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Sample records for lyapunov weighted path

  1. Steady-state simulations using weighted ensemble path sampling.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Divesh; Zhang, Bin W; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2010-07-01

    We extend the weighted ensemble (WE) path sampling method to perform rigorous statistical sampling for systems at steady state. A straightforward steady-state implementation of WE is directly practical for simple landscapes, but not when significant metastable intermediates states are present. We therefore develop an enhanced WE scheme, building on existing ideas, which accelerates attainment of steady state in complex systems. We apply both WE approaches to several model systems, confirming their correctness and efficiency by comparison with brute-force results. The enhanced version is significantly faster than the brute force and straightforward WE for systems with WE bins that accurately reflect the reaction coordinate(s). The new WE methods can also be applied to equilibrium sampling, since equilibrium is a steady state.

  2. Most probable paths in temporal weighted networks: An application to ocean transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Vasile, Ruggero; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    We consider paths in weighted and directed temporal networks, introducing tools to compute sets of paths of high probability. We quantify the relative importance of the most probable path between two nodes with respect to the whole set of paths and to a subset of highly probable paths that incorporate most of the connection probability. These concepts are used to provide alternative definitions of betweenness centrality. We apply our formalism to a transport network describing surface flow in the Mediterranean sea. Despite the full transport dynamics is described by a very large number of paths we find that, for realistic time scales, only a very small subset of high probability paths (or even a single most probable one) is enough to characterize global connectivity properties of the network.

  3. Structure-water solubility modeling of aliphatic alcohols using the weighted path numbers.

    PubMed

    Amić, D; Basak, S C; Lucić, B; Nikolić, S; Trinajstić, N

    2002-03-01

    The structure-water solubility modeling of aliphatic alcohols was performed using the weighted path numbers. Aliphatic alcohols were represented by weighted trees. The weight of the edge representing C-O bond was taken to be x, while the weights of C-C bonds were taken to be all equal to one. Four (one-, two-, three- and four-descriptor) models with weighted path numbers were considered. They were compared with models based on surface areas of aliphatic alcohols, models based on the vertex-connectivity indices for the corresponding alkanes, models based on orthogonal valence vertex-connectivity indices, models based on valence vertex- and edge-connectivity indices with optimum exponents and models based on weighted line graphs. The main result of this comparative study is that the models based on two, three, or four weighted path numbers posses the best statistical characteristics of all models considered in this paper. In addition, the predictive performance of these models was also tested using the training/test set partition. Very good and stable predictions for 19 test set compounds were obtained. For this data set we find, in all performed tests of models, that optimum x values are in the range 3.0-4.0. This result supports views about the potential of the weighted path numbers for deriving high quality structure-property models.

  4. Correlation and path analysis of morphological and weight traits in marine gastropod Glossaulax reiniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liqiang; He, Yangyang; Yang, Feng; Nie, Hongtao; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-07-01

    Using correlation and path analysis, the genetic correlation between weight traits and morphological traits was determined in the marine gastropod Glossaulax reiniana. A total of 100 G. reiniana individuals from a wild population were used. Shell width ( X 1), shell height ( X 2), umbo-callus height ( X 3), body width ( X 4), operculum length ( X 5), operculum width ( X 6), body weight ( Y 1) and soft-tissue weight ( Y 2) were measured, and the correlation coefficient matrix calculated. Morphological traits were used as independent variables and weight traits as dependent variables for path coefficient analysis. Path coefficients, correlation indices and determination coefficients were also determined. Results indicate that the correlation coefficients associated with each morphological and weight trait were all highly significant ( P <0.01). After deleting redundant independent variables, the following optimum multiple regression equations were obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis: Y 1 = - 29.317+0.362 X 2 +0.349 X 4 + 1.190 X 5 for body weight; and Y 2 = - 17.292+0.166 X 1 +0.171 X 2 +0.703 X 5, for soft-tissue weight. Operculum height had the highest positive direct correlation with both body weight and soft-tissue weight, which was in accordance with the test results obtained from determinate coefficient analysis. The indication of high genetic correlations between weight traits and morphological traits will provide valuable information for G. reiniana breeding programs.

  5. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  6. Weighted log-rank statistic to compare shared-path adaptive treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Wahed, Abdus S

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive treatment strategies (ATSs) more closely mimic the reality of a physician's prescription process where the physician prescribes a medication to his/her patient, and based on that patient's response to the medication, modifies the treatment. Two-stage randomization designs, more generally, sequential multiple assignment randomization trial designs, are useful to assess ATSs where the interest is in comparing the entire sequence of treatments, including the patient's intermediate response. In this paper, we introduce the notion of shared-path and separate-path ATSs and propose a weighted log-rank statistic to compare overall survival distributions of multiple two-stage ATSs, some of which may be shared-path. Large sample properties of the statistic are derived and the type I error rate and power of the test are compared with the standard log-rank test through simulation. PMID:23178734

  7. The "weighted ensemble" path sampling method is statistically exact for a broad class of stochastic processes and binning procedures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin W; Jasnow, David; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2010-02-01

    The "weighted ensemble" method, introduced by Huber and Kim [Biophys. J. 70, 97 (1996)], is one of a handful of rigorous approaches to path sampling of rare events. Expanding earlier discussions, we show that the technique is statistically exact for a wide class of Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. The derivation is based on standard path-integral (path probability) ideas, but recasts the weighted-ensemble approach as simple "resampling" in path space. Similar reasoning indicates that arbitrary nonstatic binning procedures, which merely guide the resampling process, are also valid. Numerical examples confirm the claims, including the use of bins which can adaptively find the target state in a simple model.

  8. Lyapunov decay in quantum irreversibility.

    PubMed

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2016-06-13

    The Loschmidt echo--also known as fidelity--is a very useful tool to study irreversibility in quantum mechanics due to perturbations or imperfections. Many different regimes, as a function of time and strength of the perturbation, have been identified. For chaotic systems, there is a range of perturbation strengths where the decay of the Loschmidt echo is perturbation independent, and given by the classical Lyapunov exponent. But observation of the Lyapunov decay depends strongly on the type of initial state upon which an average is carried out. This dependence can be removed by averaging the fidelity over the Haar measure, and the Lyapunov regime is recovered, as has been shown for quantum maps. In this work, we introduce an analogous quantity for systems with infinite dimensional Hilbert space, in particular the quantum stadium billiard, and we show clearly the universality of the Lyapunov regime. PMID:27140966

  9. Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP): An Optimized Algorithm and Tool for Dynamical Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Wart, Adam T; Durrant, Jacob; Votapka, Lane; Amaro, Rommie E

    2014-02-11

    Allostery can occur by way of subtle cooperation among protein residues (e.g., amino acids) even in the absence of large conformational shifts. Dynamical network analysis has been used to model this cooperation, helping to computationally explain how binding to an allosteric site can impact the behavior of a primary site many ångstroms away. Traditionally, computational efforts have focused on the most optimal path of correlated motions leading from the allosteric to the primary active site. We present a program called Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP) capable of rapidly identifying additional suboptimal pathways that may also play important roles in the transmission of allosteric signals. Aside from providing signal redundancy, suboptimal paths traverse residues that, if disrupted through pharmacological or mutational means, could modulate the allosteric regulation of important drug targets. To demonstrate the utility of our program, we present a case study describing the allostery of HisH-HisF, an amidotransferase from T. maritima thermotiga. WISP and its VMD-based graphical user interface (GUI) can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/wisp.

  10. Lyapunov spectrum of granular gases

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Sean; Mareschal, Michel

    2001-06-01

    We calculate and study the Lyapunov spectrum of a granular gas maintained in a steady state by an isokinetic thermostat. Considering restitution coefficients greater than unity allows us to show that the spectra change smoothly and continuously at equilibrium. The shearing instability of the granular gas, however, provokes an abrupt change in the structure of the spectrum. The relationship between various physically relevant quantities and the energy dissipation rate differs from previously studied nonequilibrium steady states.

  11. Two Upper Bounds for the Weighted Path Length of Binary Trees. Report No. UIUCDCS-R-73-565.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradels, Jean Louis

    Rooted binary trees with weighted nodes are structures encountered in many areas, such as coding theory, searching and sorting, information storage and retrieval. The path length is a meaningful quantity which gives indications about the expected time of a search or the length of a code, for example. In this paper, two sharp bounds for the total…

  12. Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    mathematical development and only provide access to partial pieces of information. Moreover, the scattered state of the present literature, with key contributions published in journals read by different communities (mathematicians, nonlinear and statistical physicists, fluid dynamicists and geophysicists), makes it difficult to develop a general picture. This special issue aims to offer an up-to-date view of current research on Lyapunov analysis, discussing both its mathematical theory and its applications to a number of different problems. Moreover, in order to facilitate the comparison and exchange of ideas and tools among different fields of research, contributions (either original or topical reviews) from researchers working in different disciplines have been selected for this issue. After the compact review of the basic mathematical results on Lyapunov exponents by Lai-Sang Young, the special issue is organized into nine sections broadly focused on the following topics: Large deviations and rare trajectories. Lyapunov exponents are mean quantities which characterize the sensitivity to initial conditions of typical trajectories. A large deviation theory of their finite time fluctuations, however, is relevant for the construction of a thermodynamic formalism of deterministic chaos. Moreover, the weighted sampling of extreme fluctuations allows one to access rare trajectories and phase-space topological structures. Random matrices. Lyapunov exponents are suitable quantities to statistically characterize products of random matrices, with a number of applications to transfer matrix methods and, more generally, to the statistical mechanics of disordered systems. In particular, Lyapunov exponents have long played a central role in the theory of Anderson localization. These aspects are reviewed here, together with an original application to the transfer matrix. Covariant Lyapunov vectors: theory and applications. CLVs constitute an intrinsic tangent space decomposition into

  13. Lyapunov timescales and black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Levin, Janna

    2003-05-01

    Black hole binaries support unstable orbits at very close separations. In the simplest case of geodesics around a Schwarzschild black hole the orbits, though unstable, are regular. Under perturbation the unstable orbits can become the locus of chaos. All unstable orbits, whether regular or chaotic, can be quantified by their Lyapunov exponents. The exponents are observationally relevant since the phase of gravitational waves can decohere in a Lyapunov time. If the timescale for dissipation due to gravitational waves is shorter than the Lyapunov time, chaos will be damped and essentially unobservable. We find that the two timescales can be comparable. We emphasize that the Lyapunov exponents must only be used cautiously for several reasons: they are relative and depend on the coordinate system used, they vary from orbit to orbit, and finally they can be deceptively diluted by transient behaviour for orbits which pass in and out of unstable regions.

  14. Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n = 420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), and fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived skills, perceived barriers, professional role identity and teamwork beliefs and weight management practices. The final model constructed in this study demonstrated a good fit to the data [χ2 (14) =13.90, p = 0.46; GFI = 0.99; AGFI = 0.98; NNFI = 1.00; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.00; AIC = 57.90], accounting for 38.4% and 43.2% of the variance in weight management practices and self-efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the

  15. Study of Double-Weighted Graph Model and Optimal Path Planning for Tourist Scenic Area Oriented Intelligent Tour Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Long, Y.; Wi, X. L.

    2014-04-01

    When tourists visiting multiple tourist scenic spots, the travel line is usually the most effective road network according to the actual tour process, and maybe the travel line is different from planned travel line. For in the field of navigation, a proposed travel line is normally generated automatically by path planning algorithm, considering the scenic spots' positions and road networks. But when a scenic spot have a certain area and have multiple entrances or exits, the traditional described mechanism of single point coordinates is difficult to reflect these own structural features. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on the influence on the process of path planning caused by scenic spots' own structural features such as multiple entrances or exits, and then proposes a doubleweighted Graph Model, for the weight of both vertexes and edges of proposed Model can be selected dynamically. And then discusses the model building method, and the optimal path planning algorithm based on Dijkstra algorithm and Prim algorithm. Experimental results show that the optimal planned travel line derived from the proposed model and algorithm is more reasonable, and the travelling order and distance would be further optimized.

  16. Hall magnetohydrodynamics: Conservation laws and Lyapunov stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Darryl D.

    1987-05-01

    Hall electric fields produce circulating mass flow in confined ideal-fluid plasmas. The conservation laws, Hamiltonian structure, equilibrium state relations, and Lyapunov stability conditions are presented here for ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) in two and three dimensions. The approach here is to use the remarkable array of nonlinear conservation laws for HMHD that follow from its Hamiltonian structure in order to construct explicit Lyapunov functionals for the HMHD equilibrium states. In this way, the Lyapunov stability analysis provides classes of HMHD equilibria that are stable and whose linearized initial-value problems are well posed (in the sense of possessing continuous dependence on initial conditions). Several examples are discussed in both two and three dimensions.

  17. A Survey of Quantum Lyapunov Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: nondegenerate cases and degenerate cases. For these two situations, respectively, in this paper the target state is divided into four categories: the eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Particularly, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed. PMID:23766732

  18. Convective lyapunov exponents and propagation of correlations

    PubMed

    Giacomelli; Hegger; Politi; Vassalli

    2000-10-23

    We conjecture that in one-dimensional spatially extended systems the propagation velocity of correlations coincides with a zero of the convective Lyapunov spectrum. This conjecture is successfully tested in three different contexts: (i) a Hamiltonian system (a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain of oscillators); (ii) a general model for spatiotemporal chaos (the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation); (iii) experimental data taken from a CO2 laser with delayed feedback. In the last case, the convective Lyapunov exponent is determined directly from the experimental data.

  19. Singular Lyapunov spectra and conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Bohr, T.; Grinstein, G.; Jayaprakash, C.

    1995-06-01

    We give analytic arguments and numerical evidence to show that the presence of conservation laws can produce a singularity in the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for extended dynamical systems of low spatial dimensionality. This phenomenon can be used, e.g., for finding hidden conservation laws. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.

  20. ON LYAPUNOV FAMILIES AROUND COLLINEAR LIBRATION POINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, X. Y.; Liu, L.

    2009-06-15

    Evolution details of the planar and vertical Lyapunov families around the three collinear libration points in the restricted three-body problem were studied. Researches before were generally restricted to be within the colliding orbits with the primaries and for fixed mass parameters {mu}. In this paper, members after colliding orbits were computed. With increasing {mu}, how these families evolve was studied.

  1. Lyapunov functions for fractional order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Gallegos, Javier A.

    2014-09-01

    A new lemma for the Caputo fractional derivatives, when 0<α<1, is proposed in this paper. This result has proved to be useful in order to apply the fractional-order extension of Lyapunov direct method, to demonstrate the stability of many fractional order systems, which can be nonlinear and time varying.

  2. The Lyapunov dimension and its estimation via the Leonov method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Along with widely used numerical methods for estimating and computing the Lyapunov dimension there is an effective analytical approach, proposed by G.A. Leonov in 1991. The Leonov method is based on the direct Lyapunov method with special Lyapunov-like functions. The advantage of the method is that it allows one to estimate the Lyapunov dimension of invariant sets without localization of the set in the phase space and, in many cases, to get effectively an exact Lyapunov dimension formula. In this work the invariance of the Lyapunov dimension with respect to diffeomorphisms and its connection with the Leonov method are discussed. For discrete-time dynamical systems an analog of Leonov method is suggested. In a simple but rigorous way, here it is presented the connection between the Leonov method and the key related works: Kaplan and Yorke (the concept of the Lyapunov dimension, 1979), Douady and Oesterlé (upper bounds of the Hausdorff dimension via the Lyapunov dimension of maps, 1980), Constantin, Eden, Foiaş, and Temam (upper bounds of the Hausdorff dimension via the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension of dynamical systems, 1985-90), and the numerical calculation of the Lyapunov exponents and dimension.

  3. Diverging Fluctuations of the Lyapunov Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M.; Politi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We show that in generic one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices the diffusion coefficient of the maximum Lyapunov exponent diverges in the thermodynamic limit. We trace this back to the long-range correlations associated with the evolution of the hydrodynamic modes. In the case of normal heat transport, the divergence is even stronger, leading to the breakdown of the usual single-function Family-Vicsek scaling ansatz. A similar scenario is expected to arise in the evolution of rough interfaces in the presence of suitably correlated background noise.

  4. Probability-theoretical analog of the vector Lyapunov function method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechnyi, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main ideas of the vector Lyapunov function (VLF) method were advanced in 1962 by Bellman and Matrosov. In this method, a Lyapunov function and a comparison equation are constructed for each subsystem. Then the dependences between the subsystems and the effect of external noise are allowed for by constructing a vector Lyapunov function (as a collection of the scalar Lyapunov functions of the subsystems) and an aggregate comparison function for the entire complex system. A probability-theoretical analog of this method for convergence analysis of stochastic approximation processes has been developed. The abstract approach proposed elsewhere eliminates all restrictions on the system phase space, the system trajectories, the class of Lyapunov functions, etc. The analysis focuses only on the conditions that relate sequences of Lyapunov function values with the derivative and ensure a particular type (mode, character) of stability. In our article, we extend this approach to the VLF method for discrete stochastic dynamic systems.

  5. Statistics of Lyapunov exponent spectrum in randomly coupled Kuramoto oscillators.

    PubMed

    Patra, Soumen K; Ghosh, Anandamohan

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics of coupled oscillatory systems can be done by computing the Lyapunov exponents. We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of randomly coupled network of Kuramoto oscillators and find that the spectral statistics obtained from the Lyapunov exponent spectrum show interesting sensitivity to the coupling matrix. Our results indicate that in the weak coupling limit the gap distribution of the Lyapunov spectrum is Poissonian, while in the limit of strong coupling the gap distribution shows level repulsion. Moreover, the oscillators settle to an inhomogeneous oscillatory state, and it is also possible to infer the random network properties from the Lyapunov exponent spectrum.

  6. Covariant Lyapunov analysis of chaotic Kolmogorov flows.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Miki U; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbolicity is an important concept in dynamical system theory; however, we know little about the hyperbolicity of concrete physical systems including fluid motions governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, we study numerically the hyperbolicity of the Navier-Stokes equation on a two-dimensional torus (Kolmogorov flows) using the method of covariant Lyapunov vectors developed by Ginelli et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 130601 (2007)]. We calculate the angle between the local stable and unstable manifolds along an orbit of chaotic solution to evaluate the hyperbolicity. We find that the attractor of chaotic Kolmogorov flows is hyperbolic at small Reynolds numbers, but that smaller angles between the local stable and unstable manifolds are observed at larger Reynolds numbers, and the attractor appears to be nonhyperbolic at a certain Reynolds numbers. Also, we observed some relations between these hyperbolic properties and physical properties such as time correlation of the vorticity and the energy dissipation rate.

  7. Preparation of topological modes by Lyapunov control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Yi, X. X.

    2015-09-01

    By Lyapunov control, we present a proposal to drive quasi-particles into a topological mode in quantum systems described by a quadratic Hamiltonian. The merit of this control is the individual manipulations on the boundary sites. We take the Kitaev’s chain as an illustration for Fermi systems and show that an arbitrary excitation mode can be steered into the Majorana zero mode by manipulating the chemical potential of the boundary sites. For Bose systems, taking the noninteracting Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model as an example, we illustrate how to drive the system into the edge mode. The sensitivity of the fidelity to perturbations and uncertainties in the control fields and initial modes is also examined. The experimental feasibility of the proposal and the possibility to replace the continuous control field with square wave pulses is finally discussed.

  8. Numerical solution of large Lyapunov equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saad, Youcef

    1989-01-01

    A few methods are proposed for solving large Lyapunov equations that arise in control problems. The common case where the right hand side is a small rank matrix is considered. For the single input case, i.e., when the equation considered is of the form AX + XA(sup T) + bb(sup T) = 0, where b is a column vector, the existence of approximate solutions of the form X = VGV(sup T) where V is N x m and G is m x m, with m small is established. The first class of methods proposed is based on the use of numerical quadrature formulas, such as Gauss-Laguerre formulas, applied to the controllability Grammian. The second is based on a projection process of Galerkin type. Numerical experiments are presented to test the effectiveness of these methods for large problems.

  9. Preparing entangled states by Lyapunov control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-09-01

    By Lyapunov control, we present a protocol to prepare entangled states such as Bell states in the context of cavity QED system. The advantage of our method is of threefold. Firstly, we can only control the phase of classical fields to complete the preparation process. Secondly, the evolution time is sharply shortened when compared to adiabatic control. Thirdly, the final state is steady after removing control fields. The influence of decoherence caused by the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay is discussed. The numerical results show that the control scheme is immune to decoherence, especially for the atomic spontaneous emission from |2rangle to |1rangle . This can be understood as the state staying in an invariant subspace. Finally, we generalize this method in preparation of W state.

  10. Calculating Lyapunov Exponents: Applying Products and Evaluating Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two common examples of one-dimensional maps (the tent map and the logistic map) are generalized to cases where they have more than one control parameter. In the case of the tent map, this still allows the global Lyapunov exponent to be found analytically, and permits various properties of the resulting global Lyapunov exponents to be investigated…

  11. Covariant Lyapunov vectors of chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Paul, M R

    2016-06-01

    We explore numerically the high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using covariant Lyapunov vectors. We integrate the three-dimensional and time-dependent Boussinesq equations for a convection layer in a shallow square box geometry with an aspect ratio of 16 for very long times and for a range of Rayleigh numbers. We simultaneously integrate many copies of the tangent space equations in order to compute the covariant Lyapunov vectors. The dynamics explored has fractal dimensions of 20≲D_{λ}≲50, and we compute on the order of 150 covariant Lyapunov vectors. We use the covariant Lyapunov vectors to quantify the degree of hyperbolicity of the dynamics and the degree of Oseledets splitting and to explore the temporal and spatial dynamics of the Lyapunov vectors. Our results indicate that the chaotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is nonhyperbolic for all of the Rayleigh numbers we have explored. Our results yield that the entire spectrum of covariant Lyapunov vectors that we have computed are tangled as indicated by near tangencies with neighboring vectors. A closer look at the spatiotemporal features of the Lyapunov vectors suggests contributions from structures at two different length scales with differing amounts of localization. PMID:27415256

  12. Covariant Lyapunov vectors of chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Paul, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    We explore numerically the high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using covariant Lyapunov vectors. We integrate the three-dimensional and time-dependent Boussinesq equations for a convection layer in a shallow square box geometry with an aspect ratio of 16 for very long times and for a range of Rayleigh numbers. We simultaneously integrate many copies of the tangent space equations in order to compute the covariant Lyapunov vectors. The dynamics explored has fractal dimensions of 20 ≲Dλ≲50 , and we compute on the order of 150 covariant Lyapunov vectors. We use the covariant Lyapunov vectors to quantify the degree of hyperbolicity of the dynamics and the degree of Oseledets splitting and to explore the temporal and spatial dynamics of the Lyapunov vectors. Our results indicate that the chaotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is nonhyperbolic for all of the Rayleigh numbers we have explored. Our results yield that the entire spectrum of covariant Lyapunov vectors that we have computed are tangled as indicated by near tangencies with neighboring vectors. A closer look at the spatiotemporal features of the Lyapunov vectors suggests contributions from structures at two different length scales with differing amounts of localization.

  13. Lyapunov Exponents for Surface Group Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Bertrand; Dujardin, Romain

    2015-12-01

    Let be a holomorphic family of representations of a surface group into , where S is a topological (possibly punctured) surface with negative Euler characteristic. Given a structure of Riemann surface of finite type on S we construct a bifurcation current on the parameter space Λ, that is a (1,1) positive closed current attached to the bifurcations of the family. It is defined as the dd c of the Lyapunov exponent of the representation with respect to the Brownian motion on the Riemann surface S, endowed with its Poincaré metric. We show that this bifurcation current describes the asymptotic distribution of various codimension 1 phenomena in Λ. For instance, the random hypersurfaces of Λ defined by the condition that a random closed geodesic on S is mapped under ρ λ to a parabolic element or the identity are asymptotically equidistributed with respect to the bifurcation current. The proofs are based on our previous work (Deroin and Dujardin, Invent Math 190:57-118, 2012), and on a careful control of a discretization procedure of the Brownian motion.

  14. Joint Statistics of Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    Recently, the notion of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) has gained attention as a tool for qualitative visualization of flow features. LCS visualize repelling and attracting manifolds marked by local ridges in the field of maximal and minimal finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE), respectively. To provide a quantitative characterization of FTLEs, the statistical theory of large deviations can be used based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms (with finite-size correction). We generalize the formalism to characterize the joint distributions of the two independent FTLEs in 3D. The ``joint Cramér function of turbulence'' is measured from the Johns Hopkins Turbulence Databases (JHTDB) isotropic simulation at Reλ = 433 and results are compared with those computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with those of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude and the most likely ratio of FTLEs changes from 4:1:-5 to 8:3:-11, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. Supported by NSF Graduate Fellowship (DGE-1232825), a JHU graduate Fellowship, and NSF Grant CMMI-0941530. CM thanks Prof. Luca Biferale for useful discussions on the subject.

  15. A Spectral Lyapunov Function for Exponentially Stable LTV Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. Jim; Liu, Yong; Hang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a Lyapunov function for an exponentially stable linear timevarying (LTV) system using a well-defined PD-spectrum and the associated PD-eigenvectors. It provides a bridge between the first and second methods of Lyapunov for stability assessment, and will find significant applications in the analysis and control law design for LTV systems and linearizable nonlinear time-varying systems.

  16. Lyapunov Control of Quantum Systems with Impulsive Control Fields

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Sun, Jitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Lyapunov control of finite-dimensional quantum systems with impulsive control fields, where the studied quantum systems are governed by the Schrödinger equation. By three different Lyapunov functions and the invariant principle of impulsive systems, we study the convergence of quantum systems with impulsive control fields and propose new results for the mentioned quantum systems in the form of sufficient conditions. Two numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. PMID:23766712

  17. Path analysis of family resemblance with temporal trends: applications to height, weight, and Quetelet index in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Province, M A; Rao, D C

    1985-01-01

    A multifactorial model incorporating temporal trends in its parameters is discussed. The model is a generalization of the tau model of Rice et al. in which the parameters are assumed to be specific functions of time. A special case of this model is fit to data on height, weight, and Quetelet index in 1,067 nuclear families to demonstrate the utility of the approach. The results indicate that there is considerable temporal variation in family resemblance over time for all three traits. For height and Quetelet index, both the transmissibility, comparable to heritability, and residual sibling environmental correlation show temporal changes, while for weight, only the latter exhibits significant trends. Trends were not found in the marital correlation for any of the traits, and only limited evidence was found for trends in the maternal transmission parameter for height. This provides an objective method for evaluating the nature and sources of temporal trends in family resemblance, which can easily be incorporated into the framework of any model-based approach. PMID:3976658

  18. Exact Lyapunov exponents of the generalized Boole transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeno, Ken; Okubo, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    The generalized Boole transformations have rich behavior ranging from the mixing phase with the Cauchy invariant measure to the dissipative phase through the infinite ergodic phase with the Lebesgue measure. In this letter, by giving the proof of mixing property for 0<α <1, we show an analytic formula of the Lyapunov exponents λ that are explicitly parameterized in terms of the parameter α of the generalized Boole transformations for the whole region α >0 and bridge these three phases continuously. We find different scale behaviors of the Lyapunov exponent near α =1 using an analytic formula with the parameter α . In particular, for 0<α <1, we then prove the existence of the extremely sensitive dependence of Lyapunov exponents, where the absolute values of the derivative of the Lyapunov exponents with respect to the parameter α diverge to infinity in the limits of α to 0 and α to 1. This result shows the computational complexity of the numerical simulations of the Lyapunov exponents near α ˜eq 0, 1.

  19. Invariant functions for the Lyapunov exponents of random matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Protasov, Vladimir Yu

    2011-01-31

    A new approach to the study of Lyapunov exponents of random matrices is presented. We prove that any family of nonnegative (dxd)-matrices has a continuous concave invariant functional on R{sup d}{sub +}. Under some standard assumptions on the matrices, this functional is strictly positive, and the coefficient corresponding to it is equal to the largest Lyapunov exponent. As a corollary we obtain asymptotics for the expected value of the logarithm of norms of matrix products and of their spectral radii. Another corollary gives new upper and lower bounds for the Lyapunov exponent, and an algorithm for computing it for families of nonnegative matrices. We consider possible extensions of our results to general nonnegative matrix families and present several applications and examples. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  20. Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.

    2000-01-13

    The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates.

  1. Lyapunov exponents of stochastic systems—from micro to macro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffargue, Tanguy; Tailleur, Julien; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Lyapunov exponents of dynamical systems are defined from the rates of divergence of nearby trajectories. For stochastic systems, one typically assumes that these trajectories are generated under the ‘same noise realization’. The purpose of this work is to critically examine what this expression means. For Brownian particles, we consider two natural interpretations of the noise: intrinsic to the particles or stemming from the fluctuations of the environment. We show how they lead to different distributions of the largest Lyapunov exponent as well as different fluctuating hydrodynamics for the collective density field. We discuss, both at microscopic and macroscopic levels, the limits in which these noise prescriptions become equivalent. We close this paper by providing an estimate of the largest Lyapunov exponent and of its fluctuations for interacting particles evolving with Dean-Kawasaki dynamics.

  2. Detecting epileptic seizure from scalp EEG using Lyapunov spectrum.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Huong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toi, Vo Van

    2012-01-01

    One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA) and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy.

  3. Do Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents detect coherent structures?

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Daniel; Haller, George

    2013-12-01

    Ridges of the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) field have been used as indicators of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). A rigorous mathematical link between the FSLE and LCSs, however, has been missing. Here, we prove that an FSLE ridge satisfying certain conditions does signal a nearby ridge of some Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field, which in turn indicates a hyperbolic LCS under further conditions. Other FSLE ridges violating our conditions, however, are seen to be false positives for LCSs. We also find further limitations of the FSLE in Lagrangian coherence detection, including ill-posedness, artificial jump-discontinuities, and sensitivity with respect to the computational time step.

  4. Do Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents detect coherent structures?

    SciTech Connect

    Karrasch, Daniel; Haller, George

    2013-12-15

    Ridges of the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) field have been used as indicators of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). A rigorous mathematical link between the FSLE and LCSs, however, has been missing. Here, we prove that an FSLE ridge satisfying certain conditions does signal a nearby ridge of some Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field, which in turn indicates a hyperbolic LCS under further conditions. Other FSLE ridges violating our conditions, however, are seen to be false positives for LCSs. We also find further limitations of the FSLE in Lagrangian coherence detection, including ill-posedness, artificial jump-discontinuities, and sensitivity with respect to the computational time step.

  5. Large-deviation joint statistics of the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-08-01

    One of the hallmarks of turbulent flows is the chaotic behavior of fluid particle paths with exponentially growing separation among them while their distance does not exceed the viscous range. The maximal (positive) Lyapunov exponent represents the average strength of the exponential growth rate, while fluctuations in the rate of growth are characterized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). In the last decade or so, the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures (which are often computed using FTLEs) has gained attention as a tool for visualizing coherent trajectory patterns in a flow and distinguishing regions of the flow with different mixing properties. A quantitative statistical characterization of FTLEs can be accomplished using the statistical theory of large deviations, based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms and introduce a finite-size correction to the histogram-based method. We generalize the existing univariate formalism to the joint distributions of the two FTLEs needed to fully specify the Lyapunov spectrum in 3D flows. The joint Cramér function of turbulence is measured from two direct numerical simulation datasets of isotropic turbulence. Results are compared with joint statistics of FTLEs computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with joint statistics of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. The most likely ratio of the FTLEs λ1 : λ2 : λ3 is shown to be about 4:1:-5, compared to about 8:3:-11 when using only the strain-rate tensor for calculating fluid volume deformations. The results

  6. Large-deviation joint statistics of the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum in isotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Perry L. Meneveau, Charles

    2015-08-15

    One of the hallmarks of turbulent flows is the chaotic behavior of fluid particle paths with exponentially growing separation among them while their distance does not exceed the viscous range. The maximal (positive) Lyapunov exponent represents the average strength of the exponential growth rate, while fluctuations in the rate of growth are characterized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). In the last decade or so, the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures (which are often computed using FTLEs) has gained attention as a tool for visualizing coherent trajectory patterns in a flow and distinguishing regions of the flow with different mixing properties. A quantitative statistical characterization of FTLEs can be accomplished using the statistical theory of large deviations, based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms and introduce a finite-size correction to the histogram-based method. We generalize the existing univariate formalism to the joint distributions of the two FTLEs needed to fully specify the Lyapunov spectrum in 3D flows. The joint Cramér function of turbulence is measured from two direct numerical simulation datasets of isotropic turbulence. Results are compared with joint statistics of FTLEs computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with joint statistics of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. The most likely ratio of the FTLEs λ{sub 1} : λ{sub 2} : λ{sub 3} is shown to be about 4:1:−5, compared to about 8:3:−11 when using only the strain-rate tensor for calculating fluid volume

  7. Quantum synchronization in an optomechanical system based on Lyapunov control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-06-01

    We extend the concepts of quantum complete synchronization and phase synchronization, which were proposed in A. Mari et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605, to more widespread quantum generalized synchronization. Generalized synchronization can be considered a necessary condition or a more flexible derivative of complete synchronization, and its criterion and synchronization measure are proposed and analyzed in this paper. As examples, we consider two typical generalized synchronizations in a designed optomechanical system. Unlike the effort to construct a special coupling synchronization system, we purposefully design extra control fields based on Lyapunov control theory. We find that the Lyapunov function can adapt to more flexible control objectives, which is more suitable for generalized synchronization control, and the control fields can be achieved simply with a time-variant voltage. Finally, the existence of quantum entanglement in different generalized synchronizations is also discussed.

