Matthew M.; Frank, Stephan; Mathur, Smita; Weinberg, David H.; York, Donald G.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2010-06-20

    We use 2167 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra to search for low-density oxygen in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Oxygen absorption is detected on a pixel-by-pixel basis by its correlation with Ly{alpha} forest absorption. We have developed a novel locally calibrated pixel (LCP) search method that uses adjacent regions of the spectrum to calibrate interlopers and spectral artifacts, which would otherwise limit the measurement of O VI absorption. Despite the challenges presented by searching for weak O VI within the Ly{alpha} forest in spectra of moderate resolution and signal-to-noise, we find a highly significant detection of absorption by oxygen at 2.7 < z < 3.2 (the null hypothesis has a {chi}{sup 2} = 80 for nine data points). We interpret our results using synthetic spectra generated from a log-normal density field assuming a mixed quasar-galaxy photoionizing background and that it dominates the ionization fraction of detected O VI. The LCP search data can be fit by a constant metallicity model with [O/H] = -2.15{sup +0.07}{sub -0.09} but also by models in which low-density regions are unenriched and higher density regions have a higher metallicity. The density-dependent enrichment model by Aguirre et al. is also an acceptable fit. All our successful models have similar mass-weighted oxygen abundance, corresponding to [(O/H){sub MW}] = -2.45 {+-} 0.06. This result can be used to find the cosmic oxygen density in the Ly{alpha} forest, {Omega}{sub Oxy,IGM} = 1.4({+-}0.2) x 10{sup -6} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4{Omega}}{sub b}. This is the tightest constraint on the mass-weighted mean oxygen abundance and the cosmic oxygen density in the Ly{alpha} forest to date and indicates that it contains {approx}16% of the total expected metal production by star formation up to z = 3.

  19. First Detection of a Foreground Damped Ly-Alpha Absorber Along a GRB Line of Sight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Fruchter, A. S.; Pian, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a VLT spectrum of the optical afterglow of GRB 991216, taken 1.5 days after the burst, and HST (Hubble Space Telescope) imaging of the host galaxy, obtained four months later. The spectrum contains three metal absorption-line systems with redshifts z = 1.024, z = 0.803, and z = 0.771, where the highest redshift most likely reflects the distance to the host galaxy. For the z = 1.024 and z = 0.803 systems we tentatively detect MgI which suggests a dense environment at these redshifts. This and the strength of the z = 0.803 Fe lines indicate that this system very likely is a damped Ly-alpha absorber (DLA), which would be the first foreground DLA to be detected along a GRB afterglow sight line. The HST images are consistent with these findings: they show two blobs of light, one underneath the projected OT position, the presumed host galaxy, and the other 0.6" away, which is probably responsible for the absorption lines at z = 0.803. The lowest redshift system can be explained by either one of the two galaxies that are located roughly 2" away from the transient. Including these newly found systems, the total number of DLAS and Lyman limit systems along GRB afterglow sight lines is consistent with the number expected from QSO (quasi-stellar object) absorption line studies. We expect early spectroscopy of GRB afterglows to significantly increase the number of detected foreground absorption systems, and we discuss some advantages over QSO lines of sight.

  20. First Detection of a Foreground Damped Ly-Alpha Absorber Along a GRB Line of Sight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Fruchter, A. S.; Pian, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a VLT spectrum of the optical afterglow of GRB 991216, taken 1.5 days after the burst, and HST (Hubble Space Telescope) imaging of the host galaxy, obtained four months later. The spectrum contains three metal absorption-line systems with redshifts z = 1.024, z = 0.803, and z = 0.771, where the highest redshift most likely reflects the distance to the host galaxy. For the z = 1.024 and z = 0.803 systems we tentatively detect MgI which suggests a dense environment at these redshifts. This and the strength of the z = 0.803 Fe lines indicate that this system very likely is a damped Ly-alpha absorber (DLA), which would be the first foreground DLA to be detected along a GRB afterglow sight line. The HST images are consistent with these findings: they show two blobs of light, one underneath the projected OT position, the presumed host galaxy, and the other 0.6" away, which is probably responsible for the absorption lines at z = 0.803. The lowest redshift system can be explained by either one of the two galaxies that are located roughly 2" away from the transient. Including these newly found systems, the total number of DLAS and Lyman limit systems along GRB afterglow sight lines is consistent with the number expected from QSO (quasi-stellar object) absorption line studies. We expect early spectroscopy of GRB afterglows to significantly increase the number of detected foreground absorption systems, and we discuss some advantages over QSO lines of sight.

  1. THE BOSS Ly{alpha} FOREST SAMPLE FROM SDSS DATA RELEASE 9

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J.; Bartsch, Leslie E.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Bolton, Adam S.; Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Blomqvist, Michael; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yeche, Christophe; Borde, Arnaud; Weinberg, David H.; Aubourg, Eric; Bautista, Julian; and others

    2013-03-15

    We present the BOSS Lyman-{alpha} (Ly{alpha}) Forest Sample from SDSS Data Release 9, comprising 54,468 quasar spectra with z{sub qso} > 2.15 suitable for Ly{alpha} forest analysis. This data set probes the intergalactic medium with absorption redshifts 2.0 < z{sub {alpha}} < 5.7 over an area of 3275 deg{sup 2}, and encompasses an approximate comoving volume of 20 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}. With each spectrum, we have included several products designed to aid in Ly{alpha} forest analysis: improved sky masks that flag pixels where data may be unreliable, corrections for known biases in the pipeline estimated noise, masks for the cores of damped Ly{alpha} systems and corrections for their wings, and estimates of the unabsorbed continua so that the observed flux can be converted to a fractional transmission. The continua are derived using a principal component fit to the quasar spectrum redward of rest-frame Ly{alpha} ({lambda} > 1216 A), extrapolated into the forest region and normalized by a linear function to fit the expected evolution of the Ly{alpha} forest mean flux. The estimated continuum errors are {approx}< 5% rms. We also discuss possible systematics arising from uncertain spectrophotometry and artifacts in the flux calibration; global corrections for the latter are provided. Our sample provides a convenient starting point for users to analyze clustering in BOSS Ly{alpha} forest data, and it provides a fiducial data set that can be used to compare results from different analyses of baryon acoustic oscillations in the Ly{alpha} forest. The full data set is available from the SDSS-III DR9 Web site.

  2. THE FIRST SYSTEMATIC SURVEY FOR Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7.3 WITH RED-SENSITIVE SUBARU/SUPRIME-CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami; Furusawa, Hisanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Takashi

    2012-06-20

    We have performed deep imaging surveys for Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at redshift {approx}7.3 in two blank fields, the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) and the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep survey Field (SXDF), using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam equipped with new red-sensitive CCDs and a new narrowband filter, NB1006 ({lambda}{sub c} = 10052 Angstrom-Sign , FWHM {Delta}{lambda} = 214 A). We identified four objects as LAE candidates that exhibit luminosity excess in NB1006. By carrying out deep follow-up spectroscopy for three of them using Subaru/FOCAS and Keck/DEIMOS, a definitively asymmetric emission line is detected for one of them, SXDF-NB1006-2. Assuming this line is Ly{alpha}, this object is an LAE at z = 7.215 which has a luminosity of 1.2{sup +1.5}{sub -0.6} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and a weighted skewness S{sub {omega}} = 4.90 {+-} 0.86. Another object, SDF-NB1006-2, shows variable photometry and is thus probably a quasar (QSO) or an active galactic nucleus. It shows an asymmetric emission line at 10076 A which may be due to either Ly{alpha} at z = 7.288 or [O II] at z = 1.703. The third object, SDF-NB1006-1, is likely a galaxy with temporal luminosity enhancement associated with a supernova explosion, as the brightness of this object varies between the observed epochs. Its spectrum does not show any emission lines. The inferred decrease in the number density of LAEs toward higher redshift is n{sup z={sup {sup 7.3}{sub Ly{alpha}}}}/n{sub Ly{alpha}}{sup z={sup {sup 5.7}}} = 0.05{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} from z = 5.7 to 7.3 down to L{sup Ly{alpha}} = 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The present result is consistent with the interpretation in previous studies that the neutral hydrogen fraction is rapidly increasing from z = 5.7 to 7.3.

  3. Evolution of the Observed Ly-alpha Luminosity Function from z = 6.5 to z = 7.7: Evidence for the Epoch of Re-ionisation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, B.; Cuby, J.-G.; Courbin, F.; Fontana, A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J.; Gallego, J.; Hibon, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Moller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Pentericci, L.; Venemans, B.; Villar, V.; Willis, J.

    2011-12-01

    Probing the first billion years of the Universe is one of the last frontiers in cosmology. Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) are galaxies that can be detected out to very high redshifts during the epoch of re-ionisation. The evolution of their luminosity function with redshift is a direct probe of the Ly-alpha transmission of the intergalactic medium (IGM), related to the amount of neutral hydrogen. We report on the results of a search for LAEs at z = 7.7 using HAWK-I at the VLT with a narrowband filter centred at 1.06 μm. We did not find any LAE candidates, which allows us to infer robust constraints on the LAE luminosity function at z = 7.7. Depending on which luminosity functions at z = 6.5 are referred to, our results may reflect a significant quenching of the IGM Ly-alpha transmission, possibly from a strong increase in the neutral hydrogen fraction between these two redshifts.

  4. A Ly{alpha} HALO AROUND A QUASAR AT REDSHIFT z = 6.4

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Chet, Savironi; Hutchings, John B.; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    We present long-slit spectroscopic data that reveal extended Ly{alpha} emission around the z = 6.417 radio-quiet quasar CFHQS J2329-0301. The Ly{alpha} emission is extended over 15 kpc and has a luminosity of >8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} W, comparable to the most luminous Ly{alpha} halos known. The emission has complex kinematics, in part due to foreground absorption, which only partly covers the extended nebula. The velocity ranges from -500 km s{sup -1} to +500 km s{sup -1}, with a peak remarkably close to the systemic velocity identified by broad Mg II emission of the quasar. There is no evidence for infall or outflow of the halo gas. We speculate that the Ly{alpha} emission mechanism is recombination after quasar photoionization of gas sitting within a high-mass dark matter halo. The immense Ly{alpha} luminosity indicates a higher covering factor of cold gas compared with typical radio-quiet quasars at lower redshift.

  5. Properties of Lya Emitters Around the Radio Galaxy MRC 0316-257

    SciTech Connect

    Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; Kurk, J; De Breuck, C; van Breugel, W; Carilli, C; Ford, H; Heckman, T; Pentericci, L; McCarthy, P

    2004-08-12

    Observations of the radio galaxy MRC 0316-257 at z = 3.13 and the surrounding field are presented. Using narrow- and broad-band imaging obtained with the VLT*, 92 candidate Ly{alpha} emitters with a rest-frame equivalent width of > 15 AngstromS were selected in a {approx} 7{prime} x 7{prime} field around the radio galaxy. Spectroscopy of 40 candidate emitters resulted in the discovery of 33 emission line galaxies of which 31 are Ly{alpha} emitters with redshifts similar to that of the radio galaxy, while the remaining two galaxies turned out to be [{omicron} II] emitters. The Ly{alpha} profiles had widths (FWHM) corresponding to 120-800 kms{sup -1},with a median of 260 kms{sup -1}. Where the signal-to-noise spectra was large enough, the Ly{alpha} profiles are found to be asymmetric, with apparent absorption troughs blueward of the profile peaks, indicative of absorption along the line of sight of an {Eta}{Iota} mass of 1-5000 {mu}{circle_dot}. Besides that of the radio galaxy and one of the emitters that is an QSO, the continuum of the emitters is faint, with luminosities ranging from 1.3 L{sub *} to < 0.03 L{sub *}.The colors of the confirmed emitters are, on average, very blue. The median UV continuum slope is {beta}=-1.65, bluer than the average slope of LBGs with Ly{alpha} emitters is 2.6 {Mu}{circle_dot}{sup -1} as measured by the Ly{alpha} emission line or < 3.9 {Mu}{circle_dot}{sup -1} as measured by the UV continuum. The properties of the Ly{alpha} galaxies (faint, blue and small) are consistent with young star forming galaxies which are nearly dust free. The density of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies in the field around MRC 0316-257 is a factor of 3.3{sup +0.5}{sub -0.4} larger compared with the density of Ly{alpha} emitters at that redshift. The velocity distribution of the spectroscopically confirmed emitters has a dispersion of 640 km s{sup -1}, corresponding to a FWHM of 1510 km s{sup -1}, which is substantially smaller than the width of the narrow

  6. Measurement of the Relative Intensity of the Ly-(alpha) Lines in Fe 25+

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K L; Beiersdorfer, P; Reed, K J; Osterheld, A L

    2002-06-18

    The intensity of the polarized Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} (2p{sub 3/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition has been measured relative to that of the unpolarized Ly-{alpha}{sub 2} (2p{sub 1/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition in Fe{sup 25+}. The measurements were made with the Livermore electron beam ion trap EBIT-II for beam energies from threshold to 2.5 times threshold. The results are compared to the corresponding intensity ratio predicted using excitation cross sections from distorted-wave calculations, which includes polarization, the M1(2s{sub 1/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition, and cascade contributions. Discrepancies are found that tend to confirm a recent report of a measurement of the Ly-{alpha} lines in Ti{sup 21+} performed on the Tokyo electron beam ion trap.

  7. THE HANLE EFFECT OF Ly{alpha} IN A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, J.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Carlsson, M.; Leenaarts, J.

    2012-10-20

    In order to understand the heating of the solar corona it is crucial to obtain empirical information on the magnetic field in its lower boundary (the transition region). To this end, we need to measure and model the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in strong UV lines, such as the hydrogen Ly{alpha} line. The interpretation of the observed Stokes profiles will require taking into account that the outer solar atmosphere is highly structured and dynamic, and that the height of the transition region may well vary from one place in the atmosphere to another. Here, we report on the Ly{alpha} scattering polarization signals we have calculated in a realistic model of an enhanced network region, resulting from a state-of-the-art radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulation. This model is characterized by spatially complex variations of the physical quantities at transition region heights. The results of our investigation lead us to emphasize that scattering processes in the upper solar chromosphere should indeed produce measurable linear polarization in Ly{alpha}. More importantly, we show that via the Hanle effect the model's magnetic field produces significant changes in the emergent Q/I and U/I profiles. Therefore, we argue that by measuring the polarization signals produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in Ly{alpha} and contrasting them with those computed in increasingly realistic atmospheric models, we should be able to decipher the magnetic, thermal, and dynamic structure of the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun.

  8. CHEMISTRY OF A PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH GRAIN SETTLING AND Ly{alpha} RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bethell, Thomas J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Calvet, Nuria; Semenov, Dmitry E-mail: tbethell@umich.edu E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a model of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our models, we directly calculate the changing propagation and penetration of a high energy radiation field with Ly{alpha} radiation included. We also explore the effect on our models of including dust grain settling. We find that, in agreement with earlier studies, the evolution of dust grains plays a large role in determining how deep the UV radiation penetrates into the disk. Significant grain settling at the midplane leads to much smaller freeze-out regions and a correspondingly larger molecular layer, which leads to an increase in column density for molecular species such as CO, CN, and SO. The inclusion of Ly{alpha} radiation impacts the disk chemistry through specific species that have large photodissociation cross sections at 1216 A. These include HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, for which the column densities are decreased by an order of magnitude or more due to the presence of Ly{alpha} radiation in the UV spectrum. A few species, such as CO{sub 2} and SO, are enhanced by the presence of Ly{alpha} radiation, but rarely by more than a factor of a few.

  9. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  10. THE CURIOUS CASE OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS: GROWING YOUNGER FROM z {approx} 3 to z {approx} 2?

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Vargas, Carlos; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia

    2012-06-01

    Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies are thought to be progenitors of present-day L* galaxies. Clustering analyses have suggested that LAEs at z {approx} 3 might evolve into LAEs at z {approx} 2, but it is unclear whether the physical nature of these galaxies is compatible with this hypothesis. Several groups have investigated the properties of LAEs using spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, but direct comparison of their results is complicated by inconsistencies in the treatment of the data and in the assumptions made in modeling the stellar populations, which are degenerate with the effects of galaxy evolution. By using the same data analysis pipeline and SED fitting software on two stacked samples of LAEs at z = 3.1 and z = 2.1, and by eliminating several systematic uncertainties that might cause a discrepancy, we determine that the physical properties of these two samples of galaxies are dramatically different. LAEs at z = 3.1 are found to be old (age {approx}1 Gyr) and metal-poor (Z < 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), while LAEs at z = 2.1 appear to be young (age {approx}50 Myr) and metal-rich (Z > Z{sub Sun }). The difference in the observed stellar ages makes it very unlikely that z 3.1 LAEs evolve directly into z = 2.1 LAEs. Larger samples of galaxies, studies of individual objects, and spectroscopic measurements of metallicity at these redshifts are needed to confirm this picture, which is difficult to reconcile with the effects of 1 Gyr of cosmological evolution.

  11. A GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL FOR THE Ly{alpha} EMITTER LAE 221724+001716 AT z = 3.1 IN THE SSA 22 FIELD {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahiro, Y.; Kajisawa, M.; Tanaka, A. R.; Hamada, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Inoue, A. K.; Iwata, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Hayashino, T.

    2013-04-01

    During the course of our Lyman continuum imaging survey, we found that the spectroscopically confirmed Ly{alpha} emitter LAE 221724+001716 at z = 3.10 in the SSA 22 field shows strong Lyman continuum emission ({lambda}{sub rest} {approx} 900 A) that escapes from this galaxy. However, another recent spectroscopic survey revealed that the supposed Lyman continuum emission could arise from a foreground galaxy at z = 1.76 if the emission line newly detected from the galaxy at {lambda}{sub obs} Almost-Equal-To 3360 A is Ly{alpha}. If this is the case, as the angular separation between these two galaxies is very small ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''6), LAE 221724+001716 at z = 3.10 could be amplified by the gravitational lensing caused by this intervening galaxy. Here we present a possible gravitational lens model for the system of LAE 221724+001716. First, we estimate the stellar mass of the intervening galaxy as M{sub *} {approx} 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} from its UV luminosity and {approx}3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}-2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} through the spectral energy distribution fitting. Then, we find that the gravitational magnification factor ranges from 1.01 to 1.16 using the so-called singular isothermal sphere model for strong lensing. While LAE 221724+001716 is the first system of an LAE-LAE lensing reported so far, the estimated magnification factor is not so significant because the stellar mass of the intervening galaxy is small.

  12. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  13. Ly-alpha and H-alpha emission by superthermal proton beams. [in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Chang, C.-R.

    1985-01-01

    Simnett and Harrison (1984) have presented a model in which 100-1000 keV protons are an energy transfer agent linking coronal mass ejections and solar flares. Orrall and Zirker (1976) suggested that such protons, incident upon the chromosphere, would produce nonthermal Ly-alpha emission after charge exchange with ambient chromospheric hydrogen atoms. The present investigation is concerned with a study of the charge-exchange mechanism proposed by Orral and Zirker. The physical theory of the formation of nonthermal Ly-alpha (and H-alpha) emission is considered, taking into account photon emission, atomic transitions, atomic equilibrium, the dominant atomic processes, and the stopping of superthermal protons. Computational results presented by Orrall and Zirker are extended.

  14. EFFECT OF DUST ON Ly{alpha} PHOTON TRANSFER IN AN OPTICALLY THICK HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang; Roy, Ishani; Fang Lizhi

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the effects of dust on Ly{alpha} photons emergent from an optically thick medium by solving the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer of resonant photons. To solve the differential equations numerically, we use the weighted essentially non-oscillatory method. Although the effects of dust on radiative transfer are well known, the resonant scattering of Ly{alpha} photons makes the problem non-trivial. For instance, if the medium has an optical depth of dust absorption and scattering of {tau}{sub a} >> 1, {tau} >> 1, and {tau} >> {tau}{sub a}, the effective absorption optical depth in a random walk scenario would be equal to {radical}({tau}{sub a}({tau}{sub a}+{tau})). We show, however, that for a resonant scattering at frequency {nu}{sub 0}, the effective absorption optical depth would be even larger than {tau}({nu}{sub 0}). If the cross section of dust scattering and absorption is frequency-independent, the double-peaked structure of the frequency profile given by the resonant scattering is basically dust-independent. That is, dust causes neither narrowing nor widening of the width of the double-peaked profile. One more result is that the timescales of the Ly{alpha} photon transfer in an optically thick halo are also basically independent of the dust scattering, even when the scattering is anisotropic. This is because those timescales are mainly determined by the transfer in the frequency space, while dust scattering, either isotropic or anisotropic, does not affect the behavior of the transfer in the frequency space when the cross section of scattering is wavelength-independent. This result does not support the speculation that dust will lead to the smoothing of the brightness distribution of a Ly{alpha} photon source with an optically thick halo.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS damped Ly{alpha} survey: DR1 (Prochaska+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, J. X.; Herbert-Fort, S.

    2005-11-01

    We present the results from an automated search for damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems in the quasar spectra of Data Release 1 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR1). At z~2.5, this homogeneous data set has greater statistical significance than the previous two decades of research. We derive a statistical sample of 71 DLA systems (>50 previously unpublished) at z>2.1 and measure HI column densities directly from the SDSS spectra. (1 data file).

  16. High-Velocity Ly(Alpha) Emission from SMR 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Pun, Chu S. J.; Sonneborn, George

    1998-01-01

    The high-velocity Ly(Alpha) emission from SN 1987A observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) evidently comes from a reverse shock formed where the outer envelope of SN 1987A strikes ionized gas inside the inner circumstellar ring. The observations can be explained by a simple kinematic model, in which the Ly(Alpha) emission comes from hydrogen atoms with radial velocity approximately 15,000 km s(exp -1) crossing a reverse shock in the shape of a slightly prolate ellipsoid with equatorial radius 4.8 x 10(exp 17) cm or approximately 80% of the distance to the inner surface of the inner ring. N v double Lambda 1239, 1243 emission, if present, has a net luminosity approximately less than 30% times that of the Ly(Alpha) emission. Future STIS observations should enable us to predict the time of impact with the inner ring and to determine unambiguously whether or not N v emission is present. These observations will offer a unique opportunity to probe the structure of SN 1987A's circumstellar environment and the hydrodynamics and kinetics of very fast shocks.

  17. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS AS A DIRECT CONSTRAINT ON POPULATION III STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Observations of damped Ly{alpha} absorbers (DLAs) can be used to measure gas-phase metallicities at large cosmological look-back times with high precision. Furthermore, relative abundances can still be measured accurately deep into the reionization epoch (z > 6) using transitions redward of Ly{alpha}, even though Gunn-Peterson absorption precludes measurement of neutral hydrogen. In this paper, we study the chemical evolution of DLAs using a model for the coupled evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM), which is constrained by a variety of observations. Our goal is to explore the influence of Population III stars on the abundance patterns of DLAs to determine the degree to which abundance measurements can discriminate between different Population III stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). We include effects, such as inflows onto galaxies due to cosmological accretion and outflows from galaxies due to supernova feedback. A distinct feature of our model is that it self-consistently calculates the effect of Population III star formation on the reionization of an inhomogeneous IGM, thus allowing us to calculate the thermal evolution of the IGM and implement photoionization feedback on low-mass galaxy formation. We find that if the critical metallicity of Population III to II/I transition is {approx}< 10{sup -4} Z{sub Sun }, then the cosmic Population III star formation rate drops to zero for z < 8. Nevertheless, at high redshift (z {approx} 6), chemical signatures of Population III stars remain in low-mass galaxies (halo mass {approx}< 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }). This is because photoionization feedback suppresses star formation in these galaxies until relatively low redshift (z {approx} 10), and the chemical record of their initial generation of Population III stars is retained. We model DLAs as these low-mass galaxies, and assign to them a mass-dependent H I absorption cross-section in order to predict the expected distribution of DLA abundance ratios

  18. NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OPTICAL DEPTH NEAR STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z Almost-Equal-To 2.4 IN THE KECK BARYONIC STRUCTURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2012-06-01

    We study the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium by measuring the absorption by neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 2.4. Our sample consists of 679 rest-frame UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts that have impact parameters <2 (proper) Mpc to the line of sight of one of the 15 bright, background QSOs and that fall within the redshift range of its Ly{alpha} forest. We present the first two-dimensional maps of the absorption around galaxies, plotting the median Ly{alpha} pixel optical depth as a function of transverse and line-of-sight separation from galaxies. The Ly{alpha} optical depths are measured using an automatic algorithm that takes advantage of all available Lyman series lines. The median optical depth, and hence the median density of atomic hydrogen, drops by more than an order of magnitude around 100 kpc, which is similar to the virial radius of the halos thought to host the galaxies. The median remains enhanced, at the >3{sigma} level, out to at least 2.8 Mpc (i.e., >9 comoving Mpc), but the scatter at a given distance is large compared with the median excess optical depth, suggesting that the gas is clumpy. Within 100 (200) kpc, and over {+-}165 km s{sup -1}, the covering fraction of gas with Ly{alpha} optical depth greater than unity is 100{sup +0}{sub -32}% (66% {+-} 16%). Absorbers with {tau}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 0.1 are typically closer to galaxies than random. The mean galaxy overdensity around absorbers increases with the optical depth and also as the length scale over which the galaxy overdensity is evaluated is decreased. Absorbers with {tau}{sub Ly{alpha}} {approx} 1 reside in regions where the galaxy number density is close to the cosmic mean on scales {>=}0.25 Mpc. We clearly detect two types of redshift space anisotropies. On scales <200 km s{sup -1}, or <1 Mpc, the absorption is stronger along the line of sight than in the transverse direction. This 'finger of God

  19. Confirmation of a Steep Luminosity Function for Ly alpha Emitters at z 5.7: a Major Component of Reionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Sawicki, Marcin; McCarthy, Patrick; Villaneuva, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct and robust measurement of the faint-end slope of the Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) luminosity function at z = 5.7. Candidate LAEs from a low-spectral-resolution blind search with IMACS on Magellan- Baade were targeted at higher resolution to distinguish high redshift LAEs from foreground galaxies. All but 2 of our 42 single-emission-line systems are fainter than F = 2.0×10(exp-17) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2), making these the faintest emission-lines observed for a z = 5.7 sample with known completeness, an essential property for determining the faint end slope of the LAE luminosity function. We find 13 LAEs as compared to 29 foreground galaxies, in very good agreement with the modeled foreground counts predicted in Dressler et al. (2011a) that had been used to estimate a faint-end slope of alpha = -2.0 for the LAE luminosity function. A 32% LAE fraction, LAE/(LAE+foreground) within the flux interval F = 2-20 × 10(exp-18) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2) constrains the faint end slope of the luminosity function to -1.95 greater than alpha greater than -2.35 (1 delta). We show how this steep LF should provide, to the limit of our observations, more than 20% of the flux necessary to maintain ionization at z = 5.7, with a factor-of-ten extrapolation in flux reaching more than 55%. We suggest that this bodes well for a comparable contribution by similar, low-mass star forming galaxies at higher-redshift - within the reionization epoch at z greater than approximately 7, only 250 Myr earlier - and that such systems provide a substantial, if not dominant, contribution to the late-stage reionization of the IGM.

  20. The transmission correlation in the QSO Ly(alpha) forest produced by finite width lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Lin; Bond, J. Richard

    1994-03-01

    The transmission of a quasar spectrum (flux divided by the continuum) is correlated because of the finite width of absorption lines. We describe a technique for calculating the transmission correlation function produced by randomly distributed lines. We also introduce straightforward procedure for measuring the pixel-pixel transmission correlation function xipp directly from observed quasar spectra. We apply the method to 12 Sargent, Boksenberg, & Steidel Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO) spectra and compare these with theoretical transmission correlation functions and with xipp measured from computer-simulated quasar spectra of Ly(alpha) forest models with Poisson-distributed lines. The simulations are designed to mimic the observed spectrum as closely as possible, with the same wavelength sampling, instrumental resolution, continuum and noise properties. The comparisons with line distributions that are power laws in column density and redshift, and Gaussians in line width b reveal an excess in the observed xipp at Delta(v) is approximately or equal to 150 km/s, if we adopt the Carswell et al. (1991) parameters for the Gaussian (mean b0 = 30 km/s, dispersion sigmab = 10 km/s). One possibility is that the Ly(alpha) forest lines are actually clustered at velocity separation scales Delta(v) is approximately or equal to 150 km/s. Another possibility we explore is that the b-distribution has more large b clouds and a larger dispersion. We find the observed xipp is barely consistent with b0 = 40 km/s and sigmab = 25 km/s. We show that the measured xipp is relatively insensitive to the noise level and to errors in the continuum determination, unlike the traditional line counting methods, where the outcome is quite vulnerable to both. It also requires no line deblending and thus offers a powerful tool for extracting information from the crowded Ly(alpha) forest.

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON QUASAR LIFETIMES AND BEAMING FROM THE He II Ly{alpha} FOREST

    SciTech Connect

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Lidz, Adam

    2011-07-10

    We show that comparisons of He II Ly{alpha} forest lines of sight to nearby quasar populations can strongly constrain the lifetimes and emission geometry of quasars. By comparing the He II and H I Ly{alpha} forests along a particular line of sight, one can trace fluctuations in the hardness of the radiation field (which are driven by fluctuations in the He II ionization rate). Because this high-energy background is highly variable-thanks to the rarity of the bright quasars that dominate it and the relatively short attenuation lengths of these photons-it is straightforward to associate features in the radiation field with their source quasars. Here we quantify how finite lifetimes and beamed emission geometries affect these expectations. Finite lifetimes induce a time delay that displaces the observed radiation peak relative to the quasar. For beamed emission, geometry dictates that sources invisible to the observer can still create a peak in the radiation field. We show that both these models produce substantial populations of 'bare' peaks (without an associated quasar) for reasonable parameter values (lifetimes {approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} yr and beaming angles {approx}< 90 deg.). A comparison to existing quasar surveys along two He II Ly{alpha} forest lines of sight rules out isotropic emission and infinite lifetime at high confidence; they can be accommodated either by moderate beaming or lifetimes {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} yr. We also show that the distribution of radial displacements between peaks and their quasars can unambiguously distinguish these two models, although larger statistical samples are needed.

  2. THRESHOLD PROBABILITY FUNCTIONS AND THERMAL INHOMOGENEITIES IN THE Ly{alpha} FOREST

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-06-10

    We introduce to astrophysics the threshold probability functions S{sub 2}, C{sub 2}, and D{sub 2} first derived by Torquato et al., which effectively samples the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of the Ly{alpha} forest at different spatial scales. These statistics are tested on mock Ly{alpha} forest spectra based on various toy models for He II reionization, with homogeneous models with various temperature-density relations as well as models with temperature inhomogeneities. These mock samples have systematics and noise added to simulate the latest Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) data. We find that the flux PDF from SDSS DR7 can be used to constrain the temperature-density relation {gamma} (where T{proportional_to}(1 + {Delta}){sup {gamma}-1}) of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 2.5 to a precision of {Delta}{gamma} = 0.2 at {approx}4{sigma} confidence. The flux PDF is degenerate to temperature inhomogeneities in the IGM arising from He II reionization, but we find S{sub 2} can detect these inhomogeneities at {approx}3{sigma}, with the assumption that the flux continuum of the Ly{alpha} forest can be determined to 9% accuracy, approximately the error from current fitting methods. If the flux continuum can be determined to 3% accuracy, then S{sub 2} is capable of constraining the characteristic scale of temperature inhomogeneities, with {approx}4{sigma} differentiation between toy models with hot bubble radii of 50 h{sup -1} Mpc and 25 h{sup -1} Mpc.

  3. METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS OUT TO z {approx} 5

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Neeleman, Marcel; Mendez, Alexander J.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2012-08-20

    We present chemical abundance measurements for 47 damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems, 30 at z > 4, observed with the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck telescopes. H I column densities of the DLAs are measured with Voigt profile fits to the Ly{alpha} profiles, and we find an increased number of false DLA identifications with Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z > 4 due to the increased density of the Ly{alpha} forest. Ionic column densities are determined using the apparent optical depth method, and we combine our new metallicity measurements with 195 from previous surveys to determine the evolution of the cosmic metallicity of neutral gas. We find the metallicity of DLAs decreases with increasing redshift, improving the significance of the trend and extending it to higher redshifts, with a linear fit of -0.22 {+-} 0.03 dex per unit redshift from z = 0.09-5.06. The metallicity 'floor' of Almost-Equal-To 1/600 solar continues out to z {approx} 5, despite our sensitivity for finding DLAs with much lower metallicities. However, this floor is not statistically different from a steep tail to the distribution. We also find that the intrinsic scatter of metallicity among DLAs of {approx}0.5 dex continues out to z {approx} 5. In addition, the metallicity distribution and the {alpha}/Fe ratios of z > 2 DLAs are consistent with being drawn from the same parent population with those of halo stars. It is therefore possible that the halo stars in the Milky Way formed out of gas that commonly exhibits DLA absorption at z > 2.

  4. SEARCHING FOR z {approx} 7.7 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE COSMOS FIELD WITH NEWFIRM

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Hannah B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Hibon, Pascale; Swaters, Rob

    2012-02-01

    The study of Ly{alpha} emission in the high-redshift universe is a useful probe of the epoch of reionization, as the Ly{alpha} line should be attenuated by the intergalactic medium (IGM) at low to moderate neutral hydrogen fractions. Here we present the results of a deep and wide imaging search for Ly{alpha} emitters in the Cosmological Evolution Survey field. We have used two ultra-narrowband filters (filter width of {approx}8-9 A) on the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Mosaic camera, installed on the Mayall 4 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, in order to isolate Ly{alpha} emitters at z = 7.7; such ultra-narrowband imaging searches have proved to be excellent at detecting Ly{alpha} emitters. We found 5{sigma} detections of four candidate Ly{alpha} emitters in a survey volume of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup 3} (total survey area {approx}760 arcmin{sup 2}). Each candidate has a line flux greater than 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. Using these results to construct a luminosity function and comparing to previously established Ly{alpha} luminosity functions at z = 5.7 and z = 6.5, we find no conclusive evidence for evolution of the luminosity function between z = 5.7 and z = 7.7. Statistical Monte Carlo simulations suggest that half of these candidates are real z = 7.7 targets, and spectroscopic follow-up will be required to verify the redshift of these candidates. However, our results are consistent with no strong evolution in the neutral hydrogen fraction of the IGM between z = 5.7 and z = 7.7, even if only one or two of the z = 7.7 candidates are spectroscopically confirmed.

  5. IUE high resolution spectrophotometry of H Ly alpha emission from the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Bowyer, S.; Fahr, H. J.; Lay, G.

    1984-01-01

    IUE high dispersion spectra of resonantly scattered solar Ly alpha emission from H moving into the solar system with the local interstellar wind are reported which are based on observations conducted in April 1981 and April 1983. A heliocentric velocity of -29 + or - 5 km/s has been observed from the ISW component along with a surface brightness which has decreased from about 1000 to 800 Rayleighs over the two-year interval. A preliminary derivation of the velocity of the ISM at large distances from the sun yields a value of 25.6 + or - 5 km/s.

  6. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.

    1989-01-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  7. The Dust-to-Gas Ratio in the Damped Ly alpha Clouds Towards the Gravitationally Lensed QSO 0957+561

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, Lin; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    We present HST/FOS spectra of the two bright images (A and B) of the gravitationally lensed QSO 0957+561 in the wavelength range 2200-3300 A. We find that the absorption system (Z(sub abs)) = 1.3911) near z(sub em) is a weak, damped Ly alpha system with strong Ly alpha absorption lines seen in both images. However, the H(I) column densities are different, with the line of sight to image A intersecting a larger column density. The continuum shapes of the two spectra differ in the sense that the flux level of image A increases more slowly toward shorter wavelengths than that of image B. We explain this as the result of differential reddening by dust grains in the damped Ly alpha absorber. A direct outcome of this explanation is a determination of the dust-to-gas ratio, k, in the damped Ly alpha system. We derive k = 0.55 + 0.18 for a simple 1/lambda extinction law and k = 0.31 + 0.10 for the Galactic extinction curve. For gravitationally lensed systems with damped Ly alpha absorbers, our method is a powerful tool for determining the values and dispersion of k, and the shapes of extinction curves, especially in the FUV and EUV regions. We compare our results with previous work.

  8. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  9. SYSTEMATIC CONTINUUM ERRORS IN THE Ly{alpha} FOREST AND THE MEASURED TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan

    2012-07-10

    Continuum fitting uncertainties are a major source of error in estimates of the temperature-density relation (usually parameterized as a power-law, T {proportional_to} {Delta}{sup {gamma}-1}) of the intergalactic medium through the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of the Ly{alpha} forest. Using a simple order-of-magnitude calculation, we show that few percent-level systematic errors in the placement of the quasar continuum due to, e.g., a uniform low-absorption Gunn-Peterson component could lead to errors in {gamma} of the order of unity. This is quantified further using a simple semi-analytic model of the Ly{alpha} forest flux PDF. We find that under(over)estimates in the continuum level can lead to a lower (higher) measured value of {gamma}. By fitting models to mock data realizations generated with current observational errors, we find that continuum errors can cause a systematic bias in the estimated temperature-density relation of ({delta}({gamma})) Almost-Equal-To -0.1, while the error is increased to {sigma}{sub {gamma}} Almost-Equal-To 0.2 compared to {sigma}{sub {gamma}} Almost-Equal-To 0.1 in the absence of continuum errors.

  10. THE NATURE OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS AND THEIR HOSTS IN THE STANDARD COLD DARK MATTER UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2012-04-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with a physically motivated supernova feedback prescription, we show that the standard cold dark matter model can account for extant observed properties of damped Ly{alpha} systems (DLAs). With detailed examination of DLAs identified for each redshift snapshot through ray tracing through the simulation volumes containing thousands of galaxies, we find the following: (1) While DLA hosts roughly trace the overall population of galaxies at all redshifts, they are always gas-rich and have tendencies of being slightly smaller and bluer. (2) The history of DLA evolution is cosmological in nature and reflects primarily the evolution of the underlying cosmic density, galaxy size, and galaxy interactions. With higher density and more interactions at high redshift the size of DLAs is a larger fraction of their virial radius. (3) The variety of DLAs at high redshift is richer with a large contribution coming from galactic aqueducts, created through close galaxy interactions. The portion of gaseous disks of galaxies where most stars reside makes a relatively small contribution to DLA incidence at z = 3-4. (4) The majority of DLAs arise in halos of mass M{sub h} = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at z = 1.6-4, as these galaxies dominate the overall population of galaxies then. At z = 3-4, 20%-30% of DLA hosts are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), 10%-20% are due to galaxies more massive than LBGs, and 50%-70% are from smaller galaxies. (5) Galactic winds play an indispensable role in shaping the kinematic properties of DLAs. Specifically, the high velocity width DLAs are a mixture of those arising in high-mass, high velocity dispersion halos and those arising in smaller mass systems where cold gas clouds are entrained to high velocities by galactic winds. (6) In agreement with observations, we see a weak but noticeable evolution in DLA metallicity. The metallicity distribution centers at [Z/H] = -1.5 to -1 and

  11. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of High-Velocity Ly(alpha) and H(alpha) in SNR 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Pun, C. S. J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Garnavich, Peter; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Panagia, Nino; Phillips, Mark; Schmidt, Brian; Suntzef, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    We describe and model high-velocity (approximately 15,000 km S(exp -1)) Ly Alpha and H Alpha emission from the supernova remnant SNR 1987A seen in 1997 September and October with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Part of this emission comes from a reverse shock located at approximately 75% of the radius of the inner boundary ofthe innercircumstellar ring and confined within + or - 30 degrees of the equatorial plane. Departure from axisymmetry in the Ly Alpha and H Alpha emission correlates with that seen in nonthermal radio emission and reveals an asymmetry in the circumstellar gas distribution. We also see diffuse high-velocity Ly-Alpha emission from supernova debris inside the reverse shock that may be due to excitation by nonthermal particles accelerated by the shock.

  12. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of High-Velocity Ly(alpha) and H(alpha) in SNR 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Pun, C. S. J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Garnavich, Peter; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; hide

    1998-01-01

    We describe and model high-velocity (approximately 15,000 km S(exp -1)) Ly Alpha and H Alpha emission from the supernova remnant SNR 1987A seen in 1997 September and October with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Part of this emission comes from a reverse shock located at approximately 75% of the radius of the inner boundary ofthe innercircumstellar ring and confined within + or - 30 degrees of the equatorial plane. Departure from axisymmetry in the Ly Alpha and H Alpha emission correlates with that seen in nonthermal radio emission and reveals an asymmetry in the circumstellar gas distribution. We also see diffuse high-velocity Ly-Alpha emission from supernova debris inside the reverse shock that may be due to excitation by nonthermal particles accelerated by the shock.

  13. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  14. SEARCH FOR z {approx} 6.96 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS WITH MAGELLAN/IMACS IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hibon, P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; Willott, C.

    2011-11-10

    We report a search for z {approx} 6.96 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) using a narrowband filter, centered at 9680 A with the Inamori-Magellan Area Camera and Spectrograph instrument on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We obtain a sample of six LAE candidates of luminosity {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} in a total area of 465 arcmin{sup 2} corresponding to a comoving volume of {approx}72,000 Mpc{sup 3}. From this result, we derive a Ly{alpha} luminosity function (LF) at z {approx} 6.96 and compare our sample with the only z {approx} 6.96 LAE spectroscopically confirmed to date. We find no evolution between the z = 5.7 and z {approx} 7 Ly{alpha} LFs if a majority of our candidates are confirmed. Spectroscopic confirmation for this sample will enable more robust conclusions.

  15. The Influence of the Photoionizing Radiation Spectrum on Metal-Line Ratios in Ly(alpha) Forest Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shull, J. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recent measurements of Si IV/C IV ratios in the high-redshift Ly(alpha) forest (Songaila & Cowie, AJ, 112, 335 (1996a); Savaglio et at., A&A (in press) (1997)) have opened a new window on chemical enrichment and the first generations of stars. However, the derivation of accurate Si/C abundances requires reliable ionization corrections, which are strongly dependent on the spectral shape of the metagalactic ionizing background and on the 'local effects' of hot stars in nearby galaxies. Recent models have assumed power-law quasar ionizing backgrounds plus a decrement at 4 Ryd to account for He II attenuation in intervening clouds. However, we show that realistic ionizing backgrounds based on cosmological radiative transfer models produce more complex ionizing spectra between 1-5 Ryd that are critical to interpreting ions of Si and C. We also make a preliminary investigation of the effects of He II ionization front nonoverlap. Because the attenuation and reemission by intervening clouds enhance Si IV relative to C the observed high Si IV/C IV ratios do not require an unrealistic Si overproduction (Si/C greater than or equal to 3 (Si/C)(solar mass)). If the ionizing spectrum is dominated by 'local effects' from massive stars, even larger Si IV/C IV ratios are possible. However, unless stellar radiation dominates quasars by more than a factor of 10, we confirm the evidence for some Si overproduction by massive stars; values Si/C approx. 2(Si/C)(solar mass) fit the measurements better than solar abundances. Ultimately, an adequate interpretation of the ratios of C IV, Si IV, and C II may require hot, collisionally ionized gas in a multiphase medium.

  16. Young Stars and Non-Stella Emission in the Aligned Radio Galaxy 3C 256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, P.; Simpson, C.; Armus, L.; Chokshi, A.; Dicksinson, M.; Djorgovski, S.; Elston, R.; Jannuzi, B.; McCarthy, P.; Pahre, M.; hide

    1999-01-01

    We present ground-based images of the z=1.824 radio galaxy 3C 256 in the standard BVRIJHK filters and an interference filter centered at 8800 A, a Hubble Space Telescope image in a filter dominated by Ly alpha emission (F336W), and spectra covering rest-frame wavelengths from Ly alpha to [O III} lambda 5007.

  17. Highest redshift radio galaxy known in the Southern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    De Breuck, C., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    We present the discovery of a z = 4 13 galaxy TN J1338-1942, the most distant radio galaxy in the southern hemisphere known to date The source was selected from a sample of Ultra Steep Spectrum (USS; {alpha}<-1 3; S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}) radio sauces using the Texas and NVSS catalogs The discovery spectrum, obtained with the ES0 3 6m telescope, shows bright extended Ly-{alpha} emission The radio source has a very asymmetric morphology, suggesting a strong interaction with an inhomogeneous surrounding medium

  18. DEEP LBT/LUCI SPECTROSCOPY OF AN Ly{alpha} EMITTER CANDIDATE AT z {approx_equal} 7.7

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Linhua; Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Stark, Daniel P.; Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Krug, Hannah B.

    2013-07-01

    We present deep spectroscopic observations of an Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE) candidate at z {approx_equal} 7.7 using the infrared spectrograph LUCI on the 2 Multiplication-Sign 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The candidate is the brightest among the four z {approx_equal} 7.7 LAE candidates found in a narrowband imaging survey by Krug et al. Our spectroscopic data include a total of 7.5 hr of integration with LBT/LUCI and are deep enough to significantly (3.2{sigma}-4.9{sigma}) detect the Ly{alpha} emission line of this candidate based on its Ly{alpha} flux 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} estimated from the narrowband photometry. However, we do not find any convincing signal at the expected position of its Ly{alpha} emission line, suggesting that this source is not an LAE at z {approx_equal} 7.7. The non-detection in this work, together with the previous studies of z {approx_equal} 7.7 LAEs, puts a strong constraint on the bright-end Ly{alpha} luminosity function (LF) at z {approx_equal} 7.7. We find a rapid evolution of the Ly{alpha} LF from z {approx_equal} 6.5 to 7.7: the upper limit of the z {approx_equal} 7.7 LF is more than five times lower than the z {approx_equal} 6.5 LF at the bright end (f{>=} 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} or L{>=} 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}). This is likely caused by an increasing neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium that substantially attenuates Ly{alpha} emission at z {approx_equal} 7.7.

  19. High-Redshift Protoclusters Traced by Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Capak, Peter; Sheth, Kartik

    Clustering analysis indicate that at z ~ 2 submm-selected galaxies (SMGs) reside in very massive halos (MDM > 5 × 1013), suggesting that SMGs trace high-density environments that evolve into rich galaxy clusters. Conversely, recent work suggests that SMGs are tracers of a broader range of environments, including structures with more modest masses caught in highly active periods; since galaxies in these structures are likely caught during episodes of peak starbursts, SMGs may be tracers of a wider range of environments beyond the progenitors of todays very rich clusters, opening a window for a more complete exploration of the details underpinning the process of galaxy evolution in concert with the assembly of the large scale structure (LSS). We have undertaken a large observing program comprising deep narrow-band Ly-alpha imaging and multi-object spectroscopy using Palomar/Keck/Magellan/Gemini telescopes to probe for galaxy overdensities in SMG environments at z ~ 1 - 5. With ~200 spectroscopically-confirmed Ly-alpha emitters, we are in a position to gauge the level of galaxy overdensity in these regions.

