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Sample records for lycopersicon esculentum miller

  1. Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shrish C

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby). Nicotine at 10(-9) to 10(-3) M concentrations was added to the MS basal medium. The optimum response (three-fold increase in rooting) was obtained at 10(-7) M nicotine-enriched MS medium. At the same level i.e. 10(-7) M Nicotine induced dramatic increase (11-fold) in the number of secondary roots per root. We have shown earlier that exogenous acetylcholine induces a similar response in tomato leaves. Since nicotine is an agonist of one of the two acetylcholine receptors in animals, its ability to simulate ACh action in a plant system suggests the presence of the same molecular mechanism operative in both, animal and plant cells.

  2. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-01

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  3. Effects of foliar applied nickel on tomato plants. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.C.; Leone, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Shoot-applied nickel (Ni) treatments produced symptomatology, foliar Ni accumulation, and cytological changes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) similar to those caused by treatments with root-applied nickel (Ni). Leaf damage resulting from 100 ..mu..g/ml foliar Ni-treatments consisted of interveinal chlorosis and spotting necrosis which appeared histologically as tissue collapse, cell clumping, and chloroplast disintegration. Shoot-treated plants accumulated more Ni in leaves than in roots; whereas the reverse was true in root-treated plants. Interference with root-to-shoot manganese translocation was attributed to attenuated vascular tissue and phloem blockage. Evidence of reduced nutrient transport and inhibited meristem activity due to Ni toxicity presents a potential for crop damage from excessive Ni in the atmosphere as well as in the soil environment.

  4. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL). PMID:20131841

  5. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  6. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  7. Attenuated Lead Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes in the Presence of Lycopersicon Esculentum.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Khaki, Arash; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Anjarani, Soghra; Dadgarnejad, Manochehr; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb), has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems. In the present study, the damage of Pb on the Liver tissue apoptosis was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum as an antioxidants source was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Eighteen Wistar rats, randomized into three groups (n=6), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1%Lead acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml/day of Lycopersicon esculentum. Treatments were for three months. The obtained results showed that lead acetate caused significant reductions in the liver weight, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration but Lycopersicon esculentum have an inhibitory effect on LA liver adverse effect. So, it can be concluded that Lycopersicon esculentum have a significant protective effect on liver lead acetate adverse effects as well as, lead acetate-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27309264

  8. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses. PMID:24397881

  9. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses.

  10. Effect of glutathione on phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Mendum, M.L.; Gupta, S.C.; Goldsbrough, P.B. )

    1990-06-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 2}-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little ({sup 35}S)cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione.

  11. Effect of water treatment sludge on growth and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, H.A.; Singer, L.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The impact of a water treatment sludge on the fertility of a silt loam soil was assessed by monitoring the yield and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots in a greenhouse study. Application of sludge at rates from 2-10% (air dry weight basis) raised the soil pH from 5.3 to 8.0 which enhanced plant growth. A substantial reduction in metal (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) uptake was observed with sludge amendments, even at the highest rates. The alkaline nature of this sludge (pH=9.3, calcium carbonate equivalence=53%) suggest its potential use as a liming material for agricultural soils. Overly alkaline conditions should be avoided however, as high application rates combined with ammonia fertilization had an antagonistic effect on plant growth, possibly from P deficiency induced by struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}) formation.

  12. Detection and quantitation of resveratrol in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Ragab, Amr S; Van Fleet, Jennifer; Jankowski, Boris; Park, Joon-Hyun; Bobzin, Steven C

    2006-09-20

    Resveratrol is a stilbene phytoalexin well-known for its presence in grape, wine, and peanut. As a result of its antioxidant and chemopreventative properties, it has gained much attention as a functional food ingredient. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the detection of resveratrol, its 3-glucopyranoside piceid, and the cis isomers of both compounds has been developed and used to quantitate the levels of these compounds in the skin of commercially available tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The resveratrol concentration remains relatively stable during fruit maturation, reaching a maximum concentration in the skin of 18.4 +/- 1.6 microg/g dry weight at 4 weeks postbreaker. No stilbenes were detected in the flesh of tomato fruit. PMID:16968079

  13. Enzymic cross-linkage of monomeric extensin precursors in vitro. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Everdeen, D.S.; Kiefer, S.; Willard, J.J.; Muldoon, E.P.; Dey, P.M.; Li, Xiongbiao; Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Rapidly growing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell suspension cultures contain transiently high levels of cell surface, salt-elutable, monomeric precursors to the covalently cross-linked extensin network of the primary cell wall. Thus, the authors purified a highly soluble monomeric extensin substrate from rapidly growing cells, and devised a soluble in vitro cross-linking assay based on Superose-6 fast protein liquid chromatography separation, which resolved extensin monomers from the newly formed oligomers within 25 minutes. Salt elution of slowly growing (early stationary phase) cells yielded little or no extensin monomers but did give a highly active enzymic preparation that specifically cross-linked extensin monomers in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, judging from: (a) a decrease in the extensin monomer peak on fast protein liquid chromatography gel filtration, (b) appearance of oligomeric peaks, and (c) direct electron microscopical observation of the cross-linked oligomers. The cross-linking reaction had a broad pH optimum between 5.5 and 6.5. An approach to substrate saturation of the enzyme required extensin monomer concentrations of 20 to 40 milligrams per milliliter. Preincubation with catalase completely inhibited the cross-linking reaction, which was highly dependent on hydrogen peroxide and optimal at 15 to 50 micromolar. They therefore identified the cross-linking activity as extensin peroxidase.

  14. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral reduced nematode egg viability in vitro. Benzaldehyde was 100% efficacious as a nematicide against juveniles, whereas citral reduced juvenile viability to less than 20% at all rates tested. Benzaldehyde increased tomato seed germination and root weight, whereas citral decreased both. High rates of pine bark or chitin reduced plant growth but not seed germination, whereas low rates of chitin increased shoot length, shoot weight, and root weight; improved root condition; and reduced galling. The combination of chitin and benzaldehyde significantly improved tomato transplant growth and reduced galling. While each of the bacterial isolates contributed to increased plant growth in combination treatments, only Brevibacterium iodinum applied alone significantly improved plant growth. PMID:19265957

  15. Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  16. Biomarker discovery and gene expression responses in Lycopersicon esculentum root exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Bai, Lili; Xie, Yujia; Liu, Xinhui; Cui, Baoshan

    2015-12-15

    Gene expression analysis has shown particular promise for the identification of molecular biomarkers that can be used for further evaluation of potential toxicity of chemicals present in agricultural soil. In the study, we focused on the development of molecular markers to detect Pb toxicity in agricultural soil. Using the results obtained from microarray analysis, twelve Pb-responsive genes were selected and tested in different Pb concentrations to examine their concentration-response characteristics using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). All the Pb treatments set in our study could generally induce the differential expression of the 12 genes, while the lowest observable adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of Pb for seed germination, root elongation, biomass and structural modification derived from 1,297, 177, 177, and 1,297 mg Pb/kg soil, respectively, suggesting that the transcriptional approach was more sensitive than the traditional end points of death, growth, and morphology for the evaluation of Pb toxicity. The relative expression of glycoalkaloid metabolism 1 (P=-0.790), ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF017 (P=-0.686) and CASP-like protein 4C2 (P=-0.652) demonstrates a dose-dependent response with Pb content in roots, implying that the three genes can be used as sensitive bioindicators of Pb stress in Lycopersicon esculentum.

  17. Phosphate-Regulated Induction of Intracellular Ribonucleases in Cultured Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Andreas; Abel, Steffen; Jost, Wolfgang; Beintema, Jaap J.; Glund, Konrad

    1992-01-01

    Four intracellular RNases were found to be induced in cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells upon phosphate starvation. Localization studies revealed three (RNases LV 1-3) in the vacuoles and one (RNase LX) outside these organelles. All of these RNases were purified to homogeneity and were shown to be type I RNases on the basis of type of splitting, substrate, and base specificity at the cleavage site, molecular weight, isoelectric point, and pH optimum. Moreover, RNase LV 3 was shown by fingerprinting of tryptic digests on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing the N terminus and two tryptic peptides to be structurally very similar to a recently characterized extracellular RNase LE which is also phosphate regulated (Nürnberger et al. [1990] Plant Physiol 92: 970-976; Jost et al. [1991] Eur J Biochem 198: 1-6). Expression of the four intracellular RNases is induced by depleting the cells of phosphate and repressed by adding phosphate. Our studies indicate that higher plants, in addition to secreting enzymes for scavanging phosphate under starvation conditions, also induce intracellularly emergency rescue systems. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668816

  18. Environmental controls over methanol production, emission, and δ13C values from Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P.; Giebel, B. M.; Mak, J. E.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.; Lerdau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phytogenic methanol is the dominant source of methanol to the atmosphere, where it is the second most abundant organic compound. Beyond methanol’s role in atmospheric chemistry, it is an indicator of plant function and is linked to plant wound response. Methanol emissions are considered to be a by-product of cell wall expansion and, more specifically, the demethylation of pectin by pectin methylesterase (PME) in cell walls. Production of methanol was investigated in mature and immature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum via measurement of methanol flux, foliar PME activity, and methanol extraction from leaf, root, and stem tissues. δ13C values for mature and immature methanol emissions were also measured using a GC-IRMS system. Environmental control over methanol production and emission was studied by changing temperature and light while holding stomatal conductance constant. As seen previously, mature leaf methanol emissions were significantly less than immature emissions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest mature leaf methanol production to be similar to immature leaves, indicating an enhanced metabolic sink for methanol in mature leaves. These data enhance our understanding of methanol production, a term which is not well constrained in current methanol flux models.

  19. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  20. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability. PMID:23533206

  1. Modification of fatty acid composition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by expression of a borage delta6-desaturase.

    PubMed

    Cook, David; Grierson, Don; Jones, Craigh; Wallace, Andrew; West, Gill; Tucker, Greg

    2002-06-01

    The improvement of nutritional quality is one potential application for the genetic modification of plants. One possible target for such manipulation is the modification of fatty acid metabolism. In this work, expression of a borage delta6-desaturase cDNA in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) has been shown to produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:83 delta6,9,12) and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA; 18:4 delta6,9,12,15) in transgenic leaf and fruit tissue. This genetic modification has also, unexpectedly, resulted in a reduction in the percentage of linoleic acid (LA 18:2 delta9,12) and a concomitant increase in the percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 delta9,12,15) in fruit tissue. These changes in fatty acid composition are thought to be beneficial for human health. PMID:12059112

  2. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-(. gamma. EC) sub n G peptide complexes from tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N.; White, C.A.; Winge, D.R. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City )

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponically grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill cv Golden Boy) exposed to 100 micromolar cadmium sulfate produced metal-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes containing acid-labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble those of the cadmium-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes from Schizo-saccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata known to contain a cadmium sulfide crystallite core. The crystallite is stabilized by a sheath of peptides of general structure ({gamma}Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The cadmium-peptide complexes of tomato contained predominantly peptides of n{sub 3}, n{sub 4}, and n{sub 5}. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the tomato cadmium-sulfide-peptide complex contained CdS crystallite core particles smaller than 2.0 nanometers in diameter.

  3. Modification of fatty acid composition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by expression of a borage delta6-desaturase.

    PubMed

    Cook, David; Grierson, Don; Jones, Craigh; Wallace, Andrew; West, Gill; Tucker, Greg

    2002-06-01

    The improvement of nutritional quality is one potential application for the genetic modification of plants. One possible target for such manipulation is the modification of fatty acid metabolism. In this work, expression of a borage delta6-desaturase cDNA in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) has been shown to produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:83 delta6,9,12) and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA; 18:4 delta6,9,12,15) in transgenic leaf and fruit tissue. This genetic modification has also, unexpectedly, resulted in a reduction in the percentage of linoleic acid (LA 18:2 delta9,12) and a concomitant increase in the percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 delta9,12,15) in fruit tissue. These changes in fatty acid composition are thought to be beneficial for human health.

  4. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Yardimoglu, Melda; Celikozlu, Saadet D; Dolanbay, Elif Gelenli; Cimbiz, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy. PMID:23935717

  5. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  6. Amino acid sequence of an intracellular, phosphate-starvation-induced ribonuclease from cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells.

    PubMed

    Löffler, A; Glund, K; Irie, M

    1993-06-15

    The primary structure of an intracellular ribonuclease (RNase LX) from cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells has been determined. Previous studies have shown that the protein is located inside the tomato cells but outside the vacuoles and that its synthesis is induced after depleting the cells for phosphate [Löffler, A., Abel, S., Jost, W., Beintema, J. J., Glund, K. (1992) Plant Physiol. 98, 1472-1478]. Sequence analysis was carried out by analysis of peptides isolated after enzymatic and chemical cleavage of the protein. RNase LX consists of 213 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 24300 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.33. The enzyme contains 10 half-cystines and there are no potential N-glycosylation sites detectable in the sequence. RNase LX, as compared to an extracellular tomato RNase (RNase LE), which is also phosphate regulated and the amino acid sequence of which was recently established [Jost, W., Bak, H., Glund, K., Terpstra, P. & Beintema, J. J. (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 198, 1-6] has 60% of all amino acids identical and in identical positions, revealing a high degree of similarity between both proteins. In contrast to RNase LE, RNase LX has a C-terminal extension of nine amino acids. The C-terminal tetrapeptide HDEF may be a retention signal of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:8319673

  7. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. I. Identification of metabolites of putrescine and spermidine. [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. )

    1990-11-01

    The metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal methylene-{sup 3}H)spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 15% of each amine was metabolized. The {sup 14}C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. ({sup 3}H)Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and {beta}-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed.

  8. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses. PMID:26337714

  9. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  10. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    PubMed

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p < 0.05) than T. iridipennis due to their larger colony demand and low reward provide by tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p < 0.05) even though the average weight and size of tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods. PMID:24783783

  11. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    PubMed

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p < 0.05) than T. iridipennis due to their larger colony demand and low reward provide by tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p < 0.05) even though the average weight and size of tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  12. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit growth and ripening as related to the biomechanical properties of fruit skin and isolated cuticle.

    PubMed

    Bargel, Hendrik; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    The control of growth rate and the mechanical integrity of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit has been attributed to the exocarp. This study focused on the biomechanics of the fruit skin (FS) comprising cuticle, epidermis and a few subdermal cell layers, and the enzymatically isolated cuticular membrane (CM) during fruit growth and ripening. Morphology and mechanical properties of the FS and the CM of three cultivars were analysed separately at three distinct ripening stages by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and one-dimensional tension testing, respectively. Both were subject to significant cultivar-specific changes. Thickness of the CM increased during ripening from 7.8-8.6 to 9.9-15.7 microm and exceeded by far that of the epidermal cell wall. The mechanical properties, such as modulus of elasticity, strength, and failure strain, were highest in the FS for all cultivars at any stage, with only one exception; however, the cuticle largely mirrored these properties throughout fruit maturation. Stiffness of both isolated CM and FS increased from immature to fully ripe fruits for all cultivars, while failure stress and failure strain displayed a tendency to decrease for two of them. Stress-strain behaviour of the CM could be described as strain softening, mostly linear elastic throughout, and strain hardening, and was subject to growth-related changes. The FS displayed strain hardening throughout. The results indicate evidence for the cuticle to become increasingly important as a structural component for the integrity of the tomato fruit in addition to the epidermis. A supplementary putative model for tomato fruit growth is proposed. PMID:15710631

  13. Structural and kinetic properties of a novel purple acid phosphatase from phosphate-starved tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Gale G; Raghothama, Kashchandra G; Plaxton, William C

    2004-01-01

    An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from P(i)-starved (-P(i)) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (lambda(max)=546 nm) and was insensitive to L-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (alpha-subunit) and 57 kDa (beta-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the alpha- and beta-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to P(i)-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP alpha- and beta-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was activated 150% by 10 mM Mg(2+), but was potently inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), molybdate, vanadate, fluoride and P(i). Although IAP demonstrated broad substrate selectivity, its specificity constant ( V (max)/ K (m)) with phosphoenolpyruvate was >250% greater than that obtained with any other substrate. IAP exhibited significant peroxidase activity, which was optimal at pH 9.0 and insensitive to Mg(2+) or molybdate. This IAP is proposed to scavenge P(i) from intracellular phosphate esters in -P(i) tomato. A possible secondary IAP role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species is discussed. IAP properties are compared with those of two extracellular PAP isoenzymes that are secreted into the medium of -P(i) tomato cells [Bozzo, Raghothama and Plaxton (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 6278-6286]. PMID:14521509

  14. Microvascular circulation at cool, normal and warm temperatures in rat leg muscles examined by histochemistry using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hisashi; Kurose, Tomoyuki; Nosaka, Shinnosuke; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2014-07-01

    Local cooling and/or warming of the body are widely used for therapy. For safer and more effective therapy, microvascular hemodynamics needs to be clarified. To examine blood circulation in rat leg muscles at 20, 30, 37 and 40°C, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Lycopersicon esculentum lectin was injected into the cardiac ventricle. Endothelial cells of open and functioning blood vessels were labeled by this lectin for 3 min and detected by immunostaining for lectin. The percentage of open and functioning capillaries of leg muscles by the avidin-biotin method was 89.8±3.3% at 37°C, while capillaries were unclear or unstained at 20 and 30°C, probably due to a decrease of blood flow. The results using the tyramide-dinitrophenol method were 58.6±15.0% at 20°C, 68.5±12.3% at 30°C, 83.8±5.7% at 37°C and 83.3±7.8% at 40°C. The value at 20°C was significantly different from those at 37 and 40°C. The results by the tyramide-biotin method were 85.5±5.3% at 20°C, 87.3±9.7% at 30°C, 94.7±3.6% at 37°C and 92.5±2.1% at 40°C. Based on these results, it was concluded that the blood flow of each capillary considerably decreased at 20 and 30°C and probably increased at 40°C, whereas the proportion of open and functioning capillaries was essentially unchanged. PMID:24998628

  15. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) fruit soluble solids

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of ({sup 14}C)sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of ({sup 14}C)-(glycosyl)-1{prime}fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of ({sup 14}C) sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F{sub 2} population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes.