  8. Lyapunov stability of flowing magnetohydrodynamic plasmas surrounded by resistive walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2011-07-01

    A general stability condition for plasma-vacuum systems with resistive walls is derived by using the Frieman Rotenberg Lagrangian stability formulation [Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960)]. It is shown that the Lyapunov stability limit for external modes does not depend upon the gyroscopic term but upon the sign of the perturbed potential energy only. In the absence of dissipation in the plasma such as viscosity, it is expected that the flow cannot stabilize the system.

  9. A local Echo State Property through the largest Lyapunov exponent.

    PubMed

    Wainrib, Gilles; Galtier, Mathieu N

    2016-04-01

    Echo State Networks are efficient time-series predictors, which highly depend on the value of the spectral radius of the reservoir connectivity matrix. Based on recent results on the mean field theory of driven random recurrent neural networks, enabling the computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent of an ESN, we develop a cheap algorithm to establish a local and operational version of the Echo State Property.

  10. Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    The study of deterministic laws of evolution has characterized the development of science since Newton's times. Chaos, namely the manifestation of irregular and unpredictable dynamics (not random but look random [1]), entered the debate on determinism at the end of the 19th century with the discovery of sensitivity to initial conditions, meaning that small infinitesimal differences in the initial state might lead to dramatic differences at later times. Poincaré [2, 3] was the first to realize that solutions of the three-body problem are generically highly sensitive to initial conditions. At about the same time, this property was recognized in geodesic flows with negative curvature by Hadamard [4]. One of the first experimental observations of chaos, as understood much later, was when irregular noise was heard by Van der Pol in 1927 [5] while studying a periodically forced nonlinear oscillator. Nevertheless, it was only with the advent of digital computing that chaos started to attract the interest of the wider scientific community. After the pioneering investigation of ergodicity in a chain of nonlinear oscillators by Fermi, Pasta and Ulam in 1955 [6], it was in the early 1960s that the numerical studies of Lorenz [7] and Hénon and Heiles [8] revealed that irregular and unpredictable motions are a generic feature of low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic systems. The existence and onset of chaos was then rigorously analyzed in several systems. While an exhaustive list of such mathematical proofs is beyond the scope of this preface, one should mention the contributions of Kolmogorov [9, 10], Chirikov [11], Smale [12], Ruelle and Takens [13], Li and Yorke [14] and Feigenbaum [15]. The characteristic Lyapunov exponents introduced by Oseledets in 1968 [16] are the fundamental quantities for measuring the sensitivity to initial conditions. Oseledets' work generalized the concept of Lyapunov stability to irregular trajectories building upon earlier studies of Birkhoff

  11. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  12. A Lyapunov-Based Extension to Particle Swarm Dynamics for Continuous Function Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sayantani; Konar, Amit; Das, Swagatam; Han, Sang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes three alternative extensions to the classical global-best particle swarm optimization dynamics, and compares their relative performance with the standard particle swarm algorithm. The first extension, which readily follows from the well-known Lyapunov's stability theorem, provides a mathematical basis of the particle dynamics with a guaranteed convergence at an optimum. The inclusion of local and global attractors to this dynamics leads to faster convergence speed and better accuracy than the classical one. The second extension augments the velocity adaptation equation by a negative randomly weighted positional term of individual particle, while the third extension considers the negative positional term in place of the inertial term. Computer simulations further reveal that the last two extensions outperform both the classical and the first extension in terms of convergence speed and accuracy. PMID:22303158

  13. Lyapunov Schmidt reduction algorithm for three-dimensional discrete vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Mike; Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2008-03-01

    We address the persistence and stability of three-dimensional vortex configurations in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and develop a symbolic package based on Wolfram’s MATHEMATICA for computations of the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction method. The Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction method is a theoretical tool which enables us to study continuations and terminations of the discrete vortices for small coupling between lattice nodes as well as the spectral stability of the persistent configurations. The method was developed earlier in the context of the two-dimensional lattice and applied to the onsite and offsite configurations (called the vortex cross and the vortex cell) by using semianalytical computations [D.E. Pelinovsky, P.G. Kevrekidis, D. Frantzeskakis, Physica D 212 (2005) 20-53; P.G. Kevrekidis, D.E. Pelinovsky, Proc. R. Soc. A 462 (2006) 2671-2694]. The present treatment develops a full symbolic computational package which takes a desired waveform at the anticontinuum limit of uncoupled sites, performs a required number of Lyapunov-Schmidt reductions and outputs the predictions on whether the configuration persists, for finite coupling, in the three-dimensional lattice and whether it is stable or unstable. It also provides approximations for the eigenvalues of the linearized stability problem. We report a number of applications of the algorithm to important multisite three-dimensional configurations, such as the simple cube, the double cross and the diamond. For each configuration, we identify exactly one solution, which is stable for small coupling between lattice nodes.

  14. Maximal Sensitive Dependence and the Optimal Path to Epidemic Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Forgoston, Eric; Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2010-01-01

    Extinction of an epidemic or a species is a rare event that occurs due to a large, rare stochastic fluctuation. Although the extinction process is dynamically unstable, it follows an optimal path that maximizes the probability of extinction. We show that the optimal path is also directly related to the finite-time Lyapunov exponents of the underlying dynamical system in that the optimal path displays maximum sensitivity to initial conditions. We consider several stochastic epidemic models, and examine the extinction process in a dynamical systems framework. Using the dynamics of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents as a constructive tool, we demonstrate that the dynamical systems viewpoint of extinction evolves naturally toward the optimal path. PMID:20352495

  15. Chaotic itinerancy in the oscillator neural network without Lyapunov functions.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Satoki; Fujisaka, Hirokazu

    2004-09-01

    Chaotic itinerancy (CI), which is defined as an incessant spontaneous switching phenomenon among attractor ruins in deterministic dynamical systems without Lyapunov functions, is numerically studied in the case of an oscillator neural network model. The model is the pseudoinverse-matrix version of the previous model [S. Uchiyama and H. Fujisaka, Phys. Rev. E 65, 061912 (2002)] that was studied theoretically with the aid of statistical neurodynamics. It is found that CI in neural nets can be understood as the intermittent dynamics of weakly destabilized chaotic retrieval solutions.

  16. Lyapunov Orbits in the Jupiter System Using Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokelmann, Kevin; Russell, Ryan P.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Various researchers have proposed the use of electrodynamic tethers for power generation and capture from interplanetary transfers. The effect of tether forces on periodic orbits in Jupiter-satellite systems are investigated. A perturbation force is added to the restricted three-body problem model and a series of simplifications allows development of a conservative system that retains the Jacobi integral. Expressions are developed to find modified locations of equilibrium positions. Modified families of Lyapunov orbits are generated as functions of tether size and Jacobi integral. Zero velocity curves and stability analyses are used to evaluate the dynamical properties of tether-modified orbits.

  17. Structure of characteristic Lyapunov vectors in anharmonic Hamiltonian lattices.

    PubMed

    Romero-Bastida, M; Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M; Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2010-09-01

    In this work we perform a detailed study of the scaling properties of Lyapunov vectors (LVs) for two different one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices: the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and Φ^{4} models. In this case, characteristic (also called covariant) LVs exhibit qualitative similarities with those of dissipative lattices but the scaling exponents are different and seemingly nonuniversal. In contrast, backward LVs (obtained via Gram-Schmidt orthonormalizations) present approximately the same scaling exponent in all cases, suggesting it is an artificial exponent produced by the imposed orthogonality of these vectors. We are able to compute characteristic LVs in large systems thanks to a "bit reversible" algorithm, which completely obviates computer memory limitations.

  18. Path Finder

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, J. Brian; Smith, Marcus Daniel; Mulder, Samuel A

    2014-01-07

    PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).

  19. Controlling chaos experimentally in systems exhibiting large effective Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübinger, B.; Doerner, R.; Martienssen, W.; Herdering, M.; Pitka, R.; Dressler, U.

    1994-08-01

    We investigate experimentally the performance of the Ott, Grebogi, and Yorke [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1989)] feedback concept to control chaotic motion. The experimental systems are a driven pendulum and a driven bronze ribbon. Both setups have unstable periodic orbits characterized by large effective Lyapunov exponents. All control vectors for the feedback control are extracted from the experimental data. To do this for the pendulum a global model obtained by the flow field analysis of Cremers and Hübler [Z. Naturforsch. 42a, 797 (1987)] is used, and for the bronze ribbon linear approximations in embedding space are exploited. We analyze the problems that arise due to the amplification of noise by large effective Lyapunov exponents in the determination of the control values as well as in the performance of the experimental control. Successful control can be achieved in our experiments by applying the ``local control method'' which allows a quasicontinuous adjustment of the control parameter in contrast to adjusting the control parameter only once per return time of the Poincaré map.

  20. Short Lyapunov time: a method for identifying confined chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Mourão, D. C.; Giuliatti Winter, S. M.

    2010-11-01

    Context. The orbital instability of minor solar system bodies (asteroids, small satellites, moonlets, and particles) is frequently studied in terms of the Lyapunov characteristic exponent (LCE). Asteroids interior to Jupiter often exihibit very short Lyapunov times, TL, and very large radial variations, becoming Jupiter's crossers and escapers. However, a few cases of asteroids with very short TL and no significant radial variation have been found. These orbits were called “confined chaos” or even “stable chaos”. This feature also appeared in the case of moonlets embedded in Saturn's F ring and disturbed by the nearby satellites Prometheus and Pandora. Aims: We present a simple approach to estimating the contribution of the radial component of the LCE to identify trajectories in the “confined chaos” regime. Methods: To estimate the radial contribution to the maximum LCE, we considered a rotating reference system in which one of the axis was aligned with the radial direction of the reference trajectory. Measuring the distance in the phase space between the two nearby orbits then allowed us to separate the contribution of the radial component from the others. We applied the method to two different dynamical systems: (a) an asteroid around the Sun disturbed by Jupiter; (b) a moonlet of Saturn's F-ring disturbed by the satellites Prometheus and Pandora. Results: In all cases, we found that the method of comparing the radial contribution of the LCE to the entire contribution allows us to correctly distinguish between confined chaos and escapers.

  1. Probabilistic neural networks employing Lyapunov exponents for analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) with the Lyapunov exponents for Doppler ultrasound signals classification is presented. This study is directly based on the consideration that Doppler ultrasound signals are chaotic signals. This consideration was tested successfully using the nonlinear dynamics tools, like the computation of Lyapunov exponents. Decision making was performed in two stages: computation of Lyapunov exponents as representative features of the Doppler ultrasound signals and classification using the PNNs trained on the extracted features. The present research demonstrated that the Lyapunov exponents are the features which well represent the Doppler ultrasound signals and the PNNs trained on these features achieved high classification accuracies. PMID:17709103

  2. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  3. Computation of entropy and Lyapunov exponent by a shift transform

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Chihiro; Hiraide, Koichi

    2015-10-15

    We present a novel computational method to estimate the topological entropy and Lyapunov exponent of nonlinear maps using a shift transform. Unlike the computation of periodic orbits or the symbolic dynamical approach by the Markov partition, the method presented here does not require any special techniques in computational and mathematical fields to calculate these quantities. In spite of its simplicity, our method can accurately capture not only the chaotic region but also the non-chaotic region (window region) such that it is important physically but the (Lebesgue) measure zero and usually hard to calculate or observe. Furthermore, it is shown that the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure (the physical measure) coincides with the topological entropy.

  4. GPU and APU computations of Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Christian; Rossinelli, Diego; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2012-03-01

    We present GPU and APU accelerated computations of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields. The calculation of FTLEs is a computationally intensive process, as in order to obtain the sharp ridges associated with the Lagrangian Coherent Structures an extensive resampling of the flow field is required. The computational performance of this resampling is limited by the memory bandwidth of the underlying computer architecture. The present technique harnesses data-parallel execution of many-core architectures and relies on fast and accurate evaluations of moment conserving functions for the mesh to particle interpolations. We demonstrate how the computation of FTLEs can be efficiently performed on a GPU and on an APU through OpenCL and we report over one order of magnitude improvements over multi-threaded executions in FTLE computations of bluff body flows.

  5. Analytic lyapunov exponents in a classical nonlinear field equation

    PubMed

    Franzosi; Gatto; Pettini; Pettini

    2000-04-01

    It is shown that the nonlinear wave equation partial differential(2)(t)straight phi- partial differential2xstraight phi-&mgr;(0) partial differential(x)( partial differential(x)straight phi)(3)=0, which is the continuum limit of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta model, has a positive Lyapunov exponent lambda(1), whose analytic energy dependence is given. The result (a first example for field equations) is achieved by evaluating the lattice-spacing dependence of lambda(1) for the FPU model within the framework of a Riemannian description of Hamiltonian chaos. We also discuss a difficulty of the statistical mechanical treatment of this classical field system, which is absent in the dynamical description.

  6. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends...

  7. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends...

  8. The applicability of Lyapunov characteristic numbers in the study of the stability of satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers constitute a new tool for determining stability of trajectories of dynamical systems, or, even more generally, of solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations. In contrast with the characteristic exponents, which apply only to periodic solutions, the Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers apply to arbitrary nonperiodic solutions as well. A description is presented of the numerical experiments which have been made in order to investigate the practical value of the Lyapunov Characteristic Number and the Kolmogorov Entropy for the purpose of estimating the stability of trajectories and/or numerical integration methods in celestial mechanics. It is found that the Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers are extremely useful for the classification of the solutions of nonintegrable dynamical systems, especially in order to distinguish between quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. However, the Lyapunov Characteristics Numbers do not appear to be useful for the purpose of evaluating numerical integration methods.

  9. The applicability of Lyapunov characteristic numbers in the study of the stability of satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broucke, R.

    1982-08-01

    It is pointed out that the Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers constitute a new tool for determining stability of trajectories of dynamical systems, or, even more generally, of solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations. In contrast with the characteristic exponents, which apply only to periodic solutions, the Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers apply to arbitrary nonperiodic solutions as well. A description is presented of the numerical experiments which have been made in order to investigate the practical value of the Lyapunov Characteristic Number and the Kolmogorov Entropy for the purpose of estimating the stability of trajectories and/or numerical integration methods in celestial mechanics. It is found that the Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers are extremely useful for the classification of the solutions of nonintegrable dynamical systems, especially in order to distinguish between quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. However, the Lyapunov Characteristics Numbers do not appear to be useful for the purpose of evaluating numerical integration methods.

  10. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the

  11. Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents for magnetically confined plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Linda; Krishnan, Harinarayan

    2012-10-01

    Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLEs) are applied for the first time to magnetically confined plasmas. The FTLE measures the local divergence or convergence of n-dimensional vector fields. Time-dependent FTLEs are directly related to Lagrangian Coherent Structures, which form the underlying structure of turbulent flows. Modern FTLE methods, developed over the past decade, are evolving rapidly and leading to new practical and theoretical insights into turbulent fluid dynamics. In contrast to fluids, an MHD plasma has two vector fields, the magnetic field and the plasma flow. Accurate methods for computing and visualizing FTLEs for the MHD fields have been developed, based on the VisIt visualization package. They are applied to time slices of a large sawtooth crash in a toroidal plasma, computed by the M3D extended MHD code. The plasma structures for both B and v have unexpected properties that are not brought out by conventional analyses. The sawtooth crash is also found to have well-organized ``flow'' structures in v±B. The FTLE appears to be a sensitive diagnostic for the structure of stochastic magnetic fields. The methods are not restricted to MHD, since they apply to almost any vector field.

  12. Medical image noise reduction using the Sylvester-Lyapunov equation.

    PubMed

    Sanches, João M; Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S

    2008-09-01

    Multiplicative noise is often present in medical and biological imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and fluorescence microscopy. Noise reduction in medical images is a difficult task in which linear filtering algorithms usually fail. Bayesian algorithms have been used with success but they are time consuming and computationally demanding. In addition, the increasing importance of the 3-D and 4-D medical image analysis in medical diagnosis procedures increases the amount of data that must be efficiently processed. This paper presents a Bayesian denoising algorithm which copes with additive white Gaussian and multiplicative noise described by Poisson and Rayleigh distributions. The algorithm is based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion, and edge preserving priors which avoid the distortion of relevant anatomical details. The main contribution of the paper is the unification of a set of Bayesian denoising algorithms for additive and multiplicative noise using a well-known mathematical framework, the Sylvester-Lyapunov equation, developed in the context of the Control theory.

  13. [A Standing Balance Evaluation Method Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of human standing balance scientifically, we in this study proposed a new evaluation method based on the chaos nonlinear analysis theory. In this method, a sinusoidal acceleration stimulus in forward/backward direction was forced under the subjects' feet, which was supplied by a motion platform. In addition, three acceleration sensors, which were fixed to the shoulder, hip and knee of each subject, were applied to capture the balance adjustment dynamic data. Through reconstructing the system phase space, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the dynamic data of subjects' different segments, then used the sum of the squares of the difference between each LLE (SSDLLE) as the balance capabilities evaluation index. Finally, 20 subjects' indexes were calculated, and compared with evaluation results of existing methods. The results showed that the SSDLLE were more in line with the subjects' performance during the experiment, and it could measure the body's balance ability to some extent. Moreover, the results also illustrated that balance level was determined by the coordinate ability of various joints, and there might be more balance control strategy in the process of maintaining balance. PMID:27079089

  14. Stability of Cellular Automata Trajectories Revisited: Branching Walks and Lyapunov Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baetens, Jan M.; Gravner, Janko

    2016-10-01

    We study non-equilibrium defect accumulation dynamics on a cellular automaton trajectory: a branching walk process in which a defect creates a successor on any neighborhood site whose update it affects. On an infinite lattice, defects accumulate at different exponential rates in different directions, giving rise to the Lyapunov profile. This profile quantifies instability of a cellular automaton evolution and is connected to the theory of large deviations. We rigorously and empirically study Lyapunov profiles generated from random initial states. We also introduce explicit and computationally feasible variational methods to compute the Lyapunov profiles for periodic configurations, thus developing an analog of Floquet theory for cellular automata.

  15. Path ANalysis

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes duringmore » courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.« less

  16. Path ANalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes during courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.

  17. Construction of Lyapunov functions for some models of infectious diseases in vivo: from simple models to complex models.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Toru; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2015-02-01

    We present a constructive method for Lyapunov functions for ordinary differential equation models of infectious diseases in vivo. We consider models derived from the Nowak-Bangham models. We construct Lyapunov functions for complex models using those of simpler models. Especially, we construct Lyapunov functions for models with an immune variable from those for models without an immune variable, a Lyapunov functions of a model with absorption effect from that for a model without absorption effect. We make the construction clear for Lyapunov functions proposed previously, and present new results with our method.

  18. Dynamical behaviors determined by the Lyapunov function in competitive Lotka-Volterra systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ma, Yian

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical behaviors of the competitive Lotka-Volterra system even for 3 species are not fully understood. In this paper, we study this problem from the perspective of the Lyapunov function. We construct explicitly the Lyapunov function using three examples of the competitive Lotka-Volterra system for the whole state space: (1) the general 2-species case, (2) a 3-species model, and (3) the model of May-Leonard. The basins of attraction for these examples are demonstrated, including cases with bistability and cyclical behavior. The first two examples are the generalized gradient system, where the energy dissipation may not follow the gradient of the Lyapunov function. In addition, under a new type of stochastic interpretation, the Lyapunov function also leads to the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution on the final steady state when multiplicative noise is added.

  19. Estimating the Lyapunov spectrum of time delay feedback systems from scalar time series.

    PubMed

    Hegger, R

    1999-08-01

    On the basis of a recently developed method for modeling time delay systems, we propose a procedure to estimate the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents from a scalar time series. It turns out that the spectrum is approximated very well and allows for good estimates of the Lyapunov dimension even if the sampling rate of the time series is so low that the infinite dimensional tangent space is spanned quite sparsely.

  20. Exact Lyapunov dimension of the universal attractor for the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, C.R.; Gibbon, J.D.; Holm, D.D.; Nicolaenko, B.

    1987-12-28

    We present an exact analytic computation of the Lyapunov dimension of the universal attractor of the complex Ginzburg-Landau partial differential equation for a finite range of its parameter values. We obtain upper bounds on the attractor's dimension when the parameters do not permit an exact evaluation by our methods. The exact Lyapunov dimension agrees with an estimate of the number of degrees of freedom based on a simple linear stability analysis and mode-counting argument.

  1. A statistical approach to estimate the LYAPUNOV spectrum in disc brake squeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of squeal propensity of a brake system from the prediction of unstable vibration modes using the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) in the frequency domain has its fair share of successes and failures. While the CEA is almost standard practice for the automotive industry, time domain methods and the estimation of LYAPUNOV spectra have not received much attention in brake squeal analyses. One reason is the challenge in estimating the true LYAPUNOV exponents and their discrimination against spurious ones in experimental data. A novel method based on the application of the ECKMANN-RUELLE matrices is proposed here to estimate LYAPUNOV exponents by using noise in a statistical procedure. It is validated with respect to parameter variations and dimension estimates. By counting the number of non-overlapping confidence intervals for LYAPUNOV exponent distributions obtained by moving a window of increasing size over bootstrapped same-length estimates of an observation function, a dispersion measure's width is calculated and fed into a BAYESIAN beta-binomial model. Results obtained using this method for benchmark models of white and pink noise as well as the classical HENON map indicate that true LYAPUNOV exponents can be isolated from spurious ones with high confidence. The method is then applied to accelerometer and microphone data obtained from brake squeal tests. Estimated LYAPUNOV exponents indicate that the pad's out-of-plane vibration behaves quasi-periodically on the brink to chaos while the microphone's squeal signal remains periodic.

  2. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang

    2015-01-01

    The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body's standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age. PMID:26064182

  3. Predicting the evolutionary dynamic behavior of a laser with injected signal using Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandy, D. K.; Hall, J. R.; Denker, M. E.

    2015-07-01

    We show that the role of the Lyapunov exponents can be extended beyond the customary local instability, such as limit cycle behavior, to include its use as an evolutionary predictor of the dynamics of a laser with injected signal (LIS). Numerical studies of LIS reveal that as a function of the input-signal strength the evolution of two nonzero Lyapunov exponents (generally equal) distinctively predicts the evolutionary trend of the fundamental frequency of the laser output signal (an important dynamic characteristic of the LIS) even with the presence of some noise. This globally predictive behavior of the Lyapunov exponents includes also the dynamic behavior of the individual coexisting attractors. Different coexisting attractors of LIS and configurations of Lyapunov exponents for both individual attractors and the global system are reported. Two LIS case studies are considered: (I) a high-gain system with a rich history of nonlinear behavior but not experimentally accessible, and (II) a low-gain system that has complex dynamics and is experimentally accessible for Class B lasers. Universality arguments support the thesis that these different configurations and the extended role of the Lyapunov exponents as an evolutionary predictor of the dynamics will be observed in other nonlinear, dynamic dissipative systems as well.

  4. Nonlinear analysis using Lyapunov exponents in breast thermograms to identify abnormal lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EtehadTavakol, M.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Lucas, C.; Sadri, S.; Ataei, M.

    2012-07-01

    Breast diseases are one of the major issues in women's health today. Early detection of breast cancer plays a significant role in reducing the mortality rate. Breast thermography is a potential early detection method which is non-invasive, non-radiating, passive, fast, painless, low cost, risk free with no contact with the body. By identifying and removing malignant tumors in early stages before they metastasize and spread to neighboring regions, cancer threats can be minimized. Cancer is often characterized as a chaotic, poorly regulated growth. Cancerous cells, tumors, and vasculature defy have irregular shapes which have potential to be described by a nonlinear dynamical system. Chaotic time series can provide the tools necessary to generate the procedures to evaluate the nonlinear system. Computing Lyapunov exponents is thus a powerful means of quantifying the degree of the chaos. In this paper, we present a novel approach using nonlinear chaotic dynamical system theory for estimating Lyapunov exponents in establishing possible difference between malignant and benign patterns. In order to develop the algorithm, the first hottest regions of breast thermal images are identified first, and then one dimensional scalar time series is obtained in terms of the distance between each subsequent boundary contour points and the center of the mass of the first hottest region. In the next step, the embedding dimension is estimated, and by time delay embedding method, the phase space is reconstructed. In the last step, the Lyapunov exponents are computed to analyze normality or abnormality of the lesions. Positive Lyapunov exponents indicates abnormality while negative Lyapunov exponents represent normality. The normalized errors show the algorithm is satisfactorily, and provide a measure of chaos. It is shown that nonlinear analysis of breast thermograms using Lyapunov exponents may potentially capable of improving reliability of thermography in breast tumor detection as

  5. Lyapunov Stabilizability of Controlled Diffusions via a Superoptimality Principle for Viscosity Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cesaroni, Annalisa

    2006-01-15

    We prove optimality principles for semicontinuous bounded viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. In particular, we provide a representation formula for viscosity supersolutions as value functions of suitable obstacle control problems. This result is applied to extend the Lyapunov direct method for stability to controlled Ito stochastic differential equations. We define the appropriate concept of the Lyapunov function to study stochastic open loop stabilizability in probability and local and global asymptotic stabilizability (or asymptotic controllability). Finally, we illustrate the theory with some examples.

  6. Global path following control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zewei; Wu, Zhe

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops a nonlinear path following control method that drives an underactuated stratospheric airship onto a predefined planar path with a given speed profile. The dynamic model of the airship used for controller design is first introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. In order to render good pilot behavior for the control action, a guidance controller by referring to the guidance-based path following principle is derived. Then the controller is extended to cope with the airship attitude and velocity by resorting to the backstepping and Lyapunov-based techniques. The designed control system finally possesses a cascaded structure which consists of guidance loop, attitude control loop and velocity control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable, and the sway velocity which cannot be directly controlled is bounded. Simulation results for the airship following typical paths are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. On relations among the entropic chaos degree, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and the Lyapunov exponent

    SciTech Connect

    Kamizawa, T. Hara, T.; Ohya, M.

    2014-03-15

    There exist several criteria to describe the chaotic behaviour of a dynamical system. In this paper, we discuss the relations among three criteria: Entropic Chaos Degree, Kolmogorov-Shinai entropy, and Lyapunov exponent. Moreover, the problems of their computation are discussed.

  8. No ISCOs in Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes by Measuring Lyapunov Exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-01-01

    By computing coordinate time Lyapunov exponent, we prove that for more than four spacetime dimensions (N ≥ 3), there are no Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) in charged Myers Perry blackhole spacetime.Using it, we show that the instability of equatorial circular geodesics, both massive and massless particles for such types of blackhole space-times.

  9. Determination of Limit Cycles Using Both the Slope of Correlation Integral and Dominant Lyapunov Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, Rogelio; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, Javier C.

    2004-02-15

    A method for nonlinear analysis of instabilities in boiling water reactors (BWRs) is presented. Both the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent method and the Slope of the Correlation Integral (SOCI) method are used to analyze the average power reactor monitor (APRM) signals from a BWR. The main advantage of using the two methods in a complementary manner is that doing so results in an enhancement of the capability to analyze noisy systems, such as the APRM signals in a BWR. Previously, such nonlinear analysis had been performed using independently either the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent Method or the SOCI method. These two methods are sensitive to noise in a signal and normally require large amounts of data for a reliable analysis.This proposed system for nonlinear analysis is composed first of a home-developed computer program called 'SLOPE', which is based on the SOCI method. Then, the signal analysis is also performed by the 'LENNS' code, which is used to obtain the dominant Lyapunov exponent. Since only the dominant Lyapunov exponent is computed, there is no need to acquire large amounts of data; thus, computational processing time is greatly reduced, even in the case of noisy data.The system was used to analyze BWR signals containing stationary and nonstationary limit cycles. It was found that this method satisfactorily calculates the limit cycles, extracting useful information from noisy signals.

  10. Characterizing two-timescale nonlinear dynamics using finite-time Lyapunov exponents and subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, K. D.; Topcu, U.; Aykutluğ, E.; Maggia, M.

    2016-07-01

    Finite-time Lyapunov exponents and subspaces are used to define and diagnose boundary-layer type, two-timescale behavior in the tangent linear dynamics and to determine the associated manifold structure in the flow of a finite-dimensional nonlinear autonomous dynamical system. Two-timescale behavior is characterized by a slow-fast splitting of the tangent bundle for a state space region. The slow-fast splitting is defined using finite-time Lyapunov exponents and vectors, guided by the asymptotic theory of partially hyperbolic sets, with important modifications for the finite-time case; for example, finite-time Lyapunov analysis relies more heavily on the Lyapunov vectors due to their relatively fast convergence compared to that of the corresponding exponents. The splitting is used to characterize and locate points approximately on normally hyperbolic center manifolds via tangency conditions for the vector field. Determining manifolds from tangent bundle structure is more generally applicable than approaches, such as the singular perturbation method, that require special normal forms or other a priori knowledge. The use, features, and accuracy of the approach are illustrated via several detailed examples.

  11. Nonlinear stability in reaction-diffusion systems via optimal Lyapunov functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, S.; Mulone, G.; Trovato, M.

    2008-06-01

    We define optimal Lyapunov functions to study nonlinear stability of constant solutions to reaction-diffusion systems. A computable and finite radius of attraction for the initial data is obtained. Applications are given to the well-known Brusselator model and a three-species model for the spatial spread of rabies among foxes.

  12. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    SciTech Connect

    Josiński, Henryk; Świtoński, Adam; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  13. Toward a new task assignment and path evolution (TAPE) for missile defense system (MDS) using intelligent adaptive SOM with recurrent neural networks (RNNs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Hsu; Chen, Chun-Yao; Hung, Kun-Neng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a new adaptive self-organizing map (SOM) with recurrent neural network (RNN) controller is proposed for task assignment and path evolution of missile defense system (MDS). We address the problem of N agents (defending missiles) and D targets (incoming missiles) in MDS. A new RNN controller is designed to force an agent (or defending missile) toward a target (or incoming missile), and a monitoring controller is also designed to reduce the error between RNN controller and ideal controller. A new SOM with RNN controller is then designed to dispatch agents to their corresponding targets by minimizing total damaging cost. This is actually an important application of the multiagent system. The SOM with RNN controller is the main controller. After task assignment, the weighting factors of our new SOM with RNN controller are activated to dispatch the agents toward their corresponding targets. Using the Lyapunov constraints, the weighting factors for the proposed SOM with RNN controller are updated to guarantee the stability of the path evolution (or planning) system. Excellent simulations are obtained using this new approach for MDS, which show that our RNN has the lowest average miss distance among the several techniques.

  14. Computing the optimal path in stochastic dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Bauver, Martha; Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora

    2016-08-01

    In stochastic systems, one is often interested in finding the optimal path that maximizes the probability of escape from a metastable state or of switching between metastable states. Even for simple systems, it may be impossible to find an analytic form of the optimal path, and in high-dimensional systems, this is almost always the case. In this article, we formulate a constructive methodology that is used to compute the optimal path numerically. The method utilizes finite-time Lyapunov exponents, statistical selection criteria, and a Newton-based iterative minimizing scheme. The method is applied to four examples. The first example is a two-dimensional system that describes a single population with internal noise. This model has an analytical solution for the optimal path. The numerical solution found using our computational method agrees well with the analytical result. The second example is a more complicated four-dimensional system where our numerical method must be used to find the optimal path. The third example, although a seemingly simple two-dimensional system, demonstrates the success of our method in finding the optimal path where other numerical methods are known to fail. In the fourth example, the optimal path lies in six-dimensional space and demonstrates the power of our method in computing paths in higher-dimensional spaces.