  20. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph - The Galactic halo and the Ly-alpha forest at low redshift in 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Simon L.; Weymann, Ray J.; Savage, Blair D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of initial spectroscopy using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph and the Hubble Space Telescope on the bright low-redshift quasar 3C 273 are presented. Absorption lines produced by gas in the disk and halo of the Galaxy from numerous neutral and weakly ionized atoms and also from highly ionized atoms are detected. The detection of N v provides additional strong support for the existence of gas with T about 200,000 K at large distances away from the disk of the Galaxy. Ten absorption lines with EW greater than 50 mA, and four possible lines with EW between 25 and 50 mA, are also found in the region between 1235 and 1406 A. These cannot be identified with any lines in the galactic interstellar medium and must therefore all be Ly-alpha systems at very low redshifts. This number of lines is 5-10 times larger than expected from a simple extrapolation of the high-redshift evolution derived from ground-based observations and is consistent with no evolution in cloud properties since z = 2.

  1. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND CATALOG OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Kelz, Andreas

    2011-01-15

    We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 {open_square}' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} depending on the wavelength, and Ly{alpha} luminosities between 3 x 10{sup 42} and 6 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Ly{alpha} emission at 1.9 < z < 3.8, and the majority of the remainder objects are low-redshift [O II]3727 emitters at z < 0.56. The classification between low- and high-redshift objects depends on rest-frame equivalent width (EW), as well as other indicators, where available. Based on matches to X-ray catalogs, the active galactic nuclei fraction among the Ly{alpha} emitters is 6%. We also analyze the survey's completeness and contamination properties through simulations. We find five high-z, highly significant, resolved objects with FWHM sizes >44 {open_square}' which appear to be extended Ly{alpha} nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Ly{alpha} EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW{sub 0}>240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

  2. Copernicus observations of Ly-alpha and Mg II emission from HR 1099 /V711 Tauri/ and UX Ari

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of two RS CVn binaries obtained with Copernicus are described. High-resolution (0.05 A) U1 observations indicate that both HR 1099 and UX Ari display broad Ly-alpha emission. The Ly-alpha emission strength from HR 1099 is variable and seems to be correlated with orbital phase, while the UX Ari results indicate no significant variation. Moderate resolution (0.51 A) V2 scans of both systems show variable Mg II h and k emission-line profiles which usually matched the velocity of the more active star in each binary. Additionally, displaced emission components were seen at velocities of up to + or - 250 km/s, indicative of high-velocity gas motions. The radial velocities of these emission features from HR 1099 are marginally correlated with orbital phase. Highly active and variable chromospheric phenomena are found to be the most consistent explanation of these results.

  3. Ly-alpha and white light observations of a CME during the Spartan 201-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, Don M.; Strachan, Leonard; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, J. L.; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard R.; Strong, K.

    1994-01-01

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) near a large active region on the west limb was observed with the white light coronograph (WLC) and ultraviolet coronal spectrometer (UVCS) on the Spartan 201 satellite at 9:42 UT on 12 Apr. 1993. Soft X-ray images of the region below the CME were obtained out to 1.7 solar radii with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. After the event, the formation of a new helmet streamer could be seen in the polarized brightness (pB) images from the Mk III coronograph at Mauna Loa. The CME was observed from Spartan 201 in two different pB images obtained 14 min apart using the WLC, and was observed moving through the field-of-view of the UVCS integrated intensity slit. Ly-alpha intensities in the same region of the corona were obtained one orbit earlier (prior to the CME) using the Ly-alpha profile slit of the UVCS. These are the first Ly-alpha observations of a CME and may help constrain models of the electron temperature on CME's.

  4. An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 2: Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diplas, Athanassios; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-05-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities obtained from archival Ly alpha absorption line data toward the complete sample of B2 and hotter stars observed at high spectral resolution with the IUE satellite. The full sample includes 554 stars and more than doubles the number of lines of sight previously observed. Many of the B2 and B1.5 stars exhibit contamination from stellar Ly alpha absorption, and were excluded from the subsequent analysis. The final working sample includes 393 stars. We present statistical averages for a number of quantities derived for the sample. The stars range in distance from 0.12 to 11 kpc with an average distance of 2.1 kpc. Values for average sight-line density range from 0.017 to 8.62 atoms cm-3, with an overall average of 0.23 atoms cm-3. Neutral hydrogen and dust are well correlated, with N(H I)/E(B - V) = 4.93 x 1021 cm-2 mag-1, and N(H I)/E(Bump) = 2.17 x 1021 cm-2 mag-1. There is an increase in the H I to dust ratios for the densest sight lines. Evidently, the H I to dust ratios in dense clouds are higher than in the lower density medium between the clouds and in interarm directions. The effect is probably an indication of dust modification in the dense clouds. The H I to dust ratios are approx. 17% smaller for the sight lines to O stars compared to the ratios found toward B stars. We have identified sight lines with anomalously large and small values of N(H I)/E(B - V) and H(H I)/E(Bump). Some of these sight lines are well-known examples of peculiar extinction (i.e., HD 147933 and HD 37061 (NU Ori)). Others are less well known and may provide important new examples of regions with highly modified dust. The number of stars with anomalously low H I to dust ratios is disproportionately larger than the number of stars with anomalously high H I to dust ratios. The distribution of the gas away form the Galactic plane for the sample of objects is complex. For the subset of 375 stars whose lines of sight

  5. THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang; Roy, Ishani; Fang Lizhi

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

  6. PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 4.86 IN THE COSMOS 2 SQUARE DEGREE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shioya, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Nagao, T.; Saito, T.; Trump, J.; Sasaki, S. S.; Ideue, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Murayama, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, P.; Ellis, R. S.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J.; Mobasher, B.; Aussel, H.; Koekemoer, A.; Carilli, C.; Garilli, B.

    2009-05-01

    We present results of a survey for Ly{alpha} emitters at z {approx} 4.86 based on optical narrowband ({lambda} {sub c} = 7126 A, {delta}{lambda} = 73 A) and broadband (B, V, r', i', and z') observations of the Cosmic Evolution Survey field using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We find 79 Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE) candidates at z {approx} 4.86 over a contiguous survey area of 1.83 deg{sup 2}, down to the Ly{alpha} line flux of 1.47 x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. We obtain the Ly{alpha} luminosity function with a best-fit Schechter parameters of log L* = 42.9{sup +0.5} {sub -0.3} erg s{sup -1} and {phi}* = 1.2{sup +8.0} {sub -1.1} x 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3} for {alpha} = -1.5 (fixed). The two-point correlation function for our LAE sample is {xi}(r) = (r/4.4{sup +5.7} {sub -2.9} Mpc){sup -1.90{+-}}{sup 0.22}. In order to investigate the field-to-field variations of the properties of Ly{alpha} emitters, we divide the survey area into nine tiles of 0.{sup 0}5 x 0.{sup 0}5 each. We find that the number density varies with a factor of {approx_equal}2 from field to field with high statistical significance. However, we find no significant field-to-field variance when we divide the field into four tiles with 0.{sup 0}7 x 0.{sup 0}7 each. We conclude that at least 0.5 deg{sup 2} survey area is required to derive averaged properties of LAEs at z {approx} 5, and our survey field is wide enough to overcome the cosmic variance.

  7. Small galaxy groups: defining selection criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancic, F.; Alonso, S.; Coldwell, G.; Garcia Lambas, D.

    2017-10-01

    The present work presents a homogeneous selection criteria of small galaxy groups defined as systems with at least two and up to six members, compact and isolated, favoring mergers between galaxies. The definition of homogeneous selection criteria is the starting point for a comparative study of this type of systems, exempt of possible biases derived from differences in the selection function.

  8. Galaxy Selection and the Surface Brightness Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schombert, James M.

    1995-08-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney [Nature, 263,573(1976)] suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman [ApJ, 160,811(1970)] was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (i.e., approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity function at L^*^. An intrinsically sharply peaked "Freeman law" distribution can be completely ruled out, and no Gaussian distribution can fit the data. Low surface brightness galaxies (those with central surface brightness fainter than 22 B mag arcsec^-2^) comprise >~ 1/2 the general galaxy population, so a representative sample of galaxies at z = 0 does not really exist at present since past surveys have been insensitive to this component of the general galaxy population.

  9. THE HANLE EFFECT OF THE HYDROGEN Ly{alpha} LINE FOR PROBING THE MAGNETISM OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, JirI; Casini, Roberto E-mail: stepan@iac.es

    2011-09-01

    We present some theoretical predictions concerning the amplitude and magnetic sensitivity of the linear-polarization signals produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Ly{alpha} line of the solar transition region. To this end, we have calculated the atomic-level polarization (population imbalances and quantum coherences) induced by anisotropic radiation pumping in semiempirical and hydrodynamical models of the solar atmosphere, taking into account radiative transfer and the Hanle effect caused by the presence of organized and random magnetic fields. The line-center amplitudes of the emergent linear-polarization signals are found to vary typically between 0.1% and 1%, depending on the scattering geometry and the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. The results shown here encourage the development of UV polarimeters for sounding rockets and space telescopes with the aim of opening up a diagnostic window for magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun.

  10. Modeling the Scattering Polarization of the Hydrogen Ly-alpha Line Observed by CLASP in a Filament Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepan, J.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Gunar, S.; del Pino Aleman, T.; Heinzel, P.; Kano, R.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, M.; Bando, T.; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The 400 arcsec spectrograph slit of CLASP crossed predominantly quiet regions of the solar chromosphere, from the limb towards the solar disk center. Interestingly, in the CLASP slit-jaw images and in the SDO images of the He I line at 304 A, we can identify a filament channel (FC) extending over more than 60 arcsec crossing the spectrograph slit. In order to interpret the peculiar spatial variation of the Q/1 and U/1 signals observed by CLASP in the hydrogen Ly-alpha line (1216 A) and in the Si Ill line (1206 A) in such a filament channel, it is necessary to perform multi-dimensional radiative transfer modeling. In this contribution, we show the first results of the two-dimensional calculations we are carrying out in given filament models, with the aim of determining the filament thermal and magnetic structure by comparing the theoretical and the observed polarization signals.

  11. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES. III. THE MEAN ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AT z {approx_equal} 4

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Tucker; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2012-05-20

    We present and discuss the mean rest-frame ultraviolet spectrum for a sample of 81 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected to be B-band dropouts at z {approx_equal} 4. The sample is mostly drawn from our ongoing Keck/DEIMOS survey in the GOODS fields and augmented with archival Very Large Telescope data. In general, we find similar spectroscopic trends to those found in earlier surveys of LBGs at z = 3. Specifically, low-ionization absorption lines which trace neutral outflowing gas are weaker in galaxies with stronger Ly{alpha} emission, bluer UV spectral slopes, lower stellar masses, lower UV luminosities, and smaller half-light radii. This is consistent with a physical picture whereby star formation drives outflows of neutral gas which scatter Ly{alpha} and produce strong low-ionization absorption lines, while increasing galaxy stellar mass, size, metallicity, and dust content. Typical galaxies are thus expected to have stronger Ly{alpha} emission and weaker low-ionization absorption at earlier times, and we indeed find somewhat weaker low-ionization absorption at higher redshifts. In conjunction with earlier results from our survey, we argue that the reduced low-ionization absorption is likely caused by lower covering fraction and/or velocity range of outflowing neutral gas at earlier epochs. Although low-ionization absorption decreases at higher redshift, fine-structure emission lines are stronger, suggesting a greater concentration of neutral gas at small galactocentric radius ({approx}< 5 kpc). Our continuing survey will enable us to extend these diagnostics more reliably to higher redshift and determine the implications for the escape fraction of ionizing photons which governs the role of early galaxies in cosmic reionization.

  12. Ultraviolet studies of the intergalactic medium, active galactic nuclei, and the low-z Ly-alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, Steven Victor

    1999-05-01

    A database of all active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE, 1976-1995) was created to determine the brightest UV (1250 Å) extragalactic sources. Combined spectra, and continuum lightcurves are available for ~700 AGN. Fifteen targets were selected from this database for observation of the low-z Lyα forest with the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations were taken with the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph and the G160M grating (1991-1997). 111 significance level >3σ Lyα absorbers were detected in the redshift range, 0.002 < z < 0.069. This Thesis evaluates the physical properties of these Lyα absorbers and compares them to their high-z counterparts. In addition, we use large galaxy catalogs (i.e. the CfA Redshift Survey) to compare the relationship between known galaxies and the low-z Lyα forest. We find that the low-z absorbers are similar in physical characteristic and density to those detected at high- z. Some of these clouds appear to be primordial matter, owing to the lack of detected metallicity. A comparison to the known galaxy distribution indicates that the low-z Lyα forest clusters less than galaxies, but more than random. This suggests that at least a fraction of the absorbers are associated with the gas in galaxy associations (i.e. filaments), while a second population is distributed more uniformly. Over equal pathlengths (cΔz ~60,000 km s -1 each) of galaxy-rich and galaxy-poor environments (voids), we determine that 80% of Lyα absorbers are near large-scale galactic structures (i.e. filaments), while 20% are in galaxy voids.

  13. Selections from 2016: A Very Dark Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and 100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44Published August2016Main takeaway:Using the Keck Observatory and the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered the very dim galaxy Dragonfly 44, located in the Coma cluster. The team estimated the center of this galaxys disk to be a whopping 98% dark matter.Why its interesting:Dragonfly 44, though dim, was discovered to host around 100 globular clusters. Measuring the dynamics of these clusters allowed van Dokkum and collaborators to estimate the mass of Dragonfly 44: roughly a trillion times the mass of the Sun. This is similar to the mass of the Milky Way, and yet the Milky Way has over a hundred times more stars than this intriguing galaxy. Its very unexpected to find a galaxy this massive that has a dark-matter fraction this high.What we can learn from this:How do ultra-faint galaxies like these form? One theory is that theyre failed normal galaxies: they have the sizes, dark-matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous galaxies, but they were prevented from building up a normal stellar population. So far, Dragonfly 44s properties seem consistent with this picture.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2016 ApJL 828 L6. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/828/1/L6

  14. A search for primeval galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Djorgovski, S.; Trauger, J.

    1991-01-01

    We are conducting a search for emission-line objects at large redshifts, ostensibly young and forming galaxies. Our method is to search for strong line emission, in particular Ly-alpha, using two techniques: a direct, narrow-band imaging search using a Fabry-Perot interferometer; and a serendipitous long-slit spectroscopic search. Assuming that none of the faint candidates found so far are actually primeval galaxies, we can set the strongest limits to date on the surface density of Ly-alpha-luminous primeval galaxies on the sky. Some of the faint emission line galaxies detected in our survey at z roughly 0.5 - 1 may be representative of the faint blue galaxy population detected in deep continuum imaging surveys.

  15. Damped Ly alpha absorbers at high redshift: Large disks or galactic building blocks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehnelt, Martin G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Rauch, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the physical structures giving rise to damped Lyman alpha absorption systems (DLAS) at high redshifts is investigated. The proposal that rapidly rotating large disks are the only viable explanation for the observed asymmetric profiles of low ionization absorption lines is examined. Using hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation, it is demonstated that irregular protogalactic clumps can reproduce the observed velocity width distribution and asymmetries of the absorption profiles equally well. The velocity broadening in the simulated clumps is due to a mixture of rotation, random motions, infall and merging. The observed velocity width correlates with the virial velocity for the dark matter halo of the forming protogalactic clump. The typical virial velocity of the halos required to lead to the DLAS population is approximately 100 km/s. It is concluded that the evidence that DLAS at high redshift are related to large, rapidly rotating disks, is not compelling.

  16. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Caryl Gronwall

    2012-12-03

    The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band filters centered at Ly{alpha} at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

  17. METALLICITIES, DUST, AND MOLECULAR CONTENT OF A QSO-DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM REACHING log N(H I) = 22: AN ANALOG TO GRB-DLAs

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, R.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.; Rahmani, H.; Lopez, S.

    2012-06-15

    We present the elemental abundance and H{sub 2} content measurements of a damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system with an extremely large H I column density, log N(H I) (cm{sup -2}) = 22.0 {+-} 0.10, at z{sub abs} = 3.287 toward the QSO SDSS J081634+144612. We measure column densities of H{sub 2}, C I, C I*, Zn II, Fe II, Cr II, Ni II, and Si II from a high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution VLT-UVES spectrum. The overall metallicity of the system is [Zn/H] = -1.10 {+-} 0.10 relative to solar. Two molecular hydrogen absorption components are seen at z = 3.28667 and 3.28742 (a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 52 km s{sup -1}) in rotational levels up to J = 3. We derive a total H{sub 2} column density of log N(H{sub 2}) (cm{sup -2}) = 18.66 and a mean molecular fraction of f = 2N(H{sub 2})/[2N(H{sub 2}) + N(H I)] = 10{sup -3.04{+-}0.37}, typical of known H{sub 2}-bearing DLA systems. From the observed abundance ratios we conclude that dust is present in the interstellar medium of this galaxy, with an enhanced abundance in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds. However, the total amount of dust along the line of sight is not large and does not produce any significant reddening of the background QSO. The physical conditions in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds are constrained directly from the column densities of H{sub 2} in different rotational levels, C I and C I*. The kinetic temperature is found to be T Almost-Equal-To 75 K and the particle density lies in the range n{sub H} = 50-80 cm{sup -3}. The neutral hydrogen column density of this DLA is similar to the mean H I column density of DLAs observed at the redshift of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs). We explore the relationship between GRB-DLAs and the high column density end of QSO-DLAs finding that the properties (metallicity and depletion) of DLAs with log N(H I) > 21.5 in the two populations do not appear to be significantly different.

  18. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 8 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR A DECLINING FRACTION OF EMISSION LINE SOURCES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 6 < z < 8

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan

    2012-01-10

    Using deep Keck spectroscopy of Lyman break galaxies selected from infrared imaging data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we present new evidence for a reversal in the redshift-dependent fraction of star-forming galaxies with detectable Lyman alpha (Ly{alpha}) emission in the redshift range 6.3 < z < 8.8. Our earlier surveys with the DEIMOS spectrograph demonstrated a significant increase with redshift in the fraction of line emitting galaxies over the interval 4 < z < 6, particularly for intrinsically faint systems which dominate the luminosity density. Using the longer wavelength sensitivities of Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and NIRSPEC, we have targeted 19 Lyman break galaxies selected using recent WFC3/IR data whose photometric redshifts are in the range 6.3 < z < 8.8 and which span a wide range of intrinsic luminosities. Our spectroscopic exposures typically reach a 5{sigma} sensitivity of <50 A for the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of Ly{alpha} emission. Despite the high fraction of emitters seen only a few hundred million years later, we find only two convincing and one possible line emitter in our more distant sample. Combining with published data on a further seven sources obtained using FORS2 on the ESO Very Large Telescope, and assuming continuity in the trends found at lower redshift, we discuss the significance of this apparent reversal in the redshift-dependent Ly{alpha} fraction in the context of our range in continuum luminosity. Assuming all the targeted sources are at their photometric redshift and our assumptions about the Ly{alpha} EW distribution are correct, we would expect to find so few emitters in less than 1% of the realizations drawn from our lower redshift samples. Our new results provide further support for the suggestion that, at the redshifts now being probed spectroscopically, we are entering the era where the intergalactic medium is partially neutral. With the arrival of more

  19. H Ly-alpha transmittance of thin foils of C, Si/C, and Al/C for keV particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Jenkins, D. G.; Hsieh, K. C.

    A class of instruments designed for remote sensing of space plasmas by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENA) uses a thin foil as both a signal generator and a light shield. An ENA imager must look directly at the ENA source region, which is also usually an intense source of H Ly-alpha (1216 A) photons. It is desirable to minimize the energy threshold for ENA detectors, at the same time maximizing the blocking of H Ly-alpha. Optimizing filter design to meet these two contrary requirements has led us to measure the transmittance of thin C, Si/C, and Al/C foils at H Ly-alpha. Our results indicate that (1) transmittance of less than 0.0007 can be achieved with 7 micro-g/sq cm Si on 1.7 micro-g/sq cm C; (2) an Si/C composite foil with a thin carbon layer is more effective in blocking UV radiation while having the lowest energy threshold of all the foils measured; and (3) transmittance of Si/C foils of known Si and C thicknesses cannot be accurately predicted, but must be measured.

  20. H Ly-alpha transmittance of thin foils of C, Si/C, and Al/C for keV particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Jenkins, D. G.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1992-01-01

    A class of instruments designed for remote sensing of space plasmas by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENA) uses a thin foil as both a signal generator and a light shield. An ENA imager must look directly at the ENA source region, which is also usually an intense source of H Ly-alpha (1216 A) photons. It is desirable to minimize the energy threshold for ENA detectors, at the same time maximizing the blocking of H Ly-alpha. Optimizing filter design to meet these two contrary requirements has led us to measure the transmittance of thin C, Si/C, and Al/C foils at H Ly-alpha. Our results indicate that (1) transmittance of less than 0.0007 can be achieved with 7 micro-g/sq cm Si on 1.7 micro-g/sq cm C; (2) an Si/C composite foil with a thin carbon layer is more effective in blocking UV radiation while having the lowest energy threshold of all the foils measured; and (3) transmittance of Si/C foils of known Si and C thicknesses cannot be accurately predicted, but must be measured.

  1. HST/COS SPECTRA OF DF Tau AND V4046 Sgr: FIRST DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ABSORPTION AGAINST THE Ly{alpha} EMISSION LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Hao; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin E-mail: jlinsky@jilau1.colorado.edu

    2011-03-20

    We report the first detection of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption in the Ly{alpha} emission line profiles of two classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), DF Tau and V4046 Sgr, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. This absorption is the energy source for many of the Lyman-band H{sub 2} fluorescent lines commonly seen in the far-ultraviolet spectra of CTTSs. We find that the absorbed energy in the H{sub 2} pumping transitions from a portion of the Ly{alpha} line significantly differ from the amount of energy in the resulting fluorescent emission. By assuming additional absorption in the H I Ly{alpha} profile along our light of sight, we can correct the H{sub 2} absorption/emission ratios so that they are close to unity. The required H I absorption for DF Tau is at a velocity close to the radial velocity of the star, consistent with H I absorption in the edge-on disk and interstellar medium. For V4046 Sgr, a nearly face-on system, the required absorption is between +100 km s{sup -1} and +290 km s{sup -1}, most likely resulting from H I gas in the accretion columns falling onto the star.

  2. H Ly-alpha transmittance of thin foils of C, Si/C, and Al/C for keV particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Jenkins, D. G.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1992-01-01

    A class of instruments designed for remote sensing of space plasmas by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENA) uses a thin foil as both a signal generator and a light shield. An ENA imager must look directly at the ENA source region, which is also usually an intense source of H Ly-alpha (1216 A) photons. It is desirable to minimize the energy threshold for ENA detectors, at the same time maximizing the blocking of H Ly-alpha. Optimizing filter design to meet these two contrary requirements has led us to measure the transmittance of thin C, Si/C, and Al/C foils at H Ly-alpha. Our results indicate that (1) transmittance of less than 0.0007 can be achieved with 7 micro-g/sq cm Si on 1.7 micro-g/sq cm C; (2) an Si/C composite foil with a thin carbon layer is more effective in blocking UV radiation while having the lowest energy threshold of all the foils measured; and (3) transmittance of Si/C foils of known Si and C thicknesses cannot be accurately predicted, but must be measured.

  3. PROBING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY FORMATION AT THE HIGHEST LUMINOSITIES: NEW INSIGHTS FROM DEIMOS SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Dey, Arjun; Cooper, Michael C.; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2013-07-01

    We present Keck DEIMOS spectroscopic observations of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3.2 < z < 4.6. Our sample, selected in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, contains galaxies with luminosities of L* {approx}< L{sub UV} {approx}< 7 L* and is one of the largest samples to date of the most UV-luminous galaxies at these redshifts. Our spectroscopic data confirm 41 candidates as star-forming galaxies at 3.2 < z < 4.6 and validate the relatively clean selection of the photometric candidates with a contamination rate of 11%-28%. We find that the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies increases with decreasing UV luminosity. None of the 12 galaxies with M{sub UV} < -22 (i.e., L{sub UV} > 3 L*) exhibit strong Ly{alpha} emission. We find strong evidence of large-scale outflows, transporting the neutral/ionized gas in the interstellar medium away from the galaxy. Galaxies exhibiting both interstellar absorption and Ly{alpha} emission lines show a significant offset between the two features, with a relative velocity of 200-1150 km s{sup -1}. We find tentative evidence that this measure of the outflow velocity increases with UV luminosity and/or stellar mass. The luminosity- and mass-dependent outflow strengths suggest that the efficiency of feedback and enrichment of the surrounding medium depend on these galaxy parameters. We also stack the individual spectra to construct composite spectra of the absorption-line-only and Ly{alpha}-emitting subsets of the UV luminous galaxies at z {approx_equal} 3.7. The composite spectra are very similar to those of lower-redshift and lower-luminosity Lyman break galaxy (LBG) samples, but with some subtle differences. Analyses of the composite spectra suggest that the UV luminous LBGs at z {approx_equal} 3.7 may have a higher covering fraction of absorbing gas, and may be older (or have had more prolonged star formation histories) than their lower-redshift and lower-luminosity counterparts. In

  4. High-Redshift Protoclusters Traced by Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Blain, Andrew; Capak, Peter; Sheth, Kartik; Charbonnier, Aldée; Signorini Gonçalves, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy evolution is intimately connected to the environment. To understand the origin of the galaxy-environment relation, one needs to look back at the epoch of galaxy formation (z > 1), where the local high-density environments of well-established, virialized clusters give way to looser large-scale structures (LSS) extending over regions of several megaparsecs in size (protoclusters). Different tracers have been used to map z>2 LSS; in particular, powerful radio galaxies. Considering that these objects are only visible for a short period in the evolution of a massive galaxy, there is a significant fraction of forming clusters that remain unexplored. To identify the typical overdense regions at z>2 we need tracers that are more abundant than these extreme objects. Clustering analysis indicate that at z~2 submm-selected galaxies (SMGs) reside in very massive halos, suggesting that these may trace high-density environments that likely evolve into rich clusters of galaxies. Conversely, recent work suggests that SMGs are tracers of a broader range of environments, including structures with more modest masses caught in highly active periods. This suggests that since galaxies in these structures are likely caught during episodes of peak starbursts, SMGs may be tracers of a wider range of environments beyond the progenitors of today’s very rich clusters, opening a window for a more complete exploration of the details underpinning the process of galaxy evolution in concert with the assembly of LSS. We have undertaken a large observing program comprising deep narrow-band Ly-alpha imaging and multi-object spectroscopy using Palomar/Keck/Magellan/Gemini telescopes to probe for galaxy overdensities in SMG environments at z~1-5. With >200 spectroscopically-confirmed Ly-alpha emitters, we are in a position to gauge the level of galaxy overdensity in these regions. Furthermore, we have initiated a detailed study of the distribution in galaxy properties according to the maturity

  5. STIS Observations of the Ly\\Alpha Bright Jet Associated with the Herbig Ae Star HD163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devine, David; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B.; Palunas, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present follow-up HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of the Ly-alpha bright jet associated with the near-ZAMS Herbig Ae star HD163296. The proper motions and radial velocities of the knots in the flow are consistent with a collimated outflow inclined by 40 deg relative to the plane of the sky with a flow velocity that varies from 350 to 500 km/s along the jet. A new knot is visible in the jet at a projected distance of 0.33 arcsec (40 AU) from the central star. The knot has a dynamical age of only seven months, making it the youngest HH knot ever observed. We did not detect any emission from the counterjet within 2.5 arcsec of the source, which is consistent with absorption due to a uniform 450 AU radius disk tilted at 50 deg relative to the line of sight. We also present observations made with the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager which show additional, more distant knots along the blue and red shifted outflow lobes, and discuss the collimation of the jet and implications for a magnetosphere associated with HD 163296. Support for this study was provided by HST STIS GTO funding through support to the NOAO, in response to the NASA A/O OSSA-4-84 through the Hubble Space Telescope Project at GSFC, as well as NASA grant NRA-98-03-UVG-O11. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Data analysis facilities were provided by the Laboratory for Astronomy & Solar Physics, NASA/GSFC.

  6. ON THE STELLAR POPULATIONS AND EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 6.3 < z {<=} 8.6

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Giavalisco, Mauro; Reddy, Naveen A.; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2010-08-20

    Observations of very distant galaxies probe both the formation and evolution of galaxies, and also the nature of the sources responsible for reionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we study the physical characteristics of galaxies at 6.3 < z {<=} 8.6, selected from deep near-infrared imaging with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We investigate the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) colors, stellar masses, ages, metallicities, and dust extinction of this galaxy sample. Accounting for the photometric scatter using simulations, galaxies at z{approx} 7 have bluer UV colors compared to typical local starburst galaxies at >4{sigma} confidence. Although the blue colors of galaxies at these redshifts necessitate young ages (<100 Myr), low or zero dust attenuation, and low metallicities, these are explicable by normal (albeit unreddened) stellar populations, with no evidence for near-zero metallicities and/or top-heavy initial mass functions. Most of these galaxies are undetected in deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera imaging. However, the age of the universe at these redshifts limits the amount of stellar mass in late-type populations, and the WFC3 photometry implies galaxy stellar masses {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub sun} for Salpeter initial mass functions to a limiting magnitude of M{sub 1500} {approx} -18. The masses of 'characteristic' (L*) z > 7 galaxies are smaller than those of L* Lyman break galaxies at lower redshifts, and are comparable to less evolved galaxies selected on the basis of their Ly{alpha} emission at 3 < z < 6, implying that the 6.3 < z {<=} 8.6 galaxies are the progenitors of more evolved galaxies at lower redshifts. We estimate that Ly{alpha} emission is able to contribute to the observed WFC3 colors of galaxies at these redshifts, with an estimated typical line flux of {approx} 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, roughly a factor of 4 below currently planned surveys. The integrated UV specific luminosity

  7. Isodensitometry of selected interacting galaxies. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroviakovskii, Iu. P.

    1984-09-01

    The morphology of 21 selected interacting galaxies from the Vorontsov-Vel'iaminov (VV) catalog has been investigated on the basis of several enhanced large scale photographs. The photographs were taken using the 6-meter telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Digital filtering was used to reduce the high-frequency photoemulsion noise and to improve the angular resolution of the original photographs. The enhanced images are compared with isodensity charts and the original photographs, and the results are discussed in detail.

  8. A Comprehensive Spectroscopic Survey of z > 4 Galaxies in CANDELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, Casey; McLure, Ross; Dickinson, Mark; Almaini, Omar; Bowler, Rebecca; Cirasuolo, Michele; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Dunlop, James; Faber, Sandra; Fazio, Giovanni; Ferguson, Harry; Fontana, Adriano; Finkelstein, Steven; Giavalisco, Mauro; Mobasher, Bahram; Pentericci, Laura; Salmon, Brett; Stark, Daniel; Tilvi, Vithal

    2012-08-01

    The basic statistical properties of galaxies at 4selected samples (e.g., Lyman-break galaxies). Making substantive progress now requires deep spectroscopy of these galaxies to deliver redshifts, stellar masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) accurate enough to test theoretical evolutionary paths of individual galaxies. We propose to obtain GMOS spectra of a magnitude limited, H(AB)<26.5, sample of 4.0galaxies in the UDS and COSMOS CANDELS fields: these are two fields with very deep HST and Spitzer data over the largest areas. Our principal science goal is to measure redshifts of > 200 galaxies at 42, while theory predicts it should decline with decreasing redshift. We will refute (or confirm) this emerging contradiction. Our second main science goal is to measure accurately the evolving frequency of Ly-alpha emission in these galaxies as a measure of the rising cosmic hydrogen neutral fraction at increasing redshift. This is a resubmission of a 2011B proposal, which was highly ranked but not schedulable in the queue. It was recommended we reapply, requesting classical time, which we do here.

  9. Properties of an H I-selected galaxy sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szomoru, Arpad; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Knapen, Johan H.; Weinberg, David H.; Fruchter, Andrew S.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a sample of galaxies identified in a 21cm, H I-line survey of selected areas in the Perseus-Pisces supercluster and its foreground void. Twelve fields were observed in the supercluster, five of them (target fields) centered on optically bright galaxies, and the other seven (blank fields) selected to contain no bright galaxies within 45 min. of their centers. We detected nine previously uncatalogued, gas-rich galaxies, six of them in the target fields. We also detected H I from seven previously catalogued galaxies in these fields. Observations in the void covered the same volume as the 12 supercluster fields at the same H I-mass sensitivity, but no objects were detected. Combining out H I data with optical broadband and H alpha imaging, we conclude that the properties of H I-selected galaxies do not differ substantially from those of late-type galaxies found in optical surveys. In particular, the galaxies in our sample do not appear to be unusually faint for their H I mass, or for their circular velocity. We find tentative evidence for a connection between optical surface brightness and degree of isolation, in the sense that low surface brightness galaxies tend to be more isolated. The previously catalogued, optically bright galaxies in our survey volume dominate the total H I mass density and cross section; the uncatalogued galaxies contribute only approximately 19 percent of the mass and approximately 12 percent of the cross section. Thus, existing estimates of the density and cross section of neutral hydrogen, most of which are based on optically selected galaxy samples, are probably accurate. Such estimates can be used to compare the nearby universe to the high-redshift universe probed by quasar absorption lines.

  10. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: instrument specification and target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, J. J.; Owers, M. S.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Cortese, L.; Scott, N.; Colless, M.; Schaefer, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Allen, J. T.; Baldry, I.; Barnes, L.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brooks, A. M.; Brough, S.; Cecil, G.; Couch, W.; Croton, D.; Davies, R.; Ellis, S.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A.; Gunawardhana, M. L.; Hampton, E.; Ho, I.-T.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kewley, L.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Leslie, S.; McElroy, R.; Lewis, G.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mahajan, S.; Medling, A. M.; Metcalfe, N.; Meyer, M.; Mould, J.; Obreschkow, D.; O'Toole, S.; Pracy, M.; Richards, S. N.; Shanks, T.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.; Walcher, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey will observe 3400 galaxies with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope in a 3-yr survey which began in 2013. We present the throughput of the SAMI system, the science basis and specifications for the target selection, the survey observation plan and the combined properties of the selected galaxies. The survey includes four volume-limited galaxy samples based on cuts in a proxy for stellar mass, along with low-stellar-mass dwarf galaxies all selected from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA regions were selected because of the vast array of ancillary data available, including ultraviolet through to radio bands. These fields are on the celestial equator at 9, 12 and 14.5 h, and cover a total of 144 deg2 (in GAMA-I). Higher density environments are also included with the addition of eight clusters. The clusters have spectroscopy from 2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and photometry in regions covered by the SDSS and/or VLT Survey Telescope/ATLAS. The aim is to cover a broad range in stellar mass and environment, and therefore the primary survey targets cover redshifts 0.004 < z < 0.095, magnitudes rpet < 19.4, stellar masses 107-1012 M⊙, and environments from isolated field galaxies through groups to clusters of ˜1015 M⊙.

  11. Baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a panchromatic observing program to study the baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters. In this talk, I will present results primarily from XMM-Newton observations of optically-selected clusters in the redshift range of 0.1-0.4. These clusters are selected because of their fortuitous alignment with background far-UV-bright QSOs, which thus allows for Ly-alpha and O VI absorption line spectroscopy with HST/COS, probing physical processes of the evolving intracluster medium, freshly accreted from the intergalactic medium and/or stripped out of individual galaxies, as well as the gaseous halos of individual cluster galaxies. Interestingly, such clusters tend to be dynamically young and often consist of merging subcluster pairs at similar redshifts. These subclusters themselves typically show substantial substructures, including strongly distorted radio lobes, as well as large position offsets between the diffuse X-ray centroids and the brightest galaxies. A comparison of the hot gas and stellar masses of each cluster with the expected cosmological baryonic mass fraction indicates a significant room for other gas components. I will also briefly examine the limitations of both optically and X-ray selected clusters, as well as how they may be used in a complementary fashion.

  12. Galaxy Evolution in Mass-Selected Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Adriano

    I summarize the recent results from the HDFS and K20 surveys that allow to trace the evolution of massive galaxies up to z≃ 3. I show that the evolution of both the specific star-formation rate and of the stellar mass density suggest that, at z>1, we observe the epoch where the evolution of massive objects becomes appreciable. At z≃ 1.8, we indeed find that about 40% of the local density has been locked in massive galaxies. This is associated with a change in the physical properties of massive galaxies, with star-forming objects that contribute to a substantial fraction of the observed mass density. I quantitatively show that these results do not pose challenges to current Λ-CDM models, but represent valuable constraints to understand the complex physical mechanisms involved in the assembly of massive galaxies.

  13. Relativistic effects on galaxy redshift samples due to target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Shadab; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ho, Shirley; Zhu, Hongyu; Giusarma, Elena

    2017-10-01

    In a galaxy redshift survey, the objects to be targeted for spectra are selected from a photometrically observed sample. The observed magnitudes and colours of galaxies in this parent sample will be affected by their peculiar velocities, through relativistic Doppler and relativistic beaming effects. In this paper, we compute the resulting expected changes in galaxy photometry. The magnitudes of the relativistic effects are a function of redshift, stellar mass, galaxy velocity and velocity direction. We focus on the CMASS sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), which is selected on the basis of colour and magnitude. We find that 0.10 per cent of the sample (∼585 galaxies) has been scattered into the targeted region of colour-magnitude space by relativistic effects, and conversely 0.09 per cent of the sample (∼532 galaxies) has been scattered out. Observational consequences of these effects include an asymmetry in clustering statistics, which we explore in a companion paper. Here, we compute a set of weights that can be used to remove the effect of modulations introduced into the density field inferred from a galaxy sample. We conclude by investigating the possible effects of these relativistic modulation on large-scale clustering of the galaxy sample.

  14. A GREEN BANK TELESCOPE SURVEY FOR H I 21 cm ABSORPTION IN THE DISKS AND HALOS OF LOW-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Tripp, Todd M.; Yun, Min S.; Meiring, Joseph D.; Bowen, David V.; York, Donald G.; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2011-01-20

    We present an H I 21 cm absorption survey with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of galaxy-quasar pairs selected by combining galaxy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) survey. Our sample consists of 23 sight lines through 15 low-redshift foreground galaxy-background quasar pairs with impact parameters ranging from 1.7 kpc up to 86.7 kpc. We detected one absorber in the GBT survey from the foreground dwarf galaxy, GQ1042+0747, at an impact parameter of 1.7 kpc and another possible absorber in our follow-up Very Large Array (VLA) imaging of the nearby foreground galaxy UGC 7408. The line widths of both absorbers are narrow (FWHM of 3.6 and 4.8km s{sup -1}). The absorbers have sub-damped Ly{alpha} column densities, and most likely originate in the disk gas of the foreground galaxies. We also detected H I emission from three foreground galaxies including UGC 7408. Although our sample contains both blue and red galaxies, the two H I absorbers as well as the H I emissions are associated with blue galaxies. We discuss the physical conditions in the 21 cm absorbers and some drawbacks of the large GBT beam for this type of survey.

  15. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  16. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  17. Outer Disk Star Formation in HI selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, G. R.

    2017-03-01

    The HI in galaxies often extends past their conventionally defined optical extent. I report results from our team which has been probing low intensity star formation in outer disks using imaging in Hα and ultraviolet. Using a sample of hundreds of HI selected galaxies, we confirm that outer disk HII regions and extended UV disks are common. Hence outer disks are not dormant but are dimly forming stars. Although the ultraviolet light in galaxies is more centrally concentrated than the HI, the UV/HI ratio (the Star Formation Efficiency) is nearly constant, with a slight dependency on surface brightness. This result is well accounted for in a model where disks maintain a constant stability parameter Q. This model also accounts for how the ISM and star formation are distributed in the bright parts of galaxies, and how HI appears to trace the distribution of dark matter in galaxy outskirts.

  18. Selections from 2016: Faintest Early-Universe Galaxy Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Detection of Lyman-Alpha Emission from a Triply Imaged z = 6.85 Galaxy Behind MACS J2129.40741Published May2016Main takeaway:A team led by Kuang-Han Huang (University of Caliornia, Davis) discovered a faint galaxy at z = 6.846 located behind the galaxy cluster MACS J2129.40741. This galaxy contains only one ten-thousandth the stellar mass of the Milky Way, and its the faintest galaxy weve found at this great distance.Why its interesting:This galaxy is roughly 13 billion years old, placing it near the end of the reionization epoch (in which the first stars formed and caused our universe to transition from neutral gas to ionized gas). Examining such a small galaxy at this distance provides valuable information about how the process of reionization may have occurred.About the discovery:The newly discovered galaxy was found due to a fortunate alignment with a foreground galaxy cluster. Gravitational lensing by the foreground cluster produced three images of the distant galaxy, which were identified as being the same galaxy due to their similar spectra.CitationKuang-Han Huang et al 2016 ApJL 823 L14. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L14

  19. The theory of QSO absorption line systems and their relationship to the galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Jane

    1993-11-01

    The fundamental goal of this effort is to paint a picture of what the Ly-alpha forest clouds are and how they are distributed in space. Progress during the first phase of this program involved development of the 'Cheshire Cat Model' of Ly-alpha clouds in which systems over a large range of column densities are produced by disks with somewhat smaller column densities than those of normal galaxies. A prediction of the slab model of Ly-alpha clouds was confirmed by a new observational result, and the comparison of models to the new data allowed an estimate of the pressure of the intergalactic medium. This result should be forthcoming in pre-print form within the next month. The various results will now be described in more detail.

  20. Isodensitometry of selected interacting galaxies. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroviakovskii, Iu. P.

    1984-07-01

    The results are given of digital filtering of large-scale photographs of interacting galaxies obtained at the prime focus of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. The algorithms used for analysis reduced the strength of the high-frequency noise of the emulsion and raised the angular resolution of the photographs. The results of the processing of the objects are presented in the form of two-dimensional isodensitometric charts, which contain quantitative information about the brightness distribution in the objects. Analysis of the enhanced photographs of the interacting galaxies makes it possible to make more precise the classification of them made earlier by Vorontsov-Vel'iaminov.

  1. Dynamically Close Pairs of Galaxies Selected in the NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Ryan C.; Foucaud, Sebastien; De Propris, Roberto; Lin, Jing-Hua

    2013-07-01

    Studies of dynamically close pairs of galaxies can serve as a powerful probe of the galaxy merger rate and its evolution. Here we present a large sample of dynamically close pairs of galaxies selected in the K-band from the UKIDSS LAS. These data span ~ 175 deg2 on the sky in the 2dFGRS equatorial region (10 h < RA < 14h). Combining the 2dFGRS redshifts with those from the SDSS, our K-band selected catalog is > 90% spectroscopically complete at K AB < 16.4. In this study, we focus on quantifying the relative contributions of wet, dry, and mixed mergers to the stellar mass buildup of galaxies over the past 1-2 Gyr.

  2. H_2 versus dust in the Magellanic Clouds a paradigm for studies of Damped Ly Alpha systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni

    The most abundant interstellar molecule, H_2, is associated with the presence of dust which acts as a catalyst for molecule formation. The abundance ratio of a refractory to a non-refractory element, such as the CrZn ratio, is a good diagnostic tool of interstellar dust content. In Galactic interstellar clouds, high molecular fractions, f(H_2)equiv ,N(H_ 2 )N(HI)+2,N(H_ 2 ), are only found along sightlines of high Cr depletion, even though f(H_2) and CrZn do not show a linear correlation. On the contrary a linear correlation between f( H_2) and CrZn has been discovered in high-redshift molecular clouds from the study of damped Lyalpha systems (DLAs) showing H_2 absorption Levshakov et al. 2000). In order to contrast the properties of local galaxies with those of the high redshift galaxies associated with DLAs it is important to compare environments of similar metallicity. The Magellanic Clouds (MCs), with their low metallicity, are ideally suited for this purpose. FUSE and ORFEUS have already allowed the measurement of H_2 along several MCs sightlines. Unfortunately, the CrZn ratio has been determined only for three MCs sightlines Roth & Blades, 1997), for none of which H_: 2 has been searched for. We propose to use FUSE to measure H_2 along these three sightlines in order to compare molecular fraction versus dust content in the MCs, in the Milky Way and in DLAs. In this way we expect to obtain fresh clues on the nature of DLA galaxies and on the interstellar medium of the MCs.

  3. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  4. Submillimeter Follow-Up of WISE-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; hide

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approx.1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 microns, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 microns. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 microns, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60 C120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) Stellar Luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  5. Submillimeter Follow-up of Wise-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; hide

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approximately 1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at zeta = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 micrometers. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (zeta greater than 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 micrometers, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) solar luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  6. Evolution of Balmer jump selected galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso Iribarren, P.; Infante, L.; Padilla, N.; Lacerna, I.; Garcia, S.; Orsi, A.; Muñoz Arancibia, A.; Moustakas, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Moles, M.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Martínez, V. J.; Cerviño, M.; Alfaro, E. J.; Ascaso, B.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Nieves-Seoane, L.; Benítez, N.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Samples of star-forming galaxies at different redshifts have been traditionally selected via color techniques. The ALHAMBRA survey was designed to perform a uniform cosmic tomography of the Universe, and we here exploit it to trace the evolution of these galaxies. Aims: Our objective is to use the homogeneous optical coverage of the ALHAMBRA filter system to select samples of star-forming galaxies at different epochs of the Universe and study their properties. Methods: We present a new color-selection technique, based on the models of spectral evolution convolved with the ALHAMBRA bands and the redshifted position of the Balmer jump to select star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 galaxies are dubbed Balmer-jump Galaxies (BJGs). We applied the iSEDfit Bayesian approach to fit each detailed spectral energy distribution and determined star-formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age, and absolute magnitudes. The mass of the halos in which these samples reside were found through a clustering analysis. Results: Five volume-limited BJG subsamples with different mean redshifts are found to reside in halos of median masses ~1012.5 ± 0.2 M⊙ slightly increasing toward z = 0.5. This increment is similar to numerical simulations results, which suggests that we trace the evolution of an evolving population of halos as they grow to reach a mass of ~1012.7 ± 0.1 at z = 0.5. The likely progenitors of our samples at z ~ 3 are Lyman-break galaxies, which at z ~ 2 would evolve into star-forming BzK galaxies, and their descendants in the local Universe are galaxies with luminosities of 1-3 L∗. Hence, this allows us to follow the putative evolution of the SFR, stellar mass, and age of these galaxies. Conclusions: From z ~ 1.0 to z ~ 0.5, the stellar mass of the volume-limited BJG samples changes almost not at all with redshift, suggesting that major mergers play a minor role in the evolution of these galaxies. The SFR evolution accounts for the small

  7. H I-selected galaxies in hierarchical models of galaxy formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoldan, Anna; De Lucia, Gabriella; Xie, Lizhi; Fontanot, Fabio; Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the basic statistical properties of H I-selected galaxies extracted from six different semi-analytic models, all run on the same cosmological N-body simulation. One model includes an explicit treatment for the partition of cold gas into atomic and molecular hydrogen. All models considered agree nicely with the measured H I mass function in the local Universe, with the measured scaling relations between H I and galaxy stellar mass, and with the predicted two-point correlation function for H I-rich galaxies. One exception is given by one model that predicts very little H I associated with galaxies in haloes above ˜1012 M⊙: we argue this is due to a too efficient radio-mode feedback for central galaxies, and to a combination of efficient stellar feedback and instantaneous stripping of hot gas for satellites. We demonstrate that treatment of satellite galaxies introduces large uncertainties at low H I masses. While models assuming non-instantaneous stripping of hot gas tend to form satellite galaxies with H I masses slightly smaller than those of centrals with the same stellar mass, instantaneous gas stripping does not translate necessarily in lower H I masses. In fact, the adopted stellar feedback and star formation affect the satellites too. We analyse the relation between H I content and spin of simulated haloes: low-spin haloes tend to host H I-poor galaxies, while high-spin haloes are populated by galaxies in a wide range of H I mass. In our simulations, this is due to a correlation between the initial gas disc size and the halo spin.