  16. Non-hydraulic regulation of fruit growth in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Solairo) growing in drying soil.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Darren M; Bacon, Mark A; Davies, William J

    2003-04-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Solairo) fruit growth, fruit mesocarp and leaf epidermal cell turgor, and fruit and leaf sub-epidermal apoplastic pH were monitored as plants were allowed to dry the soil in which they were rooted. Soil drying regimes involved splitting the root system of plants between two halves of a single pot separated by a solid impervious membrane to form a split-root system. Plants were then allowed to dry the soil in both halves of the pot (a soil-drying (SD) treatment) or water was supplied to one-half of the pot (a partial root-drying (PRD) treatment), allowing only one-half of the root system to dry the soil. A well-watered control treatment watered the soil on both halves of the pot. The rate of fruit growth was highly correlated with the soil water content of both sides of the SD treatment and the dry side of the PRD treatment. Soil drying caused a significant restriction in fruit growth rate, which was independent of any changes in the turgor of expanding fruit mesocarp cells in the PRD treatment. By supplying water to half of the root system, the turgors of mesocarp cells were maintained at values above those recorded in well-watered controls. The turgor of leaf epidermal cells exhibited a similar response. The pH of the sub-epidermal apoplastic compartment in leaves and fruit increased with soil drying. The dynamics of this increase in leaves and fruit were identical, suggesting free transport of this signal from shoot to fruit. Fruit growth rate and sub-epidermal pH within the fruit showed a strong correlation. The similarity of fruit growth response in the SD and PRD treatment, suggests that tomato plants respond to a discrete measure of soil water status and do not integrate measures to determine total soil water availability. The results of this study are not consistent with Lockhartian models of growth regulation in expanding fruit of a higher plant. A non-hydraulic, chemical-based signalling control of fruit growth in plants

  17. Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in subtropical México.

    PubMed

    Cauich, Orlando; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Macias-Macias, José Octavio; Reyes-Oregel, Vicente; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Parra-Tabla, Victor

    2004-04-01

    The acclimation, foraging behavior, and pollination efficiency of stingless bees of the species Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants cultivated in two greenhouses. The greenhouses were divided into three areas of 16 m2, and one of the following treatments was used for pollination: stingless bees (SB), mechanical vibration (MV), and no pollination (NP). Observations were conducted once a week from 0800 to 1600 hours during 2 mo. The acclimation of the bees to the greenhouses was estimated by the number of bees that did not return to the hive (lost bees) and by comparing the population of the colonies (brood and adults). The foraging activity of the bees across the day was evaluated by comparing the number of foragers per hour. The influence of environmental variables on the foraging activity was also analyzed. The pollination efficiency was compared among treatments through the percentage of fruit set, weight of individual fruit, kilograms of fruit produced per square meter, and the number of seed per fruit. The bees started foraging on the flowers approximately 7 d after the colonies were introduced to the greenhouse. There was a decline in the population of the colonies across the experiment, but colonies did not die out. Correlations of environmental variables with the foraging activity of the bees showed that none of them had a significant influence on pollen foraging. However, water collection was positively correlated with the temperature and negatively correlated with the humidity inside the greenhouse. The estimation of the pollination efficiency per treatment showed that there were significant differences in fruit set in SB (83 +/- 4.2) and MV (78.5 +/- 6.4) compared with NP (52.6 +/- 7.6). However, the average weight of the fruit was similar for the three treatments (65 g). There were significant differences for seed number in SB (200 +/- 15.3) and MV (232 +/- 21.4) compared with NP (120 +/- 16

  18. Phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin precludes Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici infection in Lycopersicon esculentum via induction of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, S; Sarada, D V L

    2015-01-01

    Binding of phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (PDP) modulated activity of fungal endopolygalacturonase in silico. Induced fit docking study of PDP with endopolygalacturonase (1HG8) showed a bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with the protein at Lys 244 with a docking score of -3.6 and glide energy of -37.30 kcal/mol. Docking with endopolygalacturonase II (1CZF) resulted hydrogen bond formation with Lys 258 with a docking score of -2.3 and glide energy of -30.42 kcal/mol. It was hypothesized that this modulation favors accumulation of cell wall fragments (oligogalacturonides) which act as elicitors of plant defense responses. In order to prove the same, in vivo studies were carried out using a formulation developed from PDP (PDP 5EC) on greenhouse grown Lycopersicon esculentum L. The formulation was effective at different concentrations in reduction of seed infection, improvement of vigor and control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection in L. esculentum. At a concentration of 2 %, PDP 5EC significant reduction in seed infection (95.83 %), improvement in seed vigor (64.31 %) and control of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection (96.15 %) were observed. Further application of PDP 5EC to L. esculentum challenged with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici significantly increased the activity of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and enhanced the total phenolic content when compared to the control. PMID:25374140

  19. Evaluation of volatile metabolites as markers in Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars discrimination by multivariate analysis of headspace solid phase microextraction and mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Figueira, José; Câmara, Hugo; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2014-02-15

    To gain insights on the effects of cultivar on the volatile metabolomic expression of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars--Plum, Campari, Grape, Cherry and Regional, cultivated under similar edafoclimatic conditions, and to identify the most discriminate volatile marker metabolites related to the cultivar, the chromatographic profiles resulting from headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) analysis, combined with multivariate analysis were investigated. The data set composed by the 77 volatile metabolites identified in the target tomato cultivars, 5 of which (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone, 2-methyl-6-methyleneoctan-2-ol, 4-octadecyl-morpholine, (Z)-methyl-3-hexenoate and 3-octanone) are reported for the first time in tomato volatile metabolomic composition, was evaluated by chemometrics. Firstly, principal component analysis was carried out in order to visualise data trends and clusters, and then, linear discriminant analysis in order to detect the set of volatile metabolites able to differentiate groups according to tomato cultivars. The results obtained revealed a perfect discrimination between the different Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars considered. The assignment success rate was 100% in classification and 80% in prediction ability by using "leave-one-out" cross-validation procedure. The volatile profile was able to differentiate all five cultivars and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. The volatile metabolomic platform for tomato samples obtained by HS-SPME/GC-qMS here described, and the interrelationship detected among the volatile metabolites can be used as a roadmap for biotechnological applications, namely to improve tomato aroma and their acceptance in the final consumer, and for traceability studies. PMID:24128528

  20. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato. PMID:24328546

  1. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere. PMID:22382378

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2‧-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm-1, being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  3. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  4. Effect of ethephon on protein degradation and the accumulation of pathogensis-related (PR) proteins in tomato leaf discs. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, P.; Conejero, V. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ethephon (2-chloroetylphosphonic acid) on the degradation of proteins and on the induction of Lycopersicon esculentum pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins was studied in tomato leaf discs. The rate of ribulose, -1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) degradation was maximal in discs after 48 hours of incubation with 1 millimolar ethephon, leading to complete disappearance of Rubisco after 96 hours. This effect was correlated with an increase in PR protein synthesis and the induction of the previously reported alkaline proteolytic enzyme PR-P69. In vivo pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that ethephon not only affected Rubisco content but that of many other {sup 35}S-labeled proteins as well, indicating that ethylene activates a general and nonspecific mechanism of protein degradation. This effect was partially inhibited in vivo by the action of pCMB, a selective inhibitor of cysteine-proteinases such as P69. These data reinforce the hypothesis that P69 and perhaps other PR proteins are involved in the mechanism of accelerated protein degradation activated by ethylene.

  5. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  6. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A. ); McCormick, S. . Plant Gene Expression Center)

    1993-03-27

    This study employs Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii as model systems to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS).

  7. Effect of Two Plant Species, Flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), on the Diversity of Soilborne Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Lemanceau, P.; Corberand, T.; Gardan, L.; Latour, X.; Laguerre, G.; Boeufgras, J.; Alabouvette, C.

    1995-01-01

    Suppression of soilborne disease by fluorescent pseudomonads may be inconsistent. Inefficient root colonization by the introduced bacteria is often responsible for this inconsistency. To better understand the bacterial traits involved in root colonization, the effect of two plant species, flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), on the diversity of soilborne populations was assessed. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from an uncultivated soil and from rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and root tissue of flax and tomato cultivated in the same soil. Species and biovars were identified by classical biochemical and physiological tests. The ability of bacterial isolates to assimilate 147 different organic compounds and to show three different enzyme activities was assessed to determine their intraspecific phenotypic diversity. Numerical analysis of these characteristics allowed the clustering of isolates showing a high level (87.8%) of similarity. On the whole, the populations isolated from soil were different from those isolated from plants with respect to their phenotypic characteristics. The difference in bacteria isolated from uncultivated soil and from root tissue of flax was particularly marked. The intensity of plant selection was more strongly expressed with flax than with tomato plants. The selection was, at least partly, plant specific. The use of 10 different substrates allowed us to discriminate between flax and tomato isolates. Pseudomonas fluorescens biovars II, III, and V and Pseudomonas putida biovar A and intermediate type were well distributed among the isolates from soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane. Most isolates from root tissue of flax and tomato belonged to P. putida bv. A and to P. fluorescens bv. II, respectively. Phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates was well correlated with genotypic characterization based on repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting. PMID:16534950

  8. Germacrene C synthase from Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry tomato: cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of the multiple product sesquiterpene cyclase.

    PubMed

    Colby, S M; Crock, J; Dowdle-Rizzo, B; Lemaux, P G; Croteau, R

    1998-03-01

    Germacrene C was found by GC-MS and NMR analysis to be the most abundant sesquiterpene in the leaf oil of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry, with lesser amounts of germacrene A, guaia-6,9-diene, germacrene B, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and germacrene D. Soluble enzyme preparations from leaves catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]farnesyl diphosphate to these same sesquiterpene olefins, as determined by radio-GC. To obtain a germacrene synthase cDNA, a set of degenerate primers was constructed based on conserved amino acid sequences of related terpenoid cyclases. With cDNA prepared from leaf epidermis-enriched mRNA, these primers amplified a 767-bp fragment that was used as a hybridization probe to screen the cDNA library. Thirty-one clones were evaluated for functional expression of terpenoid cyclase activity in Escherichia coli by using labeled geranyl, farnesyl, and geranylgeranyl diphosphates as substrates. Nine cDNA isolates expressed sesquiterpene synthase activity, and GC-MS analysis of the products identified germacrene C with smaller amounts of germacrene A, B, and D. None of the expressed proteins was active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate; however, one truncated protein converted geranyl diphosphate to the monoterpene limonene. The cDNA inserts specify a deduced polypeptide of 548 amino acids (Mr = 64,114), and sequence comparison with other plant sesquiterpene cyclases indicates that germacrene C synthase most closely resembles cotton delta-cadinene synthase (50% identity). PMID:9482865

  9. Exposure of Lycopersicon Esculentum to Microcystin-LR: Effects in the Leaf Proteome and Toxin Translocation from Water to Leaves and Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Neves, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Guzmán-Guillén, Remédios; Cameán, Ana María; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    Natural toxins such as those produced by freshwater cyanobacteria have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. However, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to investigate microcystin-LR (MC-LR) toxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum and the toxin accumulation in this horticultural crop. Adult plants (2 month-old) grown in a greenhouse environment were exposed for 2 weeks to either pure MC-LR (100 μg/L) or Microcystis aeruginosa crude extracts containing 100 μg/L MC-LR. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured, leaf proteome investigated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF, and toxin bioaccumulation assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Variations in several protein markers (ATP synthase subunits, Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins) highlight the decrease of the capacity of plants to synthesize ATP and to perform photosynthesis, whereas variations in other proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase) suggest an increase of carbon fixation and decrease of carbohydrate metabolism reactions in plants exposed to pure MC-LR and cyanobacterial extracts, respectively. MC-LR was found in roots (1635.21 μg/kg fw), green tomatoes (5.15–5.41 μg/kg fw), mature tomatoes (10.52–10.83 μg/kg fw), and leaves (12,298.18 μg/kg fw). The results raise concerns relative to food safety and point to the necessity of monitoring the bioaccumulation of water toxins in agricultural systems affected by cyanotoxin contamination. PMID:24921194

  10. Exposure of Lycopersicon esculentum to microcystin-LR: effects in the leaf proteome and toxin translocation from water to leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Neves, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Guzmán-Guillén, Remédios; Cameán, Ana María; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-06-11

    Natural toxins such as those produced by freshwater cyanobacteria have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. However, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to investigate microcystin-LR (MC-LR) toxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum and the toxin accumulation in this horticultural crop. Adult plants (2 month-old) grown in a greenhouse environment were exposed for 2 weeks to either pure MC-LR (100 μg/L) or Microcystis aeruginosa crude extracts containing 100 μg/L MC-LR. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured, leaf proteome investigated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF, and toxin bioaccumulation assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Variations in several protein markers (ATP synthase subunits, Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins) highlight the decrease of the capacity of plants to synthesize ATP and to perform photosynthesis, whereas variations in other proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase) suggest an increase of carbon fixation and decrease of carbohydrate metabolism reactions in plants exposed to pure MC-LR and cyanobacterial extracts, respectively. MC-LR was found in roots (1635.21 μg/kg fw), green tomatoes (5.15-5.41 μg/kg fw), mature tomatoes (10.52-10.83 μg/kg fw), and leaves (12,298.18 μg/kg fw). The results raise concerns relative to food safety and point to the necessity of monitoring the bioaccumulation of water toxins in agricultural systems affected by cyanotoxin contamination.

  11. Water-use efficiency and drought tolerance in Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii and their F sub 2 crosses

    SciTech Connect

    de Soyza, A.G.; Kay, L.E.; Gutschick, V.P.; Maxwell, C. )

    1991-05-01

    In growth chamber experiments the authors compared the water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance (DT - retention of dry mass vegetative yield when droughted) of the drought intolerant common tomato, L. esculentum and the ostensibly drought tolerant tomato, L. pennellii. Drought treatment was imposed as two severe episodes of drought, each episode lasting until all leaves on the plant were silted, with a period of recovery between treatments. They measured up to 20 performance attributes to WUE and DT, including: root:shoot ratio, leaf internal CO2/ambient CO2, {delta}{sup 13}C, leaf photosynthetic rate, specific leaf mass, leaf water potential, leaf osmotic potential, and stomatal density. Water-use efficiency is negatively correlated with drought tolerance; drought tolerance is positively correlated with plants' ability to increase WUE under stress. Few other attributes are correlated with drought tolerance, and some are conspicuous by their absence. They find evidence for substantial genetic linkage among attributes that confer drought tolerance; and interplant rankings in drought tolerance depend strongly upon the type of drought stress experienced (episodic vs. continuous).

  12. Effect of temperature on the occurrence of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Capsicum annum; Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum; Cardaria draba, Populus fremontii

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthesis to O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ was measured in leaves from field grown plants of six species (Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum, Cardaria draba, and Populus fremontii) from 5/sup 0/C to 35/sup 0/C using gas-exchange techniques. In all species but Phaseolus, photosynthesis was insensitive to O/sub 2/ in normal air below a species dependent temperature. CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under the same conditions that resulted in O/sub 2/ insensitivity. A complete loss of O/sub 2/ sensitivity occurred up to 22/sup 0/C in Lycopersicon but only up to 6/sup 0/C in Scrophularia. In Lycopersicon and Populus, O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under conditions regularly encountered during the cooler portions of the day. Because O/sub 2/ insensitivity is an indicator of feedback limited photosynthesis, these results indicate that feedback limitations can play a role in determining the diurnal carbon gain in the field. At higher partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ the temperature at which O/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred was higher, indicating that feedback limitations in the field will become more important as the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere increases.

  13. Effect of temperature on the occurrence of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. [Phaselous vulgaris; capsicum annum; lycopersicon esculentum; scrophularia desertorum; cardaria

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1987-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthesis to O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ was measured in field grown plants of six species (Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum, Cardaria draba and Populus Fremontii) from 5/sup 0/C to 35/sup 0/C. Photosynthesis was insensitive to O/sub 2/ in normal air below a species dependent temperature. CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under the same conditions that resulted in O/sub 2/ insensitivity. A complete loss of O/sub 2/ sensitivity was observed up to 22/sup 0/C (in Lycopersicon) but only up to 6/sup 0/C (in Scrophularia). In Lycopersicon and Populus, O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under conditions regularly encountered during the cooler portions of the day. The authors believe that O/sub 2/ insensitivity is an indicator of feedback limited photosynthesis, and that these results indicate that feedback limitations can play a role in determining plant carbon gain in the field. At higher partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ the temperature at which O/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred was higher, indicating that feedback limitations in the field will become more important as the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere increases.