  15. Computing the optimal path in stochastic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauver, Martha; Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora

    2016-08-01

    In stochastic systems, one is often interested in finding the optimal path that maximizes the probability of escape from a metastable state or of switching between metastable states. Even for simple systems, it may be impossible to find an analytic form of the optimal path, and in high-dimensional systems, this is almost always the case. In this article, we formulate a constructive methodology that is used to compute the optimal path numerically. The method utilizes finite-time Lyapunov exponents, statistical selection criteria, and a Newton-based iterative minimizing scheme. The method is applied to four examples. The first example is a two-dimensional system that describes a single population with internal noise. This model has an analytical solution for the optimal path. The numerical solution found using our computational method agrees well with the analytical result. The second example is a more complicated four-dimensional system where our numerical method must be used to find the optimal path. The third example, although a seemingly simple two-dimensional system, demonstrates the success of our method in finding the optimal path where other numerical methods are known to fail. In the fourth example, the optimal path lies in six-dimensional space and demonstrates the power of our method in computing paths in higher-dimensional spaces.

  16. Computing the optimal path in stochastic dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Bauver, Martha; Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora

    2016-08-01

    In stochastic systems, one is often interested in finding the optimal path that maximizes the probability of escape from a metastable state or of switching between metastable states. Even for simple systems, it may be impossible to find an analytic form of the optimal path, and in high-dimensional systems, this is almost always the case. In this article, we formulate a constructive methodology that is used to compute the optimal path numerically. The method utilizes finite-time Lyapunov exponents, statistical selection criteria, and a Newton-based iterative minimizing scheme. The method is applied to four examples. The first example is a two-dimensional system that describes a single population with internal noise. This model has an analytical solution for the optimal path. The numerical solution found using our computational method agrees well with the analytical result. The second example is a more complicated four-dimensional system where our numerical method must be used to find the optimal path. The third example, although a seemingly simple two-dimensional system, demonstrates the success of our method in finding the optimal path where other numerical methods are known to fail. In the fourth example, the optimal path lies in six-dimensional space and demonstrates the power of our method in computing paths in higher-dimensional spaces. PMID:27586597

  17. Lyapunov Exponents for Branching Processes in a Random Environment: The Effect of Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Latouche, Guy

    2016-04-01

    We consider multitype branching processes evolving in a Markovian random environment. To determine whether or not the branching process becomes extinct almost surely is akin to computing the maximal Lyapunov exponent of a sequence of random matrices, which is a notoriously difficult problem. We define Markov chains associated to the branching process, and we construct bounds for the Lyapunov exponent. The bounds are obtained by adding or by removing information: to add information results in a lower bound, to remove information results in an upper bound, and we show that adding less information improves the lower bound. We give a few illustrative examples and we observe that the upper bound is generally more accurate than the lower bounds.

  18. Dissipative dynamics in a finite chaotic environment: Relationship between damping rate and Lyapunov exponent.

    PubMed

    Xavier, J C; Strunz, W T; Beims, M W

    2015-08-01

    We consider the energy flow between a classical one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a set of N two-dimensional chaotic oscillators, which represents the finite environment. Using linear response theory we obtain an analytical effective equation for the system harmonic oscillator, which includes a frequency dependent dissipation, a shift, and memory effects. The damping rate is expressed in terms of the environment mean Lyapunov exponent. A good agreement is shown by comparing theoretical and numerical results, even for environments with mixed (regular and chaotic) motion. Resonance between system and environment frequencies is shown to be more efficient to generate dissipation than larger mean Lyapunov exponents or a larger number of bath chaotic oscillators.

  19. Construction of the Lyapunov Spectrum in a Chaotic System Displaying Phase Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gentile, Guido; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    We consider a three-dimensional chaotic system consisting of the suspension of Arnold's cat map coupled with a clock via a weak dissipative interaction. We show that the coupled system displays a synchronization phenomenon, in the sense that the relative phase between the suspension flow and the clock locks to a special value, thus making the motion fall onto a lower dimensional attractor. More specifically, we construct the attractive invariant manifold, of dimension smaller than three, using a convergent perturbative expansion. Moreover, we compute via convergent series the Lyapunov exponents, including notably the central one. The result generalizes a previous construction of the attractive invariant manifold in a similar but simpler model. The main novelty of the current construction relies in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum, which consists of non-trivial analytic exponents. Some conjectures about a possible smoothening transition of the attractor as the coupling is increased are also discussed.

  20. Asymptotics of finite system Lyapunov exponents for some random matrix ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.

    2015-05-01

    For products PN of N random matrices of size d× d, there is a natural notion of finite N Lyapunov exponents \\{{{μ }i}\\}i=1d. In the case of standard Gaussian random matrices with real, complex or real quaternion elements, and extended to the general variance case for {{μ }1}, methods known for the computation of \\mathop{lim }\\limitsN\\to ∞ < {{μ }i}> are used to compute the large N form of the variances of the exponents. Analogous calculations are performed in the case that the matrices making up PN are products of sub-blocks of random unitary matrices with Haar measure. Furthermore, we make some remarks relating to the coincidence of the Lyapunov exponents and the stability exponents relating to the eigenvalues of PN.

  1. A Lower Bound on the Lyapunov Exponent for the Generalized Harper's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Liu, Wencai

    2016-05-01

    We obtain a lower bound for the Lyapunov exponent of a family of discrete Schrödinger operators (Hu)_n=u_{n+1}+u_{n-1}+2a_1 cos 2π (θ +nα )u_n+2a_2 cos 4π (θ +nα )u_n , that incorporates both a_1 and a_2, thus going beyond the Herman's bound.

  2. Cycle expansion for the Lyapunov exponent of a product of random matrices.

    PubMed

    Mainieri, Ronnie

    1992-01-01

    Using cycle expansion for the thermodynamic zeta function, a formula is derived for the Lyapunov exponent of a product of random hyperbolic matrices chosen from a discrete set. This allows for an accurate numerical solution of the Ising model in one dimension with quenched disorder. The formula is compared with weak disorder expansions and with the microcanonical approximation and shown to apply to matrices with degenerate eigenvalues.

  3. Stability of synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Kurths, J; Lakshmanan, M

    2009-06-01

    Stability of synchronization in unidirectionally coupled time-delay systems is studied using the Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. We have shown that the same general stability condition is valid for different cases, even for the general situation (but with a constraint) where all the coefficients of the error equation corresponding to the synchronization manifold are time dependent. These analytical results are also confirmed by the numerical simulation of paradigmatic examples.

  4. Quantum control design by Lyapunov trajectory tracking for dipole and polarizability coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, Jean-Michel; Grigoriu, Andreea; Lefter, Cătălin; Turinici, Gabriel

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we analyze the Lyapunov trajectory tracking of the Schrödinger equation for a coupling control operator containing both a linear (dipole) and a quadratic (polarizability) term. We show numerically that the contribution of the quadratic part cannot be exploited by standard trajectory tracking tools and propose two improvements: discontinuous feedback and periodic (time-dependent) feedback. For both cases we present theoretical results and support them by numerical illustrations.

  5. Lyapunov-type inequality for a higher order dynamic equation on time scales.

    PubMed

    Sun, Taixiang; Xi, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a Lyapunov-type inequality for the following dynamic equation [Formula: see text]on some time scale T under the anti-periodic boundary conditions [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], p is the quotient of two odd positive integers and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]. PMID:27652044

  6. Estimation of Instantaneous Complex Dynamics through Lyapunov Exponents: A Study on Heartbeat Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Measures of nonlinearity and complexity, and in particular the study of Lyapunov exponents, have been increasingly used to characterize dynamical properties of a wide range of biological nonlinear systems, including cardiovascular control. In this work, we present a novel methodology able to effectively estimate the Lyapunov spectrum of a series of stochastic events in an instantaneous fashion. The paradigm relies on a novel point-process high-order nonlinear model of the event series dynamics. The long-term information is taken into account by expanding the linear, quadratic, and cubic Wiener-Volterra kernels with the orthonormal Laguerre basis functions. Applications to synthetic data such as the Hénon map and Rössler attractor, as well as two experimental heartbeat interval datasets (i.e., healthy subjects undergoing postural changes and patients with severe cardiac heart failure), focus on estimation and tracking of the Instantaneous Dominant Lyapunov Exponent (IDLE). The novel cardiovascular assessment demonstrates that our method is able to effectively and instantaneously track the nonlinear autonomic control dynamics, allowing for complexity variability estimations. PMID:25170911

  7. Extending the length and time scales of Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vector computations

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Anthony B.; Green, Jason R.

    2013-08-01

    Lyapunov vectors have found growing interest recently due to their ability to characterize systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of orthogonal Gram–Schmidt vectors requires multiplication and QR decomposition of large matrices, which grow as N{sup 2} (with the particle count). This expense has limited such calculations to relatively small systems and short time scales. Here, we detail two implementations of an algorithm for computing Gram–Schmidt vectors. The first is a distributed-memory message-passing method using Scalapack. The second uses the newly-released MAGMA library for GPUs. We compare the performance of both codes for Lennard–Jones fluids from N=100 to 1300 between Intel Nahalem/Infiniband DDR and NVIDIA C2050 architectures. To our best knowledge, these are the largest systems for which the Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vectors have been computed, and the first time their calculation has been GPU-accelerated. We conclude that Lyapunov vector calculations can be significantly extended in length and time by leveraging the power of GPU-accelerated linear algebra.

  8. Characterization of multiscroll attractors using Lyapunov exponents and Lagrangian coherent structures.

    PubMed

    Fazanaro, Filipe I; Soriano, Diogo C; Suyama, Ricardo; Attux, Romis; Madrid, Marconi K; de Oliveira, José Raimundo

    2013-06-01

    The present work aims to apply a recently proposed method for estimating Lyapunov exponents to characterize-with the aid of the metric entropy and the fractal dimension-the degree of information and the topological structure associated with multiscroll attractors. In particular, the employed methodology offers the possibility of obtaining the whole Lyapunov spectrum directly from the state equations without employing any linearization procedure or time series-based analysis. As a main result, the predictability and the complexity associated with the phase trajectory were quantified as the number of scrolls are progressively increased for a particular piecewise linear model. In general, it is shown here that the trajectory tends to increase its complexity and unpredictability following an exponential behaviour with the addition of scrolls towards to an upper bound limit, except for some degenerated situations where a non-uniform grid of scrolls is attained. Moreover, the approach employed here also provides an easy way for estimating the finite time Lyapunov exponents of the dynamics and, consequently, the Lagrangian coherent structures for the vector field. These structures are particularly important to understand the stretching/folding behaviour underlying the chaotic multiscroll structure and can provide a better insight of phase space partition and exploration as new scrolls are progressively added to the attractor.

  9. Experimental realization of a multiscroll chaotic oscillator with optimal maximum Lyapunov exponent.

    PubMed

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; Pano-Azucena, Ana Dalia; Carbajal-Gomez, Victor Hugo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, different kinds of experimental realizations of chaotic oscillators have been already presented in the literature. However, those realizations do not consider the value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, which gives a quantitative measure of the grade of unpredictability of chaotic systems. That way, this paper shows the experimental realization of an optimized multiscroll chaotic oscillator based on saturated function series. First, from the mathematical description having four coefficients (a, b, c, d1 ), an optimization evolutionary algorithm varies them to maximize the value of the positive Lyapunov exponent. Second, a realization of those optimized coefficients using operational amplifiers is given. Herein a, b, c, d1 are implemented with precision potentiometers to tune up to four decimals of the coefficients having the range between 0.0001 and 1.0000. Finally, experimental results of the phase-space portraits for generating from 2 to 10 scrolls are listed to show that their associated value for the optimal maximum Lyapunov exponent increases by increasing the number of scrolls, thus guaranteeing a more complex chaotic behavior.

  10. 14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows:...

  11. 14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows:...

  12. Fast Lyapunov Indicators OFLI and OMEGNO: Their Relationship and Special Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, V. A.; Koksin, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    The orthogonal fast Lyapunov indicator (OFLI) and the modification of the mean exponential growth factor of nearby orbits (MEGNO) proposed recently and called the orthogonal MEGNO indicator (OMEGNO) are compared theoretically and numerically. It is shown that these indicators are expressed in terms of the same base function. Moreover, the OMEGNO, as well as the OFLI, is expressed analytically through the base function. A numerical comparison is performed on examples of studying the dynamics in the planar circular restricted three-body problem. These examples help one to understand the special features in the performance of both indicators.

  13. Interactive computation and rendering of Finite-time Lyapunov Exponent fields.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Samer; Garth, Christoph; Tricoche, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technique that allows for the coupled computation and visualization of salient flow structures at interactive frame rates. Our approach is built upon a hierarchical representation of the Finite-time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field, which is adaptively sampled and rendered to meet the need of the current visual setting. The performance of our method allows the user to explore large and complex data sets across scales and to inspect their features at arbitrary resolution. The paper discusses an efficient implementation of this strategy on graphics hardware and provides results for an analytical flow and several CFD simulation data sets.

  14. Lagrangian coherent structures and the smallest finite-time Lyapunov exponent.

    PubMed

    Haller, George; Sapsis, Themistoklis

    2011-06-01

    We point out that local minimizing curves, or troughs, of the smallest finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field computed over a time interval [t(0), t] and graphed over trajectory positions at time t mark attracting Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) at t. For two-dimensional area-preserving flows, we conclude that computing the largest forward-time FTLE field by itself is sufficient for locating both repelling LCSs at t(0) and attracting LCSs at t. We illustrate our results on analytic examples, as well as on a two-dimensional experimental velocity field measured near a swimming jellyfish.

  15. Taxonomía de asteroides y cometas basada en los espectros de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Motta, V.; Froeschlé, C.

    Estudiaremos dos familias de objetos que sufren encuentros cercanos con planetas, a saber: la familia de cometas de Júpiter (JF) y los asteroides cercanos a la Tierra (NEAs). El movimiento de estos objetos es caótico en una escala de tiempo corta. Más aún, debido a los cambios erráticos en los elementos orbitales, la comparación de los valores actuales da poca información acerca de la posible vinculación dinámica entre los objetos de una misma familia. Calculamos una estimación finita de los Exponentes Característicos de Lyapunov (LCE), los llamamos Indicadores Característicos de Lyapunov (LCI) para ambas familias y analizamos las características del espacio de fase donde tiene lugar el movimiento de estos objetos. Integrando en un período suficientemente largo (e.g. 20000 años), encontramos que el LCI alcanza un valor cuasi-constante. La mayoría de los miembros de ambas familias muestran una concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov (inverso del LCI) de alrededor de 50-100 años (Tancredi, 1995, Astron & Astrop., 299, 288). La concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov es mayor para la familia de Júpiter que para los NEAs. Entre estos últimos, la menor dispersión se da para aquellos que cruzan la órbita de la Tierra. Se demostró que el espectro de los `indicadores locales' (Froeschlé et. al., 1990, Cel. Mec. 56, 307) o ``números de estiramiento'' (Voglis and Contopoulos, 1994, J. Phys. A 26, 4899) (relacionados con el LCI) son invariantes y nos dan una información más completa sobre el comportamiento caótico. Mediante la comparación de espectros discutimos la similitud entre los objetos de una misma familia y analizamos las diferentes posibles rutas al caos. Los espectros se clasifican mediante la comparación de los momentos de las distribuciones de los `números de estiramiento'. Aplicamos un método de agrupamiento jerárquico (Zappala et. al., 1990, Astron. J. 100, 2030) para identificar ``familias'' de espectros (grupos de espectros

  16. The backward phase flow method for the Eulerian finite time Lyapunov exponent computations

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Shingyu

    2013-12-15

    We propose a simple Eulerian approach to compute the moderate to long time flow map for approximating the Lyapunov exponent of a (periodic or aperiodic) dynamical system. The idea is to generalize a recently proposed backward phase flow method which is specially designed for long time level set propagation. Unlike the original phase flow method or the backward phase flow method, which is applicable only to autonomous systems, the current approach can also be applied to any time-dependent (periodic or aperiodic) flow. We will discuss the stability of the proposed method. Numerical examples will be given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  17. Finding common quadratic Lyapunov functions for switched linear systems using particle swarm optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Hurtado, R. H.; Duarte-Mermoud, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    It is undoubtedly important to be able to ensure the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function (CQLF) for a given switched system because this is proof of its asymptotic stability, but equally important is the ability to calculate it in order to obtain more specific information about the behaviour of the switched system under analysis. This article describes the development of a new methodology for calculating a CQLF based on particle swarm optimisation (PSO) once the existence of a CQLF has been assured. Several comparative analyses are presented to show the strengths and advantages of the proposed methodology.

  18. Classification of Bifurcations of Quasi-Periodic Solutions Using Lyapunov Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyama, Kyohei; Komuro, Motomasa; Endo, Tetsuro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    In continuous-time dynamical systems, a periodic orbit becomes a fixed point on a certain Poincaré section. The eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix at this fixed point determine the local stability of the periodic orbit. Analogously, a quasi-periodic orbit (2-torus) becomes an invariant closed curve (ICC) on a Poincaré section. From the Lyapunov exponents of an ICC, we can determine the time average of the exponential divergence rate of the orbit, which corresponds to the eigenvalues of a fixed point. We denote the Lyapunov exponent with the smallest nonzero absolute value as the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent (DLE). A local bifurcation manifests as a crossing or touch of the DLE locus with zero. However, the type of bifurcation cannot be determined from the DLE. To overcome this problem, we define the Dominant Lyapunov Bundle (DLB), which corresponds to the dominant eigenvectors of a fixed point. We prove that the DLB of a 1-torus in a map can be classified into four types: A+ (annulus and orientation preserving), A- (annulus and orientation reversing), M (Möbius band), and F (focus). The DLB of a 2-torus in a flow can be classified into three types: A+ × A+, A- × M (equivalently M × A- and M × M), and F × F. From the results, we conjecture the possible local bifurcations in both cases. For the 1-torus in a map, we conjecture that type A+ and A- DLBs correspond to a saddle-node and period-doubling bifurcations, respectively, whereas a type M DLB denotes a double-covering bifurcation, and type F relates to a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Similarly, for the 2-torus in a flow, we conjecture that type A+ × A+ DLBs correspond to saddle-node bifurcations, type A- × M DLBs to double-covering bifurcations, and type F × F DLBs to the Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. After introducing the mathematical concepts, we provide a DLB-calculating algorithm and illustrate all of the above bifurcations by examples.

  19. Spaces of paths and the path topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    The natural topology on the space of causal paths of a space-time depends on the topology chosen on the space-time itself. Here we consider the effect of using the path topology on space-time instead of the manifold topology, and its consequences for how properties of space-time are reflected in the structure of the space of causal paths.

  20. Path-integrated Lagrangian measures from the velocity gradient tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.; Huhn, F.

    2013-11-01

    Spatial maps of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) have been used extensively to study LCS in two-dimensional dynamical systems, in particular with application to transport in unsteady fluid flows. We use the time-periodic double-gyre model to compare spatial fields of FTLE and the path-integrated Eulerian Okubo-Weiss parameter (OW). Both fields correlate strongly, and by solving the dynamics of the deformation gradient tensor, a theoretical relationship between both magnitudes has been obtained. While for long integration times more and more FTLE ridges appear that do not seem to coincide with the stable manifold, ridges in the field of path-integrated OW represent fewer additional structures.

  1. Lyapunov exponents from CHUA's circuit time series using artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Espinosa, Ismael E.; Fuentes, Alberto M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present the general problem of identifying if a nonlinear dynamic system has a chaotic behavior. If the answer is positive the system will be sensitive to small perturbations in the initial conditions which will imply that there is a chaotic attractor in its state space. A particular problem would be that of identifying a chaotic oscillator. We present an example of three well known different chaotic oscillators where we have knowledge of the equations that govern the dynamical systems and from there we can obtain the corresponding time series. In a similar example we assume that we only know the time series and, finally, in another example we have to take measurements in the Chua's circuit to obtain sample points of the time series. With the knowledge about the time series the phase plane portraits are plotted and from them, by visual inspection, it is concluded whether or not the system is chaotic. This method has the problem of uncertainty and subjectivity and for that reason a different approach is needed. A quantitative approach is the computation of the Lyapunov exponents. We describe several methods for obtaining them and apply a little known method of artificial neural networks to the different examples mentioned above. We end the paper discussing the importance of the Lyapunov exponents in the interpretation of the dynamic behavior of biological neurons and biological neural networks.

  2. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  3. Logarithmic scaling of Lyapunov exponents in disordered chiral two-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoš, P.; Schweitzer, L.

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the scaling behavior of the two smallest Lyapunov exponents for electrons propagating on two-dimensional lattices with energies within a very narrow interval around the chiral critical point at E=0 in the presence of a perpendicular random magnetic flux. By a numerical analysis of the energy and size dependence we confirm that the two smallest Lyapunov exponents are functions of a single parameter. The latter is given by lnL/lnξ(E) , which is the ratio of the logarithm of the system width L to the logarithm of the correlation length ξ(E) . Close to the chiral critical point and energy |E|≪E0 , we find a logarithmically divergent energy dependence lnξ(E)∝|ln(E0/|E|)|1/2 , where E0 is a characteristic energy scale. Our data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction of Fabrizio and Castelliani [Nucl. Phys. B 583, 542 (2000)] and resolve an inconsistency of previous numerical work.

  4. Passivity/Lyapunov based controller design for trajectory tracking of flexible joint manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.; Lanari, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    A passivity and Lyapunov based approach for the control design for the trajectory tracking problem of flexible joint robots is presented. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. Feedforward selection and solution is analyzed for a general model for flexible joints, and for more specific and practical model structures. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller in order to input-output stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Observability conditions for asymptotic stability are stated and verified. In order to accommodate for modeling uncertainties and to allow for the implementation of a simplified feedforward compensation, the stability of the system is analyzed in presence of approximations in the feedforward by using a Lyapunov based robustness analysis. It is shown that under certain conditions, e.g., the desired trajectory is varying slowly enough, stability is maintained for various approximations of a canonical feedforward.

  5. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Altimetry-derived maps of Lyapunov exponents (LEs) provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts. They are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Their calculation however is more complex than standard Eulerian diagnostics, because it requires a Lagrangian algorithms which integrates the velocity field. During the past 20 years, in parallel with the altimeter measurement Level2 (a.k.a [O/I]GDR) to Level3 and Level4 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA, and multiple sensor merged maps) processing, different applications and derivated Level4+ products were developed by AVISO+. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21-year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the Lyapunov products that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015, and some examples of applications.

  6. Evaluation of nonlinear properties of epileptic activity using largest Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Tatiana M.; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Sysoev, Ilya V.

    2016-04-01

    Absence seizures are known to be highly non-linear large amplitude oscillations with a well pronounced main time scale. Whilst the appearance of the main frequency is usually considered as a transition from noisy complex dynamics of baseline EEG to more regular absence activity, the dynamical properties of this type of epileptiformic activity in genetic absence models was not studied precisely. Here, the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from intracranial EEGs of 10 WAG/Rij rats (genetic model of absence epilepsy) was performed. Fragments of 10 seizures and 10 episodes of on-going EEG each of 4 s length were used for each animal, 3 cortical and 2 thalamic channels were analysed. The method adapted for short noisy data was implemented. The positive values of the largest Lyapunov exponent were found as for baseline as for spike wave discharges (SWDs), with values for SWDs being significantly less than for on-going activity. Current findings may indicate that SWD is a chaotic process with a well pronounced main timescale rather than a periodic regime. Also, the absence activity was shown to be less chaotic than the baseline one.

  7. Interaction of Lyapunov vectors in the formulation of the nonlinear extension of the Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    When applied to strongly nonlinear chaotic dynamics the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is prone to divergence due to the difficulty of correctly forecasting the forecast error probability density function. In operational forecasting applications ensemble Kalman filters circumvent this problem with empirical procedures such as covariance inflation. This paper presents an extension of the EKF that includes nonlinear terms in the evolution of the forecast error estimate. This is achieved starting from a particular square-root implementation of the EKF with assimilation confined in the unstable subspace (EKF-AUS), that is, the span of the Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. When the error evolution is nonlinear, the space where it is confined is no more restricted to the unstable and neutral subspace causing filter divergence. The algorithm presented here, denominated EKF-AUS-NL, includes the nonlinear terms in the error dynamics: These result from the nonlinear interaction among the leading Lyapunov vectors and account for all directions where the error growth may take place. Numerical results show that with the nonlinear terms included, filter divergence can be avoided. We test the algorithm on the Lorenz96 model, showing very promising results.

  8. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  9. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  10. Discrete Coherent State Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchioro, Thomas L., II

    1990-01-01

    The quantum theory provides a fundamental understanding of the physical world; however, as the number of degrees of freedom rises, the information required to specify quantum wavefunctions grows geometrically. Because basis set expansions mirror this geometric growth, a strict practical limit on quantum mechanics as a numerical tool arises, specifically, three degrees of freedom or fewer. Recent progress has been made utilizing Feynman's Path Integral formalism to bypass this geometric growth and instead calculate time -dependent correlation functions directly. The solution of the Schrodinger equation is converted into a large dimensional (formally infinite) integration, which can then be attacked with Monte Carlo techniques. To date, work in this area has concentrated on developing sophisticated mathematical algorithms for evaluating the highly oscillatory integrands occurring in Feynman Path Integrals. In an alternative approach, this work demonstrates two formulations of quantum dynamics for which the number of mathematical operations does not scale geometrically. Both methods utilize the Coherent State basis of quantum mechanics. First, a localized coherent state basis set expansion and an approximate short time propagator are developed. Iterations of the short time propagator lead to the full quantum dynamics if the coherent state basis is sufficiently dense along the classical phase space path of the system. Second, the coherent state path integral is examined in detail. For a common class of Hamiltonians, H = p^2/2 + V( x) the path integral is reformulated from a phase space-like expression into one depending on (q,dot q). It is demonstrated that this new path integral expression contains localized damping terms which can serve as a statistical weight for Monte Carlo evaluation of the integral--a process which scales approximately linearly with the number of degrees of freedom. Corrections to the traditional coherent state path integral, inspired by a

  11. Backward and covariant Lyapunov vectors and exponents for hard-disk systems with a steady heat current.

    PubMed

    Truant, Daniel P; Morriss, Gary P

    2014-11-01

    The covariant Lyapunov analysis is generalized to systems attached to deterministic thermal reservoirs that create a heat current across the system and perturb it away from equilibrium. The change in the Lyapunov exponents as a function of heat current is described and explained. Both the nonequilibrium backward and covariant hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes are analyzed and compared. The movement of the converged angle between the hydrodynamic stable and unstable conjugate manifolds with the free flight time of the dynamics is accurately predicted for any nonequilibrium system simply as a function of their exponent. The nonequilibrium positive and negative LP mode frequencies are found to be asymmetrical, causing the negative mode to oscillate between the two functional forms of each mode in the positive conjugate mode pair. This in turn leads to the angular distributions between the conjugate modes to oscillate symmetrically about π/2 at a rate given by the difference between the positive and negative mode frequencies. PMID:25493858

  12. Predictable nonwandering localization of covariant Lyapunov vectors and cluster synchronization in scale-free networks of chaotic maps.

    PubMed

    Kuptsov, Pavel V; Kuptsova, Anna V

    2014-09-01

    Covariant Lyapunov vectors for scale-free networks of Hénon maps are highly localized. We revealed two mechanisms of the localization related to full and phase cluster synchronization of network nodes. In both cases the localization nodes remain unaltered in the course of the dynamics, i.e., the localization is nonwandering. Moreover, this is predictable: The localization nodes are found to have specific dynamical and topological properties and they can be found without computing of the covariant vectors. This is an example of explicit relations between the system topology, its phase-space dynamics, and the associated tangent-space dynamics of covariant Lyapunov vectors. PMID:25314498

  13. Control synthesis for polynomial discrete-time systems under input constraints via delayed-state Lyapunov functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarch, J. L.; Sala, A.; Lauber, J.; Guerra, T. M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a discrete-time control design methodology for input-saturating systems using a Lyapunov function with dependence on present and past states. The approach is used to bypass the usual difficulty with full polynomial Lyapunov functions of expressing the problem in a convex way. Also polynomial controllers are allowed to depend on both present and past states. Furthermore, by considering saturation limits on the control action, the information about the relationship between the present and past states is introduced via Positivstellensatz multipliers. Sum-of-squares techniques and available semi-definite programming (SDP) software are used in order to find the controller.

  14. Refining finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges and the challenges of classifying them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allshouse, Michael R.; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    While more rigorous and sophisticated methods for identifying Lagrangian based coherent structures exist, the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field remains a straightforward and popular method for gaining some insight into transport by complex, time-dependent two-dimensional flows. In light of its enduring appeal, and in support of good practice, we begin by investigating the effects of discretization and noise on two numerical approaches for calculating the FTLE field. A practical method to extract and refine FTLE ridges in two-dimensional flows, which builds on previous methods, is then presented. Seeking to better ascertain the role of a FTLE ridge in flow transport, we adapt an existing classification scheme and provide a thorough treatment of the challenges of classifying the types of deformation represented by a FTLE ridge. As a practical demonstration, the methods are applied to an ocean surface velocity field data set generated by a numerical model.

  15. Fast computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields for unsteady flows.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Steven L; Rowley, Clarence W

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents new efficient methods for computing finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields in unsteady flows. The methods approximate the particle flow map, eliminating redundant particle integrations in neighboring flow map calculations. Two classes of flow map approximations are investigated based on composition of intermediate flow maps; unidirectional approximation constructs a time-T map by composing a number of smaller time-h maps, while bidirectional approximation constructs a flow map by composing both positive- and negative-time maps. The unidirectional method is shown to be fast and accurate, although it is memory intensive. The bidirectional method is also fast and uses significantly less memory; however, it is prone to error which is large in regions where the opposite-time FTLE field is large, rendering it unusable. The algorithms are implemented and compared on three example fluid flows: a double gyre, a low Reynolds number pitching flat plate, and an unsteady ABC flow.

  16. 3D Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents in a left ventricle laboratory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Badas, Maria; Espa, Stefania; Fortini, Stefania; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLEs) are a powerful means to infer characteristic features of the flow that cannot be revealed by other Eulerian criteria. Recently FTLEs are becoming popular also in the medical context, for instance in the analysis of vascular flow measured by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. However, many of the FTLE experimental works are based only on two-dimensional velocity fields, moreover those computed on in-vivo data cannot be obtained under controlled and repeatable conditions. Here we present the 3D FTLE evolution inside a Left Ventricle (LV) laboratory model mimicking physiological human conditions. The investigation of FTLE fields highlights distinctive features of the cardiac flow and gives an insight on the physiological development of the Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) that optimize the LV refill.

  17. Refining finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges and the challenges of classifying them.

    PubMed

    Allshouse, Michael R; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    While more rigorous and sophisticated methods for identifying Lagrangian based coherent structures exist, the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field remains a straightforward and popular method for gaining some insight into transport by complex, time-dependent two-dimensional flows. In light of its enduring appeal, and in support of good practice, we begin by investigating the effects of discretization and noise on two numerical approaches for calculating the FTLE field. A practical method to extract and refine FTLE ridges in two-dimensional flows, which builds on previous methods, is then presented. Seeking to better ascertain the role of a FTLE ridge in flow transport, we adapt an existing classification scheme and provide a thorough treatment of the challenges of classifying the types of deformation represented by a FTLE ridge. As a practical demonstration, the methods are applied to an ocean surface velocity field data set generated by a numerical model.

  18. Volterra-type Lyapunov functions for fractional-order epidemic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-De-León, Cruz

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we prove an elementary lemma which estimates fractional derivatives of Volterra-type Lyapunov functions in the sense Caputo when α ∈ (0, 1) . Moreover, by using this result, we study the uniform asymptotic stability of some Caputo-type epidemic systems with a pair of fractional-order differential equations. These epidemic systems are the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS), Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) models and Ross-Macdonald model for vector-borne diseases. We show that the unique endemic equilibrium is uniformly asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number is greater than one. We illustrate our theoretical results with numerical simulations using the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton scheme implemented in the fde12 Matlab function.