  8. The 2MASS-selected Flat Galaxy Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitronova, S. N.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kudrya, Yu. N.

    An all-sky catalog of 18020 disc-like galaxies is presented. The galaxies are selected from the Extended Source Catalog of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (XSC 2MASS) basing on their 2MASS axial ratio a/b ≥ 3. The Catalog contains data on magnitudes of a galaxy in the J, H, KS bands, its axial ratio, positional angle, index of luminosity concentration, as well as identification of the galaxy with the LEDA and the NED databases. Unlike the available optical catalogs, the new 2MFGC catalog seems to be more suitable to study cosmic streaming on a scale of z <~ 0.1. The dipole moment of distribution of the bright (K < 11m) 2MFGC objects (l = 227°, b = 41° or SGL = 90°, SGB = -43°) lies within statistical errors (±15°) in the direction of the IRAS dipole and the optical RFGC dipole.

  9. Selections from 2016: Counting Galaxies in the Observable Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.The Evolution of Galaxy Number Density at z 8 and Its ImplicationsPublished October2016Main takeaway:How many galaxies are there in the observable universe? The latest estimate is approximately 2 trillion, according to a study led by Christopher Conselice (University of Nottingham, UK). The authors produced this estimate by using observations of the number of galaxies in recent deep-field surveys by Hubble and other telescopes, and then extrapolating this number to account for small and faint galaxies that we arent able to see.Why its interesting:The original Hubble Deep Field study from the mid-1990s provided the basis for our previous working estimate of the number of galaxies the universe contains, which was around 120 billion. The new estimate from Conselice and collaborators therefore suggests that there are a factor of ten more galaxies in the universe than we previously thought!What to expect from observations:Right now we only have the capability to see roughly 10% of these 2 trillion galaxies. But future observatories like the James Webb Space Telescope will be able to pick out many more distant galaxies than what weve found so far, helping us to understand how these galaxies formed in the early universe.CitationChristopher J. Conselice et al 2016 ApJ 830 83. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/83

  10. Selections from 2016: Hidden Galaxies Found Behind the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.The Parkes H I Zone of Avoidance SurveyPublished February2016Main takeaway:883 galaxies have been discoveredwithin a few hundredmillion light-years of us, hiding behind the Milky Way. The galaxies were found by a team led by Lister Staveley-Smith (International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia) using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia.Distribution of the galaxies discovered in the Zone of Avoidance. Radial distance is measured by the recessional velocities of the galaxies. [Staveley-Smith et al. 2016]Why its interesting:These new galaxies were discovered in whats known as the Zone of Avoidance, a gap that extends roughly 5 above and 5 below the galactic plane. The Zone of Avoidance has been excluded from many past surveys because the stars and dust of the Milky Way prevent us from being able to identify background galaxies in this region. But the Parkes radio telescope equipped with an innovative new receiver was able to peer through the foreground of the Milky Way to detect the hidden galaxies behind it.What this could teach us:The discovery of hundreds of new galaxies may help explain the gravitational anomaly known as the Great Attractor region, a diffuse concentration of mass roughly 250 million light-years away that is pulling the Milky Way and hundreds of thousands of other galaxies toward it.CitationL. Staveley-Smith et al 2016 AJ 151 52. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/3/52

  11. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Capak, P.; Conley, A.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  12. Morphologies and faint neighbors of z=4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2002-07-01

    We propose to image one ACS field containing four spectroscopically confirmed Ly-alpha emitters at z=4.5 in restframe UV and a narrowband filter containing the Ly-alpha line. These observations will {A} Reveal the morphology of the four spectroscopically confirmed sources. The high equivalent widths of the Ly-alpha line in these four galaxies in particular and this population in general cannot be explained without invoking one or more of: extreme youth of the stellar population, zero metallicity, energetic winds or type II quasars. Comparison of morphologies in the line and continuum would help favor or rule out some of these possibilties. This would also tell us whether the star-formation is uniformly distributed or centrally concentrated or concentrated but in many clumps? Proximity of these galaxies {average projected physical separation of 200 kpc, with one pair 30 kpc apart} also makes interactions likely. {B} Extend the luminosity function of Ly-alpha sources by 2.5 magnitudes due to better spatial resolution of HST and sensitivity of ACS. We will be able to detect sources with line flux of eq 2 * 10^-18 ergcm2s over 11.5 sq-arcmins { 100 sources}. This complements the LALA {Large Area Lyman Alpha} survey which covers 1/3 square-degree to a line sensitivity of eq 2 * 10^- 17. Thus we get a picture of this patch of young universe in two ways: statistics of faint galaxies and morphologies of relatively bright ones.

  13. Selecting background galaxies in weak-lensing analysis of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, I.; Radovich, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Mazzotta, P.; Grado, A.; Giocoli, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to select the faint, background galaxies used to derive the mass of galaxy clusters by weak lensing. The method is based on the simultaneous analysis of the shear signal, that should be consistent with zero for the foreground, unlensed galaxies, and of the colours of the galaxies: photometric data from the COSMic evOlution Survey are used to train the colour selection. In order to validate this methodology, we test it against a set of state-of-the-art image simulations of mock galaxy clusters in different redshift [0.23-0.45] and mass [0.5-1.55 × 1015 M⊙] ranges, mimicking medium-deep multicolour imaging observations [e.g. Subaru, Large Binocular Telescope]. The performance of our method in terms of contamination by unlensed sources is comparable to a selection based on photometric redshifts, which however requires a good spectral coverage and is thus much more observationally demanding. The application of our method to simulations gives an average ratio between estimated and true masses of ˜0.98 ± 0.09. As a further test, we finally apply our method to real data, and compare our results with other weak-lensing mass estimates in the literature: for this purpose, we choose the cluster Abell 2219 (z = 0.228), for which multiband (BVRi) data are publicly available.

  14. A Study of the Stellar Population in Selected SO Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danks, Anthony C.

    We propose to obtain IUE short wavelength (1200-2000 A) and long wavelength (2000-3000 A) spectra of a few selected SO or Lenticular galaxies to determine their stellar contents. The particular emphasis is on looking for evidence of recent star formation, as indicated by the presence of earlytype stars. This is an important test of galaxy models in which SO galaxies are differentiated from normal Spirals by a very low gas content. The complete UV spectrum, SWP and LWP, covered by IUE provides optimum information on the OB stellar populations (130 to 4 M(sun) and on late-type populations (4 to 0.5 M(sun), respectively. Recent IRAS observations show evidence for non-cirrus type emission, i.e., warm (lust; the proposed IUE observations will look for evidence of the star formation normally associated with the dust and cold gas. It is our intention to define the morphology of the galaxies to be studied through CCD images in the visible, infrared, via IRAS, and visual photometry. We emphasize that to date, SO galaxies have not been studied as a homogeneous class. Our request for 6 shifts is realistic based on experience as past IUE users and will significantly increase the sample of SO galaxies available for synthesis and related studies.

  15. Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, David

    1991-07-01

    THIS IS PART TWO OF PROPOSAL 3801, CONTAINING 55 TARGETS OF PRIORITY 7,8 AND 9. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801, WHICH HAS 87 TARGETS OF PRIORITY 3,4,5 AND 6. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

  16. Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, David

    1991-07-01

    THIS IS PART Three OF PROPOSAL 3801. IT CONTAINS 40 TARGETS OF HIGH PRIORITY. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801. Targets are in order of decreasing priority. Priority matters a lot. Best targets are listed first. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

  17. THE SCATTERING POLARIZATION OF THE Ly{alpha} LINES OF H I AND He II TAKING INTO ACCOUNT PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION AND J-STATE INTERFERENCE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, Jiri

    2012-08-10

    Recent theoretical investigations have pointed out that the cores of the Ly{alpha} lines of H I and He II should show measurable scattering polarization signals when observing the solar disk, and that the magnetic sensitivity, through the Hanle effect, of such linear polarization signals is suitable for exploring the magnetism of the solar transition region. Such investigations were carried out in the limit of complete frequency redistribution (CRD) and neglecting quantum interference between the two upper J-levels of each line. Here we relax both approximations and show that the joint action of partial frequency redistribution and J-state interference produces much more complex fractional linear polarization (Q/I) profiles, with large amplitudes in their wings. Such wing polarization signals turn out to be very sensitive to the temperature structure of the atmospheric model, so that they can be exploited for constraining the thermal properties of the solar chromosphere. Finally, we show that the approximation of CRD without J-state interference is however suitable for estimating the amplitude of the linear polarization signals in the core of the lines, where the Hanle effect operates.

  18. Radio Selected Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Joshua; Blanton, Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that three-component radio sources exhibiting some degree of bending between components are likely to be found in galaxy clusters. Often this radio emission is associated with a cD type galaxy at the center of a cluster. We have cross-correlated the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with samples selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) catalog and measured the richness of the cluster environments surrounding three- component sources exhibiting both bent and straight lobes. This has lead to the discovery and classification of a large number of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of z ~ 0.5. For both bent- and straight- lobed sources without an optical counterpart it is likely that the radio emission is associated with a galaxy fainter than m_r=22 (the limiting magnitude of the SDSS) and at a redshift higher than z~0.8. We propose to observe a small sub-sample of these sources with the FLAMINGOS instrument on the Mayall 4-m telescope in an attempt to discover if these sources are located in high redshift (z≳0.8) galaxy clusters. In our visually-selected bent radio source sample, 78% of sources with counterparts in the SDSS are associated with clusters.

  19. Two searches for primeval galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D.; Djorgovski, S.; Trauger, J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of active galaxies are now known at very large redshifts, some of them even have properties suggestive of galaxies in the process of formation. They commonly show strong Ly-alpha emission, at least some of which appears to be ionized by young stars. Inferred star formation rates are in the range approximately = 100-500 solar mass/yr. An important question is: are there radio-quiet, field counterparts of these systems at comparable redshifts? Whereas, we are probably already observing some evolutionary and formative processes of distant radio galaxies, the ultimate goal is to observe normal galaxies at the epoch when most of their stars form. We have, thus, started a search for emission-line objects at large redshifts, ostensibly young and forming galaxies. Our method is to search for strong line emission (hopefully Ly alpha) employing two techniques: a direct, narrow-band imaging search, using a Fabry-Perot interferometer; and a serendipitous long-slit spectroscopic search.

  20. What are the galaxies that host MIR-selected AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, David

    2016-08-01

    Infra-red selection techniques, sensitive to dust strongly heated by an AGN, offer a way to identify some of the most obscured accretion events in the Universe. I will describe the results of a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of AGN to z>2 selected using Spitzer/IRAC based methods in the COSMOS field. Armed with AGN-optimised redshifts and stellar masses, we explore the dust emission from the active nucleus and the host galaxy. We demonstrate that IR-selected AGN tend to be found in low mass host galaxies, when compared to other AGN identification methods. The star-formation rates of obscured and unobscured IR-selected AGN are very similar, implying that large-scale obscuration with co-eval star-bursts are not found in a major proportion of heavily obscured AGN.

  1. EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN CANDELS: BROADBAND-SELECTED, STARBURSTING DWARF GALAXIES AT z > 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Wel, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Jahnke, K.; Straughn, A. N.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Salmon, B. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Dickinson, M.; De Mello, D. F.; and others

    2011-12-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z {approx} 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Sixty-nine EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broadband magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [O III] emission lines-with rest-frame equivalent widths {approx}1000 A-in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M{sub *}/ M-dot{sub *} of only {approx}15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the comoving number density (3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}) can produce in {approx}4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  2. GMRT HI Imaging of Selected LARS+eLARS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Sarmiento, Karen; Mendoza Davila, Cesar I.; Cannon, John M.; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Östlin, Göran; Pardy, Stephen; LARS Team

    2017-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (LARS) and its extension (eLARS) form the most comprehensive effort to date to study the details of Lyman Alpha radiative transfer in galaxies. Direct imaging of Lyman Alpha emission from the Hubble Space Telescope is supplemented by a wealth of multi-wavelength observations designed to probe the complex processes that contribute to the escape or destruction of Lyman Alpha photons as they resonantly scatter in the neutral ISM. The 42 LARS+eLARS galaxies span a range of physical properties, including mass and star formation rate. In this work, we present new GMRT HI imaging of selected LARS+eLARS galaxies designed to study the detailed morphology and kinematics of the HI gas. HI column density images and velocity fields are compared to SDSS imaging.

  3. Infrared Color Selection of Massive Galaxies at z > 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Elbaz, D.; Schreiber, C.; Pannella, M.; Shu, X.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Fontana, A.; Dekel, A.; Daddi, E.; Ferguson, H. C.; Dunlop, J.; Ciesla, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Giavalisco, M.; Boutsia, K.; Finkelstein, S.; Juneau, S.; Barro, G.; Koo, D. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Orellana, G.; Lu, Y.; Castellano, M.; Bourne, N.; Buitrago, F.; Santini, P.; Faber, S. M.; Hathi, N.; Lucas, R. A.; Pérez-González, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new color selection technique to identify high-redshift, massive galaxies that are systematically missed by Lyman-break selection. The new selection is based on the H160 (H) and Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 μm bands, specifically H-[4.5]\\gt 2.25 mag. These galaxies, called “HIEROs,” include two major populations that can be separated with an additional J - H color. The populations are massive and dusty star-forming galaxies at z\\gt 3 ({JH}-{blue}) and extremely dusty galaxies at z≲ 3 ({JH}-{red}). The 350 arcmin2 of the GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields with the deepest Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared and IRAC data contain as many as 285 HIEROs down to [4.5]\\lt 24 mag. Inclusion of the most extreme HIEROs, not even detected in the H band, makes this selection particularly complete for the identification of massive high-redshift galaxies. We focus here primarily on {JH}-{blue} (z\\gt 3) HIEROs, which have a median photometric redshift < z> ˜ 4.4 and stellar mass {M}*˜ {10}10.6 {M}⊙ and are much fainter in the rest-frame UV than similarly massive Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). Their star formation rates (SFRs), derived from their stacked infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), reach ˜240 {M}⊙ yr-1, leading to a specific SFR, {{sSFR}}\\equiv {{SFR}}/{M}*˜ 4.2 Gyr-1, suggesting that the sSFRs for massive galaxies continue to grow at z\\gt 2 but at a lower growth rate than from z = 0 to z = 2. With a median half-light radius of 2 kpc, including ˜ 20% as compact as quiescent (QS) galaxies at similar redshifts, {JH}-{blue} HIEROs represent perfect star-forming progenitors of the most massive ({M}*≳ {10}11.2 {M}⊙ ) compact QS galaxies at z˜ 3 and have the right number density. HIEROs make up ˜ 60% of all galaxies with {M}*\\gt {10}10.5 {M}⊙ identified at z\\gt 3 from their photometric redshifts. This is five times more than LBGs with nearly no overlap between the two populations

  4. Optical nebulosity in X-ray-selected, early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an H-alpha + N II forbidden line narrowband imaging survey of X-ray-selected E and S0 galaxies. A novel technique is described for objectively optimizing the removal of stellar continuum light while providing well-defined estimates of systematic errors. The procedure has the additional benefit of eliminating sky contamination, specifically in image regions occupied by galaxy light. Consideration of the measured spectral energy distributions is included in the flux calibration procedure, and emission-line luminosities (or upper limits), corrected for Galactic foreground extinction, are tabulated for metric apertures. No connection is found between the 'boxiness' or 'diskiness' of stellar isophotes and emission-line or far-infrared luminosity. It is suggested that optical nebulosity in early-type galaxies contains a significant multiparameter dependence on active Galactic nuclei behavior, accretion from the hot interstellar medium, and mass injection from external sources.

  5. Spatial density fluctuations and selection effects in galaxy redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Tekhanovich, Daniil; Baryshev, Yurij V. E-mail: d.tekhanovich@spbu.ru

    2014-07-01

    One of the main problems of observational cosmology is to determine the range in which a reliable measurement of galaxy correlations is possible. This corresponds to determining the shape of the correlation function, its possible evolution with redshift and the size and amplitude of large scale structures. Different selection effects, inevitably entering in any observation, introduce important constraints in the measurement of correlations. In the context of galaxy redshift surveys selection effects can be caused by observational techniques and strategies and by implicit assumptions used in the data analysis. Generally all these effects are taken into account by using pair-counting algorithms to measure two-point correlations. We review these methods stressing that they are based on the a-priori assumption that galaxy distribution is spatially homogeneous inside a given sample. We show that, when this assumption is not satisfied by the data, results of the correlation analysis are affected by finite size effects. In order to quantify these effects, we introduce a new method based on the computation of the gradient of galaxy counts along tiny cylinders. We show, by using artificial homogeneous and inhomogeneous point distributions, that this method identifies redshift dependent selection effects and disentangles them from the presence of large scale density fluctuations. We then apply this new method to several redshift catalogs and we find evidence that galaxy distribution, in those samples where selection effects are small enough, is characterized by power-law correlations with exponent γ=0.9 up to 20 Mpc/h followed by a change of slope that, in the range 20–100 Mpc/h, corresponds to a power-law exponent γ=0.25. Whether a crossover to spatial uniformity occurs at ∼ 100 Mpc/h or larger scales cannot be clarified by the present data.

  6. BRIGHT Lights, BIG City: Massive Galaxies, Giant Ly-A Nebulae, and Proto-Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Reuland, M; de Vries, W; Stanford, A; Dey, A; Kurk, J; Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2002-08-01

    High redshift radio galaxies are great cosmological tools for pinpointing the most massive objects in the early Universe: massive forming galaxies, active super-massive black holes and proto-clusters. They report on deep narrow-band imaging and spectroscopic observations of several z > 2 radio galaxy fields to investigate the nature of giant Ly-{alpha} nebulae centered on the galaxies and to search for over-dense regions around them. They discuss the possible implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  7. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Infante, Leopoldo; and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  8. The Spatial Distribution of Spectroscopically Selected Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Agustsson, Ingolfur

    2015-01-01

    We use a mock redshift survey of the first Millennium Run simulation to investigate the spatial locations of spectroscopically selected satellite galaxies. The host-satellite systems were selected using typical redshift space proximity criteria and, therefore, the satellite sample includes a large number of "interlopers" (i.e., false satellites). Fifty percent of the satellites are located outside the virial radii of their host galaxies and 34% are located more than 500 kpc from their host galaxy. The host galaxies reside in relatively isolated regions of space and have stellar masses that span the range 10.3 < log10[M*/Ms] < 11.5. The 3D locations of the satellites are well-fitted by a combination of a Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) density profile and a power law. At fixed stellar mass, the NFW scale parameter, rs, for the satellites of red hosts exceeds that for the satellites of blue hosts, and in both cases the dependence of rs on host stellar mass is well-fitted by a power law. For the satellites of red hosts, rs ~ (M*/Ms)0.71, while for satellites of blue hosts rs ~ (M*/Ms)0.48. For hosts with large stellar masses (log10[M*/Ms] > 10.8), the satellites of the red hosts are significantly (4σ) less concentrated than is the halo dark matter, while the satellites of blue hosts are marginally (2σ) more concentrated than is the halo dark matter. We perform model fits to the projected locations of the satellites and find that, with the exception of the satellites of the most massive red hosts, the 2D analysis accurately recovers the values of rs that were found using the 3D analysis. Therefore, even in the limit of a large population of "interlopers" in the satellite sample, the 3D distribution of the satellites can be recovered using 2D information alone. However, since the concentration of the satellite distribution differs from that of the dark matter in the case of high mass host galaxies, this calls into question whether spectroscopically selected satellites

  9. A METAL-STRONG AND DUST-RICH DAMPED Ly{alpha} ABSORPTION SYSTEM TOWARD THE QUASAR SDSS J115705.52+615521.7

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianguo; Ge Jian; Hamann, Fred; Xavier Prochaska, J.

    2012-11-20

    We report the discovery of an unusual, extremely dust-rich and metal-strong damped Ly{alpha} absorption system (DLA) at a redshift z{sub a} = 2.4596 toward the quasar SDSS J115705.52+615521.7 with an emission-line redshift z{sub e} = 2.5125. The quasar spectrum, taken in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, shows a very red color and a number of metal absorption lines, including C II, Al II, Si II, Fe II, and Zn II, which are confirmed and further characterized by follow-up spectroscopy made with the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Its neutral hydrogen column density N {sub HI} = 10{sup 21.8{+-}0.2} cm{sup -2} is among the highest values measured in quasar DLAs. The measured metal column density is N {sub ZnII} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 13.8} cm{sup -2}, which is about 1.5 times larger than the largest value in any previously observed quasar DLAs. We derive the extinction curve of the dusty DLA using a new technique, which is an analog of the 'pair method' widely used to measure extinction curves in the Milky Way (MW). The best-fit curve is an MW-like law with a significant broad feature centered around 2175 A in the rest frame of the absorber. The measured extinction A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0.92 mag is unprecedentedly high in quasar DLAs. After applying an extinction correction, the i-band absolute magnitude of the quasar is as high as M{sub i} Almost-Equal-To -29.4 mag, placing it as one of the most luminous quasars ever known. The large gas-phase relative abundance of [Zn/Fe] Almost-Equal-To 1.0 indicates that metals are heavily depleted onto dust grains in the absorber. The dust depletion level is between that of the warm and cool clouds in the MW. This discovery is suggestive of the existence of a rare yet important population of dust-rich DLAs with both high metallicities and high column densities, which may have significant impact on the measurement of the cosmic evolution of neutral gas mass density and metallicity.

  10. LOW-REDSHIFT Lyalpha SELECTED GALAXIES FROM GALEX SPECTROSCOPY: A COMPARISON WITH BOTH UV-CONTINUUM SELECTED GALAXIES AND HIGH-REDSHIFT Lyalpha EMITTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Hu, Esther M. E-mail: barger@astro.wisc.ed

    2010-03-10

    We construct a sample of low-redshift Lyalpha emission-line selected sources from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism spectroscopy of nine deep fields to study the role of Lyalpha emission in galaxy populations with cosmic time. Our final sample consists of 119 (141) sources selected in the redshift interval z = 0.195-0.44 (z = 0.65-1.25) from the FUV (NUV) channel. We classify the Lyalpha sources as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) if high-ionization emission lines are present in their UV spectra and as possible star-forming galaxies otherwise. We classify additional sources as AGNs using line widths for our Lyalpha emitter (LAE) analysis. These classifications are broadly supported by comparisons with X-ray and optical spectroscopic observations, though the optical spectroscopy identifies a small number of additional AGNs. Defining the GALEX LAE sample in the same way as high-redshift LAE samples, we show that LAEs constitute only about 5% of NUV-continuum selected galaxies at z {approx} 0.3. We also show that they are less common at z {approx} 0.3 than they are at z {approx} 3. We find that the z {approx} 0.3 optically confirmed Lyalpha galaxies lie below the metallicity-luminosity relation of the z {approx} 0.3 NUV-continuum selected galaxies but have similar Halpha velocity widths at similar luminosities, suggesting that they also lie below the metallicity-mass relation of the NUV-continuum selected galaxies. We show that, on average, the Lyalpha galaxies have bluer colors, lower extinctions as measured from the Balmer line ratios, and more compact morphologies than the NUV-continuum selected galaxies. Finally, we confirm that the z {approx} 2 Lyman break galaxies have relatively low metallicities for their luminosities, and we find that they lie in the same metallicity range as the z {approx} 0.3 Lyalpha galaxies.

  11. Statistical-mechanical selection of the shapes of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, David; Lee, Y. C.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is proposed for selecting steady state shapes of disk galaxies as 'most probable states' of a large number of stars, given only the total energy and total angular momentum. A partial differential equation is derived for the mean gravitational potential; it is closely related to the 'sinh-Poisson' equation for the mean-field description of a line vortex system or electrostatic guiding-center plasma. A 'water bag' approximation to the distribution function for bound stars renders the equation analytically tractable, but accurate solution of it may require numerical integration, in view of its general nonlinearity.

  12. Photometric selection of z ~ 5 Lyman break galaxies in the ESO Remote Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, L. S.; Bremer, M. N.; Stanway, E. R.; Lehnert, M. D.; Clowe, D.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the selection of a sample of photometrically defined Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 5 using the multiwavelength imaging data of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) Remote Galaxy Survey. The data are drawn from 10 widely separated fields covering a total sky area of 275arcmin2. Starting with a simple colour (R - I > 1.3) and magnitude (I < 26.3) cut to isolate the Lyman break and then refining the sample by applying further optical and near-infrared photometric criteria we identify a sample of 253 LBG candidates. We carefully model the completeness of this sample and the factors that affect its reliability. There is considerable overlap between this sample and a spectroscopically confirmed sample drawn from the same survey and this allows us to determine the reliability of the optical photometric selection (~60 per cent) and to show that the reliability can be significantly improved (to ~80 per cent) by applying near-infrared waveband criteria to exclude very red contaminants. Even this high level of reliability may compromise some statistical studies of LBG properties. We show that over 30 per cent of the highest reliability candidates have multiple ultraviolet (UV) luminous components and/or disturbed morphology in Hubble Space Telescope imaging, though it is unclear whether this represents multiple interacting/merging sources or individual large sources with multiple UV bright regions. Using this sample we confirm that the normalization of the bright end of the z = 5 UV luminosity function (down to M*) is lower than the same at z = 4 by a factor of 3. Using a Schechter fit we determine M*UV = -20.9 +/- 0.2. We discuss whether it is reasonable to expect the UV luminosity function to follow a Schechter function, given the UV emission is short lived and stochastic, and does not necessarily trace the underlying mass of the galaxy.

  13. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  14. Intergalactic Hydrogen Clouds at Low Redshift: Connections to Voids and Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Penton, Steve

    1996-01-01

    We provide new post-COSTAR data on one sightline (Mrk 421) and updated data from another (I Zw 1) from our Hubble Space Telescope (HST) survey of intergalactic Ly(alpha) clouds located along sightlines to four bright quasars passing through well-mapped galaxy voids (16000 km/s pathlength) and superclusters (18000 km/s). We report two more definite detections of low-redshift Ly(alpha) clouds in voids: one at 3047 km/s (heliocentric) toward Mrk 421 and a second just beyond the Local Supercluster at 2861 km/s toward I Zw 1, confirming our earlier discovery of Ly(alpha) absorption clouds in voids (Stocke et al., ApJ, 451, 24). We have now identified ten definite and one probable low-redshift neutral hydrogen absorption clouds toward four targets, a frequency of approximately one absorber every 3400 km/s above 10(exp 12.7/sq cm column density. Of these ten absorption systems, three lie within voids; the probable absorber also lies in a void. Thus, the tendency of Ly(alpha) absorbers to 'avoid the voids' is not as clear as we found previously. If the Ly(alpha) clouds are approximated as homogeneous spheres of 100 kpc radius, their masses are approximately 10(exp 9)solar mass (about 0.01 times that of bright L* galaxies) and they are 40 times more numerous, comparable to the density of dwarf galaxies and of low-mass halos in numerical CDM simulations. The Ly(alpha) clouds contribute a fraction Omega(sub cl)approximately equals 0.003/h(sub 75) to the closure density of the universe, comparable to that of luminous matter. These clouds probably require a substantial amount of nonbaryonic dark matter for gravitational binding. They may represent extended haloes of low-mass protogalaxies which have not experienced significant star formation or low-mass dwarf galaxies whose star formation ceased long ago, but blew out significant gaseous material.

  15. THE CLUSTERING CHARACTERISTICS OF H I-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM THE 40% ALFALFA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ann M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Guzzo, Luigi E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: luigi.guzzo@brera.inaf.it

    2012-05-01

    The 40% Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog ({alpha}.40) of {approx}10,150 H I-selected galaxies is used to analyze the clustering properties of gas-rich galaxies. By employing the Landy-Szalay estimator and a full covariance analysis for the two-point galaxy-galaxy correlation function, we obtain the real-space correlation function and model it as a power law, {xi}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, on scales <10 h{sup -1} Mpc. As the largest sample of blindly H I-selected galaxies to date, {alpha}.40 provides detailed understanding of the clustering of this population. We find {gamma} = 1.51 {+-} 0.09 and r{sub 0} = 3.3 + 0.3, -0.2 h{sup -1} Mpc, reinforcing the understanding that gas-rich galaxies represent the most weakly clustered galaxy population known; we also observe a departure from a pure power-law shape at intermediate scales, as predicted in {Lambda}CDM halo occupation distribution models. Furthermore, we measure the bias parameter for the {alpha}.40 galaxy sample and find that H I galaxies are severely antibiased on small scales, but only weakly antibiased on large scales. The robust measurement of the correlation function for gas-rich galaxies obtained via the {alpha}.40 sample constrains models of the distribution of H I in simulated galaxies, and will be employed to better understand the role of gas in environmentally dependent galaxy evolution.

  16. The MOSDEF Survey: AGN Multi-wavelength Identification, Selection Biases, and Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Mojegan; Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Reddy, Naveen; Shapley, Alice; Freeman, William R.; Kriek, Mariska; Leung, Gene C. K.; Mobasher, Bahram; Price, Sedona H.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Shivaei, Irene; Siana, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We present results from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey on the identification, selection biases, and host galaxy properties of 55 X-ray, IR, and optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1.4< z< 3.8. We obtain rest-frame optical spectra of galaxies and AGNs and use the BPT diagram to identify optical AGNs. We examine the uniqueness and overlap of the AGNs identified at different wavelengths. There is a strong bias against identifying AGNs at any wavelength in low-mass galaxies, and an additional bias against identifying IR AGNs in the most massive galaxies. AGN hosts span a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs), similar to inactive galaxies once stellar mass selection effects are accounted for. However, we find (at ∼2–3σ significance) that IR AGNs are in less dusty galaxies with relatively higher SFR and optical AGNs in dusty galaxies with relatively lower SFR. X-ray AGN selection does not display a bias with host galaxy SFR. These results are consistent with those from larger studies at lower redshifts. Within star-forming galaxies, once selection biases are accounted for, we find AGNs in galaxies with similar physical properties as inactive galaxies, with no evidence for AGN activity in particular types of galaxies. This is consistent with AGNs being fueled stochastically in any star-forming host galaxy. We do not detect a significant correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity for individual AGN hosts, which may indicate the timescale difference between the growth of galaxies and their supermassive black holes.

  17. Properties Of Lyman Alpha Emitters At Z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Amy

    Ly-alpha emission-line searches have been widely used to find high-redshift galaxies. For the z>6 galaxies, this line is the only spectroscopic signature that can be used to confirm the redshift of a galaxy selected on the basis of its color properties. Even in the era of JWST and extremely large ground-based facilities, it is likely that Ly-alpha will continue to be an important tracer of the faintest sources at high redshifts. However, Ly-alpha is a difficult line to interpret. Because the line is resonantly scattered by neutral hydrogen, determining its escape path and therefore its dust destruction is an extremely complex problem, both theoretically and observationally. Thus, while we have empirical measurements that a significant fraction of UV-continuum selected samples have Ly- alpha lines with rest-frame equivalent widths greater than 20 Angstrom, our understanding of what determines this fraction is still weak. In particular, we would like to know whether the presence of Ly-alpha emission is related to other properties of the galaxy, such as its extinction, age, metallicity, or morphology. GALEX grism spectra have revolutionized the field by making it possible to find low- redshift Ly-alpha emission line galaxies where the properties can be studied in exquisite detail. From these data, we have found that z~0.3 Ly-alpha emitters are heavily drawn from small, low metallicity galaxies with intense ongoing star formation. We have also found that the Ly-alpha luminosity function evolves rapidly over z=0-1, with the characteristic luminosity being much higher at z=1 than at z=0. However, the latter result is based on a very small number of galaxies at z~1 where we only probe the high luminosity tip of the luminosity function because of the continuum limits used in the GALEX pipeline extraction. We propose to obtain a large sample of Ly-alpha emitters in the sweet spot at z=0.7-1.3 where the intrinsic galaxy structure can be separated from the effects of the

  18. Supernovae - A new selection effect. [statistical distribution in and radial distance from center of parent galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of 228 supernovae that occurred in galaxies with known redshifts is used to show that the mean projected linear supernova distance from the center of the parent galaxy increases with increasing redshift. This effect is interpreted as an observational bias: the discovery rate of supernovae is reduced in the inner parts of distant, poorly resolved galaxies. Even under the optimistic assumption that no selection effects work in galaxies closer than 33 Mpc, about 50% of all supernovae are lost in the inner regions of galaxies beyond 150 Mpc. This observational bias must be taken into account in the derivation of statistical properties of supernovae.

  19. A MULTIBAND STUDY OF THE GALAXY POPULATIONS OF THE FIRST FOUR SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zenteno, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Liu, J.; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Allam, S. S.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Benson, B. A.; High, F. W.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Hansen, S. M.; Lin, Y.-T.; Rest, A.

    2011-06-10

    We present first results of an examination of the optical properties of the galaxy populations in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. Using clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope survey and deep multiband optical data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, we measure the radial profile, the luminosity function (LF), the blue fraction, and the halo occupation number (HON) of the galaxy populations of these four clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.3 to 1. Our goal is to understand whether there are differences among the galaxy populations of these SZE-selected clusters and previously studied clusters selected in the optical and the X-ray. The radial distributions of galaxies in the four systems are consistent with Navarro-Frenk-White profiles with a galaxy concentration of 3 to 6. We show that the characteristic luminosities in griz bands are consistent with passively evolving populations emerging from a single burst at redshift z = 3. The faint-end power-law slope of the LF is found to be on average {alpha} {approx} -1.2 in griz. HONs (to m* + 2) for these systems appear to be consistent with those based on X-ray-selected clusters. The blue fraction estimated to 0.36 L*, for the three lower redshift systems, suggests an increase with redshift, although with the current sample the uncertainties are still large. Overall, this pilot study of the first four clusters provides no evidence that the galaxy populations in these systems differ significantly from those in previously studied cluster populations selected in the X-ray or the optical.

  20. H I-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. II. THE COLORS OF GAS-RICH GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    West, Andrew A.; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Disney, Mike J.; Rockosi, Constance M.

    2009-09-15

    We utilize color information for an H I-selected sample of 195 galaxies to explore the star formation histories and physical conditions that produce the observed colors. We show that the H I selection creates a significant offset toward bluer colors that can be explained by enhanced recent bursts of star formation. There is also no obvious color bimodality, because the H I selection restricts the sample to bluer, actively star-forming systems, diminishing the importance of the red sequence. Rising star formation rates are still required to explain the colors of galaxies bluer than g - r< 0.3. We also demonstrate that the colors of the bluest galaxies in our sample are dominated by emission lines and that stellar population synthesis models alone (without emission lines) are not adequate for reproducing many of the galaxy colors. These emission lines produce large changes in the r - i colors but leave the g - r color largely unchanged. In addition, we find an increase in the dispersion of galaxy colors at low masses that may be the result of a change in the star formation process in low-mass galaxies.

  1. A LINK TO THE PAST: USING MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO FITTING TO CONSTRAIN FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzkal, N.; Rothberg, B.; Koekemoer, Anton; Nilsson, Kim K.; Finkelstein, S.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a new method for fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to identify and constrain the physical properties of high-redshift (4 < z < 8) galaxies. Our approach uses an implementation of Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo that we have dubbed '{pi}MC{sup 2}'. It allows us to compare observations to arbitrarily complex models and to compute 95% credible intervals that provide robust constraints for the model parameters. The work is presented in two sections. In the first, we test {pi}MC{sup 2} using simulated SEDs to not only confirm the recovery of the known inputs but to assess the limitations of the method and identify potential hazards of SED fitting when applied specifically to high-redshift (z > 4) galaxies. In the second part of the paper we apply {pi}MC{sup 2} to thirty-three 4 < z < 8 objects, including the spectroscopically confirmed Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science Ly{alpha} sample (4 < z < 6), supplemented by newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 near-IR observations, and several recently reported broadband selected z > 6 galaxies. Using {pi}MC{sup 2}, we are able to constrain the stellar mass of these objects and in some cases their stellar age and find no evidence that any of these sources formed at a redshift larger than z = 8, a time when the universe was Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Gyr old.

  2. The mass-metallicity relation of absorption selected high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise; Møller, P.; Rhodin, Henrik; Krogager, Jens-Kristian; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2017-03-01

    Strong absorption lines in quasar spectra primarily probe low-mass galaxies and detecting these in emission has previously been difficult. Dedicated surveys for the host galaxies of damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems have often resulted in non-detections and upper limits. Targeting the most metal-rich absorbers has proven to be a viable method, because these galaxies are brighter. By combining DLA metallicities and deriving host galaxy stellar masses, we find that metal-rich DLAs (with >10% solar metallicity) and their host galaxies follow the same redshift-dependent scaling relation between stellar mass and metallicity as luminosity-selected galaxies. We derive a prediction for an absorber galaxy mass that depends on the DLA metallicity.

  3. CANDELS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE OBSERVED GALAXY POPULATION TO COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Papovich, Casey; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Finlator, Kristian; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cooray, Asantha; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Kocevski, Dale D.

    2012-10-20

    We present measurements of the specific ultraviolet luminosity density from a sample of 483 galaxies at 6 {approx}< z {approx}< 8. These galaxies were selected from new deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, Hubble UltraDeep Field 2009, and Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science programs. We investigate the contribution to reionization from galaxies that we observe directly, thus sidestepping the uncertainties inherent in complementary studies that have invoked assumptions regarding the intrinsic shape or the faint-end cutoff of the galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Due to our larger survey volume, wider wavelength coverage, and updated assumptions about the clumping of gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM), we find that the observable population of galaxies can sustain a fully reionized IGM at z = 6, if the average ionizing photon escape fraction (f {sub esc}) is {approx}30%. Our result contrasts with a number of previous studies that have measured UV luminosity densities at these redshifts that vary by a factor of five, with many concluding that galaxies could not complete reionization by z = 6 unless a large population of galaxies fainter than the detection limit were invoked, or extremely high values of f {sub esc} were present. The specific UV luminosity density from our observed galaxy samples at z = 7 and 8 is not sufficient to maintain a fully reionized IGM unless f {sub esc} > 50%. We examine the contribution from galaxies in different luminosity ranges and find that the sub-L* galaxies we detect are stronger contributors to the ionizing photon budget than the L > L* population, unless f {sub esc} is luminosity dependent. Combining our observations with constraints on the emission rate of ionizing photons from Ly{alpha} forest observations at z = 6, we find that we can constrain f {sub esc} < 34% (2{sigma}) if the observed galaxies are the only contributors to

  4. Optical Properties of Radio-Selected Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J; Laurent-Muehleisen, S A; Moran, E C; Becker, R H

    2006-01-05

    We present results from the analysis of the optical spectra of 47 radio-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). These objects are a subset of the First Bright Quasar Survey (FBQS) and were initially detected at 20 cm (flux density limit {approx} 1 mJy) in the VLA FIRST Survey. We run Spearman rank correlation tests on several sets of parameters and conclude that, except for their radio properties, radio-selected NLS1 galaxies do not exhibit significant differences from traditional NLS1 galaxies. Our results are also in agreement with previous studies suggesting that NLS1 galaxies have small black hole masses that are accreting very close to the Eddington rate. We have found 16 new radio-loud NLS1 galaxies, which increases the number of known radio-loud NLS1 galaxies by a factor of {approx} 5.

  5. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: disc-halo interactions in radio-selected star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, S. K.; Bryant, J. J.; Ho, I.-T.; Sadler, E. M.; Medling, A. M.; Groves, B.; Kewley, L. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Croom, S. M.; Wong, O. I.; Brough, S.; Tescari, E.; Sweet, S. M.; Sharp, R.; Green, A. W.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Allen, J. T.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we compare the radio emission at 1.4 GHz with optical outflow signatures of edge-on galaxies. We report observations of six edge-on star-forming galaxies in the Sydney-AAO Multiobject Integral-field spectrograph Galaxy Survey with 1.4 GHz luminosities >1 × 1021 W Hz-1. Extended minor axis optical emission is detected with enhanced [N II]/H α line ratios and velocity dispersions consistent with galactic winds in three of six galaxies. These galaxies may host outflows driven by a combination of thermal and cosmic ray processes. We find that galaxies with the strongest wind signatures have extended radio morphologies. Our results form a baseline for understanding the driving mechanisms of galactic winds.

  6. GRB 130606A AS A PROBE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN A STAR-FORMING GALAXY IN THE FIRST Gyr AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Drout, Maria R.; Fong Wenfai; Laskar, Tanmoy; Fox, Derek B.; Roth, Katherine C.

    2013-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio Gemini and MMT spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130606A at redshift z = 5.913, discovered by Swift. This is the first high-redshift GRB afterglow to have spectra of comparable quality to those of z Almost-Equal-To 6 quasars. The data exhibit a smooth continuum at near-infrared wavelengths that is sharply cut off blueward of 8410 A due to absorption from Ly{alpha} at redshift z Almost-Equal-To 5.91, with some flux transmitted through the Ly{alpha} forest between 7000 and 7800 A. We use column densities inferred from metal absorption lines to constrain the metallicity of the host galaxy between a lower limit of [Si/H] {approx}> -1.7 and an upper limit of [S/H] {approx}< -0.5 set by the non-detection of S II absorption. We demonstrate consistency between the dramatic evolution in the transmission fraction of Ly{alpha} seen in this spectrum over the redshift range z = 4.9-5.85 with that previously measured from observations of high-redshift quasars. There is an extended redshift interval of {Delta}z = 0.12 in the Ly{alpha} forest at z = 5.77 with no detected transmission, leading to a 3{sigma} upper limit on the mean Ly{alpha} transmission fraction of {approx}<0.2% (or {tau}{sub GP}{sup eff} (Ly{alpha}) > 6.4). This is comparable to the lowest-redshift Gunn-Peterson troughs found in quasar spectra. Some Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} transmission is detected in this redshift window, indicating that it is not completely opaque, and hence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) is nonetheless mostly ionized at these redshifts. We set a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.11 on the neutral fraction of the IGM at the redshift of the GRB from the lack of a Ly{alpha} red damping wing, assuming a model with a constant neutral density. GRB 130606A thus for the first time realizes the promise of GRBs as probes of the first galaxies and cosmic reionization.

  7. A Study of the Stellar Population in Selected SO Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M.; Danks, A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this program was to observe at least two SO galaxies with abnormal colors in the blue and clear optical signatures of dust and gas. The galaxies NGC 2217 and NGC 1808 were observed at least in one of the IUE cameras (1200-200 and 2000-3200 A) during the 13th episode, using the 4 US1 shifts assigned to this program. The galaxy NGC 2217 had been found to be part of a subgroup of SO galaxies with external gas rotating in retrograde motion with respect to the stars. This galaxy is a face-on object with indications of large amount of gas, quite rare for a SO galaxy. We observed this object on three different occasions with IUE at different positions of the large aperture (spacecraft roll angle) with respect to the nuclear region. These exposures allowed us to take full advantage of the spatial resolution of IUE by mapping nuclear and bulge region of this galaxy. We found that the data point to a marginally earlier stellar population toward the central region. The UV light as a whole is dominated by a late-type stellar population of principally G and K stars. The almost face-on view of this galaxy appears optically thick to UV light. It is conceivable that in analogy to out own Galaxy, the stellar populations weakly detected in NGC 2217, are mostly halo and late-type stars in the center with an increasing contribution of dust and early stellar populations (so far undetected) as we move outward along the faint spiral arms. This result is contrary to our initial expectation, since the counterrotating gas does not appear to be enhancing star formation in this galaxy. Even more interesting were the observations of NGC 1808; galaxy which has been classified, with a handful of other objects, both as a starburst and Seyfert galaxy. Attachment: 'The White-Dwarf Companions of 56 Persei and HR 3643.'

  8. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  9. Beyond MACS: A Snapshot Survey of the Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies at z>0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2014-10-01

    X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3 play a pivotal role for a wealth of extragalactic and cosmological research topics, and SNAPshot observations of these systems are ideally suited to identify the most promising cluster targets for further, in-depth study. The power of this approach was demonstrated impressively by ACS/WFC3 SNAPshots of 81 MACS clusters at z>0.3 obtained by us in previous Cycles (28 of them in all of F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W). Based on these data, the CLASH MCT program selected 16 out of 25 of their targets to be MACS clusters. The central role of X-ray luminous clusters in particular for gravitational-lensing work is further underlined by the fact that all but one of the six most powerful cluster lenses selected for in-depth study by the HST Frontier Fields initiative are MACS detections.We here propose to extend our spectacularly successful SNAPshot survey of the most X-ray luminous distant clusters to a redshift-mass regime that is poorly sampled by any other project. Targeting only extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 from the X-ray selected eMACS sample, the proposed program will (a) identify the most powerful gravitational telescopes at yet higher redshift for the next generation of in-depth studies of the distant Universe with HST and JWST, (b) provide constraints on the mass distribution within these extreme systems, (c) help improve our understanding of the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and (d) unveil Distant Red Galaxies as well as z>6 Ly-alpha emitters as F814W dropouts.Acknowledging the broad community interest in our sample we waive our data rights for these observations.

  10. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Selection of the Most Massive Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; Lara-López, Maritza; López-Cruz, Omar

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a galaxy cluster finding technique based on the Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimator (DTFE) combined with caustic analysis. Our method allows us to recover clusters of galaxies within the mass range of $1012$ to $1016\\ \\mathcal{M}\\odot$. We have found a total of 113 galaxy clusters in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey (GAMA). In the corresponding mass range, the density of clusters found in this work is comparable to the density traced by clusters selected by the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect; however, we are able to cover a wider mass range. We present the analysis of the two-point correlation function for our cluster sample.

  11. The role of galaxy interaction in the SFR-M {sub *} relation: characterizing morphological properties of Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Barnes, J. E.; Koss, M.; Larson, K. L.; Lockhart, K.; Man, A. W. S.; Mann, A. W.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Scoville, N.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Galaxy interactions/mergers have been shown to dominate the population of IR-luminous galaxies (L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.6} L {sub ☉}) in the local universe (z ≲ 0.25). Recent studies based on the relation between galaxies' star formation rates and stellar mass (the SFR-M {sub *} relation or the {sup g}alaxy main sequence{sup )} have suggested that galaxy interaction/mergers may only become significant when galaxies fall well above the galaxy main sequence. Since the typical SFR at a given M {sub *} increases with redshift, the existence of the galaxy main sequence implies that massive, IR-luminous galaxies at high z may not necessarily be driven by galaxy interactions. We examine the role of galaxy interactions in the SFR-M {sub *} relation by carrying out a morphological analysis of 2084 Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5 in the COSMOS field. Using a detailed visual classification scheme, we show that the fraction of 'disk galaxies' decreases and the fraction of 'irregular' galaxies increases systematically with increasing L {sub IR} out to z ≲ 1.5 and z ≲ 1.0, respectively. At L {sub IR} >10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}, ≳ 50% of the objects show evident features of strongly interacting/merger systems, where this percentage is similar to the studies of local IR-luminous galaxies. The fraction of interacting/merger systems also systematically increases with the deviation from the SFR-M {sub *} relation, supporting the view that galaxies falling above the main sequence are more dominated by mergers than the main-sequence galaxies. Meanwhile, we find that ≳ 18% of massive IR-luminous 'main-sequence galaxies' are classified as interacting systems, where this population may not evolve through the evolutionary track predicted by a simple gas exhaustion model.