  14. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon. Second yearly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A.; McCormick, S.

    1993-03-27

    This study employs Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii as model systems to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS).

  15. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  16. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. PMID:20542109

  17. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens.

  18. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  19. A bench-scale, cost effective and simple method to elicit Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus attack using ozone-mediated inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, N; Nagendra-Prasad, D; Mohan, N; Murugesan, K

    2007-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate ozone for inactivation of Cucumber mosaic virus present in the inoculum and to stimulate Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection by using the inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum. Application of a T(4) (0.4mg/l) concentration of ozone to the inoculum containing Cucumber mosaic virus resulted in complete inactivation of the virus. The inactivated viral inoculum was mixed with a penetrator (delivery agent), referred to as T(4) preparation, and it was evaluated for the development of systemic acquired resistance in the tomato plants. Application of a T(4) preparation 5 days before inoculation with the Cucumber mosaic virus protected tomato plants from the effects of Cucumber mosaic virus. Among the components of the inactivated virus tested, coat protein subunits and aggregates were responsible for the acquired resistance in tomato plants. In field trials, the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that, Cucumber mosaic virus accumulation was significantly less for all the test plants (16%) sprayed with the T(4) preparation than untreated control plants (89.5%) at 28 days postinoculation (dpi). A remarkable increase in the activities of the total soluble phenolics (10-fold) and salicylic acid (16-fold) was detected 5 days after the treatment in foliar extracts of test plants relative to untreated control plants. The results showed that treatment of tomato plants with inactivated viral inoculum led to a significant enhancement of protection against Cucumber mosaic virus attack in a manner that mimics a real pathogen and induces systemic acquired resistance.

  20. Purification of pectin methylesterase from Lycopersicon esculentum and its application.

    PubMed

    Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Reena

    2012-11-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) (3.1.1.11) is the pectin degrading enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of pectin methylester group, resulting in de-esterification. PME is widely distributed in plants, fungi, yeast and bacteria. In the present study, PME was extracted from tomato by using 8.8% NaCl (4°C). The crude enzyme precipitated with 60% ammonium sulphate resulted in 1.02 fold purification of the enzyme. The purification was done by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose column. This resulted in 1.82 fold purification of the enzyme. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE which was found to be 34.0 kDa. During characterization of the purified enzyme, the maximum activity was found at temperature 50°C, pH 6.5, reaction time 45 min. Citrus pectin was the best substrate for maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme did not require any metal ion to express its activity, enzyme was found to be very stable at 4°C and at 50°C the enzyme was stable upto 2 h as it retained 70% of its activity. The K(m) and V(max) values of the enzyme were found to be 0.115 mg/ml and 1.03 μmol/ml/min. PME enhanced the pectin degradation process in apple juice clarification in combination with polygalacturonase and increased %T(650) from 1.7% to 5.6%.

  1. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Joyce; Kirk, Dwayne D; Walmsley, Amanda M

    2006-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is an important fruit crop in the Americas, southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, with increasing production in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. It is amenable to producing pharmaceuticals, particularly for oral delivery; for many of the same reasons, it is a popular vegetable. Its fruit does not contain toxic substances and is palatable uncooked; it is easily processed; the plants are able to be propagated by seed or clonally by tip or shoot cuttings; the plants have a high yield of fruit; there is reasonable biomass and protein content; and they are easily grown under containment. This chapter describes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the tomato nucleus using cotyledons as explants. We have used this protocol to generate transgenic lines from several tomato cultivars expressing various genes of interest and selectable markers. We also provide protocols for molecular characterization of transgenic lines and batch processing tomato fruit. PMID:16988368

  2. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A.

    1997-04-30

    Deficiency of Lycopersicon esculentum allele (E) was observed from the RFLP and isozyme data of the F{sub 2} populations derived from the cross L. esculentum x L. pennellii. The genome composition of the F{sub 2} populations containing L. pennellii cytoplasm (F{sub 2}{sup Lp4}) has a lower proportion of the homozygous L. pennellii (PP) genotypes and a higher proportion of heterozygote (EP) genotypes than that of the F{sub 2} populations containing L. esculentum cytoplasm (F{sub 2}{sup Le}). A lower proportion of the L. pennellii alleles (P) was also observed in F{sub 2}{sup Lp4} as compared to F{sub 2}{sup Le} when each marker locus was tested individually. To study the effects of gametic and zygotic selection on segregation distortion, the expected patterns of segregation at a marker locus were derived for ten selection models with gametic or zygotic selection at a hidden linked locus. Segregation distortion caused by four of the selection models studied can be uniquely identified by the patterns of significance expected for the likelihood ratio tests at the marker loci. Comparison of the chromosomal regions associated with specific selection models across populations (of this experiment and previous publications) indicated that the segregation distortion observed in chromosome 10 is associated with zygotic selection affecting both arms of the chromosome, and cytoplasm substitution has the effect of decreasing the segregation distortion on the long arm of the chromosome.

  3. Recurrent Miller Fisher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Geetha; Bhargavan, P V

    2004-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillan Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with Miller Fisher syndrome. We are reporting a case with two episodes of MFS within two years. Initially he presented with partial ophthalmoplegia, ataxia. Second episode was characterized by full-blown presentation characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. CSF analysis was typical during both episodes. Nerve conduction velocity study was fairly within normal limits. MRI of brain was within normal limits. He responded to symptomatic measures initially, then to steroids in the second episode. We are reporting the case due to its rarity.

  4. Quantitative trait locus analysis of leaf dissection in tomato using Lycopersicon pennellii segmental introgression lines.

    PubMed Central

    Holtan, Hans E E; Hake, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Leaves are one of the most conspicuous and important organs of all seed plants. A fundamental source of morphological diversity in leaves is the degree to which the leaf is dissected by lobes and leaflets. We used publicly available segmental introgression lines to describe the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the difference in leaf dissection seen between two tomato species, Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii. We define eight morphological characteristics that comprise the mature tomato leaf and describe loci that affect each of these characters. We found 30 QTL that contribute one or more of these characters. Of these 30 QTL, 22 primarily affect leaf dissection and 8 primarily affect leaf size. On the basis of which characters are affected, four classes of loci emerge that affect leaf dissection. The majority of the QTL produce phenotypes intermediate to the two parent lines, while 5 QTL result in transgression with drastically increased dissection relative to both parent lines. PMID:14668401

  5. Quantitative trait locus analysis of leaf dissection in tomato using Lycopersicon pennellii segmental introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Holtan, Hans E E; Hake, Sarah

    2003-11-01

    Leaves are one of the most conspicuous and important organs of all seed plants. A fundamental source of morphological diversity in leaves is the degree to which the leaf is dissected by lobes and leaflets. We used publicly available segmental introgression lines to describe the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the difference in leaf dissection seen between two tomato species, Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii. We define eight morphological characteristics that comprise the mature tomato leaf and describe loci that affect each of these characters. We found 30 QTL that contribute one or more of these characters. Of these 30 QTL, 22 primarily affect leaf dissection and 8 primarily affect leaf size. On the basis of which characters are affected, four classes of loci emerge that affect leaf dissection. The majority of the QTL produce phenotypes intermediate to the two parent lines, while 5 QTL result in transgression with drastically increased dissection relative to both parent lines. PMID:14668401

  6. Influence of modified atmosphere and ethylene levels on quality attributes of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Irene; Lafuente, María T; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2016-10-15

    Controlling storage atmosphere is a key factor for delaying postharvest fruit quality loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate its influence on physico-chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality attributes of two tomato fruit cultivars (Delizia and Pitenza) that respectively have a short- and long-storage life. To that end, the effect of two types of bags with different gas permeability, combined or not with an ethylene sorbent, on tomato organoleptic and nutritional properties were compared during fruit storage at 13°C. CO2 and O2 were critical factors for controlling tomato postharvest behaviour. Weight loss, firmness, color and visual quality were only affected by bag permeability just as total sugar content and acidity for Pitenza tomatoes. (trans)-2-Hexenal also appears to be related with CO2 and O2 levels. Lycopene, total phenols (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents were also affected by the packaging form and the storage length. Ethylene removal in combination with MAP led to a higher content in TP and AA in the short-life tomato cultivar. PMID:27173554

  7. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of natural oleoresin from greenhouse grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Eustolia; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2009-03-01

    Natural oleoresins rich in lycopene were obtained from two varieties of tomato (Zedona and Gironda) and their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant and antimutagenic capacity) was evaluated. Both oleoresins had a high content of lycopene, 58.33+/-1.67 mg/g (Zedona) and 63.97+/-0.80 mg/g (Gironda). The antioxidant activity (AA) of the oleoresins by beta-carotene method were 56.4-74.5% (Zedona) and 51-72.8% (Gironda), while when using the free radical stable 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method, the antiradical activity (ARA) was determined to be 18.2-32.7% (Zedona) and 16.6-26.7% (Gironda) for the concentrations tested that of 200-400 microM equivalents of lycopene. The antimutagenic activity of the oleoresins was tested against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the microsuspension assay, both varieties had a very high antimutagenic potential against AFB1 (60-66%).These results suggest the NCRT can be taken advantage to obtaining rich oleoresin in lycopene with a nutraceutical value. PMID:19020978

  8. Induced androgenesis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). III. Characterization of the regenerants.

    PubMed

    Zagorska, N A; Shtereva, L A; Kruleva, M M; Sotirova, V G; Baralieva, D L; Dimitrov, B D

    2004-02-01

    We present data on the morphological, cytological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of tomato regenerants obtained through anther culture. As a result of induced androgenesis, more than 6,000 rooted regenerants were developed that differed both from the donor plants and among each other with respect to habitus and leaf, flower and inflorescence morphology. Cytological analysis revealed a great variability in chromosome number in the cells of the regenerated plants. While most of the regenerants were mixoploid, the majority of the cells had a haploid chromosome number. R(1) and R(2) progenies were tested for their resistance to Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ( Cmm 7). Some of the regenerants were resistant to the pathogen. A biochemical analysis of fruit from R(3) and R(4) plants showed a higher content of dry matter, sugars and vitamin C in the regenerant plants obtained from the hybrids than in those from the cultivars and control plants. The values of the parameters of hybrid regenerants grown in the greenhouse were about 1.5-fold higher than those of the hybrid regenerants grown in the field, and this trend is clearly expressed in all of the hybrid regenerants. The results obtained suggest that induced androgenesis and gametoclonal variation may be used as an additional tool to create a large range of new forms. The application of the latter in breeding programs would accelerate the development of tomato lines and varieties that would be more productive, disease-resistant, highly nutritive and flavour-acceptable.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of natural oleoresin from greenhouse grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Eustolia; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2009-03-01

    Natural oleoresins rich in lycopene were obtained from two varieties of tomato (Zedona and Gironda) and their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant and antimutagenic capacity) was evaluated. Both oleoresins had a high content of lycopene, 58.33+/-1.67 mg/g (Zedona) and 63.97+/-0.80 mg/g (Gironda). The antioxidant activity (AA) of the oleoresins by beta-carotene method were 56.4-74.5% (Zedona) and 51-72.8% (Gironda), while when using the free radical stable 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method, the antiradical activity (ARA) was determined to be 18.2-32.7% (Zedona) and 16.6-26.7% (Gironda) for the concentrations tested that of 200-400 microM equivalents of lycopene. The antimutagenic activity of the oleoresins was tested against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the microsuspension assay, both varieties had a very high antimutagenic potential against AFB1 (60-66%).These results suggest the NCRT can be taken advantage to obtaining rich oleoresin in lycopene with a nutraceutical value.

  10. Season-dependent mineral accumulation in fruits of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2002-01-01

    Season-dependent mineral accumulation was recorded in fruits of Okra and Tomato. The highest concentration was in summer in Okra and in winter in Tomato. Lowest concentrations were in winter in Okra and rainy in Tomato. Both crop plants indicated that the mineral contents were in the order of P > K > Ca > Mg > Na > Fe which also signify their relative functional importance in growth and metabolism.

  11. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  12. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  13. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; DuPont, M Susan; Mellon, Fred A; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E; Colquhoun, Ian J

    2003-04-23

    There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an overall increase in flavonoid levels in tomato fruit, can be achieved by means of simultaneous overexpression of the maize transcription factors LC and C1. Fruit from progeny of two modified lines (2027 and 2059) was selected for a detailed analysis and individual identification of flavonoids, at different stages of maturity. Nine major flavonoids were detected in the flesh of transgenic ripe tomatoes. LC/NMR, LC/MS, and LC/MS/MS enabled us to identify these as kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), two dihydrokaempferol-O-hexosides (3 and 4), rutin (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (7), naringenin-7-O-glucoside (8) and naringenin chalcone (9), which were quantified by HPLC/DAD. All but 5, 6, and 9 were detected in tomato for the first time. The total flavonoid glycoside content of ripe transgenic tomatoes of line 2059 was about 10-fold higher than that of the controls, and kaempferol glycosides accounted for 60% of this. Kaempferol glycosides comprised around 5% of the flavonoid glycoside content of ripe control tomatoes (the rest was rutin and naringenin chalcone). The rutin concentration in both transgenic and control fruits was similar.

  14. 01-NIF Dedication: George Miller

    ScienceCinema

    George Miller

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Lab Director George Miller.

  15. 01-NIF Dedication: George Miller

    SciTech Connect

    George Miller

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Lab Director George Miller.

  16. Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric Thomas; Cleaves, Henderson James; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason; Zhou, Manshui; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1953, Stanley Miller reported the production of biomolecules from simple gaseous starting materials, using apparatus constructed to simulate the primordial Earth's atmosphere-ocean system. Miller introduced 200 ml of water, 100 mmHg of H2, 200mmHg of CH4, and 200mmHg of NH3 into the apparatus, then subjected this mixture, under reflux, to an electric discharge for a week, while the water was simultaneously heated. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a general experimental protocol that can be used to conduct a Miller-Urey type spark discharge experiment, using a simplified 3 L reaction flask. Since the experiment involves exposing inflammable gases to a high voltage discharge, it is worth highlighting important steps that reduce the risk of explosion. The general procedures described in this work can be extrapolated to design and conduct a wide variety of electric discharge experiments simulating primitive planetary environments.

  17. Intragenic recombination generated two distinct Cf genes that mediate AVR9 recognition in the natural population of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Kruijt, Marco; Roth, Ronelle; Brandwagt, Bas F.; Joosten, Matthieu H. A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Resistance gene Cf-9 of cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) confers recognition of the AVR9 elicitor protein of the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. The Cf-9 locus, containing Cf-9 and four homologs (Hcr9s), originates from Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (Lp). We examined naturally occurring polymorphism in Hcr9s that confer AVR9 recognition in the Lp population. AVR9 recognition occurs frequently throughout this population. In addition to Cf-9, we discovered a second gene in Lp, designated 9DC, which also confers AVR9 recognition. Compared with Cf-9, 9DC is more polymorphic, occurs more frequently, and is more widely spread throughout the Lp population, suggesting that 9DC is older than Cf-9. The sequences of Cf-9 and 9DC suggest that Cf-9 evolved from 9DC by intragenic recombination between 9DC and another Hcr9. The fact that the 9DC and Cf-9 proteins differ in 61 aa residues, and both mediate recognition of AVR9, shows that in nature Hcr9 proteins with the same recognitional specificity can vary significantly. PMID:11517316

  18. An Interview with Ron Miller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercogliano, Chris; Becker, Ellen; Leue, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Ron Miller, founder of the journal "Holistic Education Review," discusses his intellectual background in humanistic psychology and historical studies, definition of holism in education, the holistic approach as an answer to the reductionist and fragmented modern era, founding of the journal as a form of activism, and the incremental nature of…

  19. Tomato Breeding Lines Resistant and Tolerant to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Issued from Lycopersicon hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Vidavsky, F; Czosnek, H

    1998-09-01

    ABSTRACT Two tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant plants from accessions LA1777 and LA386 of the wild tomato species Lycopersicon hirsutum have been crossed. The resulting resistant F1 plants were crossed with the domesticated tomato L. esculentum, and a series of selfing was performed. At each generation, individuals were selected for resistance (no symptoms and undetectable viral DNA) and tolerance (no symptoms but with detectable viral DNA) following controlled massive and repeated inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies. A stable BC1F4 line (denominated 902) that does not segregate for resistance was obtained. This line does not support virus accumulation, even upon extensive whitefly-mediated inoculation of young seedlings, and does not need protection with nets or insecticides. Another stable BC1F4 line (denominated 908) was tolerant to the virus. Both lines have good horticultural characteristics and bear 80- to 120-g red fruits. Analysis of segregation of susceptibility, tolerance, and resistance during the BC1F1 to BC1F4 crosses indicated that tolerance is controlled by a dominant major gene and resistance by two to three additive recessive genes. The resistant and tolerant lines do not need to be protected by insecticides or nets. PMID:18944868

  20. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-. gamma. -glutamyl peptide complexes from Lycopersicon and Daucus

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N. ); Winge, D.R. )

    1989-04-01

    Hydroponically-grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill. cv stone) and suspension-cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota L.) exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium salts produced metal-{gamma}-glutamyl peptide complexes containing acid labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble the Cd-{gamma}-glutamyl complexes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata, known to contain a CdS crystallite core. The crystallite core is stabilized by a coating of peptides of the general structure ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The Cd-peptide complexes contain predominantly peptides of n{sub 2}, n{sub 3}, n{sub 4} and n{sub 3}desGly. Zn-peptide complexes were also isolated from carrot cultures grown in MS medium supplemented with 2 mM Zn and cysteine. Results of preliminary characterization of these complexes are consistent with the presence of a colloidal particle similar to that of the Cd-complexes.