  19. Predictability of epileptic seizures: a comparative study using Lyapunov exponent and entropy based measures.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Shivkumar; Narayanan, K; Prasad, Awadhesh; Spanias, A; Sackellares, J C; Iasemidis, L D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study involving measures from the theory of chaos, namely the short-term largest Lyapunov exponent, Shannon and Kullback-Leibler entropies from information theory, has been carried out in terms of their predictability of temporal lobe epileptic seizures. These three measures are estimated from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings with sub-dural and in-depth electrodes from various brain locations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Techniques from optimization theory are applied to select optimal sets of electrodes whose dynamics is then followed over time. Results from analysis of multiple seizures in two epileptic patients with these measures are presented and compared in terms of their ability to identify pre-ictal dynamical entrainment well ahead of seizure onset time. PMID:12724881

  20. A Model for Diagnosing Breast Cancerous Tissue from Thermal Images Using Active Contour and Lyapunov Exponent

    PubMed Central

    GHAYOUMI ZADEH, Hossein; HADDADNIA, Javad; MONTAZERI, Alimohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The segmentation of cancerous areas in breast images is important for the early detection of disease. Thermal imaging has advantages, such as being non-invasive, non-radiation, passive, quick, painless, inexpensive, and non-contact. Imaging technique is the focus of this research. Methods: The proposed model in this paper is a combination of surf and corners that are very resistant. Obtained features are resistant to changes in rotation and revolution then with the help of active contours, this feature has been used for segmenting cancerous areas. Results: Comparing the obtained results from the proposed method and mammogram show that proposed method is Accurate and appropriate. Benign and malignance of segmented areas are detected by Lyapunov exponent. Values obtained include TP=91.31%, FN=8.69%, FP=7.26%. Conclusion: The proposed method can classify those abnormally segmented areas of the breast, to the Benign and malignant cancer. PMID:27398339

  1. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    SciTech Connect

    Look, Nicole; Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; McDermott, William J.; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.

  2. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, Nicole; Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Kram, Rodger; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.

  3. A method to calculate finite-time Lyapunov exponents for inertial particles in incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaboa-Paz, D.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to improve the calculus of finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) applied to describe the transport of inertial particles in a fluid flow. To this aim, the deformation tensor is modified to take into account that the stretching rate between particles separated by a certain distance is influenced by the initial velocity of the particles. Thus, the inertial FTLEs (iFTLEs) are defined in terms of the maximum stretching between infinitesimally close trajectories that have different initial velocities. The advantages of this improvement, if compared to the standard method (Shadden et al., 2005), are discussed for the double-gyre flow and the meandering jet flow. The new method allows one to identify the initial velocity that inertial particles must have in order to maximize their dispersion.

  4. On the validity of the conjugate pairing rule for Lyapunov exponents

    SciTech Connect

    Bonetto, F.; Cohen, E.G.D.; Pugh, C.

    1998-08-01

    For Hamiltonian systems subject to an external potential which in the presence of a thermostat will reach a nonequilibrium stationary state Dettmann and Morriss proved a strong conjugate pairing rule (SCPR) for pairs of Lyapunov exponents in the case of isokinetic (IK) stationary states which have a given kinetic energy. This SCPR holds for all initial phases of the system, all times t, and all numbers of particles N. This proof was generalized by Wojtkowski and Liverani to include hard interparticle potentials. A geometrical reformulation of those results is presented. The present paper proves numerically, using periodic orbits for the Lorentz gas, that SCPR cannot hold for isoenergetic (IE) stationary states which have a given total internal energy. In that case strong evidence is obtained for CPR to hold for large N and t, where it can be conjectured that the larger N, the smaller t will be. This suffices for statistical mechanics.

  5. A Lyapunov method for stability analysis of piecewise-affine systems over non-invariant domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubagotti, Matteo; Zaccarian, Luca; Bemporad, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses stability of discrete-time piecewise-affine systems, defined on possibly non-invariant domains, taking into account the possible presence of multiple dynamics in each of the polytopic regions of the system. An algorithm based on linear programming is proposed, in order to prove exponential stability of the origin and to find a positively invariant estimate of its region of attraction. The results are based on the definition of a piecewise-affine Lyapunov function, which is in general discontinuous on the boundaries of the regions. The proposed method is proven to lead to feasible solutions in a broader range of cases as compared to a previously proposed approach. Two numerical examples are shown, among which a case where the proposed method is applied to a closed-loop system, to which model predictive control was applied without a-priori guarantee of stability.

  6. Effective Power-Law Dependence of Lyapunov Exponents on the Central Mass in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L alpha m(sup p) between themean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p approximately equals 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local 'stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q approximately equaling 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x(sub 1) family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution of galaxies are discussed.

  7. Dynamical Analysis of Blocking Events: Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations of Covariant Lyapunov Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Sebastian; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet stream to the emergence of so-called blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we will test whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. We examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient ΔT. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blocking events of the channel flow with a Tibaldi-Molteni scheme adapted to the periodic channel. When blocking occurs, the global growth rates of the fastest growing CLVs are significantly higher. Hence against intuition, globally the circulation is more unstable in blocked phases. Such an increase in the finite time Lyapunov exponents with respect to the long term average is attributed to stronger barotropic and baroclinic conversion in the case of high temperature gradients, while for low values of ΔT, the effect is only due to stronger barotropic instability. For the localization of the CLVs, we compare the meridionally averaged variance of the CLVs during blocked and unblocked phases. We find that on average the variance of the CLVs is clustered around the center of blocking. These results show that the blocked flow affects all time scales and processes described by the CLVs.

  8. Dynamical analysis of blocking events: spatial and temporal fluctuations of covariant Lyapunov vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Sebastian; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid-latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet to the emergence of blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we assess whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. As a first step, we examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane 2-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient $\\Delta T$. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blocking events with a Tibaldi-Molteni scheme adapted to the periodic channel. When blocking occurs, the global growth rates of the fastest growing CLVs are significantly higher. Hence, against intuition, the circulation is globally more unstable in blocked phases. Such an increase in the finite time Lyapunov exponents with respect to the long term average is attributed to stronger barotropic and baroclinic conversion in the case of high temperature gradients, while for low values of \\Delta T, the effect is only due to stronger barotropic instability. In order to determine the localization of the CLVs we compare the meridionally averaged variance of the CLVs during blocked and unblocked phases. We find that on average the variance of the CLVs is clustered around the center of blocking. These results show that the blocked flow affects all time scales and processes described by the CLVs.

  9. Effective power-law dependence of Lyapunov exponents on the central mass in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.

    2015-04-01

    Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L ∝ mp between the mean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p ≈ 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local `stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q ≈ 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x1 family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution ofx galaxies are discussed.

  10. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors of a Quasi-geostrophic Baroclinic Model: Analysis of Instabilities and Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Sebastian; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    The classical approach for studying atmospheric variability is based on defining a background state and studying the linear stability of the small fluctuations around such a state. Weakly non-linear theories can be constructed using higher order expansions terms. While these methods have undoubtedly great value for elucidating the relevant physical processes, they are unable to follow the dynamics of a turbulent atmosphere. We provide a first example of extension of the classical stability analysis to a non-linearly evolving quasi-geostrophic flow. The so-called covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) provide a covariant basis describing the directions of exponential expansion and decay of perturbations to the non-linear trajectory of the flow. We use such a formalism to re-examine the basic barotropic and baroclinic processes of the atmosphere with a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel driven by a forced meridional temperature gradient ΔT . We explore three settings of ΔT , representative of relatively weak turbulence, well-developed turbulence, and intermediate conditions. We construct the Lorenz energy cycle for each CLV describing the energy exchanges with the background state. A positive baroclinic conversion rate is a necessary but not sufficient condition of instability. Barotropic instability is present only for few very unstable CLVs for large values of ΔT. Slowly growing and decaying hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes closely mirror the properties of the background flow. Following classical necessary conditions for barotropic/baroclinic instability, we find a clear relationship between the properties of the eddy fluxes of a CLV and its instability. CLVs with positive baroclinic conversion seem to form a set of modes for constructing a reduced model of the atmosphere dynamics.

  11. Chaotic dynamics of Comet 1P/Halley: Lyapunov exponent and survival time expectancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M. A.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Pichardo, B.

    2015-03-01

    The orbital elements of Comet Halley are known to a very high precision, suggesting that the calculation of its future dynamical evolution is straightforward. In this paper we seek to characterize the chaotic nature of the present day orbit of Comet Halley and to quantify the time-scale over which its motion can be predicted confidently. In addition, we attempt to determine the time-scale over which its present day orbit will remain stable. Numerical simulations of the dynamics of test particles in orbits similar to that of Comet Halley are carried out with the MERCURY 6.2 code. On the basis of these we construct survival time maps to assess the absolute stability of Halley's orbit, frequency analysis maps to study the variability of the orbit, and we calculate the Lyapunov exponent for the orbit for variations in initial conditions at the level of the present day uncertainties in our knowledge of its orbital parameters. On the basis of our calculations of the Lyapunov exponent for Comet Halley, the chaotic nature of its motion is demonstrated. The e-folding time-scale for the divergence of initially very similar orbits is approximately 70 yr. The sensitivity of the dynamics on initial conditions is also evident in the self-similarity character of the survival time and frequency analysis maps in the vicinity of Halley's orbit, which indicates that, on average, it is unstable on a time-scale of hundreds of thousands of years. The chaotic nature of Halley's present day orbit implies that a precise determination of its motion, at the level of the present-day observational uncertainty, is difficult to predict on a time-scale of approximately 100 yr. Furthermore, we also find that the ejection of Halley from the Solar system or its collision with another body could occur on a time-scale as short as 10 000 yr.

  12. Graphs and Matroids Weighted in a Bounded Incline Algebra

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied. PMID:25126607

  13. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied. PMID:25126607

  14. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  15. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  16. Approximate Shortest Path Queries Using Voronoi Duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honiden, Shinichi; Houle, Michael E.; Sommer, Christian; Wolff, Martin

    We propose an approximation method to answer point-to-point shortest path queries in undirected edge-weighted graphs, based on random sampling and Voronoi duals. We compute a simplification of the graph by selecting nodes independently at random with probability p. Edges are generated as the Voronoi dual of the original graph, using the selected nodes as Voronoi sites. This overlay graph allows for fast computation of approximate shortest paths for general, undirected graphs. The time-quality tradeoff decision can be made at query time. We provide bounds on the approximation ratio of the path lengths as well as experimental results. The theoretical worst-case approximation ratio is bounded by a logarithmic factor. Experiments show that our approximation method based on Voronoi duals has extremely fast preprocessing time and efficiently computes reasonably short paths.

  17. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include Thyroid problems Cancer Infectious diseases Digestive diseases Certain medicines Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, ...

  19. Lyapunov-based control of limit cycle oscillations in uncertain aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialy, Brendan

    Store-induced limit cycle oscillations (LCO) affect several fighter aircraft and is expected to remain an issue for next generation fighters. LCO arises from the interaction of aerodynamic and structural forces, however the primary contributor to the phenomenon is still unclear. The practical concerns regarding this phenomenon include whether or not ordnance can be safely released and the ability of the aircrew to perform mission-related tasks while in an LCO condition. The focus of this dissertation is the development of control strategies to suppress LCO in aircraft systems. The first contribution of this work (Chapter 2) is the development of a controller consisting of a continuous Robust Integral of the Sign of the Error (RISE) feedback term with a neural network (NN) feedforward term to suppress LCO behavior in an uncertain airfoil system. The second contribution of this work (Chapter 3) is the extension of the development in Chapter 2 to include actuator saturation. Suppression of LCO behavior is achieved through the implementation of an auxiliary error system that features hyperbolic functions and a saturated RISE feedback control structure. Due to the lack of clarity regarding the driving mechanism behind LCO, common practice in literature and in Chapters 2 and 3 is to replicate the symptoms of LCO by including nonlinearities in the wing structure, typically a nonlinear torsional stiffness. To improve the accuracy of the system model a partial differential equation (PDE) model of a flexible wing is derived (see Appendix F) using Hamilton's principle. Chapters 4 and 5 are focused on developing boundary control strategies for regulating the bending and twisting deformations of the derived model. The contribution of Chapter 4 is the construction of a backstepping-based boundary control strategy for a linear PDE model of an aircraft wing. The backstepping-based strategy transforms the original system to a exponentially stable system. A Lyapunov-based stability

  20. Path-tracking control of underactuated ships under tracking error constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Khac Duc

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a constructive design of new controllers that force underactuated ships under constant or slow time-varying sea loads to asymptotically track a parameterized reference path, that guarantees the distance from the ship to the reference path always be within a specified value. The control design is based on a global exponential disturbance observer, a transformation of the ship dynamics to an almost spherical form, an interpretation of the tracking errors in an earth-fixed frame, an introduction of dynamic variables to compensate for relaxation of the reference path generation, p-times differentiable step functions, and backstepping and Lyapunov's direct methods. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated through simulations.

  1. Automated path planning of the Payload Inspection and Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    The Payload Changeout Room Inspection and Processing System (PIPS) is a highly redundant manipulator intended for performing tasks in the crowded and sensitive environment of the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay. Its dexterity will be exploited to maneuver the end effector in a workspace populated with obstacles. A method is described by which the end effector of a highly redundant manipulator is directed toward a target via a Lyapunov stability function. A cost function is constructed which represents the distance from the manipulator links to obstacles. Obstacles are avoided by causing the vector of joint parameters to move orthogonally to the gradient of the workspace cost function. A C language program implements the algorithm to generate a joint history. The resulting motion is graphically displayed using the Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program (IGRIP) produced by Deneb Robotics. The graphical simulation has the potential to be a useful tool in path planning for the PIPS in the Shuttle Payload Bay environment.

  2. Low-thrust Orbit Transfers Using Candidate Lyapunov Functions with a Mechanism for Coasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2004-01-01

    We consider low-thrust orbit transfers around a central body, where specified changes are sought in orbit elements except true anomaly. The desired changes in the remaining five elements can be arbitrarily large. Candidate Lyapunov functions are created based on analytic expressions for maximum rates of change of the orbit elements and the desired changes in the elements. These functions may be thought of as proximity quotients because they provide R measure of the proximity to the target orbit. The direction of thrust needed for steepest descent to the target orbit is also available analytically. The thrust is shutoff if the effectivity of the thrust at the current location on the osculating orbit is below some threshhold value. Thus, the equations of motion can be numerically integrated to obtain quickly and simply a transfer to the target orbit. A series of transfers can be easily computed to assess the trade-off between propellant mass and flight time. Preliminary comparisons to optimal solutions show that the method, while sub-optimal, performs well.

  3. Characteristic distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents for chimera states

    PubMed Central

    Botha, André E.

    2016-01-01

    Our fascination with chimera states stems partially from the somewhat paradoxical, yet fundamental trait of identical, and identically coupled, oscillators to split into spatially separated, coherently and incoherently oscillating groups. While the list of systems for which various types of chimeras have already been detected continues to grow, there is a corresponding increase in the number of mathematical analyses aimed at elucidating the fundamental reasons for this surprising behaviour. Based on the model systems, there are strong indications that chimera states may generally be ubiquitous in naturally occurring systems containing large numbers of coupled oscillators – certain biological systems and high-Tc superconducting materials, for example. In this work we suggest a new way of detecting and characterising chimera states. Specifically, it is shown that the probability densities of finite-time Lyapunov exponents, corresponding to chimera states, have a definite characteristic shape. Such distributions could be used as signatures of chimera states, particularly in systems for which the phases of all the oscillators cannot be measured directly. For such cases, we suggest that chimera states could perhaps be detected by reconstructing the characteristic distribution via standard embedding techniques, thus making it possible to detect chimera states in systems where they could otherwise exist unnoticed. PMID:27374473

  4. Competitive autocatalytic reactions in chaotic flows with diffusion: Prediction using finite-time Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in autocatalytic reactions for time-periodic sine flow computationally using a mapping method with operator splitting. We specifically consider three different autocatalytic reaction schemes: a single autocatalytic reaction, competitive autocatalytic reactions, which can provide insight into problems of chiral symmetry breaking and homochirality, and competitive autocatalytic reactions with recycling. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, species B and C both undergo an autocatalytic reaction with species A such that A +B→2B and A +C→2C. Small amounts of initially spatially localized B and C and a large amount of spatially homogeneous A are advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction completes. The species that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If B and C start in regions with similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. When a recycling reaction is added, the system evolves towards a single species state, with the FTLE often being useful in predicting which species fills the entire domain and which is depleted. The FTLE approach is also demonstrated for competitive autocatalytic reactions in journal bearing flow, an experimentally realizable flow that generates chaotic dynamics.

  5. Integrated computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields during direct numerical simulation of unsteady flows.

    PubMed

    Finn, Justin; Apte, Sourabh V

    2013-03-01

    The computation of Lagrangian coherent structures typically involves post-processing of experimentally or numerically obtained fluid velocity fields to obtain the largest finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. However, this procedure can be tedious for large-scale complex flows of general interest. In this work, an alternative approach involving computation of the FTLE on-the-fly during direct numerical simulation of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is developed. The implementation relies on Lagrangian particle tracking to compose forward time flow maps, and an Eulerian treatment of the backward time flow map [S. Leung, J. Comput. Phys. 230, 3500-3524 (2011)] coupled with a semi-Lagrangian advection scheme. The flow maps are accurately constructed from a sequence of smaller sub-steps stored on disk [S. Brunton and C. Rowley, Chaos 20, 017503 (2010)], resulting in low CPU and memory requirements to compute evolving FTLE fields. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the capability and parallel scalability of the approach for a variety of two and three dimensional flows.

  6. Integrated computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields during direct numerical simulation of unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Justin; Apte, Sourabh V.

    2013-03-01

    The computation of Lagrangian coherent structures typically involves post-processing of experimentally or numerically obtained fluid velocity fields to obtain the largest finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. However, this procedure can be tedious for large-scale complex flows of general interest. In this work, an alternative approach involving computation of the FTLE on-the-fly during direct numerical simulation of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is developed. The implementation relies on Lagrangian particle tracking to compose forward time flow maps, and an Eulerian treatment of the backward time flow map [S. Leung, J. Comput. Phys. 230, 3500-3524 (2011)] coupled with a semi-Lagrangian advection scheme. The flow maps are accurately constructed from a sequence of smaller sub-steps stored on disk [S. Brunton and C. Rowley, Chaos 20, 017503 (2010)], resulting in low CPU and memory requirements to compute evolving FTLE fields. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the capability and parallel scalability of the approach for a variety of two and three dimensional flows.

  7. The Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent Field of N Interacting Vortices in the Zero Viscosity Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Richard; Green, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    We present an analysis of the Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field of interacting vortices in the potential flow limit. This work is based on an inviscid approximation, but develops a useful tool that will aid in the effort of understanding the interactions of vortices and turbulence in viscous fluids. The FTLE field of N interacting vortices is computed numerically in two dimensions in different physical scenarios: i) orbiting one another with no initial velocities, ii) approaching each other given an initial velocity and iii) as periodically produced behind a circular cylinder. For situation ii) we expand on the cases where the approach velocities of the vortices are less than or greater than a critical capture velocity, that is, the velocity necessary to escape a captured orbit between co-rotating vortices. We focus on the evolution and interaction of the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) in these scenarios to determine if there is a way to anticipate the character of vortex interaction by the initial structure of the LCS. Additional remarks will be made on the extrapolation of observations to a large number of interacting vortices (large N). This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0210.

  8. Local finite time Lyapunov exponent, local sampling and probabilistic source and destination regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BozorgMagham, A. E.; Ross, S. D.; Schmale, D. G., III

    2015-05-01

    The time-varying finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) is a powerful Lagrangian concept widely used for describing large-scale flow patterns and transport phenomena. However, field experiments usually have modest scales. Therefore, it is necessary to bridge between the powerful concept of FTLE and (local) field experiments. In this paper a new interpretation of the local FTLE, the time series of a FTLE field at a fixed location, is proposed. This concept can practically assist in field experiments where samples are collected at a fixed location and it is necessary to attribute long distance transport phenomena and location of source points to the characteristic variation of the sampled particles. Also, results of this study have the potential to aid in planning of optimal local sampling of passive particles for maximal diversity monitoring of assemblages of microorganisms. Assuming a deterministic flow field, one can use the proposed theorem to (i) estimate the differential distances between the source (or destination) points of the collected (or released) particles when consecutive sampling (or releasing) is performed at a fixed location, (ii) estimate the local FTLE as a function of known differential distances between the source (or destination) points. In addition to the deterministic flows, the more realistic case of unresolved turbulence and low resolution flow data that yield the probabilistic source (or destination) regions are studied. It is shown that similar to deterministic flows, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) separate probabilistic source (or destination) regions corresponding to consecutive collected (or released) particles.

  9. Lagrangian-based investigation of multiphase flows by finite-time Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jia-Ning; Tseng, Chien-Chou; Wang, Ning-Fei

    2012-06-01

    Multiphase flows are ubiquitous in our daily life and engineering applications. It is important to investigate the flow structures to predict their dynamical behaviors effectively. Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) defined by the ridges of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) is utilized in this study to elucidate the multiphase interactions in gaseous jets injected into water and time-dependent turbulent cavitation under the framework of Navier-Stokes flow computations. For the gaseous jets injected into water, the highlighted phenomena of the jet transportation can be observed by the LCS method, including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack. Besides, the observation of the LCS reveals that the back-attack phenomenon arises from the fact that the injected gas has difficulties to move toward downstream region after the necking/breaking. For the turbulent cavitating flow, the ridge of the FTLE field can form a LCS to capture the front and boundary of the re-entraint jet when the adverse pressure gradient is strong enough. It represents a barrier between particles trapped inside the circulation region and those moving downstream. The results indicate that the FTLE field has the potential to identify the structures of multiphase flows, and the LCS can capture the interface/barrier or the vortex/circulation region.

  10. Lyapunov exponents and adaptive mesh refinement for high-speed flows using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, R. C.; Silva, A. F. C.; Bigarella, E. D. V.; Fazenda, A. L.; Ortega, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes two important improvements to shock-capturing strategies using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme, namely, accurate shock identification via finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) operators and efficient shock treatment through a point-implicit discretization of a PDE-based artificial viscosity technique. The advocated approach is based on the FTLE operator, originally developed in the context of dynamical systems theory to identify certain types of coherent structures in a flow. We propose the application of FTLEs in the detection of shock waves and demonstrate the operator's ability to identify strong and weak shocks equally well. The detection algorithm is coupled with a mesh refinement procedure and applied to transonic and supersonic flows. While the proposed strategy can be used potentially with any numerical method, a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver is used in this study. In this context, two artificial viscosity approaches are employed to regularize the solution near shocks: an element-wise constant viscosity technique and a PDE-based smooth viscosity model. As the latter approach is more sophisticated and preferable for complex problems, a point-implicit discretization in time is proposed to reduce the extra stiffness introduced by the PDE-based technique, making it more competitive in terms of computational cost.

  11. Competitive autocatalytic reactions in chaotic flows with diffusion: prediction using finite-time Lyapunov exponents.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Conor P; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M

    2014-03-01

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in autocatalytic reactions for time-periodic sine flow computationally using a mapping method with operator splitting. We specifically consider three different autocatalytic reaction schemes: a single autocatalytic reaction, competitive autocatalytic reactions, which can provide insight into problems of chiral symmetry breaking and homochirality, and competitive autocatalytic reactions with recycling. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, species B and C both undergo an autocatalytic reaction with species A such that [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small amounts of initially spatially localized B and C and a large amount of spatially homogeneous A are advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction completes. The species that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If B and C start in regions with similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. When a recycling reaction is added, the system evolves towards a single species state, with the FTLE often being useful in predicting which species fills the entire domain and which is depleted. The FTLE approach is also demonstrated for competitive autocatalytic reactions in journal bearing flow, an experimentally realizable flow that generates chaotic dynamics.

  12. Competitive autocatalytic reactions in chaotic flows with diffusion: Prediction using finite-time Lyapunov exponents

    SciTech Connect

    Schlick, Conor P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2014-03-15

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in autocatalytic reactions for time-periodic sine flow computationally using a mapping method with operator splitting. We specifically consider three different autocatalytic reaction schemes: a single autocatalytic reaction, competitive autocatalytic reactions, which can provide insight into problems of chiral symmetry breaking and homochirality, and competitive autocatalytic reactions with recycling. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, species B and C both undergo an autocatalytic reaction with species A such that A+B→2B and A+C→2C. Small amounts of initially spatially localized B and C and a large amount of spatially homogeneous A are advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction completes. The species that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If B and C start in regions with similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. When a recycling reaction is added, the system evolves towards a single species state, with the FTLE often being useful in predicting which species fills the entire domain and which is depleted. The FTLE approach is also demonstrated for competitive autocatalytic reactions in journal bearing flow, an experimentally realizable flow that generates chaotic dynamics.

  13. Local finite-time Lyapunov exponent, local sampling and probabilistic source and destination regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BozorgMagham, A. E.; Ross, S. D.; Schmale, D. G., III

    2015-11-01

    The finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) is a powerful Lagrangian concept widely used for describing large-scale flow patterns and transport phenomena. However, field experiments usually have modest scales. Therefore, it is necessary to bridge the gap between the concept of FTLE and field experiments. In this paper, two independent observations are discussed: (i) approximation of the local FTLE time series at a fixed location as a function of known distances between the destination (or source) points of released (or collected) particles and local velocity, and (ii) estimation of the distances between the destination (or source) points of the released (or collected) particles when consecutive release (or sampling) events are performed at a fixed location. These two observations lay the groundwork for an ansatz methodology that can practically assist in field experiments where consecutive samples are collected at a fixed location, and it is desirable to attribute source locations to the collected particles, and also in planning of optimal local sampling of passive particles for maximal diversity monitoring of atmospheric assemblages of microorganisms. In addition to deterministic flows, the more realistic case of unresolved turbulence and low-resolution flow data that yield probabilistic source (or destination) regions are studied. It is shown that, similar to deterministic flows, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) and local FTLE can describe the separation of probabilistic source (or destination) regions corresponding to consecutively collected (or released) particles.

  14. Characteristic distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents for chimera states.

    PubMed

    Botha, André E

    2016-07-04

    Our fascination with chimera states stems partially from the somewhat paradoxical, yet fundamental trait of identical, and identically coupled, oscillators to split into spatially separated, coherently and incoherently oscillating groups. While the list of systems for which various types of chimeras have already been detected continues to grow, there is a corresponding increase in the number of mathematical analyses aimed at elucidating the fundamental reasons for this surprising behaviour. Based on the model systems, there are strong indications that chimera states may generally be ubiquitous in naturally occurring systems containing large numbers of coupled oscillators - certain biological systems and high-Tc superconducting materials, for example. In this work we suggest a new way of detecting and characterising chimera states. Specifically, it is shown that the probability densities of finite-time Lyapunov exponents, corresponding to chimera states, have a definite characteristic shape. Such distributions could be used as signatures of chimera states, particularly in systems for which the phases of all the oscillators cannot be measured directly. For such cases, we suggest that chimera states could perhaps be detected by reconstructing the characteristic distribution via standard embedding techniques, thus making it possible to detect chimera states in systems where they could otherwise exist unnoticed.

  15. Characteristic distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents for chimera states.

    PubMed

    Botha, André E

    2016-01-01

    Our fascination with chimera states stems partially from the somewhat paradoxical, yet fundamental trait of identical, and identically coupled, oscillators to split into spatially separated, coherently and incoherently oscillating groups. While the list of systems for which various types of chimeras have already been detected continues to grow, there is a corresponding increase in the number of mathematical analyses aimed at elucidating the fundamental reasons for this surprising behaviour. Based on the model systems, there are strong indications that chimera states may generally be ubiquitous in naturally occurring systems containing large numbers of coupled oscillators - certain biological systems and high-Tc superconducting materials, for example. In this work we suggest a new way of detecting and characterising chimera states. Specifically, it is shown that the probability densities of finite-time Lyapunov exponents, corresponding to chimera states, have a definite characteristic shape. Such distributions could be used as signatures of chimera states, particularly in systems for which the phases of all the oscillators cannot be measured directly. For such cases, we suggest that chimera states could perhaps be detected by reconstructing the characteristic distribution via standard embedding techniques, thus making it possible to detect chimera states in systems where they could otherwise exist unnoticed. PMID:27374473

  16. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for classification of ECG signals using Lyapunov exponents.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Decision making was performed in two stages: feature extraction by computation of Lyapunov exponents and classification by the ANFIS trained with the backpropagation gradient descent method in combination with the least squares method. Four types of ECG beats (normal beat, congestive heart failure beat, ventricular tachyarrhythmia beat, and atrial fibrillation beat) obtained from the PhysioBank database were classified by four ANFIS classifiers. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the fifth ANFIS classifier (combining ANFIS) was trained using the outputs of the four ANFIS classifiers as input data. The proposed ANFIS model combined the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy logic qualitative approach. Some conclusions concerning the saliency of features on classification of the ECG signals were obtained through analysis of the ANFIS. The performance of the ANFIS model was evaluated in terms of training performance and classification accuracies and the results confirmed that the proposed ANFIS model has potential in classifying the ECG signals. PMID:19084286

  17. A Lyapunov-Razumikhin approach for stability analysis of logistics networks with time-delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkovskiy, Sergey; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Kosmykov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Logistics network represents a complex system where different elements that are logistic locations interact with each other. This interaction contains delays caused by time needed for delivery of the material. Complexity of the system, time-delays and perturbations in a customer demand may cause unstable behaviour of the network. This leads to the loss of the customers and high inventory costs. Thus the investigation of the network on stability is desired during its design. In this article we consider local input-to-state stability of such logistics networks. Their behaviour is described by a functional differential equation with a constant time-delay. We are looking for verifiable conditions that guarantee stability of the network under consideration. Lyapunov-Razumikhin functions and the local small gain condition are utilised to obtain such conditions. Our stability conditions for the logistics network are based on the information about the interconnection properties between logistic locations and their production rates. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  18. Optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories using Lyapunov-based guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Da-lin; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    For an increasing number of electric propulsion systems used for real missions, it is very important to design optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories for these missions. However, it is particularly challenging to search for optimal low-thrust transfers. This paper describes an efficient optimal guidance scheme for the design of time-optimal and time-fixed fuel-optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories. The time-optimal solution is obtained with Lyapunov-based guidance, in which the artificial neural network (ANN) is adopted to implement control gains steering and the evolutionary algorithm is used as the learning algorithm for ANN. Moreover, the relative efficiency introduced in Q-law is analyzed and a periapis-and-apoapsis-centered burn structure is proposed for solving time-fixed fuel-optimal low-thrust orbit transfer problem. In this guidance scheme, the ANN is adopted to determine the burn structure within each orbital revolution and the optimal low-thrust orbit transfer problem is converted to the parameter optimization problem. This guidance scheme runs without an initial guess and provides closed form solutions. In addition, Earth J2 perturbation and Earth-shadow eclipse effects are considered in this paper. Finally, a comparison with solutions given by the literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    SARAL/AltiKa is able to sample the small mesoscale signal with a noise measurement error never reached in nadir conventional altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa 1-Hz measurement is used in the SSALTO/DUACS system since July 2013 and largely contributes to the quality of the Level4 merged products. These products, are now widely used to define the surface geostrophic currents and beyond that they are used to provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts via the Lyapunov Exponents (LEs). The LEs are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21 year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the LEs that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015.