  12. On the Nature of the First Galaxies Selected at 350 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Sophia A.; Chanial, Pierre F.; Willner, S. P.; Pearson, Chris P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Benford, Dominic J.; Clements, David L.; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, G. G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present constraints on the nature of the first galaxies selected at 350 micrometers. The sample includes galaxies discovered in the deepest blank-field survey at 350 micrometers (in the Bo6tes Deep Field) and also later serendipitous detections in the Lockman Hole. In determining multiwavelength identifications, the 350 lam position and map resolution of the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera are critical, especially in the cases where multiple radio sources exist and the 24 micrometer counterparts are unresolved. Spectral energy distribution templates are fitted to identified counterparts, and the sample is found to comprise IR-luminous galaxies at 1 < z < 3 predominantly powered by star formation. The first spectrum of a 350 micrometer selected galaxy provides an additional confirmation, showing prominent dust grain features typically associated with star-forming galaxies. Compared to submillimeter galaxies selected at 850 and 1100 micrometers, galaxies selected at 350 micrometers have a similar range of far-infrared color temperatures. However, no 350 micrometer selected sources are reliably detected at 850 or 1100 micrometers. Galaxies in our sample with redshifts 1 < z < 2 show a tight correlation between the far- and mid-infrared flux densities, but galaxies at higher redshifts show a large dispersion in their mid- to far-infrared colors. This implies a limit to which the mid-IR emission traces the far-IR emission in star-forming galaxies. The 350 micrometer flux densities (15 < S(sub 350) < 40 mJy) place these objects near the Herschel/SPIRE 350 micrometer confusion threshold, with the lower limit on the star formation rate density suggesting the bulk of the 350 micrometers contribution will come from less luminous infrared sources and normal galaxies. Therefore, the nature of the dominant source of the 350 micrometers background-star-forming galaxies in the epoch of peak star formation in the universe-could be more effectively

  13. Observations of Mg II Absorption near z ~ 1 Galaxies Selected from the DEEP2 Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-10-01

    We study the frequency of Mg II absorption in the outer halos of galaxies at z = 0.6-1.4 (with median z = 0.87), using new spectra obtained of 10 background quasars with galaxy impact parameters of b < 100 kpc. The quasar sight lines were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 QSO catalog based on proximity to galaxies in the DEEP2 redshift survey. In addition to the 10 small impact systems, we examine 40 additional galaxies at 100 kpc < b < 500 kpc serendipitously located in the same fields. We detect Mg II absorbers with equivalent width Wr = 0.15-1.0 Å, though not all absorbers correlate with DEEP galaxies. We find five unique absorbers within Δv = 500 km s-1 and b < 100 kpc of a DEEP galaxy; this small sample contains both early- and late-type galaxies and has no obvious trends with star formation rate. No Mg II is detected more than 100 kpc from galaxies; inside this radius the covering fraction scales with impact parameter and galaxy luminosity in a very similar fashion to samples studied at lower redshift. In all but one case, when Mg II is detected without a spectroscopically confirmed galaxy, there exists a plausible photometric candidate which was excluded because of slit collision or apparent magnitude. We do not detect any strong absorbers with Wr > 1.0 Å, consistent with other samples of galaxy-selected Mg II systems. We speculate that Mg II systems with 0.3 < Wr < 1.0 trace old relic material from galactic outflows and/or the halo assembly process, and that in contrast, systems with large Wr are more likely to reflect the more recent star-forming history of their associated galaxies. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE MILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXY SSA22-AzTEC1: A PROTOQUASAR IN A PROTOCLUSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Y.; Iono, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Kawabe, R.; Wilner, D. J.; Chung, A.; Kajisawa, M.; Hayashino, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Uchimoto, Y. K.; Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Alexander, D. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Matsuda, Y.; Ezawa, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Takata, T.; Hughes, D. H.; Wilson, G. W.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from Submillimeter Array (SMA) 860 {mu}m subarcsecond astrometry and multiwavelength observations of the brightest millimeter (S{sub 1.1mm} = 8.4 mJy) source, SSA22-AzTEC1, found near the core of the SSA22 protocluster that is traced by Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies at z = 3.09. We identify a 860 {mu}m counterpart with a flux density of S{sub 860{sub {mu}m}} = 12.2 {+-} 2.3 mJy and absolute positional accuracy that is better than 0.''3. At the SMA position, we find radio-to-mid-infrared counterparts, whilst no object is found in Subaru optical and near-infrared deep images at wavelengths {<=}1 {mu}m (J > 25.4 in AB, 2{sigma}). The photometric redshift estimate, using flux densities at {>=}24 {mu}m, indicates z{sub phot} = 3.19{sup +0.26}{sub -0.35}, consistent with the protocluster redshift. We then model the near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of SSA22-AzTEC1, and find that the SED modeling requires a large extinction (A{sub V} {approx} 3.4 mag) of starlight from a stellar component with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.9} M{sub sun}, assuming z = 3.1. Additionally, we find a significant X-ray counterpart with a very hard spectrum ({Gamma}{sub eff} = -0.34{sup +0.57}{sub -0.61}), strongly suggesting that SSA22-AzTEC1 harbors a luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L{sub X} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) behind a large hydrogen column (N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). The AGN, however, is responsible for only {approx}10% of the bolometric luminosity of the host galaxy, and therefore the star formation activity likely dominates the submillimeter emission. It is possible that SSA22-AzTEC1 is the first example of a protoquasar growing at the bottom of the gravitational potential underlying the SSA22 protocluster.

  15. A new catalogue of polar-ring galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei V.; Smirnova, Ksenia I.; Smirnova, Aleksandrina A.; Reshetnikov, Vladimir P.

    2011-11-01

    Galaxies with polar rings (PRGs) are a unique class of extragalactic objects. Using these, we can investigate a wide range of problems, linked to the formation and evolution of galaxies, and we can study the properties of their dark haloes. The progress that has been made in the study of PRGs has been constrained by the small number of known objects of this type. The Polar Ring Catalogue (PRC) by Whitmore et al. and their photographic atlas of PRGs and related objects includes 157 galaxies. At present, there are only about two dozen kinematically confirmed galaxies in this PRG class, mostly from the PRC. We present a new catalogue of PRGs, supplementing the PRC and significantly increasing the number of known candidate PRGs. The catalogue is based on the results of the original Galaxy Zoo project. Within this project, volunteers performed visual classifications of nearly a million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Based on the preliminary classifications of the Galaxy Zoo, we viewed more than 40 000 images of the SDSS and selected 275 galaxies to include in our catalogue. Our SDSS-based Polar Ring Catalogue (SPRC) contains 70 galaxies that we have classified as 'the best candidates'. Among these, we expect to have a very high proportion of true PRGs, and 115 good PRG candidates. There are 53 galaxies classified as PRG-related objects (mostly galaxies with strongly warped discs, and mergers). In addition, we have identified 37 galaxies that have their presumed polar rings strongly inclined to the line of sight (seen almost face-on). The SPRC objects are, on average, fainter and are located further away than the galaxies from the PRC, although our catalogue does include dozens of new nearby candidate PRGs. The SPRC significantly increases the number of genuine PRG candidates. It might serve as a good basis for both a further detailed study of individual galaxies and a statistical analysis of PRGs as a separate class of objects. We have performed

  16. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Scarlata, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Dickinson, M.; Jahnke, K.; Salmon, B. W.; deMello, D. F.; Kkocevski, D. D.; Lai, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Rodney, S. A.; Guo, Yicheng

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  17. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDerWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies at redshift z=1.6 - 1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines - with equivalent widths approximately 1000A - in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with approximately 10(exp 8) solar mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous star-burst phase with M*/M* of only approximately 10 Myr. The star formation activity and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10(exp -4) Mpc(exp -3)) imply that strong, short-lived bursts play a significant, perhaps even dominant role in the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies at z greater than 1. The observed star formation activity can produce in less than 5 Gyr the same amount of stellar mass density as is presently contained in dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that the stellar populations of present-day dwarf galaxies formed mainly in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z greater than 1.

  18. Metal enriched gaseous halos around distant radio galaxies: Clues to feedback in galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; van Breugel, W; de Vries, W; Dopita, A; Dey, A; Miley, G; Rottgering, H; Venemans, B; Stanford, S A; Lacy, M; Spinrad, H; Dawson, S; Stern, D; Bunker, A

    2006-08-01

    We present the results of an optical and near-IR spectroscopic study of giant nebular emission line halos associated with three z > 3 radio galaxies, 4C 41.17, 4C 60.07 and B2 0902+34. Previous deep narrow band Ly{alpha} imaging had revealed complex morphologies with sizes up to 100 kpc, possibly connected to outflows and AGN feedback from the central regions. The outer regions of these halos show quiet kinematics with typical velocity dispersions of a few hundred km s{sup -1}, and velocity shears that can mostly be interpreted as being due to rotation. The inner regions show shocked cocoons of gas closely associated with the radio lobes. These display disturbed kinematics and have expansion velocities and/or velocity dispersions >1000 km s{sup -1}. The core region is chemically evolved, and we also find spectroscopic evidence for the ejection of enriched material in 4C 41.17 up to a distance of {approx} 60 kpc along the radio-axis. The dynamical structures traced in the Ly{alpha} line are, in most cases, closely echoed in the Carbon and Oxygen lines. This shows that the Ly{alpha} line is produced in a highly clumped medium of small filling factor, and can therefore be used as a tracer of the dynamics of HzRGs. We conclude that these HzRGs are undergoing a final jet-induced phase of star formation with ejection of most of their interstellar medium before becoming 'red and dead' Elliptical galaxies.

  19. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  20. Low X-Ray Luminosity Galaxy Clusters: Main Goals, Sample Selection, Photometric and Spectroscopic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilo Castellón, José Luis; Alonso, M. Victoria; García Lambas, Diego; Valotto, Carlos; O'Mill, Ana Laura; Cuevas, Héctor; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Ramírez, Amelia; Astudillo, José M.; Ramos, Felipe; Jaque Arancibia, Marcelo; Ulloa, Natalie; Órdenes, Yasna

    2016-06-01

    We present our study of 19 low X-ray luminosity galaxy clusters (L{}X ˜ 0.5-45 × 1043 erg s-1), selected from the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters Pointed Observations and the revised version of Mullis et al. in the redshift range of 0.16-0.7. This is the introductory paper of a series presenting the sample selection, photometric and spectroscopic observations, and data reduction. Photometric data in different passbands were taken for eight galaxy clusters at Las Campanas Observatory; three clusters at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory; and eight clusters at the Gemini Observatory. Spectroscopic data were collected for only four galaxy clusters using Gemini telescopes. Using the photometry, the galaxies were defined based on the star-galaxy separation taking into account photometric parameters. For each galaxy cluster, the catalogs contain the point-spread function and aperture magnitudes of galaxies within the 90% completeness limit. They are used together with structural parameters to study the galaxy morphology and to estimate photometric redshifts. With the spectroscopy, the derived galaxy velocity dispersion of our clusters ranged from 507 km s-1 for [VMF98]022 to 775 km s-1 for [VMF98]097 with signs of substructure. Cluster membership has been extensively discussed taking into account spectroscopic and photometric redshift estimates. In this sense, members are the galaxies within a projected radius of 0.75 Mpc from the X-ray emission peak and with clustercentric velocities smaller than the cluster velocity dispersion or 6000 km s-1, respectively. These results will be used in forthcoming papers to study, among the main topics, the red cluster sequence, blue cloud and green populations, the galaxy luminosity function, and cluster dynamics.

  1. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  2. The effect of surface brightness dimming in the selection of high-z galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Calvi, V.; Stiavelli, M.; Bradley, L.; Pizzella, A.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    Cosmological surface brightness (SB) dimming of the form (1 + z){sup –4} affects all sources. The strong dependence of SB dimming on redshift z suggests the presence of a selection bias when searching for high-z galaxies, i.e., we tend to detect only those galaxies with a high SB. However, unresolved knots of emission are not affected by SB dimming, thus providing a way to test the clumpiness of high-z galaxies. Our strategy relies on the comparison of the total flux detected for the same source in surveys characterized by different depth. For all galaxies, deeper images permit the better investigation of low-SB features. Cosmological SB dimming makes these low-SB features hard to detect when going to higher and higher redshifts. We used the GOODS and HUDF Hubble Space Telescope legacy data sets to study the effect of SB dimming on low-SB features of high-z galaxies and compare it to the prediction for smooth sources. We selected a sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 4 (i.e., B {sub 435}-band dropouts) detected in all of the data sets and found no significant trend when comparing the total magnitudes measured from images with different depth. Through Monte Carlo simulations we derived the expected trend for galaxies with different SB profiles. The comparison to the data hints at a compact distribution for most of the rest-frame ultraviolet light emitted from high-z galaxies.

  3. A Photometrically Selected Galaxy Cluster Catalog from the SDSS DR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, B. P.; McKay, T. A.; Evrard, A. E.; Becker, M.; Bleem, L.; Annis, J.; Wechsler, R. H.; Sheldon, E. S.; Johnston, D.; Scranton, R.; Miller, C. J.; Nichol, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    We present an overview of a new BCG/red-sequence galaxy cluster catalog drawn from the Data Release 4 sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. Galaxy clusters are selected by calculating the likelihood that each observed galaxy is a brightest cluster galaxy based on its color and magnitude, along with the degree to which galaxies cluster around it in color, magnitude, and space. This method provides a list of cluster locations together with estimates of their total galaxy content and accurate photometric redshifts (σ z < 0.02). The catalog covers the range 0.1 < z < 0.3 and includes 50,000 objects containing ten or more galaxies brighter than 0.4 L*. It successfully recovers luminous X-ray clusters, optically-selected clusters, and massive halos in mock galaxy catalogs with a low false-positive rate. Further details of the cluster finding algorithm and its performance, together with a description of the properties of the derived catalog will be presented.

  4. Clustering of the AKARI NEP Deep Field mid infrared selected galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarz, Aleksandra; Pollo, Agnieszka; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    We present a method of selection of 24 μm galaxies from the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Deep Field and measurements of their two-point correlation function. We aim to associate different 24 μm selected galaxy populations with present day galaxies, and to investigate the impact of their environment on the direction of their subsequent evolution. We discuss the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithms applied to infrared photometric data to perform star-galaxy separation, in which we achieve an accuracy > 80%. We explore the redshift dependance of the correlation function parameters as well as the linear bias evolution (which relates galaxy distribution to the one of the underlying dark matter). We find that the bias parameter increases slowly with redshift, from b = 0.9 at z < 0.5 to b ˜ 1.9 at z ˜ 1.1. Total infrared luminosities (L_{TIR}) found for different samples, suggest that galaxies with higher L_{TIR} do not necessarily reside in higher mass dark matter halos. We find that luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at z˜1 can be ancestors of present day L_{*} early type galaxies.

  5. HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Comparing Physical Properties of Lyman Alpha and Optical Emission Line Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Behrens, Christoph; Ciardullo, Robin; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna S.; Fox, Derek B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Chonis, Taylor S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, Gary J.; Jogee, Shardha; Gawiser, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We compare the physical and morphological properties of z ˜ 2 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) identified in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow band studies with those of z ˜ 2 optical emission line selected galaxies (oELGs) identified via HST WFC3 infrared grism spectroscopy. Both sets of galaxies extend over the same range in stellar mass (7.5\\lt {log}M/{M}⊙ \\lt 10.5), size (0.5 < R < 3.0 kpc), and star formation rate (˜ 1\\lt {{SFR}}\\lt 100 {M}⊙ yr-1). Remarkably, a comparison of the most commonly used physical and morphological parameters—stellar mass, half-light radius, UV slope, SFR, ellipticity, nearest neighbor distance, star formation surface density, specific SFR, [O iii] luminosity, and [O iii] equivalent width—reveals no statistically significant differences between the populations. This suggests that the processes and conditions which regulate the escape of Lyα from a z ˜ 2 star-forming galaxy do not depend on these quantities. In particular, the lack of dependence on the UV slope suggests that Lyα emission is not being significantly modulated by diffuse dust in the interstellar medium. We develop a simple model of Lyα emission that connects LAEs to all high-redshift star-forming galaxies where the escape of Lyα depends on the sightline through the galaxy. Using this model, we find that mean solid angle for Lyα escape is {{{Ω }}}{{Ly}α }=2.4+/- 0.8 steradians; this value is consistent with those calculated from other studies.

  6. Gravitational lensing frequencies - Galaxy cross-sections and selection effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukugita, Masataka; Turner, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Four issues - (1) the best currently available data on the galaxy velocity-dispersion distribution, (2) the effects of finite core radii potential ellipticity on lensing cross sections, (3) the predicted distribution of lens image separations compared to observational angular resolutions, and (4) the preferential inclusion of lens systems in flux limited samples - are considered in order to facilitate more realistic predictions of multiple image galaxy-quasar lensing frequencies. It is found that (1) the SIS lensing parameter F equals 0.047 +/-0.019 with almost 90 percent contributed by E and S0 galaxies, (2) observed E and S0 core radii are remarkably small, yielding a factor of less than about 2 reduction in total lensing cross sections, (3) 50 percent of galaxy-quasar lenses have image separations greater than about 1.3 arcsec, and (4) amplification bias factors are large and must be carefully taken into account. It is concluded that flat universe models excessively dominated by the cosmological constant are not favored by the small observed galaxy-quasar lensing rate.

  7. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.; Bekeraité, S.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera Ballesteros, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; del Olmo, A.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Jilkova, L.; Kalinova, V.; Mast, D.; Marino, R. A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pasquali, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Trager, S.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Castillo Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; González-Delgado, R. M.; Jahnke, K.; Jungwiert, B.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Márquez Perez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal Ibero, A.; Pérez, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Tundo, E.; van de Ven, G.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Vilchez, J. V.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe and discuss the selection procedure and statistical properties of the galaxy sample used by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, a public legacy survey of 600 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy. The CALIFA "mother sample" was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 photometric catalogue to include all galaxies with an r-band isophotal major axis between 45'' and 79.2'' and with a redshift 0.005 < z < 0.03. The mother sample contains 939 objects, 600 of which will be observed in the course of the CALIFA survey. The selection of targets for observations is based solely on visibility and thus keeps the statistical properties of the mother sample. By comparison with a large set of SDSS galaxies, we find that the CALIFA sample is representative of galaxies over a luminosity range of -19 > Mr > -23.1 and over a stellar mass range between 109.7 and 1011.4 M⊙. In particular, within these ranges, the diameter selection does not lead to any significant bias against - or in favour of - intrinsically large or small galaxies. Only below luminosities of Mr = -19 (or stellar masses <109.7 M⊙) is there a prevalence of galaxies with larger isophotal sizes, especially of nearly edge-on late-type galaxies, but such galaxies form <10% of the full sample. We estimate volume-corrected distribution functions in luminosities and sizes and show that these are statistically fully compatible with estimates from the full SDSS when accounting for large-scale structure. For full characterization of the sample, we also present a number of value-added quantities determined for the galaxies in the CALIFA sample. These include consistent multi-band photometry based on growth curve analyses; stellar masses; distances and quantities derived from these; morphological classifications; and an overview of available multi-wavelength photometric measurements. We also explore different ways of characterizing the environments of CALIFA galaxies

  8. Selections from 2015: Discovery of Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma ClusterPublished January 2015Main takeaway:Using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered 47 ultra-diffuse galaxies in the Coma galaxy cluster. These galaxies are very large, with half-light (effective) radii of 1.54.6 kpc, similar to that of the Milky Ways disk. But their stellar masses are a factor of 1000 lower than the Milky Ways, and theyre accordingly much dimmer.Plot of the effective radius versus the central surface brightness for the ultra-diffuse Coma cluster galaxies (red markers). These galaxies are similar in size to the Milky Ways disk (blue), but significantly dimmer. [Van Dokkum et al. 2015]Why its interesting:These galaxies make up an odd population. Why are their stellar masses so low? The authors posit that these objects may be failed galaxies that lost their gas after having formed their first generation of stars. Adding to the intrigue, the authors find that in order for these galaxies to hold themselves together at their current distance from the cluster core, they must have a whopping dark-matter fraction of 98%.About the discovery:These ultra-diffuse galaxies were actually discovered entirely by accident. Van Dokkum and collaborators observed the Coma cluster in a project to measure properties of the intra-cluster light and look for streams and tidal features. Surprisingly, their images revealed these faint, uncataloged galaxies.CitationPieter G. van Dokkum et al 2015 ApJ 798 L45. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/2/L45

  9. A SPITZER-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.62

    SciTech Connect

    Papovich, C.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Tran, K.-V.; Momcheva, I.; McCarthy, P.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Rieke, M.; Sivanandam, S.; Brodwin, M.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Farrah, D.; Khan, S. A.; Lotz, J.; Rudnick, G.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.

    2010-06-20

    We report the discovery of a galaxy cluster at z = 1.62 located in the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey XMM-LSS field. This structure was selected solely as an overdensity of galaxies with red Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera colors, satisfying ([3.6] - [4.5]){sub AB}> - 0.1 mag. Photometric redshifts derived from the Subaru XMM Deep Survey (BViz bands), the UKIRT Infrared Deep Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UKIDSS-UDS, JK bands), and from the Spitzer Public UDS survey (3.6-8.0 {mu}m) show that this cluster corresponds to a surface density of galaxies at z {approx} 1.6 that is >20{sigma} above the mean at this redshift. We obtained optical spectroscopic observations of galaxies in the cluster region using IMACS on the Magellan telescope. We measured redshifts for seven galaxies in the range z = 1.62-1.63 within 2.8 arcmin (<1.4 Mpc) of the astrometric center of the cluster. A posteriori analysis of the XMM data in this field reveal a weak (4{sigma}) detection in the [0.5-2 keV] band compatible with the expected thermal emission from such a cluster. The color-magnitude diagram of the galaxies in this cluster shows a prominent red sequence, dominated by a population of red galaxies with (z - J)>1.7 mag. The photometric-redshift probability distributions for the red galaxies are strongly peaked at z = 1.62, coincident with the spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. The rest-frame (U - B) color and scatter of galaxies on the red sequence are consistent with a mean luminosity-weighted age of 1.2 {+-} 0.1 Gyr, yielding a formation redshift z-bar{sub f}=2.35{+-}0.10, and corresponding to the last significant star formation period in these galaxies.

  10. HALO GAS AND GALAXY DISK KINEMATICS DERIVED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND LAMBDACDM SIMULATIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION-SELECTED GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Murphy, Michael T.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Ceverino, Daniel; Klypin, Anatoly; Steidel, Charles C. E-mail: mmurphy@astro.swin.edu.a E-mail: ceverino@nmsu.ed E-mail: ceverino@phys.huji.ac.i

    2010-03-10

    We obtained ESI/Keck rotation curves of 10 Mg II absorption-selected galaxies (0.3 <= z <= 1.0) for which we have WFPC-2/HST images and high-resolution HIRES/Keck and UVES/VLT quasar spectra of the Mg II absorption profiles. We perform a kinematic comparison of these galaxies and their associated halo Mg II absorption. For all 10 galaxies, the majority of the absorption velocities lie in the range of the observed galaxy rotation velocities. In 7/10 cases, the absorption velocities reside fully to one side of the galaxy systemic velocity and usually align with one arm of the rotation curve. In all cases, a constant rotating thick-disk model poorly reproduces the full spread of observed Mg II absorption velocities when reasonably realistic parameters are employed. In 2/10 cases, the galaxy kinematics, star formation surface densities, and absorption kinematics have a resemblance to those of high-redshift galaxies showing strong outflows. We find that Mg II absorption velocity spread and optical depth distribution may be dependent on galaxy inclination. To further aid in the spatial-kinematic relationships of the data, we apply quasar absorption-line techniques to a galaxy (v{sub c} = 180 km s{sup -1}) embedded in LAMBDACDM simulations. In the simulations, Mg II absorption selects metal-enriched 'halo' gas out to {approx}100 kpc from the galaxy, tidal streams, filaments, and small satellite galaxies. Within the limitations inherent in the simulations, the majority of the simulated Mg II absorption arises in the filaments and tidal streams and is infalling toward the galaxy with velocities between -200 km s{sup -1} <= v{sub r} <= -180 km s{sup -1}. The Mg II absorption velocity offset distribution (relative to the simulated galaxy) spans {approx}200 km s{sup -1} with the lowest frequency of detecting Mg II at the galaxy systematic velocity.

  11. SHELS: OPTICAL SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF WISE 22 {mu}m SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: dfabricant@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-10-10

    We use a dense, complete redshift survey, the Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS), covering a 4 deg{sup 2} region of a deep imaging survey, the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), to study the optical spectral properties of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 {mu}m selected galaxies. Among 507 WISE 22 {mu}m selected sources with (S/N){sub 22{mu}m} {>=} 3 ( Almost-Equal-To S{sub 22{mu}m} {approx}> 2.5 mJy), we identify the optical counterparts of 481 sources ({approx}98%) at R < 25.2 in the very deep, DLS R-band source catalog. Among them, 337 galaxies at R < 21 have SHELS spectroscopic data. Most of these objects are at z < 0.8. The infrared (IR) luminosities are in the range 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}(L{sub Sun }) {approx}< L{sub IR} {approx}< 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}(L{sub Sun }). Most 22 {mu}m selected galaxies are dusty star-forming galaxies with a small (<1.5) 4000 A break. The stacked spectra of the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies binned in IR luminosity show that the strength of the [O III] line relative to H{beta} grows with increasing IR luminosity. The optical spectra of the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies also show that there are some ({approx}2.8%) unusual galaxies with very strong [Ne III] {lambda}3869, 3968 emission lines that require hard ionizing radiation such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or extremely young massive stars. The specific star formation rates (sSFRs) derived from the 3.6 and 22 {mu}m flux densities are enhanced if the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies have close late-type neighbors. The sSFR distribution of the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies containing AGNs is similar to the distribution for star-forming galaxies without AGNs. We identify 48 dust-obscured galaxy candidates with large ({approx}> 1000) mid-IR to optical flux density ratio. The combination of deep photometric and spectroscopic data with WISE data suggests that WISE can probe the universe to z {approx} 2.

  12. HSC Weak Lensing Measurement of ACTPol SZ-selected Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hironao; HSC Collaboration; ACTPol Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Although the abundance of galaxy clusters is one of the most powerful cosmological probes, the precision of abundance measurement is currently limited by systematic uncertainties in cluster mass calibration. Weak gravitational lensing is a valuable tool to calibrate cluster mass, since it directly probes the dark matter distribution without physical assumptions such as hydrostatic equilibrium. In this talk, combining the cutting-edge optical and microwave data from Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) and ACTPol, we report the weak lensing mass measurement of galaxy clusters selected based on thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Thanks to the high number density of source galaxies, we obtain a stacked weak lensing signal with a signal to noise ratio of ~20. We present detailed systematic tests such as background galaxy selection as well as a comparison of our mass calibration to previous results in the literature.

  13. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. W.

    2014-09-01

    Extremely Red Objects (EROs) and BzKs continue to attract considerable interest. It has been suggested that they may be the direct progenitors of present-day massive E/S0 galaxies, and can provide crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. Therefore, the key question is to measure the relative fraction of OGs (old galaxies) and DGs (young, and dusty starburst galaxies) in the sample of EROs. Many groups have been currently investigating the fractions of these two ERO populations using a variety of observational approaches, but the fraction of OGs and DGs from different surveys is different. In the meantime, a number of observations suggest that the epoch of z˜2 also plays an important role in galaxy formation and evolution for various reasons: the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) begins to drop at z˜2 from a flat plateau at higher redshifts; the morphological type mix of field galaxies changes remarkably at z˜2; the number density of QSOs has a peak at z˜2; and about 50% to 70% of the stellar mass assembly of galaxies took place in the redshift range 1galaxies at z˜2 in the AEGIS field, and (3) the mid-infrared spectroscopy and multi-wavelength study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z˜2 in the AEGIS field. Chapter 1 gives a brief review on the research progresses of EROs at z˜1, BzKs at z˜2, and ULIRGs at z˜2, respectively. In Chapter 2 we present a quantitative study of the classification of EROs in the UDF and COSMOS field. Our sample includes 5264 (COSMOS, K_{Vega} ≤19.2) and 24 EROs (UDF, K_{Vega}≤22.0) with (i-K)_{AB}≥2.45. Using the fitting method of spectral energy distribution (SED), [3.6]-[8.0] color, and the nonparametric measures of galaxy morphology, we classify EROs into two classes: DGs and OGs. We find

  14. High–frequency cluster radio galaxies: Luminosity functions and implications for SZE–selected cluster samples

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Nikhel; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; ...

    2017-01-15

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; < z > = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) signal, which ismore » negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass–observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. As a result, allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z)2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.« less

  15. High Frequency Cluster Radio Galaxies: Luminosity Functions and Implications for SZE Selected Cluster Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Benson, B. A.; Bocquet, S.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chiu, I.; Crawford, T. M.; de Haan, T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Gangkofner, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; McDonald, M.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the Meta-Catalog of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC; = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multi-frequency catalog of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) signal, which is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogs. We find that the high frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass-observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 percent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. Allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z)2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 percent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.

  16. High-frequency cluster radio galaxies: luminosity functions and implications for SZE-selected cluster samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Benson, B. A.; Bocquet, S.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chiu, I.; Crawford, T. M.; de Haan, T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Gangkofner, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; McDonald, M.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.

    2017-05-01

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) signal, which is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass-observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. Allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z)2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.

  17. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya; Stern, Daniel; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Hathi, Nimish; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Kuemmel, Martin; Meurer, Gerhardt; and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  18. LoCuSS: exploring the selection of faint blue background galaxies for cluster weak-lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziparo, Felicia; Smith, Graham P.; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Haines, Chris P.; Pereira, Maria J.; Egami, Eiichi

    2016-12-01

    Cosmological constraints from galaxy clusters rely on accurate measurements of the mass and internal structure of clusters. An important source of systematic uncertainty in cluster mass and structure measurements is the secure selection of background galaxies that are gravitationally lensed by clusters. This issue has been shown to be particular severe for faint blue galaxies. We therefore explore the selection of faint blue background galaxies, by reference to photometric redshift catalogues derived from the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and our own observations of massive galaxy clusters at z ≃ 0.2. We show that methods relying on photometric redshifts of galaxies in/behind clusters based on observations through five filters, and on deep 30-band COSMOS photometric redshifts are both inadequate to identify safely faint blue background galaxies with the same 1 per cent contamination level that we have achieved with red galaxies. This is due to the small number of filters used by the former, and absence of massive galaxy clusters at redshifts of interest in the latter. Nevertheless, our least contaminated blue galaxy sample yields stacked weak-lensing results consistent with our previously published results based on red galaxies, and we show that the stacked clustercentric number density profile of these faint blue galaxies is consistent with expectations from consideration of the lens magnification signal of the clusters. Indeed, the observed number density of blue background galaxies changes by ˜10-30 per cent across the radial range over which other surveys assume it to be flat.

  19. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Laura J.; Blain, A. W.; Smail, Ian; Frayer, D. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M. E-mail: ljh@astro.umd.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present Spitzer-IRAC and MIPS mid-IR observations of a sample of 73 radio-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) with spectroscopic redshifts, the largest such sample published to date. From our data, we find that IRAC colors of SMGs are much more uniform as compared with rest-frame UV and optical colors, and z>1.5 SMGs tend to be redder in their mid-IR colors than both field galaxies and lower-z SMGs. However, the IRAC colors of the SMGs overlap those of field galaxies sufficiently that color-magnitude and color-color selection criteria suggested in the literature to identify SMG counterparts produce ambiguous counterparts within an 8'' radius in 20%-35% of cases. We use a rest-frame J-H versus H-K color-color diagram and a S {sub 24}/S {sub 8.0} versus S {sub 8.0}/S {sub 4.5} color-color diagram to determine that 13%-19% of our sample are likely to contain active galactic nuclei which dominate their mid-IR emission. We observe in the rest-frame JHK colors of our sample that the rest-frame near-IR emission of SMGs does not resemble that of the compact nuclear starburst observed in local ultraluminous IR galaxies and is consistent with more widely distributed star formation. We take advantage of the fact that many high-z galaxy populations selected at different wavelengths are detected by Spitzer to carry out a brief comparison of mid-IR properties of SMGs to UV-selected high-z galaxies, 24 {mu}m-selected galaxies, and high-z radio galaxies, and find that SMGs have mid-IR fluxes and colors which are consistent with being more massive and more reddened than UV-selected galaxies, while the IRAC colors of SMGs are most similar to powerful high-z radio galaxies.

  20. Radio Selection of the Most Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daddi, E.; Jin, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Wang, T.; Ferrari, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Calabró, A.; Coogan, R.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Gu, Q.; Liu, D.; Novak, M.; Valentino, F.

    2017-09-01

    We show that the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date, Cl J1001 at {z}{spec}=2.506, hosts a strong overdensity of radio sources. Six of them are individually detected (within 10\\prime\\prime ) in deep 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 75 resolution VLA 3 GHz imaging, with {S}3{GHz}> 8 μ {Jy}. Of the six, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) likely affects the radio emission in two galaxies, while star formation is the dominant source powering the remaining four. We searched for cluster candidates over the full COSMOS 2 deg2 field using radio-detected 3 GHz sources and looking for peaks in {{{Σ }}}5 density maps. Cl J1001 is the strongest overdensity by far with > 10σ , with a simple {z}{phot}> 1.5 preselection. A cruder photometric rejection of z< 1 radio foregrounds leaves Cl J1001 as the second strongest overdensity, while even using all radio sources Cl J1001 remains among the four strongest projected overdensities. We conclude that there are great prospects for future deep and wide-area radio surveys to discover large samples of the first generation of forming galaxy clusters. In these remarkable structures, widespread star formation and AGN activity of massive galaxy cluster members, residing within the inner cluster core, will ultimately lead to radio continuum as one of the most effective means for their identification, with detection rates expected in the ballpark of 0.1–1 per square degree at z≳ 2.5. Samples of hundreds such high-redshift clusters could potentially constrain cosmological parameters and test cluster and galaxy formation models.

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERGALACTIC H I/O VI AND NEARBY (z < 0.017) GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wakker, B. P.; Savage, B. D.

    2009-05-15

    We analyze intergalactic H I and O VI absorbers with v < 5000 km s{sup -1} in Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectra of 76 active galactic nuclei. The baryons traced by H I/O VI absorption are clearly associated with the extended surroundings of galaxies; for impact parameters <400 kpc they are 2-4 times more numerous as those inside the galaxies. This large reservoir of matter likely plays a major role in galaxy evolution. We tabulate the fraction of absorbers having a galaxy of a given luminosity within a given impact parameter ({rho}) and velocity difference ({delta}v), as well as the fraction of galaxies with an absorber closer than a given {rho} and {delta}v. We identify possible 'void absorbers' ({rho} > 3 Mpc to the nearest L{sub *} galaxy), although at v < 2500 km s{sup -1} all absorbers are within 1.5 Mpc of an L>0.1 L{sub *} galaxy. The absorber properties depend on {rho}, but the relations are not simple correlations. For four absorbers with {rho} = 50-350 kpc from an edge-on galaxy with known orientation of its rotation, we find no clear relation between absorber velocities and the rotation curve of the underlying galaxy. For {rho} < 350 kpc, the covering factor of Ly{alpha} (O VI) around L>0.1 L {sub *} galaxies is 100% (70%) for field galaxies and 65% (10%) for group galaxies; 50% of galaxy groups have associated Ly{alpha}. All O VI absorbers occur within 550 kpc of an L>0.25 L{sub *} galaxy. The properties of three of 14 O VI absorbers are consistent with photoionization, for five the evidence points to collisional ionization; the others are ambiguous. The fraction of broad Ly{alpha} lines increases from z = 3 to z = 0 and with decreasing impact parameter, consistent with the idea that gas inside {approx}500 kpc from galaxies is heating up, although alternative explanations cannot be clearly excluded.

  2. Photometric Selection of a Massive Galaxy Catalog with z ≥ 0.55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Carolina; Spergel, David N.; Ho, Shirley

    2017-02-01

    We present the development of a photometrically selected massive galaxy catalog, targeting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and massive blue galaxies at redshifts of z≥slant 0.55. Massive galaxy candidates are selected using infrared/optical color–color cuts, with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and infrared data from “unWISE” forced photometry derived from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The selection method is based on previously developed techniques to select LRGs with z> 0.5, and is optimized using receiver operating characteristic curves. The catalog contains 16,191,145 objects, selected over the full SDSS DR10 footprint. The redshift distribution of the resulting catalog is estimated using spectroscopic redshifts from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey and photometric redshifts from COSMOS. Restframe U ‑ B colors from DEEP2 are used to estimate LRG selection efficiency. Using DEEP2, the resulting catalog has an average redshift of z = 0.65, with a standard deviation of σ =2.0, and an average restframe of U-B=1.0, with a standard deviation of σ =0.27. Using COSMOS, the resulting catalog has an average redshift of z = 0.60, with a standard deviation of σ =1.8. We estimate 34 % of the catalog to be blue galaxies with z≥slant 0.55. An estimated 9.6 % of selected objects are blue sources with redshift z< 0.55. Stellar contamination is estimated to be 1.8%.

  3. Ultra-flat galaxies selected from RFGC catalog. III. Star formation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnyk, O. V.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the star formation properties of galaxies with very thin disks selected from the Revised FlatGalaxy Catalog (RFGC). The sample contains 333 ultra-flat galaxies (UFG) at high Galactic latitudes, |b| > 10°, with a blue major angular diameter of a ≥ 1.'2, blue and red apparent axial ratios of ( a/b)b > 10, ( a/b)r > 8.5 and radial velocities within 10 000 kms-1. As a control sample for them we use a population of 722 more thick RFGC galaxies with ( a/b)b > 7, situated in the same volume. The UFG distribution over the sky indicates them as a population of quite isolated galaxies.We found that the specific star formation rate, sSFR FUV, determined via the FUV GALEX flux, increases steadily from the early type to late type disks for both the UFG and RFGC-UFG samples, showing no significant mutual difference within each morphological type T. The population of UFG disks has the average HI-mass-to-stellarmass ratio by (0.25 ± 0.03) dex higher than that of RFGC-UFG galaxies. Being compared with arbitrary orientated disks of the same type, the ultra-flat edge-on galaxies reveal that their total HI mass is hidden by self-absorption on the average by approximately 0.20 dex.We demonstrate that using the robust stellar mass estimate via < B-K>-color and galaxy type T for the thin disks, together with a nowaday accounting for internal extinction, yields their sSFR quantities definitely lying below the limit of -9.4 dex (yr-1). The collected observational data on UFG disks imply that their average star formation rate in the past has been approximately three times the current SFR. The UFG galaxies have also sufficient amount of gas to support their observed SFR over the following nearly 9 Gyrs.

  4. THE DWARF STARBURST HOST GALAXY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT z = 1.55 FROM CANDELS

    SciTech Connect

    Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Hjorth, Jens; Maund, Justyn R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Dahlen, Tomas; Mobasher, Bahram

    2012-12-01

    We present VLT/X-shooter observations of a high-redshift, Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) host galaxy, discovered with HST/WFC3 as part of the CANDELS Supernova project. The galaxy exhibits strong emission lines of Ly{alpha}, [O II], H{beta}, [O III], and H{alpha} at z = 1.54992{sup +0.00008} {sub -0.00004}. From the emission-line fluxes and spectral energy distribution fitting of broadband photometry we rule out activity from an active galactic nucleus and characterize the host galaxy as a young, low-mass, metal-poor, starburst galaxy with low intrinsic extinction and high Ly{alpha} escape fraction. The host galaxy stands out in terms of the star formation, stellar mass, and metallicity compared to its lower redshift counterparts, mainly because of its high specific star formation rate. If valid for a larger sample of high-redshift SN Ia host galaxies, such changes in the host galaxy properties with redshift are of interest because of the potential impact on the use of SN Ia as standard candles in cosmology.

  5. THE ABUNDANCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 8.5-12: NEW RESULTS FROM THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Koekemoer, Anton; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-20

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z {approx_equal} 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This 'UDF12' campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 < z < 10 are confirmed by our deeper multi-band imaging, our campaign has transformed the measured abundance of galaxies in this redshift range. Although we recover the candidate UDFj-39546284 (previously proposed at z = 10.3), it is undetected in the newly added F140W image, implying that it lies at z = 11.9 or is an intense emission line galaxy at z {approx_equal} 2.4. Although no physically plausible model can explain the required line intensity given the lack of Ly{alpha} or broadband UV signal, without an infrared spectrum we cannot rule out an exotic interloper. Regardless, our robust z {approx_equal} 8.5-10 sample demonstrates a luminosity density that continues the smooth decline observed over 6 < z < 8. Such continuity has important implications for models of cosmic reionization and future searches for z >10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  6. The morphology of nine radio-selected faint galaxies from deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Nathan D.; Lowenthal, James D.; Koo, David C.

    2002-12-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 we perform deep I-band imaging of nine radio-selected [F(8.5 GHz) >=14 μJy] faint galaxies from the Roche, Lowenthal & Koo (2002) sample. Two are also observed in V using HST STIS. Six of the galaxies have known redshifts, in the range 0.4 < z < 1.0. Radial intensity profiles indicate that seven are disc galaxies and two are bulge-dominated. Four of the six with redshifts have a high optical surface brightness in comparison with previous studies of disc galaxies at similar redshifts (e.g. Lilly et al. 1998). The HST imaging reveals that two of the nine galaxies are in close interacting pairs and another five show morphological evidence of recent interactions - two are very asymmetric (Aasym~ 0.4) and three have large, luminous rings resembling the collisional starburst rings in the Cartwheel galaxy. For the two ring galaxies with redshifts, we measure ring radii of 7.05 and 10.0 h-150 kpc, which suggest post-collision ages 0.1-0.2 Gyr. One has a fainter inner ring, like the original Cartwheel. The remaining two appear to be late-type barred galaxies and relatively undisturbed. Our HST imaging confirms the high incidence of interactions and dynamical disturbance in faint radio-selected galaxies, as reported by Windhorst et al. and Serjeant et al., for example. In the great majority of these galaxies the high radio luminosities are probably the result of interaction-triggered starbursts. However, one interacting galaxy is a very radio-luminous giant elliptical, with red V-I colours, a normal surface brightness and no evidence of star-forming regions, so its radio source is probably an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). The mixture of observed morphologies suggests that enhanced radio luminosities often persist to a late stage of interaction, i.e. at least ~0.2 Gyr after the perigalactic encounter.

  7. Herschel-ATLAS: far-infrared properties of radio-selected galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, M. J.; Virdee, J. S.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D. G.; Dunne, L.; Rawlings, S.; Stevens, J. A.; Christopher, N. M.; Heywood, I.; Mauch, T.; Rigopoulou, D.; Verma, A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S. M.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hill, D. T.; Hughes, D.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jones, D. H.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Norberg, P.; Pohlen, M.; Prescott, M.; Rigby, E. E.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Sharp, R.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van Kampen, E.

    2010-11-01

    We use the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) science demonstration data to investigate the star formation properties of radio-selected galaxies in the GAMA-9h field as a function of radio luminosity and redshift. Radio selection at the lowest radio luminosities, as expected, selects mostly starburst galaxies. At higher radio luminosities, where the population is dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN), we find that some individual objects are associated with high far-infrared luminosities. However, the far-infrared properties of the radio-loud population are statistically indistinguishable from those of a comparison population of radio-quiet galaxies matched in redshift and K-band absolute magnitude. There is thus no evidence that the host galaxies of these largely low-luminosity (Fanaroff-Riley class I), and presumably low-excitation, AGN, as a population, have particularly unusual star formation histories. Models in which the AGN activity in higher luminosity, high-excitation radio galaxies is triggered by major mergers would predict a luminosity-dependent effect that is not seen in our data (which only span a limited range in radio luminosity) but which may well be detectable with the full Herschel-ATLAS data set. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. E-mail: m.j.hardcastle@herts.ac.uk

  8. XMM-Newton Observations of the Heavily Absorbed Seyfert 1 Galaxy IC 4329A

    SciTech Connect

    Steenbrugge, K.

    2005-01-05

    We detect seven distinct absorbing systems in the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IC 4329A, taken with XMM-Newton. Firstly we detect absorption due to cold gas in our own Galaxy and warm gas in the Galactic halo or the Local Group. This local warm gas is only detected through O VII absorption, from which we deduce a temperature between 0.03 and 0.2 keV. In IC 4329A we detect absorption from the host galaxy as well as from a warm absorber, close to the nucleus, which has 4 components. The absorption from the host galaxy is well modeled by neutral material. The warm absorber detected in IC 4329A is photoionized and has an ionization range between log {xi} = -1.37 and log {xi} = 2.7. A broad excess is measured at the O VIII Ly{alpha} and N VII Ly{alpha} emission lines, which can be modeled by either disklines or multiple Gaussians. From the lightcurve we find that the source changed luminosity by about 20 % over the 140 ks observation, while the spectral shape, i.e. the softness ratio did not vary. In the EPIC spectra a narrow Fe K{alpha} and Fe XXVI Ly{alpha} emission line are detected. The narrowness of the Fe K{alpha} line and the fact that there is no evidence for flux variability between different observations leads us to conclude that the Fe K{alpha} line is formed at a large distance from the central black hole.

  9. a Snapshot Survey of X-Ray Selected Central Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Alastair

    1999-07-01

    Central cluster galaxies are the most massive stellar systems known and have been used as standard candles for many decades. Only recently have central cluster galaxies been recognised to exhibit a wide variety of small scale {<100 pc} features that can only be reliably detected with HST resolution. The most intriguing of these are dust lanes which have been detected in many central cluster galaxies. Dust is not expected to survive long in the hostile cluster environment unless shielded by the ISM of a disk galaxy or very dense clouds of cold gas. WFPC2 snapshot images of a representative subset of the central cluster galaxies from an X-ray selected cluster sample would provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of dust in cluster cores that cannot be obtained from ground-based observations. In addition, these images will allow the AGN component, the frequency of multiple nuclei, and the amount of massive-star formation in central cluster galaxies to be ass es sed. The proposed HST observatio ns would also provide high-resolution images of previously unresolved gravitational arcs in the most massive clusters in our sample resulting in constraints on the shape of the gravitational potential of these systems. This project will complement our extensive multi-frequency work on this sample that includes optical spectroscopy and photometry, VLA and X-ray images for the majority of the 210 targets.