  1. Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, James H.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Zhou, Manshui; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1953, Stanley Miller reported the production of biomolecules from simple gaseous starting materials, using an apparatus constructed to simulate the primordial Earth's atmosphere-ocean system. Miller introduced 200 ml of water, 100 mmHg of H2, 200 mmHg of CH4, and 200 mmHg of NH3 into the apparatus, then subjected this mixture, under reflux, to an electric discharge for a week, while the water was simultaneously heated. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a general experimental protocol that can be used to conduct a Miller-Urey type spark discharge experiment, using a simplified 3 L reaction flask. Since the experiment involves exposing inflammable gases to a high voltage electric discharge, it is worth highlighting important steps that reduce the risk of explosion. The general procedures described in this work can be extrapolated to design and conduct a wide variety of electric discharge experiments simulating primitive planetary environments. PMID:24473135

  2. J. Hillis Miller's Virtual Reality of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosso, Kurt; Harp, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    We set out to investigate Miller's curious assertion--curious for a deconstructionist committed to a critique of the old metaphysics of presence--that literary works preexist their being written down. We find a basis for this sense of the preexistence of the literary work in Miller's insights about the performative dynamics of reading and writing.…

  3. Stress and Specificity: Reply to Miller (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    T. F. Denson, M. Spanovic, and N. Miller (2009) meta-analytically tested the hypotheses that specific appraisals and emotions would predict cortisol and immune responses to laboratory stressors and emotion inductions. Although the cortisol data supported the integrated specificity hypothesis, G. E. Miller (2009) raised questions concerning the…

  4. Identification of resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in the Lycopersicon peruvianum complex.

    PubMed

    Veremis, J C; Roberts, P A

    1996-10-01

    Clones of Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 2704352R2, PI 270435-3MH and PI 126443-1MH expressed novel resistance to three Mi-avirulent M. javanica isolates in greenhouse experiments. Clones from PI 126443-1MH were resistant to the three M. javanica isolates at 25°C. The three isolates were able to reproduce on one embryorescue hybrid of PI 126443-1MH, but not on three L. peruvianum-L. esculentum bridge-line hybrids of PI 1264431MH when screened at 25°C (Mi-expressed temperature). Clones of PI 270435-2R2 and all its hybrids with susceptible genotypes were resistant to the three M. javanica isolates at 25°C. The bridge-line hybrid EPP-2xPI 2704352R2 was susceptible to M. javanica isolate 811 at 32°C, whereas PI 270435-2R2 and all other hybrids of PI 27043 5-2R2 crossed with susceptible genotypes were resistant at 32°C. At 32°C, one F2 progeny of PI 126443-IMHxEPP-1, and three test-cross progenies of PI 1264409MHx[PI 270435-3MHxPI 126443-1MH], and reciprocal test-cross progenies of [PI 270435-3MHxPI 2704352R2]xPI 126440-9MH, each segregated into resistant: susceptible (R∶S) ratios close to 3∶1. The results from the F2 progeny indicated that heat-stable resistance to Mi-avirulent M. javanica in PI 126443 -1MH is conferred by a single dominant gene. The results from the test-crosses indicated that this gene in PI 126443-1MH is different from the resistance gene in PI 270435-3MH. The resistance gene in PI 270435-3MH was also shown to differ from the resistance factor in PI 270435-2R2. The expression of differential susceptibility and resistance to M. javanica and M. incognita in individual plants of the bridge-line hybrid, embryo-rescue hybrid, F2, and test-crosses indicated that at least some genes governing resistance to M. javanica differ from the genes conferring resistance to M. incognita. A new source of heat-stable resistance to M. javanica was identified in Lycopersicon chilense.

  5. A critical evaluation of the Miller and Miller similar media theory for application to natural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Morteza; Ghahraman, Bijan; Warrick, Arthur W.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.

    2016-05-01

    The Miller-Miller similar media theory is widely applied to characterize the spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties. For a group of soils, a distinct scaling factor is commonly assigned to each individual soil to coalesce the soil water characteristic and hydraulic conductivity functions to single curves. It is generally assumed that the Miller-Miller theory is valid as long as soils are "similar" either with regard to their microscopic pore space geometry or the closely related macroscopic soil hydraulic functions. In this paper, it is illustrated that similarity is not the sole required condition for validity of the Miller-Miller theory. In addition, the interrelation between the soil water characteristic and the hydraulic conductivity functions considered for scaling need to be comparable. The interrelation is dependent not only on the pore space geometry, but also on solid-liquid interactions. Hence similar interrelation cannot be concluded from similarity of microscopic pore space geometry. A dimensionless parameter termed the "joint scaling factor" was defined and applied to evaluate the soundness of the interrelation condition for 26 soils from the UNSODA database that were grouped into six classes of similar soils. Obtained results clearly reveal the crucial importance of the interrelation condition for the Miller-Miller scaling theory, which has been hidden behind the "similarity" requirement, and contradict the general belief that Miller-Miller scaling is valid as long as soils are "similar."

  6. The parthenocarpic fruit (pat) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) sets seedless fruits and has aberrant anther and ovule development.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, A; Taddei, A R; Soressi, G P

    1998-01-01

    Among the different sources of genetic parthenocarpy described in tomato, the mutation referred to as parthenocarpic fruit (pat) is of particular interest because of its strong expressivity and because it confers earlier ripening, higher fruit set and enhanced fruit quality. As a pleiotropic effect, pat flowers have aberrantly developing androecia and reduced male and female fertility. In this work we extend the early description of the pat phenotype by investigating the expression of parthenocarpy in three different environments and by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyse the development of male and female floral organs. The degree of parthenocarpy was high in the three experimental environments and was characterised by a precocious initiation of ovary growth to pre-anthesis floral stages. Aberrations in anther development were evident at flower bud stages and resulted in shorter, irregular and teratoid organs. Ectopic production of carpel-like structures bearing external ovules was evident in the most severely altered androecia. Analysis of ovule development revealed that a fraction of pat ovules becomes aberrant from very early stages, having defective integument growth. Meiosis was irregular in aberrant ovules and megaspore or gamete production was severely hampered. The described pat syndrome suggests that parthenocarpy in this mutant could be a secondary effect of a gene controlling, at early stages, organ identity and development. PMID:9389668

  7. An in vitro method for screening for the presence of thepat-2 gene in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Young, T E; Juvik, J A; Sullivan, J G; Skirvin, R M

    1990-01-01

    Under field conditions,pat-2, the gene which conditions parthenocarpy in tomatoes, is recessive. A simple method has been devised for distinguishing the heterozygote from the two homozygotes using tissue culture. Ovaries of plants segregating for thepat-2 gene were excised and cultured on a medium containing 100 ppm gibberellic acid. After three weeks in culture, three distinct ovary sizes could be seen. It was shown, using F 3 progeny tests, that the largest ovaries corresponded to those plants homozygous for thepat-2 gene, the smallest ovaries corresponded to those plants homozygous for the wild type allele, and the intermediate sized ovaries were the heterozygotes. The ability to identify the heterozygote would greatly simplify a backcross breeding program aimed at incorporating thepat-2 gene into commercial cultivars by eliminating the need for an F 3 progeny test to determine the genotype of a plant. PMID:24226281

  8. Folate content in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). influence of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, and pasteurization and storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, M Dolores; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; García-Alonso, Javier; Ros, Gaspar; Periago, M Jesús

    2009-06-10

    The effects of cultivar, on-vine ripening, and year of harvest on the folate content of raw tomatoes were studied. Folate content in hot-break tomato puree (HTP) subjected to pasteurization at different temperatures and its evolution during the shelf life of tomato juice were also investigated. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate) was the only folate compound identified in raw tomatoes and HTP, but tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate) was 10% of the folate detected in tomato juice. The content of folates in raw tomatoes ranged from 4.1 to 35.3 microg/100 g of fresh weight and was highly influenced by all of the factors studied. No clear trend of folate content with ripening stage was observed. The extractability of 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate from HTP increased significantly after pasteurization at 98 degrees C for 40 s, but higher temperatures decreased its content. Tomato juice showed folate losses during storage independent of the storage temperature. Folate losses were higher when tomato juice was packed in glass bottles than in Tetra Pak.

  9. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    PubMed

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). PMID:23747375

  10. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. PMID:20110103

  11. Biochar filters reduced the toxic effects of nickel on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) grown in nutrient film technique hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Banna, Mostafa F; Gao, Bin

    2016-04-01

    This work used the nutrient film technique to evaluate the role of biochar filtration in reducing the toxic effects of nickel (Ni(2+)) on tomato growth. Three hydroponic treatments: T1 (control), T2 (with Ni(2+)), and T3 (with Ni(2+) and biochar) were used in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to characterize the pre- and post-treatment biochar samples. The results illustrated that precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation with surface functional groups were the potential mechanisms of Ni(2+) removal by biochar. In comparison to the control, the T2 treatment showed severe Ni-stress with alterations in cell wall structure, distortions in cell nucleus, disturbances in mitochondrial system, malformations in stomatal structure, and abnormalities in chloroplast structure. The biochar filters in T3 treatment reduced dysfunctions of cell organelles in root and shoot cells. Total chlorophyll concentration decreased by 41.6% in T2 treatment. This reduction, however, was only 20.8% due to the protective effect of the biochar filters. The presence of Ni(2+) in the systems reduced the tomato fruit yield 58.5% and 31.9% in T2 and T3, respectively. Nickel concentrations reached the toxic limit in roots, shoots, and fruits in T2, which were not observed in T3. Biochar filters in T3 also minimized the dramatic reductions in nutrients concentration in roots, shoots, and fruits, which occurred in T2 treatment due to the severe Ni-stress. Findings from this work suggested that biochar filters can be used on farms as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. PMID:26866963

  12. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) that overexpress cAPX exhibits enhanced tolerance to UV-B and heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, are by-products of biological redox reactions. ROS can denature enzymes and damage important cellular components. Plants have developed antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate ...

  13. Biochar filters reduced the toxic effects of nickel on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) grown in nutrient film technique hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Banna, Mostafa F; Gao, Bin

    2016-04-01

    This work used the nutrient film technique to evaluate the role of biochar filtration in reducing the toxic effects of nickel (Ni(2+)) on tomato growth. Three hydroponic treatments: T1 (control), T2 (with Ni(2+)), and T3 (with Ni(2+) and biochar) were used in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to characterize the pre- and post-treatment biochar samples. The results illustrated that precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation with surface functional groups were the potential mechanisms of Ni(2+) removal by biochar. In comparison to the control, the T2 treatment showed severe Ni-stress with alterations in cell wall structure, distortions in cell nucleus, disturbances in mitochondrial system, malformations in stomatal structure, and abnormalities in chloroplast structure. The biochar filters in T3 treatment reduced dysfunctions of cell organelles in root and shoot cells. Total chlorophyll concentration decreased by 41.6% in T2 treatment. This reduction, however, was only 20.8% due to the protective effect of the biochar filters. The presence of Ni(2+) in the systems reduced the tomato fruit yield 58.5% and 31.9% in T2 and T3, respectively. Nickel concentrations reached the toxic limit in roots, shoots, and fruits in T2, which were not observed in T3. Biochar filters in T3 also minimized the dramatic reductions in nutrients concentration in roots, shoots, and fruits, which occurred in T2 treatment due to the severe Ni-stress. Findings from this work suggested that biochar filters can be used on farms as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation.

  14. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  15. Effect of organic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) extract on the genotoxicity of doxorubicin in the Drosophila wing spot test

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of organic tomatoes (ORTs) reduces the risk of harmful effects to humans and the environment caused by exposure to toxic agrochemicals. In this study, we used the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of wing spots in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate the genotoxicity of ORT and the effect of cotreatment with ORT on the genotoxicity of Doxorubicin® (DXR, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent) that is mediated by free radical formation. Standard (ST) cross larvae were treated chronically with solutions containing 25%, 50% or 100% of an aqueous extract of ORT, in the absence and presence of DXR (0.125 mg/mL), and the number of mutant spots on the wings of emergent flies was counted. ORT alone was not genotoxic but enhanced the toxicity of DXR when administered concomitantly with DXR. The ORT-enhanced frequency of spots induced by DXR may have resulted from the interaction of ORT with the enzymatic systems that catalyze the metabolic detoxification of this drug. PMID:21637658

  16. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  17. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  18. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  19. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    PubMed

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1).

  20. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  1. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  2. A Role for the Surrounding Fruit Tissues in Preventing the Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Tannis; Bewley, J. Derek

    1992-01-01

    During tomato seed development the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) concentration peaks at about 50 d after pollination (DAP) and then declines at later stages (60-70 DAP) of maturation. The ABA concentration in the sheath tissue immediately surrounding the seed increases with time of development, whereas that of the locule declines. The water contents of the seed and fruit tissues are similar during early development (20-30 DAP), but decline in the seed tissues between 30 and 40 DAP. The water potential and the osmotic potential of the embryo are lower than that of the locular tissue after 35 DAP also. Seeds removed from the fruit at 30, 35, and 60 DAP and placed ex situ on 35 and 60 DAP sheath and locular tissue are prevented from germinating. Development of 30 DAP seeds is maintained or promoted by the ex situ fruit tissue with which they are in contact. Their germination is inhibited until subsequent transfer to water, and germination is normal, i.e. by radicle protrusion, and viable seedlings are produced, compared with 30 DAP seeds transferred directly to water; more of these seeds germinate, but by hypocotyl extension, and seedling viability is very poor. Isolated seeds at 35 and 60 DAP re-placed in contact with fruit tissues only germinate when transferred to water after 7 d. At 30 DAP, isolated seeds are insensitive to ABA at physiological concentrations in that they germinate as if on water, albeit by hypocotyl extension. At higher concentrations germination occurs by radicle protrusion. Osmoticum prevents germination, but there is some recovery upon subsequent transfer to water. Seeds at 35 DAP are very sensitive to ABA and exhibit little or no germination, even upon transfer to water. The response of the isolated seeds to osmoticum more closely approximates that to incubation on the ex situ fruit tissues than does their response to ABA. This is also the case for isolated 60 DAP seeds, whose germination is not prevented by ABA, but only by the osmoticum; these seeds are inhibited when in contact with ex situ fruit tissues also. It is proposed that the osmotic environment within the tissues of the tomato fruit plays a greater role than endogenous ABA in preventing precocious germination of the developing seeds. PMID:16653081

  3. George A. Miller (1920-2012).

    PubMed

    Pinker, Steven

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for George A. Miller (1920-2012). Miller ranks among the most important psychologists of the 20th century. In addition to writing one of the best known papers in the history of psychology ("The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information," published in Psychological Review in 1956), Miller also fomented the cognitive revolution, invented psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology, imported powerful ideas from the theories of information, communication, grammar, semantics, and artificial intelligence, and left us a sparkling oeuvre that proves that a rigorous scientist needn't write in soggy prose. Honors rained down on Miller. APA gave him the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (1963), the American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychological Science (1990), the William James Book Award (1992, for The Science of Words), and the Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (2003), and named a prize after him, as did the Cognitive Neuroscience Society. Miller was also honored by the Association for Psychological Science and the American Speech and Hearing Association. In 2000, he won the John P. McGovern Award in the Behavioral Sciences from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and in 1991, the National Medal of Science, the country's highest scientific honor.