  20. Multiscale Analysis of Biological Data by Scale-Dependent Lyapunov Exponent

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianbo; Hu, Jing; Tung, Wen-wen; Blasch, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Physiological signals often are highly non-stationary (i.e., mean and variance change with time) and multiscaled (i.e., dependent on the spatial or temporal interval lengths). They may exhibit different behaviors, such as non-linearity, sensitive dependence on small disturbances, long memory, and extreme variations. Such data have been accumulating in all areas of health sciences and rapid analysis can serve quality testing, physician assessment, and patient diagnosis. To support patient care, it is very desirable to characterize the different signal behaviors on a wide range of scales simultaneously. The Scale-Dependent Lyapunov Exponent (SDLE) is capable of such a fundamental task. In particular, SDLE can readily characterize all known types of signal data, including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, random 1/fα processes, stochastic limit cycles, among others. SDLE also has some unique capabilities that are not shared by other methods, such as detecting fractal structures from non-stationary data and detecting intermittent chaos. In this article, we describe SDLE in such a way that it can be readily understood and implemented by non-mathematically oriented researchers, develop a SDLE-based consistent, unifying theory for the multiscale analysis, and demonstrate the power of SDLE on analysis of heart-rate variability (HRV) data to detect congestive heart failure and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to detect seizures. PMID:22291653

  1. Universal Scaling Law for the Largest Lyapunov Exponent in Coupled Map Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiming; Ding, E.-Jiang; Ding, Mingzhou

    1996-03-01

    We consider coupled map lattices of the type xi\\(n+1\\) = \\(1-ɛ\\)f\\(xi\\(n\\)\\)+\\(ɛ/2\\) [ f\\(xi-1\\(n\\)\\)+f\\(xi+1\\(n\\)\\)], where for concreteness we take f\\(x\\) = 1-\\(μ/4\\) \\|1-2x\\|p, with p>1. We show that near ɛ = 0 (no coupling) and μ = 4 the envelope of the largest Lyapunov exponent of the full system obeys the scaling law Λ¯ = Λ0-[aɛ+b\\(4-μ\\)]1/p. We further argue that this law is universal in that it is independent of the details of f\\(x\\) insofar as f\\(x\\) has a single critical point xc in the interval [0,1] and its lowest order power expansion about xc has the form \\|x-xc\\|p. The dependence of Λ¯ on the size of the lattice as well as on the range of the coupling is also discussed.

  2. Presence of nonlinearity in intracranial EEG recordings: detected by Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Chia; Shiau, Deng-Shan; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Sackellares, J. C.

    2007-11-01

    In this communication, we performed nonlinearity analysis in the EEG signals recorded from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The largest Lyapunov exponent (Lmax) and phase randomization surrogate data technique were employed to form the statistical test. EEG recordings were acquired invasively from three patients in six brain regions (left and right temporal depth, sub-temporal and orbitofrontal) with 28-32 depth electrodes placed in depth and subdural of the brain. All three patients in this study have unilateral epileptic focus region on the right hippocampus(RH). Nonlinearity was detected by comparing the Lmax profiles of the EEG recordings to its surrogates. The nonlinearity was seen in all different states of the patient with the highest found in post-ictal state. Further our results for all patients exhibited higher degree of differences, quantified by paired t-test, in Lmax values between original and its surrogate from EEG signals recorded from epileptic focus regions. The results of this study demonstrated the Lmax is capable to capture spatio-temporal dynamics that may not be able to detect by linear measurements in the intracranial EEG recordings.

  3. A perturbation method to the tent map based on Lyapunov exponent and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lv-Chen; Luo, Yu-Ling; Qiu, Sen-Hui; Liu, Jun-Xiu

    2015-10-01

    Perturbation imposed on a chaos system is an effective way to maintain its chaotic features. A novel parameter perturbation method for the tent map based on the Lyapunov exponent is proposed in this paper. The pseudo-random sequence generated by the tent map is sent to another chaos function — the Chebyshev map for the post processing. If the output value of the Chebyshev map falls into a certain range, it will be sent back to replace the parameter of the tent map. As a result, the parameter of the tent map keeps changing dynamically. The statistical analysis and experimental results prove that the disturbed tent map has a highly random distribution and achieves good cryptographic properties of a pseudo-random sequence. As a result, it weakens the phenomenon of strong correlation caused by the finite precision and effectively compensates for the digital chaos system dynamics degradation. Project supported by the Guangxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2014GXNSFBA118271), the Research Project of Guangxi University, China (Grant No. ZD2014022), the Fund from Guangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Multi-source Information Mining & Security, China (Grant No. MIMS14-04), the Fund from the Guangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Wireless Wideband Communication & Signal Processing, China (Grant No. GXKL0614205), the Education Development Foundation and the Doctoral Research Foundation of Guangxi Normal University, the State Scholarship Fund of China Scholarship Council (Grant No. [2014]3012), and the Innovation Project of Guangxi Graduate Education, China (Grant No. YCSZ2015102).

  4. Stochastic gradient processes: A survey of convergence theory using Lyapunov second method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechnyi, A.N.

    1995-09-01

    In the present article, our aim is to provide a comprehensive survey and analysis of the convergence conditions of known gradient type algorithms described by process in terms of the Lyapunov function v(z) = min/y {element_of} Y {parallel} z - y {parallel}{sup 2}, where Y is a closed bounded subset in R{sup l}, i.e., the conditions that ensure the equality P (lim/k{r_arrow}{infinity} min/y{element_of}Y {parallel} z{sup k}-y{parallel}{sup 2} = O) = 1. Alongside qualitative results, the article also focuses on comparison of specific gradient type stochastic algorithms on test examples, practical evaluation of the accuracy of the results, and acceleration of convergence by the averaging operation on the trajectory, which is defined by the recurrence u{sup k+1}=u{sup {center_dot}k} + (z{sup k}-u{sup k})/k, k {ge} 1, u{sup 1} = z{sup 1}.

  5. Characteristic distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents for chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, André E.

    2016-07-01

    Our fascination with chimera states stems partially from the somewhat paradoxical, yet fundamental trait of identical, and identically coupled, oscillators to split into spatially separated, coherently and incoherently oscillating groups. While the list of systems for which various types of chimeras have already been detected continues to grow, there is a corresponding increase in the number of mathematical analyses aimed at elucidating the fundamental reasons for this surprising behaviour. Based on the model systems, there are strong indications that chimera states may generally be ubiquitous in naturally occurring systems containing large numbers of coupled oscillators – certain biological systems and high-Tc superconducting materials, for example. In this work we suggest a new way of detecting and characterising chimera states. Specifically, it is shown that the probability densities of finite-time Lyapunov exponents, corresponding to chimera states, have a definite characteristic shape. Such distributions could be used as signatures of chimera states, particularly in systems for which the phases of all the oscillators cannot be measured directly. For such cases, we suggest that chimera states could perhaps be detected by reconstructing the characteristic distribution via standard embedding techniques, thus making it possible to detect chimera states in systems where they could otherwise exist unnoticed.

  6. Phenomenological study of irregular cellular automata based on Lyapunov exponents and Jacobians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    Originally, cellular automata (CA) have been defined upon regular tessellations of the n-dimensional Euclidean space, while CA on irregular tessellations have received only little attention from the scientific community, notwithstanding serious shortcomings are associated with the former manner of subdividing Rn. In this paper we present a profound phenomenological study of two-state, two-dimensional irregular CA from a dynamical systems viewpoint. We opted to exploit properly defined quantitative measures instead of resorting to qualitative methods for discriminating between behavioral classes. As such, we employ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the divergence rate of close trajectories in phase space, and Jacobians, formulated using Boolean derivatives and expressing the sensitivity of a cellular automaton to its inputs. Both are stated for two-state CA on irregular tessellations, enabling us to characterize these discrete dynamical systems, and advancing us to propose a classification scheme for this CA family. In addition, a relationship between these quantitative measures is established in extension of the insights already developed for the classical CA paradigm. Finally, we discuss the repercussions on the CA dynamics that arise when the geometric variability of the spatial entities is taken into account during the CA simulation.

  7. Stability analysis via the concept of Lyapunov exponents: a case study in optimal controlled biped standing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuming; Wu, Christine Qiong

    2012-12-01

    Balancing control is important for biped standing. In spite of large efforts, it is very difficult to design balancing control strategies satisfying three requirements simultaneously: maintaining postural stability, improving energy efficiency and satisfying the constraints between the biped feet and the ground. In this article, a proportional-derivative (PD) controller is proposed for a standing biped, which is simplified as a two-link inverted pendulum with one additional rigid foot-link. The genetic algorithm (GA) is used to search for the control gain meeting all three requirements. The stability analysis of such a deterministic biped control system is carried out using the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs), based on which, the system stability, where the disturbance comes from the initial states, and the structural stability, where the disturbance comes from the PD gains, are examined quantitively in terms of stability region. This article contributes to the biped balancing control, more significantly, the method shown in the studied case of biped provides a general framework of systematic stability analysis for certain deterministic nonlinear dynamical systems.

  8. Lyapunov exponent and surrogation analysis of patterns of variability: profiles in new walkers with and without down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Beth A; Stergiou, Nick; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we found that preadolescents with Down syndrome (DS) produce higher amounts of variability (Smith et al., 2007) and larger Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values (indicating more instability) during walking than their peers with typical development (TD) (Buzzi & Ulrich, 2004). Here we use nonlinear methods to examine the patterns that characterize gait variability as it emerges, in toddlers with TD and with DS, rather than after years of practice. We calculated Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values to assess stability of leg trajectories. We also tested the use of 3 algorithms for surrogation analysis to investigate mathematical periodicity of toddlers' strides. Results show that toddlers' LyE values were not different between groups or with practice and strides of both groups become more periodic with practice. The underlying control strategies are not different between groups at this point in developmental time, although control strategies do diverge between the groups by preadolescence.

  9. The computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponents on unstructured meshes and for non-Euclidean manifolds.

    PubMed

    Lekien, Francois; Ross, Shane D

    2010-03-01

    We generalize the concepts of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) and Lagrangian coherent structures to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The methods are illustrated for convection cells on cylinders and Mobius strips, as well as for the splitting of the Antarctic polar vortex in the spherical stratosphere and a related point vortex model. We modify the FTLE computational method and accommodate unstructured meshes of triangles and tetrahedra to fit manifolds of arbitrary shape, as well as to facilitate dynamic refinement of the FTLE mesh.

  10. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  11. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  12. Receding horizon control of nonlinear systems: A control Lyapunov function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadbabaie, Ali

    With the advent of faster and cheaper computers, optimization based control methodologies have become a viable candidate for control of nonlinear systems. Over the past twenty years, a group of such control schemes have, been successfully used in the process control industry where the processes are either intrinsically stable or have very large time constants. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework for synthesis of a class of optimization based control schemes, known as receding horizon control techniques for nonlinear systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles. It is well known that unconstrained infinite horizon optimal control may be used to construct a stabilizing controller for a nonlinear system. In this thesis, we show that similar stabilization results may be achieved using unconstrained finite horizon optimal control. The key idea is to approximate the tail of the infinite horizon cost-to-go using, as terminal cost, an appropriate control Lyapunov function (CLF). A CLF can be thought of as generalization of the concept of a Lyapunov function to systems with inputs. Roughly speaking, the terminal CLF should provide an (incremental) upper bound on the cost. In this fashion, important stability characteristics may be retained without the use of terminal constraints such as those employed by a number of other researchers. The absence of constraints allows a significant speedup in computation. Furthermore, it is shown that in order to guarantee stability, it suffices to satisfy an improvement property, thereby, relaxing the requirement, that truly optimal trajectories be found. We provide a complete analysis of the stability and region of attraction/operation properties of receding horizon control strategies that utilize finite horizon approximations in the proposed class. It is shown that the guaranteed region of operation contains that of the CLF controller and may be made as large as desired by increasing the optimization horizon

  13. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  14. A Path to Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

  15. A set oriented definition of finite-time Lyapunov exponents and coherent sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Ross, Shane D.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of phase space transport, which is of interest from both the theoretical and practical point of view, has been investigated extensively using geometric and probabilistic methods. Two important tools to study this problem that have emerged in recent years are finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) and the Perron-Frobenius operator. The FTLE measures the averaged local stretching around reference trajectories. Regions with high stretching are used to identify phase space transport barriers. One probabilistic method is to consider the spectrum of the Perron-Frobenius operator of the flow to identify almost-invariant densities. These almost-invariant densities are used to identify almost invariant sets. In this paper, a set-oriented definition of the FTLE is proposed which is applicable to phase space sets of finite size and reduces to the usual definition of FTLE in the limit of infinitesimal phase space elements. This definition offers a straightforward connection between the evolution of probability densities and finite-time stretching experienced by phase space curves. This definition also addresses some concerns with the standard computation of the FTLE. For the case of autonomous and periodic vector fields we provide a simplified method to calculate the set-oriented FTLE using the Perron-Frobenius operator. Based on the new definition of the FTLE we propose a simple definition of finite-time coherent sets applicable to vector fields of general time-dependence, which are the analogues of almost-invariant sets in autonomous and time-periodic vector fields. The coherent sets we identify will necessarily be separated from one another by ridges of high FTLE, providing a link between the framework of coherent sets and that of codimension one Lagrangian coherent structures. Our identification of coherent sets is applied to three examples.

  16. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent-based analysis for compressible flows.

    PubMed

    González, D R; Speth, R L; Gaitonde, D V; Lewis, M J

    2016-08-01

    The finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) technique has shown substantial success in analyzing incompressible flows by capturing the dynamics of coherent structures. Recent applications include river and ocean flow patterns, respiratory tract dynamics, and bio-inspired propulsors. In the present work, we extend FTLE to the compressible flow regime so that coherent structures, which travel at convective speeds, can be associated with waves traveling at acoustic speeds. This is particularly helpful in the study of jet acoustics. We first show that with a suitable choice of integration time interval, FTLE can extract wave dynamics from the velocity field. The integration time thus acts as a pseudo-filter separating coherent structures from waves. Results are confirmed by examining forward and backward FTLE coefficients for several simple, well-known acoustic fields. Next, we use this analysis to identify events associated with intermittency in jet noise pressure probe data. Although intermittent events are known to be dominant causes of jet noise, their direct source in the turbulent jet flow has remained unexplained. To this end, a Large-Eddy Simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet is subjected to FTLE to simultaneously examine, and thus expose, the causal relationship between coherent structures and the corresponding acoustic waves. Results show that intermittent events are associated with entrainment in the initial roll up region and emissive events downstream of the potential-core collapse. Instantaneous acoustic disturbances are observed to be primarily induced near the collapse of the potential core and continue propagating towards the far-field at the experimentally observed, approximately 30° angle relative to the jet axis.

  17. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent-based analysis for compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D. R.; Speth, R. L.; Gaitonde, D. V.; Lewis, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    The finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) technique has shown substantial success in analyzing incompressible flows by capturing the dynamics of coherent structures. Recent applications include river and ocean flow patterns, respiratory tract dynamics, and bio-inspired propulsors. In the present work, we extend FTLE to the compressible flow regime so that coherent structures, which travel at convective speeds, can be associated with waves traveling at acoustic speeds. This is particularly helpful in the study of jet acoustics. We first show that with a suitable choice of integration time interval, FTLE can extract wave dynamics from the velocity field. The integration time thus acts as a pseudo-filter separating coherent structures from waves. Results are confirmed by examining forward and backward FTLE coefficients for several simple, well-known acoustic fields. Next, we use this analysis to identify events associated with intermittency in jet noise pressure probe data. Although intermittent events are known to be dominant causes of jet noise, their direct source in the turbulent jet flow has remained unexplained. To this end, a Large-Eddy Simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet is subjected to FTLE to simultaneously examine, and thus expose, the causal relationship between coherent structures and the corresponding acoustic waves. Results show that intermittent events are associated with entrainment in the initial roll up region and emissive events downstream of the potential-core collapse. Instantaneous acoustic disturbances are observed to be primarily induced near the collapse of the potential core and continue propagating towards the far-field at the experimentally observed, approximately 30° angle relative to the jet axis.

  18. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent-based analysis for compressible flows.

    PubMed

    González, D R; Speth, R L; Gaitonde, D V; Lewis, M J

    2016-08-01

    The finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) technique has shown substantial success in analyzing incompressible flows by capturing the dynamics of coherent structures. Recent applications include river and ocean flow patterns, respiratory tract dynamics, and bio-inspired propulsors. In the present work, we extend FTLE to the compressible flow regime so that coherent structures, which travel at convective speeds, can be associated with waves traveling at acoustic speeds. This is particularly helpful in the study of jet acoustics. We first show that with a suitable choice of integration time interval, FTLE can extract wave dynamics from the velocity field. The integration time thus acts as a pseudo-filter separating coherent structures from waves. Results are confirmed by examining forward and backward FTLE coefficients for several simple, well-known acoustic fields. Next, we use this analysis to identify events associated with intermittency in jet noise pressure probe data. Although intermittent events are known to be dominant causes of jet noise, their direct source in the turbulent jet flow has remained unexplained. To this end, a Large-Eddy Simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet is subjected to FTLE to simultaneously examine, and thus expose, the causal relationship between coherent structures and the corresponding acoustic waves. Results show that intermittent events are associated with entrainment in the initial roll up region and emissive events downstream of the potential-core collapse. Instantaneous acoustic disturbances are observed to be primarily induced near the collapse of the potential core and continue propagating towards the far-field at the experimentally observed, approximately 30° angle relative to the jet axis. PMID:27586608

  19. Image-Based Visual Servoing for Robotic Systems: A Nonlinear Lyapunov-Based Control Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Warren

    2004-06-01

    There is significant motivation to provide robotic systems with improved autonomy as a means to significantly accelerate deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations while also reducing the associated costs, removing human operators from hazardous environments, and reducing the required burden and skill of human operators. To achieve improved autonomy, this project focused on the basic science challenges leading to the development of visual servo controllers. The challenge in developing these controllers is that a camera provides 2-dimensional image information about the 3-dimensional Euclidean-space through a perspective (range dependent) projection that can be corrupted by uncertainty in the camera calibration matrix and by disturbances such as nonlinear radial distortion. Disturbances in this relationship (i.e., corruption in the sensor information) propagate erroneous information to the feedback controller of the robot, leading to potentially unpredictable task execution. This research project focused on the development of a visual servo control methodology that targets compensating for disturbances in the camera model (i.e., camera calibration and the recovery of range information) as a means to achieve predictable response by the robotic system operating in unstructured environments. The fundamental idea is to use nonlinear Lyapunov-based techniques along with photogrammetry methods to overcome the complex control issues and alleviate many of the restrictive assumptions that impact current robotic applications. The outcome of this control methodology is a plug-and-play visual servoing control module that can be utilized in conjunction with current technology such as feature recognition and extraction to enable robotic systems with the capabilities of increased accuracy, autonomy, and robustness, with a larger field of view (and hence a larger workspace). The developed methodology has been reported in numerous peer-reviewed publications and the

  20. Stability evaluation and improvement of adaptive optics systems by using the Lyapunov stability approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Tao; Liu, Xin-yue; Lin, Xu-dong; Yang, Xiao-xia; Li, Hong-zhuang

    2016-02-01

    In this research, investigations on the closed-loop control stability of adaptive optics systems are conducted by using the Lyapunov approach. As an direct metric of the control stability, the error propagator includes the effects of both the integral gain and the influence matrix and is effective for control-stability evaluation. An experimental 97-element AO system is developed for the control-stability investigation, and the Southwell sensor-actuator configuration rather than the Fried geometry is adopted so as to suppress the potential waffle mode. Because filtering out small singular values of the influence matrix can be used to improve the control stability, the effect of the influence matrix and the effect of the integral gain are considered as a whole by using the error propagator. Then, the control stability of the AO system is evaluated for varying the integral gains and the number of filtered-out singular values. Afterwards, an analysis of the evaluations of the error propagator is made, and a conclusion can be drawn that the control stability can be improved by filtering out more singular values of the influence matrix when the integral gain is high. In other words, the error propagator is useful for trading off the bandwidth error and the fitting error of AO systems in a control-stability approach. Finally, a performance measurement of the experimental AO system is conducted when 13 smaller singular values of the influence matrix are filtered out, and the results show that filtering out a small fraction of the singular values has a minor influence on the performance of this AO system.

  1. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  2. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  3. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  4. Computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponents from time-resolved particle image velocimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raben, Samuel G.; Ross, Shane D.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents two new methods for computing finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) from noisy spatiotemporally resolved experimentally measured image data of the type used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) or particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). These new approaches are based on the simple insight that the particle images recorded during PIV experiments represent Lagrangian flow tracers whose trajectories lend themselves to the direct computation of flow maps, and related quantities such as flow map gradients and FTLEs. We show that using this idea we can improve the reliability and accuracy of FTLE calculation through the use of either direct pathline flow map (PFM) calculation, where individual particle pathlines over a fixed period of time are used to determine the flow map, or particle tracking flow map compilation (FMC), where instantaneous tracking results are used to estimate small snapshots of the flow map which are then compiled to describe the complete flow map. Comparisons of the traditional velocity field integration (VFI) method for computing FTLE fields with these new methods show that FMC produces significantly more accurate estimates of the FTLE field for both synthetic data and experimental data especially in cases where the particle number density is low. This is because the VFI estimates particle motion while PTV directly measures particle motion and therefore generates a more accurate flow map. Overall, our results suggest that VFI is not always a reliable approach when applied to noisy experimental PIV data. For cases where particle loss between frames is minimal, the PFM can also produce better results, but the final field is susceptible to error due to the unstructured nature of the raw flow maps. When comparing the ability to match the true separatrix of a flow, FMC is shown to be a far superior method. The separatrix from FMC has an 80 % overlap with the true solution as compared to approximately 25 % for the PFM and only 1 % for

  5. Counting paths in digraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Blair D; Seymour, Dr. Paul Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Say a digraph is k-free if it has no directed cycles of length at most k, for k {element_of} Z{sup +}. Thomasse conjectured that the number of induced 3-vertex directed paths in a simple 2-free digraph on n vertices is at most (n-1)n(n+1)/15. We present an unpublished result of Bondy proving there are at most 2n{sup 3}/25 such paths, and prove that for the class of circular interval digraphs, an upper bound of n{sup 3}/16 holds. We also study the problem of bounding the number of (non-induced) 4-vertex paths in 3-free digraphs. We show an upper bound of 4n{sup 4}/75 using Bondy's result for Thomasse's conjecture.

  6. Scientific collaboration networks. II. Shortest paths, weighted networks, and centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E.

    2001-07-01

    Using computer databases of scientific papers in physics, biomedical research, and computer science, we have constructed networks of collaboration between scientists in each of these disciplines. In these networks two scientists are considered connected if they have coauthored one or more papers together. Here we study a variety of nonlocal statistics for these networks, such as typical distances between scientists through the network, and measures of centrality such as closeness and betweenness. We further argue that simple networks such as these cannot capture variation in the strength of collaborative ties and propose a measure of collaboration strength based on the number of papers coauthored by pairs of scientists, and the number of other scientists with whom they coauthored those papers.

  7. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  8. Coherence-path duality relations for N paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillery, Mark; Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, Janos; Cottrell, Seth

    2016-05-01

    For an interferometer with two paths, there is a relation between the information about which path the particle took and the visibility of the interference pattern at the output. The more path information we have, the smaller the visibility, and vice versa. We generalize this relation to a multi-path interferometer, and we substitute two recently defined measures of quantum coherence for the visibility, which results in two duality relations. The path information is provided by attaching a detector to each path. In the first relation, which uses an l1 measure of coherence, the path information is obtained by applying the minimum-error state discrimination procedure to the detector states. In the second, which employs an entropic measure of coherence, the path information is the mutual information between the detector states and the result of measuring them. Both approaches are quantitative versions of complementarity for N-path interferometers. Support provided by the John Templeton Foundation.

  9. Barriers in the transition to global chaos in collisionless magnetic reconnection. I. Ridges of the finite time Lyapunov exponent field

    SciTech Connect

    Borgogno, D.; Grasso, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Schep, T. J.

    2011-10-15

    The transitional phase from local to global chaos in the magnetic field of a reconnecting current layer is investigated. Regions where the magnetic field is stochastic exist next to regions where the field is more regular. In regions between stochastic layers and between a stochastic layer and an island structure, the field of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) shows a structure with ridges. These ridges, which are special gradient lines that are transverse to the direction of minimum curvature of this field, are approximate Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) that act as barriers for the transport of field lines.

  10. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents and metabolic control coefficients for threshold detection of stimulus-response curves.

    PubMed

    Duc, Luu Hoang; Chávez, Joseph Páez; Son, Doan Thai; Siegmund, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In biochemical networks transient dynamics plays a fundamental role, since the activation of signalling pathways is determined by thresholds encountered during the transition from an initial state (e.g. an initial concentration of a certain protein) to a steady-state. These thresholds can be defined in terms of the inflection points of the stimulus-response curves associated to the activation processes in the biochemical network. In the present work, we present a rigorous discussion as to the suitability of finite-time Lyapunov exponents and metabolic control coefficients for the detection of inflection points of stimulus-response curves with sigmoidal shape. PMID:27416142

  11. Gas path seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  12. An Unplanned Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  13. Joining consensus of networked multi-agent systems with nonlinear couplings and weighting constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bohui; Wang, Jingcheng; Zhang, Langwen; Ge, Yang

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the joining consensus of networked multi-agent systems subject to nonlinear couplings and weighted directed graphs via pinning control. A weighted-average consensus protocol is proposed to achieve the collective decision by interacting with the local information of some pinned agents. By proposing a novel joining consensus protocol, average consensus and general consensus strategies are joined to achieve an agreement for the weighting networked system. Furthermore, by calculating a proper consensus gain and using finite control Lyapunov controllers, an efficient joining consensus protocol is presented to improve the consensus speed. Sufficient conditions for achieving the consensuses asymptotically are proved. Finally, theoretical results are validated via simulations.

  14. Stability analysis of autonomous space systems in the presence of large disturbances: A Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H

    2016-03-01

    The research addresses a Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy to deal with the autonomous space system in the presence of large disturbances. The aforementioned autonomous space system under control is first represented through a dynamics model and subsequently the proposed control strategy is fully investigated with a focus on the three-axis detumbling and the corresponding pointing mode control approaches. The three-axis detumbling mode control approach is designed to deal with the unwanted angular rates of the system to be zero, while the saturations of the actuators are taken into consideration. Moreover, the three-axis pointing mode control approach is designed in the similar state to deal with the rotational angles of the system to be desirable. The contribution of the research is mathematically made to propose a control law in connection with a new candidate of Lyapunov function to deal with the rotational angles and the related angular rates of the present autonomous space system with respect to state-of-the-art. A series of experiments are carried out to consider the efficiency of the proposed control strategy, as long as a number of benchmarks are realized in the same condition to verify and guarantee the strategy performance in both modes of control approaches. PMID:26850751

  15. Finite time-Lyapunov based approach for robust adaptive control of wind-induced oscillations in power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Large amplitude oscillation of the power transmission lines, which is also known as galloping phenomenon, has hazardous consequences such as short circuiting and failure of transmission line. In this article, to suppress the undesirable vibrations of the transmission lines, first the governing equations of transmission line are derived via mode summation technique. Then, due to the occurrence of large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear quadratic and cubic terms are included in the derived linear equations. To suppress the vibrations, arbitrary number of the piezoelectric actuators is assumed to exert the actuation forces. Afterwards, a Lyapunov based approach is proposed for the robust adaptive suppression of the undesirable vibrations in the finite time. To compensate the supposed parametric uncertainties with unknown bands, proper adaption laws are introduced. To avoid the vibration devastating consequences as quickly as possible, appropriate control laws are designed. The vibration suppression in the finite time with supposed adaption and control laws is mathematically proved via Lyapunov finite time stability theory. Finally, to illustrate and validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed finite time control scheme, a parametric case study with three piezoelectric actuators is performed. It is observed that the proposed active control strategy is more efficient and robust than the passive control methods.

  16. Analysis of a bio-dynamic model via Lyapunov principle and small-world network for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, H-Y; Chung, C-Y; Ou, S-C

    2012-10-01

    The study will apply Lyapunov principle to construct a dynamic model for tuberculosis (TB). The Lyapunov principle is commonly used to examine and determine the stability of a dynamic system. To simulate the transmissions of vector-borne diseases and discuss the related health policies effects on vector-borne diseases, the authors combine the multi-agent-based system, social network and compartmental model to develop an epidemic simulation model. In the identity level, the authors use the multi-agent-based system and the mirror identity concept to describe identities with social network features such as daily visits, long-distance movement, high degree of clustering, low degree of separation and local clustering. The research will analyse the complex dynamic mathematic model of TB epidemic and determine its stability property by using the popular Matlab/Simulink software and relative software packages. Facing the current TB epidemic situation, the development of TB and its developing trend through constructing a dynamic bio-mathematical system model of TB is investigated. After simulating the development of epidemic situation with the solution of the SMIR epidemic model, the authors will come up with a good scheme to control epidemic situation to analyse the parameter values of a model that influence epidemic situation evolved. The authors will try to find the quarantining parameters that are the most important factors to control epidemic situation. The SMIR epidemic model and the results via numerical analysis may offer effective prevention with reference to controlling epidemic situation of TB.

  17. Analysis of a bio-dynamic model via Lyapunov principle and small-world network for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, H-Y; Chung, C-Y; Ou, S-C

    2012-10-01

    The study will apply Lyapunov principle to construct a dynamic model for tuberculosis (TB). The Lyapunov principle is commonly used to examine and determine the stability of a dynamic system. To simulate the transmissions of vector-borne diseases and discuss the related health policies effects on vector-borne diseases, the authors combine the multi-agent-based system, social network and compartmental model to develop an epidemic simulation model. In the identity level, the authors use the multi-agent-based system and the mirror identity concept to describe identities with social network features such as daily visits, long-distance movement, high degree of clustering, low degree of separation and local clustering. The research will analyse the complex dynamic mathematic model of TB epidemic and determine its stability property by using the popular Matlab/Simulink software and relative software packages. Facing the current TB epidemic situation, the development of TB and its developing trend through constructing a dynamic bio-mathematical system model of TB is investigated. After simulating the development of epidemic situation with the solution of the SMIR epidemic model, the authors will come up with a good scheme to control epidemic situation to analyse the parameter values of a model that influence epidemic situation evolved. The authors will try to find the quarantining parameters that are the most important factors to control epidemic situation. The SMIR epidemic model and the results via numerical analysis may offer effective prevention with reference to controlling epidemic situation of TB. PMID:23101874

  18. [Measurement of path transverse wind velocity profile using light forward scattering scintillation correlation method].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ke-E; Lü, Wei-Yu; Zheng, Li-Nan; Hu, Shun-Xing; Huang, Jian; Cao, Kai-Fa; Xu, Zhi-Hai

    2014-07-01

    A new method for path transverse wind velocity survey was introduced by analyzing time lagged covariance function of different separation sub-apertures of Hartmann wavefront sensor. A theoretical formula was logically deduced for the light propagation path transverse wind velocity profile. According to the difference of path weighting function for different sub apertures spacing, how to select reasonable path weighting functions was analyzed. Using a Hartmann wavefront sensor, the experiment for measuring path transverse velocity profile along 1 000 m horizontal propagating path was carried out for the first time to our knowledge. The experiment results were as follows. Path transverse averaged velocity from sensor had a good consistency with transverse velocity from the wind anemometer sited near the path receiving end. As the path was divided into two sections, the path transverse velocity of the first section had also a good consistency with that of the second one. Because of different specific underlaying surface of light path, the former was greater than the later over all experiment period. The averaged values were 1.273 and 0.952 m x s(-1) respectively. The path transverse velocity of second section and path transverse averaged velocity had the same trend of decrease and increase with time. The correlation coefficients reached 0.86.

  19. Teleconnection Paths via Climate Network Direct Link Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong; Gozolchiani, Avi; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-12-31

    Teleconnections describe remote connections (typically thousands of kilometers) of the climate system. These are of great importance in climate dynamics as they reflect the transportation of energy and climate change on global scales (like the El Niño phenomenon). Yet, the path of influence propagation between such remote regions, and weighting associated with different paths, are only partially known. Here we propose a systematic climate network approach to find and quantify the optimal paths between remotely distant interacting locations. Specifically, we separate the correlations between two grid points into direct and indirect components, where the optimal path is found based on a minimal total cost function of the direct links. We demonstrate our method using near surface air temperature reanalysis data, on identifying cross-latitude teleconnections and their corresponding optimal paths. The proposed method may be used to quantify and improve our understanding regarding the emergence of climate patterns on global scales. PMID:26765033

  20. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  1. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  2. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  3. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  4. Estimating the fractal dimension of the atmosphere and the predictability via Lyapunov exponents for the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadee, X. T.