  10. Soft Gamma-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, Francesca; Bassani, Loredana

    2016-07-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample consists of known and candidate radio galaxies. The sample extraction criteria will be presented and its general properties outlined. In particular we provide strong evidence that this soft gamma-ray selection favours the discovery of large size radio objects, otherwise known as Giant Radio Galaxies or GRG. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these sources are still unclear and this result suggests that they maybe related to exceptional internal properties of the source central engine, like a high jet power or a long activity time. Broad band analysis of new GRG, discovered during this work, will also be presented.

  11. Spectroscopic Properties of Selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies from the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Amy M.; Carroll, P.; Roberts, R.; Wong, N.; Liu, C.

    2007-12-01

    We present properties of seven blue narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs) in the redshift range 0.25 < z < 0.73, initially selected as QSO candidates in the COSMOS 2-degree survey field. These galaxies have been selected for the high signal-to-noise of their spectra, as indicated by the presence of the emission line [NeIII] 3869 Angstroms. Emission line diagnostics are used to measure metallicities and star formation rates, and to test the presence of AGN. Hubble ACS images are used to measure their surface brightness distributions and quantitative morphologies. Preliminary results indicate that these objects are forming stars at a rate of 4 to 20 solar masses per year; and their metallicity appears not to vary with the galaxy's concentration index which ranges 0.42 to 0.63.

  12. HALO GAS CROSS SECTIONS AND COVERING FRACTIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.; Murphy, Michael T. E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu E-mail: mmurphy@astro.swin.edu.au

    2008-03-15

    We examine halo gas cross sections and covering fractions, f{sub c} , of intermediate-redshift Mg II absorption selected galaxies. We computed statistical absorber halo radii, R{sub x}, using current values of dN/dz and Schechter luminosity function parameters, and have compared these values to the distribution of impact parameters and luminosities from a sample of 37 galaxies. For equivalent widths W{sub r}(2796) {>=} 0.3 A, we find 43 {<=} R{sub x} {<=} 88 kpc, depending on the lower luminosity cutoff and the slope, {beta}, of the Holmberg-like luminosity scaling, R {proportional_to} L{sup {beta}}. The observed distribution of impact parameters, D, are such that several absorbing galaxies lie at D>R{sub x} and several non-absorbing galaxies lie at D < R{sub x}. We deduced that f{sub c} must be less than unity and obtain a mean of {approx} 0.5 for our sample. Moreover, the data suggest that halo radii of Mg II absorbing galaxies do not follow a luminosity scaling with {beta} in the range of 0.2-0.28, if f{sub c} = 1 as previously reported. However, provided f{sub c} {approx} 0.5, we find that halo radii can remain consistent with a Holmberg-like luminosity relation with {beta} {approx_equal} 0.2 and R{sub *}= R{sub x}/{radical}(f{sub c}){approx}110 kpc. No luminosity scaling ({beta} = 0) is also consistent with the observed distribution of impact parameters if f{sub c} {<=} 0.37. The data support a scenario in which gaseous halos are patchy and likely have non-symmetric geometric distributions about the galaxies. We suggest that halo gas distributions may not be governed primarily by galaxy mass/luminosity but also by stochastic processes local to the galaxy.

  13. Extending ALFALFA: Reducing L-Band Wide Observations of Optically Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Observations of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster were completed at the Arecibo Observatory in the spring and summer of 2015. 161 targets were observed, selected by photometry criteria such as magnitude and shape from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The targets, some too dim to be detected by Arecibo's ALFA drift scanner, were observed with the L-Band Wide detector. Once reductions in an IDL environment were done, these data were matched to the targets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the GALEX/MAST catalog. 115 of the 161 targets observed had positive detections, a 71% success rate. Comparing the galaxies that were detected against the galaxies that were not detected (by the L-Band Wide receiver) will allow us to refine our method of using photometric data to select HI-rich galaxies in the 2000 km/s to 9000 km/s range to refine our selection for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS), which uses the same method of target selection.

  14. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Melbourne, J.

    2012-01-10

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses (M{sub *}) of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs that have extremely red R - [24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission ({sup b}ump DOGs{sup )}, while the other set of 51 DOGs have power-law mid-IR SEDs that are typical of obscured active galactic nuclei ({sup p}ower-law DOGs{sup )}. We measure M{sub *} by applying Charlot and Bruzual stellar population synthesis models to broadband photometry in the rest-frame ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations. Assuming a simple stellar population and a Chabrier initial mass function, we find that power-law DOGs and bump DOGs are on average a factor of 2 and 1.5 more massive than SMGs, respectively (median and inter-quartile M{sub *} values for SMGs, bump DOGs, and power-law DOGs are log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.42{sup +0.42}{sub -0.36}, 10.62{sup +0.36}{sub -0.32}, and 10.71{sup +0.40}{sub -0.34}, respectively). More realistic star formation histories drawn from two competing theories for the nature of ULIRGs at z {approx} 2 (major merger versus smooth accretion) can increase these mass estimates by up to 0.5 dex. A comparison of our stellar masses with the instantaneous star formation rate (SFR) in these z {approx} 2 ULIRGs provides a preliminary indication supporting high SFRs for a given M{sub *}, a situation that arises more naturally in major mergers than in smooth accretion-powered systems.

  15. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly lensed Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; da Cunha, E.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Magdis, G.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 1010-4 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates of around 100 M⊙ yr-1. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  16. Resolved spectroscopy of adolescent and infant galaxies (1 < z < 10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shelley; IRIS Science Team

    2014-07-01

    The combination of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and adaptive optics (AO) on TMT will be revolutionary in studying the distant universe. The high angular resolution exploited by an AO system with this large aperture will be essential for studying high-redshift (1 < z < 5) galaxies' kinematics and chemical abundance histories. At even greater distances, TMT will be essential for conducting follow-up spectroscopy of Ly-alpha emission from first lights galaxies (6 < z < 10) and determining their kinematics and morphologies. I will present simulations and sensitivity calculations for high-z and first light galaxies using the diffraction-limited instrument IRIS coupled with NFIRAOS. I will put these simulations in context with current IFS+AO high-z observations and future capabilities with JWST.

  17. The hydrogen line spectra of narrow-line radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Osterbrock, D. E.

    1985-02-01

    The results of the first detection of Ly-alpha in a narrow-line radio galaxy are reported. Nearly simultaneous optical and UV observations of 3C 192 and 3C 223 allow the measurement of both Balmer and Lyman decrements. These line ratios are approximate functions of the interstellar reddening and of a parameter which is proportional to the amount of H I collisional excitation present. The reddening of 3C 192 is slightly larger than that due to the Galaxy, although 3C 223 may have a larger value. Both galaxies have intrinsic Balmer and Lyman decrements which are significantly steeper than case B, suggesting that the gas is photoionized by a fairly hard X-ray continuum. The deduced values of L-alpha/H-beta and H-alpha/H-beta compare favorably with predictions of recent models.

  18. The hydrogen line spectra of narrow-line radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Osterbrock, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the first detection of Ly-alpha in a narrow-line radio galaxy are reported. Nearly simultaneous optical and UV observations of 3C 192 and 3C 223 allow the measurement of both Balmer and Lyman decrements. These line ratios are approximate functions of the interstellar reddening and of a parameter which is proportional to the amount of H I collisional excitation present. The reddening of 3C 192 is slightly larger than that due to the Galaxy, although 3C 223 may have a larger value. Both galaxies have intrinsic Balmer and Lyman decrements which are significantly steeper than case B, suggesting that the gas is photoionized by a fairly hard X-ray continuum. The deduced values of L-alpha/H-beta and H-alpha/H-beta compare favorably with predictions of recent models.

  19. SDSS-IV MaNGA: faint quenched galaxies - I. Sample selection and evidence for environmental quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Masters, Karen L.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Law, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freischlad, Gordon; Gaulme, Patrick; Grabowski, Katie; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Wake, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Using kinematic maps from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we reveal that the majority of low-mass quenched galaxies exhibit coherent rotation in their stellar kinematics. Our sample includes all 39 quenched low-mass galaxies observed in the first year of MaNGA. The galaxies are selected with Mr > -19.1, stellar masses 109 M⊙ < M* < 5 × 109 M⊙, EWHα < 2 Å, and all have red colours (u - r) > 1.9. They lie on the size-magnitude and σ-luminosity relations for previously studied dwarf galaxies. Just six (15 ± 5.7 per cent) are found to have rotation speeds ve, rot < 15 km s-1 at ˜1 Re, and may be dominated by pressure support at all radii. Two galaxies in our sample have kinematically distinct cores in their stellar component, likely the result of accretion. Six contain ionized gas despite not hosting ongoing star formation, and this gas is typically kinematically misaligned from their stellar component. This is the first large-scale Integral Field Unit (IFU) study of low-mass galaxies selected without bias against low-density environments. Nevertheless, we find the majority of these galaxies are within ˜1.5 Mpc of a bright neighbour (MK < -23; or M* > 5 × 1010 M⊙), supporting the hypothesis that galaxy-galaxy or galaxy-group interactions quench star formation in low-mass galaxies. The local bright galaxy density for our sample is ρproj = 8.2 ± 2.0 Mpc-2, compared to ρproj = 2.1 ± 0.4 Mpc-2 for a star-forming comparison sample, confirming that the quenched low-mass galaxies are preferentially found in higher density environments.

  20. GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2. VII. Sample selection and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurk, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Dickinson, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Cassata, P.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Renzini, A.; Rosati, P.; Halliday, C.; Berta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Ultra-deep imaging of small parts of the sky has revealed many populations of distant galaxies, providing insight into the early stages of galaxy evolution. Spectroscopic follow-up has mostly targeted galaxies with strong emission lines at z > 2 or concentrated on galaxies at z < 1. Aims: The populations of both quiescent and actively star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2 are still under-represented in our general census of galaxies throughout the history of the Universe. In the light of galaxy formation models, however, the evolution of galaxies at these redshifts is of pivotal importance and merits further investigation. In addition, photometry provides only limited clues about the nature and evolutionary status of these galaxies. We therefore designed a spectroscopic observing campaign of a sample of both massive, quiescent and star-forming galaxies at z > 1.4. Methods: To determine redshifts and physical properties, such as metallicity, dust content, dynamical masses, and star formation history, we performed ultra-deep spectroscopy with the red-sensitive optical spectrograph FORS2 at the Very Large Telescope. We first constructed a sample of objects, within the CDFS/GOODS area, detected at 4.5 μm, to be sensitive to stellar mass rather than star formation intensity. The spectroscopic targets were selected with a photometric redshift constraint (z > 1.4) and magnitude constraints (BAB < 26, IAB < 26.5), which should ensure that these are faint, distant, and fairly massive galaxies. Results: We present the sample selection, survey design, observations, data reduction, and spectroscopic redshifts. Up to 30 h of spectroscopy of 174 spectroscopic targets and 70 additional objects enabled us to determine 210 redshifts, of which 145 are at z > 1.4. The redshift distribution is clearly inhomogeneous with several pronounced redshift peaks. From the redshifts and photometry, we deduce that the BzK selection criteria are efficient (82%) and suffer low contamination

  1. Narrowband selected high-redshift galaxy candidates contaminated by lower redshift [OIII] ultra-strong emitter line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pénin, Aurélie; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Clément, Benjamin; Hibon, Pascale; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Cassata, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    Context. Lyman-break galaxies (LBG) and narrowband (NB) surveys have been successful at detecting large samples of high-redshift galaxies. Both methods are subject to contamination from low-redshift interlopers. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the nature of low-redshift interlopers in NB Lyman-α emitters (LAE) searches. Methods: From previous HAWK-I NB imaging at z ~ 7.7, we identify three objects that would have been selected as high-redshift LAEs had our optical data been one magnitude shallower (but still one to two magnitudes fainter than the near infrared data). We follow up these objects in spectroscopy with X-Shooter at the VLT. Results: Despite low quality data due to bad weather conditions, for each of the three objects we identify one, and only one emission line, in the spectra of the objects that we identify as the [OIII]5007 Å line. From this result, combined with spectral energy density fitting and tests based on line ratios of several populations of galaxies, we infer that the three objects are ultra-strong line emitters at redshifts ~1.1. Conclusions: From this work and the literature we remark that the [OIII] line appears to be a common source of contamination in high-redshift LBG and LAE samples and we suggest that efforts be made to characterize with high accuracy the [OIII] luminosity function out to redshift ~3 or higher. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 385.A-1025(A) and 181.A-0485.

  2. Comparison of X-ray and optically selected galaxy clusters in the XXL-N field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, Sinan; Pacaud, Florian; Pierre, Marguerite; Benoist, Christophe; Maurogordato, Sophie; Clerc, Nicolas; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Sadibekova, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    Optically selected clusters from the CFHTLS and X-ray selected clusters from the intersecting XXL Survey are compared. We first compare the properties of the ˜100 galaxy clusters common to both catalogues in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 1.2. Then we focus on the properties of the missed clusters on both sides and stress the impact of AGN contamination in this comparison. Finally scaling relations involving optical and X-ray quantities will be presented.

  3. UV-selected Young Massive Star Cluster Populations in Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Linda J.

    2015-08-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is an HST Treasury program aimed at the investigation of star-formation and its relationship to environment in nearby galaxies. The results of a UV-selected study of young massive star clusters in a sample of nearby galaxies (< 10 Mpc) using detections based on the WFC3/UVIS F275W filter will be presented. Previous studies have used V or I-band detections and tend to ignore clusters younger than 10 Myr old. This very young population, which represents the most recent cluster-forming event in the LEGUS galaxies will be discussed.This poster is presented on behalf of the LEGUS team (PI Daniela Calzetti).

  4. Clustering properties of g-selected galaxies at z ˜ 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favole, Ginevra; Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Jullo, Eric; Niemiec, Anna; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Klypin, Anatoly; Skibba, Ramin A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Schlegel, David J.; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Delubac, Timothée; Yèche, Christophe; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-10-01

    Current and future large redshift surveys, as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), will use emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to probe cosmological models by mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.7. With current data, we explore the halo-galaxy connection by measuring three clustering properties of g-selected ELGs as matter tracers in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1: (i) the redshift-space two-point correlation function using spectroscopic redshifts from the BOSS ELG sample and VIPERS; (ii) the angular two-point correlation function on the footprint of the CFHT-LS; (iii) the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal around the ELGs using the CFHTLenS. We interpret these observations by mapping them on to the latest high-resolution MultiDark Planck N-body simulation, using a novel (Sub)Halo-Abundance Matching technique that accounts for the ELG incompleteness. ELGs at z ˜ 0.8 live in haloes of (1 ± 0.5) × 1012 h-1M⊙ and 22.5 ± 2.5 per cent of them are satellites belonging to a larger halo. The halo occupation distribution of ELGs indicates that we are sampling the galaxies in which stars form in the most efficient way, according to their stellar-to-halo mass ratio.

  5. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  6. Multi-wavelength seds of Herschel-selected galaxies in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, Peter; Bock, J.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Aussel, Hervé; Ilbert, Olivier; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Oliver, S. J.; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg{sup 2} Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λ{sub peak}) decreases and the dust mass (M {sub dust}) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L {sub IR}). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ∼ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M {sub *} 'main sequence' as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L {sub IR}/L {sub 8}, and find that galaxies with L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.3} L {sub ☉} tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 'infrared main sequence', suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from

  7. Multi-wavelength SEDs of Herschel-selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Aussel, Hervé; Capak, Peter; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Bock, J.; Oliver, S. J.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg2 Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L IR/L ⊙) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λpeak) decreases and the dust mass (M dust) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L IR). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L IR/L ⊙) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ~ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L IR > 1012 L ⊙) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M * "main sequence" as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L IR/L 8, and find that galaxies with L IR >~ 1011.3 L ⊙ tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 "infrared main sequence," suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from AGN heating.

  8. Stellar Mass Functions of Galaxies At 4 < z < 7 from an IRAC-selected Sample in Cosmos/Ultravista: Limits on the Abundance of Very Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanon, Mauro; Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Brammer, Gabriel; Dunlop, James S.; Franx, Marijin; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Labbé, Ivo; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-04-01

    We build a Spitzer IRAC-complete catalog of objects complementing the Ks-band selected UltraVISTA catalog with objects detected in IRAC only. To identify massive (log ({{M}*}/{{M}⊙ })\\gt 11) galaxies at 4\\lt z\\lt 7, we consider the systematic effects on photometric redshift measurements from the introduction of an old and dusty template and of a bayesian prior on luminosity, as well as the systematic effects from different star formation histories (SFHs) and from nebular emission lines in estimated stellar population properties. Our results are most affected by the luminosity prior, while nebular lines and SFHs marginally increase the measurement dispersion; the samples include 52 to 382 galaxies, depending on the adopted configuration. Using these results we investigate, for the first time, the evolution of the massive end of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) at 4\\lt z\\lt 7. Given the rarity of massive galaxies at these redshifts, cosmic variance and Poisson noise dominate the total error budget. The SMFs obtained excluding the luminosity prior show no evolution from z˜ 6.5 to z˜ 3.5, indicating that massive galaxies could already be present at early epochs. The luminosity prior reduces the number of z\\gt 4 massive galaxies by 83%, implying a rapid growth of massive galaxies in the first 1.5 Gyr of cosmic history. The stellar-mass complete sample includes one candidate of a very massive (log ({{M}*}/{{M}⊙ })˜ 11.5), quiescent galaxy at z˜ 5.4 with MIPS 24 μ m detection, suggesting the presence of an obscured active galactic nucleus. Finally, we show that the observed number of 4\\lt z\\lt 7 massive galaxies matches the number of massive galaxies at 3\\lt z\\lt 6 predicted by current galaxy formation models.

  9. The Mg II line profile in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 - A new outflowing component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, Kieron J.; Penston, M. V.; Snijders, M. A. J.; Gull, T. R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the Mg II 2795-2802 A doublet in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 at a higher resolution than has previously been used, searching for velocity systems in absorption and emission. Evidence is presented for a new, narrow, outflowing absorption system in Mg II having a velocity of 825 km/s relative to the sun, and -165 km/s relative to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151. This feature is not present in Ly-alpha or C IV and possible explanations for this are considered. For the Mg II and C IV lines, a model decomposition of the line profile is presented.

  10. The Mg II line profile in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151: A new outflowing component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, Kieron J.; Penston, M. V.; Snijders, M. A. J.; Gull, T.

    1986-01-01

    The Mg II 2795, 2802A doublet in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 was examined to search for velocity systems in absorption and emission. Evidence for a narrow, outflowing absorption system in Mg II having a velocity of +825 km/sec relative to the Sun, -165 km/sec relative to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151 is presented. This feature is not present in Ly alpha or C IV and possible explanations for this are considered. For the Mg II and C IV lines a model decomposition of the line profile is shown.

  11. The star formation history of mass-selected galaxies from the VIDEO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, Jonathan T. L.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Deane, Roger P.; Bonfield, David G.; Knowles, Kenda; Madhanpall, Nikhita; Rahmani, Hadi; Smith, Daniel J. B.

    2014-04-01

    We measure star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs (SSFRs) of Ks -selected galaxies from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations survey by stacking 1.4 GHz Very Large Array data. We split the sample, which spans 0 < z < 3 and stellar masses 108.0 < M*/M⊙ < 1011.5, into elliptical, irregular or starburst galaxies based on their spectral energy distributions. We find that SSFR falls with stellar mass, in agreement with the `downsizing' paradigm. We consider the dependence of the SSFR-mass slope on redshift: for our full and elliptical samples the slope flattens, but for the irregular and starburst samples the slope is independent of redshift. The rate of SSFR evolution reduces slightly with stellar mass for ellipticals, but irregulars and starbursts co-evolve across stellar masses. Our results for SSFR as a function of stellar mass and redshift are in agreement with those derived from other radio-stacking measurements of mass-selected passive and star-forming galaxies, but inconsistent with those generated from semi-analytic models, which tend to underestimate SFRs and SSFRs. There is a need for deeper high-resolution radio surveys such as those from telescopes like the next-generation MeerKAT in order to probe lower masses at earlier times and to permit direct detections, i.e. to study individual galaxies in detail.

  12. SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS z > 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES AND SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION IN z > 7 GALAXY SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Capak, P.; Jullo, E.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; LeFloch, E.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z{sup +}-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 {mu}m colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 {mu}m with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 {mu}m and 1.52-1.80 {mu}m with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z {approx} 1.6 based on a 24 {mu}m and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the {lambda} > 1 {mu}m properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z {approx} 1.8, so the non-detection in the i {sup +} and z {sup +} bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z {approx} 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data.

  13. Soft γ-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Venturi, T.; Molina, M.; Malizia, A.; Dallacasa, D.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of 64 confirmed plus three candidate radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample covers all optical classes and is dominated by objects showing a Fanaroff-Riley type II radio morphology; a large fraction (70 per cent) of the sample is made of `radiative mode' or high-excitation radio galaxies. We measured the source size on images from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at twenty-cm and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey images and have compared our findings with data in the literature obtaining a good match. We surprisingly found that the soft gamma-ray selection favours the detection of large size radio galaxies: 60 per cent of objects in the sample have size greater than 0.4 Mpc while around 22 per cent reach dimension above 0.7 Mpc at which point they are classified as giant radio galaxies (GRGs), the largest and most energetic single entities in the Universe. Their fraction among soft gamma-ray selected radio galaxies is significantly larger than typically found in radio surveys, where only a few per cent of objects (1-6 per cent) are GRGs. This may partly be due to observational biases affecting radio surveys more than soft gamma-ray surveys, thus disfavouring the detection of GRGs at lower frequencies. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these large radio structures are still unclear with many parameters such as high jet power, long activity time and surrounding environment all playing a role; the first two may be linked to the type of active galactic nucleus discussed in this work and partly explain the high fraction of GRGs found in the present sample. Our result suggests that high energy surveys may be a more efficient way than radio surveys to find these peculiar objects.

  14. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \\pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \\pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  15. X-RAY SELECTED AGN HOST GALAXIES ARE SIMILAR TO INACTIVE GALAXIES OUT TO z = 3: RESULTS FROM CANDELS/CDF-S

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Wuyts, S.; Nandra, K.; Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Koekemoer, A.; Ferguson, H.; Grogin, N.; McGrath, E.; Hathi, N. P.; Dekel, A.; Donley, J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Y.; Kocevski, D. D.; Laird, E.; Rangel, C.; Newman, J.; and others

    2013-01-20

    We use multi-band spatially resolved photometry from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South to explore the nuclear and extended colors, color gradients, and stellar populations of the host galaxies of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 3. Based on a study of their central light, we develop X-ray based criteria to exclude objects with strong AGN contamination. We use stellar masses from the FIREWORKS database to understand and account for stellar mass selection effects and carefully study, for the first time, the resolved host galaxy properties of AGNs at z {approx} 2 in their rest-frame optical light without substantial nuclear contamination. AGN hosts span a sizable range of stellar masses, colors, and color gradients at these redshifts. Their colors, color gradients, and stellar population properties are very similar to inactive galaxies of the same stellar mass. At z {approx} 1, we find a slightly narrower range in host colors compared to inactive galaxies, as well as hints of more recent star formation. These differences are weaker or non-existent among AGN hosts at z {approx} 2. We discuss the importance of AGN-driven feedback in the quenching of galaxies at z {approx}> 1 and speculate on possible evolution in the relationship between black hole accretion and the host galaxy toward high redshifts.

  16. A large sample of Kohonen selected E+A (post-starburst) galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusinger, H.; Brünecke, J.; Schalldach, P.; in der Au, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The galaxy population in the contemporary Universe is characterised by a clear bimodality, blue galaxies with significant ongoing star formation and red galaxies with only a little. The migration between the blue and the red cloud of galaxies is an issue of active research. Post starburst (PSB) galaxies are thought to be observed in the short-lived transition phase. Aims: We aim to create a large sample of local PSB galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study their characteristic properties, particularly morphological features indicative of gravitational distortions and indications for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Another aim is to present a tool set for an efficient search in a large database of SDSS spectra based on Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs). Methods: We computed a huge Kohonen SOM for 106 spectra from SDSS data release 7. The SOM is made fully available, in combination with an interactive user interface, for the astronomical community. We selected a large sample of PSB galaxies taking advantage of the clustering behaviour of the SOM. The morphologies of both PSB galaxies and randomly selected galaxies from a comparison sample in SDSS Stripe 82 (S82) were inspected on deep co-added SDSS images to search for indications of gravitational distortions. We used the Portsmouth galaxy property computations to study the evolutionary stage of the PSB galaxies and archival multi-wavelength data to search for hidden AGNs. Results: We compiled a catalogue of 2665 PSB galaxies with redshifts z < 0.4, among them 74 galaxies in S82 with EW(Hδ) > 3 Å and z < 0.25. In the colour-mass diagram, the PSB sample is clearly concentrated towards the region between the red and the blue cloud, in agreement with the idea that PSB galaxies represent the transitioning phase between actively and passively evolving galaxies. The relative frequency of distorted PSB galaxies is at least 57% for EW(Hδ) > 5 Å, significantly higher than in the comparison

  17. A Herschel Study of 24 μμm-Selected AGNs and Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Rieke, G. H.; Egami, E.; Pereira, M. J.; Haines, C. P.; Smith, G. P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a sample of 290 24 μm-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) mostly at z ˜ 0.3-2.5, within 5.2 {{deg}}2 distributed as 25\\prime × 25\\prime fields around each of 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. The sample is nearly complete to 1 mJy at 24 μm, and has a rich multiwavelength set of ancillary data; 162 are detected by Herschel. We use spectral templates for AGNs, stellar populations, and infrared (IR) emission by star-forming galaxies to decompose the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these AGNs and their host galaxies, and estimate their star formation rates, AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses. The set of templates is relatively simple: a standard Type-1 quasar template; another for the photospheric output of the stellar population; and a far-infrared star-forming template. For the Type-2 AGN SEDs, we substitute templates including internal obscuration, and some Type-1 objects require a warm component (T≳ 50 K). The individually Herschel-detected Type-1 AGNs and a subset of 17 Type-2 AGNs typically have luminosities \\gt {10}45 {ergs} {{{s}}}-1, and supermassive black holes of ˜ 3× {10}8 {M}⊙ emitting at ˜10% of the Eddington rate. We find them in about twice the numbers of AGNs identified in SDSS data in the same fields, i.e., they represent typical high-luminosity AGNs, not an IR-selected minority. These AGNs and their host galaxies are studied further in an accompanying paper.

  18. A Detailed Study of Two Optically Selected, High-Redshift Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.

    2000-01-01

    We are obtaining detailed X-ray spectral and structural data for two distant, optically-selected clusters of galaxies which are known X-ray emitters, CL1324+3011 at z = 0.76 and CL,1604+4304 at z = 0.90. These observations will allow us to place accurate constraints on the temperature, surface-brightness profile, and mass fraction of the intracluster medium in rich, optically-selected clusters at very high redshift. The two target clusters are the most well-studied systems at z greater than 0.7 in the optical and infrared regimes; therefore, with the addition of the XMM data, we plan to study the specifies of the relationship between the X-ray and optical properties and their implications for galaxy and cluster evolution.

  19. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XII. FIR properties of optically selected Virgo cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auld, R.; Bianchi, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; di Serego, S. Alighieri; Cortese, L.; Baes, M.; Bomans, D. J.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Pappalardo, C.; Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers ˜55 deg2 in five bands (100-500 μm), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 and M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 deg2. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34 per cent) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. The population of detected galaxies contains early as well as late types although the latter dominate the detection statistics. We have modelled 168 galaxies, showing no evidence of a strong synchrotron component in their FIR spectra, using a single-temperature modified blackbody spectrum with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2). A study of the χ2 distribution indicates that this model is not appropriate in all cases, and this is supported by the FIR colours which indicate a spread in β = 1-2. Statistical comparison of the dust mass and temperature distributions from 140 galaxies with χ2d.o.f. = 3 < 7.8 (95 per cent confidence level) shows that late types have typically colder, more massive dust reservoirs; the early-type dust masses have a mean of log[/M⊙] = 6.3 ± 0.3, while for late types log[/M⊙] = 7.1 ± 0.1. The late-type dust temperatures have a mean of = 19.4 ± 0.2 K, while for the early types, = 21.1 ± 0.8 K. Late-type galaxies in the cluster exhibit slightly lower dust masses than those in the field, but the cluster environment seems to have little effect on

  20. Selections from 2015: EGSY8p7, the Galaxy Far, Far Away

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Ly Emission from a Luminous z = 8.68 Galaxy: Implications for Galaxies as Tracers of Cosmic ReionizationPublished August 2015Main takeaway:A team led by Adi Zitrin (Hubble Fellow at California Institute of Technology) detected Ly emission in the bright galaxy EGSY8p7 using the MOSFIRE spectrograph at Keck Observatory. From this emission line, they calculated that the galaxy has an astonishing redshift of z=8.68.Why its interesting:This spectroscopic confirmation crowned EGSY8p7 as the record-holder for the farthest-known (and therefore oldest) galaxy. Its redshift shattered the previous record, a galaxy at z=7.73.Why its even more interesting than that:Spectroscopic detection of emission in EGSY8p7 with MOSFIRE. The black line is the raw data; the red line shows the best-fit model to the data. [Zitrin et al. 2015]Based on our understanding of how the universe evolved, the detection of Ly emission from this galaxy came as a surprise. At EGSY8p7s redshift of 8.68, the universe was still full of clouds of neutral hydrogen that should have absorbed the galaxys Ly emission long before it reached us. So what does it mean that we do see Ly emission from EGSY8p7? The reionization of the universe through which the neutral hydrogen clouds were made transparent may have been a patchy process. In particular, EGSY8p7 might have emitted an unusual amount of ionizing radiation, creating an early ionized bubble around it that allowed the Ly emission to escape.CitationAdi Zitrin et al 2015 ApJ 810 L12. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/810/1/L12

  1. REST-FRAME UV-OPTICALLY SELECTED GALAXIES AT 2.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.5: SEARCHING FOR DUSTY STAR-FORMING AND PASSIVELY EVOLVING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cassata, Paolo; Williams, Christina C.; Salimbeni, Sara; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Messias, Hugo; Tundo, Elena; Lin Lihwai; Lee, Seong-Kook; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Kocevski, Dale; Villanueva, Edward; Van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-04-20

    A new set of color selection criteria (VJL) analogous with the BzK method is designed to select both star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and passively evolving galaxies (PEGs) at 2.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.5 by using rest-frame UV-optical (V - J versus J - L) colors. The criteria are thoroughly tested with theoretical stellar population synthesis models and real galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to evaluate their efficiency and contamination. We apply the well-tested VJL criteria to the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science field and study the physical properties of selected galaxies. The redshift distribution of selected SFGs peaks at z {approx} 2.7, slightly lower than that of Lyman break galaxies at z {approx} 3. Comparing the observed mid-infrared fluxes of selected galaxies with the prediction of pure stellar emission, we find that our VJL method is effective at selecting massive dusty SFGs that are missed by the Lyman break technique. About half of the star formation in massive (M{sub star} > 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }) galaxies at 2.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.5 is contributed by dusty (extinction E(B - V) > 0.4) SFGs, which, however, only account for {approx}20% of the number density of massive SFGs. We also use the mid-infrared fluxes to clean our PEG sample and find that galaxy size can be used as a secondary criterion to effectively eliminate the contamination of dusty SFGs. The redshift distribution of the cleaned PEG sample peaks at z {approx} 2.5. We find six PEG candidates at z > 3 and discuss possible methods to distinguish them from dusty contamination. We conclude that at least part of our candidates are real PEGs at z {approx} 3, implying that these types of galaxies began to form their stars at z {approx}> 5. We measure the integrated stellar mass density (ISMD) of PEGs at z {approx} 2.5 and set constraints on it at z > 3. We find that the ISMD grows by at least about a factor of 10 in 1 Gyr at 3 < z <5 and by another factor of 10 in the next 3.5 Gyr (1 < z

  2. Rest-frame UV-Optically Selected Galaxies at 2.3 <~ z <~ 3.5: Searching for Dusty Star-forming and Passively Evolving Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cassata, Paolo; Ferguson, Henry C.; Williams, Christina C.; Dickinson, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman A.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Messias, Hugo; Tundo, Elena; Lin, Lihwai; Lee, Seong-Kook; Salimbeni, Sara; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Kocevski, Dale; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Villanueva, Edward; van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-04-01

    A new set of color selection criteria (VJL) analogous with the BzK method is designed to select both star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and passively evolving galaxies (PEGs) at 2.3 <~ z <~ 3.5 by using rest-frame UV-optical (V - J versus J - L) colors. The criteria are thoroughly tested with theoretical stellar population synthesis models and real galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to evaluate their efficiency and contamination. We apply the well-tested VJL criteria to the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science field and study the physical properties of selected galaxies. The redshift distribution of selected SFGs peaks at z ~ 2.7, slightly lower than that of Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. Comparing the observed mid-infrared fluxes of selected galaxies with the prediction of pure stellar emission, we find that our VJL method is effective at selecting massive dusty SFGs that are missed by the Lyman break technique. About half of the star formation in massive (M star > 1010 M ⊙) galaxies at 2.3 <~ z <~ 3.5 is contributed by dusty (extinction E(B - V) > 0.4) SFGs, which, however, only account for ~20% of the number density of massive SFGs. We also use the mid-infrared fluxes to clean our PEG sample and find that galaxy size can be used as a secondary criterion to effectively eliminate the contamination of dusty SFGs. The redshift distribution of the cleaned PEG sample peaks at z ~ 2.5. We find six PEG candidates at z > 3 and discuss possible methods to distinguish them from dusty contamination. We conclude that at least part of our candidates are real PEGs at z ~ 3, implying that these types of galaxies began to form their stars at z >~ 5. We measure the integrated stellar mass density (ISMD) of PEGs at z ~ 2.5 and set constraints on it at z > 3. We find that the ISMD grows by at least about a factor of 10 in 1 Gyr at 3 < z <5 and by another factor of 10 in the next 3.5 Gyr (1 < z < 3).

  3. Low-Redshift Damped Ly(alpha) Galaxies Toward the Quasars B2 0827+243, PKS 0952+179, PKS 1127-145, and PKS 1629+120

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-20

    Research Laboratory, 4555 OverlookAvenue SW, Code 7600A,Washington, DC 20375 Eric M. Monier Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus...Turnshek, D. A., Rao, S., Nestor, D., Lane, W., Monier , E., Bergeron, J., & Smette, A. 2001, ApJ, 553, 288 Turnshek, D. A., Rao, S. M., Ptak, A. F...Griffiths, R. E., & Monier , E. M. 2003, ApJ, 590, 730 Warren, S. J., Møller, P., Fall, S. M., & Jakobsen, P. 2001, MNRAS, 326, 759 Wolfe, A. M

  4. Active Galaxy Winds from X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Optical Studies of Nearby Seyfert 1s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Mass outflows or winds from active galaxies may profoundly affect the evolution of their host galaxies by blowing away gas from star forming regions and recycling metals from near-nuclear supernovae into the galaxy disk. Such fundamental properties as the covering fraction, total energy, variability, and distance of these outflows are still unknown. We present new results in an effort to better understand the properties of active galaxy winds based on X-ray, optical, and UV observations of local Seyfert 1s. We show that the covering fraction, indicated through X-ray and optical spectroscopy, is higher than previous studies suggest. We also show new observations in the UV with the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), showing that the UV variability is at a much lower level than X-ray variability. The COS observations also reveal weak Ly-alpha outflows, which were difficult/impossible to detect in previous generations of UV spectrographs.

  5. AN X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE AT REDSHIFT 1.753

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Henry, J.; Salvato, Mara; Hasinger, Guenther; Finoguenov, Alexis; Brunner, Hermann; Burwitz, Vadim; Buschkamp, Peter; Foerster-Schreiber, Natasha; Genzel, Reinhard; Rovilos, Manolis; Szokoly, Gyula; Bouche, Nicolas; Egami, Eiichi; Fotopoulou, Sotiria; Mainieri, Vincenzo

    2010-12-10

    We have discovered an X-ray-selected galaxy cluster with a spectroscopic redshift of 1.753. The redshift is of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), which is coincident with the peak of the X-ray surface brightness. We also have concordant photometric redshifts for seven additional candidate cluster members. The X-ray luminosity of the cluster is (3.68 {+-} 0.70) x 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.1-2.4 keV band. The optical/IR properties of the BCG imply that its formation redshift was {approx}5 if its stars formed in a short burst. This result continues the trend from lower redshift in which the observed properties of BCGs are most simply explained by a single monolithic collapse at very high redshift instead of the theoretically preferred gradual hierarchical assembly at later times. However, the models corresponding to different formation redshifts are more clearly separated as our observation epoch approaches the galaxy formation epoch. Although our infrared photometry is not deep enough to define a red sequence, we do identify a few galaxies at the cluster redshift that have the expected red sequence photometric properties.

  6. Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: a census of dust in optically selected galaxies from stacking at submillimetre wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N.; Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bonfield, D. G.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S. M.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Gomez, H. L.; González-Nuevo, J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M. J.; Lapi, A.; Madore, B.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pohlen, M.; Popescu, C. C.; Rigby, E. E.; Seibert, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Tuffs, R. J.; van der Werf, P.; Brough, S.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Conselice, C. J.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L. S.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rodighiero, G.; Temi, P.

    2012-04-01

    We use the Herschel-ATLAS survey to conduct the first large-scale statistical study of the submillimetre properties of optically selected galaxies. Using ˜80 000 r-band selected galaxies from 126 deg2 of the GAMA survey, we stack into submillimetre imaging at 250, 350 and 500 μ m to gain unprecedented statistics on the dust emission from galaxies at z < 0.35. We find that low-redshift galaxies account for 5 per cent of the cosmic 250-μm background (4 per cent at 350 μ m; 3 per cent at 500 μ m), of which approximately 60 per cent comes from 'blue' and 20 per cent from 'red' galaxies (rest-frame g-r). We compare the dust properties of different galaxy populations by dividing the sample into bins of optical luminosity, stellar mass, colour and redshift. In blue galaxies we find that dust temperature and luminosity correlate strongly with stellar mass at a fixed redshift, but red galaxies do not follow these correlations and overall have lower luminosities and temperatures. We make reasonable assumptions to account for the contaminating flux from lensing by red-sequence galaxies and conclude that galaxies with different optical colours have fundamentally different dust emission properties. Results indicate that while blue galaxies are more luminous than red galaxies due to higher temperatures, the dust masses of the two samples are relatively similar. Dust mass is shown to correlate with stellar mass, although the dust-to-stellar mass ratio is much higher for low stellar mass galaxies, consistent with the lowest mass galaxies having the highest specific star formation rates. We stack the 250 μ m-to-NUV luminosity ratio, finding results consistent with greater obscuration of star formation at lower stellar mass and higher redshift. Submillimetre luminosities and dust masses of all galaxies are shown to evolve strongly with redshift, indicating a fall in the amount of obscured star formation in ordinary galaxies over the last four billion years.

  7. Compact groups of galaxies selected by stellar mass: the 2MASS compact group catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Giménez, Eugenia; Mamon, Gary A.; Pacheco, Marcela; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Alonso, M. Victoria

    2012-10-01

    We present a photometric catalogue of compact groups of galaxies (p2MCGs) automatically extracted from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) extended source catalogue. A total of 262 p2MCGs are identified, following the criteria defined by Hickson, of which 230 survive visual inspection (given occasional galaxy fragmentation and blends in the 2MASS parent catalogue). Only one quarter of these 230 groups were previously known compact groups (CGs). Among the 144 p2MCGs that have all their galaxies with known redshifts, 85 (59 per cent) have four or more accordant galaxies. This v2MCG sample of velocity-filtered p2MCGs constitutes the largest sample of CGs (with N ≥ 4) catalogued to date, with both well-defined selection criteria and velocity filtering, and is the first CG sample selected by stellar mass. It is fairly complete up to Kgroup ˜ 9 and radial velocity of ˜6000 km s-1. We compared the properties of the 78 v2MCGs with median velocities greater than 3000 km s-1 with the properties of other CG samples, as well as those (mvCGs) extracted from the semi-analytical model (SAM) of Guo et al. run on the high-resolution Millennium-II simulation. This mvCG sample is similar (i.e. with 2/3 of physically dense CGs) to those we had previously extracted on three other SAMs run on the Millennium simulation with 125 times worse spatial and mass resolutions. The space density of v2MCGs within 6000 km s-1 is 8.0 × 10-5 h3 Mpc-3, i.e. four times that of the Hickson sample [Hickson Compact Group (HCG)] up to the same distance and with the same criteria used in this work, but still 40 per cent less than that of mvCGs. The v2MCG constitutes the first group catalogue to show a statistically large first-second ranked galaxy magnitude gap according to Tremaine-Richstone statistics, as expected if the first ranked group members tend to be the products of galaxy mergers, and as confirmed in the mvCGs. The v2MCG is also the first observed sample to show that first-ranked galaxies

  8. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  9. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouvel, S.; Delubac, T.; Comparat, J.; Camacho, H.; Carnero, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Merson, A.; Lima, M.; Sobreira, F.; da Costa, Luiz; Prada, F.; Zhu, G. B.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Macora, A. De La; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Percival, W. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A.; Zhang, Y.; Brownstein, J.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of the first observations of the emission line galaxies (ELG) of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. From the total 9000 targets, 4600 have been selected from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In this subsample, the total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71 and 68 per cent for a bright and a faint samples, respectively, including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. The mean redshift is 0.80 for the bright and 0.87 for the faint sample, while the percentage of unknown redshifts is 15 and 13 per cent, respectively. In both cases, the star contamination is lower than 2 per cent. We evaluate how well the ELG redshifts are measured using the target selection photometry and validating with the spectroscopic redshifts measured by eBOSS. We explore different techniques to reduce the photometric redshift outliers fraction with a comparison between the template fitting, the neural networks and the random forest methods. Finally, we study the clustering properties of the DES SVA1 ELG samples. We select only the most secure spectroscopic redshift in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.2, leading to a mean redshift for the bright and faint sample of 0.85 and 0.90, respectively. We measure the projected angular correlation function and obtain a galaxy bias averaging on scales from 1 to 10 Mpc h-1 of 1.58 ± 0.10 for the bright sample and 1.65 ± 0.12 for the faint sample. These values are representative of a galaxy population with MB - log(h) < -20.5, in agreement with what we measure by fitting galaxy templates to the photometric data.

  10. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  11. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  12. A galaxy halo with a radius of 65 KPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1985-12-01

    In the spectra of QSOs, a large number of absorption lines are observed, and many of these systems are only known on the basis of their absorption characteristics. Special questions arise in connection with the Ly-alpha forest systems. These questions are considered in the context of a discussion of the different types of extrinsic absorption systems. Attention is also given to the detection of a galaxy identified with the absorption system in PKS 2128-12, and the nature of the Mg II absorption system detected in PKS 2128-12. Questions regarding the association of the absorbing cloud on the line of sight to PKS 2128-12 are considered. It is concluded that an association with a very extended disk is more likely than an association with a halo around a spiral galaxy of absolute luminosity Mv = -20.8.

  13. Herschel-ATLAS: the surprising diversity of dust-selected galaxies in the local submillimetre Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C. J. R.; Dunne, L.; Gomez, H. L.; Maddox, S.; De Vis, P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Grootes, M. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Schofield, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Valiante, E.; Vlahakis, C.; van der Werf, P.; Wright, A. H.; de Zotti, G.

    2015-09-01

    We present the properties of the first 250 μm blind sample of nearby galaxies (15 < D < 46 Mpc) containing 42 objects from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Herschel's sensitivity probes the faint end of the dust luminosity function for the first time, spanning a range of stellar mass (7.4 < M⋆ < 11.3 log10 M⊙), star formation activity (-11.8 < SSFR < -8.9 log10 yr-1), gas fraction (3-96 per cent), and colour (0.6 < FUV-KS < 7.0 mag). The median cold dust temperature is 14.6 K, colder than in the Herschel Reference Survey (18.5 K) and Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (17.7 K). The mean dust-to-stellar mass ratio in our sample is higher than these surveys by factors of 3.7 and 1.8, with a dust mass volume density of (3.7 ± 0.7) × 105 M⊙ Mpc-3. Counter-intuitively, we find that the more dust rich a galaxy, the lower its UV attenuation. Over half of our dust-selected sample are very blue in FUV-KS colour, with irregular and/or highly flocculent morphology; these galaxies account for only 6 per cent of the sample's stellar mass but contain over 35 per cent of the dust mass. They are the most actively star-forming galaxies in the sample, with the highest gas fractions and lowest UV attenuation. They also appear to be in an early stage of converting their gas into stars, providing valuable insights into the chemical evolution of young galaxies.

  14. AEGIS: The Diversity of Bright Near-IR Selected Distant RedGalaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Conselice, C.J.; Newman, J.A.; Georgakakis, A.; Almaini, O.; Coil, A.L.; Cooper, M.C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Foucaud, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Lotz, J.; Noeske, K.; Weiner, B.; Willmer, C.N.A

    2006-10-13

    We use deep and wide near infrared (NIR) imaging from the Palomar telescope combined with DEEP2 spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Chandra Space Telescope imaging to investigate the nature of galaxies that are red in NIR colors. We locate these 'distant red galaxies' (DRGs) through the color cut (J - K){sub vega} > 2.3 over 0.7 deg{sup 2}, where we find 1010 DRG candidates down to K{sub s} = 20.5. We combine 95 high quality spectroscopic redshifts with photometric redshifts from BRIJK photometry to determine the redshift and stellar mass distributions for these systems, and morphological/structural and X-ray properties for 107 DRGs in the Extended Groth Strip. We find that many bright (J - K){sub vega} > 2.3 galaxies with K{sub s} < 20.5 are at redshifts z < 2, with 64% between 1 < z < 2. The stellar mass distributions for these galaxies is broad, ranging from 10{sup 9} - 10{sup 12} M{sub {circle_dot}} , but with most z > 2 systems massive with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}}. HST imaging shows that the structural properties and morphologies of DRGs are also diverse, with the majority elliptical/compact (57%), and the remainder edge-on spirals (7%), and peculiar galaxies (29%). The DRGs at z < 1.4 with high quality spectroscopic redshifts are generally compact, with small half-light radii, and span a range in rest-frame optical properties. The spectral energy distributions for these objects differ from higher redshift DRGs: they are bluer by one magnitude in observed (I - J) color. A pure IR color selection of high redshift populations is not sufficient to identify unique populations, and other colors, or spectroscopic redshifts are needed to produce homogeneous samples.

  15. Clustering properties of g -selected galaxies at z ~ 0.8

    DOE PAGES

    Favole, Ginevra; Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; ...