  4. Rice millers' syndrome: a preliminary report.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, H H; Domala, Z; Joginder, S; Lee, S H; Lim, C S; Abu Bakar, C M

    1984-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the health effects of rice husk dust in Malaysian rice millers. The study population consisted of 122 male Malay workers from three rice mills, with 42 controls of similar age, sex, ethnic group, and agricultural work background. Interviews using standardised questionnaires, physical examination, total and differential white cell counts, chest radiographs, and lung function tests were performed on each of the millers and the controls. Environmental dust monitoring was also carried out in the three rice mills. Clinical, haematological, and radiological findings suggest that a distinct clinical syndrome seems to be associated with exposure to rice husk dust. The manifestations of this "rice millers' syndrome" include acute and chronic irritant effects affecting the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract; allergic responses such as nasal catarrh, tightness of chest, asthma, and eosinophilia; and radiological opacities in the chest, probably representing early silicosis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Images PMID:6498108

  5. Miller experiments in atomistic computer simulations

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Antonino Marco; Saija, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The celebrated Miller experiments reported on the spontaneous formation of amino acids from a mixture of simple molecules reacting under an electric discharge, giving birth to the research field of prebiotic chemistry. However, the chemical reactions involved in those experiments have never been studied at the atomic level. Here we report on, to our knowledge, the first ab initio computer simulations of Miller-like experiments in the condensed phase. Our study, based on the recent method of treatment of aqueous systems under electric fields and on metadynamics analysis of chemical reactions, shows that glycine spontaneously forms from mixtures of simple molecules once an electric field is switched on and identifies formic acid and formamide as key intermediate products of the early steps of the Miller reactions, and the crucible of formation of complex biological molecules. PMID:25201948

  6. The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam P; Cleaves, H James; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2008-10-17

    Miller's 1950s experiments used, besides the apparatus known in textbooks, one that generated a hot water mist in the spark flask, simulating a water vapor-rich volcanic eruption. We found the original extracts of this experiment in Miller's material and reanalyzed them. The volcanic apparatus produced a wider variety of amino acids than the classic one. Release of reduced gases in volcanic eruptions accompanied by lightning could have been common on the early Earth. Prebiotic compounds synthesized in these environments could have locally accumulated, where they could have undergone further processing. PMID:18927386

  7. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  8. Prebiotic Soup-Revisiting the Miller Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    'Isn't life wonderful?' sang Alma Cogan and Les Howard in their almost forgotten 1953 hit. That same year, Stanley L. Miller raised the hopes of understanding the origin of life when on 15 May, Science published his paper on the synthesis of amino acids under conditions that simulated primitive Earth's atmosphere. Miller had applied an electric discharge to a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2O, and H2 - believed at the time to be the atmospheric composition of early Earth. Surprisingly, the products were not a random mixture of organic molecules, but rather a relatively small number of biochemically significant compounds such as amino acids, hydroxy acids, and urea. With the publication of these dramatic results, the modem era in the study of the origin of life began.

  9. Prebiotic Soup: Revisiting the Miller Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Isn't life wonderful? sang Alma Cogan and Les Howard in their almost forgotten 1953 hit. That same year, Stanley L. Miller raised the hopes of understanding the origin of life when on 15 May, Science published his paper on the synthesis of amino acids under conditions that simulated primitive Earth's atmosphere. Miller had applied an electric discharge to a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2O, and H2 - believed at the time to be the atmospheric composition of early Earth. Surprisingly, the products were not a random mixture of organic molecules. but rather a relatively small number of biochemically significant compounds such as amino acids, hydroxy acids, and urea. With the publication of these dramatic results, the modern era in the study of the origin of life began.

  10. Miller Fisher syndrome presenting as palate paralysis.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, Mohammad Hassan A; Sweid, Ahmad; Ahdab, Rechdi

    2016-09-15

    We report a 63-year old patient who presented to our care initially with a hypernasal voice followed by ataxia, ptosis, dysphonia, and paresthesias. The patient's history, physical examination, and additional tests led to a Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) diagnosis. Palatal paralysis as an inaugurating manifestation of MFS is quite rare and requires special attention from neurologists and otolaryngologists. Although it may present as benign as an acute change in voice, early diagnosis and prompt management may prevent further complications. PMID:27609285

  11. Ordering Chaos: Eva Miller--Multnomah County Library, Portland, OR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Eva Miller has a knack for creating order out of disorder. She single-handedly brought Oregon's virtual reference service, Answerland, live in just under 90 days, says Rivkah Sass, now director of the Omaha Public Library. Miller created its web site, designed the graphics, developed marketing materials, and recruited and trained librarians--all…

  12. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from Aloe barbadensis Miller.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Yin, Sheng; Zhong, Jiasheng; Ding, Wenjing; Wan, Jinzhi; Xie, Zhiyong

    2012-12-01

    Two new chromones, 5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-(β-glucopyranosyl-oxy-methyl)chromone (1) and 5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-methoxychromone (2), together with four known analogues, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol (3), isoaloeresin D (4), 8-C-glucosyl-(R)-aloesol (5), and aloesin (6) were isolated from the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (1-D and 2-D NMR, HRMS, UV, and IR data), chemical methods and the literature data. The Mosher's method was applied to establish the absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2. The inhibitory effects of these chromones on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were examined, and compound 6 was identified as a noncompetitive tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 108.62μg·mL(-1).

  13. Evaluation of the effect of ecologic on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculenum.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Debora C; Tchounwou, Paul B; Lawrence, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant), due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p < or = 0.05) was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 +/- 22.3 g, 81.0 +/- 20.3 g, 109.0 +/- 25.4 g and 102.0 +/- 33.3 g at 0, 50, 100 and 200 g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2) at 100g and 200 g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50 g Ecologic chitin level (p < or = 0.05). The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500 cm3 soil, were 49

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Ecologic on Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tomato Plant, Lycopersicon esculenum

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Debora C.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Lawrence, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant), due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 ± 22.3g, 81.0 ± 20.3g, 109.0 ± 25.4g and 102.0 ± 33.3g at 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2) at 100g and 200g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50g Ecologic chitin level (p ≤ 0.05). The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500cm3 soil, were 49,933 ± 38,819, 86,050

  15. [Charles Miller Fisher: a giant of neurology].

    PubMed

    Tapia, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison's Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community.

  16. Arthur Miller Wins a Peace Prize: Teaching, Literature, and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopald, Meredith

    1992-01-01

    Describes how a high school student was able to express powerful feelings and achieve some kind of reconciliation with his father through his therapeutic exploration of Arthur Miller's play "Death of a Salesman." (PRA)

  17. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW. PMID:23872185

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME)

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3′- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT activities after 48 h post inoculation demonstrate that the biochemical defense programming shown by the host against the pathogen is not well efficient resulting in the compatible host-pathogen interaction. The elicitor (toxins) induced biochemical changes depends on the potential toxic effects (extent of ROS accumulation, amount of H2O2 produced). Thus, a fine tuning occurs for the defense related antioxidative enzymes against detoxification of key ROS molecules and effectively regulated in tomato plant against the pathogen infected/toxin treated oxidative stress. The study well demonstrates the acute pathological effects of A. alternata in tomato over its phytotoxic metabolites. PMID:27713751

  19. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  20. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  1. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Bruna L. B.; Arruda, Fernanda C. O.; Reis, Patrícia P.; Felix, Tainara F.; Santos, Priscila P.; Rafacho, Bruna P.; Gonçalves, Andrea F.; Claro, Renan T.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Polegato, Bertha F.; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A. H.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415–539); T group: 273 (258–297) µm2; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement. PMID:26610560

  2. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  3. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW.

  4. Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Aman

    2015-09-01

    Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin + 29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin + 35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos. PMID:25966882

  5. Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Aman

    2015-09-01

    Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin + 29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin + 35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos.

  6. Investigating the direct and indirect influences of light on short-term changes in methanol production and emission in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P.; Li, L.; Timko, M.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M.

    2010-12-01

    Plant-produced methanol (MeOH) is the largest source of MeOH to the atmosphere where it is the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Current MeOH emission models are limited by their inability to predict changes in MeOH production in plants, a process still not well understood. Previous modeling studies indicated that light may have a direct influence on phytogenic MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, we predicted light to stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. After normalizing MeOH emissions for stomatal conductance, we were unable to detect a MeOH emission response to light over short time scales (20-30min). After experimentally controlling for stomatal conductance and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. Our results clearly demonstrate the lack of a direct influence of light on short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production is needed as light history may be an important factor for predicting MeOH emission over diurnal and seasonal time scales.

  7. Production of rotavirus-like particles in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit by expression of capsid proteins VP2 and VP6 and immunological studies.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Sergio; Esquivel Guadarrama, Fernando; Olivera Flores, Teresa De Jesús; Arias, Nancy; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Mason, Hugh; Mor, Tsafrir; Richter, Liz; Arntzen, Charles J; Gómez Lim, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    A number of different antigens have been successfully expressed in transgenic plants, and some are currently being evaluated as orally delivered vaccines. Here we report the successful expression of rotavirus capsid proteins VP2 and VP6 in fruits of transgenic tomato plants. By western blot analysis, using specific antibodies, we determined that the VP2 and VP6 produced in plants have molecular weights similar to those found in native rotavirus. The plant-synthesized VP6 protein retained the capacity to form trimers. We were able to recover rotavirus virus-like particles from tomato fruit (i.e., tomatoes) by centrifugation on a sucrose cushion and to visualize them by electron microscopy. This result indicated that VP2/VP6 can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in plant cells, even though only a small proportion of VP2/VP6 assembled into VLPs. To investigate immunogenicity, adult mice were immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) three times with a protein extract from a transgenic tomatoes in adjuvant. We found that the transgenic tomato extract induced detectable levels of anti-rotavirus antibodies in serum; however, we did not determine the contribution of either the free rotavirus proteins or the VLPs to the induction of the antibody response. These results suggest the potential of plant-based rotavirus VLPs for the development of a vaccine against rotavirus infection.

  8. Evaluation of salt tolerance in ectoine-transgenic tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in terms of photosynthesis, osmotic adjustment, and carbon partitioning.

    PubMed

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Nakamura, Akiko; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-01-01

    Ectoine is a common compatible solute in halophilic bacteria. Its biosynthesis originates from L-aspartate β-semialdehyde and requires three enzymes: L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase (gene: ect B), L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyl transferase (gene: ect A) and L-ectoine synthase (gene: ect C). Genetically engineered tomato plants expressing the three H. elongata genes (ectA, ectB, and ectC) generated showed no phenotypic abnormality. Expression of the ectoine biosynthetic genes was detected in the T3 transgenic plants by Northern blot analysis. The ectoine accumulating T3 plants were evaluated for salt tolerance by examining their photosynthestic activity, osmotic adjustment and carbon partitioning. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detected the accumulation of ectoine. The concentration of ectoine increased with increasing salinity. The transgenic lines showed higher activities of peroxidase, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased under salinity stress condition. In addition, preservation of higher rates of photosynthesis and turgor values as compared to control was evident. Within a week of ( 13) CO 2 feeding, salt application led to increases in the partitioning of ( 13) C into roots at the expense of ( 13) C in the other plant parts. These results suggest that under saline conditions ectoine synthesis is promoted in the roots of transgenic plants, leading to an acceleration of sink activity for photosynthate in the roots. Subsequently, root function such as water uptake is improved, compared with wild-type plants. In this way, the photosynthetic rate is increased through enhancement of cell membrane stability in oxidative conditions under salt stress.

  9. Application of a LED-based reflectance sensor for the assessing in situ the lycopene content of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Tuccio, Lorenza; Agati, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Nondestructive in situ determination of the antioxidant lycopene of fresh tomato fruits is of large interest for the growers, willing to optimize the harvest time for high quality products. For this, we developed a portable LED-based colorimeter which was able to measure reflectance spectra of whole tomatoes in the 400-750 nm range. The tomato skins from the same samples were then frozen in liquid nitrogen, extracted with an acetone/ethanol/hexane mixture and analyzed by means of a spectrophotometer for their lycopene content. Concentration of lycopene was varying between 70 and 550 mg/Kg fresh weight skin. Partial Least Square regression was used to correlate spectral data to the tomato lycopene content. The multivariate processing of the reflectance data showed that lycopene content could be nicely predicted with a coefficient of determination R2=0.945 and a root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=57 mg/Kg skin fresh weight. These results suggest that portable, low-cost and compact LED-based sensors appear to be promising instruments for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene even in the field.

  10. Two-Dimensional Spreads of Synaptonemal Complexes from Solanaceous Plants. VI. High-Resolution Recombination Nodule Map for Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum)

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J. D.; Stack, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    We have produced a high-resolution physical recombination map for tomato chromosomes by determining the frequency and distribution of recombination nodules (RNs) on tomato synaptonemal complexes (SCs). We present evidence that there is a 1:1 relationship between RNs and chiasmata. Every SC has at least one RN. There are no RNs at the ends of SCs, in kinetochores, or in the heterochromatic short arm of SC 2 that carries the nucleolus organizer. RNs are more common per unit length of SC in euchromatin compared with SC in heterochromatin. The average number of RNs per SC and the average number of RNs per SC arm are directly correlated with the length of SC in euchromatin. When SCs have only one RN, that RN occurs on the long arm more frequently than predicted based on SC arm length. Patterns of multiple RNs on SCs indicate RN (crossover) interference. RNs probably can occur anywhere on SCs in euchromatin, but RNs are not distributed randomly along SCs in euchromatin or in heterochromatin. The lengths of tomato's physical recombination (RN) map, classical genetic linkage map, and molecular linkage map all differ from each other for a variety of reasons. PMID:8647403

  11. Evaluation of the effect of dietary lycopene, the main carotenoid in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), on the in vivo renal reducing ability by a radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Oteki, Takaaki; Matsumoto, Gaku; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2011-04-13

    Although it has been reported that dietary lycopene, the main carotenoid in tomato, improved drug-induced nephropathy, there are no reports on the effect of orally administered lycopene on the in vivo renal reducing (i.e., antioxidant) ability. The radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method is a unique technique by which the in vivo reducing ability of an experimental animal can be studied. In this study, the in vivo changes in the renal reducing ability of rats orally administered lycopene were investigated using a 700 MHz EPR spectrometer equipped with a surface-coil-type resonator. Rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing lycopene. After 2 weeks, in vivo EPR measurements were conducted. The renal reducing ability of lycopene-treated rats was significantly greater than that of the control. This is the first verification of in vivo antioxidant enhancement via dietary lycopene administration. PMID:21381743

  12. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement. PMID:26610560

  13. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of tomato-cotton, and lettuce seedlings. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Gossypium hirsutum; Lactuea sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the extent to which seedling emergence and plant growth can be improved with use of new soil conditioners. The early findings regarding polymeric soil conditioners are still valid today, with the exception that much lower application rates are needed today, and different application methodology is available.

  14. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  15. Pairing Relationships Among Feldspathic Lunar Meteorites from Miller Range, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Range ice fields have been amongst the most prolific for lunar meteorites that ANSMET has searched [1-3]. Six different stones have been recovered during the 2005, 2007, and 2009 field seasons: MIL 05035 (142 g), MIL 07006 (1.4 g), MIL 090034 (196 g), MIL 090036 (245 g), MIL 090070 (137 g), and MIL 090075 (144 g). Of these, the five stones collected during the 2007 and 2009 seasons are feldspathic breccias. Previous work on the Miller Range feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) has suggested that they are not all paired with each other [4-5]. Here we examine the pairing relationships among the Miller Range FLMs using petrography in concert with traceand major-element compositions.

  16. New Insights into Prebiotic Chemistry from Old Archived Miller Extracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Following the discovery of an archived set of samples from Stanley Miller's early experiments, analyses were undertaken to better understand the diversity of compounds produced from electric discharges acting on reducing gas mixtures. The paper chromatography methods that Miller used in the 1950s were only capable of detecting a few amino acids and were unable to provide substantial quantitative data relative to today's techniques. Current analytical techniques are much more sensitive and selective, and are capable of precisely quantifying a much larger range of amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances. In one study, preserved dried samples produced by Miller using a lesser-known volcanic apparatus which differed from Miller's classic apparatus in that it utilized an aspirator that injected steam into the electric discharge chamber, simulating a volcanic eruption. The volcanic apparatus produced a wider variety of amino acids than the classic configuration. Prebiotic compounds synthesized in these environments may have locally accumulated where they could have undergone further processing. An additional preserved set of samples from an experiment conducted in 1958 were also found in Miller's archived collection. These samples which had been generated using a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2S and CO2 were collected, catalogued, and stored by Miller, but for unknown reasons were never studied. In our analyses a total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of amino butyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment

  17. Perry Miller and the Puritans: A Literary Scholar's Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Everett

    1981-01-01

    Critiques historian Perry Miller's treatment of the Puritans in American history for 1) inattentiveness to individual differences, 2) focus on theology, 3) failure to recognize the importance of typologies (biblical analogies) and metaphors to the Puritans, and 4) stressing the importance of the Puritan mind over their emotional lives. (AM)

  18. What Influences the Daly-Miller Test for Writing Apprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Chip

    A series of five studies examined factors that influence how students respond to questions on a writing apprehension test. In the first study, the Daly-Miller Writing Apprehension Test was administered 4 times to 34 students in 2 freshman composition classes. Conventional scoring of test results were inconclusive--the total score for all students…

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Citrobacter freundii Myophage Miller.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyuwon; Luna, Adrian J; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can be fatal to newborns or immunocompromised patients. Bacteriophages against this bacterium can be useful for therapeutic purposes. Here, we describe the complete genome and the key features of the pseudo T-even C. freundii bacteriophage Miller.