    2007-05-01

    The fractal dimension, Lyapunov-exponent spectrum, and predictability are analyzed for chaotic attractors in the atmosphere by analyzing the time series of daily wind speeds over the Caribbean region. It can be shown that this dimension is greater than 8. However, the number of data points may be too small to obtain a reliable estimate of the Grassberger-Procaccia (1983a) correlation dimension because of the limitations discussed by Ruelle (1990). These results lead us to claim that there probably exist no low-dimensional strange attractors in the atmosphere. Because the fractal dimension has not yet been saturated, the Kolmogorov entropy and the error-doubling time obtained by the method of Grassberger and Procaccia (1983b) are sensitive to the selection of the time delay and are thus unreliable. A practical and more reliable method for estimating the Kolmogorov entropy and error-doubling time involves the computation of the Lyapunov-exponent spectrum using the algorithm of Zeng et al. (1991). Using this method, it is found that the error-doubling time is 2-3 days for time series over the Caribbean region. This is comparable to the predictability time found by Waelbrock (1995) for a single station in Mexico. The predictability time over land is slightly less than that over ocean which tends to have higher climatic signal-to-noise ratio. This analysis impacts on the selection of prediction tools (deterministic chaotic linear and non-linear maps or linear stochastic modeling) for wind speeds in the short term for wind energy farm resource planning and management. We conclude that short term wind predictions in the Caribbean region, for a few days ahead, may be best done with a stochastic model instead of a deterministic chaotic model. References Grassberger, P., and I. Procaccia. 1983a. Measuring the strangeness of attractors. Physica D 9: 189-208. Grassberger, P., and I. Procaccia. 1983b. Estimating the Kolmogorov entropy from a chaotic signal. Phys. Rev. A. 28

  5. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its

  6. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content

  7. Universal conditions for exact path integration in neural systems.

    PubMed

    Issa, John B; Zhang, Kechen

    2012-04-24

    Animals are capable of navigation even in the absence of prominent landmark cues. This behavioral demonstration of path integration is supported by the discovery of place cells and other neurons that show path-invariant response properties even in the dark. That is, under suitable conditions, the activity of these neurons depends primarily on the spatial location of the animal regardless of which trajectory it followed to reach that position. Although many models of path integration have been proposed, no known single theoretical framework can formally accommodate their diverse computational mechanisms. Here we derive a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a general class of systems that performs exact path integration. These conditions include multiplicative modulation by velocity inputs and a path-invariance condition that limits the structure of connections in the underlying neural network. In particular, for a linear system to satisfy the path-invariance condition, the effective synaptic weight matrices under different velocities must commute. Our theory subsumes several existing exact path integration models as special cases. We use entorhinal grid cells as an example to demonstrate that our framework can provide useful guidance for finding unexpected solutions to the path integration problem. This framework may help constrain future experimental and modeling studies pertaining to a broad class of neural integration systems.

  8. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  9. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  10. Multi-objective and reliable control for trajectory-tracking of rendezvous via parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lichao; Meng, Xiuyun; Liu, Zaozhen; Du, Lifu

    2012-12-01

    A reliable, multi-objective and state-feedback controller design algorithm is presented for trajectory-tracking of circular-orbit rendezvous, in which H∞ performance, H2 performance and regional pole placement are taken into account. Given actuator failures and exogenous disturbances, the dynamical model is described as a polytopic system. By applying parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions and introducing slack matrices, the condition for the existence of multi-objective controller is described as a non-convex optimization subject to nonlinear matrix inequality constraints. Then, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain the desired controller. Numerical simulations are given to show that the proposed method can (a) handle actuator failures and exogenous disturbances effectively, and (b) provide better disturbance-attenuation performances than conventional methods.

  11. ON BOUNDARY VALUES IN \\mathscr{L}_p, p>1, OF SOLUTIONS OF ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS IN DOMAINS WITH A LYAPUNOV BOUNDARY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushko, I. M.

    1984-02-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the existence of limits in the \\mathscr{L}_p sense, p>1, on the boundary of a domain, of solutions of second order elliptic equations in domains with Lyapunov boundaries.Bibliography: 8 titles.

  12. Computation of the spectrum of spatial Lyapunov exponents for the spatially extended beam-plasma systems and electron-wave devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Maximenko, Vladimir A.; Moskalenko, Olga I.

    2012-08-15

    The spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is powerful tool for the analysis of the complex system dynamics. In the general framework of nonlinear dynamics, a number of the numerical techniques have been developed to obtain the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for the complex temporal behavior of the systems with a few degree of freedom. Unfortunately, these methods cannot be applied directly to analysis of complex spatio-temporal dynamics of plasma devices which are characterized by the infinite phase space, since they are the spatially extended active media. In the present paper, we propose the method for the calculation of the spectrum of the spatial Lyapunov exponents (SLEs) for the spatially extended beam-plasma systems. The calculation technique is applied to the analysis of chaotic spatio-temporal oscillations in three different beam-plasma model: (1) simple plasma Pierce diode, (2) coupled Pierce diodes, and (3) electron-wave system with backward electromagnetic wave. We find an excellent agreement between the system dynamics and the behavior of the spectrum of the spatial Lyapunov exponents. Along with the proposed method, the possible problems of SLEs calculation are also discussed. It is shown that for the wide class of the spatially extended systems, the set of quantities included in the system state for SLEs calculation can be reduced using the appropriate feature of the plasma systems.

  13. The entire mean weighted first-passage time on a family of weighted treelike networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Sun, Yu; Xi, Lifeng; Shao, Shuxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the entire mean weighted first-passage time (EMWFPT) with random walks on a family of weighted treelike networks. The EMWFPT on weighted networks is proposed for the first time in the literatures. The dominating terms of the EMWFPT obtained by the following two methods are coincident. On the one hand, using the construction algorithm, we calculate the receiving and sending times for the central node to obtain the asymptotic behavior of the EMWFPT. On the other hand, applying the relationship equation between the EMWFPT and the average weighted shortest path, we also obtain the asymptotic behavior of the EMWFPT. The obtained results show that the effective resistance is equal to the weighted shortest path between two nodes. And the dominating term of the EMWFPT scales linearly with network size in large network. PMID:27357233

  14. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  15. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  16. Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, Christian, Steiner, Frank

    The Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals appears just fifty years after Richard Feynman published his pioneering paper in 1948 entitled "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics", in which he introduced his new formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of path integrals. The book presents for the first time a comprehensive table of Feynman path integrals together with an extensive list of references; it will serve the reader as a thorough introduction to the theory of path integrals. As a reference book, it is unique in its scope and will be essential for many physicists, chemists and mathematicians working in different areas of research.

  17. Differential-Evolution Control Parameter Optimization for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Path Planning

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Kai Yit; Rajendran, Parvathy

    2016-01-01

    The differential evolution algorithm has been widely applied on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning. At present, four random tuning parameters exist for differential evolution algorithm, namely, population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. These tuning parameters are required, together with user setting on path and computational cost weightage. However, the optimum settings of these tuning parameters vary according to application. Instead of trial and error, this paper presents an optimization method of differential evolution algorithm for tuning the parameters of UAV path planning. The parameters that this research focuses on are population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. The developed algorithm enables the user to simply define the weightage desired between the path and computational cost to converge with the minimum generation required based on user requirement. In conclusion, the proposed optimization of tuning parameters in differential evolution algorithm for UAV path planning expedites and improves the final output path and computational cost. PMID:26943630

  18. Differential-Evolution Control Parameter Optimization for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Path Planning.

    PubMed

    Kok, Kai Yit; Rajendran, Parvathy

    2016-01-01

    The differential evolution algorithm has been widely applied on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning. At present, four random tuning parameters exist for differential evolution algorithm, namely, population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. These tuning parameters are required, together with user setting on path and computational cost weightage. However, the optimum settings of these tuning parameters vary according to application. Instead of trial and error, this paper presents an optimization method of differential evolution algorithm for tuning the parameters of UAV path planning. The parameters that this research focuses on are population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. The developed algorithm enables the user to simply define the weightage desired between the path and computational cost to converge with the minimum generation required based on user requirement. In conclusion, the proposed optimization of tuning parameters in differential evolution algorithm for UAV path planning expedites and improves the final output path and computational cost.

  19. Differential-Evolution Control Parameter Optimization for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Path Planning.

    PubMed

    Kok, Kai Yit; Rajendran, Parvathy

    2016-01-01

    The differential evolution algorithm has been widely applied on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning. At present, four random tuning parameters exist for differential evolution algorithm, namely, population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. These tuning parameters are required, together with user setting on path and computational cost weightage. However, the optimum settings of these tuning parameters vary according to application. Instead of trial and error, this paper presents an optimization method of differential evolution algorithm for tuning the parameters of UAV path planning. The parameters that this research focuses on are population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. The developed algorithm enables the user to simply define the weightage desired between the path and computational cost to converge with the minimum generation required based on user requirement. In conclusion, the proposed optimization of tuning parameters in differential evolution algorithm for UAV path planning expedites and improves the final output path and computational cost. PMID:26943630

  20. Kinetic paths, time scale, and underlying landscapes: A path integral framework to study global natures of nonequilibrium systems and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkwang

    2010-09-01

    We developed a general framework to quantify three key ingredients for dynamics of nonequilibrium systems through path integrals in length space. First, we identify dominant kinetic paths as the ones with optimal weights, leading to effective reduction of dimensionality or degrees of freedom from exponential to polynomial so large systems can be treated. Second, we uncover the underlying nonequilibrium potential landscapes from the explorations of the state space through kinetic paths. We apply our framework to a specific example of nonequilibrium network system: lambda phage genetic switch. Two distinct basins of attractions emerge. The dominant kinetic paths from one basin to another are irreversible and do not follow the usual steepest descent or gradient path along the landscape. It reflects the fact that the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems is not just determined by potential gradient but also the residual curl flux force, suggesting experiments to test theoretical predictions. Third, we have calculated dynamic transition time scales from one basin to another critical for stability of the system through instantons. Theoretical predictions are in good agreements with wild type and mutant experiments. We further uncover the correlations between the kinetic transition time scales and the underlying landscape topography: the barrier heights along the dominant paths. We found that both the dominant paths and the landscape are relatively robust against the influences of external environmental perturbations and the system tends to dissipate less with less fluctuations. Our general framework can be applied to other nonequilibrium systems.

  1. Kinetic paths, time scale, and underlying landscapes: a path integral framework to study global natures of nonequilibrium systems and networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkwang

    2010-09-28

    We developed a general framework to quantify three key ingredients for dynamics of nonequilibrium systems through path integrals in length space. First, we identify dominant kinetic paths as the ones with optimal weights, leading to effective reduction of dimensionality or degrees of freedom from exponential to polynomial so large systems can be treated. Second, we uncover the underlying nonequilibrium potential landscapes from the explorations of the state space through kinetic paths. We apply our framework to a specific example of nonequilibrium network system: lambda phage genetic switch. Two distinct basins of attractions emerge. The dominant kinetic paths from one basin to another are irreversible and do not follow the usual steepest descent or gradient path along the landscape. It reflects the fact that the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems is not just determined by potential gradient but also the residual curl flux force, suggesting experiments to test theoretical predictions. Third, we have calculated dynamic transition time scales from one basin to another critical for stability of the system through instantons. Theoretical predictions are in good agreements with wild type and mutant experiments. We further uncover the correlations between the kinetic transition time scales and the underlying landscape topography: the barrier heights along the dominant paths. We found that both the dominant paths and the landscape are relatively robust against the influences of external environmental perturbations and the system tends to dissipate less with less fluctuations. Our general framework can be applied to other nonequilibrium systems.

  2. Path planning and Ground Control Station simulator for UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, A.; Balmat, J.; Gauthier, J.-P.; Maillot, T.

    In this paper we present a Universal and Interoperable Ground Control Station (UIGCS) simulator for fixed and rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and all types of payloads. One of the major constraints is to operate and manage multiple legacy and future UAVs, taking into account the compliance with NATO Combined/Joint Services Operational Environment (STANAG 4586). Another purpose of the station is to assign the UAV a certain degree of autonomy, via autonomous planification/replanification strategies. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the non-linear models of the fixed and rotary wing UAVs that we use in the simulator. In Section 3, we describe the simulator architecture, which is based upon interacting modules programmed independently. This simulator is linked with an open source flight simulator, to simulate the video flow and the moving target in 3D. To conclude this part, we tackle briefly the problem of the Matlab/Simulink software connection (used to model the UAV's dynamic) with the simulation of the virtual environment. Section 5 deals with the control module of a flight path of the UAV. The control system is divided into four distinct hierarchical layers: flight path, navigation controller, autopilot and flight control surfaces controller. In the Section 6, we focus on the trajectory planification/replanification question for fixed wing UAV. Indeed, one of the goals of this work is to increase the autonomy of the UAV. We propose two types of algorithms, based upon 1) the methods of the tangent and 2) an original Lyapunov-type method. These algorithms allow either to join a fixed pattern or to track a moving target. Finally, Section 7 presents simulation results obtained on our simulator, concerning a rather complicated scenario of mission.

  3. Optimization of transport protocols with path-length constraints in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasco, José J.; de La Lama, Marta S.; López, Eduardo; Boettcher, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    We propose a protocol optimization technique that is applicable to both weighted and unweighted graphs. Our aim is to explore by how much a small variation around the shortest-path or optimal-path protocols can enhance protocol performance. Such an optimization strategy can be necessary because even though some protocols can achieve very high traffic tolerance levels, this is commonly done by enlarging the path lengths, which may jeopardize scalability. We use ideas borrowed from extremal optimization to guide our algorithm, which proves to be an effective technique. Our method exploits the degeneracy of the paths or their close-weight alternatives, which significantly improves the scalability of the protocols in comparison to shortest-path or optimal-path protocols, keeping at the same time almost intact the length or weight of the paths. This characteristic ensures that the optimized routing protocols are composed of paths that are quick to traverse, avoiding negative effects in data communication due to path-length increases that can become specially relevant when information losses are present.

  4. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  5. Collabortive Authoring of Walden's Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanling; Bogen II, Paul Logasa; Pogue, Daniel; Furuta, Richard Keith; Shipman, Frank Major

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of an authoring tool to allow users to collaboratively build, annotate, manage, share and reuse collections of distributed resources from the World Wide Web. This extends on the Walden’s Path project’s work to help educators bring resources found on the World Wide Web into a linear contextualized structure. The introduction of collaborative authoring feature fosters collaborative learning activities through social interaction among participants, where participants can coauthor paths in groups. Besides, the prototype supports path sharing, branching and reusing; specifically, individual participant can contribute to the group with private collections of knowledge resources; paths completed by group can be shared among group members, such that participants can tailor, extend, reorder and/or replace nodes to have sub versions of shared paths for different information needs.

  6. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.

  7. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  8. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  9. Path matching and graph matching in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingwu; Sze, Sing-Hoi

    2007-01-01

    We develop algorithms for the following path matching and graph matching problems: (i) given a query path p and a graph G, find a path p' that is most similar to p in G; (ii) given a query graph G (0) and a graph G, find a graph G (0)' that is most similar to G (0) in G. In these problems, p and G (0) represent a given substructure of interest to a biologist, and G represents a large network in which the biologist desires to find a related substructure. These algorithms allow the study of common substructures in biological networks in order to understand how these networks evolve both within and between organisms. We reduce the path matching problem to finding a longest weighted path in a directed acyclic graph and show that the problem of finding top k suboptimal paths can be solved in polynomial time. This is in contrast with most previous approaches that used exponential time algorithms to find simple paths which are practical only when the paths are short. We reduce the graph matching problem to finding highest scoring subgraphs in a graph and give an exact algorithm to solve the problem when the query graph G (0) is of moderate size. This eliminates the need for less accurate heuristic or randomized algorithms. We show that our algorithms are able to extract biologically meaningful pathways from protein interaction networks in the DIP database and metabolic networks in the KEGG database. Software programs implementing these techniques (PathMatch and GraphMatch) are available at http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/pathmatch and http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/graphmatch.

  10. An Effective Evolutionary Approach for Bicriteria Shortest Path Routing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Gen, Mitsuo

    Routing problem is one of the important research issues in communication network fields. In this paper, we consider a bicriteria shortest path routing (bSPR) model dedicated to calculating nondominated paths for (1) the minimum total cost and (2) the minimum transmission delay. To solve this bSPR problem, we propose a new multiobjective genetic algorithm (moGA): (1) an efficient chromosome representation using the priority-based encoding method; (2) a new operator of GA parameters auto-tuning, which is adaptively regulation of exploration and exploitation based on the change of the average fitness of parents and offspring which is occurred at each generation; and (3) an interactive adaptive-weight fitness assignment mechanism is implemented that assigns weights to each objective and combines the weighted objectives into a single objective function. Numerical experiments with various scales of network design problems show the effectiveness and the efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  12. Chaotic flow and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent: Competitive autocatalytic reactions in advection-reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in competitive autocatalytic reactions. To study this subject, we use a computationally efficient method for solving advection-reaction-diffusion equations for periodic flows using a mapping method with operator splitting. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, there are two species, B and C, which both react autocatalytically with species A (A +B -->2B and A +C -->2C). If there is initially a small amount of spatially localized B and C and a large amount of A, all three species will be advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that the small scale interactions associated with the chaotic velocity field, specifically the local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs), can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction is complete. The species, B or C, that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If species B and C start in regions having similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. Funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  13. Comparison of SVM and ANFIS for snore related sounds classification by using the largest Lyapunov exponent and entropy.

    PubMed

    Ankışhan, Haydar; Yılmaz, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Snoring, which may be decisive for many diseases, is an important indicator especially for sleep disorders. In recent years, many studies have been performed on the snore related sounds (SRSs) due to producing useful results for detection of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The first important step of these studies is the detection of snore from SRSs by using different time and frequency domain features. The SRSs have a complex nature that is originated from several physiological and physical conditions. The nonlinear characteristics of SRSs can be examined with chaos theory methods which are widely used to evaluate the biomedical signals and systems, recently. The aim of this study is to classify the SRSs as snore/breathing/silence by using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and entropy with multiclass support vector machines (SVMs) and adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Two different experiments were performed for different training and test data sets. Experimental results show that the multiclass SVMs can produce the better classification results than ANFIS with used nonlinear quantities. Additionally, these nonlinear features are carrying meaningful information for classifying SRSs and are able to be used for diagnosis of sleep disorders such as SAHS. PMID:24194786

  14. Comparison of SVM and ANFIS for Snore Related Sounds Classification by Using the Largest Lyapunov Exponent and Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Ankışhan, Haydar; Yılmaz, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Snoring, which may be decisive for many diseases, is an important indicator especially for sleep disorders. In recent years, many studies have been performed on the snore related sounds (SRSs) due to producing useful results for detection of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The first important step of these studies is the detection of snore from SRSs by using different time and frequency domain features. The SRSs have a complex nature that is originated from several physiological and physical conditions. The nonlinear characteristics of SRSs can be examined with chaos theory methods which are widely used to evaluate the biomedical signals and systems, recently. The aim of this study is to classify the SRSs as snore/breathing/silence by using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and entropy with multiclass support vector machines (SVMs) and adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Two different experiments were performed for different training and test data sets. Experimental results show that the multiclass SVMs can produce the better classification results than ANFIS with used nonlinear quantities. Additionally, these nonlinear features are carrying meaningful information for classifying SRSs and are able to be used for diagnosis of sleep disorders such as SAHS. PMID:24194786

  15. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...

  16. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...

  17. Pathways with PathWhiz

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2015-01-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  18. Tapped-Hole Vent Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Long helical vent path cools and releases hot pyrotechnical gas that exits along its spiraling threads. Current design uses 1/4-28 threads with outer diameter of stud reduced by 0.025 in. (0.62 mm). To open or close gassampler bottle, pyrotechnic charges on either one side or other of valve cylinder are actuated. Gases vented slowly over long path are cool enough to present no ignition hazard. Vent used to meter flow in refrigeration, pneumaticcontrol, and fluid-control systems by appropriately adjusting size and length of vent path.

  19. Non-Homogeneous Fractal Hierarchical Weighted Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit. PMID:25849619

  20. Non-homogeneous fractal hierarchical weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit.

  1. Scattering theory with path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfelder, R.

    2014-03-15

    Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  2. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  3. Cartographic modeling of snow avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Bian, Ling; Butler, David R.

    1990-05-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to the study of snow-avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana. Aerial photointerpretation and field surveys confirmed the location of 121 avalanche paths within the selected study area. Spatial and nonspatial information on each path were integrated using the ARC/INFO GIS. Lithologic, structural, hydrographic, topographic, and land-cover impacts on path location were analyzed. All path frequencies within variable classes were normalized by the area of class occurrence relative to the total area of the study area and were added to the morphometric information contained within INFO tables. The normalized values for each GIS coverage were used to cartographically model, by means of composite factor weightings, avalanche path locations.

  4. Cartographic modeling of snow avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Bian, Ling; Butler, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to the study of snow-avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana. Aerial photointerpretation and field surveys confirmed the location of 121 avalanche paths within the selected study area. Spatial and nonspatial information on each path were integrated using the ARC/INFO GIS. Lithologic, structural, hydrographic, topographic, and land-cover impacts on path location were analyzed. All path frequencies within variable classes were normalized by the area of class occurrence relative to the total area of the study area and were added to the morphometric information contained within INFO tables. The normalized values for each GIS coverage were used to cartographically model, by means of composite factor weightings, avalanche path locations.

  5. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  6. Metabolic PathFinding: inferring relevant pathways in biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Croes, Didier; Couche, Fabian; Wodak, Shoshana J; van Helden, Jacques

    2005-07-01

    Our knowledge of metabolism can be represented as a network comprising several thousands of nodes (compounds and reactions). Several groups applied graph theory to analyse the topological properties of this network and to infer metabolic pathways by path finding. This is, however, not straightforward, with a major problem caused by traversing irrelevant shortcuts through highly connected nodes, which correspond to pool metabolites and co-factors (e.g. H2O, NADP and H+). In this study, we present a web server implementing two simple approaches, which circumvent this problem, thereby improving the relevance of the inferred pathways. In the simplest approach, the shortest path is computed, while filtering out the selection of highly connected compounds. In the second approach, the shortest path is computed on the weighted metabolic graph where each compound is assigned a weight equal to its connectivity in the network. This approach significantly increases the accuracy of the inferred pathways, enabling the correct inference of relatively long pathways (e.g. with as many as eight intermediate reactions). Available options include the calculation of the k-shortest paths between two specified seed nodes (either compounds or reactions). Multiple requests can be submitted in a queue. Results are returned by email, in textual as well as graphical formats (available in http://www.scmbb.ulb.ac.be/pathfinding/).

  7. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...

  8. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75753, December 2, 2011. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends from a standing start to a point...

  9. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...

  10. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...

  11. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...

  12. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...

  13. Balanced Paths in Colored Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Alessandro; Faella, Marco; Mogavero, Fabio; Murano, Aniello

    We consider finite graphs whose edges are labeled with elements, called colors, taken from a fixed finite alphabet. We study the problem of determining whether there is an infinite path where either (i) all colors occur with the same asymptotic frequency, or (ii) there is a constant which bounds the difference between the occurrences of any two colors for all prefixes of the path. These two notions can be viewed as refinements of the classical notion of fair path, whose simplest form checks whether all colors occur infinitely often. Our notions provide stronger criteria, particularly suitable for scheduling applications based on a coarse-grained model of the jobs involved. We show that both problems are solvable in polynomial time, by reducing them to the feasibility of a linear program.

  14. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  15. Speckle Imaging Over Horizontal Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2002-05-21

    Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.

  16. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  17. Time domain analysis of the weighted distributed order rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Li, Yan; Li, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the fundamental solution and relevant properties of the weighted distributed order rheological model in the time domain. Based on the construction of distributed order damper and the idea of distributed order element networks, this paper studies the weighted distributed order operator of the rheological model, a generalization of distributed order linear rheological model. The inverse Laplace transform on weighted distributed order operators of rheological model has been obtained by cutting the complex plane and computing the complex path integral along the Hankel path, which leads to the asymptotic property and boundary discussions. The relaxation response to weighted distributed order rheological model is analyzed, and it is closely related to many physical phenomena. A number of novel characteristics of weighted distributed order rheological model, such as power-law decay and intermediate phenomenon, have been discovered as well. And meanwhile several illustrated examples play important role in validating these results.

  18. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  19. Multiscale enhanced path sampling based on the Onsager-Machlup action: application to a model polymer.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Shiga, Motoyuki; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori

    2013-08-01

    We propose a novel path sampling method based on the Onsager-Machlup (OM) action by generalizing the multiscale enhanced sampling technique suggested by Moritsugu and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 224105 (2010)]. The basic idea of this method is that the system we want to study (for example, some molecular system described by molecular mechanics) is coupled to a coarse-grained (CG) system, which can move more quickly and can be computed more efficiently than the original system. We simulate this combined system (original + CG system) using Langevin dynamics where different heat baths are coupled to the two systems. When the coupling is strong enough, the original system is guided by the CG system, and is able to sample the configuration and path space with more efficiency. We need to correct the bias caused by the coupling, however, by employing the Hamiltonian replica exchange, where we prepare many path replicas with different coupling strengths. As a result, an unbiased path ensemble for the original system can be found in the weakest coupling path ensemble. This strategy is easily implemented because a weight for a path calculated by the OM action is formally the same as the Boltzmann weight if we properly define the path "Hamiltonian." We apply this method to a model polymer with Asakura-Oosawa interaction, and compare the results with the conventional transition path sampling method.

  20. Flight-Path Characteristics for Decelerating From Supercircular Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W.

    1961-01-01

    Characteristics of the following six flight paths for decelerating from a supercircular speed are developed in closed form: constant angle of attack, constant net acceleration, constant altitude" constant free-stream Reynolds number, and "modulated roll." The vehicles were required to remain in or near the atmosphere, and to stay within the aerodynamic capabilities of a vehicle with a maximum lift-drag ratio of 1.0 and within a maximum net acceleration G of 10 g's. The local Reynolds number for all the flight paths for a vehicle with a gross weight of 10,000 pounds and a 600 swept wing was found to be about 0.7 x 10(exp 6). With the assumption of a laminar boundary layer, the heating of the vehicle is studied as a function of type of flight path, initial G load, and initial velocity. The following heating parameters were considered: the distribution of the heating rate over the vehicle, the distribution of the heat per square foot over the vehicle, and the total heat input to the vehicle. The constant G load path at limiting G was found to give the lowest total heat input for a given initial velocity. For a vehicle with a maximum lift-drag ratio of 1.0 and a flight path with a maximum G of 10 g's, entry velocities of twice circular appear thermo- dynamically feasible, and entries at velocities of 2.8 times circular are aerodynamically possible. The predominant heating (about 85 percent) occurs at the leading edge of the vehicle. The total ablated weight for a 10,000-pound-gross-weight vehicle decelerating from an initial velocity of twice circular velocity is estimated to be 5 percent of gross weight. Modifying the constant G load flight path by a constant-angle-of-attack segment through a flight- to circular-velocity ratio of 1.0 gives essentially a "point landing" capability but also results in an increased total heat input to the vehicle.

  1. Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require…

  2. Thinking on the Write Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2007-01-01

    The present paper underscores the importance of the cognitive orientation of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in their success in writing courses. A few suggestions are made as to how EFL teachers can put their students on the right cognitive path in their writings.

  3. Career Paths in Environmental Sciences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...

  4. Career Paths of Academic Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi; Gonzales, Mary Jo

    This paper examines various career paths leading to deanship and considers the implications of the findings for women and minorities who aspire to this position. The paper is part of a larger study of academic deanship conducted by the Center for Academic Leadership at Washington State University between October 1996 and January 1997. Data for the…

  5. Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve

    Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…

  6. Phase space trajectories and Lyapunov exponents in the dynamics of an alpha-helical protein lattice with intra- and inter-spine interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Angelin Jeba, K.; Latha, M. M.; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2015-11-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of intra- and inter-spine interaction models of alpha-helical proteins is investigated by proposing a Hamiltonian using the first quantized operators. Hamilton's equations of motion are derived, and the dynamics is studied by constructing the trajectories and phase space plots in both cases. The phase space plots display a chaotic behaviour in the dynamics, which opens questions about the relationship between the chaos and exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions. This is verified by plotting the Lyapunov characteristic exponent curves.

  7. Explicit construction of quadratic Lyapunov functions for the small gain, positivity, circle, and Popov theorems and their application to robust stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Wassim M.; Bernstein, Dennis S.

    1991-01-01

    Lyapunov function proofs of sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability are given for feedback interconnections of bounded real and positive real transfer functions. Two cases are considered: (1) a proper bounded real (resp., positive real) transfer function with a bounded real (resp., positive real) time-varying memoryless nonlinearity; and (2) two strictly proper bounded real (resp., positive real) transfer functions. A similar treatment is given for the circle and Popov theorems. Application of these results to robust stability with time-varying bounded real, positive real, and sector-bounded uncertainty is discussed.

  8. A curve extension design for coordinated path following control of unicycles along given convex loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang-Yang; Tian, Yu-Ping

    2011-10-01

    This article utilises a dynamic model of unicycles to address the convergence of vehicle formation about closed convex curves. A novel curve extension method, extending the target loop along the vector from the loop centre to the point on the loop, is proposed to construct a family of level curves and the existence of a loop function on a tubular-like neighbourhood is proved by referring to the tubular neighbourhood theorem. Path following control is derived based on the loop function which incorporated into the arc-length function to propose the solution to coordinated formation control. We show how backstepping technique, Lyapunov-based theory and graph theory can be combined together to construct the coordinated path following controller under the bidirectional commutation topology. It is proved that the designed cooperative control system is asymptotically stable if the graph is connected. The proposed method is effective for a skewed superellipse, which is a type of curve that includes circles, ellipses and rounded parallelograms.

  9. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  10. Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean Emily

    Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems

  11. Tracing path-guided apparent motion in human primary visual cortex V1.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, Michel; Herzog, Michael H; Öğmen, Haluk

    2014-08-14

    Vision is a constructive process. For example, a square, flashed at two distinct locations one after the other, appears to move smoothly between the two locations rather than as two separate flashes (apparent motion). Apparent motion is usually perceived along the shortest path between locations. Previous studies have shown that retinotopic activity in V1 correlates well with the subjective filling-in in apparent motion. If V1 activity truly reflects illusory motion, it should flexibly reflect filling-in of any path, subjectively perceived. Here, we used a path-guided apparent motion paradigm in which a faint cue, presented in addition to the squares, leads to a curved illusory motion path. We found retinotopic activity in V1 to reflect the illusory filling-in of the curved path, similarly to filling-in with linear, shortest paths. Moreover, our results show that activity along the linear path was less selective to stimulus conditions than the activity along the curved path. This finding may be interpreted as V1 activity representing a small subset of infinitely many possible solutions to ambiguous stimuli, whilst giving more weight to the shortest path/energy solution.

  12. Path querying system on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.

  13. Maneuver control and active vibration suppression of a two-link flexible arm using a hybrid variable structure/Lyapunov control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, E.; Eghtesad, M.; Fazelzadeh, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals with maneuver control and vibration suppression of a two-link flexible arm with embedded smart materials. First, by using extended Hamilton's principle and assumed mode method, equations of motion of the two-link flexible arm with PZT patches as sensor and actuator are obtained. Inspecting the resulting equations reveals that the dynamics of the flexible structure that encompasses the vibrations of the links and their rigid in-plane maneuver takes place in two different time scales. Consistent with this characteristic, a slow subsystem associated with rigid motion dynamics and a fast subsystem associated with link flexible dynamics are identified by using the singular perturbation theory. Then, a hybrid controller is proposed as a combination of two distinct controllers for these subsystems and their stability is studied using the Lyapunov approach. The controller consists of a variable structure control (VSC) for maneuvering control of the slow subsystem and a Lyapunov based controller for vibration suppression of the flexible structure. According to the numerical simulation results it can be concluded that the proposed hybrid controller has a suitable and efficient performance for maneuver control and suppressing the transverse vibrations of the structure.

  14. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  15. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  16. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  17. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  18. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  19. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  20. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  1. Automatic selection of switching paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. A.

    A unique solution is presented to the problem of switching path selection through an analog switch complex. Known as the ROUTER, the software package performs a dynamic allocation of switching paths at the time that an analog signal connection is required. The ROUTER also chooses the type of relay that is appropriate to the signal being transmitted. Different types of switches are furnished for small signal, RF, video, power, or logic signals. Devices using a multiple number of leads, such as synchros or resolvers, are switched as a single unit. The algorithm used by the ROUTER is based on a tree search and connection technique. The interconnections of the hardware switches and devices are described by a connection matrix as a set of data structures. Each node of the switching complex is described in terms of its connectivity and attributes.