    2016-06-21

    In current and future large redshift surveys, as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), we will use emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to probe cosmological models by mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.7. We explore the halo-galaxy connection, with current data and by measuring three clustering properties of g-selected ELGs as matter tracers in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1: (i) the redshift-space two-point correlation function using spectroscopic redshifts from the BOSS ELG sample and VIPERS; (ii)more » the angular two-point correlation function on the footprint of the CFHT-LS; (iii) the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal around the ELGs using the CFHTLenS. Furthermore, we interpret these observations by mapping them on to the latest high-resolution MultiDark Planck N-body simulation, using a novel (Sub)Halo-Abundance Matching technique that accounts for the ELG incompleteness. ELGs at z ~ 0.8 live in haloes of (1 ± 0.5) × 10 12 h -1 M⊙ and 22.5 ± 2.5 per cent of them are satellites belonging to a larger halo. The halo occupation distribution of ELGs indicates that we are sampling the galaxies in which stars form in the most efficient way, according to their stellar-to-halo mass ratio.« less

  16. X-ray Scaling Relations of SPT Selected Galaxy Clusters Observed with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Esra; Chiu, Inon; McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Mark W.; Benson, Bradford; Bleem, Lindsey; Miller, Eric D.; Mohr, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    We will present results of X-ray observations of a sample of 68 South Pole Telescope selected galaxy clusters observed with XMM-Newton. Using X-ray follow-up observations with XMM-Newton, we estimate the temperature, luminosity, and mass of the intracluster medium within R500 for each cluster. From these, we constrain the Mg-Tx, Lx-Tx, and Yx-Mgas scaling relations for a sample of massive clusters at 0.1selected samples in the literature

  17. GEMINI/GMOS SPECTROSCOPY OF 26 STRONG-LENSING-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon; Oguri, Masamune

    2011-03-15

    We present results from a spectroscopic program targeting 26 strong-lensing cluster cores that were visually identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). The 26 galaxy cluster lenses span a redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.65, and our spectroscopy reveals 69 unique background sources with redshifts as high as z = 5.200. We also identify redshifts for 262 cluster member galaxies and measure the velocity dispersions and dynamical masses for 18 clusters where we have redshifts for N {>=} 10 cluster member galaxies. We account for the expected biases in dynamical masses of strong-lensing-selected clusters as predicted by results from numerical simulations and discuss possible sources of bias in our observations. The median dynamical mass of the 18 clusters with N {>=} 10 spectroscopic cluster members is M {sub Vir} = 7.84 x 10{sup 14} M {sub sun} h {sup -1} {sub 0.7}, which is somewhat higher than predictions for strong-lensing-selected clusters in simulations. The disagreement is not significant considering the large uncertainty in our dynamical data, systematic uncertainties in the velocity dispersion calibration, and limitations of the theoretical modeling. Nevertheless our study represents an important first step toward characterizing large samples of clusters that are identified in a systematic way as systems exhibiting dramatic strong-lensing features.

  18. The galaxy luminosity-size relation and selection biases in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, E.; Driver, S. P.

    2007-05-01

    We use the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to study the galaxy luminosity-size (M-Re) distribution. With a careful analysis of selection effects due to both detection completeness and measurement reliability, we identify bias-free regions in the M-Re plane for a series of volume-limited samples. By comparison to a nearby survey also having well-defined selection limits, namely the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue, we present clear evidence for evolution in surface brightness since z ~ 0.7. Specifically, we demonstrate that the mean, rest-frame B-band <μ>e for galaxies in a sample spanning 8 mag in luminosity between MB = -22 and -14 mag increases by ~1.0 mag arcsec-2 from z ~ 0.1 to 0.7. We also highlight the importance of considering surface brightness-dependent measurement biases in addition to incompleteness biases. In particular, the increasing, systematic underestimation of Kron fluxes towards low surface brightnesses may cause diffuse, yet luminous, systems to be mistaken for faint, compact objects.

  19. Gas and Stars in an H I-Selected Galaxy Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Schneider, Stephen E.; Posson-Brown, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    We present the results of a J-band study of the H I-selected Arecibo Dual-Beam Survey and Arecibo Slice Survey galaxy samples using Two Micron All Sky Survey data. We find that these galaxies span a wide range of stellar and gas properties. However, despite the diversity within the samples, we find a very tight correlation between luminosity and size in the J band, similar to that found in a previous paper by Rosenberg & Schneider between the H I mass and size. We also find that the correlation between the baryonic mass and the J-band diameter is even tighter than that between the baryonic mass and the rotational velocity.

  20. The discovery of a young radio galaxy at z = 2.390 - Probing initial star formation at z less than approximately 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Burstein, David; Mathis, Doug F.; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.; Bertola, F.; Buson, L. M.; Koo, David C.; Matthews, Keith; Barthel, Peter D.; Chambers, K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of a weak radio galaxy from the Leiden Berkeley Deep Survey at a redshift of 2.390 is presented, as well as nine-band photometry for the galaxy and for surrounding objects. The source 53W002 is not variable on the time scales of years. Its rest-frame UV continuum is compared with IUE spectra of various nearby galaxies with relatively recent starbursts, and with nearby AGNs. It is inferred from the C IV/Ly-alpha and N V/Ly-alpha ratios that 53W002 has a Seyfert 1-like AGN, and that the ratios constrain the nonthermal component to about 35 percent of the observed UV continuum. Several independent age estimates yield a consistent value of 0.25-0.32 Gyr. The available data are consistent with 53W002 being a genuinely young galaxy seen at a redshift of 2.390 during its first major starburst. It likely started forming most of its current stars at redshifts between 2.5 and 3.0, suggesting that radio galaxies do not form the bulk of their stars coevally, but start doing so over a lengthy period of cosmic time.

  1. The discovery of a young radio galaxy at z = 2.390 - Probing initial star formation at z less than approximately 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Burstein, David; Mathis, Doug F.; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.; Bertola, F.; Buson, L. M.; Koo, David C.; Matthews, Keith; Barthel, Peter D.; Chambers, K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of a weak radio galaxy from the Leiden Berkeley Deep Survey at a redshift of 2.390 is presented, as well as nine-band photometry for the galaxy and for surrounding objects. The source 53W002 is not variable on the time scales of years. Its rest-frame UV continuum is compared with IUE spectra of various nearby galaxies with relatively recent starbursts, and with nearby AGNs. It is inferred from the C IV/Ly-alpha and N V/Ly-alpha ratios that 53W002 has a Seyfert 1-like AGN, and that the ratios constrain the nonthermal component to about 35 percent of the observed UV continuum. Several independent age estimates yield a consistent value of 0.25-0.32 Gyr. The available data are consistent with 53W002 being a genuinely young galaxy seen at a redshift of 2.390 during its first major starburst. It likely started forming most of its current stars at redshifts between 2.5 and 3.0, suggesting that radio galaxies do not form the bulk of their stars coevally, but start doing so over a lengthy period of cosmic time.

  2. VLT/Magellan Spectroscopy of 29 Strong Lensing Selected Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Mauricio; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Anguita, Timo; García-Vergara, Cristina; Bayliss, Matthew; Gladders, Michael; Gilbank, David; Yee, H. K. C.; West, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present an extensive spectroscopic follow-up campaign of 29 strong lensing (SL) selected galaxy clusters discovered primarily in the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). Our spectroscopic analysis yields redshifts for 52 gravitational arcs present in the core of our galaxy clusters, which correspond to 35 distinct background sources that are clearly distorted by the gravitational potential of these clusters. These lensed galaxies span a wide redshift range of 0.8 ≤ z ≤ 2.9, with a median redshift of zs = 1.8 ± 0.1. We also measure reliable redshifts for 1004 cluster members, allowing us to obtain robust velocity dispersion measurements for 23 of these clusters, which we then use to determine their dynamical masses by using a simulation-based σDM ‑ M200 scaling relation. The redshift and mass ranges covered by our SL sample are 0.22 ≤ z ≤ 1.01 and 5× {10}13≤slant {M}200/{h}70-1 {M}ȯ ≤slant 1.9× {10}15, respectively. We analyze and quantify some possible effects that might bias our mass estimates, such as the presence of substructure, the region where cluster members are selected for spectroscopic follow-up, the final number of confirmed members, and line-of-sight effects. We find that 10 clusters of our sample with Nmem ≳ 20 show signs of dynamical substructure. However, the velocity data of only one system is inconsistent with a uni-modal distribution. We therefore assume that the substructures are only marginal and not of comparable size to the clusters themselves. Consequently, our velocity dispersion and mass estimates can be used as priors for SL mass reconstruction studies and also represent an important step toward a better understanding of the properties of the SL galaxy cluster population.

  3. Search for Hyperluminous Infrared Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with WISE and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.

    2016-03-01

    We aim to search for hyperluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity {L}{{IR}} > 1013 L⊙ by applying the selection method of dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation (SF) and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity hence, they are a crucial population for understanding the SF and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5311 IR-bright DOGs with i - [22] > 7.0 and flux at 22 μm > 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg2, where i and [22] are i-band and 22 μm AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the spectral energy distribution fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically confirmed DOGs. We found that (i) i - [22] color of IR-bright DOGs correlates with the total IR luminosity and (ii) the surface number density of HyLIRGs is >0.17 deg-2. A large fraction (˜73%) of IR-bright DOGs with i - [22] > 7.5 show {L}{{IR}} > 1013 L⊙, and the DOG criterion we adopted could be independently effective against the “W1W2-dropout method,” based on four WISE bands, for searching hyperluminous IR populations of galaxies.

  4. Star Formation and AGN activity of X-ray selected AGN host galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon

    2017-01-01

    One of the ongoing issues for understanding the galaxy formation and evolution is how active galactic nuclei (AGNs) affect the growth of their host galaxies. We investigate the correlations between AGN activity and star formation properties of a large sample of ~3700 X-ray selected AGNs over a wide range of luminosities (42 < log Lx < 45) up to z~5 in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey. We perform a multi-component modeling from the far-infrared, when available, to the near-UV using AGN emission from the big-blue-bump (for Type 1 AGNs), a nuclear dust torus model, a galaxy model and a starburst component for the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analysis of SEDs, we derive AGN host galaxy properties, such as stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and AGN luminosities. We find that AGN host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming main sequence galaxies, suggesting no significant enhancement or quenching of star formation. The average SFR of AGN host galaxies shows a flat distribution in bins of AGN luminosity, consistent with recent ideas that the shorter variability timescale of AGN compared to star formation can lead to a flat relationship between the SFR and black hole accretion rates. Our results suggest that both star formation and nuclear activity in the majority of AGN host galaxies might be driven more by internal secular processes at z<3, implying that they have substantially grown at much earlier epoch.

  5. ALMA REDSHIFTS OF MILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM THE SPT SURVEY: THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.; De Breuck, C.; Aravena, M.; Biggs, A. D.; Marrone, D. P.; Bothwell, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Bock, J. J.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Bethermin, M.; Brodwin, M.; Chapman, S. C.; and others

    2013-04-10

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope. The sources were selected to have S{sub 1.4{sub mm}} > 20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S{sub 843{sub MHz}} < 6 mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S{sub 100{sub {mu}m}} < 1 Jy, S{sub 60{sub {mu}m}} < 200 mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C I, H{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O{sup +}. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a {approx}90% detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for {approx}70% of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7 < z < 2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is z-bar = 3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of z-bar = 2.3 and for which only 10%-15% of the population is expected to be at z > 3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

  6. The SDSS-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Luminous Red Galaxy Target Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Myers, Adam D.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Percival, Will J.; Bautista, Julian E.; Comparat, Johan; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Schlegel, David J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Ho, Shirley; Lang, Dustin; Rao, Sandhya M.; McBride, Cameron K.; Ben Zhu, Guangtun; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bailey, Stephen; Bolton, Adam S.; Delubac, Timothée; Mariappan, Vivek; Blanton, Michael R.; Reid, Beth; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Prada, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71). We demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ˜89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. We also present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.

  7. The SDSS-IV extended baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey: Luminous red galaxy target selection

    DOE PAGES

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Here, we describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71).more » We also demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ~89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. Finally, we present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.« less

  8. The SDSS-IV extended baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey: Luminous red galaxy target selection

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Myers, Adam D.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bautista, Julian E.; Comparat, Johan; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Schlegel, David J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Ho, Shirley; Lang, Dustin; Rao, Sandhya M.; McBride, Cameron K.; Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bailey, Stephen; Bolton, Adam S.; Delubac, Timothée; Mariappan, Vivek; Blanton, Michael R.; Reid, Beth; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Prada, Francisco

    2016-06-08

    Here, we describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71). We also demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ~89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. Finally, we present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.

  9. ACS Grism Parallel Survey of Emission- line Galaxies at Redshift z Apl 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lin

    2002-07-01

    We propose an ACS grism parallel survey to search for emission-line galaxies toward 50 random lines of sight over the redshift interval 0 < z Apl 7. We request ACS parallel observations of duration more than one orbit at high galactic latitude to identify 300 HAlpha emission-line galaxies at 0.2 Apl z Apl 0.5, 720 O IILambda3727 emission-line galaxies at 0.3 Apl z Apl 1.68, and Apg 1000 Ly-alpha emission-line galaxies at 3 Apl z Apl 7 with total emission line flux f Apg 2* 10^-17 ergs s^-1 cm^-2 over 578 arcmin^2. We will obtain direct images with the F814W and F606W filters and dispersed images with the WFC/G800L grism at each position. The direct images will serve to provide a zeroth order model both for wavelength calibration of the extracted 1D spectra and for determining extraction apertures of the corresponding dispersed images. The primary scientific objectives are as follows: {1} We will establish a uniform sample of HAlpha and O II emission-line galaxies at z<1.7 in order to obtain accurate measurements of co-moving star formation rate density versus redshift over this redshift range. {2} We will study the spatial and statistical distribution of star formation rate intensity in individual galaxies using the spatially resolved emission-line morphology in the grism images. And {3} we will study high-redshift universe using Ly-alpha emitting galaxies identified at z Apl 7 in the survey. The data will be available to the community immediately as they are obtained.

  10. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 6.740 GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Bradac, Marusa; Hall, Nicholas; Vanzella, Eros; Treu, Tommaso; Fontana, Adriano; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Zaritsky, Dennis; Clement, Benjamin; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 < z < 10 candidate galaxies behind clusters of galaxies. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of an intrinsically faint Lyman break galaxy (LBG) identified as a z{sub 850LP}-band dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at {lambda} = 9412 A at >5{sigma} significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.740 {+-} 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Ly{alpha} flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of {mu} = 3.0 {+-} 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f {sup int} = (0.23 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is {approx}2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z {approx} 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H{sub 160W}-band magnitude of the object is m{sup int}{sub H{sub 1{sub 6{sub 0{sub W}}}}}=27.57{+-}0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe.

  11. VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS): IGM transmission towards galaxies with 2.5 < z < 5.5 and the colour selection of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Le Brun, V.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Pforr, J.; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vanzella, E.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Cuby, J. G.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2017-01-01

    The observed UV rest-frame spectra of distant galaxies are the result of their intrinsic emission combined with absorption along the line of sight produced by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Here we analyse the evolution of the mean IGM transmission Tr(Lyα) and its dispersion along the line of sight for 2127 galaxies with 2.5 < z < 5.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We fitted model spectra combined with a range of IGM transmission to the galaxy spectra using the spectral fitting algorithm GOSSIP+. We used these fits to derive the mean IGM transmission towards each galaxy for several redshift slices from z = 2.5 to z = 5.5. We found that the mean IGM transmission defined as Tr(Lyα) = e- τ (with τ as the HI optical depth) is 79%, 69%, 59%, 55%, and 46% at redshifts 2.75, 3.22, 3.70, 4.23, and 4.77, respectively. We compared these results to measurements obtained from quasar lines of sight and found that the IGM transmission towards galaxies is in excellent agreement with quasar values up to redshift z 4. We found tentative evidence for a higher IGM transmission at z ≥ 4 compared to results from QSOs, but a degeneracy between dust extinction and IGM prevents us from firmly concluding whether the internal dust extinction for star-forming galaxies at z > 4 takes a mean value significantly in excess of E(B-V) > 0.15. Most importantly, we found a large dispersion of IGM transmission along the lines of sight towards distant galaxies with 68% of the distribution within 10 to 17% of the median value in δz = 0.5 bins, similar to what is found on the lines of sight towards QSOs. We demonstrate that taking this broad range of IGM transmission into account is important when selecting high-redshift galaxies based on their colour properties (e.g. LBG or photometric redshiftselection) because failing to do so causes a significant incompleteness in selecting high-redshift galaxy populations. We finally discuss the observed IGM properties and speculate that the broad

  12. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  13. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF SPITZER SELECTED COMA CLUSTER GALAXIES: STAR FORMATION RATES AND MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fadda, Dario E-mail: fadda@ipac.caltech.edu

    2011-11-15

    We present a thorough study of the specific star formation rates (sSFRs) for MIPS 24 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Coma cluster. We build galaxy spectral energy distributions using optical (u', g', r', i', z'), near-infrared (J, H, K{sub s} ), and mid- to far-infrared (Infrared Array Camera and MIPS) photometry. New and archival spectra confirm 210 cluster members. Subsequently, the total infrared luminosity, galaxy stellar mass, and sSFR for the members are determined by measuring best-fit templates. Using an array of complementary diagnostics, we search for any contaminating active galactic nuclei, but find few. We compare obscured SFRs to unobscured rates derived from extinction-corrected H{alpha} emission line measurements. The agreement between these two values leads us to conclude that there is no evidence for an additionally obscured component. In our spectroscopic sample, complete to 80% for r' < 19.5, we find that all starbursts are blue and are dwarfs, having masses <10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. Examining the location of these starbursts within the cluster, we confirm that there is a lower fraction in the cluster core.

  14. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF SDSS-SELECTED BLUE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Hwang, Ho Seong; Matsuhara, Hideo E-mail: hoseong.hwang@cea.f E-mail: jclee@astro.snu.ac.k

    2010-08-20

    A near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-4.5 {mu}m) spectroscopic survey of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-selected blue early-type galaxies (BEGs) has been conducted using the AKARI. The NIR spectra of 36 BEGs are secured, which are well balanced in their star formation (SF)/Seyfert/LINER-type composition. For high signal-to-noise ratio, we stack the BEG spectra in its entirety and in bins of several properties: color, specific star formation rate, and optically determined spectral type. We estimate the NIR continuum slope and the equivalent width of 3.29 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission. In the comparison between the estimated NIR spectral features of the BEGs and those of model galaxies, the BEGs seem to be old-SSP(simple stellar population)-dominated metal-rich galaxies with moderate dust attenuation. The dust attenuation in the BEGs may originate from recent SF or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and the BEGs have a clear feature of PAH emission, evidence of current SF. BEGs show NIR features different from those of ULIRGs from which we do not find any clear relationship between BEGs and ULIRGs. We find that Seyfert BEGs have more active SF than LINER BEGs, in spite of the fact that Seyferts show stronger AGN activity than LINERs. One possible scenario satisfying both our results and the AGN feedback is that SF, Seyfert, and LINER BEGs form an evolutionary sequence: SF {yields} Seyfert {yields} LINER.

  15. Kinematics of Interstellar Gas in Nearby UV-selected Galaxies Measured with HST STIS Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, C. M.; Martin, C. L.; Chandar, R.; Leitherer, C.; Heckman, T. M.; Oey, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    We measure Doppler shifts of interstellar absorption lines in HST STIS spectra of individual star clusters in nearby UV-selected galaxies. Values for systemic velocities, which are needed to quantify outflow speeds, are taken from the literature and verified with stellar lines. We detect outflowing gas in 8 of 17 galaxies via low-ionization lines (e.g., C II, Si II, Al II), which trace cold and/or warm gas. The starbursts in our sample are intermediate in luminosity (and mass) to dwarf galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and we confirm that their outflow speeds (ranging from -100 to nearly -520 km s-1, with an accuracy of ~80 km s-1) are intermediate to those previously measured in dwarf starbursts and LIRGs. We do not detect the outflow in high-ionization lines (such as C IV or Si IV); higher quality data will be needed to empirically establish how velocities vary with the ionization state of the outflow. We do verify that the low-ionization UV lines and optical Na I doublet give roughly consistent outflow velocities, solidifying an important link between studies of galactic winds at low and high redshift. To obtain a higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we create a local average composite spectrum and compare it to the high-z Lyman break composite spectrum. It is surprising that the low-ionization lines show similar outflow velocities in the two samples. We attribute this to a combination of weighting toward higher luminosities in the local composite, as well as both samples being, on average, brighter than the ``turnover'' luminosity in the v-SFR relation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-9036.

  16. Fraction of the X-ray selected AGNs with optical emission lines in galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Yuan, Qirong; Bian, Weihao; Chen, Xi; Yan, Pengfei

    2017-04-01

    Compared with numerous X-ray dominant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) without emission-line signatures in their optical spectra, the X-ray selected AGNs with optical emission lines are probably still in the high-accretion phase of black hole growth. This paper presents an investigation on the fraction of these X-ray detected AGNs with optical emission-line spectra in 198 galaxy groups at z<1 in a rest frame 0.1-2.4 keV luminosity range 41.3 < log(LX/erg s^{-1}) < 44.1 within the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, as well as its variations with redshift and group richness. For various selection criteria of member galaxies, the numbers of galaxies and the AGNs with optical emission lines in each galaxy group are obtained. It is found that, in total 198 X-ray groups, there are 27 AGNs detected in 26 groups. AGN fraction is on average less than 4.6 (±1.2)% for individual groups hosting at least one AGN. The corrected overall AGN fraction for whole group sample is less than 0.98 (±0.11) %. The normalized locations of group AGNs show that 15 AGNs are found to be located in group centers, including all 6 low-luminosity group AGNs (L_{ 0.5-2 keV} < 10^{42.5} erg s^{-1}). A week rising tendency with z are found: overall AGN fraction is 0.30-0.43% for the groups at z<0.5, and 0.55-0.64% at 0.5 < z < 1.0. For the X-ray groups at z>0.5, most member AGNs are X-ray bright, optically dull, which results in a lower AGN fractions at higher redshifts. The AGN fraction in isolated fields also exhibits a rising trend with redshift, and the slope is consistent with that in groups. The environment of galaxy groups seems to make no difference in detection probability of the AGNs with emission lines. Additionally, a larger AGN fractions are found in poorer groups, which implies that the AGNs in poor groups might still be in the high-accretion phase, whereas the AGN population in rich clusters is mostly in the low-accretion, X-ray dominant phase.

  17. Optical monitoring of selected quasars, Lacertids, and active galaxies in blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, G.J.; Schultz, J.; Dey, A.

    1986-12-01

    Optical photometry in blue light of selected bright quasars, Lacertids, active galaxies, and X-ray sources with a 1-m f/15 Cassegrain reflector is reported. The observed magnitude and amplitude for 3C 273, 3C 351, 3C 454.3, 3C 66A, PKS 2141 + 17, BL Lac, OJ287, and Zw0039.5 + 004 are described. The techniques used to collect and reduce the data are discussed. Tables of observed blue magnitudes for the data are provided. 18 references.

  18. Occurrence of radio halos in galaxy clusters. Insight from a mass-selected sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuciti, V.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Dallacasa, D.; Kale, R.; Ettori, S.; Venturi, T.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Giant radio halos (RH) are diffuse Mpc-scale synchrotron sources detected in some massive and merging galaxy clusters. An unbiased study of the statistical properties of RHs is crucial to constraining their origin and evolution. Aims: We investigate the occurrence of RHs and its dependence on the cluster mass in a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected sample of galaxy clusters, which is nearly a mass-selected sample. Moreover, we analyse the connection between RHs and merging clusters. Methods: We selected from the Planck SZ catalogue clusters with M ≥ 6 × 1014M⊙ at z = 0.08-0.33 and we searched for the presence of RHs using the NVSS for z < 0.2 and the GMRT RH survey (GRHS) and its extension (EGRHS) for 0.2 < z < 0.33. We used archival Chandra X-ray data to derive information on the dynamical status of the clusters. Results: We confirm that RH clusters are merging systems while the majority of clusters without RH are relaxed, thus supporting the idea that mergers play a fundamental role in the generation of RHs. We find evidence for an increase in the fraction of clusters with RHs with the cluster mass and this is in line with expectations derived on the basis of the turbulence re-acceleration scenario. Finally, we discuss the effect of the incompleteness of our sample on this result.

  19. THE AzTEC/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Peck, Alison B.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Lowenthal, James D.

    2009-10-10

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.

  20. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich pressure profiles and masses of infrared-selected galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzia, Brittany; Huffenberger, Kevin; Mehrtens, Nicola; Papovich, Casey J.; ACT Collaboration, SHELA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Using Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) data, we analyze the stacked Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) temperature decrement for an infrared-selected sample of galaxy cluster candidates. The candidates come from the Spitzer/Hetdex Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope, and allow us to probe clusters at higher redshift than typical with optically-selected samples, with objects less massive than those typical with SZ surveys. Our sample contains 45 cluster candidates---overdensities identified using photometric redshifts of the member galaxies. The cluster candidates have 24-35 visible members, and were not individually detected in SZ by ACT. In the stacking analysis, ACT measurements show a temperature decrement at 148 GHz, but an excess at the 220 GHz SZ null, which we attribute to dust emission from the cluster galaxies. To correct the decrement for dust contamination we use two methods to determine the dust spectral energy distribution (SED). First we use the correlation in the CIB power spectra observed by Planck at 143 and 217 GHz. Second, we use catalog sources from the Herschel Stripe 82 (HerS) survey, combining the emission from all sources proximate to our sample at 600, 860, and 1200 GHz, and fitting a graybody spectrum. Both methods yield a similar dust SED from 220 GHz to 148 GHz, and we use this to extrapolate the 220 GHz increment and estimate the 148 GHz contamination. After the dust correction, we use the universal pressure profile to fit for an average SZ signal and cluster mass.

  1. Physical properties of H alpha selected star forming galaxies at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar; V.; Gallego, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Barro, G.; Pascual, S.; Zamorano, J.; Noeske, K.; Koo, D.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we analyze the star formation rates and stellar masses of a sample of 157 star forming galaxies at z ˜ 0.84 (Villar et al. 2008), selected by their Hα flux with a narrow band filter. We compare star formation rates (SFR) measured with different tracers (Hα, UV and IR) finding that they are in good agreement after extinction correction, although with some scatter. We find a correlation between the ratios SFR_{FUV}/SFR_{Hα}, SFR_{IR}/SFR_{Hα} and the EW(Hα) (i.e. weighted age) which accounts for part of this scatter. We obtained stellar mass estimations fitting templates to multi-wavelength photometry. The typical stellar mass of a galaxy within our sample is ˜ 2 x 10^{10} M_⊙. The specific star formation rate (sSFR) decreases with it, indicating that massive galaxies are less affected by star formation processes than less massive ones. In addition, the sSFR is, for a fixed mass, higher in the Universe at z˜ 0.84 than in the local one. Both results are consistent with the downsizing scenario. To quantify this downsizing we estimated the quenching masses for our sample at z ˜ 0.84 and a local sample also selected by Hα, finding that it declines from M_Q ˜ 10^{12} M_⊙ at z ˜ 0.84 to M_Q ˜ 8 x 10^{10} M_⊙ at the local Universe.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray properties of BzK-selected galaxies (Rangel+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, C.; Nandra, K.; Laird, E. S.; Orange, P.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the X-ray properties of BzK-selected galaxies at z~2 using deep X-ray data in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS) and Chandra Deep Field-North (CDFN). A subset of these BzK galaxies have been proposed as Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates based on a high ratio of infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) star formation rates (SFRs). With the benefit of deep 24μm observations, our sample of these IR-excess galaxies is larger than previous studies and combined with the deepest X-ray data yield new insights into the population. We identify 701 and 534 star-forming BzK galaxies (sBzK galaxies) in the range z=1.2-3.0 in CDFS and CDFN, respectively. Of these we directly detect in X-rays 49 sBzK galaxies in CDFS and 32 sBzK galaxies in CDFN. (2 data files).

  3. Clustering Of Radio-Selected AGN (And Star-Forming Galaxies) Up To Redshifts z = 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, Manuela; Popesso, P.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present the clustering properties of a complete sample of 957 radio sources detected by the VLA-COSMOS survey with radio fluxes brighter than 0.15 mJy. Based on their radio-luminosity, these objects have been furtherly divided into two populations of 642 AGN and 246 star-forming galaxies. Investigations of their clustering properties return values for the minimum masses of dark matter haloes capable to host at least one of such sources of Mmin=10^13.6 Msun for radio-selected AGN and Mmin=10^13.1 Msun for radio-emitting star-forming galaxies. Comparisons with previous works imply an independence of the clustering properties of the AGN population with respect to both radio luminosity and redshift. We also investigate the relationship between dark and luminous matter in both populations. Our results indicate a larger relative stellar content in the star-forming population with respect to AGN and also clearly show the cosmic process of star-formation build-up as one moves towards the more local universe. Comparisons between the observed space density of radio-selected AGN and that of dark matter haloes shows that about one in two haloes is associated with a black hole in its radio-active phase. This suggests that the radio-active phase is a recurrent phenomenon.

  4. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey . I. Selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viironen, K.; Marín-Franch, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Molino, A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; Ascaso, B.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cerviño, M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Oteo, I.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, J. F.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so-called dropout technique or Ly-α selection. However, the availability of multifilter data now allows the dropout selections to be replaced by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims: Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing to the study of the brightest, least frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods: The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reaching both a complete and clean sample with this method is challenging. Hence, a method to derive statistical properties by summing the zPDFs of all the galaxies in the redshift bin of interest is introduced. Results: Using this methodology we derive the galaxy rest frame UV number counts in five redshift bins centred at z = 2.5,3.0,3.5,4.0, and 4.5, being complete up to the limiting magnitude at mUV(AB) = 24, where mUV refers to the first ALHAMBRA filter redwards of the Ly-α line. With the wide field ALHAMBRA data we especially contribute to the study of the brightest ends of these counts, accurately sampling the surface densities down to mUV(AB) = 21-22. Conclusions: We show that using the zPDFs it is easy to select a very clean sample of high redshift galaxies. We also show that it is better to do statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies using a probabilistic approach, which takes into account both the incompleteness and contamination issues in a

  5. How Lyman alpha bites/beats the dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The bulk of high redshift star formation occurs in IR-bright objects. At similar epochs the de facto spectroscopic tracer of galaxies is the Lyman-alpha line, which is used almost ubiquitously with a diverse range of applications in galaxy evolution. Ly-alpha is also very sensitive to dust absorption, however, and a challenging emergent result of recent years is that an overwhelming fraction of IR-bright galaxies are also luminous Ly-alpha emitters. How is this possible given the mammoth dust contents? We will take advantage of the unique capabilities of HST and the Cycle 22 UV initiative to find out.Ly-alpha observations are infamously difficult to interpret because of the resonant nature of the transition. This has motivated detailed studies of nearby galaxies with space-based platforms, that have aided in unleashing the power of Ly-alpha for high-z studies. Only HST provides the UV access and resolution to do this, and hundreds of orbits have been devoted to studying UV-selected galaxies. Yet the UV reveals a small fraction of high-z star formation and no study has ever imaged the IR-bright systems in Ly-alpha. The proposed ACS observations will do this in five Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), sampling spatial scales of just 50 pc. We will test sophisticated new models of Ly-alpha escape, study morphologies in comparison to the stars and nebular gas, measure global Ly-alpha quantities for the first time, and probe the relevant structures in the ISM in minute detail. We will finally push nearby Ly-alpha studies to the highest possible bolometric luminosities.

  6. HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Brodwin, Mark; Narayan, Ramesh; Kenter, Almus; Caldwell, Nelson; Anderson, Michael E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Dey, Arjun; Brown, Michael J. I.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Cool, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    We explore the connection between different classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the evolution of their host galaxies, by deriving host galaxy properties, clustering, and Eddington ratios of AGNs selected in the radio, X-ray, and infrared (IR) wavebands. We study a sample of 585 AGNs at 0.25 < z < 0.8 using redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We select AGNs with observations in the radio at 1.4 GHz from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, X-rays from the Chandra XBooetes Survey, and mid-IR from the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey. The radio, X-ray, and IR AGN samples show only modest overlap, indicating that to the flux limits of the survey, they represent largely distinct classes of AGNs. We derive host galaxy colors and luminosities, as well as Eddington ratios, for obscured or optically faint AGNs. We also measure the two-point cross-correlation between AGNs and galaxies on scales of 0.3-10 h {sup -1} Mpc, and derive typical dark matter halo masses. We find that: (1) radio AGNs are mainly found in luminous red sequence galaxies, are strongly clustered (with M {sub halo} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have very low Eddington ratios {lambda} {approx}< 10{sup -3}; (2) X-ray-selected AGNs are preferentially found in galaxies that lie in the 'green valley' of color-magnitude space and are clustered similar to the typical AGES galaxies (M {sub halo} {approx} 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), with 10{sup -3} {approx}< {lambda} {approx}< 1; (3) IR AGNs reside in slightly bluer, slightly less luminous galaxies than X-ray AGNs, are weakly clustered (M {sub halo} {approx}< 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have {lambda}>10{sup -2}. We interpret these results in terms of a simple model of AGN and galaxy evolution, whereby a 'quasar' phase and the growth of the stellar bulge occurs when a galaxy's dark matter halo reaches a critical mass between {approx}10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M {sub sun}. After this event

  7. The Emission Line AGN Census: Biases of Line Ratio Selection, and Uniform Black Hole Accretion Regardless of Galaxy Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Zeimann, Gregory; Juneau, Stephanie; Sun, Mouyuan; Luck, Cuyler

    2015-01-01

    Optical emission line ratios offer a powerful tool to reveal accretion onto supermassive black holes, with the ability to find both unobscured and obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in extraordinarily large galaxy samples (like the SDSS). I will demonstrate, however, that classic line ratio selection techniques significantly underestimate the AGN fraction by a factor of >10 in low-mass and star-forming galaxies. Previous conclusions that AGNs require massive green-valley hosts are purely a result of this "star formation dilution" bias. Careful treatment of the biases reveals that AGN accretion is uniform across star-forming galaxies of any stellar mass, similar to the results of bias-corrected X-ray AGN studies. This has dramatic implications for AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies and constraints on the black hole seed population.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2MASS-selected Flat Galaxy Catalog (2MFGC) (Mitronova+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitronova, S. N.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kudrya, Yu. N.

    2006-09-01

    An all-sky catalog of 18020 disc-like galaxies is presented. The galaxies are selected from the Extended Source Catalog of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (XSC 2MASS) basing on their 2MASS axial ratio a/b>=3. The Catalog contains data on magnitudes of a galaxy in the J, H, Ks bands, its axial ratio, positional angle, index of luminosity concentration, as well as identification of the galaxy with the LEDA and the NED databases. Unlike the available optical catalogs, the new 2MFGC catalog seems to be more suitable to study cosmic streaming on a scale of z~0.1. The dipole moment of distribution of the bright (K<11mag) 2MFGC objects (l=227°, b=41° or SGL=90°, SGB=-43°) lies within statistical errors (+/-15°) in the direction of the IRAS dipole and the optical RFGC dipole. (1 data file).

  9. The Multiwavelength Analysis Of Galaxies At z 1.5 And 4: Morphologies And SEDs Of Balmer-break Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Sara M.; de Mello, D. F.; Wiklind, T.; Gardner, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of high-z galaxies at z 1.5 and 4, using Hubble Space Telescope optical (ACS), near-infrared (NICMOS), and mid-infrared images (Spitzer/IRAC). The morphologies of detected objects are categorized quantitatively by the Gini coefficient, M20, and the 2D Sersic index. A catalog of sources has been created and cross-matched between the multiple wavelengths. The data includes the ACS filters F606W and 850LP; NICMOS filters F110W, and F160W; and IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm filters. The galaxies are extracted from the NICMOS parallel pointings as part of the UDF05 campaign. We use the Balmer-break to fit SEDs for 301 galaxies and obtain photometric redshifts, dust extinction, starburst age, bolometric luminosities, and metallicities. We measure G, M20, and Sérsic for a selection of the SED fitted data in the redshift regions 1.3 < z < 2 and 3 < z < 4. The quantitative morphologies are compared in the F606W, F850LP, F110W, and F160W images and are compared with a sample of LBGs at z 1.5 and 4. We compare the morphologies with the SED derived physical parameters. One major result shows that the luminosities are 16 times brighter for galaxies at z 4. Our purpose is to determine trends in morphologies as a function of redshift and physical parameters for Balmer-break selected galaxies which have older stellar populations than LBGs.

  10. The host galaxies of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael J.

    One of the great mysteries surrounding active galactic nuclei (AGN) is their triggering mechanism. Since the discovery that almost all massive galaxies host nuclear supermassive black holes, it has become clear that a trigger mechanism is required to 'turn on' and continue to fuel the central black hole. While it is established that accretion processes are responsible for the energy emitted, the source of the accreting material is still controversial. Furthermore, the energy input from phases of black hole growth is thought to be a key regulator in the formation of galaxies and the establishment of various scaling relations. Theorists often invoke galaxy mergers as the violent mechanism to drive gas into the central regions and ignite luminous quasars, but among more common moderate luminosity AGN, there has been great controversy whether secular processes or mergers dominate AGN fueling. A survey in the ultra hard X-ray band (14--195 keV) is an important new way to answer the fundamental question of AGN fueling. This method is independent of selection effects such as dust extinction and obscuration that plague surveys at other wavelengths because of the ability of the primary continuum to easily pass through large columns of obscuring gas and dust (<10 24 cm-2). In this PhD, we have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift BAT sample. We find that these AGN show much higher rates of both mergers and massive spirals suggesting both mergers and accretion of cold gas in late type systems are important in AGN fueling. We also find that the most common AGN survey technique, optical line diagnostics, is heavily biased against finding AGN in mergers or spirals. Finally, in agreement with the merger driven AGN link, we find that dual AGN systems may be more common than current observation suggest since some of them are only detected using high

  11. Search For Gamma-Ray Emission From X-Ray-Selected Seyfert Galaxies With Fermi -LAT

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.

    2012-02-23

    We report on a systematic investigation of the γ-ray properties of 120 hard Xray– selected Seyfert galaxies classified as ‘radio-quiet’ objects, utilizing the threeyear accumulation of Fermi–LAT data. Our sample of Seyfert galaxies is selected using the Swift–BAT 58-month catalog, restricting the analysis to the bright sources with average hard X-ray fluxes F14-195 keV ≥ 2.5 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1 at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°). In order to remove ‘radio-loud’ objects from the sample, we use the ‘hard X-ray radio loudness parameter’, RrX , defined as the ratio of the total 1.4 GHz radio to 14 -more » 195 keV hard X-ray energy fluxes. Among 120 X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies with RrX < 10-4, we did not find a statistically significant γ-ray excess (TS > 25) positionally coincident with any target Seyferts, with possible exceptions of ESO 323–G077 and NGC 6814. The mean value of the 95% confidence level γ-ray upper limit for the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV from the analyzed Seyferts is ≃ 4×10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 , and the upper limits derived for several objects reach ≃ 1 × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 . Our results indicate that no prominent γ-ray emission component related to active galactic nucleus activity is present in the spectra of Seyferts around GeV energies. The Fermi–LAT upper limits derived for our sample probe the ratio of γ-ray to X-ray luminosities L /LX < 0.1, and even < 0.01 in some cases. The obtained results impose novel constraints on the models for high energy radiation of ‘radio-quiet’ Seyfert galaxies.« less

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the cluster redshift survey, target selection and cluster properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, M. S.; Allen, J. T.; Baldry, I.; Bryant, J. J.; Cecil, G. N.; Cortese, L.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Green, A. W.; Helmich, E.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Mahajan, S.; McFarland, J.; Pracy, M. B.; Robotham, A. G. S.; Sikkema, G.; Sweet, S.; Taylor, E. N.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Colless, M.; Couch, W. J.; Davies, R. L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Goodwin, M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Foster, C.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Metcalfe, N.; Richards, S. N.; van de Sande, J.; Scott, N.; Shanks, T.; Sharp, R.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.

    2017-06-01

    We describe the selection of galaxies targeted in eight low-redshift clusters (APMCC0917, A168, A4038, EDCC442, A3880, A2399, A119 and A85; 0.029 < z < 0.058) as part of the Sydney-AAO Multi-Object Integral field spectrograph Galaxy Survey (SAMI-GS). We have conducted a redshift survey of these clusters using the AAOmega multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. The redshift survey is used to determine cluster membership and to characterize the dynamical properties of the clusters. In combination with existing data, the survey resulted in 21 257 reliable redshift measurements and 2899 confirmed cluster member galaxies. Our redshift catalogue has a high spectroscopic completeness (˜94 per cent) for rpetro ≤ 19.4 and cluster-centric distances R < 2R200. We use the confirmed cluster member positions and redshifts to determine cluster velocity dispersion, R200, virial and caustic masses, as well as cluster structure. The clusters have virial masses 14.25 ≤ log(M200/M⊙) ≤ 15.19. The cluster sample exhibits a range of dynamical states, from relatively relaxed-appearing systems, to clusters with strong indications of merger-related substructure. Aperture- and point spread function matched photometry are derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and VLT Survey Telescope/ATLAS imaging and used to estimate stellar masses. These estimates, in combination with the redshifts, are used to define the input target catalogue for the cluster portion of the SAMI-GS. The primary SAMI-GS cluster targets have R

  13. Infrared photometric study of SDSS selected narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2017-07-01

    The infrared photometric study of SDSS selected Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (NLS1s) is presented in this paper. We have made cross-identifications for such NLS1s with 2MASS and WISE observations. Finally 992 NLS1s have 2MASS and WISE counterparts. Comparisons of NLS1s with the Broad Line Seyfert 1 (BLS1s) and Seyfert 2 galaxies are made. It is shown that from 1 μm to 5 μm NLS1s are redder than BLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies possibly due to the richer dust environment in NLS1 nuclei or to the orientation effect while in the longer wavelengths those three kinds of sources have quite similar behavior indicative of radiation mainly from the similar warm starburst-related dust and the related AGN dust. In addition, relations between infrared colors and related (to Hβ) strengths of some important lines are also investigated. The results show that the related strengths of [FeII] 4570 Å are positively correlated with infrared colors in the 1-5 μm region, but negatively correlated with infrared colors in the 12-22 μm region; the related strength of [OIII] 5007 Å are negatively correlated with infrared colors in the 1-5 μm region, but positively correlated with infrared colors in the 12-22 μm region; the related strength of [NII]6583 Å are also negatively correlated with infrared colors in the 1-5 μm region, but positively correlated with infrared colors in the 12-22 μm region. Therefore it is indicated that the behavior of [FeII] 4570 Å is just opposed to that for [OIII] 5007 Å and [NII] 6583 Å This result may be caused by different origins of such lines.

  14. Higher prevalence of X-ray selected AGN in intermediate-age galaxies up to z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Aird, James; Ferreras, Ignacio; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolás; Esquej, Pilar; Gallego, Jesús; Nandra, Kirpal; Rodríguez-Zaurín, Javier

    2014-10-01

    We analyse the stellar populations in the host galaxies of 53 X-ray selected optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 0.34 < z < 1.07 with ultradeep (mAB = 26.5, 3σ) optical medium-band (R ˜ 50) photometry from the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS). The spectral resolution of SHARDS allows us to consistently measure the strength of the 4000 Å break, Dn(4000), a reliable age indicator for stellar populations. We confirm that most X-ray selected moderate-luminosity AGN (LX < 1044 erg s-1) are hosted by massive galaxies (typically M* >1010.5 M⊙) and that the observed fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN increases with the stellar mass. A careful selection of random control samples of inactive galaxies allows us to remove the stellar mass and redshift dependences of the AGN fraction to explore trends with several stellar age indicators. We find no significant differences in the distribution of the rest-frame U - V colour for AGN hosts and inactive galaxies, in agreement with previous results. However, we find significantly shallower 4000 Å breaks in AGN hosts, indicative of younger stellar populations. With the help of a model-independent determination of the extinction, we obtain extinction-corrected U - V colours and light-weighted average stellar ages. We find that AGN hosts have younger stellar populations and higher extinction compared to inactive galaxies with the same stellar mass and at the same redshift. We find a highly significant excess of AGN hosts with Dn(4000) ˜ 1.4 and light-weighted average stellar ages of 300-500 Myr, as well as a deficit of AGN in intrinsic red galaxies. We interpret failure in recognizing these trends in previous studies as a consequence of the balancing effect in observed colours of the age-extinction degeneracy.

  15. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M.; Fu, Hai; Wardlow, J.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Dye, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  16. Spectroscopy and Photometry of Elliptical Galaxies. VI. Sample Selection and Data Summary: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, S. M.; Wegner, Gary; Burstein, David; Davies, Roger L.; Dressler, Alan; Lynden-Bell, D.; Terlevich, R. J.

    1989-09-01

    In the paper "Spectroscopy and Photometry of Elliptical Galaxies. VI. Sample Selection and Data Summary" by S. M. Faber, G. Wegner, D. Burstein, Roger L. Davies, A. Dressler, D. Lynden-Bell, and R. J. Terlevich (Ap. J. Suppl., 69, 763 [1989] the (B-V)_0_ coIors listed in Table 1, column (9), are incorrectly identified in the text as coming from an average of all photoelectric observations made in apertures <=67" in diameter. The (B - V)_0_ colors in apertures <=67" in diameter are given in a paper by David Burstein, Roger L. Davies, Alan Dressler, S. M. Faber, Remington P. S. Stone, Donald Lynden-Bell, Roberto J. Terlevich, and Gary Wegner (Ap. J. Suppl., 64, 601 [1987]). The (B-V)_0_ colors listed in Tab1e 1 in the present paper come from an average of all photoelectric observations made in apertures <=30" in diameter. The number of observations per galaxy given in Table 1 also refers to those made in apertures <= 30" in diameter. In both cases, the colors given are corrected for the same Galactic extinction and cosmological effects. The incorrect identification of the aperture size of the (B-V)_0_ colors has no other effect on this paper. We thank Marijn Franx for first pointing out the difference in the (B - V)0 colors listed in the present paper and Burstein et al. (1987).

  17. Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution Decomposition of WISE-selected, Hyperluminous Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K.

    2016-06-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submillimeter/millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submillimeter-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs), with spectroscopic redshift ranging from 1.7 to 4.6. We compare the Bayesian evidence of a torus plusgraybody (Torus+GB) model with that of a torus-only (Torus) model and find that the Torus+GB model has higher Bayesian evidence for all 22 Hot DOGs than the torus-only model, which presents strong evidence in favor of the Torus+GB model. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are as follows. (1) Hot DOGs in our submillimeter-detected sample are hyperluminous ({L}{IR}≥slant {10}13{L}⊙ ), with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, contributing on average ˜ 24% of total IR luminosity. (2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submillimeter at rest frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at ˜ 10{--}50 μ {{m}}, suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. (3) Hot DOGs have high dust temperatures ({T}{dust}˜ 72 K) and high IR luminosity of cold dust. The {T}{dust}{--}{L}{IR} relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust temperature, rather than dust mass. Hot DOGs have lower dust masses than submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and QSOs within a similar redshift range. Both high IR luminosity of cold dust and relatively low dust mass in Hot DOGs can be expected by their relatively high dust temperatures. (4) Hot DOGs have high dust-covering factors (CFs), which deviate from the previously proposed trend of the dust CF decreasing with increasing bolometric luminosity. Finally, we can reproduce the observed

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PM-selected stars of Hercules galaxy (Fabrizio+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, M.; Raimondo, G.; Brocato, E.; Bellini, A.; Libralato, M.; Testa, V.; Cantiello, M.; Musella, I.; Clementini, G.; Carini, R.; Marconi, M.; Piotto, G.; Ripepi, V.; Buonanno, R.; Sani, E.; Speziali, R.