  20. 4. Occident Terminal Elevator 1925 Russell Miller Milling Co. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Occident Terminal Elevator 1925 Russell Miller Milling Co. Taken from east side, looking northwest. - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  1. Uncanny Exposures: A Study of the Wartime Photojournalism of Lee Miller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvio, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    Taking the World War II photojournalism of Lee Miller as my point of departure, this article has several purposes. First, it introduces the wartime photojournalism of Lee Miller to education. I situate Miller's use of surrealist photography within emerging curricular discourses that take as axiomatic the significance of the unconscious in…

  2. Determination of L-ascorbic acid in Lycopersicon fruits by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Galiana-Balaguer, L; Roselló, S; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Maquieira, A; Nuez, F

    2001-09-15

    This study shows an improved method for the determination of L-ascorbic acid (l-AA) in fruits of Lycopersicon by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Two backgrounds electrolytes (BGEs) have been tested: (i) 400 mM borate at pH 8.0 and 1 x 10(-2)% hexadimethrine bromide, for the separation of Eulycopersicon subgenus species; and (ii) as in BGE(i) but supplemented with 20% (v/v) acetonitrile, for the separation of species of the Eriopersicon subgenus. The present procedures were compared with two routine methods-enzymatic assay and potentiometric titration with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. While these routine methods presented some difficulties in quantifying l-AA in several Lycopersicon fruits, CZE was successfully applied in all the analyzed samples. The proposed CZE protocols give lower detection limits (<0.4 microg ml(-1)); are cheaper, quicker, and highly reproducible; and can be applied to analyze large series of samples (ca. 50 samples per day) which is utmost importance, not only in screening trials for internal quality and tomato breeding programs, but also in systematic and routine characterization of Lycopersicon fruits.

  3. The Miller assessment for preschoolers (MAP): an introduction and review.

    PubMed

    Banus, B J

    1983-05-01

    With the implementation of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, early childhood screening responsibilities intensified for occupational therapists. Frustrations caused by the absence of adequate testing tools increased proportionately. Lucy Jane Miller began working in 1971 on a new standardized test to predict school-related problems and published the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) in 1982. Because the MAP is a new addition to the field of preschool testing, this review will introduce the MAP to occupational therapists and give a general overview and critique of its administration, scoring, and standardization procedures. The MAP has potential for becoming a major screening test for preschool children if it does predict school-related problems. PMID:6191574

  4. Petrography and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 13317

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 13317 is a 32-g lunar meteorite collected during the 2013-2014 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) field season. It was initially described as having 25% black fusion crust covering a light- to dark-grey matrix, with numerous clasts ranging in size up to 1 cm; it was tenta-tively classified as a lunar anorthositic breccia. Here we present the petrography and geochemistry of MIL 13317, and examine possible pairing relationships with previously described lunar meteorites.

  5. Mark Miller, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Mark Miller joined DCP's Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group from the Wake Forest School of Medicine, where he was a Professor in the Department of Cancer Biology and Director of Graduate Studies. Prior to that, he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. He worked for NCI as a Senior Staff Fellow at the Frederick Cancer Research Facility in the Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis. |

  6. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  7. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; Beux, M.R.; Dalzoto, P.R.; Pinheiro, R.L.; Pimentel, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil. PMID:24948920

  8. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  9. Differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Woo, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Sang Un

    2010-12-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a short-season grain crop that is a source of rutin and other phenolic compounds. In this study, we isolated the cDNAs of 11 F. esculentum enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, namely, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) 1 and 2, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonol synthase (FLS) 1 and 2, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these genes were most highly expressed in the stems and roots. However, high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that their flavonoid products, such as rutin and catechin, accumulated in the flowers and leaves. These results suggested that flavonoids may be transported within F. esculentum. In addition, light and dark growth conditions affected the expression levels of the biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in F. esculentum sprouts.

  10. Amending Miller's Pyramid to Include Professional Identity Formation.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    In 1990, George Miller published an article entitled "The Assessment of Clinical Skills/Competence/Performance" that had an immediate and lasting impact on medical education. In his classic article, he stated that no single method of assessment could encompass the intricacies and complexities of medical practice. To provide a structured approach to the assessment of medical competence, he proposed a pyramidal structure with four levels, each of which required specific methods of assessment. As is well known, the layers are "Knows," "Knows How," "Shows How," and "Does." Miller's pyramid has guided assessment since its introduction; it has also been used to assist in the assessment of professionalism.The recent emphasis on professional identity formation has raised questions about the appropriateness of "Does" as the highest level of aspiration. It is believed that a more reliable indicator of professional behavior is the incorporation of the values and attitudes of the professional into the identity of the aspiring physician. It is therefore proposed that a fifth level be added at the apex of the pyramid. This level, reflecting the presence of a professional identity, should be "Is," and methods of assessing progress toward a professional identity and the nature of the identity in formation should be guided by currently available methods.

  11. Maslow and Miller: An Exploration of Gender and Affiliation in the Journey to Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Kovacs-Long, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This article shows that although neither Abraham Maslow nor Jean Baker Miller reference each other in their writings, they are following different paths to the same conclusion: competence proceeds from connection. Miller and Maslow both describe a developmental model that applies equally to women and men. The conclusion of the authors of this…

  12. Legitimizing Technical Communication in English Departments: Carolyn Miller's "Humanistic Rationale for Technical Writing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Carolyn Miller's oft-cited "Humanistic Rationale for Technical Writing," published in 1979, tries to give technical communication faculty more cultural capital in English departments controlled by literature professors. Miller replaces a positivistic emphasis in technical communication pedagogy with rhetoric. She shows how technical knowledge is…

  13. Investigating the Skoog-Miller Model for Organogenesis Using Sweet Potato Root Explants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which groups of students in a plant tissue culture course worked together to test application of the Skoog-Miller model (developed by Skoog and Miller in regeneration of tobacco experiments to demonstrate organogenesis) to sweet potato root explants. (ZWH)

  14. Adaptation: a contemporary view, revisiting Crichton-Miller's 1925 paper.

    PubMed

    Music, Graham

    2016-03-01

    In this paper I discuss a contemporary 'take' on the concept of adaptation in light of Crichton-Miller's original 1926 paper. I look briefly at some of the ways that contemporary thinking is both similar to and different from ideas of 90 years ago. In particular I think about how recent neurobiological findings, epigenetic research and attachment theory have cast new light on our understanding of the ways humans adapt to social and emotional environments. It looks at how psychiatric presentations which are seen as maladaptive might well have an adaptive origin in early life. In this account I emphasise how a more modern version of evolutionary theory can be developed, particularly one influenced by life history theory, and suggest that such ideas have powerful explanatory power as well as being based solidly in good research. PMID:26908879

  15. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status.

  16. Adaptation: a contemporary view, revisiting Crichton-Miller's 1925 paper.

    PubMed

    Music, Graham

    2016-03-01

    In this paper I discuss a contemporary 'take' on the concept of adaptation in light of Crichton-Miller's original 1926 paper. I look briefly at some of the ways that contemporary thinking is both similar to and different from ideas of 90 years ago. In particular I think about how recent neurobiological findings, epigenetic research and attachment theory have cast new light on our understanding of the ways humans adapt to social and emotional environments. It looks at how psychiatric presentations which are seen as maladaptive might well have an adaptive origin in early life. In this account I emphasise how a more modern version of evolutionary theory can be developed, particularly one influenced by life history theory, and suggest that such ideas have powerful explanatory power as well as being based solidly in good research.

  17. Metal concentrations and sources in the Miller Creek watershed, Park County, Montana, August 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleasby, Thomas E.; Nimick, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Miller Creek is a tributary of Soda Butte Creek in south-central Montana near the northeast corner of Yellowstone National Park. Surface-water and streambed-sediment samples were collected from streams and seeps throughout the Miller Creek watershed during low-flow conditions on August 28-31, 2000, to characterize metal concentrations and identify possible sources contributing metal to Miller Creek. Most water in Miller Creek appears to be unaffected by mining disturbances or natural weathering of mineralized rocks, although such effects are common elsewhere in the New World Mining District. Values for pH were near neutral to basic. Total-recoverable copper, lead, and zinc concentrations were low, relative to State of Montana water-quality standards, with many concentrations less than the analytical minimum reporting levels. Metal concentrations in Miller Creek during this study ranged from 1 to 6 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total-recoverable copper, <1 to 5 ?g/L for total-recoverable lead, and <1 to 26 ?g/L for total-recoverable zinc. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in all samples from Miller Creek were less than the chronic aquatic-life criteria, except for one total-recoverable lead value (5 ?g/L) just downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable lead and zinc concentrations in streambed-sediment samples collected during this study were highest at the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Leachable concentrations at this site were about 20 times greater for lead and 11 times greater for zinc than concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected from Miller Creek upstream from this inflow. However, these elevated concentrations had little effect on the leachable metal concentrations in the streambed-sediment sample collected downstream from the Black Warrior Mine inflow. Metal loading to Miller Creek during this low-flow study was relatively small. Three small left-bank inflows having elevated copper concentrations entered Miller

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in the Miller Fisher syndrome: evidence of corticospinal tract abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Y; Ratnagopal, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate serial central motor conduction time in the Miller Fisher syndrome.
METHOD—Three patients with classic Miller Fisher syndrome were evaluated clinically. They had serial central motor conduction times measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation and nerve conduction studies. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interossei and abductor hallucis muscles.
RESULTS—All three patients showed reduction in central motor conduction times in tandem with gradual clinical improvement at each review.
CONCLUSIONS—There is electrophysiological evidence of a central reversible corticospinal tract conduction abnormality in the Miller Fisher syndrome.

 PMID:11459894

  19. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458

  20. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B; Montano, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American.

  1. Mineralogic correlates of fibrosis in chrysotile miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wright, J.L.; DePaoli, L.; Wiggs, B.

    1989-04-01

    To determine which mineral parameters relate to the degree of interstitial fibrosis (asbestosis) in the lungs of chrysotile miners and millers, we graded fibrosis histologically and correlated fibrosis grades with fiber concentration and mean size, surface area, and mass, and with total sample fiber length, surface area, and mass in 21 cases. A positive correlation of fibrosis grade with tremolite concentration and a lesser correlation with chrysotile concentration was found for whole lungs, specific sites within lungs, and, for tremolite, single microscopic fields. No correlations were found for measures of chrysotile fiber size, surface area, or mass, but tremolite mean fiber length, aspect ratio, and surface area were, surprisingly, negatively correlated with fibrosis grade. Measures based on total rather than on mean case or site parameters failed to show correlations with fibrosis. We conclude that: (1) degree of pulmonary fibrosis reflects fiber concentration at both a bulk and a microscopic level; (2) mean fiber length and parameters related to mean fiber length also correlate with fibrosis grade, but, contrary to predictions from animal studies, this correlation is negative, suggesting that short fibers may be more important in the genesis of pulmonary fibrosis than is commonly believed; (3) there is no evidence that parameters such as total fiber length, surface area, or mass provide predictors of degree of fibrosis.

  2. Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.

  3. Mathematical modeling on vacuum drying of Zizyphus jujuba Miller slices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Zuo, Li

    2013-02-01

    The thin-layer vacuum drying behavior of Zizyphus jujuba Miller slices was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 50, 60, and 70 °C and the mathematical models were used to fit the thin-layer vacuum drying of Z. jujuba slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. The drying rate was found to increase with temperature, thereby reducing the total drying time. It was found that Z. jujuba slices with thickness of 4 mm would be dried up to 0.08 kg water/kg dry matter in the range of 180-600 min in the vacuum dryer at the studied temperature range from 70 to 50 °C. The Midilli et al. model was selected as the most appropriate model to describe the thin-layer drying of Z. jujuba slices. The diffusivity coefficient increased linearly over the temperature range from 1.47 × 10(-10) to 3.27 × 10(-10) m(2)/s, as obtained using Fick's second law. The temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity coefficient followed an Arrhenius-type relationship. The activation energy for the moisture diffusion was determined to be 36.76 kJ/mol. PMID:24425895

  4. Pereskia aculeata Miller Flour: Metabolic Effects and Composition.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Guiguer, Élen Landgraf; Marinelli, Paulo Sérgio; do Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Pescinini-Salzedas, Leticia Maria; Dos Santos, Mirele Cristine Batista; Oshiiwa, Marie; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; de Menezes, Manoel Lima; Nicolau, Cláudia Cristina Teixeira; Otoboni, Alda Maria; de Alvares Goulart, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Pereskia aculeata Miller is known in Brazil as ora-pro-nobis (OPN) and has been used commonly in the folklore medicine. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the composition and the effects of OPN flour on the metabolic profile and intestinal motility of Wistar rats. Animals were divided randomly into five groups (n = 10): G1 (control group) and G2 (treated with OPN flour). For the intestinal motility: G3 (control group), G4 (treated with senne), and G5 (treated with OPN flour). After 40 days, G1 and G2 were euthanized and metabolic profiles were analyzed (glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein [HDL-c], C reactive protein, AST, ALT, Lee Index, weight, and visceral fat). The flour of OPN was effective in reducing percentage of weight gain, visceral fat, levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, and increased HDL-c. Significance was also found in the distance covered by the activated charcoal from the pylorus to the beginning of the cecum, which was higher in animals treated with OPN. Our results indicate that OPN flour may bring health benefits, as the improvement of the intestinal motility, and it is associated with reduction of visceral fat and lipid profile, as well as the increase of HDL-c levels. With these results, we may suggest that the incorporation of this flour in different industrial products may be a convenient and effective way for the intake of healthier products. PMID:27583638

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS - Shaker Church Family Barns, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, south edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION - Shaker Church Family Washhouse, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, centrally located in church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS - Shaker Church Family Barns, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, south edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, DETAIL OF FENCE - Shaker Ministry's Shop, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  9. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE - Sabbathday Lake Shaker Community Meetinghouse, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION - Shaker Church Family Boys' Shop, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, centrally located in church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  11. [Silencing of Dominant Genes in Heterozygous Genotypes of Interspecific Hybrids Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. x C2026 F. homotropicum Ohnishi].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, N N; Fesenko, I N

    2016-04-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a very polymorphic self-pollinating species with homostylous flowers, which morphologically different lineages are differ also in ability to hybridize with F. esculentum Moench. (closely related outcrosser with heterostyly). A lineage C2026 F. homotropicum diverged from F. esculentum with forming noticeable pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers: the most successful interspecific crossing F esculentum x C2026 resulted wrinkled hybrid seeds germinated in Petri dishes. These interspecific hybrids and backcrosses F. esculentum x F₁, being heterozygous at loci DET/det, SHT/sht and homostyly gene of F. homotropicum, in our experiments often formed phenotype like a recessive homozygote for at least one of these genes, i.e. dominant alleles were silenced. Apparently, these effects can be caused by disorders of epigenetic regulation associated with the divergence of hybridized species. Such disorders, especially those that occur at the stage of seed development, represent one of the main experimentally confirmed mechanisms of pre-zygotic isolation between species. Apparently, F. esculentum and the lineage C2026 of F. homotropicum represent an example of intermediate stage of post-zygotic isolation development process which based on epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in the hybrids. Sometimes it may be revealed not only at the stage of seed development, but also at later stages of ontogenesis. PMID:27529977

  12. Theoretical modification of the negative Miller capacitance during the switching transients of IGBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Teng; Yangjun, Zhu; Zhengsheng, Han; Tianchun, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) has negative Miller capacitance during switching transients. It has conventionally been attributed to the voltage dependency of the Miller capacitance. However this explanation has physical ambiguity, yet, it lacks a discussion of the conditions for the occurrence of negative Miller capacitance as well. We argue that it is the current dependence to the Miller capacitance that results in the negative case. In this paper, we provide a modification to the theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. The occurrence condition for it and the device parameters about it are discussed. It is discovered that the negative Miller capacitance must occur during the turn-off process for any IGBT, while it is relatively difficult during the turn-on process. At the device design level, the current gain of the PNP transistor in the IGBT is an important factor for the negative Miller capacitance. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project (No. 2013ZX02305005-002), and the National Natural Science Foundation Major Program (No. 51490681).

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D., August 9 and 17, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Dr. Earl R. Miller was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research (OHRE). The interview covers Dr. Miller`s involvement with the Manhattan Engineer District, with total body irradiation, and heavy-ion therapy. Dr. Miller`s remembrances include wartime work on radiation exposure, Joe Hamilton, Neutron Therapy research, means of obtaining isotopes, consent forms, infinite laminograms, invention of a baby holder to alleviate exposure of radiological technicians in diagnostic procedures involving infants, and several personages.

  14. Miller fisher syndrome: a hospital-based retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C L; Wang, Y J; Tsai, C P

    2000-01-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), characterized as ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia, is generally considered as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, some investigators believed that the syndrome could be explained by a central origin. To obtain more information about MFS for comparison with GBS, we conducted a retrospective study by analyzing the clinical data of MFS patients admitted to our hospital over a period of 11 years. The calibrated male/female ratio was 1.65. A seasonal clustering in winter was noted. The percentage of MFS among GBS was especially high (18%, 11/60) in Taiwan when compared with other series. Involvement of limb muscle strength, autonomic function and cranial nerves, except ocular motor nerves, was rarely found in our patients. When MFS is accompanied by limb weakness, it might represent a transitional form between MFS and GBS. Bulbar palsy and dysautonomia might predict a relatively poor prognosis. To obtain more reliable information, lumbar puncture should be done 1 week after disease onset, and electrophysiological tests should be done serially in every MFS patient. Eighty percent (80%, 4/5) of our patients were positive for IgG anti-GQ(1b) antibody activity. In our study, there is more evidence indicating that MFS is a peripheral nervous system disorder; however, no definite conclusion could be made as to whether MFS is exclusively a peripheral or central nervous system disorder. We think MFS is an immune-mediated clinical entity which mainly involves the peripheral nervous system with rare involvement of other parts of the central nervous system. PMID:10965158

  15. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in lycopersicon. Progress report, First year, August 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A.; McCormick, S.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of this program is to use Lycopersica esculentum and L. pennellii as a model system to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS). Specifically we seek to determine the functional basis of UI including the timing of the failure of incongruous crosses, the developmental step(s) interrupted by UI, the tissue and genomes involved in UI.