  2. Path entanglement of surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakonas, James S.; Mitskovets, Anna; Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-02-01

    Metals can sustain traveling electromagnetic waves at their surfaces supported by the collective oscillations of their free electrons in unison. Remarkably, classical electromagnetism captures the essential physics of these ‘surface plasma’ waves using simple models with only macroscopic features, accounting for microscopic electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions with a single, semi-empirical damping parameter. Nevertheless, in quantum theory these microscopic interactions could be important, as any substantial environmental interactions could decohere quantum superpositions of surface plasmons, the quanta of these waves. Here we report a measurement of path entanglement between surface plasmons with 95% contrast, confirming that a path-entangled state can indeed survive without measurable decoherence. Our measurement suggests that elastic scattering mechanisms of the type that might cause pure dephasing in plasmonic systems must be weak enough not to significantly perturb the state of the metal under the experimental conditions we investigated.

  3. Squeezed states and path integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.

  4. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  5. Path optimization for oil probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, O'Neil; Rahmes, Mark; Blue, Mark; Peter, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    We discuss a robust method for optimal oil probe path planning inspired by medical imaging. Horizontal wells require three-dimensional steering made possible by the rotary steerable capabilities of the system, which allows the hole to intersect multiple target shale gas zones. Horizontal "legs" can be over a mile long; the longer the exposure length, the more oil and natural gas is drained and the faster it can flow. More oil and natural gas can be produced with fewer wells and less surface disturbance. Horizontal drilling can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas. Drilling creates well paths which have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location. Our algorithm can be used to augment current state of the art methods. Our goal is to obtain a 3D path with nodes describing the optimal route to the destination. This algorithm works with BIG data and saves cost in planning for probe insertion. Our solution may be able to help increase the energy extracted vs. input energy.

  6. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  7. Copper foil provides uniform heat sink path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, I. E., Jr.; Schreihans, F. A.

    1966-01-01

    Thermal path prevents voids and discontinuities which make heat sinks in electronic equipment inefficient. The thermal path combines the high thermal conductivity of copper with the resiliency of silicone rubber.

  8. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  9. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  10. Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Hooks, E.D.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1999-06-01

    The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

  11. Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  12. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  13. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice.

  14. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice. PMID:25555021

  15. Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…

  16. Performance Analysis of Path Planning Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhirui; Li, Shuanghong; Zhang, Ying; Du, Qiaoling

    Ant colony system (ACS) algorithm was applied to the path planning for the robot. In the same working environment, path planning based on MAKLINK graph theory and Voronoi diagram were simulated and compared. MAKLINK graph theory is appropriate to apply to precise searching in small-scale district, and Voronoi diagram is suitable for fast path planning in a large area.

  17. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  18. Characterizing the Evolutionary Path(s) to Early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.; Ackermann, Rebecca R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change. PMID:25470780

  19. Relations between Coherence and Path Information.

    PubMed

    Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, János A; Cottrell, Seth S; Hillery, Mark

    2016-04-22

    We find two relations between coherence and path information in a multipath interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined l_{1} measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy.

  20. Link prediction based on path entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongqi; Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, first we study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. After that, we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream of link predictors.

  1. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  2. Evaluation of guidewire path reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Noël, Peter B; Ionita, Ciprian N; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2008-05-01

    The number of minimally invasive vascular interventions is increasing. In these interventions, a variety of devices are directed to and placed at the site of intervention. The device used in almost all of these interventions is the guidewire, acting as a monorail for all devices which are delivered to the intervention site. However, even with the guidewire in place, clinicians still experience difficulties during the interventions. As a first step toward understanding these difficulties and facilitating guidewire and device guidance, we have investigated the reproducibility of the final paths of the guidewire in vessel phantom models on different factors: user, materials and geometry. Three vessel phantoms (vessel diameters approximately 4 mm) were constructed having tortuousity similar to the internal carotid artery from silicon tubing and encased in Sylgard elastomer. Several trained users repeatedly passed two guidewires of different flexibility through the phantoms under pulsatile flow conditions. After the guidewire had been placed, rotational c-arm image sequences were acquired (9 in. II mode, 0.185 mm pixel size), and the phantom and guidewire were reconstructed (512(3), 0.288 mm voxel size). The reconstructed volumes were aligned. The centerlines of the guidewire and the phantom vessel were then determined using region-growing techniques. Guidewire paths appear similar across users but not across materials. The average root mean square difference of the repeated placement was 0.17 +/- 0.02 mm (plastic-coated guidewire), 0.73 +/- 0.55 mm (steel guidewire) and 1.15 +/- 0.65 mm (steel versus plastic-coated). For a given guidewire, these results indicate that the guidewire path is relatively reproducible in shape and position.

  3. The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site. PMID:25368440

  4. MPWide: Light-weight communication library for distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Derek; Rieder, Steven; Grosso, Paola; de Laat, Cees; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2012-12-01

    MPWide is a light-weight communication library for distributed computing. It is specifically developed to allow message passing over long-distance networks using path-specific optimizations. An early version of MPWide was used in the Gravitational Billion Body Project to allow simulations across multiple supercomputers.

  5. Betweenness centrality in a weighted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijuan; Hernandez, Javier Martin; van Mieghem, Piet

    2008-04-01

    When transport in networks follows the shortest paths, the union of all shortest path trees G∪SPT can be regarded as the “transport overlay network.” Overlay networks such as peer-to-peer networks or virtual private networks can be considered as a subgraph of G∪SPT . The traffic through the network is examined by the betweenness Bl of links in the overlay G∪SPT . The strength of disorder can be controlled by, e.g., tuning the extreme value index α of the independent and identically distributed polynomial link weights. In the strong disorder limit (α→0) , all transport flows over a critical backbone, the minimum spanning tree (MST). We investigate the betweenness distributions of wide classes of trees, such as the MST of those well-known network models and of various real-world complex networks. All these trees with different degree distributions (e.g., uniform, exponential, or power law) are found to possess a power law betweenness distribution Pr[Bl=j]˜j-c . The exponent c seems to be positively correlated with the degree variance of the tree and to be insensitive of the size N of a network. In the weak disorder regime, transport in the network traverses many links. We show that a link with smaller link weight tends to carry more traffic. This negative correlation between link weight and betweenness depends on α and the structure of the underlying topology.

  6. Communication path for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  7. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  8. Gibbs Ensembles of Nonintersecting Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Shlosman, Senya

    2010-01-01

    We consider a family of determinantal random point processes on the two-dimensional lattice and prove that members of our family can be interpreted as a kind of Gibbs ensembles of nonintersecting paths. Examples include probability measures on lozenge and domino tilings of the plane, some of which are non-translation-invariant. The correlation kernels of our processes can be viewed as extensions of the discrete sine kernel, and we show that the Gibbs property is a consequence of simple linear relations satisfied by these kernels. The processes depend on infinitely many parameters, which are closely related to parametrization of totally positive Toeplitz matrices.

  9. Path integration: effect of curved path complexity and sensory system on blindfolded walking.

    PubMed

    Koutakis, Panagiotis; Mukherjee, Mukul; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Blanke, Daniel J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Path integration refers to the ability to integrate continuous information of the direction and distance traveled by the system relative to the origin. Previous studies have investigated path integration through blindfolded walking along simple paths such as straight line and triangles. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of path complexity in path integration. Moreover, little is known about how information from different sensory input systems (like vision and proprioception) contributes to accurate path integration. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how sensory information and curved path complexity affect path integration. Forty blindfolded participants had to accurately reproduce a curved path and return to the origin. They were divided into four groups that differed in the curved path, circle (simple) or figure-eight (complex), and received either visual (previously seen) or proprioceptive (previously guided) information about the path before they reproduced it. The dependent variables used were average trajectory error, walking speed, and distance traveled. The results indicated that (a) both groups that walked on a circular path and both groups that received visual information produced greater accuracy in reproducing the path. Moreover, the performance of the group that received proprioceptive information and later walked on a figure-eight path was less accurate than their corresponding circular group. The groups that had the visual information also walked faster compared to the group that had proprioceptive information. Results of the current study highlight the roles of different sensory inputs while performing blindfolded walking for path integration.

  10. Path Integration: Effect of Curved Path Complexity and Sensory System on Blindfolded Walking

    PubMed Central

    Koutakis, Panagiotis; Mukherjee, Mukul; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Blanke, Daniel J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Path integration refers to the ability to integrate continuous information of the direction and distance travelled by the system relative to the origin. Previous studies have investigated path integration through blindfolded walking along simple paths such as straight line and triangles. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of path complexity in path integration. Moreover, little is known about how information from different sensory input systems (like vision and proprioception) contributes to accurate path integration. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how sensory information and curved path complexity affect path integration. Forty blindfolded participants had to accurately reproduce a curved path and return to the origin. They were divided into four groups that differed in the curved path, circle (simple) or figure-eight (complex), and received either visual (previously seen) or proprioceptive (previously guided) information about the path before they reproduced it. The dependent variables used were average trajectory error, walking speed, and distance travelled. The results indicated that (a) both groups that walked on a circular path and both groups that received visual information produced greater accuracy in reproducing the path. Moreover, the performance of the group that received proprioceptive information and later walked on a figure-eight path was less accurate than their corresponding circular group. The groups that had the visual information also walked faster compared to the group that had proprioceptive information. Results of the current study highlight the roles of different sensory inputs while performing blindfolded walking for path integration. PMID:22840893

  11. Improving the convergence of closed and open path integral molecular dynamics via higher order Trotter factorization schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Alejandro; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2011-08-01

    Higher order factorization schemes are developed for path integral molecular dynamics in order to improve the convergence of estimators for physical observables as a function of the Trotter number. The methods are based on the Takahashi-Imada and Susuki decompositions of the Boltzmann operator. The methods introduced improve the averages of the estimators by using the classical forces needed to carry out the dynamics to construct a posteriori weighting factors for standard path integral molecular dynamics. The new approaches are straightforward to implement in existing path integral codes and carry no significant overhead. The Suzuki higher order factorization was also used to improve the end-to-end distance estimator in open path integral molecular dynamics. The new schemes are tested in various model systems, including an ab initio path integral molecular dynamics calculation on the hydrogen molecule and a quantum water model. The proposed algorithms have potential utility for reducing the cost of path integral molecular dynamics calculations of bulk systems.

  12. Statistical and dynamical properties of covariant lyapunov vectors in a coupled atmosphere-ocean model—multiscale effects, geometric degeneracy, and error dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannitsem, Stéphane; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    We study a simplified coupled atmosphere-ocean model using the formalism of covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), which link physically-based directions of perturbations to growth/decay rates. The model is obtained via a severe truncation of quasi-geostrophic equations for the two fluids, and includes a simple yet physically meaningful representation of their dynamical/thermodynamical coupling. The model has 36 degrees of freedom, and the parameters are chosen so that a chaotic behaviour is observed. There are two positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs), sixteen negative LEs, and eighteen near-zero LEs. The presence of many near-zero LEs results from the vast time-scale separation between the characteristic time scales of the two fluids, and leads to nontrivial error growth properties in the tangent space spanned by the corresponding CLVs, which are geometrically very degenerate. Such CLVs correspond to two different classes of ocean/atmosphere coupled modes. The tangent space spanned by the CLVs corresponding to the positive and negative LEs has, instead, a non-pathological behaviour, and one can construct robust large deviations laws for the finite time LEs, thus providing a universal model for assessing predictability on long to ultra-long scales along such directions. Interestingly, the tangent space of the unstable manifold has substantial projection on both atmospheric and oceanic components. The results show the difficulties in using hyperbolicity as a conceptual framework for multiscale chaotic dynamical systems, whereas the framework of partial hyperbolicity seems better suited, possibly indicating an alternative definition for the chaotic hypothesis. They also suggest the need for an accurate analysis of error dynamics on different time scales and domains and for a careful set-up of assimilation schemes when looking at coupled atmosphere-ocean models.

  13. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  14. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  15. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  16. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  17. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  18. Integrated assignment and path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  19. Weighting schemes in metabolic graphs for identifying biochemical routes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Baloni, P; Vishveshwara, S; Chandra, N

    2014-03-01

    Metabolism forms an integral part of all cells and its study is important to understand the functioning of the system, to understand alterations that occur in disease state and hence for subsequent applications in drug discovery. Reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic graphs from genomics and other molecular or biochemical data is now feasible. Few methods have also been reported for inferring biochemical pathways from these networks. However, given the large scale and complex inter-connections in the networks, the problem of identifying biochemical routes is not trivial and some questions still remain open. In particular, how a given path is altered in perturbed conditions remains a difficult problem, warranting development of improved methods. Here we report a comparison of 6 different weighting schemes to derive node and edge weights for a metabolic graph, weights reflecting various kinetic, thermodynamic parameters as well as abundances inferred from transcriptome data. Using a network of 50 nodes and 107 edges of carbohydrate metabolism, we show that kinetic parameter derived weighting schemes [Formula: see text] fare best. However, these are limited by their extent of availability, highlighting the usefulness of omics data under such conditions. Interestingly, transcriptome derived weights yield paths with best scores, but are inadequate to discriminate the theoretical paths. The method is tested on a system of Escherichia coli stress response. The approach illustrated here is generic in nature and can be used in the analysis for metabolic network from any species and perhaps more importantly for comparing condition-specific networks.

  20. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  1. The path to adaptive microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolper, John C.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2006-05-01

    Scaling trends in microsystems are discussed frequently in the technical community, providing a short-term perspective on the future of integrated microsystems. This paper looks beyond the leading edge of technological development, focusing on new microsystem design paradigms that move far beyond today's systems based on static components. We introduce the concept of Adaptive Microsystems and outline a path to realizing these systems-on-a-chip. The role of DARPA in advancing future components and systems research is discussed, and specific DARPA efforts enabling and producing adaptive microsystems are presented. In particular, we discuss efforts underway in the DARPA Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) including programs in novel circuit architectures (3DIC), adaptive imaging and sensing (AFPA, VISA, MONTAGE, A-to-I) and reconfigurable RF/Microwave devices (SMART, TFAST, IRFFE).

  2. Path integral simulations for nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumway, John

    2007-10-01

    As computer circuits shrink, devices are entering the nanoscale regime and quantum physics is becoming important. The biggest barrier to further decreases in size and increases in clock speed is excessive heat generation. Some physicists are proposing that many-body correlated quantum states of electrons may be exploited to make more energy efficient switches. In our research we are developing new simulation techniques to study highly correlated electron states in realistic device geometries and finite temperatures. The simulations are based on Feynman path integrals, which cast quantum statistical mechanics as a sum over worldlines, a mathematically equivalent alternative Schroedinger's differetial equation. Using Monte Carlo sampling on dozens to hundreds of electrons, we can simulate properties of an interacting electron fluid in a nanowire. Linear response theory relates fluctuations about equilibrium to conductivity. This gives us a new perspective on quantum phenomena, including quantized conductance steps and spin-charge separation.

  3. The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Álvarez, Edgardo T.

    The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.

  4. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  5. Extracting Critical Path Graphs from MPI Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M

    2005-07-27

    The critical path is one of the fundamental runtime characteristics of a parallel program. It identifies the longest execution sequence without wait delays. In other words, the critical path is the global execution path that inflicts wait operations on other nodes without itself being stalled. Hence, it dictates the overall runtime and knowing it is important to understand an application's runtime and message behavior and to target optimizations. We have developed a toolset that identifies the critical path of MPI applications, extracts it, and then produces a graphical representation of the corresponding program execution graph to visualize it. To implement this, we intercept all MPI library calls, use the information to build the relevant subset of the execution graph, and then extract the critical path from there. We have applied our technique to several scientific benchmarks and successfully produced critical path diagrams for applications running on up to 128 processors.

  6. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  7. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  8. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, Fabrizio; Braunstein, Alfredo; Dall'Asta, Luca; De Bacco, Caterina; Franz, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  9. Calibration of neural networks using genetic algorithms, with application to optimal path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terence R.; Pitney, Gilbert A.; Greenwood, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are used to search the synaptic weight space of artificial neural systems (ANS) for weight vectors that optimize some network performance function. GAs do not suffer from some of the architectural constraints involved with other techniques and it is straightforward to incorporate terms into the performance function concerning the metastructure of the ANS. Hence GAs offer a remarkably general approach to calibrating ANS. GAs are applied to the problem of calibrating an ANS that finds optimal paths over a given surface. This problem involves training an ANS on a relatively small set of paths and then examining whether the calibrated ANS is able to find good paths between arbitrary start and end points on the surface.

  10. Path planning method for UUV homing and docking in movement disorders environment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheping; Deng, Chao; Chi, Dongnan; Chen, Tao; Hou, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO), inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO), and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC). It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path. PMID:25054169

  11. Path Planning Method for UUV Homing and Docking in Movement Disorders Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheping; Deng, Chao; Chi, Dongnan; Hou, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO), inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO), and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC). It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path. PMID:25054169

  12. Geodesics on path spaces and double category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Saikat

    2016-09-01

    Let M be a Riemannian manifold and 𝒫M be the space of all smooth paths on M. We describe geodesics on path space 𝒫M. Normal neighborhoods on 𝒫M have been discussed. We identify paths on M under “back-track” equivalence. Under this identification, we show that if M is complete, then geodesics on the path space yield a double category. This double category has a natural interpretation in terms of the worldsheets generated by freely moving (without any external force) strings.

  13. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521

  14. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important.

  15. Multiple path length dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Paul D; Swann, Marcus J; Waigh, Thomas A; Schedin, Fred; Lu, Jian R

    2009-06-22

    An optical sensor for quantitative analysis of ultrathin films and adsorbed layers is described. Quantification of both layer thickness and refractive index (density) can be made for in situ and ex-situ coated films. With the use of two polarizations, in situ measurements are made via one path length in a young's interferometer arrangement while ex-situ measurements use multiple path lengths. The multiple path length young's interferometer arrangement is embodied in a solid state waveguide configuration called the multiple path length dual polarization interferometer (MPL-DPI). The technique is demonstrated with ultrathin layers of poly(methylmethacrylate) and human serum albumin.

  16. Identifying the main paths of information diffusion in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hengmin; Yin, Xicheng; Ma, Jing; Hu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an increasing number of researches on relationship strength show that there are some socially active links in online social networks. Furthermore, it is likely that there exist main paths which play the most significant role in the process of information diffusion. Although much of previous work has focused on the pathway of a specific event, there are hardly any scholars that have extracted the main paths. To identify the main paths of online social networks, we proposed a method which measures the weights of links based on historical interaction records. The influence of node based on forwarding amount is quantified and top-ranked nodes are selected as the influential users. The path importance is evaluated by calculating the probability that a message would spread via this path. We applied our method to a real-world network and found interesting insights. Each influential user can access another one via a short main path and the distribution of main paths shows significant community effect.

  17. Landscape and Flux Framework for Non-Equilibrium Networks: Kinetic Paths and Rate Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin

    2012-02-01

    We developed a general framework to quantify three key ingredients for dynamics of nonequilibrium systems through path integrals in length space. First, we identify dominant kinetic paths as the ones with optimal weights, leading to effective reduction of dimensionality or degrees of freedom from exponential to polynomial so large systems can be treated. Second, we uncover the underlying nonequilibrium potential landscapes from the explorations of the state space through kinetic paths. We apply our framework to a specific example of nonequilibrium network system: lambda phage genetic switch. Two distinct basins of attractions emerge. The dominant kinetic paths from one basin to another are irreversible and do not follow the usual steepest descent or gradient path along the landscape. It reflects the fact that the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems is not just determined by potential gradient but also the residual curl flux force, suggesting experiments to test theoretical predictions. Third, we have calculated dynamic transition time scales from one basin to another critical for stability of the system through instantons. Theoretical predictions are in good agreements with wild type and mutant experiments.We further uncover the correlations between the kinetic transition time scales and the underlying landscape topography: the barrier heights along the dominant paths. We found that both the dominant paths and the landscape are relatively robust against the influences of external environmental perturbations and the system tends to dissipate less with less fluctuations. Our theoretical framework is general and can be applied to other nonequilibrium systems.

  18. Planning image-guided endovascular interventions: guidewire simulation using shortest path algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Sebastian; Singh, Vikas; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Noël, Peter B.; Xu, Jinhui

    2007-03-01

    Endovascular interventional procedures are being used more frequently in cardiovascular surgery. Unfortunately, procedural failure, e.g., vessel dissection, may occur and is often related to improper guidewire and/or device selection. To support the surgeon's decision process and because of the importance of the guidewire in positioning devices, we propose a method to determine the guidewire path prior to insertion using a model of its elastic potential energy coupled with a representative graph construction. The 3D vessel centerline and sizes are determined for a specified vessel. Points in planes perpendicular to the vessel centerline are generated. For each pair of consecutive planes, a vector set is generated which joins all points in these planes. We construct a graph representing these vector sets as nodes. The nodes representing adjacent vector sets are joined by edges with weights calculated as a function of the angle between the corresponding vectors (nodes). The optimal path through this weighted directed graph is then determined using shortest path algorithms, such as topological sort based shortest path algorithm or Dijkstra's algorithm. Volumetric data of an internal carotid artery phantom (Ø 3.5mm) were acquired. Several independent guidewire (Ø 0.4mm) placements were performed, and the 3D paths were determined using rotational angiography. The average RMS distance between the actual and the average simulated guidewire path was 0.7mm; the computation time to determine the path was 3 seconds. The ability to predict the guidewire path inside vessels may facilitate calculation of vessel-branch access and force estimation on devices and the vessel wall.

  19. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  20. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  1. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  2. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  3. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  4. Perturbative Methods in Path Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theodore Paul

    This dissertation addresses a number of related questions concerning perturbative "path" integrals. Perturbative methods are one of the few successful ways physicists have worked with (or even defined) these infinite-dimensional integrals, and it is important as mathematicians to check that they are correct. Chapter 0 provides a detailed introduction. We take a classical approach to path integrals in Chapter 1. Following standard arguments, we posit a Feynman-diagrammatic description of the asymptotics of the time-evolution operator for the quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving nonrelativistically through a curved manifold under the influence of an external electromagnetic field. We check that our sum of Feynman diagrams has all desired properties: it is coordinate-independent and well-defined without ultraviolet divergences, it satisfies the correct composition law, and it satisfies Schrodinger's equation thought of as a boundary-value problem in PDE. Path integrals in quantum mechanics and elsewhere in quantum field theory are almost always of the shape ∫ f es for some functions f (the "observable") and s (the "action"). In Chapter 2 we step back to analyze integrals of this type more generally. Integration by parts provides algebraic relations between the values of ∫ (-) es for different inputs, which can be packaged into a Batalin--Vilkovisky-type chain complex. Using some simple homological perturbation theory, we study the version of this complex that arises when f and s are taken to be polynomial functions, and power series are banished. We find that in such cases, the entire scheme-theoretic critical locus (complex points included) of s plays an important role, and that one can uniformly (but noncanonically) integrate out in a purely algebraic way the contributions to the integral from all "higher modes," reducing ∫ f es to an integral over the critical locus. This may help explain the presence of analytic continuation in questions like the

  5. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  6. Adaptively Ubiquitous Learning in Campus Math Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This system…

  7. The path dependence of deformation texture development

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, T.; Kocks, U.F.; Wenk, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated for the case of three different strain paths, all of which end up with the same, elongated specimen shape, that the texture developed during straining is path dependent. This is true both for experiments on aluminum polycrystals and for simulations using the LApp code.

  8. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  9. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, M.

    1949-06-30

    This paper is a compilation of the essential results of our experimental work in the determination of the path of carbon in photosynthesis. There are discussions of the dark fixation of photosynthesis and methods of separation and identification including paper chromatography and radioautography. The definition of the path of carbon in photosynthesis by the distribution of radioactivity within the compounds is described.

  10. Career Path Guide for Adult Career Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Clydia

    Intended for adults who are considering career choices or changes, this booklet provides opportunities for self-study and reflection in six career paths. The booklet begins with tips for long-term career survival and myths and realities of career planning. After a brief career survey, readers are introduced to six career paths: arts and…

  11. A Random Walk on a Circular Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.

  12. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  13. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  14. Gerbertian paths for the Jubilee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2015-04-01

    Gerbert before becoming Pope Sylvester II came several times in Rome, as reported in his Letters and in the biography of Richerus. Eight places in Rome can be connected with Gerbertian memories. 1. The Cathedral of St. John in the Lateran where the gravestone of his tumb is still preserved near the Holy Door; 2. the “Basilica Hierusalem” (Santa Croce) where Gerbert had the stroke on May 3rd 1003 which lead him to death on May 12th; 3. the Aventine hill, with the church of the Knights of Malta in the place where the palace of the Ottonian Emperors was located; 4. the church of St. Bartholomew in the Tiber Island built in 997 under Otto III; 5. the Obelisk of Augustus in Montecitorio to remember the relationship between Gerbert, Astronomy and numbers which led the birth of the legends on Gerbert magician; 6. St. Mary Major end of the procession of August 15, 1000; 7. St. Paul outside the walls with the iconography of the Popes and 8. St. Peter's tumb end of all Romaei pilgrimages. This Gerbertian path in Rome suggests one way to accomplish the pilgrimage suggested by Pope Francis in the Bulla Misericordiae Vultus (14) of indiction of the new Jubilee.

  15. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  16. Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Posé, N.; Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We numerically show that the statistical properties of the shortest path on critical percolation clusters are consistent with the ones predicted for Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves for κ = 1.04 ± 0.02. The shortest path results from a global optimization process. To identify it, one needs to explore an entire area. Establishing a relation with SLE permits to generate curves statistically equivalent to the shortest path from a Brownian motion. We numerically analyze the winding angle, the left passage probability, and the driving function of the shortest path and compare them to the distributions predicted for SLE curves with the same fractal dimension. The consistency with SLE opens the possibility of using a solid theoretical framework to describe the shortest path and it raises relevant questions regarding conformal invariance and domain Markov properties, which we also discuss. PMID:24975019

  17. Converging towards the optimal path to extinction

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Forgoston, Eric; Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction appears ubiquitously in many fields, including chemical reactions, population biology, evolution and epidemiology. Even though extinction as a random process is a rare event, its occurrence is observed in large finite populations. Extinction occurs when fluctuations owing to random transitions act as an effective force that drives one or more components or species to vanish. Although there are many random paths to an extinct state, there is an optimal path that maximizes the probability to extinction. In this paper, we show that the optimal path is associated with the dynamical systems idea of having maximum sensitive dependence to initial conditions. Using the equivalence between the sensitive dependence and the path to extinction, we show that the dynamical systems picture of extinction evolves naturally towards the optimal path in several stochastic models of epidemics. PMID:21571943

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  20. The Path of Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibel, C. S.

    2004-12-01

    A complex series of evolutionary steps, contingent upon a dynamic environmental context and a long biological heritage, have led to the ascent of Homo sapiens as a dominant component of the modern biosphere. In a field where missing links still abound and new discoveries regularly overturn theoretical paradigms, our understanding of the path of human evolution has made tremendous advances in recent years. Two major trends characterize the development of the hominin clade subsequent to its origins with the advent of upright bipedalism in the Late Miocene of Africa. One is a diversification into two prominent morphological branches, each with a series of 'twigs' representing evolutionary experimentation at the species or subspecies level. The second important trend, which in its earliest manifestations cannot clearly be ascribed to one or the other branch, is the behavioral complexity of an increasing reliance on technology to expand upon limited inherent morphological specializations and to buffer the organism from its environment. This technological dependence is directly associated with the expansion of hominin range outside Africa by the genus Homo, and is accelerated in the sole extant form Homo sapiens through the last 100 Ka. There are interesting correlates between the evolutionary and behavioral patterns seen in the hominin clade and environmental dynamics of the Neogene. In particular, the tempo of morphological and behavioral innovation may be tracking major events in Neogene climatic development as well as reflecting intervals of variability or stability. Major improvements in analytical techniques, coupled with important new collections and a growing body of contextual data are now making possible the integration of global, regional and local environmental archives with an improved biological understanding of the hominin clade to address questions of coincidence and causality.

  1. Evolution paths for advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healey, Kathleen J.

    1990-01-01

    As Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolves, increased automation and autonomy will be required to meet Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) objectives. As a precursor to the use of advanced automation within the SSFP, especially if it is to be used on SSF (e.g., to automate the operation of the flight systems), the underlying technologies will need to be elevated to a high level of readiness to ensure safe and effective operations. Ground facilities supporting the development of these flight systems -- from research and development laboratories through formal hardware and software development environments -- will be responsible for achieving these levels of technology readiness. These facilities will need to evolve support the general evolution of the SSFP. This evolution will include support for increasing the use of advanced automation. The SSF Advanced Development Program has funded a study to define evolution paths for advanced automaton within the SSFP's ground-based facilities which will enable, promote, and accelerate the appropriate use of advanced automation on-board SSF. The current capability of the test beds and facilities, such as the Software Support Environment, with regard to advanced automation, has been assessed and their desired evolutionary capabilities have been defined. Plans and guidelines for achieving this necessary capability have been constructed. The approach taken has combined indepth interviews of test beds personnel at all SSF Work Package centers with awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technology and technology insertion methodologies. Key recommendations from the study include advocating a NASA-wide task force for advanced automation, and the creation of software prototype transition environments to facilitate the incorporation of advanced automation in the SSFP.

  2. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  3. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  4. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  5. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  6. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated.

  7. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

  8. Detection of magnetic barriers in a chaotic domain: first application of finite time Lyapunov exponent method to a magnetic confinement configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, G.; Borgogno, D.; Veranda, M.; Bonfiglio, D.; Cappello, S.; Grasso, D.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic field lines embedded in a plasma confinement system are often characterized by a chaotic motion. This weakens the confinement properties of any magnetic configuration. However, even in case of chaotic domains, magnetic barriers can emerge and limit the field line motion itself. In the context of the numerical simulation of a Reversed-Field Pinch configuration a new magnetic topology analysis, borrowed from previous fluid dynamic studies, is discussed. This methodology relies on the behavior of the Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) associated with the magnetic field. By referring to a previous work in which the magnetic field is given in terms of analytical function (Borgogno et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 102307) the FTLE field shows the presence of ridges, special gradient lines normal to the direction of minimum curvature, forming magnetic barriers. These ridges can be recognized as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) for the system, actually opposing the penetration of magnetic field lines across them. In this article a more general numerical scheme for the detection of the LCSs has been adopted that allows analysis of realistic cases in which the magnetic fields are numerically known on a discrete mesh. After a validation test performed on the analytical case, a first application to a numerical magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the RFP, characterized by a broad chaotic region, has been performed. A strong magnetic barrier has been observed that effectively limits the field lines motion inside the chaotic sea.

  9. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  10. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, YueYun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  11. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  12. Robot path planning using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Baffes, Paul T.; Wang, Liu

    1988-01-01

    Robot path planning can refer either to a mobile vehicle such as a Mars Rover, or to an end effector on an arm moving through a cluttered workspace. In both instances there may exist many solutions, some of which are better than others, either in terms of distance traversed, energy expended, or joint angle or reach capabilities. A path planning program has been developed based upon a genetic algorithm. This program assumes global knowledge of the terrain or workspace, and provides a family of good paths between the initial and final points. Initially, a set of valid random paths are constructed. Successive generations of valid paths are obtained using one of several possible reproduction strategies similar to those found in biological communities. A fitness function is defined to describe the goodness of the path, in this case including length, slope, and obstacle avoidance considerations. It was found that with some reproduction strategies, the average value of the fitness function improved for successive generations, and that by saving the best paths of each generation, one could quite rapidly obtain a collection of good candidate solutions.

  13. Functional equivalence and spatial path memory.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn M

    2011-11-01

    Loomis, Klatzky, Avraamides, Lippa and Golledge ( 2007 ) suggest that, when it comes to spatial information, verbal description and perceptual experience are nearly functionally equivalent with respect to the cognitive representations they produce. We tested this idea for the case of spatial memory for complex paths. Paths consisted entirely of unit-length segments followed by 90-degree turns, thus assuring that a path could be described with equal precision using either an egocentric verbal description or a virtual self-motion experience. The verbal description was analogous to driving directions (e.g., turn left and go one block, then turn right, etc.) except in three dimensions (allowing rotation followed by up or down movement). Virtual self-motion was depicted as first-person travel through a 3D grid of featureless corridors. Comparison of these two conditions produced a result that may be surprising to some, but nevertheless appears to support the notion of functional equivalence: Virtual self-motion does not produce better path memory than verbal description, when care is taken to present equally precise path information. This result holds for even very complex paths and despite evidence from proximity-based interference that the memory representation of the path is spatial.

  14. Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.