    2014-08-01

    Discovered in the last decade as overdensities of resolved stars, the ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) are among the least luminous, most dark-matter dominated, and most metal-poor galaxies known today. They appear as sparse, loose objects with high mass-to-light ratios. Hercules is the prototype of the UFD galaxies. To date, there are still no firm constraints on its total luminosity due to the difficulty of disentangling Hercules bona-fide stars from the severe Galactic field contamination. To better constrain Hercules properties, we aim at removing foreground and background contaminants in the galaxy field using the proper motions of the Milky Way stars and the colour-colour diagram. We have obtained images of Hercules in the rSloan , BBessel and Uspec bands with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and LBC-BIN mode capabilities. The rSloan new dataset combined with data from the LBT archive span a time baseline of about 5yr, allowing us to measure proper motions of stars in the Hercules direction for the first time. The Uspec data along with existing LBT photometry allowed us to use colour-colour diagram to further remove the field contamination. Description: The Hercules ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxy (J2000 position 16:31:02.0+12:47:25.6) was observed with the Large Binocular Camera (LBC) at the LBT located on Mount Graham in Arizona. The LBC is a wide field imager (4 CCDs, 2Kx4.5K pixels each) with a FoV of ~23'x 23' and a resolution of 0.225"/pix. We employed both archival and proprietary data to have the longest available time baseline. File table2 contains the final catalogue of 528 PM-selected sources. From left to right we report: the source identity (Col. 1), right ascension and declination (Col. 2-3), Uspec, BBessel and rSloan magnitudes with their uncertainty (Col. 4-6), displacement with its uncertainty (Col. 7) (1 data file).

  19. X-ray-selected galaxy groups in Boötes

    SciTech Connect

    Vajgel, Bruna; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Goulding, Andrew; Andrade-Santos, Felipe

    2014-10-10

    We present the X-ray and optical properties of the galaxy groups selected in the Chandra X-Boötes survey. We used follow-up Chandra observations to better define the group sample and their X-ray properties. Group redshifts were measured from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey spectroscopic data. We used photometric data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey to estimate the group richness (N {sub gals}) and the optical luminosity (L {sub opt}). Our final sample comprises 32 systems at z < 1.75 with 14 below z = 0.35. For these 14 systems, we estimate velocity dispersions (σ {sub gr}) and perform a virial analysis to obtain the radii (R {sub 200} and R {sub 500}) and total masses (M {sub 200} and M {sub 500}) for groups with at least 5 galaxy members. We use the Chandra X-ray observations to derive the X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ). We examine the performance of the group properties σ{sub gr}, L {sub opt}, and L{sub X} , as proxies for the group mass. Understanding how well these observables measure the total mass is important to estimate how precisely the cluster/group mass function is determined. Exploring the scaling relations built with the X-Boötes sample and comparing these with samples from the literature, we find a break in the L{sub X} -M {sub 500} relation at approximately M {sub 500} = 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} (for M {sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.61±0.02}, while for M {sub 500} ≤ 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.44±0.05}). Thus, the mass-luminosity relation for galaxy groups cannot be described by the same power law as galaxy clusters. A possible explanation for this break is the dynamical friction, tidal interactions, and projection effects that reduce the velocity dispersion values of the galaxy groups. By extending the cluster luminosity function to the group regime, we predict the number of groups that new X-ray surveys, particularly eROSITA, will detect. Based on our cluster

  20. Bulgeless Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift: Sample Selection, Color Properties, and the Existence of Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Filho, Mercedes E.; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Griffith, Roger L.; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João; Anton, Sonia; Bell, Eric F.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Henriques, Bruno; Lobo, Catarina; Messias, Hugo

    2014-02-01

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 <= z <= 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M sstarf/M ⊙) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ~30% of the total galaxy population number density at z >= 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  1. Bulgeless galaxies at intermediate redshift: Sample selection, color properties, and the existence of powerful active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João; Filho, Mercedes E.; Lobo, Catarina; Griffith, Roger L.; Anton, Sonia; Bell, Eric F.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Henriques, Bruno; Messias, Hugo

    2014-02-10

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ∼30% of the total galaxy population number density at z ≥ 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  2. ZFOURGE: Exploring the Properties of ~1500 Ks-Selected Galaxies at 2.5 < z < 4 with Composite Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, Adam; ZFOURGE

    2017-01-01

    We use deep multi-wavelength photometry from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) and public surveys to construct composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from ~1500 Ks-selected galaxies at 2.5 < z< 4. We identify seven star-forming composite SEDs that represent ~80% of the sample including galaxies with stellar masses down to log(M*/M⊙) = 9. With rest-frame coverage of 0.08-7μm, we measure the UV flux, UV slope, rest-frame colors, and ratio of infrared to UV flux (IRX) by fitting to the composite SEDs. The IRX-β relation for the composite SEDs favors an SMC-like dust law. Rest-frame UVJ colors, specific star formation rate (sSFR), and UV flux are inversely correlated with stellar mass, stellar attenuation (AV), and galaxy radius, i.e. composite SEDs with lower UV flux are composed of galaxies with higher stellar masses, redder colors, lower sSFR, more dust, and larger radii. The two bluest composite SEDs have very strong (Hβ+[OIII]) emission and essentially no dust, and their UVJ colors cannot be modeled by a simple stellar population. These extreme galaxies are small (radii ~1.2 kpc) and seem to be vigorously forming stars in their cores.

  3. The Host Galaxy Properties of Variability Selected AGN in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S.; Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-07-01

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massive hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV - r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.

  4. UV to radio centimetric spectral energy distributions of optically-selected late-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Gavazzi, G.; Sanvito, G.

    2003-04-01

    We present a multifrequency dataset for an optically-selected, volume-limited, complete sample of 118 late-type galaxies (>=S0a) in the Virgo cluster. The database includes UV, visible, near-IR, mid-IR, far-IR, radio continuum photometric data as well as spectroscopic data of Hα , CO and HI lines, homogeneously reduced, obtained from our own observations or compiled from the literature. Assuming the energy balance between the absorbed stellar light and that radiated in the IR by dust, we calibarte an empirical attenuation law suitable for correcting photometric and spectroscopic data of normal galaxies. The data, corrected for internal extinction, are used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of each individual galaxy, and combined to trace the median SED of galaxies in various classes of morphological type and luminosity. Low-luminosity, dwarf galaxies have on average bluer stellar continua and higher far-IR luminosities per unit galaxy mass than giant, early-type spirals. If compared to nearby starburst galaxies such as M 82 and Arp 220, normal spirals have relatively similar observed stellar spectra but 10-100 times lower IR luminosities. The temperature of the cold dust component increases with the far-IR luminosity, from giant spirals to dwarf irregulars. The SED are used to separate the stellar emission from the dust emission in the mid-IR regime. We show that the contribution of the stellar emission at 6.75 mu m to the total emission of galaxies is generally important, from ~ 80% in Sa to ~ 20% in Sc. Tables 2-5, 7, 8, and Fig. 2 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Tables 10-12 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/37

  5. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IX. Galaxy evolution to z ~ 2 from optically selected catalogues†‡

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feulner, Georg; Goranova, Yuliana; Hopp, Ulrich; Gabasch, Armin; Bender, Ralf; Botzler, Christine S.; Drory, Niv

    2007-06-01

    We present B-, R- and I-band-selected galaxy catalogues based on the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS) which, together with the previously used K-selected sample, serve as an important probe of galaxy evolution in the redshift range 0 <~ z <~ 2. Furthermore, used in comparison they are ideally suited to study selection effects in extragalactic astronomy. The construction of the B-, R- and I-selected photometric catalogues, containing ~9000, ~9000 and ~6000 galaxies, respectively, is described in detail. The catalogues reach 50 per cent completeness limits for point sources of B ~= 24.5 mag, R ~= 23.5 mag and I ~= 22.5 mag and cover an area of about 0.3deg2. Photometric redshifts are derived for all galaxies with an accuracy of δz/(1 + z) ~= 0.057, very similar to the K-selected sample. Galaxy number counts in the B, V, R, I, J and K bands demonstrate the quality of the data set. The rest-frame colour distributions of galaxies at different selection bands and redshifts suggest that the most-massive galaxies have formed the bulk of their stellar population at earlier times and are essentially in place at redshift unity. We investigate the influence of selection band and environment on the specific star formation rate (SSFR). We find that K-band selection indeed comes close to selection in stellar mass, while B-band selection purely selects galaxies in SFR. We use a galaxy group catalogue constructed on the K-band-selected MUNICS sample to study possible differences of the SSFR between the field and the group environment, finding a marginally lower average SSFR in groups as compared to the field, especially at lower redshifts. The field-galaxy luminosity function in the B and R band as derived from the R-selected sample evolves out to z ~= 2 in the sense that the characteristic luminosity increases but the number density decreases. This effect is smaller at longer rest-frame wavelengths and gets more pronounced at shorter wavelengths. Parametrizing the

  6. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA . V. The Coma supercluster survey completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Consolandi, Guido; Viscardi, Elisa; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Fumagalli, Michele; Gutierrez, Leonel; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through transformation of molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Hα is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Hα3 (acronym for Hα - αα), an extensive Hα+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir (SPM) observatory (Mexico). In 48 nights since 2011 we were able to carry out the Hα imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10h < RA < 16h ; 24° < Dec < 28° and 3900 selected from the ALFALFA and constitute a 97% complete sample. They provide for the first time a complete census of the massive star formation properties of local gas-rich galaxies belonging to different environments (cluster vs. filaments), morphological types (spirals vs. dwarf Irr), over a wide range of stellar mass (~ 108 - 1011.5M⊙) in the Coma supercluster. The present Paper V provides Hα data and derived star formation rates for the observed galaxies. The data available for the 724 galaxies are given in three tables, which are partially listed in the Appendix. The full tables, the Atlas, and the FITS images of the 724 targeted galaxies are distributed via http://goldmine.mib.infn.it/ (Gavazzi et al. 2003, 2014) under the section project/papers.

  7. Chandra study of the first strong-lens selected cluster of galaxies and the lens system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Naohisa

    2004-09-01

    We propose to observe SDSS J1004+4112, the first and unique strongly lensed quasar system due to a cluster of galaxies, at X-ray wavelengths using the ACIS-S. Our goals include: 1) constraining the properties of the first strong-lens selected cluster, 2) determining the magnification ratios of the 4 quasar images at X-ray wavelengths, 3) constraining the intensity of the cluster Fe-K emission line for the future study. The existence of 4 bright X-ray sources (4 quasar images) behind the core of a cluster provides a unique observational opportunity. Combined with our other observations (Astro-E2, Subaru, Nobeyama), a Chandra observation of this system promises a wealth of important cosmological information. Based on MARX simulations, we request an exposure time of 80 ks.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Activity of 70um-selected galaxies (Symeonidis+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonidis, M.; Rosario, D.; Georgakakis, A.; Harker, J.; Laird, E. S.; Page, M. J.; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first active galactic nuclei (AGN) census in a sample of 61 galaxies selected at 70um, a wavelength which should strongly favour the detection of star-forming systems. For the purpose of this study, we take advantage of deep Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (3.6-160um) data, as well as optical spectroscopy and photometry from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP 2) survey for the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) field, as part of the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey. We investigate spectral line diagnostics ([OIII]/H β and [NeIII]/[OII] ratios, Hδ Balmer absorption line equivalent widths and the strength of the 4000Å break), X-ray luminosities and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (1 data file).

  9. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    DOE PAGES

    Jouvel, S.; Delubac, T.; Comparat, J.; ...

    2017-03-24

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a meanmore » redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6« less

  10. The Evolution of Early-type Field Galaxies Selected from a NICMOS Map of the Hubble Deep Field North

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R; Stanford, S A; Budavari, T; Conselice, C J

    2004-03-03

    The redshift distribution of well-defined samples of distant early-type galaxies offers a means to test the predictions of monolithic and hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios. NICMOS maps of the entire Hubble Deep Field North in the F110W and F160W filters, when combined with the available WFPC2 data, allow us to calculate photometric redshifts and determine the morphological appearance of galaxies at rest-frame optical wavelengths out to z {approx} 2.5. Here we report results for two subsamples of early-type galaxies, defined primarily by their morphologies in the F160W band, which were selected from the NICMOS data down to H{sub 160AB} < 24.0. A primary subsample is defined as the 34 galaxies with early-type galaxy morphologies and early-type galaxy spectral energy distributions. The secondary subsample is defined as those 42 objects which have early-type galaxy morphologies with non-early type galaxy spectral energy distributions. The observed redshift distributions of our two early-type samples do not match that predicted by a monolithic collapse model, which shows an overabundance at z > 1.5. A (V/V{sub max}) test confirms this result. When the effects of passive luminosity evolution are included in the calculation, the mean value of Vmax for the primary sample is 0.22 {+-} 0.05, and 0.31 {+-} 0.04 for all the early-types. A hierarchical formation model better matches the redshift distribution of the HDF-N early-types at z > 1.5, but still does not adequately describe the observed early-types. The hierarchical model predicts significantly bluer colors on average than the observed early-type colors, and underpredicts the observed number of early-types at z {approx} 2. Though the observed redshift distribution of the early-type galaxies in our HDF-NICMOS sample is better matched by a hierarchical galaxy formation model, the reliability of this conclusion is tempered by the restricted sampling area and relatively small number of early-type galaxies selected by

  11. HST rest-frame optical characteristics of WISE-selected galaxies at z>1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Sara M.; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Paine, Jennie; Farrah, Duncan; Jarrett, Tom; Benford, Dominic J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Lake, Sean E.; Lazarova, Mariana; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Stanford, S. Adam; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; WISE

    2015-01-01

    We present resolved H-band images of 12 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer color-selected galaxies with confirmed redshifts 1.8 to 2.7, probing the rest-frame optical at ~1 kpc scales. Our sample was originally selected for HST imaging due to their AGN-like, red WISE colors (Eisenhardt et al. 2012), and includes six with extended Ly-α emission. The latter are thought to be a part of a very rare population of galaxies caught in a short-lived 'blowout phase' which is thought to cause the extended Ly-α emission in blobs (LABs; Bridge, et al. 2013). The environments in the H-band represent a diverse sample, and do not reveal any strong relation with a blowout process without more resolved wavelength coverage. The morphologies appear as multiple interacting nuclei, or a single undisturbed object. We analyze, in detail, two objects, including a discussion on individual components in possible major merger and/or the blowout phase. Also, we analyze the global properties of the sources using the unresolved photometry from WISE and Herschel PACS along with the H-band. Comparisons with dust obscured galaxies (DOGs from Bussman et al. 2009) at the same redshift, reveal color signatures stemming from a different phase of dusty starburst+AGN. Our sample show H-[12] colors 4.8-7.8 with a mean of 6.2. The DOGs are bluer with H-[12] colors 3.9-7.5 and mean of 5.2. The H-[12] v. [12]-[22] colorspace reveals a distinct population: only two DOGs reside on the same region. In addition, the reddest [12]-[22] colors are the bluest in H-[12] for the respective samples. Herschel/PACS "red" (130-210 μm) filter images give a range in flux densities from 0.04-0.1 Jy. These preliminary results indicate a distinct formation stage for dusty starburst+AGN, which play a key role in the continuum of ULIRG properties at high-z.

  12. Probing the Circumgalactic Medium of Submillimeter Galaxies with QSO Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hai; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Stockton, Alan N.; Mutel, Robert Lucien; Casey, Caitlin; Cooray, Asantha R.; Keres, Dusan

    2017-01-01

    We present first results from an ongoing survey to characterize the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the massive high-redshift galaxieds detected as submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). By cross-matching far-infrared-selected galaxies from Herschel with spectroscopically confirmed quasars, we constructed a sample of 163 SMG-QSO pairs with separations less than 36". We observed 62 SMG-QSO pairs with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). These observations obtained sub-arcsecond positions of 31 SMGs and identified seven previously-thought SMG-QSO pairs as submillimeter-luminous QSOs. We are currently conducting a redshift survey of the VLA/ALMA-confirmed SMGs and acquiring high S/N UV-optical specrtoscopy of the background QSOs. For the small sample of three VLA-confirmed SMG-QSO pairs that we have the complete data set, absorption line spectra of the background QSOs allow us to analyze the CGM of SMGs for the first time, providing insight into the fuel-supply ultimately powering their tremendous starbursts. Our observations reveal strong HI Ly-alpha absorption (rest-frame equivalent widths about 2-3 A) around all three SMGs; however, none exhibit compelling evidence for strong neutral absorbers (NHI > 1017.2 cm-2) or metal absorption, allowing us to place an 1-sigma upper limit on the covering factor of optically thick HI gas around SMGs of fC < 36.9%. This is significantly lower than the covering factor around the co-eval population of luminous QSOs. Theoretical models predict that the structure of the CGM is entirely determined by dark matter halo mass. Given that that SMGs are believed to inhabit massive dark matter halos comparable to those hosting quasars, this difference in covering factor is unexpected. Therefore, our results tentatively indicate that SMGs may not have substantial cool gas reservoirs in their halos and that they may inhabit much less massive halos than previously thought.

  13. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  14. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  15. The Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of X-Ray-selected Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna K.; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Hooper, Eric J.; McLeod, Kim K.; Wood, Kenneth; Bjorkman, Jon; Delain, Kisha M.; Hughes, David H.; Elvis, Martin S.; Impey, Chris D.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Malkan, Matt A.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Whitney, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    Hard X-ray selection is, arguably, the optimal method for defining a representative sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-rays are unbiased by the effects of obscuration and reprocessing along the line of sight intrinsic/external to the AGN, which result in unknown fractions of the population being missed from traditional optical/soft X-ray samples. We present the far-infrared (far-IR) observations of 21 hard X-ray-selected AGNs from the HEAO 1 A2 sample observed with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We characterize the far-IR continua of these X-ray-selected AGNs and compare them with those of various radio and optically selected AGN samples and with models for an AGN-heated, dusty disk. The X-ray-selected AGNs show broad, warm IR continua covering a wide temperature range (~20-1000 K in a thermal emission scenario). Where a far-IR turnover is clearly observed, the slopes are less than 2.5 in all but three cases so that nonthermal emission remains a possibility, although the presence of cooler dust resulting in a turnover at wavelengths longward of the ISO range is considered more likely. The sample also shows a wider range of optical/UV shapes than the optical/radio-selected samples, extending to redder near-IR colors. The bluer objects are type 1 Seyfert galaxies, while the redder AGNs are mostly intermediate or type 2 Seyfert galaxies. This is consistent with a modified unification model in which obscuration increases as we move from a face-on toward a more edge-on line of sight. However, this relation does not extend to the mid-infrared as the 25/60 μm ratios are similar in Seyfert galaxies with differing type and optical/UV reddening. The resulting limits on the column density of obscuring material through which we are viewing the redder AGNs (NH~1022 cm-2) are inconsistent with standard optically thick torus models (NH~1024 cm-2) and simple unification models. Instead our results support more complex models in which the amount of obscuring

  16. A Wide Area Survey for High-Redshift Massive Galaxies. II. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of BzK-Selected Massive Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Masato; Arimoto, Nobuo; Daddi, Emanuele; Renzini, Alvio; Kong, Xu; Cimatti, Andrea; Broadhurst, Tom; Alexander, Dave M.

    2010-05-01

    Results are presented from near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of BzK-selected, massive star-forming galaxies (sBzKs) at 1.5 < z < 2.3 that were obtained with OHS/CISCO at the Subaru telescope and with SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. Among the 28 sBzKs observed, Hα emission was detected in 14 objects, and for 11 of them the [N II] λ6583 flux was also measured. Multiwavelength photometry was also used to derive stellar masses and extinction parameters, whereas Hα and [N II] emissions have allowed us to estimate star formation rates (SFRs), metallicities, ionization mechanisms, and dynamical masses. In order to enforce agreement between SFRs from Hα with those derived from rest-frame UV and mid-infrared, additional obscuration for the emission lines (that originate in H II regions) was required compared to the extinction derived from the slope of the UV continuum. We have also derived the stellar mass-metallicity relation, as well as the relation between stellar mass and specific SFR (SSFR), and compared them to the results in other studies. At a given stellar mass, the sBzKs appear to have been already enriched to metallicities close to those of local star-forming galaxies of similar mass. The sBzKs presented here tend to have higher metallicities compared to those of UV-selected galaxies, indicating that near-infrared selected galaxies tend to be a chemically more evolved population. The sBzKs show SSFRs that are systematically higher, by up to ~2 orders of magnitude, compared to those of local galaxies of the same mass. The empirical correlations between stellar mass and metallicity, and stellar mass and SSFR are then compared with those of evolutionary population synthesis models constructed either with the simple closed-box assumption, or within an infall scenario. Within the assumptions that are built-in such models, it appears that a short timescale for the star formation (sime100 Myr) and large initial gas mass appear to be required

  17. A WIDE AREA SURVEY FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT MASSIVE GALAXIES. II. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF BzK-SELECTED MASSIVE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, Masato; Daddi, Emanuele; Renzini, Alvio; Kong Xu; Cimatti, Andrea; Broadhurst, Tom; Alexander, Dave M.

    2010-05-20

    Results are presented from near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of BzK-selected, massive star-forming galaxies (sBzKs) at 1.5 < z < 2.3 that were obtained with OHS/CISCO at the Subaru telescope and with SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. Among the 28 sBzKs observed, H{alpha} emission was detected in 14 objects, and for 11 of them the [N II] {lambda}6583 flux was also measured. Multiwavelength photometry was also used to derive stellar masses and extinction parameters, whereas H{alpha} and [N II] emissions have allowed us to estimate star formation rates (SFRs), metallicities, ionization mechanisms, and dynamical masses. In order to enforce agreement between SFRs from H{alpha} with those derived from rest-frame UV and mid-infrared, additional obscuration for the emission lines (that originate in H II regions) was required compared to the extinction derived from the slope of the UV continuum. We have also derived the stellar mass-metallicity relation, as well as the relation between stellar mass and specific SFR (SSFR), and compared them to the results in other studies. At a given stellar mass, the sBzKs appear to have been already enriched to metallicities close to those of local star-forming galaxies of similar mass. The sBzKs presented here tend to have higher metallicities compared to those of UV-selected galaxies, indicating that near-infrared selected galaxies tend to be a chemically more evolved population. The sBzKs show SSFRs that are systematically higher, by up to {approx}2 orders of magnitude, compared to those of local galaxies of the same mass. The empirical correlations between stellar mass and metallicity, and stellar mass and SSFR are then compared with those of evolutionary population synthesis models constructed either with the simple closed-box assumption, or within an infall scenario. Within the assumptions that are built-in such models, it appears that a short timescale for the star formation ({approx_equal}100 Myr) and large

  18. Selection Effects in Galaxy Cluster Surveys: What Do We Learn from Observed Scaling Relations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Brian D.; Evrard, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    The plethora of observable quantities across multiple wave bands contains redundant information about the masses of galaxy clusters. Proper calibration across the descriptor set are crucial steps to correctly map the cosmic mass distribution, thereby constraining dark sector cosmology. Survey flux thresholds mask the X-Ray sky, and establish a selection effect that is highly dependent on the intrinsic scatter in the mass at fixed luminosity. A precise model for the L-M relation has emerged from constraints from the REFLEX catalog. We extend this model to include temperature variations, modeled via a log-normal covariance. We show how redshift characteristics of cluster surveys contain a strong degeneracy between intrinsic scatter and true scaling. Knowledge of the covariance behavior is therefore important in recovering true physical evolution of the cluster population. We apply a similar technique to the X-ray properties of optically selected clusters. Inter-comparison of cluster properties among samples selected on different, or multiple, observables will potentially break model degeneracies, providing clues to how properties, like X-ray luminosity, optical richness, velocity dispersion, are linked. Many thanks to the Michigan Space Grant Consortium for their encouragement.

  19. The spectral energy distributions, host galaxies and environments of variability-selected active galactic nuclei in GOODS-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, Carolin; Sarajedini, Vicki; Koekemoer, Anton

    2012-10-01

    Variability selection has been proposed as a powerful tool for identifying both low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) and those with unusual spectral energy distributions. However, a systematic study of sources selected in such a way has been lacking. In this paper, we present the multiwavelength properties of the variability-selected AGN in GOODS-South. We demonstrate that variability selection indeed reliably identifies AGN, predominantly of low luminosity. We find contamination from stars as well as a very small sample of sources that show no sign of AGN activity, their number is consistent with the expected false positive rate. We also study the host galaxies and environments of the AGN in the sample. Disturbed host morphologies are relatively common. The host galaxies span a wide range in the level of ongoing star formation. However, massive starbursts are only present in the hosts of the most luminous AGN in the sample. There is no clear environmental preference for the AGN sample in general but we find that the most luminous AGN on average avoid dense regions while some low-luminosity AGN hosted by late-type galaxies are found near the centres of groups. AGN in our sample have closer nearest neighbours than the general galaxy population. We find no indications that major mergers are a dominant triggering process for the moderate- to low-luminosity AGN in this sample. The environments and host galaxy properties instead suggest secular processes, in particular tidal processes at first passage and minor mergers, as likely triggers for the objects studied. This study demonstrates the strength of variability selection for AGN and gives first hints at possibly triggering mechanisms for high-redshift low-luminosity AGN.

  20. An ultraviolet-selected galaxy redshift survey - III. Multicolour imaging and non-uniform star formation histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Mark; Treyer, Marie A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Mobasher, Bahram

    2004-05-01

    We present panoramic u' and optical ground-based imaging observations of a complete sample of low-redshift (0 < z < 0.4) galaxies selected in the ultraviolet (UV) at 2000 Å using the balloon-borne FOCA instrument of Milliard et al. This survey is highly sensitive to newly formed massive stars and hence to actively star-forming galaxies. We use the new data to investigate further the optical, stellar population and star formation properties of this unique sample, deriving accurate galaxy types and k-corrections based on the broad-band spectral energy distributions. When combined with our earlier spectroscopic surveys, these new data allow us to compare star formation measures derived from aperture-corrected Hα line fluxes, and UV(2000 Å) and u'(3600 Å) continuum fluxes on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis. As expected from our earlier studies, we find broad correlations over several decades in luminosity between the different dust-corrected star formation diagnostics, though the scatter is larger than that from observational errors, with significant offsets from trends expected according to simple models of the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies. Popular galaxy spectral synthesis models with varying metallicities and/or initial mass functions seem unable to explain the observed discrepancies. We investigate the star formation properties further by modelling the observed spectroscopic and photometric properties of the galaxies in our survey. We find that nearly half of the galaxies surveyed possess features that appear incompatible with simple constant or smoothly declining SFHs, favouring instead irregular or temporally varying SFHs. We demonstrate how this can reconcile the majority of our observations, enabling us to determine empirical corrections that can be used to calculate intrinsic star formation rates (as derived from Hα luminosities) from measures based on UV (or u') continuum observations alone. We discuss the broader implications of our finding that

  1. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ˜ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Henry, Alaina; Hayes, Matthew; Mehta, Vihang; Hathi, Nimish; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Haardt, Francesco; Siana, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ˜ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission (N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f esc ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f esc ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f esc ˜ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ˜ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kohonen selected E+A galaxies from SDSS DR7 (Meusinger+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusinger, H.; Bruenecke, J.; Schalldach, P.; in der, Au A.

    2016-11-01

    We present a catalogue of 2665 E+A galaxies of type E+A. The selection is based on a huge Kohonen self-organising map (SOM) of about one million spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and is defined by the following criteria for the equivalent widths (EW) of the Halpha, Hdelta and [OII] lines: EW(Hα)>-5Å, EW(Hδ)>3Å, EW([OII])>-5Å (positive values for absorption). The galaxy redshifts cover the range z=0.02 to 0.4, with a mean redshift of z=0.13. The catalogue contains the redshift and EWs. In addition, morphological types from the Galaxy Zoo project are listed. (1 data file).

  3. IDCS J1433.2+3306: AN INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.89

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dey, Arjun

    2012-09-10

    We report the discovery of an IR-selected galaxy cluster in the IRAC Distant Cluster Survey (IDCS). New data from the Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1433.2+3306 at z = 1.89 with robust spectroscopic redshifts for seven members, two of which are based on the 4000 A break. Detected emission lines such as [O II] and H{beta} indicate star formation rates of {approx}>20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for three galaxies within a 500 kpc projected radius of the cluster center. The cluster exhibits a red sequence with a scatter and color indicative of a formation redshift z{sub f} {approx}> 3.5. The stellar age of the early-type galaxy population is approximately consistent with those of clusters at lower redshift (1

  4. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Target Selection of Nearby Stars and Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Howard; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Lebofsky, Matt; Price, Danny C.; MacMahon, David; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Hickish, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Sheikh, Sofia; Hellbourg, Greg; Enriquez, J. Emilio

    2017-05-01

    We present the target selection for the Breakthrough Listen search for extraterrestrial intelligence during the first year of observations at the Green Bank Telescope, Parkes Telescope, and Automated Planet Finder. On the way to observing 1,000,000 nearby stars in search of technological signals, we present three main sets of objects we plan to observe in addition to a smaller sample of exotica. We chose the 60 nearest stars, all within 5.1 pc from the Sun. Such nearby stars offer the potential to observe faint radio signals from transmitters that have a power similar to those on Earth. We add a list of 1649 stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog that span the Hertzprung-Russell diagram, including all spectral types along the main sequence, subgiants, and giant stars. This sample offers diversity and inclusion of all stellar types, but with thoughtful limits and due attention to main sequence stars. Our targets also include 123 nearby galaxies composed of a “morphological-type-complete” sample of the nearest spirals, ellipticals, dwarf spherioidals, and irregulars. While their great distances hamper the detection of technological electromagnetic radiation, galaxies offer the opportunity to observe billions of stars simultaneously and to sample the bright end of the technological luminosity function. We will also use the Green Bank and Parkes telescopes to survey the plane and central bulge of the Milky Way. Finally, the complete target list includes several classes of exotica, including white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, black holes, neutron stars, and asteroids in our solar system.

  5. A Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies Selected by X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Brian

    1997-01-01

    I will discuss the results of a new survey of X-ray selected, distant clusters of galaxies that has been undertaken by our group at.CfA (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones). We have analyzed the inner 17.5 arcminute region of roughly 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high latitude fields to compile a complete, flux-limited sample of clusters with a mean flux limit roughly 20 times more sensitive than the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey. The goal of our survey, which presently contains 233 extended X-ray sources, is to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. We have obtained optical images for nearly all of the faintest sources using the 1.2 m telescope of the Fred L. Whipple Observatory, and when including POSS images of the brighter sources, we have nearly completed the identification of all of the extended sources. Roughly 80% of the sources were identified as clusters of galaxies. We have measured redshifts for 42 clusters using the MMT, and including additional measurements from the literature, roughly 70 clusters in our catalog have spectroscopic redshifts. Using CCD photometry and spectroscopic redshifts, we have determined a magnitude-redshift relation which will allow redshifts of the remaining clusters in our sample to be determined photometrically to within a delta z over z of roughly ten percent. I will discuss the Log(N)-Log(S) relation for our sample and compare it to other determinations. In addition, I will discuss the evolution of core radii of clusters.

  6. Lyman break and ultraviolet-selected galaxies at z ˜ 1 - I. Stellar populations from the ALHAMBRA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, Á.; Cepa, J.; Pérez-García, A. M.; Ederoclite, A.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Polednikova, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E. J.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Gonzalez-Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Matute, I.; Moles, M.; Molino, A.; Olmo, A. del; Perea, J.; Pović, M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.; Viironen, K.

    2013-08-01

    We take advantage of the exceptional photometric coverage provided by the combination of GALEX data in the ultraviolet (UV) and the ALHAMBRA survey in the optical and near-infrared to analyse the physical properties of a sample of 1225 GALEX-selected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 0.8 ≲ z ≲ 1.2 that are located in the COSMOS field. This is the largest sample of LBGs studied in this redshift range to date. According to a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with synthetic stellar population templates, we find that LBGs at z ˜ 1 are mostly young galaxies with a median age of 341 Myr and have intermediate dust attenuation, ˜ 0.20. Owing to the selection criterion, LBGs at z ˜ 1 are UV-bright galaxies and have a high dust-corrected total star formation rate (SFR), with a median value of 16.9 M⊙ yr-1. Their median stellar mass is log (M*/M⊙) = 9.74. We find that the dust-corrected total SFR of LBGs increases with stellar mass and that the specific SFR is lower for more massive galaxies (downsizing scenario). Only 2 per cent of the galaxies selected through the Lyman break criterion have an active galactic nucleus nature. LBGs at z ˜ 1 are located mostly over the blue cloud of the colour-magnitude diagram of galaxies at their redshift, with only the oldest and/or the dustiest deviating towards the green valley and red sequence. Morphologically, 69 per cent of LBGs are disc-like galaxies, with the fractions of interacting, compact, or irregular systems being much lower, below 12 per cent. LBGs have a median effective radius of 2.5 kpc, and larger galaxies have a higher total SFR and stellar mass. Compared with their high-redshift analogues, we find evidence that LBGs at lower redshifts are larger, redder in the UV continuum, and have a major presence of older stellar populations in their SEDs. However, we do not find significant differences in the distributions of stellar mass or dust attenuation.

  7. Galaxies in X-ray Selected Clusters and Groups in Dark Energy Survey Data: Stellar Mass Growth of Bright Central Galaxies Since z~1.2

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; ...

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation.

  8. Spectrophotometric study in the near-IR of a sample of H alpha-selected galaxies with active star formation at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Acosta, J.; Pérez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis in the near-infrared J band of a sample of 48 star forming galaxies at z = 0.84. Half of the sample was selected by a narrow-band filter tuned to Hα at that redshift and the other half was selected by photometric redshifts at the same redshift. We provide Hα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies at that redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584 Å for a sub sample of eight galaxies, two of the galaxies were from neckband selection. To analyze their physical properties we have computed their sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parameters available in literature and in the Rainbow database. In particular the dependence of the stellar mass with the specific star formation rate and metallicity have been studied and compared with the results of other samples of galaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities of our galaxies are compatible than those similar at the local Universe, although with higher dispersion. This fact implies that selection in Hα is less biased than a selection in UV, since it includes galaxies with more evolved populations besides objects dominated by star formation. The comparison of the observed properties with models of evolution leads us to think that z = 0.8 star-forming galaxies have already undergone significant changes and begin to developed in a more passive way.

  9. Effects of selection and covariance on X-ray scaling relations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, B.; Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    We explore how the behaviour of galaxy cluster scaling relations are affected by flux-limited selection biases and intrinsic covariance among observable properties. Our models presume log-normal covariance between luminosity (L) and temperature (T) at fixed mass (M), centred on evolving, power-law mean relations as a function of host halo mass. Selection can mimic evolution; the L-M and L-T relations from shallow X-ray flux-limited samples will deviate from mass-limited expectations at nearly all scales while the relations from deep surveys (10-14ergs-1cm-2) become complete, and therefore unbiased, at masses above ~2 × 1014h-1Msolar. We derive expressions for low-order moments of the luminosity distribution at fixed temperature, and show that the slope and scatter of the L-T relation observed in flux-limited samples is sensitive to the assumed L-T correlation coefficient. In addition, L-T covariance affects the redshift behaviour of halo counts and mean luminosity in a manner that is nearly degenerate with intrinsic population evolution.

  10. USING THE 1.6 {mu}m BUMP TO STUDY REST-FRAME NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sorba, Robert; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-10-01

    We explore the feasibility and limitations of using the 1.6 {mu}m bump as a photometric redshift indicator and selection technique, and use it to study the rest-frame H-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions (SMFs) at redshift z {approx} 2. We use publicly available Spitzer/IRAC images in the GOODS fields and find that color selection in the IRAC bandpasses alone is comparable in completeness and contamination to BzK selection. We find that the shape of the 1.6 {mu}m bump is robust, and photometric redshifts are not greatly affected by choice of model parameters. Comparison with spectroscopic redshifts shows photometric redshifts to be reliable. We create a rest-frame NIR-selected catalog of galaxies at z {approx} 2 and construct a galaxy SMF. Comparisons with other SMFs at approximately the same redshift but determined using shorter wavelengths show good agreement. This agreement suggests that selection at bluer wavelengths does not miss a significant amount of stellar mass in passive galaxies. Comparison with SMFs at other redshifts shows evidence for the downsizing scenario of galaxy evolution. We conclude by pointing out the potential for using the 1.6 {mu}m bump technique to select high-redshift galaxies with the JWST, whose {lambda}>0.6 {mu}m coverage will not be well suited to selecting galaxies using techniques that require imaging at shorter wavelengths.

  11. KECK DEEP FIELDS. IV. LUMINOSITY-DEPENDENT CLUSTERING AND GALAXY DOWNSIZING IN UV-SELECTED GALAXIES AT z = 4, 3, AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    Savoy, Jonathan; Sawicki, Marcin; Sato, Taro; Thompson, David

    2011-08-20

    We investigate the luminosity-dependent clustering of rest-frame UV-selected galaxies at z {approx} 4, 3, 2.2, and 1.7 in the Keck Deep Fields, which are complete to R = 27 and cover 169 arcmin{sup 2}. We find that at z {approx} 4 and 3, UV-bright galaxies cluster more strongly than UV-faint ones, but at z {approx} 2.2 and 1.7, the UV-bright galaxies are no longer the most strongly clustered. We derive mass estimates for objects in our sample by comparing our measurements to the predicted clustering of dark matter halos in the Millennium Simulation. From these estimates, we infer relationships between halo mass and star formation rate (SFR), and find that the most massive dark matter halos in our sample host galaxies with high SFRs (M{sub 1700} < -20, or >50 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) at z {approx} 3 and 4, moderate SFRs (-20 < M{sub 1700} < -19, or {approx}20 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) at z {approx} 2.2, and lower SFRs (-19 < M{sub 1700} < -18, or {approx}2 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) at z {approx} 1.7. We believe our measurements may provide a new line of evidence for galaxy downsizing by extending that concept from stellar to halo mass. We also find that the objects with blue UV colors in our sample are much more strongly clustered than those with red UV colors, and we propose that this may be due to the presence of the 2175 A dust absorption bump in more massive halos, which contain the older stellar populations and dust needed to produce the feature. The relatively small area covered by the survey means that the absolute values of the correlation lengths and halo masses we derive are heavily dependent on the 'integral constraint' correction, but the uniformly deep coverage across a large-redshift interval allows us to detect several important trends that are independent of this correction.

  12. X-ray properties of BzK-selected galaxies in the deepest X-ray fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, C.; Nandra, K.; Laird, E. S.; Orange, P.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the X-ray properties of BzK-selected galaxies at z ˜ 2 using deep X-ray data in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS) and Chandra Deep Field-North (CDFN). A subset of these BzK galaxies have been proposed as Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates based on a high ratio of infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) star formation rates (SFRs). With the benefit of deep 24 μm observations, our sample of these IR-excess galaxies is larger than previous studies and combined with the deepest X-ray data yield new insights into the population. We identify 701 and 534 star-forming BzK galaxies (sBzK galaxies) in the range z = 1.2-3.0 in CDFS and CDFN, respectively. Of these we directly detect in X-rays 49 sBzK galaxies in CDFS and 32 sBzK galaxies in CDFN. Stacking the undetected sources also reveals a significant X-ray signal. Investigating the X-ray detection rate and stacked flux versus the IR-excess parameter (i.e. SFRtotal/SFRUV, corr), we find no strong evidence for an increased X-ray detection rate, or a harder X-ray spectrum in IR-excess sBzK galaxies. This is particularly the case when one accounts for the strong correlation between the IR-excess parameter and the bolometric IR luminosity (LIR); when controlling for LIR, the IR-non-excess sBzK galaxies show a detection rate at least as high. While both direct detections and stacking suggest that the AGN fraction in sBzK galaxies is high, there is no clear evidence for widespread Compton-thick activity in either the sBzK population generally or the IR-excess sBzK subsample. The very hard X-ray signal obtained for the latter in earlier work was most likely contaminated by a few hard X-ray sources now directly detected in deeper X-ray data. The X-ray detection fraction of passive BzK galaxies in our sample is anything higher than that of sBZK galaxies, so there is no evidence for coeval black hole growth and star formation from X-ray analysis of the BzK populations. Because increased AGN activity

  13. An IR-Selected Galaxy Cluster at Z=1.41

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, S A; Eisenhardt, P R; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Stern, D; Jannuzi, B; Dey, A; Brown, M I; McKenzie, E; Elston, R

    2006-03-09

    We report the discovery of a galaxy cluster at z = 1.41. ISCS J143809+341419 was found in the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Survey of the Bootes field in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey carried out by IRAC. The cluster candidate was initially identified as a high density region of objects with photometric redshifts in the range 1.3 < z < 1.5. Optical spectroscopy of a limited number of objects in the region shows that 5 galaxies within a {approx}120 arcsec diameter region lie at z = 1.41 {+-} 0.01. Most of these member galaxies have broad-band colors consistent with the expected spectral energy distribution of a passively-evolving elliptical galaxy formed at high redshift. The redshift of ISCS J143809+341419 is the highest currently known for a spectroscopically-confirmed cluster of galaxies.

  14. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesci, Roberto; Perola, Giuseppe C.; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Morris, Simon L.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of the most distant cooling flow clusters known to date.

  15. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.; Perola, G.C.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T.; Morris, S.L.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; CNR, Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-09-01

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of the most distant cooling flow clusters known to date. 28 refs.

  16. ASSEMBLY OF THE RED SEQUENCE IN INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE IRAC SHALLOW CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Brodwin, Mark; Mancone, Conor M.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell; Perlmutter, Saul

    2012-09-10

    We present results for the assembly and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive ({approx}L*) red sequence galaxies (RSGs) in 11 spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy clusters at 1.0 < z < 1.5, the precursors to present-day massive clusters with M {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. Using rest-frame optical photometry, we investigate evolution in the color and scatter of the RSG population, comparing with models of possible SFHs. In contrast to studies of central cluster galaxies at lower redshift (z < 1), these data are clearly inconsistent with the continued evolution of stars formed and assembled primarily at a single, much earlier time. Specifically, we find that the colors of massive cluster galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 1.5 imply that the bulk of star formation occurred at z {approx} 3, whereas by z Almost-Equal-To 1 their colors imply formation at z {approx} 2; therefore these galaxies exhibit approximately the same luminosity-weighted stellar age at 1 < z < 1.5. This likely reflects star formation that occurs over an extended period, the effects of significant progenitor bias, or both. Our results generally indicate that massive cluster galaxy populations began forming a significant mass of stars at z {approx}> 4, contained some red spheroids by z Almost-Equal-To 1.5, and were actively assembling much of their final mass during 1 < z < 2 in the form of younger stars. Qualitatively, the slopes of the cluster color-magnitude relations are consistent with no significant evolution relative to local clusters.

  17. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. VI. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF K-SELECTED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Tokoku, Chihiro; Yamada, Toru; Ichikawa, Takashi; Alexander, David M.; Ohta, Kouji; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tanaka, Ichi; Omata, Koji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Konishi, Masahiro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brandt, Niel

    2010-07-20

    We present the results of near-infrared multi-object spectroscopic observations for 37 BzK-color-selected star-forming galaxies conducted with MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. The sample is drawn from the K{sub s} -band-selected catalog of the MOIRCS Deep Survey in the GOODS-N region. About half of our samples are selected from the publicly available 24 {mu}m-source catalog of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. H{alpha} emission lines are detected from 23 galaxies, of which the median redshift is 2.12. We derived the star formation rates (SFRs) from extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosities. The extinction correction is estimated from the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of multiband photometric data covering UV to near-infrared wavelengths. The Balmer decrement of the stacked emission lines shows that the amount of extinction for the ionized gas is larger than that for the stellar continuum. From a comparison of the extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosity and other SFR indicators, we found that the relation between the dust properties of stellar continuum and ionized gas is different depending on the intrinsic SFR (differential extinction). We compared SFRs estimated from extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosities with stellar masses estimated from SED fitting. The comparison shows no correlation between SFR and stellar mass. Some galaxies with stellar mass smaller than {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} show SFRs higher than {approx}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The specific SFRs (SSFRs) of these galaxies are remarkably high; galaxies which have SSFR higher than {approx}10{sup -8} yr{sup -1} are found in eight of the present sample. From the best-fit parameters of SED fitting for these high-SSFR galaxies, we find that the average age of the stellar population is younger than 100 Myr, which is consistent with the implied high SSFR. The large SFR implies the possibility that the high-SSFR galaxies significantly

  18. Confirmation of a Radio-Selected Galaxy Overdensity at z=1.11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Daniel; Holden, Brad; Stanford, S. A.; Spinard, Hyron

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a galaxy overdensity at z = 1.11 associated with the z = 1.110 high-redshift radio galaxy MG1 J04426+0202 (hereafter MG 0442+0202). The group, Cl 0442+0202, was found in a near-infrared survey of z > 1 radio galaxies undertaken to identify spatially coincident regions with a high density of objects red in I-K' color, typical of z > 1 elliptical galaxies. Spectroscopic observations from the Keck I telescope reveal five galaxies within 35" of MG 0442+0202 at 1.10 < z < 1.11. These member galaxies have broadband colors and optical spectra consistent with passively evolving elliptical galaxies formed at high redshift. Archival ROSAT observations reveal a 3 (sigma) detection of soft X-ray emission coincident with Cl 0442+0202 at a level 5 times greater than expected for the radio galaxy. These data suggest a rich galaxy cluster and inspired a 45 ks Chandra X-Ray Observatory observation. As expected, the radio galaxy is unresolved by Chandra but is responsible for approximately half the observed X-ray flux. The remaining ROSAT flux is resolved into four point sources within 15' of the radio galaxy, corresponding to a surface density 2 orders of magnitude higher than average for X-ray sources at these flux levels [S(0.5-2 keV) > 5 x 10(exp -16) ergs cm (exp -2) s(exp -1)]. One of these point sources is identified with a radio-quiet type II quasar at z = 1.863, akin to sources recently reported in deep Chandra surveys. The limit on an extended hot intracluster medium in the Chandra data is S(1-6 keV) < 1.9 x 10-15 ergs cm (exp -2) s(exp -1) (3 (sigma), 30" radius aperture). Though the X-ray observations do not confirm the existence of a massive bound cluster at z > 1, the success of the optical/near-infrared targeting of early-type systems near the radio galaxy validates searches using radio galaxies as beacons for high-redshift large-scale structure. We interpret Cl 0442+0202 as a massive cluster in the process of formation.