  16. Branched Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in the Biosynthesis of Lycopersicon pennellii Glucose Esters 1

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Donald S.; Steffens, John C.

    1990-01-01

    Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy) an insect-resistant, wild tomato possesses high densities of glandular trichomes which exude a mixture of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylated glucose esters that function as a physical impediment and feeding deterrent to small arthropod pests. The acyl moieties are branched C4 and C5 acids, and branched and straight chain C10, C11, and C12 acids. The structure of the branched acyl constituents suggests that the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway participates in their biosynthesis. [14C]Valine and deuterated branched chain amino acids (and their oxo-acid derivatives) were incorporated into branched C4 and C5 acid groups of glucose esters by a process of transamination, oxidative decarboxylation and subsequent acylation. C4 and C5 branched acids were elongated by two carbon units to produce the branched C10-C12 groups. Norvaline, norleucine, allylglycine, and methionine also were processed into acyl moieties and secreted from the trichomes as glucose esters. Changes in the acyl composition of the glucose esters following sulfonylurea herbicide administration support the participation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and the other enzymes of branched amino acid biosynthesis in the production of glucose esters. PMID:16667654

  17. Nitrous oxide emission from wetland soil following single and seasonal split application of cattle manure to field tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill var. Heinz) and rape (Brassica napus, L. var. Giant) crops.

    PubMed

    Masaka, Johnson; Nyamangara, Justice; Wuta, Menas

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the contribution of manure applications to global atmospheric N2O loading is needed to evaluate agriculture's contribution to the global warming process. Two field experiments were carried out at Dufuya wetland (19°17'S; 29°21'E, 1260 m above sea level) to determine the effects of single and split manure applications on emissions of N2O from soil during the growing seasons of two rape and two tomato crops. Two field experiments were established. In the first experiment the manure was applied in three levels of 0, 15, and 30 Mg ha(-1) as a single application just before planting of the first tomato crop. In the second experiment the 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure application rates were divided into four split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) respectively, for each of the four cropping events. Single applications of 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure once in four cropping events had higher emissions of N2O than those recorded on plots that received split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) manure at least up to the second test crop. Thereafter N2O emissions on plots subjected to split applications of manure were higher or equal to those recorded in plots that received single basal applications of 30 Mg ha(-1) applied a week before planting the first crop. Seasonal split applications of manure to wetland vegetable crops can reduce emissions of N2O at least up to the second seasonal split application. PMID:27099826

  18. Assessment of phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs on a medicinal plant, Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeon; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Saeyeon; Lee, Insook

    2013-02-01

    Fagopyrum esculentum commonly named as buckwheat plant is pseudocereal food crops and healthy herbs but is not known as a bioindicator of environmental condition. In the present study, the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on plant growth, bioaccumulation, and antioxidative enzyme activity in buckwheat were estimated under hydroponic culture. The significant biomass reduction at concentrations of 10-2,000 mg/L was 7.7-26.4 % for the ZnO NP and 11.4-23.5 % for the ZnO MP treatment, (p < 0.05). ZnO NPs were observed in root cells and root cell surface by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Zn bioaccumulation in plant increased with increasing treatment concentrations. The upward translocation (translocation factor <0.2) of Zn in plant was higher with the ZnO NP treatment than that with the ZnO MP treatment. Additionally, reactive oxygen species generation by ZnO NPs was estimated as the reduced glutathione level and catalase activity, which would be a predictive biomarker of nanotoxicity. The results are the first study to evaluate the phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs to medicinal plant. F. esculentum can be as a good indicator of plant species in NP-polluted environment.

  19. George Miller's magical number of immediate memory in retrospect: Observations on the faltering progression of science.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nelson

    2015-07-01

    Miller's (1956) article about storage capacity limits, "The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two . . .," is one of the best-known articles in psychology. Though influential in several ways, for about 40 years it was oddly followed by rather little research on the numerical limit of capacity in working memory, or on the relation between 3 potentially related phenomena that Miller described. Given that the article was written in a humorous tone and was framed around a tongue-in-cheek premise (persecution by an integer), I argue that it may have inadvertently stymied progress on these topics as researchers attempted to avoid ridicule. This commentary relates some correspondence with Miller on his article and concludes with a call to avoid self-censorship of our less conventional ideas. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25751370

  20. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  1. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  2. New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller's spark discharge experiments.

    PubMed

    Bada, Jeffrey L

    2013-03-01

    1953 was a banner year for biological chemistry: The double helix structure of DNA was published by Watson and Crick, Sanger's group announced the first amino acid sequence of a protein (insulin) and the synthesis of key biomolecules using simulated primordial Earth conditions has demonstrated by Miller. Miller's studies in particular transformed the study of the origin of life into a respectable field of inquiry and established the basis of prebiotic chemistry, a field of research that investigates how the components of life as we know it can be formed in a variety of cosmogeochemical environments. In this review, I cover the continued advances in prebiotic syntheses that Miller's pioneering work has inspired. The main focus is on recent state-of-the-art analyses carried out on archived samples of Miller's original experiments, some of which had never before been analyzed, discovered in his laboratory material just before his death in May 2007. One experiment utilized a reducing gas mixture and an apparatus configuration (referred to here as the "volcanic" apparatus) that could represent a water-rich volcanic eruption accompanied by lightning. Another included H(2)S as a component of the reducing gas mixture. Compared to the limited number of amino acids Miller identified, these new analyses have found that over 40 different amino acids and amines were synthesized, demonstrating the potential robust formation of important biologic compounds under possible cosmogeochemical conditions. These experiments are suggested to simulate long-lived volcanic island arc systems, an environment that could have provided a stable environment for some of the processes thought to be involved in chemical evolution and the origin of life. Some of the alternatives to the Miller-based prebiotic synthesis and the "primordial soup" paradigm are evaluated in the context of their relevance under plausible planetary conditions. PMID:23340907

  3. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  4. 53. VIEW OF THE W.J. MILLER SAWMILL IN DAWSON AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF THE W.J. MILLER SAWMILL IN DAWSON AFTER FIRE DESTROYED THE MILL 1936. PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS SOME REMAINING STRUCTURES LOOKING EAST TO WEST ON SITE. LOCOMOTIVE WAS USED TO DELIVER LOGS TO I.P. MILLER SAWMILL AT WEST END OF MILL POND. BELOW LARGE BUILDING ARE TWO BAYS WHERE HOG FUEL WAS LOADED ONTO RAILROAD CARS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF LARGE STORAGE AREA. CENTER BUILDING ALONG RAILROAD IS BLACKSMITH SHOP. STRUCTURES WERE LATER TORN DOWN. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1938. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  5. False-Positive Serum Botulism Bioassay in Miller-Fisher Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeylikman, Yuriy; Shah, Vishal; Shah, Umang; Mirsen, Thomas R; Campellone, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with acute progressive weakness and areflexia. Both botulism and Miller-Fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome were initial diagnostic considerations, and she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and botulinum antitoxin. A mouse bioassay was positive for botulinum toxin A, although her clinical course, electrodiagnostic studies, and cerebrospinal fluid findings supported Miller-Fisher syndrome. This patient's atypical features offer points of discussion regarding the evaluation of patients with acute neuromuscular weakness and emphasize the limitations of the botulism bioassay.

  6. False-Positive Serum Botulism Bioassay in Miller-Fisher Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeylikman, Yuriy; Shah, Vishal; Shah, Umang; Mirsen, Thomas R; Campellone, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with acute progressive weakness and areflexia. Both botulism and Miller-Fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome were initial diagnostic considerations, and she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and botulinum antitoxin. A mouse bioassay was positive for botulinum toxin A, although her clinical course, electrodiagnostic studies, and cerebrospinal fluid findings supported Miller-Fisher syndrome. This patient's atypical features offer points of discussion regarding the evaluation of patients with acute neuromuscular weakness and emphasize the limitations of the botulism bioassay. PMID:26301377

  7. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... millers, National Survey participants, and certain custom harvesters and equipment owners or lessees for... millers, National Survey participants, and certain custom harvesters and equipment owners or lessees for... or before these dates. (d) Special allowances for custom harvesters and equipment owners or...

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, DETAIL OF FENCE AND BELL - Shaker Ministry's Shop, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, MEETINGHOUSE ON RIGHT - Shaker Ministry's Shop, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  10. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR ELEVATION AND SIDE ELEVATION WITH STAIR TOWER - Sabbathday Lake Shaker Community Meetinghouse, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  11. The influence of emerging administrative scientists: an interview with Anne Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-04-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders and scientists demonstrating promise in advancing innovation and patient care leadership in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Anne Miller, PhD, BA, assistant professor jointly appointed to the Center of Interdisciplinary Health Workforce Studies and the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:25803799

  12. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  13. Identity and Agonism: Tim Miller, Cornerstone, and the Politics of Community-Based Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, John

    2003-01-01

    Contends that community-based theatre (CBT) can productively redefine the parameters of what "political performance" can mean. Draws on the work of community-based performance artist Tim Miller and on the author's experience as a dramaturg to suggest that artists and scholars must develop a revised idea of what constitutes activist democratic…

  14. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  15. The influence of emerging administrative scientists: an interview with Anne Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-04-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders and scientists demonstrating promise in advancing innovation and patient care leadership in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Anne Miller, PhD, BA, assistant professor jointly appointed to the Center of Interdisciplinary Health Workforce Studies and the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

  16. 52. A VIEW OF W.J. MILLER SAWMILL, LOOKING WEST TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. A VIEW OF W.J. MILLER SAWMILL, LOOKING WEST TO EAST, AND SHOWING LOCATION OF BOILER HOUSE AND PLANER BUILDING BEFORE PLANER BUILDING AND BOILER HOUSE FOR HULL TO INCORPORATE INTO HIS SAWMILL COMPLETED IN 1939. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1934. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  17. Pharmacy profile. New ASCP president Robert J. Miller: entrepreneur who puts the patient first.

    PubMed

    Meade, Vicki

    2005-10-01

    Bob Miller, known for his enthusiasm and desire to nurture others' growth, brings to his term as 2005-2006 ASCP president the leadership skills and business acumen he developed over two decades as a long-term care pharmacy owner. PMID:16548669

  18. Noble Gases in Nakhla and Three Nakhlites Miller Range 090030, 090032, and 090136

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Park, J.; Choi, J.; Baek, J. M.; Park, C.; Lee, J. I.; Lee, M. J.; Mikouchi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Herzog, G. F.; Turrin, B. D.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III

    2016-08-01

    Noble gas compositions of the Miller Range nakhlites release Kr and Xe with low 84Kr/132Xe of ≤1 and high 129Xe/132Xe of 1.95-2.13 at low heating temperature (300-400°C). The gases would be heavily fractionated martian atmosphere trapped in aqueously altered materials.

  19. West 73rd Street pedestrian underpass, with spur of old Miller ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West 73rd Street pedestrian underpass, with spur of old Miller Highway, Trump Place towers in background, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 VIEW OF STREET, SHOWING HERB HOUSE, BOYS' SHOP, AND OFFICE WOODSHED - Shaker Church Family Community, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  1. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment as... Service (PHS) in the course of any health studies of uranium workers during or including the period 1942-1990; (2) Records of a uranium worker census performed by the PHS at various times during the...

  2. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment as... Service (PHS) in the course of any health studies of uranium workers during or including the period 1942-1990; (2) Records of a uranium worker census performed by the PHS at various times during the...

  3. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment as... Service (PHS) in the course of any health studies of uranium workers during or including the period 1942-1990; (2) Records of a uranium worker census performed by the PHS at various times during the...

  4. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment as... Service (PHS) in the course of any health studies of uranium workers during or including the period 1942-1990; (2) Records of a uranium worker census performed by the PHS at various times during the...

  5. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  6. Inter- and intra-observer agreement on Miller's classification of gingival tissue recessions.

    PubMed

    Bertl, Kristina; Ruckenbauer, Dorothea; Müller-Kern, Michael; Durstberger, Gerlinde; Lettner, Stefan; Bruckmann, Corinna; Ulm, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Miller's is the most commonly used classification of gingival tissue recessions, defined as the displacement of the soft tissue margin apical to the cemento-enamel junction. However, data on the reliability of this classification are missing so far, although reliability, which reflects the consistency of repeated measurements, is regarded as a prerequisite for judging the utility of a classification. The aim of the present study was to evaluate inter- and intra-observer agreement on Miller's classification of gingival tissue recessions. Two hundred photographs (50 of each region: maxillary/mandibular anterior/posterior teeth) of gingival tissue recessions were evaluated twice by four observers with different degrees of experience in Miller's classification, gingival phenotype, tooth shape, and identifiability of the cemento-enamel junction. The following inter- and intra-observer agreements were found: Miller's classification, 0.72 and 0.73-0.95; gingival phenotype, 0.29 and 0.45-0.58; tooth shape, 0.39 and 0.44-0.59; and identifiability of the cemento-enamel junction, 0.21 and 0.30-0.59. A higher agreement was detected for anterior teeth. Further, gingival phenotype (thin-high scalloping) significantly correlated with tooth shape (long-narrow) (ρ = 0.662, p < 0.001). Miller's classification of gingival tissue recessions was evaluated by four examiners using 200 clinical photographs and yielded substantial to almost perfect agreement, with higher agreement for anterior teeth. Although limited to photographic assessment, the present study offers the so far missing proof on the sufficient inter- and intra-observer agreement of this classification. PMID:25351990

  7. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  8. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  9. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  10. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled.

  11. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  12. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  13. Miller-Dieker syndrome associated with duplication of 17p13.3 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.; Martinez, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Miller-Dieker syndrome is characterized by profound mental retardation, craniofacial abnormalities, and lissencephaly (smooth brain). Microscopic or submicroscopic deletions of the 17p13.3 region have been reported in Miller-Dieker patients. We report a patient with this syndrome in whom a duplication of the 17p13.3 region was detected by FISH. The 9-year-old female proband was referred because of features of Miller-Dieker syndrome: microcephaly, profound psychomotor retardation, seizures, characteristic facies, and lissencephaly shown by MRI studies. High-resolution G-banding failed to demonstrate an abnormality in chromosome 17. However, FISH analysis with the DNA probe (Oncor No. 5101) specific for Miller-Dieker region of chromosome 17p13.3 demonstrated duplication of this segment instead of the classic deletion. We know of no other report of Miller-Dieker syndrome associated with duplication of 17p13.3. The family study revealed normal chromosomes in both parents by cytogenetic and FISH analysis. Our investigation suggests that duplications, as well as deletions, of the 17p13.3 region are associated with the Miller-Dieker syndrome. The presence of deletions or duplications of the same chromosomal region in patients with features of Miller-Dieker syndrome suggests that its pathogenesis may be due to gene dosage effects.

  14. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  15. An unusual case of Miller Fisher syndrome presenting with proptosis and chemosis

    PubMed Central

    Waung, Maggie W.; Singer, Mike A.

    2012-01-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), a rare variant of Guillan-Barré syndrome, is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. In addition to this classic triad, symptoms may include bulbar palsy, weakness, and sensory loss. The anti-GQ1b IgG antibody is a sensitive and specific marker for MFS; it is found in more than 90% of affected patients. We describe an unusual case of MFS that presented with dramatic bilateral proptosis and chemosis. PMID:22499110

  16. Best Practices Case Study: John Wesley Miller Companies - Armory Park Del Sol, Tucson, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    Case study of John Wesley Miller Companies, who built two net zero energy homes plus 97 other solar homes in Tucson, AZ. Masonry block walls with rigid foam exterior sheathing, rigid foam over the roof deck plus R-38 in the attic, ducts in conditioned space, 4.2 kW and 5.7 kW photovoltaics and solar water heating yielded HERS scores of 0 on the two homes.

  17. 78 FR 66748 - Smith Miller and Patch Inc. et al.; Proposal to Withdraw Approval of 14 New Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Required Reports Have Not Been Made Application No. Drug Applicant NDA 004979 Multi-Vitamin Smith Miller...) Tablets. NDA 008326 Methischol (inositol/ USV Pharmaceutical vitamin B12/ Corp., 500...