  15. Automated flight path planning for virtual endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Paik, D S; Beaulieu, C F; Jeffrey, R B; Rubin, G D; Napel, S

    1998-05-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for rapid and automatic computation of flight paths for guiding virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images is described. While manually planning flight paths is a tedious and time consuming task, our algorithm is automated and fast. Our method for positioning the virtual camera is based on the medial axis transform but is much more computationally efficient. By iteratively correcting a path toward the medial axis, the necessity of evaluating simple point criteria during morphological thinning is eliminated. The virtual camera is also oriented in a stable viewing direction, avoiding sudden twists and turns. We tested our algorithm on volumetric data sets of eight colons, one aorta and one bronchial tree. The algorithm computed the flight paths in several minutes per volume on an inexpensive workstation with minimal computation time added for multiple paths through branching structures (10%-13% per extra path). The results of our algorithm are smooth, centralized paths that aid in the task of navigation in virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images. PMID:9608471

  16. The terminal area automated path generation problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsin, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The automated terminal area path generation problem in the advanced Air Traffic Control System (ATC), has been studied. Definitions, input, output and the interrelationships with other ATC functions have been discussed. Alternatives in modeling the problem have been identified. Problem formulations and solution techniques are presented. In particular, the solution of a minimum effort path stretching problem (path generation on a given schedule) has been carried out using the Newton-Raphson trajectory optimization method. Discussions are presented on the effect of different delivery time, aircraft entry position, initial guess on the boundary conditions, etc. Recommendations are made on real-world implementations.

  17. Extending the application of critical path methods.

    PubMed

    Coffey, R J; Othman, J E; Walters, J I

    1995-01-01

    Most health care organizations are using critical pathways in an attempt to reduce the variation in patient care, improve quality, enhance communication, and reduce costs. Virtually all of the critical path efforts to date have developed tables of treatments, medications, and so forth by day and have displayed them in a format known as a Gantt chart. This article presents a methodology for identifying the true "time-limiting" critical path, describes three additional methods for presenting the information--the network, precedent, and resource formats--and shows how these can significantly enhance current critical path efforts.

  18. Steering Chiral Swimmers along Noisy Helical Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank

    2009-08-01

    Chemotaxis along helical paths towards a target releasing a chemoattractant is found in sperm cells and many microorganisms. We discuss the stochastic differential geometry of the noisy helical swimming path of a chiral swimmer. A chiral swimmer equipped with a simple feedback system can navigate in a concentration gradient of chemoattractant. We derive an effective equation for the alignment of helical paths with a concentration gradient which is related to the alignment of a dipole in an external field and discuss the chemotaxis index.

  19. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  20. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  1. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  2. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of redundant load path bearingless rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    The bearingless rotorcraft offers reduced weight, less complexity and superior flying qualities. Almost all the current industrial structural dynamic programs of conventional rotors which consist of single load path rotor blades employ the transfer matrix method to determine natural vibration characteristics because this method is ideally suited for one dimensional chain like structures. This method is extended to multiple load path rotor blades without resorting to an equivalent single load path approximation. Unlike the conventional blades, it isk necessary to introduce the axial-degree-of-freedom into the solution process to account for the differential axial displacements in the different load paths. With the present extension, the current rotor dynamic programs can be modified with relative ease to account for the multiple load paths without resorting to the equivalent single load path modeling. The results obtained by the transfer matrix method are validated by comparing with the finite element solutions. A differential stiffness matrix due to blade rotation is derived to facilitate the finite element solutions.

  3. Medical image segmentation using minimal path deformable models with implicit shape priors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Pingkun; Kassim, Ashraf A

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for segmentation of medical images by extracting organ contours, using minimal path deformable models incorporated with statistical shape priors. In our approach, boundaries of structures are considered as minimal paths, i.e., paths associated with the minimal energy, on weighted graphs. Starting from the theory of minimal path deformable models, an intelligent "worm" algorithm is proposed for segmentation, which is used to evaluate the paths and finally find the minimal path. Prior shape knowledge is incorporated into the segmentation process to achieve more robust segmentation. The shape priors are implicitly represented and the estimated shapes of the structures can be conveniently obtained. The worm evolves under the joint influence of the image features, its internal energy, and the shape priors. The contour of the structure is then extracted as the worm trail. The proposed segmentation framework overcomes the short-comings of existing deformable models and has been successfully applied to segmenting various medical images. PMID:17044401

  4. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

  5. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  6. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  7. Path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    A simulation of a mathematical model to compute path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line flight paths is presented. The model illustrates that the path errors depend on the latitude, the bearing, and the trip length of the flight.

  8. Local-time representation of path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Zatloukal, Václav

    2015-12-01

    We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x -dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x (t ) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x . Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high- and low-temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, are also discussed.

  9. Riemann Curvature Tensor and Closed Geodesic Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganstern, Ralph E.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates erroneous results obtained if change in a vector under parallel transport about a closed path in Riemannian spacetime is made in a complete circuit rather than just half a circuit. (Author/SL)

  10. Critical paths: maximizing patient care coordination.

    PubMed

    Spath, P L

    1995-01-01

    1. With today's emphasis on horizontal and vertical integration of patient care services and the new initiatives prompted by these challenges, OR nurses are considering new methods for managing the perioperative period. One such method is the critical path. 2. A critical path defines an optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff members for a particular diagnosis or procedure, designed to better use resources, maximize quality of care, and minimize delays. 3. Hospitals implementing path-based patient care have reported cost reductions and improved team-work. Critical paths have been shown to reduce patient care costs by improving hospital efficiency, not merely by reducing physician practice variations.

  11. A chemist building paths to cell biology.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path.

  12. Building a path in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Gia; Cheeseman, Iain

    2012-11-01

    Setting up a new lab is an exciting but challenging prospect. We discuss our experiences in finding a path to tackle some of the key current questions in cell biology and the hurdles that we have encountered along the way.

  13. Animation: Path of 2010 Solar Eclipse

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Sunday, 2010 July 11, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses Earth's southern hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow crosses the South Pacif...

  14. IRIS Optical Instrument and Light Paths

    NASA Video Gallery

    The optical portion of the instrument and the light paths from the primary and secondary mirror of the telescope assembly into the spectrograph. The spectrograph then breaks the light into 2 Near U...

  15. Local-time representation of path integrals.

    PubMed

    Jizba, Petr; Zatloukal, Václav

    2015-12-01

    We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x-dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x(t) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x. Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high- and low-temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, are also discussed.

  16. Identifying decohering paths in closed quantum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    A specific proposal is discussed for how to identify decohering paths in a wavefunction of the universe. The emphasis is on determining the correlations among subsystems and then considering how these correlations evolve. The proposal is similar to earlier ideas of Schroedinger and of Zeh, but in other ways it is closer to the decoherence functional of Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle. There are interesting differences with each of these which are discussed. Once a given coarse-graining is chosen, the candidate paths are fixed in this scheme, and a single well defined number measures the degree of decoherence for each path. The normal probability sum rules are exactly obeyed (instantaneously) by these paths regardless of the level of decoherence. Also briefly discussed is how one might quantify some other aspects of classicality. The important role that concrete calculations play in testing this and other proposals is stressed.

  17. An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

  18. Nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-19

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence. PMID:25279612

  19. Nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-19

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  20. Nonclassical Paths in Quantum Interference Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-01

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  1. Orbital Path of the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

  2. A Path Algorithm for Constrained Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Many least-square problems involve affine equality and inequality constraints. Although there are a variety of methods for solving such problems, most statisticians find constrained estimation challenging. The current article proposes a new path-following algorithm for quadratic programming that replaces hard constraints by what are called exact penalties. Similar penalties arise in l1 regularization in model selection. In the regularization setting, penalties encapsulate prior knowledge, and penalized parameter estimates represent a trade-off between the observed data and the prior knowledge. Classical penalty methods of optimization, such as the quadratic penalty method, solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties!are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. The exact path-following method starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. Path following in Lasso penalized regression, in contrast, starts with a large value of the penalty constant and works its way downward. In both settings, inspection of the entire solution path is revealing. Just as with the Lasso and generalized Lasso, it is possible to plot the effective degrees of freedom along the solution path. For a strictly convex quadratic program, the exact penalty algorithm can be framed entirely in terms of the sweep operator of regression analysis. A few well-chosen examples illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. This article has supplementary materials available online.

  3. The prediction of radio-path characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitina, G. M.; Kalinin, Iu. K.

    The paper examines algorithms for the long-term prediction of radio-path characteristics in the ionosphere, the main characteristic being the MUF at a given distance. The proposed approach is based on long-term memories called DATA BANKS. Attention is given to the characteritics of the various banks, including the BANK OF CITIES, the BANK OF RADIO PATHS, the REFERENCE DATA BANK, and the OUTPUT DATA BANK.

  4. A path following algorithm for the graph matching problem.

    PubMed

    Zaslavskiy, Mikhail; Bach, Francis; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2009-12-01

    We propose a convex-concave programming approach for the labeled weighted graph matching problem. The convex-concave programming formulation is obtained by rewriting the weighted graph matching problem as a least-square problem on the set of permutation matrices and relaxing it to two different optimization problems: a quadratic convex and a quadratic concave optimization problem on the set of doubly stochastic matrices. The concave relaxation has the same global minimum as the initial graph matching problem, but the search for its global minimum is also a hard combinatorial problem. We, therefore, construct an approximation of the concave problem solution by following a solution path of a convex-concave problem obtained by linear interpolation of the convex and concave formulations, starting from the convex relaxation. This method allows to easily integrate the information on graph label similarities into the optimization problem, and therefore, perform labeled weighted graph matching. The algorithm is compared with some of the best performing graph matching methods on four data sets: simulated graphs, QAPLib, retina vessel images, and handwritten Chinese characters. In all cases, the results are competitive with the state of the art.

  5. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  6. Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.

  7. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sung Ha Kim, Seong Jun Zhou, Haomin

    2015-10-15

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey F.

    2002-10-10

    Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''.

  9. Ant navigation: resetting the path integrator.

    PubMed

    Knaden, Markus; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    Desert ants use path integration as their predominant system of long-distance navigation, but they also make use of route-defining and nest-defining visual landmarks. Such landmark-gained information might override the information provided by the path integrator, but nevertheless the path integrator keeps running. Here we show that only cues that are associated with the ant being inside the nest are able to reset the path integrator to zero state. Ants were captured at a feeder, i.e. without having run off their home vector, and were forced to enter the nest. On their next outbound run their walking direction differed by 180 degrees from that of ants that had also been captured at the feeder but instead of having been forced to enter the interior of the nest were released at its entrance. Whereas these latter ants still ran off their home vector pointing in the feeder-nest direction (and by this departed from the nest in a direction opposite to the feeder direction) the former ants had reset their home vector to zero state, and had therefore been able to reload their learned feeder vector, and consequently departed from the nest in the feeder direction. Owing to its egocentric nature the path-integrator is error prone. Hence, it is a suitable strategy to reset the path integrator if the ant has appeared at its final goal, the nest. Otherwise during consecutive foraging runs navigational errors would steadily increase.

  10. Path detection and the uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Pippa; Tan, Sze; Collett, Matthew; Walls, Daniel

    1994-02-01

    QUANTUM mechanics predicts that any detector capable of determining the path taken by a particle through a double slit will destroy the interference. This follows from the principle of complementarity formulated by Niels Bohr: simultaneous observation of wave and particle behaviour is prohibited. But such a description makes no reference to the physical mechanism by which the interference is lost. In the best studied welcher Weg (`which path') detection schemes1,2, interference is lost by the transfer of momentum to the particle whose path is being determined, the extent of momentum transfer satisfying the position-momentum uncertainty relation. This has prompted the question as to whether complementarity is always enforced in welcher Weg schemes by momentum transfer. Scully et al 3. have recently responded in the negative, suggesting that complementarity must be accepted as an independent component of quantum mechanics, rather than as simply a consequence of the uncertainty principle. But we show here that, in any path detection scheme involving a fixed double slit, the amount of momentum transferred to the particle by a perfectly efficient detector (one capable of resolving the path unambiguously) is related to the slit separation in accordance with the uncertainty principle. If less momentum than this is transferred, interference is not completely destroyed and the path detector cannot be perfectly efficient.

  11. Suffering and prejudice: paths taken by obese nutritionists seeking weight loss.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Kênya Lima; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; de Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a problem of public health, seen as a "moral panic," which disables the obese person from social acceptance. For obese nutritionists the paradox between the premises of their jobs and their state of morbidity makes the debate complex by the conflict with the professional identity. This study sought to bring to discussion the meanings of health care adopted by obese nutritionists in Salvador and to understand their experiences with their obesity in everyday life. The study was based on a qualitative approach, through semi-structured interviews with eight narratives on being an obese nutritionist, analysed under hermeneutics basis. The research revealed that being obese generates a stigma which is worse to the nutritionist, now seen simultaneously as unable to care for oneself and on being obese. Some of the stories of suffering seen on job routine are: strangeness of the body, social exclusion, strategies for defence on the relation professional-patient, desperate rely on miraculous diet plans which are far away from the scientific discourse, and the obese body seen as imprisonment. It is concluded that institutions of public health must have knowledge of this problem and must establish strategies to the condition of obese nutritionists, considering that this contradiction may happen on different occupations. PMID:26331510

  12. Walking in simulated Martian gravity: Influence of added weight on sagittal dynamic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Layne, Charles S.; Josić, Krešimir; Kurz, Max J.

    2010-05-01

    With human exploration of the Moon and Mars on the horizon, research considerations for space suit redesign have surfaced. Review of Apollo mission videos revealed repeated instance of falling during extravehicular activities. A better understanding of how suit weight influences the sagittal dynamic stability of the gait pattern may provide insight for new suit design such that space missions may have more productive extravehicular activities and smaller risk of falls that may cause injuries and damage equipment. Participants walked for 4 min in simulated Martian gravity with additional loads of 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% of their body weight. Floquet and Lyapunov analysis techniques were used to quantify the dynamic stability of the sagittal plane gait pattern. Additionally, sagittal plane joint kinematics were evaluated to determine if any modification occurred. Results indicated that weight (i.e., added load) had little effect on the sagittal dynamic stability or joint kinematics while in simulated Martian gravity. Potentially, suit weight may not be a priority for space suit redesign.

  13. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  14. Weighted guided image filtering.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

  15. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  16. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  17. Comparison of nonlinear local Lyapunov vectors with bred vectors, random perturbations and ensemble transform Kalman filter strategies in a barotropic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Liu, Deqiang

    2016-09-01

    The breeding method has been widely used to generate ensemble perturbations in ensemble forecasting due to its simple concept and low computational cost. This method produces the fastest growing perturbation modes to catch the growing components in analysis errors. However, the bred vectors (BVs) are evolved on the same dynamical flow, which may increase the dependence of perturbations. In contrast, the nonlinear local Lyapunov vector (NLLV) scheme generates flow-dependent perturbations as in the breeding method, but regularly conducts the Gram-Schmidt reorthonormalization processes on the perturbations. The resulting NLLVs span the fast-growing perturbation subspace efficiently, and thus may grasp more components in analysis errors than the BVs. In this paper, the NLLVs are employed to generate initial ensemble perturbations in a barotropic quasi-geostrophic model. The performances of the ensemble forecasts of the NLLV method are systematically compared to those of the random perturbation (RP) technique, and the BV method, as well as its improved version—the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) method. The results demonstrate that the RP technique has the worst performance in ensemble forecasts, which indicates the importance of a flow-dependent initialization scheme. The ensemble perturbation subspaces of the NLLV and ETKF methods are preliminarily shown to catch similar components of analysis errors, which exceed that of the BVs. However, the NLLV scheme demonstrates slightly higher ensemble forecast skill than the ETKF scheme. In addition, the NLLV scheme involves a significantly simpler algorithm and less computation time than the ETKF method, and both demonstrate better ensemble forecast skill than the BV scheme.

  18. Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598

  19. Automatic clustering and population analysis of white matter tracts using maximum density paths.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-08-15

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  20. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  1. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability.

  2. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  3. Automatic Clustering and Population Analysis of White Matter Tracts using Maximum Density Paths

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  4. Optimal Design of Pipeline Based on the Shortest Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fei-xue; Chen, Shi-yi

    Design and operation of long-distance pipeline are complex engineering tasks. Even small improvement in the design of a pipeline system can lead to substantial savings in capital. In this paper, graph theory was used to analyze the problem of pipeline optimal design. The candidate pump station locations were taken as the vertexes and the total cost of the pipeline system between the two vertexes corresponded to the edge weight. An algorithm recursively calling the Dijkstra algorithm was designed and analyzed to obtain N shortest paths. The optimal process program and the quasi-optimal process programs were obtained at the same time, which could be used in decision-making. The algorithm was tested by a real example. The result showed that it could meet the need of real application.

  5. Precise flight-path control using a predictive algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Jung, Y. C.

    1991-01-01

    Generalized predictive control describes an algorithm for the control of dynamic systems in which a control input is generated that minimizes a quadratic cost function consisting of a weighted sum of errors between desired and predicted future system output and future predicted control increments. The output predictions are obtained from an internal model of the plant dynamics. A design technique is discussed for applying the single-input/single-output generalized predictive control algorithm to a problem of longitudinal/vertical terrain-following flight of a rotorcraft. By using the generalized predictive control technique to provide inputs to a classically designed stability and control augmentation system, it is demonstrated that a robust flight-path control system can be created that exhibits excellent tracking performance.

  6. WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Ali; Qamar, Arslan; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Baig, Waleed Akram; Kim, Ki-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs. PMID:23669714

  7. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  8. Using multiple travel paths to estimate daily travel distance in arboreal, group-living primates.

    PubMed

    Steel, Ruth Irene

    2015-01-01

    Primate field studies often estimate daily travel distance (DTD) in order to estimate energy expenditure and/or test foraging hypotheses. In group-living species, the center of mass (CM) method is traditionally used to measure DTD; a point is marked at the group's perceived center of mass at a set time interval or upon each move, and the distance between consecutive points is measured and summed. However, for groups using multiple travel paths, the CM method potentially creates a central path that is shorter than the individual paths and/or traverses unused areas. These problems may compromise tests of foraging hypotheses, since distance and energy expenditure could be underestimated. To better understand the magnitude of these potential biases, I designed and tested the multiple travel paths (MTP) method, in which DTD was calculated by recording all travel paths taken by the group's members, weighting each path's distance based on its proportional use by the group, and summing the weighted distances. To compare the MTP and CM methods, DTD was calculated using both methods in three groups of Udzungwa red colobus monkeys (Procolobus gordonorum; group size 30-43) for a random sample of 30 days between May 2009 and March 2010. Compared to the CM method, the MTP method provided significantly longer estimates of DTD that were more representative of the actual distance traveled and the areas used by a group. The MTP method is more time-intensive and requires multiple observers compared to the CM method. However, it provides greater accuracy for testing ecological and foraging models.

  9. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  10. Curved paths in raptor flight: Deterministic models.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, John W

    2006-10-21

    Two deterministic models for flight of Peregrine Falcons and possibly other raptors as they approach their prey are examined mathematically. Both models make two assumptions. The first, applicable to both models, is that the angle of sight between falcon and prey is constant, consistent with observations that the falcon keeps its head straight during flight and keeps on course by use of the deep foveal region in its eye which allows maximum acuity at an angle of sight of about 45 degrees . The second assumption for the first model (conical spiral), is that the initial direction of flight determines the overall path. For the second model (flight constrained to a tilted plane), a parameter that fixes the orientation of the plane is required. A variational calculation also shows that the tilted plane flight path is the shortest total path, and, consequently, the conical spiral is another shortest total path. Numerical calculations indicate that the flight paths for the two models are very similar for the experimental conditions under which observations have been made. However, the angles of flight and bank differ significantly. More observations are needed to investigate the applicability of the two models.

  11. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering. PMID:26375819

  12. A Path Analysis of Mental Health Among Thai Immigrant Employees in Pranakron Si Ayutthaya Province.

    PubMed

    Kaewanuchit, Chonticha; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this research were to study both direct and indirect path analyses of mental health, and to analyse a causal relationship of each variable. A cross-sectional study used stratified random sampling to select Thai immigrant employees in Pranakron Si Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. General data were analysed by number and percentage. The mental health variable was measured by THMHI-15. The latter was analysed by general statistic, and a path analysis. The results found that job conditions and distance travelled between house and workplace had a direct effect on mental health with a standardised regression weight of 0.581, and -0.443, respectively (p value <0.01). It was found that housing conditions had no effect on mental health. The income variable had a direct influence on mental health with a standardised regression weight of 0.68 (p value <0.01). This research indicated that job conditions were an important factor related to mental health.

  13. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  14. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  15. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  16. 14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows: (a) The takeoff flight path begins 35 feet above the takeoff surface at the end of the...

  17. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  18. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  19. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  20. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  1. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  2. 14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75753, December 2, 2011. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows: (a) The takeoff flight path begins 35...

  3. 14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows: (a) The takeoff flight path begins 35 feet above the takeoff surface at the end of the...

  4. An Adaptive Path Planning Algorithm for Cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C.T.; Roberts, R.S.

    2000-09-12

    An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

  5. Adaptive path planning algorithm for cooperating unmanned air vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C T; Roberts, R S

    2001-02-08

    An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

  6. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  7. Quantum state of wormholes and path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, L.J. )

    1991-08-15

    The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.

  8. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2012-10-01

    A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

  9. Paths to Licensure: Things Physicists Should Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

    2016-03-01

    The path to licensure can be quite complicated, and can thwart a physics department's efforts to produce more and better prepared high school physics teachers. Each state has different pathways to licensure. Acronyms like CAEP and SPA are not within the normal physicist's vocabulary. Some understanding of this topic can allow physics faculty advisers to help our students so that fewer are derailed on their path to the classroom, or take a path that will leave them less well prepared if they do find themselves there. Examples of different approaches that work within state licensure systems from two different states will be presented. Physics teacher preparation efforts in both Arkansas and West Virginia have been supported in part by the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC).

  10. Fermionic path integrals and local anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepstorff, G.

    2003-05-01

    No doubt, the subject of path integrals proved to be an immensely fruitful human, i.e. Feynman's idea. No wonder it is more timely than ever. Some even claim that it is the most daring, innovative and revolutionary idea since the days of Heisenberg and Bohr. It is thus likely to generate enthusiasm, if not addiction among physicists who seek simplicity together with perfection. Professor Devreese's long-lasting interest in, if not passion on the subject stems from his firm conviction that, beyond being the tool of choice, path integration provides the key to all quantum phenomena, be it in solid state, atomic, molecular or particle physics as evidenced by the impressive list of publications at the address http://lib.ua.ac.be/AB/a867.html. In this note, I review a pitfall of fermionic path integrals and a way to get around it in situations relevant to the Standard Model of particle physics.

  11. Weight Advice Associated With Male Firefighter Weight Perception and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Austin L.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Haddock, C. Keith; Luo, Sheng; Delclos, George L.; Day, R. Sue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of overweight and obesity threatens the health and safety of the fire service. Healthcare professionals may play an important role in helping firefighters achieve a healthy weight by providing weight loss counseling to at-risk firefighters. This study characterizes the impact of healthcare professional weight loss advice on firefighter weight perceptions and weight loss behaviors among overweight and obese male firefighters. Methods A national sample of 763 overweight and obese male firefighters who recalled visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months reported information regarding healthcare visits, weight perceptions, current weight loss behaviors, and other covariates in 2011–2012. Analyzed in 2013, four unique multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between healthcare professional weight loss advice and the outcomes of firefighter-reported weight perceptions, intentions to lose weight, reduced caloric intake, and increased physical activity. Results Healthcare professional weight loss advice was significantly associated with self-perception as overweight (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.16, 10.57) and attempted weight loss (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.25, 3.38), but not significantly associated with reduced caloric intake (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.82, 1.95) and increased physical activity (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89, 2.61), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Healthcare professional weight loss advice appears to increase the accuracy of firefighter weight perceptions, promote weight loss attempts, and may encourage dieting and physical activity behaviors among overweight firefighters. Healthcare providers should acknowledge their ability to influence the health behaviors of overweight and obese patients and make efforts to increase the quality and frequency of weight loss recommendations for all firefighters. PMID:26141913

  12. Weight maintenance from young adult weight predicts better health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Thearle, Marie S; Piaggi, Paolo; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Defining groups of individuals within a larger population with similar patterns of weight change over time may provide insight into influences of weight stability or gain. Methods Latent class growth modeling was used to define subgroups of weight change in adult members of the Gila River Indian Community participating in at least 4 non-diabetic health exams including OGTTs (N=1157, 762F/395M; 78.4±19.0 kg). In a separate study, 152 individuals had 24-hr EE measured in a respiratory chamber. Results Eight groups with baseline weights of 54.6±7.3 (n=124), 64.2±7.7 (n=267), 73.6±7.8 (n=298), 86.1±10.2 (n=194), 95.5±6.7 (n=90), 97.9±10.4 (n=92), 110.9±11.9 (n=61), and 122.1±13.6 (n=31) kg (P<0.001) were delineated. Group 5, (initial weight=95.5±6.7 kg) maintained a comparatively stable weight over time (+3.3±10.3 kg, +3.8±11.2% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 13.1 years). All other groups gained weight over time (+29.9±21.1% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 16.3 years). Higher starting weight defined weight gain in most groups, but higher 2hr glucose predicted membership in the lower weight trajectories. The weight stable group had higher rates of impaired glucose regulation at baseline and higher 24-hr EE. Conclusions Weight in young adulthood defined weight gain trajectory underscoring the importance of intervening early to prevent weight gain. PMID:25131650

  13. a Modified Genetic Algorithm for Finding Fuzzy Shortest Paths in Uncertain Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A. A.; Delavar, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    In realistic network analysis, there are several uncertainties in the measurements and computation of the arcs and vertices. These uncertainties should also be considered in realizing the shortest path problem (SPP) due to the inherent fuzziness in the body of expert's knowledge. In this paper, we investigated the SPP under uncertainty to evaluate our modified genetic strategy. We improved the performance of genetic algorithm (GA) to investigate a class of shortest path problems on networks with vague arc weights. The solutions of the uncertain SPP with considering fuzzy path lengths are examined and compared in detail. As a robust metaheuristic, GA algorithm is modified and evaluated to tackle the fuzzy SPP (FSPP) with uncertain arcs. For this purpose, first, a dynamic operation is implemented to enrich the exploration/exploitation patterns of the conventional procedure and mitigate the premature convergence of GA technique. Then, the modified GA (MGA) strategy is used to resolve the FSPP. The attained results of the proposed strategy are compared to those of GA with regard to the cost, quality of paths and CPU times. Numerical instances are provided to demonstrate the success of the proposed MGA-FSPP strategy in comparison with GA. The simulations affirm that not only the proposed technique can outperform GA, but also the qualities of the paths are effectively improved. The results clarify that the competence of the proposed GA is preferred in view of quality quantities. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently be utilized to handle FSPP in uncertain networks.

  14. A Comparison of Two Path Planners for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarokh, M.; Shiller, Z.; Hayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents two path planners suitable for planetary rovers. The first is based on fuzzy description of the terrain, and genetic algorithm to find a traversable path in a rugged terrain. The second planner uses a global optimization method with a cost function that is the path distance divided by the velocity limit obtained from the consideration of the rover static and dynamic stability. A description of both methods is provided, and the results of paths produced are given which show the effectiveness of the path planners in finding near optimal paths. The features of the methods and their suitability and application for rover path planning are compared

  15. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    PubMed

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242

  16. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    PubMed

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  17. Tornado Intensity Estimated from Damage Path Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.; Elsner, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s−1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242

  18. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  19. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  1. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  2. Practical path planning among movable obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.; Hwang, Yong K.

    1990-09-05

    Path planning among movable obstacles is a practical problem that is in need of a solution. In this paper an efficient heuristic algorithm that uses a generate-and-test paradigm: a good'' candidate path is hypothesized by a global planner and subsequently verified by a local planner. In the process of formalizing the problem, we also present a technique for modeling object interactions through contact. Our algorithm has been tested on a variety of examples, and was able to generate solutions within 10 seconds. 5 figs., 27 refs.

  3. Gas path sealing in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperatures is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  4. Gas path sealing in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Gas path seals are discussed with emphasis on sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, and stall margin. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are examined qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperatures is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  5. Optical tomography with discretized path integral

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bingzhi; Tamaki, Toru; Kushida, Takahiro; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Raytchev, Bisser; Kaneda, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a framework for optical tomography based on a path integral. Instead of directly solving the radiative transport equations, which have been widely used in optical tomography, we use a path integral that has been developed for rendering participating media based on the volume rendering equation in computer graphics. For a discretized two-dimensional layered grid, we develop an algorithm to estimate the extinction coefficients of each voxel with an interior point method. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method works well. PMID:26839903

  6. Path planning for everday robotics with SANDROS

    SciTech Connect

    Watterberg, P.; Xavier, P.; Hwang, Y.

    1997-02-01

    We discuss the integration of the SANDROS path planner into a general robot simulation and control package with the inclusion of a fast geometry engine for distance calculations. This creates a single system that allows the path to be computed, simulated, and then executed on the physical robot. The architecture and usage procedures are presented. Also, we present examples of its usage in typical environments found in our organization. The resulting system is as easy to use as the general simulation system (which is in common use here) and is fast enough (example problems are solved in seconds) to be used interactively on an everyday basis.

  7. The downside of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Quality of evidence Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Main message Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option. PMID:22586192

  8. Changes in connective tissue of M. semitendinosus as a response to different growth paths in steers.

    PubMed

    Harper, G S; Allingham, P G; Le Feuvre, R P

    1999-10-01

    The effect of growth path, as opposed to advancing age, on the biophysical and biochemical properties of muscle connective tissue was investigated. Nine-month old Brahman-cross steers were grown across either an uninterrupted path, or paths that incorporated weight-loss and then weight gain on two different diets: one group was realimented on pasture, whilst the other was realimented on a grain-based diet. Biophysical attributes of connective tissue toughness (Compression and Adhesion) in the semitendinosus muscle, were significantly reduced by treatment (P<0.05): weight loss with grain realimentation being the least tough in regard to the connective tissue component. Variance within the biophysical attributes was modelled statistically. Statistically significant models included terms for the post-slaughter connective tissue content as well as tissue contents of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. The data suggest that biochemical measurements made up to 100 days prior to slaughter, may have value as indicators of final connective tissue toughness. PMID:22063087

  9. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  10. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis.

  11. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  12. Homing by path integration when a locomotion trajectory crosses itself.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Meléndez, Jayleen A; Menzies, Derek T

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a process with which navigators derive their current position and orientation by integrating self-motion signals along a locomotion trajectory. It has been suggested that path integration becomes disproportionately erroneous when the trajectory crosses itself. However, there is a possibility that this previous finding was confounded by effects of the length of a traveled path and the amount of turns experienced along the path, two factors that are known to affect path integration performance. The present study was designed to investigate whether the crossover of a locomotion trajectory truly increases errors of path integration. In an experiment, blindfolded human navigators were guided along four paths that varied in their lengths and turns, and attempted to walk directly back to the beginning of the paths. Only one of the four paths contained a crossover. Results showed that errors yielded from the path containing the crossover were not always larger than those observed in other paths, and the errors were attributed solely to the effects of longer path lengths or greater degrees of turns. These results demonstrated that path crossover does not always cause significant disruption in path integration processes. Implications of the present findings for models of path integration are discussed.

  13. Random walks on non-homogenous weighted Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Lifeng

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce new models of non-homogenous weighted Koch networks on real traffic systems depending on the three scaling factors r1,r2,r3∈(0,1). Inspired by the definition of the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), we define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT). Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its neighbors, we show that in large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(r1,r2,r3)=log4(1+r1+r2+r3). Moreover, the AWSP, in the infinite network order limit, only depends on the sum of scaling factors r1,r2,r3.

  14. Room weighting factors calculated from resistance-capacitance networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1980-03-01

    A new technique has been developed for calculating room weighting factors used in building energy analyses. A resistance-capacitance network model of the thermal behavior of a room is solved numerically. Simple circuit elements representing components such as walls, furniture, and room air are interconnected by convective or radiative heat flow paths to form the network. Methods for calculating values of the circuit parameters from wall response factors and other information are given. The main advantage of this technique is that the weighting factors determined are specific to the room described by the network. Weighting factors for a single-room building, dominated by direct-gain solar input, have been calculated as an example of an application of the technique.

  15. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs—elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory—mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:24082027

  16. Information processing versus social cognitive mediators of weight loss in a podcast-delivered health intervention.

    PubMed

    Ko, Linda K; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Campbell, Marci K

    2014-04-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs, elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss.

  17. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  18. The weight of mass or the mass of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-01

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  19. The weight of mass or the mess of weight

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-24

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  20. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…