  19. Spectroscopic Confirmation of A Radio-Selected Galaxy Overdensity at z = 1.11

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, S; Stern, D; Holden, B; Spinrad, H

    2004-02-26

    We report the discovery of a galaxy overdensity at z = 1.11 associated with the z = 1.110 high-redshift radio galaxy MG 0442+0202. The group, CL 0442+0202, was found in a near-infrared survey of z > 1 radio galaxies undertaken to identify spatially-coincident regions with a high density of objects red in I - K' color, typical of z > 1 elliptical galaxies. Spectroscopic observations from the Keck I telescope reveal five galaxies within 35'' of MG 0442+0202 at 1.10 < z < 1.11. These member galaxies have broad-band colors and optical spectra consistent with passively-evolving elliptical galaxies formed at high redshift. Archival ROSAT observations reveal a 3{sigma} detection of soft X-ray emission coincident with CL 0442+0202 at a level five times greater than expected for the radio galaxy. These data are suggestive of a rich galaxy cluster and inspired a 45 ks Chandra X-Ray Observatory observation. As expected, the radio galaxy is unresolved to Chandra, but is responsible for approximately half of the observed X-ray flux. The remaining ROSAT flux is resolved into four point sources within 15'' of the radio galaxy, corresponding to a surface density two orders of magnitude higher than average for X-ray sources at these flux levels (S{sub 0.5-2keV} > 5x10{sup -16} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). One of these point sources is identified with a radio-quiet, type II quasar at z = 1.863, akin to sources recently reported in deep Chandra surveys. The limit on an extended hot intracluster medium in the Chandra data is S{sub 1-6keV} < 1.9 x 10{sup -15} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (3{sigma}, 30'' radius aperture). Though the X-ray observations do not confirm the existence of a massive, bound cluster at z > 1, the success of the optical/near-infrared targeting of early-type systems near the radio galaxy validates searches using radio galaxies as beacons for high-redshift large-scale structure. We interpret CL 0442+0202 to be a massive cluster in the process of formation.

  20. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1 Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec - zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.

  1. redMaGiC: Selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-05-30

    Here, we introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10–3 (h–1 Mpc)–3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec – zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.

  2. redMaGiC: Selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; ...

    2016-05-30

    Here, we introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling themore » redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10–3 (h–1 Mpc)–3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec – zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.« less

  3. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, E.

    2016-05-30

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (σz=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  4. Subaru weak lensing observations of ACT SZ-selected galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Masahiro

    2010-07-01

    The abundance of massive clusters as a function of redshift is a very powerful probe of cosmology, including the equation of state of dark energy, when combined with precise constraints on the initial conditions of structure formation from WMAP. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which is independent of redshift, offers a unique means of finding clusters up to high redshifts. However, systematic SZ surveys of cosmological volumes are currently in their infancy, and require crosscalibration with weak gravitational lensing to determine the relationship between SZ observables and mass. We request one night for a multi-band observation with Suprime-Cam of the two most SZ luminous clusters (previously unknown) in ~ 200 sq. deg. of early data from the equatorial region of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey, with estimated masses of 10^15h^-1M_sun at redshifts z = 0.46 and 0.81. To obtain unbiased lensing signals, multi-band imaging is needed so that a pure catalog of background galaxies can be identified via photometric redshifts. This observation will allow for a determination of the masses to within 10-20%, and is the first step in enabling precision cosmology with SZ-selected cluster samples, eventually done in combination with the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey.

  5. A Principle Component Analysis of Galaxy Properties from a Large, Gas-Selected Sample

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Chao, Rikon; Wang, Wei-Hao; ...

    2012-01-01

    Disney emore » t al. (2008) have found a striking correlation among global parameters of H i -selected galaxies and concluded that this is in conflict with the CDM model. Considering the importance of the issue, we reinvestigate the problem using the principal component analysis on a fivefold larger sample and additional near-infrared data. We use databases from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L -band Feed Array Survey for the gas properties, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for the optical properties, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey for the near-infrared properties. We confirm that the parameters are indeed correlated where a single physical parameter can explain 83% of the variations. When color ( g - i ) is included, the first component still dominates but it develops a second principal component. In addition, the near-infrared color ( i - J ) shows an obvious second principal component that might provide evidence of the complex old star formation. Based on our data, we suggest that it is premature to pronounce the failure of the CDM model and it motivates more theoretical work.« less

  6. Was 49: Mirror for a hidden Seyfert 1 galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules; Moran, E.; Kay, L.; Antonucci, R.

    1993-01-01

    Was 49 is an interacting pair of Seyfert galaxies at z = 0.063, one of which contains a hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus as evidenced by the highly polarized broad wings on its Balmer lines. The disk of the main galaxy, Was 49a, appears to be globally photoionized by a powerful continuum source, undoubtedly the hidden Seyfert 1 companion, Was 49b. The intrinsic luminosity of Was 49b is at least 100 times larger than the observed (scattered) luminosity. A single SWP spectrum of the pair, which can be spatially resolved in the large aperture was obtained. A narrow Ly-alpha line was detected from Was 49b, the hidden Seyfert 1, at a flux level consistent with that of an unreddened Seyfert 2 galaxy. The lack of detection of a continuum is consistent with a power-law of v(sup -1) or steeper extrapolated from the optical, again consistent with the spectrum of other Seyfert 2 and hidden Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  7. HICOSMO - cosmology with a complete sample of galaxy clusters - I. Data analysis, sample selection and luminosity-mass scaling relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    The X-ray regime, where the most massive visible component of galaxy clusters, the intracluster medium, is visible, offers directly measured quantities, like the luminosity, and derived quantities, like the total mass, to characterize these objects. The aim of this project is to analyse a complete sample of galaxy clusters in detail and constrain cosmological parameters, like the matter density, Ωm, or the amplitude of initial density fluctuations, σ8. The purely X-ray flux-limited sample (HIFLUGCS) consists of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, which are excellent targets to study the systematic effects, that can bias results. We analysed in total 196 Chandra observations of the 64 HIFLUGCS clusters, with a total exposure time of 7.7 Ms. Here, we present our data analysis procedure (including an automated substructure detection and an energy band optimization for surface brightness profile analysis) that gives individually determined, robust total mass estimates. These masses are tested against dynamical and Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) derived masses of the same clusters, where good overall agreement is found with the dynamical masses. The Planck SZ masses seem to show a mass-dependent bias to our hydrostatic masses; possible biases in this mass-mass comparison are discussed including the Planck selection function. Furthermore, we show the results for the (0.1-2.4) keV luminosity versus mass scaling relation. The overall slope of the sample (1.34) is in agreement with expectations and values from literature. Splitting the sample into galaxy groups and clusters reveals, even after a selection bias correction, that galaxy groups exhibit a significantly steeper slope (1.88) compared to clusters (1.06).

  8. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  9. Stars, dust, and the growth of ultraviolet-selected sub-L* galaxies at redshift z˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Marcin

    2012-04-01

    This work concerns the physical properties of very faint (?= 28 AB mag; Mstars,lim˜ 108 M⊙), ultraviolet-selected (UV-selected) sub-L* BX galaxies at z˜ 2.3. Stellar masses, dust content and dust-corrected star formation rates are constrained using broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting, resulting in a number of insights into the nature of these low-mass systems. First, a correlation between rest-frame UV luminosity and galaxy stellar mass appears to exist in BX galaxies and its presence suggests that many sub-L* galaxies at this redshift may have approximately constant, rather than highly variable, star formation histories. A nearly-linear relation between stellar mass and star formation rate is also found, hinting that the rate at which a sub-L* BX galaxy forms its stars is directly related to the mass of stars that it has already formed. A possible explanation for this phenomenon lies in a scenario in which new gas that falls on to the galaxy's host halo along with accreting dark matter is the main source of fuel for ongoing star formation. The instantaneous efficiency of star formation is low in this scenario, of the order of 1 per cent. Turning to bulk quantities, it is found that the low-mass end of the stellar mass function at z˜ 2.3 is steeper than expected from extrapolations of shallower surveys, resulting in a stellar mass density at z˜ 2.3 that is ˜25 per cent of the present-day value; this value is ˜1.5-2 times higher than that given by extrapolations of most of the shallower surveys, suggesting that the build-up of stellar mass in the Universe has proceeded somewhat more rapidly than previously thought. With spectral energy distribution fitting results in hand, an update to the Keck Deep Fields z˜ 2 UV luminosity function finds a steeper faint-end slope than previously reported, α=- 1.47, though this is not as steep as that found by Reddy & Steidel. Finally, it is also found that sub-L* galaxies at z˜ 2 carry very small amounts of

  10. Hard X-Ray-selected AGNs in Low-mass Galaxies from the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-T. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Reines, A. E.; Lansbury, G.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M. J.; Lanz, L.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ricci, C.; Trump, J. R.

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of 10 low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the 40-month Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) serendipitous survey. The sample is selected to have robust NuSTAR detections at 3{--}24 {keV}, to be at z< 0.3, and to have optical r-band magnitudes at least 0.5 mag fainter than an {L}\\star galaxy at its redshift. The median values of absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and 2–10 X-ray luminosity of our sample are < {M}r> =-20.03, < {M}\\star > =4.6× {10}9 {M}ȯ , and < {L}2-10{keV}> =3.1× {10}42 erg s‑1, respectively. Five objects have detectable broad Hα emission in their optical spectra, indicating black hole masses of (1.1{--}10.4)× {10}6 {M}ȯ . We find that {30}-10+17 % of the galaxies in our sample do not show AGN-like optical narrow emission lines, and one of the 10 galaxies in our sample, J115851+4243.2, shows evidence for heavy X-ray absorption. This result implies that a non-negligible fraction of low-mass galaxies might harbor accreting massive black holes that are missed by optical spectroscopic surveys and < 10 {keV} X-ray surveys. The mid-IR colors of our sample also indicate that these optically normal low-mass AGNs cannot be efficiently identified with typical AGN selection criteria based on Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer colors. While the hard (> 10 keV) X-ray-selected low-mass AGN sample size is still limited, our results show that sensitive NuSTAR observations are capable of probing faint hard X-ray emission originating from the nuclei of low-mass galaxies out to moderate redshift (z< 0.3), thus providing a critical step in understanding AGN demographics in low-mass galaxies.

  11. H I CONTENT AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF FIELD GALAXIES FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY. I. SELECTION OF A CONTROL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, M. Carmen; Solanes, Jose M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Masters, Karen L. E-mail: jm.solanes@ub.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu

    2011-05-10

    We report results from a study of the H I content and stellar properties of nearby galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA blind 21 cm line survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We consider two declination strips covering a total area of 9 hr x 16 deg in the general direction of the Virgo Cluster. The present analysis focuses on gas-rich galaxies expected to show little or no evidence of interaction with their surroundings. We seek to assemble a control sample suitable for providing absolute measures of the H I content of gaseous objects, as well as to study the relationship between H I emission and widely used optical measures of morphology. From a database which includes more than 15,000 H I detections, we have assembled three samples that could provide adequate H I standards. The most reliable results are obtained with a sample of 5647 sources found in low-density environments, as defined by a nearest neighbor approach. The other two samples contain several hundred relatively isolated galaxies each, as determined from standard isolation algorithms based either on a combination of spectroscopic and photometric information or solely on photometric data. We find that isolated objects are not particularly gas-rich compared to their low-density-environment counterparts, while they suffer from selection bias and span a smaller dynamic range. All this makes them less suitable for defining a reference for H I content. We have explored the optical morphology of gaseous galaxies in quiet environments, finding that, within the volume surveyed, the vast majority of them display unequivocal late-type galaxy features. In contrast, bona fide gas-rich early-type systems account only for a negligible fraction of the 21 cm detections. We argue that H I emission provides the most reliable way to determine the morphological population to which a galaxy belongs. We have also observed that the color distribution of flux-limited samples of optically selected field H I

  12. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical Masses for 44 SZ-Selected Galaxy Clusters over 755 Square Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Battaglia, Nick; Hasselfield, Matthew; Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses M200 are in the range (1 - 15) times 10 (sup 14) Solar Masses. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray observations gives a mean SZ-to-dynamical mass ratio of 1:10 plus or minus 0:13, but there is an additional 0.14 systematic uncertainty due to the unknown velocity bias; the statistical uncertainty is dominated by the scatter in the mass-velocity dispersion scaling relation. This ratio is consistent with previous determinations at these mass scales.

  13. SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey data release 12: Galaxy target selection and large-scale structure catalogues

    DOE PAGES

    Reid, Beth; Ho, Shirley; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; ...

    2015-11-17

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III project, has provided the largest survey of galaxy redshifts available to date, in terms of both the number of galaxy redshifts measured by a single survey, and the effective cosmological volume covered. Key to analysing the clustering of these data to provide cosmological measurements is understanding the detailed properties of this sample. Potential issues include variations in the target catalogue caused by changes either in the targeting algorithm or properties of the data used, the pattern of spectroscopic observations, the spatial distribution of targets formore » which redshifts were not obtained, and variations in the target sky density due to observational systematics. We document here the target selection algorithms used to create the galaxy samples that comprise BOSS. We also present the algorithms used to create large-scale structure catalogues for the final Data Release (DR12) samples and the associated random catalogues that quantify the survey mask. The algorithms are an evolution of those used by the BOSS team to construct catalogues from earlier data, and have been designed to accurately quantify the galaxy sample. Furthermore, the code used, designated mksample, is released with this paper.« less

  14. SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey data release 12: Galaxy target selection and large-scale structure catalogues

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Beth; Ho, Shirley; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J.; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rito; White, Marin; Daniel J. Einstein; Maraston, Claudia; Ross, Ashley J.; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Schlegel, David; Sheldon, Erin; Strauss, Michael A.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia -Hsun; Dawson, Kyle; Harding, Paul; Kitaura, Francisco -Shu; Leauthaud, Alexie; Masters, Karen; McBride, Cameron K.; More, Surhud; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Nuza, Sebastian E.; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John; Pforr, Janine; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Schneider, Donald P.; Scoccola, Claudia G.; Simmons, Audrey; Vargas-Magana, Mariana

    2015-11-17

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III project, has provided the largest survey of galaxy redshifts available to date, in terms of both the number of galaxy redshifts measured by a single survey, and the effective cosmological volume covered. Key to analysing the clustering of these data to provide cosmological measurements is understanding the detailed properties of this sample. Potential issues include variations in the target catalogue caused by changes either in the targeting algorithm or properties of the data used, the pattern of spectroscopic observations, the spatial distribution of targets for which redshifts were not obtained, and variations in the target sky density due to observational systematics. We document here the target selection algorithms used to create the galaxy samples that comprise BOSS. We also present the algorithms used to create large-scale structure catalogues for the final Data Release (DR12) samples and the associated random catalogues that quantify the survey mask. The algorithms are an evolution of those used by the BOSS team to construct catalogues from earlier data, and have been designed to accurately quantify the galaxy sample. Furthermore, the code used, designated mksample, is released with this paper.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical Masses for 44 SZ-Selected Galaxy Clusters over 755 Square Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Battaglia, Nick; Hasselfield, Matthew; Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses M200 are in the range (1 - 15) times 10 (sup 14) Solar Masses. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray observations gives a mean SZ-to-dynamical mass ratio of 1:10 plus or minus 0:13, but there is an additional 0.14 systematic uncertainty due to the unknown velocity bias; the statistical uncertainty is dominated by the scatter in the mass-velocity dispersion scaling relation. This ratio is consistent with previous determinations at these mass scales.

  16. ZFOURGE: UV to FIR Luminosities and Dust Attenuation Determined from ˜4000 K-Selected Galaxies at 1 < z < 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Ben; Tran, Kim-Vy; ZFOURGE Collaboration, CANDELS-H Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the UVJ color-color selection technique and the IRX-β dust relation at 1 < z < 3 using data from the Fourstar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). We build a set of composite SEDs by combining the precise photometric redshifts from a K-band selected sample of ZFOURGE data with public photometry from the Chandra Deep Field South, the Cosmological Evolution Survey, and the Ultra Deep Field. Infrared fluxes are determined from Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron data. From a sample of 4000 K-band selected galaxies, we identify 38 composite SEDs that span the range in UVJ colors and IR to UV flux ratios. These composites lie on the UVJ plane as predicted by their SED shapes.We also find significant deviation from local IRX-β relations. Blue star-forming composites show a slightly elevated IRX value, while red star-forming composites are offset from local relations by as much as 1 dex. We find that the resulting dust attenuation at 1600 Angstroms is over-estimated for these red star-forming galaxies, implying a lower intrinsic SFR than previously inferred, e.g. using the Meurer99 relation.

  17. (Sub)millimetre-Selected Galaxies and the Cosmic Star-Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the time evolution of the star formation in the Universe is one of the main aims of observational astronomy. Since a significant portion of the UV starlight is being absorbed by dust and re-emitted in the IR, we need to understand both of those regimes to properly describe the cosmic star formation history. In UV, the depth and the resolution of the data permits calculations of the star formation rate densities out to very high redshifts (z˜8-9). In IR however, the large beam sizes and the relatively shallow data limits these calculations to z˜2. In this thesis, I explore the SMA and PdBI high-resolution follow-up of 30 bright sources originally selected by AzTEC and LABOCA instruments at 1.1 mm and 870 μm respectively in conjunction with the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS) deep COSMOS and wide UDS maps, where 106 and 283 sources were detected, with the signal-to-noise ratio of > 5 and > 3.5 at 850 μm respectively. I find that the (sub)mm-selected galaxies reside and the mean redshifts of z ≈ 2.5±0.05 with the exception of the brightest sources which z seem to lie at higher redshifts (z ≈ 3.5±0.2), most likely due to the apparent z correlation of the (sub)mm flux with redshift, where brighter sources tend to lie at higher redshifts. Stellar masses, M\\dot, and star formation rates, SFRs, were found (M\\dot ≥ 10^10 M⊙ and SFR ≥ 100 M⊙ yr-1 ) and used to calculate the specific SFRs. I determine that the (sub)mm-selected sources mostly lie on the high-mass end of the star formation 'main-sequence' which makes them a high-mass extension of normal star forming galaxies. I also find that the specific SFR slightly evolves at redshifts 2 - 4, suggesting that the efficiency of the star formation seems to be increasing at these redshifts. Using the S2CLS data, the bolometric IR luminosity functions (IR LFs) were found for a range of redshifts z = 1.2 - 4.2 and the contribution of the SMGs tothe total star formation rate density (SFRD

  18. Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. Sample Selection, Properties, and Completeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, L. N.; Bernardi, M.; Alonso, M. V.; Wegner, G.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Rité, C.; Maia, M. A. G.

    2000-07-01

    This is the first in a series of papers describing the recently completed all-sky redshift-distance survey of Early-type NEARby galaxies (ENEAR) carried out for peculiar velocity analysis. The sample is divided into two parts and consists of 1607 elliptical and lenticular galaxies with cz<=7000 km s-1 and with blue magnitudes brighter than mB=14.5 (ENEARm) and of galaxies in clusters (ENEARc). Galaxy distances based on the Dn-σ and fundamental plane (FP) relations are now available for 1359 and 1107 ENEARm galaxies, respectively, with roughly 80% based on new data gathered by our group. The Dn-σ and FP template distance relations are derived by combining 569 and 431 galaxies in 28 clusters, respectively, of which about 60% are based on our new measurements. To date the ENEAR survey has accumulated 2200 R-band images yielding photometric parameters for 1398 galaxies and 2300 spectra yielding 1745 measurements of central velocity dispersions and spectral line indices for 1210 galaxies. In addition, there are some 1834 spectra of early-type galaxies available in the Southern Sky Redshift Survey (SSRS+SSRS2) database, out of which roughly 800 galaxies yield high-quality measurements of velocity dispersions and spectral line indices, bringing the total number of galaxies with available spectral information to about 2000. Combined with measurements publicly available, a catalog has been assembled comprising ~4500 measurements of central velocity dispersions for about 2800 galaxies, ~3700 measurements of photometric parameters for about 2000 galaxies, and distances for about 1900 galaxies. This extensive database provides information on galaxies with multiple observations from different telescope/instrument configurations and from different authors. These overlapping data are used to derive relations to transform all available measurements into a common system, thereby ensuring the homogeneity of the database. The ENEARm redshift-distance survey extends the earlier work

  19. Spitzer 24 Micron Observations of Optical/Near-Infrared-Selected Extremely Red Galaxies: Evidence for Assembly of Massive Galaxies at Z approximately equal to 1-2?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Lin; Choi, Philip I.; Fadda, D.; Marleau, F. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Im, M.; Armus, L.; Frayer, D. T.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Thompson, D. J.; Teplitz, H. I.; Helou, G.; Appleton, P. N.; Chapman, S.; Fan, F.; Heinrichsen, I.; Lacy, M.; Shupe, D. L.; Squires, G. K.; Surace, J.; Wilson, G.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out direct measurement of the fraction of dusty sources in a sample of extremely red galaxies with (R - Ks) >= 5.3 mag and Ks < 20:2 mag, using 24 micron data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Combining deep 24 micron Ks- and R-band data over an area of 64 arcmin(sup 2) in ELAIS N1 of the Spitzer First Look Survey (FLS), we find that 50% +/- 6% of our extremely red object (ERO) sample have measurable 24 micron flux above the 3 (sigma) flux limit of 40 (micro)Jy. This flux limit corresponds to a star formation rate (SFR) of 12 solar masses per year 1, much more sensitive than any previous long-wavelength measurement. The 24 micron-detected EROs have 24 micron/2.2 micron and 24 micron/0.7 micron flux ratios consistent with infrared luminous, dusty sources at z >= 1, and are an order of magnitude too red to be explained by an infrared quiescent spiral or a pure old stellar population at any redshift. Some of these 24 micron-detected EROs could be active galactic nuclei; however, the fraction among the whole ERO sample is probably small, 10%-20%, as suggested by deep X-ray observations as well as optical spectroscopy. Keck optical spectroscopy of a sample of similarly selected EROs in the FLS field suggests that most of the EROs in ELAIS N1 are probably at z 1. The mean 24 micron flux (167 (micro)Jy) of the 24 micron-detected ERO sample roughly corresponds to the rest-frame 12 micron luminosity, (nu)L(nu)(12 micron, of 3x10(exp 10)(deg) solar luminosities at z 1. Using the c IRAS (nu)L(nu)(12 (micron) and infrared luminosity LIR(8-1000 (micron), we infer that the (LIR) of the 24 micron- detected EROs is 3 x 10(exp 11) and 1 x 10(exp 12) solar luminosities at z = 1.0 and similar to that of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The corresponding SFR would be roughly 50-170 solar masses per year. If the timescale of this starbursting phase is on the order of 108 yr as inferred for the local LIRGs and ULIRGs, the

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; da Cunha, E.; Davies, L. J. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Kelvin, L. S.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Phillipps, S.; Rowlands, K.; Taylor, E. N.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the low-redshift galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), inclusive of dust corrections, for the equatorial Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data set covering 180 deg2. We construct the mass function using a density-corrected maximum volume method, using masses corrected for the impact of optically thick and thin dust. We explore the galactic bivariate brightness plane (M⋆-μ), demonstrating that surface brightness effects do not systematically bias our mass function measurement above 107.5 M⊙. The galaxy distribution in the M-μ plane appears well bounded, indicating that no substantial population of massive but diffuse or highly compact galaxies are systematically missed due to the GAMA selection criteria. The GSMF is fitted with a double Schechter function, with M^\\star =10^{10.78± 0.01± 0.20} M_{⊙}, φ ^\\star _1=(2.93± 0.40)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3, α1 = -0.62 ± 0.03 ± 0.15, φ ^\\star _2=(0.63± 0.10)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3 and α2 = -1.50 ± 0.01 ± 0.15. We find the equivalent faint end slope as previously estimated using the GAMA-I sample, although we find a higher value of M^\\star. Using the full GAMA-II sample, we are able to fit the mass function to masses as low as 107.5 M⊙, and assess limits to 106.5 M⊙. Combining GAMA-II with data from G10-COSMOS, we are able to comment qualitatively on the shape of the GSMF down to masses as low as 106 M⊙. Beyond the well-known upturn seen in the GSMF at 109.5, the distribution appears to maintain a single power-law slope from 109 to 106.5. We calculate the stellar mass density parameter given our best-estimate GSMF, finding Ω _\\star = 1.66^{+0.24}_{-0.23}± 0.97 h^{-1}_{70} × 10^{-3}, inclusive of random and systematic uncertainties.

  1. Spitzer 24 Micron Observations of Optical/Near-Infrared-Selected Extremely Red Galaxies: Evidence for Assembly of Massive Galaxies at Z approximately equal to 1-2?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Lin; Choi, Philip I.; Fadda, D.; Marleau, F. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Im, M.; Armus, L.; Frayer, D. T.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Thompson, D. J.; hide

    2004-01-01

    We carried out direct measurement of the fraction of dusty sources in a sample of extremely red galaxies with (R - Ks) >= 5.3 mag and Ks < 20:2 mag, using 24 micron data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Combining deep 24 micron Ks- and R-band data over an area of 64 arcmin(sup 2) in ELAIS N1 of the Spitzer First Look Survey (FLS), we find that 50% +/- 6% of our extremely red object (ERO) sample have measurable 24 micron flux above the 3 (sigma) flux limit of 40 (micro)Jy. This flux limit corresponds to a star formation rate (SFR) of 12 solar masses per year 1, much more sensitive than any previous long-wavelength measurement. The 24 micron-detected EROs have 24 micron/2.2 micron and 24 micron/0.7 micron flux ratios consistent with infrared luminous, dusty sources at z >= 1, and are an order of magnitude too red to be explained by an infrared quiescent spiral or a pure old stellar population at any redshift. Some of these 24 micron-detected EROs could be active galactic nuclei; however, the fraction among the whole ERO sample is probably small, 10%-20%, as suggested by deep X-ray observations as well as optical spectroscopy. Keck optical spectroscopy of a sample of similarly selected EROs in the FLS field suggests that most of the EROs in ELAIS N1 are probably at z 1. The mean 24 micron flux (167 (micro)Jy) of the 24 micron-detected ERO sample roughly corresponds to the rest-frame 12 micron luminosity, (nu)L(nu)(12 micron, of 3x10(exp 10)(deg) solar luminosities at z 1. Using the c IRAS (nu)L(nu)(12 (micron) and infrared luminosity LIR(8-1000 (micron), we infer that the (LIR) of the 24 micron- detected EROs is 3 x 10(exp 11) and 1 x 10(exp 12) solar luminosities at z = 1.0 and similar to that of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The corresponding SFR would be roughly 50-170 solar masses per year. If the timescale of this starbursting phase is on the order of 108 yr as inferred for the local LIRGs and ULIRGs, the

  2. Linear polarization observations in selected celestial zones - the central region of our Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.C.; Simard-Normandin, M.; Vallee, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The Algonquin Radio Observatory and the very large array have been used to obtain the linear polarization integrated over the angular size of a radio galaxy or quasar. All sources are located in a celestial angular zone encompassing the central region of the Galaxy. In addition to the total intensity (Stokes I) flux density, the percentage and position angle of the linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) are obtained for 14 sources at several centimetric wavelengths. 15 references.

  3. Using dust, gas and stellar mass-selected samples to probe dust sources and sinks in low-metallicity galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vis, P.; Gomez, H. L.; Schofield, S. P.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Baes, M.; Cigan, P.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Lara-López, M.; Owers, M.

    2017-10-01

    We combine samples of nearby galaxies with Herschel photometry selected on their dust, metal, H I and stellar mass content, and compare these to chemical evolution models in order to discriminate between different dust sources. In a companion paper, we used an H i-selected sample of nearby galaxies to reveal a subsample of very gas-rich (gas fraction >80 per cent) sources with dust masses significantly below predictions from simple chemical evolution models, and well below Md/M* and Md/Mgas scaling relations seen in dust and stellar-selected samples of local galaxies. We use a chemical evolution model to explain these dust-poor, but gas-rich, sources as well as the observed star formation rates (SFRs) and dust-to-gas ratios. We find that (i) a delayed star formation history is required to model the observed SFRs; (ii) inflows and outflows are required to model the observed metallicities at low gas fractions; (iii) a reduced contribution of dust from supernovae (SNe) is needed to explain the dust-poor sources with high gas fractions. These dust-poor, low stellar mass galaxies require a typical core-collapse SN to produce 0.01-0.16 M⊙ of dust. To match the observed dust masses at lower gas fractions, significant grain growth is required to counteract the reduced contribution from dust in SNe and dust destruction from SN shocks. These findings are statistically robust, though due to intrinsic scatter it is not always possible to find one single model that successfully describes all the data. We also show that the dust-to-metal ratio decreases towards lower metallicity.

  4. Clustering properties of g -selected galaxies at z ~ 0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Favole, Ginevra; Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Jullo, Eric; Niemiec, Anna; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Klypin, Anatoly; Skibba, Ramin A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Schlegel, David J.; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Delubac, Timothée; Yèche, Christophe; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-06-21

    In current and future large redshift surveys, as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), we will use emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to probe cosmological models by mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.7. We explore the halo-galaxy connection, with current data and by measuring three clustering properties of g-selected ELGs as matter tracers in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1: (i) the redshift-space two-point correlation function using spectroscopic redshifts from the BOSS ELG sample and VIPERS; (ii) the angular two-point correlation function on the footprint of the CFHT-LS; (iii) the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal around the ELGs using the CFHTLenS. Furthermore, we interpret these observations by mapping them on to the latest high-resolution MultiDark Planck N-body simulation, using a novel (Sub)Halo-Abundance Matching technique that accounts for the ELG incompleteness. ELGs at z ~ 0.8 live in haloes of (1 ± 0.5) × 10 12 h -1 M⊙ and 22.5 ± 2.5 per cent of them are satellites belonging to a larger halo. The halo occupation distribution of ELGs indicates that we are sampling the galaxies in which stars form in the most efficient way, according to their stellar-to-halo mass ratio.

  5. The star formation rate density of the local universe from an HI-selected sample of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanish, Daniel Jeffrey

    We derive observed Ha and R -band luminosity densities of an HI-selected sample of nearby galaxies using the SINGG sample to be [Special characters omitted.] = (8.6 ± 0.9) × 10^38 h 70 ergs s -1 Mpc -3 for Ha and [Special characters omitted.] = (4.3 ± 0.5) x 10 37 h 70 erg s -1 -1 Mpc -3 in the R band. This R -band luminosity density is approximately 70% of that found by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This leads to a local star formation rate density of log( [Special characters omitted.] [[Special characters omitted.] yr -1 Mpc -3 ]) = -1.81 [Special characters omitted.] ( random ) ± 0.03( systematic ) + log ( h 70 ) after applying a mean internal extinction correction of 0.87 mag. The gas cycling time of this sample is found to be t gas = 7.3 [Special characters omitted.] Gyr, and the volume-averaged equivalent width of the SINGG galaxies is EW (Ha) = 28.5 [Special characters omitted.] ° (20.0 ± 1.6 ° without internal dust correction). As with similar surveys, these results imply that [Special characters omitted.] ( z ) decreases drastically from z ~ 1.5 to the present. A comparison of the dynamical masses of the SINGG galaxies evaluated at their optical limits with their stellar and HI masses shows significant evidence of downsizing: the most massive galaxies have a larger fraction of their mass locked up in stars compared with H I, while the opposite is true for less massive galaxies. We show that the application of the Kennicutt star formation law to a galaxy having the median orbital time at the optical limit of this sample results in a star formation rate decay with cosmic time simi lar to that given by the [Special characters omitted.] ( z ) evolution. This implies that the [Special characters omitted.] ( z ) evolution is primarily due to the secular evolution of galaxies, rather than interactions or mergers. This is consistent with the morphologies predominantly seen in the SINGG sample.

  6. Multiple Shock Structures in a Radio-selected Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S.; Duesterhoeft, J.; Rudnick, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new radio-selected cluster of galaxies, 0217+70, using observations from the Very Large Array and archival optical and X-ray data. The new cluster is one of only seven known that has candidate double peripheral radio relics, and the second of those with a giant radio halo (GRH), as well. It also contains unusual diffuse radio filaments interior to the peripheral relics and a clumpy, elongated X-ray structure. All of these indicate a very actively evolving system, with ongoing accretion and merger activity, illuminating a network of shocks, such as those first seen in numerical simulations. The peripheral relics are most easily understood as outgoing spherical merger shocks with large variations in brightness along them, likely reflecting the inhomogeneities in the shocks' magnetic fields. The interior filaments could be projections of substructures from the sheet-like peripheral shocks or they might be separate structures due to multiple accretion events. ROSAT images show large-scale diffuse X-ray emission coincident with the GRH and additional patchy diffuse emission that suggests a recent merger event. This uniquely rich set of radio shocks and halo offer the possibility, with deeper X-ray and optical data and higher resolution radio observations, of testing the models of how shocks and turbulence couple to the relativistic plasma. The cluster 0217+70 is also overluminous in the radio compared with the empirical radio-X-ray correlation for clusters—the third example of such a system. This new population of diffuse radio emission opens up the possibility of probing low-mass cluster mergers with upcoming deep radio continuum surveys.

  7. A LABOCA Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South—Submillimeter Properties of Near-infrared Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, T. R.; Weiβ, A.; Walter, F.; Smail, I.; Zheng, X. Z.; Knudsen, K. K.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Kovács, A.; Bell, E. F.; de Breuck, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Lutz, D.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Alexander, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, N.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kreysa, E.; Kurczynski, P.; Menten, K.; Siringo, G.; Swinbank, M.; van der Werf, P.

    2010-08-01

    Using the 330 hr ESO-MPG 870 μm survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near-IR) selected (K vega <= 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs), and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870 μm fluxes of 0.22 ± 0.01 mJy (22.0σ), 0.48 ± 0.04 mJy (12.0σ), 0.39 ± 0.03 mJy (13.0σ), and 0.43 ± 0.04 mJy (10.8σ) for the K vega <= 20, BzK, ERO, and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO, and DRG sub-samples, which overlap to some degree and are likely to be at z ~= 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of ~(1-5) × 1011 Lsun and star formation rate (SFR) of ~20-90 Msun . Splitting the BzK galaxies into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the former is significantly detected (0.50 ± 0.04 mJy, 12.5σ) while the latter is only marginally detected (0.34 ± 0.10 mJy, 3.4σ), thus confirming that the sBzK and pBzK criteria to some extent select obscured, star-forming, and truly passive galaxies, respectively. The K vega <= 20 galaxies are found to contribute 7.27 ± 0.34 Jy deg-2 (16.5% ± 5.7%) to the 870 μm extragalactic background light (EBL). sBzK and pBzK galaxies contribute 1.49 ± 0.22 Jy deg-2 (3.4% ± 1.3%) and 0.20 ± 0.14 Jy deg-2 (0.5% ± 0.3%) to the EBL. We present the first delineation of the average submm signal from the K vega <= 20 selected galaxies and their contribution to the submm EBL as a function of (photometric) redshift, and find a decline in the average submm signal (and therefore IR luminosity and SFR) by a factor ~2-3 from z ~ 2 to z ~ 0. This is in line with a cosmic star formation history in which the star formation activity in galaxies increases significantly at z >~ 1. A

  8. A LABOCA SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH-SUBMILLIMETER PROPERTIES OF NEAR-INFRARED SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, T. R.; Walter, F.; Bell, E. F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiss, A.; Kovacs, A.; Smail, I.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Alexander, D.; Zheng, X. Z.; Knudsen, K. K.; Bertoldi, F.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Lutz, D.; Brandt, N.; Chapman, S. C.

    2010-08-10

    Using the 330 hr ESO-MPG 870 {mu}m survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near-IR) selected (K {sub vega} {<=} 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs), and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870 {mu}m fluxes of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 mJy (22.0{sigma}), 0.48 {+-} 0.04 mJy (12.0{sigma}), 0.39 {+-} 0.03 mJy (13.0{sigma}), and 0.43 {+-} 0.04 mJy (10.8{sigma}) for the K {sub vega} {<=} 20, BzK, ERO, and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO, and DRG sub-samples, which overlap to some degree and are likely to be at z {approx_equal} 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of {approx}(1-5) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun} and star formation rate (SFR) of {approx}20-90 M{sub sun} . Splitting the BzK galaxies into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the former is significantly detected (0.50 {+-} 0.04 mJy, 12.5{sigma}) while the latter is only marginally detected (0.34 {+-} 0.10 mJy, 3.4{sigma}), thus confirming that the sBzK and pBzK criteria to some extent select obscured, star-forming, and truly passive galaxies, respectively. The K {sub vega} {<=} 20 galaxies are found to contribute 7.27 {+-} 0.34 Jy deg{sup -2} (16.5% {+-} 5.7%) to the 870 {mu}m extragalactic background light (EBL). sBzK and pBzK galaxies contribute 1.49 {+-} 0.22 Jy deg{sup -2} (3.4% {+-} 1.3%) and 0.20 {+-} 0.14 Jy deg{sup -2} (0.5% {+-} 0.3%) to the EBL. We present the first delineation of the average submm signal from the K {sub vega} {<=} 20 selected galaxies and their contribution to the submm EBL as a function of (photometric) redshift, and find a decline in the average submm signal (and therefore IR luminosity and SFR) by a factor {approx}2

  9. NIBLES: an H I census of stellar mass selected SDSS galaxies. I. The Nançay H I survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel, W.; Butcher, Z.; Schneider, S.; Lehnert, M. D.; Minchin, R.; Blyth, S.-L.; Chemin, L.; Hallet, N.; Joseph, T.; Kotze, P.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Ramatsoku, M.

    2016-11-01

    To investigate galaxy properties as a function of their total stellar mass, we obtained 21 cm H i line observations at the 100-m class Nançay Radio Telescope of 2839 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the Local Volume (900 < cz < 12 000 km s-1), dubbed the Nançay Interstellar Baryons Legacy Extragalactic Survey (NIBLES) sample. They were selected evenly over their entire range of absolute SDSS z-band magnitudes (Mz -13.5 to -24 mag), which were used as a proxy for their stellar masses. In this paper, a first, global presentation of the observations and basic results is given; their further analysis will be presented in other papers in this series. The galaxies were originally selected based on their properties, as listed in SDSS DR5. Comparing this photometry to their total H i masses, we noted that, for a few percent, the SDSS magnitudes appeared severely misunderestimated, as confirmed by our re-measurements for selected objects. Although using the later DR9 results eliminated this problem in most cases, 384 still required manual photometric source selection. Usable H i spectra were obtained for 2600 of the galaxies, of which 1733 (67%) were clearly detected and 174 (7%) marginally. The spectra for 241 other observed galaxies could not be used for further analysis owing to problems with either the H i or the SDSS data. We reached the target number of about 150 sources per half-magnitude bin over the Mz range -16.5 to -23 mag. Down to -21 mag the overall detection rate is rather constant at the 75% level but it starts to decline steadily towards the 30% level at -23 mag. Making regression fits by comparing total H i and stellar masses for our sample, including our conservatively estimated H i upper limits for non-detections, we find the relationship log(MH I/M⋆) = -0.59 log(M⋆) + 5.05, which lies significantly below the relationship found in the MH I/M⋆ - M⋆ plane when only using H i detections. Tables A.1-A.3 and spectra (ASCII files

  10. Comparing Cool Cores in the Planck SZ Selected Samples of Clusters of Galaxies with Cool Cores in X-ray Selected Cluster Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Santos, Felipe A.; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Arnaud, Monique; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Churazov, Eugene; Ferrari, Chiara; Borgani, Stefano; Chandra-Planck Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Planck mission provided a representative sample of clusters of galaxies over the entire sky. With completed Chandra observations of 165 Planck ESZ and cosmology sample clusters at z<0.35, we can now characterize each cluster in terms of its X-ray luminosity, gas temperature, gas mass, total mass, gas entropy, gas central cooling time, presence of active AGN, gas cavities, radio emission, and cluster morphology. In this presentation we compare the percentages of cool core and non-cool core clusters in the Planck-selected clusters with the percentages in X-ray selected cluster samples. We find a significantly smaller percentage of cool core clusters in the Planck sample than in X-ray selected cluster samples. We will discuss the primary reasons for this smaller percentage of cool-core clusters in the Planck-selected cluster sample than in X-ray-selected samples.

  11. HerMES: The contribution to the cosmic infrared background from galaxies selected by mass and redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Viero, M. P.; Moncelsi, L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A.; Quadri, R. F.; Arumugam, V.; Ivison, R. J.; Assef, R. J.; Béthermin, M.; Conley, A.; Glenn, J.; Farrah, D.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; and others

    2013-12-10

    We quantify the fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) that originates from galaxies identified in the UV/optical/near-infrared by stacking 81,250 (∼35.7 arcmin{sup –2}) K-selected sources (K {sub AB} < 24.0) split according to their rest-frame U – V versus V – J colors into 72,216 star-forming and 9034 quiescent galaxies, on maps from Spitzer/MIPS (24 μm), Herschel/PACS (100, 160 μm), Herschel/SPIRE (250, 350, 500 μm), and AzTEC (1100 μm). The fraction of the CIB resolved by our catalog is (69% ± 15%) at 24 μm, (78% ± 17%) at 70 μm, (58% ± 13%) at 100 μm, (78% ± 18%) at 160 μm, (80% ± 17%) at 250 μm, (69% ± 14%) at 350 μm, (65% ± 12%) at 500 μm, and (45% ± 8%) at 1100 μm. Of that total, about 95% originates from star-forming galaxies, while the remaining 5% is from apparently quiescent galaxies. The CIB at λ ≲ 200 μm appears to be sourced predominantly from galaxies at z ≲ 1, while at λ ≳ 200 μm the bulk originates from 1 ≲ z ≲ 2. Galaxies with stellar masses log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.5-11 are responsible for the majority of the CIB, with those in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.5-10 bin contributing mostly at λ < 250 μm, and those in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 10-11 bin dominating at λ > 350 μm. The contribution from galaxies in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.0-9.5 (lowest) and log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 11.0-12.0 (highest) stellar-mass bins contribute the least—both of order 5%—although the highest stellar-mass bin is a significant contributor to the luminosity density at z ≳ 2. The luminosities of the galaxies responsible for the CIB shifts from combinations of 'normal' and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at λ ≲ 160 μm, to LIRGs at 160 ≲ λ ≲ 500 μm, to finally LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at λ ≳ 500 μm. Stacking analyses were performed using SIMSTACK, a novel algorithm designed to account for possible biases in the stacked flux density due to clustering. It is made available to the public

  12. HerMES: The Contribution to the Cosmic Infrared Background from Galaxies Selected by Mass and Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, M. P.; Moncelsi, L.; Quadri, R. F.; Arumugam, V.; Assef, R. J.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ikarashi, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Kohno, K.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Vaccari, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-12-01

    We quantify the fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) that originates from galaxies identified in the UV/optical/near-infrared by stacking 81,250 (~35.7 arcmin-2) K-selected sources (K AB < 24.0) split according to their rest-frame U - V versus V - J colors into 72,216 star-forming and 9034 quiescent galaxies, on maps from Spitzer/MIPS (24 μm), Herschel/PACS (100, 160 μm), Herschel/SPIRE (250, 350, 500 μm), and AzTEC (1100 μm). The fraction of the CIB resolved by our catalog is (69% ± 15%) at 24 μm, (78% ± 17%) at 70 μm, (58% ± 13%) at 100 μm, (78% ± 18%) at 160 μm, (80% ± 17%) at 250 μm, (69% ± 14%) at 350 μm, (65% ± 12%) at 500 μm, and (45% ± 8%) at 1100 μm. Of that total, about 95% originates from star-forming galaxies, while the remaining 5% is from apparently quiescent galaxies. The CIB at λ <~ 200 μm appears to be sourced predominantly from galaxies at z <~ 1, while at λ >~ 200 μm the bulk originates from 1 <~ z <~ 2. Galaxies with stellar masses log(M/M ⊙) = 9.5-11 are responsible for the majority of the CIB, with those in the log(M/M ⊙) = 9.5-10 bin contributing mostly at λ < 250 μm, and those in the log(M/M ⊙) = 10-11 bin dominating at λ > 350 μm. The contribution from galaxies in the log(M/M ⊙) = 9.0-9.5 (lowest) and log(M/M ⊙) = 11.0-12.0 (highest) stellar-mass bins contribute the least—both of order 5%—although the highest stellar-mass bin is a significant contributor to the luminosity density at z >~ 2. The luminosities of the galaxies responsible for the CIB shifts from combinations of "normal" and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at λ <~ 160 μm, to LIRGs at 160 <~ λ <~ 500 μm, to finally LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at λ >~ 500 μm. Stacking analyses were performed using SIMSTACK, a novel algorithm designed to account for possible biases in the stacked flux density due to clustering. It is made available to the public at www

  13. A search for extended radio emission from selected compact galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Urbanik, M.; Soida, M.; Beck, R.; Bomans, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Studies on compact galaxy groups have led to the conclusion that a plenitude of phenomena take place in between galaxies that form them. However, radio data on these objects are extremely scarce and not much is known concerning the existence and role of the magnetic field in intergalactic space. Aims: We aim to study a small sample of galaxy groups that look promising as possible sources of intergalactic magnetic fields; for example data from radio surveys suggest that most of the radio emission is due to extended, diffuse structures in and out of the galaxies. Methods: We used the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope at 4.85 GHz and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) data at 1.40 GHz. After subtraction of compact sources we analysed the maps searching for diffuse, intergalactic radio emission. Spectral index and magnetic field properties were derived. Results: Intergalactic magnetic fields exist in groups HCG 15 and HCG 60, whereas there are no signs of them in HCG 68. There are also hints of an intergalactic bridge in HCG 44 at 4.85 GHz. Conclusions: Intergalactic magnetic fields exist in galaxy groups and their energy density may be comparable to the thermal (X-ray) density, suggesting an important role of the magnetic field in the intra-group medium, wherever it is detected.

  14. HST/COS SPECTRA OF THREE QSOs THAT PROBE THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A SINGLE SPIRAL GALAXY: EVIDENCE FOR GAS RECYCLING AND OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael; Green, James C.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Savage, Blair D.

    2013-03-01

    We have used the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) to obtain far-UV spectra of three closely spaced QSO sight lines that probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of an edge-on spiral galaxy, ESO 157-49, at impact parameters of 74 and 93 h {sup -1} {sub 70} kpc near its major axis and 172 h {sup -1} {sub 70} kpc along its minor axis. H I Ly{alpha} absorption is detected at the galaxy redshift in the spectra of all three QSOs, and metal lines of Si III, Si IV, and C IV are detected along the two major-axis sight lines. Photoionization models of these clouds suggest metallicities close to the galaxy metallicity, cloud sizes of {approx}1 kpc, and gas masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }. Given the high covering factor of these clouds, ESO 157-49 could harbor {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun} of warm CGM gas. We detect no metals in the sight line that probes the galaxy along its minor axis, but gas at the galaxy metallicity would not have detectable metal absorption with ionization conditions similar to the major-axis clouds. The kinematics of the major-axis clouds favor these being portions of a 'galactic fountain' of recycled gas, while two of the three minor-axis clouds are constrained geometrically to be outflowing gas. In addition, one of our QSO sight lines probes a second more distant spiral, ESO 157-50, along its major axis at an impact parameter of 88 h {sup -1} {sub 70} kpc. Strong H I Ly{alpha} and C IV absorption only are detected in the QSO spectrum at the redshift of ESO 157-50.

  15. X-ray selected galaxy clusters in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Edge, A. C.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.

    2013-06-01</