  18. High Miller-index germanium crystals for high-energy x-ray imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Koch, J A; Lee, J J; Haugh, M J

    2015-12-01

    Near-normal-incidence bent crystals are widely used for x-ray imaging applications. Advantages include high collection solid angle and potentially high efficiency for narrow-band sources, while disadvantages include relatively large (several Å) interatomic spacings and a limited number of suitable matches between a crystal 2d value and an integral multiple of useful emission line wavelengths. The disadvantages become more significant at x-ray energies >10  keV. The former disadvantage can be mitigated by using high-order reflections from crystal planes having low Miller indices, but both disadvantages can be mitigated by using low-order reflections from crystal planes having high Miller indices. We report here on integrated reflectivity measurements we performed of Ge (15,7,7) (2d=0.6296  Å), a candidate for imaging Ru He-α (θ(B)=87°). We find good agreement with calculations, and the data show a multitude of closely spaced reflections with slightly different Bragg angles including a fifth-order reflection of Ge (3,1,1) that has comparable reflectivity. This demonstrates that arbitrary choices of Miller indices in Ge crystals can be used to fine-tune Bragg angles for near-normal-incidence x-ray imaging at tens of kiloelectron volt x-ray energies with minimal lower-energy contamination from lower-order reflections, and that existing calculational tools can be used to reliably estimate integrated reflectivity. PMID:26836681

  19. [The Miller Fisher syndrome. Review of the cases of the Santa Maria Hospital].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M; Cordeiro, E; Alves, M; Luis, M L

    1996-01-01

    A benign syndrome of acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia is commonly known as the Miller Fisher syndrome. It is generally believed that Miller Fisher syndrome is a type of Guillain-Barré syndrome, but several authors believe it to be a separate clinical entity caused by a central nervous system lesion. Eight patients with Miller Fisher syndrome diagnosis, admitted to our department in the last 20 years, were reviewed. Neurophysiological studies were carefully reviewed. Our patients had a clinical presentation and evolution identical to that described previously. Neurophysiological abnormalities were found in all patients and were characteristic of a sensory axonal neuropathy, with damage of the facial nerves and occasional demyelination of peripheral nerves. The pattern of abnormalities is distinct from the usual features seen in Guillain-Barré syndrome. The CT scan, MRI, and Evoked Potentials investigations in our patients did not confirm central nervous system lesion. Nevertheless we did not exclude the possibility of coexisting damage to the central nervous system in some patients, as shown in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. PMID:27656056

  2. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  3. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and nutrition status of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Rasool; Ziveh, Parviz Sharifi; Satari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p < 0.05) increased growth and yield compared to control. Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.

  4. Growth and rutin production in hairy root cultures of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Soo-In; Park, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Kyung; Choi, Jae-Eul; Park, Sang-Un

    2007-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, and antioxidative properties. To examine in vitro production of rutin, we established a hairy root culture of buckwheat by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, and tested the growth conditions and rutin production rates of these cultures. Ten hairy root clones were established; their growth and rutin production rates ranged from 233 to 312 (mg dry wt per 30 mL flask, and 0.8 to 1.2 (mg/g dry wt), respectively. Clone H8, which had high growth and rutin production rates (312 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask and 1.2 mg/g dry wt, respectively), was selected for further experiments. H8 showed maximal growth and rutin content at 30 days in culture in MS medium. Of four tested culture media, half-strength MS medium was found to induce the highest levels of growth (378 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask) and rutin production (1.4 mg/g dry wt) by clone H8. In contrast, supplementation with auxins (0.1-1 mg/l IAA, IBA and NAA) increased the growth rate, but had no significant effect on rutin production by H8. Collectively, these findings indicate that hairy root cultures of buckwheat culture could be a valuable alternative approach for rutin production.

  5. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  6. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  7. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  8. Nest spacing, habitat selection, and behavior of waterfowl on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Duebbert, H.F.; Sharp, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The nesting behavior of a concentration of nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) was studied on a 4.5-ha island in Miller Lake, North Dakota, in 1977. A single 0.59-ha clump of thick shrub contained 225 simultaneously active mallard nests on 10 May. During the peak nesting period, mallard nests were spaced an average of 2.7 m from conspecifics. Active nests of all species peaked at 327, spaced an average of 2.1 m apart. Nests were clustered in thick shrub with moderate numbers in open shrub and few in grassland. Nest placement was significantly related to the amount of vegetative screening although mammalian predators were absent on the island. Cover density appeared to be important to the nesting hens as vegetation screened nests from potential avian predators and from harassment by other conspecific nesting hens and drakes. Mallards and gadwalls nesting on this island used wetlands in >100 km2 around Miller Lake. During daylight hours in late April 1978, an average of 4.9 mallards/minute arrived at the island; a peak of 17.2 mallards/minute arrived at 0800. In late April 1978, as many as 26 mallard pairs/ha occurred on favored wetlands and behavioral aggression was intense. Yet, most mallard hens maintained adequate space to acquire food and other requisites. Mallards and gadwalls were sufficiently adaptable to successfully exploit the Miller Lake island and environments that resulted in high reproductive success. Other local breeding Anatidae because of behavioral constraints were unable to exploit the same situation.

  9. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects. PMID:27396192

  10. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  11. Dissociative identity disorder: a feminist approach to inpatient treatment using Jean Baker Miller's Relational Model.

    PubMed

    Riggs, S R; Bright, M A

    1997-08-01

    Women diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) may experience episodic crises characterized by intense states of disconnection from self and others. Crises which result in potential harm to self/others may require inpatient treatment. With economic emphasis on shorter lengths of stay, a treatment program or model which focuses on the DID patient's sense of connectedness to self and others can enhance treatment efforts during brief inpatient hospitalizations. The Relational Model of Jean Baker Miller uses mutuality and empowerment within the therapeutic relationship and inpatient mileu to move the patient beyond therapeutic impasse/crisis toward a state of greater connectedness to self and others.

  12. User satisfaction and forces generated during laryngoscopy using disposable Miller blades: a manikin study.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, G; Wilkes, A R; Clyburn, P; Aguilera, I; Hall, J E

    2007-10-01

    Increasing awareness of prion-related diseases has led to an increase in the number of disposable laryngoscope blades available. We compared 11 disposable and standard re-usable Miller size 1 blades. In this manikin-based study, we studied user satisfaction for field of view at laryngoscopy, build quality and users' willingness to use the blade in an emergency situation. These were found to be better with metal disposable blades (p

  13. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants.

  14. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Hongjin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Xijia; Jiang, Haibin; Wang, Jiying; Zhang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatidae). One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations. The polymorphic ratio, Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%, 0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population, 74.3%, 0.313, and 0.201 for the red hatchery population, 79.3%, 0.349, and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population, and 74.9%, 0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population, respectively. Thus, all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity. A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population. There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations. Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided. For the hatchery populations, the white and red populations clustered separately; however, for the wild populations, Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together. The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined. Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations, which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing. These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  15. Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Infiltration, Exfiltration, and Drainage in Unsaturated Miller-Similar Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Z. J.; Milly, P. C. D.

    1991-10-01

    The effects of soil heterogeneity on the transport of moisture in the unsaturated zone are studied by means of functional sensitivities, which are more suitable than elementary (or conventional) sensitivities for analyzing continuous systems. The earlier described algorithm is applied to three problems, drainage, infiltration, and exfiltration, for two Miller-similar soils (a randomly generated heterogeneous Yolo light clay and a homogeneous one). It reveals the difference between drainage, on the one hand, and both infiltration and exfiltration on the other. The scaled flux sensitivity profiles, i.e., the functional derivatives of fluxes with respect to Miller-similarity parameter λ(x), are flat for drainage, demonstrating that drainage is equally sensitive to changes in λ(x) at all points of the profile and hence that the similarity parameter has to be modeled well in the whole soil column. Analogous sensitivity profiles for infiltration and exfiltration problems show, significant delay in propagation of functional sensitivities in the soil column (with respect to the moisture front), allowing thus for less stringent modeling of the similarity parameter for the bottom of the column. Infiltration problems seem to be most difficult to deal with, because they are most sensitive to the similarity parameter.

  17. Mutations in potato virus Y genome-linked protein determine virulence toward recessive resistances in Capsicum annuum and Lycopersicon hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Moury, Benoît; Morel, Caroline; Johansen, Elisabeth; Guilbaud, Laurent; Souche, Sylvie; Ayme, Valérie; Caranta, Carole; Palloix, Alain; Jacquemond, Mireille

    2004-03-01

    The recessive resistance genes pot-1 and pvr2 in Lycopersicon hirsutum and Capsicum annuum, respectively, control Potato virus Y (PVY) accumulation in the inoculated leaves. Infectious cDNA molecules from two PVY isolates differing in their virulence toward these resistances were obtained using two different strategies. Chimeras constructed with these cDNA clones showed that a single nucleotide change corresponding to an amino acid substitution (Arg119His) in the central part of the viral protein genome-linked (VPg) was involved in virulence toward the pot-1 resistance. On the other hand, 15 nucleotide changes corresponding to five putative amino acid differences in the same region of the VPg affected virulence toward the pvr2(1) and pvr2(2) resistances. Substitution models identified six and five codons within the central and C terminal parts of the VPg for PVY and for the related potyvirus Potato virus A, respectively, which undergo positive selection. This suggests that the role of the VPg-encoding region is determined by the protein and not by the viral RNA apart from its protein-encoding capacity.

  18. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions.

  19. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions. PMID:25298519

  20. Isolation of an osmotic stress- and abscisic acid-induced gene encoding an acidic endochitinase from Lycopersicon chilense.

    PubMed

    Chen, R D; Yu, L X; Greer, A F; Cheriti, H; Tabaeizadeh, Z

    1994-10-28

    We have identified one osmotic stress- and abscisic acid-responsive member of the endochitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) gene family from leaves of drought-stressed Lycopersicon chilense plants, a natural inhabitant of extremely arid regions in South America. The 966-bp full-length cDNA (designated pcht28) encodes an acidic chitinase precursor with an amino-terminal signal peptide. The mature protein is predicted to have 229 amino acid residues with a relative molecular mass of 24,943 and pI value of 6.2. Sequence analysis revealed that pcht28 has a high degree of homology with class II chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) from tomato and tobacco. Expression of the pcht28 protein in Escherichia coli verified that it is indeed a chitinase. Northern blot analysis indicated that this gene has evolved a different pattern of expression from that of other family members reported thus far. It is highly induced by both osmotic stress and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA suggested that the pcht28-related genes may form a small multigene family in this species. The efficiency of induction of the gene by drought stress, in leaves and stems, is significantly higher in L. chilense than in the cultivated tomato. It is speculated that, besides its general defensive function, the pcht28-encoded chitinase may play a particular role in plant development or in protecting plants from pathogen attack during water stress. PMID:7816027

  1. A comparison of the Miller laryngoscope versus the prototype neonatal offset-blade laryngoscope in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Doreswamy, S M; Fusch, C; Selvaganapathy, R; Matharoo, H; Shivananda, S

    2016-03-01

    Laryngoscope blades used to intubate newborn babies are relatively bulky and frequently exert high pressure on the upper jaw. We tested a prototype neonatal offset-blade laryngoscope (NOBL) developed to overcome these limitations. Our aims were to compare the pressure on the upper jaw exerted by a size 0 Miller laryngoscope and the NOBL on a neonatal manikin, as well as the time taken to intubate the trachea and the area of view of the larynx. Twenty healthcare professionals with more than five years of experience in neonatal intensive care took part; the findings were assessed using pressure-sensitive film and photographs. High-pressure indentation occurred in 17 (85%) attempts using the Miller versus 1 (5%) using the NOBL (p = 0.0001). The median (IQR [range]) pressure exerted with the Miller laryngoscope was 455 (350-526 [75-650]) kPa vs 80 (0-133 [0-195]) kPa with the NOBL (p < 0.0001). The area of pressure exerted with the Miller laryngoscope was 68 (32-82 [0-110]) mm(2) vs 8 (0-23 [0-40]) mm(2) with the NOBL (p < 0.0001). The time to intubate was 8.3 (7.3-10.1[4-19]) s for the Miller and 8.0 (5.6-9.6 [4-13.5]) s for the NOBL (p < 0.0001). The area of view blocked by the Miller laryngoscope was 38% of the oral orifice versus 12% with the NOBL. We conclude that the NOBL significantly reduced undesired pressure on the upper jaw during tracheal intubation and improved the view of the larynx compared with a conventional laryngoscope.

  2. Synonymy of Plotococcus Miller & Denno with Leptococcus Reyne, and description of a new species from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takumasa; Gullan, Penny J

    2008-01-01

    Plotococcus Miller & Denno is synonymized with Leptococcus Reyne (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). The genus is redescribed and the adult female of the type species, L. metroxyli Reyne, is redescribed and illustrated. All species hitherto included in Plotococcus are transferred to Leptococcus as L. capixaba (Kondo) comb. nov., L. eugeniae (Miller & Denno) comb. nov., L. hambletoni (Kondo) comb. nov., L. minutus (Hempel) comb. nov., and L. neotropicus (Williams & Granara de Willink) comb. nov. A new species of Leptococcus, L. rodmani Kondo sp. n., from leaves of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae) from Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. A revised key to adult females of all species in the genus is provided.

  3. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  4. Performance of Hispanic inmates on the Spanish Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST).

    PubMed

    Montes, Orbelin; Guyton, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    The few psychological assessment measures commercially available for the assessment of Spanish-speaking populations lack strong empirical foundation. This is concerning given the rising numbers of Spanish speakers entering the forensic and correctional systems for whom valid assessment is difficult without linguistically and culturally appropriate measures. In this study, we translated and adapted the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) into Spanish. The general purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric, linguistic, and conceptual equivalence of the English- and Spanish-language versions of the M-FAST in a sample of 102 bilingual Hispanic incarcerated males. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three feigning conditions (honest, uncoached, or coached) and completed the M-FAST in both English and Spanish on two separate occasions. Both language versions were psychometrically, linguistically, and conceptually equivalent.

  5. Operations Manager Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). He was the AIRSAR operations manager for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The AIRSAR produces imaging data for a range of studies conducted by the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  6. Dameshek W, Miller EB. The megakaryocytes in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a form of hypersplenism. 1946.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This paper, by one of the legends of hematology, William Dameshek, and his colleague Edward Miller, is from the inaugural issue of Blood. By studying bone marrow specimens from controls, patients with acute or chronic immune thrombocytopenia, or patients with other thrombocytopenic disorders, the authors concluded that, in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), production of platelets from megakaryocytes is defective, even while marrow megakaryocytes are greatly increased in number. This defect resolved after splenectomy. The authors appropriately credit E. Frank with having proposed defective platelet production from megakaryocytes in ITP in 1915. The idea that platelet production was defective in ITP was superseded or ignored for decades, but it has now been validated by the therapeutic effectiveness of the thrombopoietin mimetics in ITP.

  7. Closeout of IE Bulletin 83-07: Apparently fraudulent products sold by Ray Miller, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 83-07 regarding apparently fraudulent products sold by Ray Miller, Inc., to nuclear power and fuel facilities. The bulletin and two supplements were issued to all holders of nuclear power reactor or fuel facility operating licenses or construction permits. Four actions were required of all affected facilities to provide assurance that fraudulent items are not used in safety-related applications, unless qualified by tests. Review of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports shows that the bulletin is closed for all of the 118 power facilities and for the two fuel facilities to which it was issued for action. Facilities where were shut down or had construction halted indefinitely or permanently at the time of issuance of this report are not included. It is concluded that all bulletin concerns have been resolved.

  8. Predictive accuracy of the Miller assessment for preschoolers in children with prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L; Harris, Susan R

    2005-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) is a standardized test purported to identify preschool-aged children at risk for later learning difficulties. We evaluated the predictive validity of the MAP Total Score, relative to later cognitive performance and across a range of possible cut-points, in 37 preschool-aged children with prenatal drug exposure. Criterion measures were the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), Test of Early Reading Ability-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, and Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. The highest predictive accuracy was demonstrated when the WPPSI-R was the criterion measure. The 14th percentile cutoff point demonstrated the highest predictive accuracy across all measures.

  9. Miller-Fisher Syndrome: Are Anti-GAD Antibodies Implicated in Its Pathophysiology?

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulos, Sotirios; Theodoridou, Varvara; Argyropoulou, Ourania; Bostantjopoulou, Sevasti

    2016-01-01

    Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is considered as a variant of the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and its characteristic clinical features are ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. Typically, it is associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies; however, a significant percentage (>10%) of these patients are seronegative. Here, we report a 67-year-old female patient who presented with the typical clinical features of MFS. Workup revealed antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in relatively high titers while GQ1b antibodies were negative. Neurological improvement was observed after intravenous gamma globulin and follow-up examinations showed a continuous clinical amelioration with simultaneous decline of anti-GAD levels which finally returned to normal values. This case indicates that anti-GAD antibodies may be associated with a broader clinical spectrum and future studies in GQ1b-seronegative patients could determine ultimately their clinical and pathogenetic significance in this syndrome. PMID:27239355

  10. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller).

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S

    1999-09-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, P. Miller) is used in aromatherapy as a holistic relaxant and is said to have carminative, antiflatulence and anticolic properties. Its sedative nature, on inhalation, has been shown both in animals and man. Lavender has a spasmolytic activity on guineapig ileum and rat uterus in vitro and it also decreases the tone in the skeletal muscle preparation of the phrenic nerve-diaphragm of rats. As the mechanism of action has not been studied previously, the spasmolytic activity was studied in vitro using a guinea-pig ileum smooth muscle preparation. The mechanism of action was postsynaptic and not atropine-like. The spasmolytic effect of lavender oil was most likely to be mediated through cAMP, and not through cGMP. The mode of action of linalool, one of lavender's major components, reflected that of the whole oil. The mode of action of lavender oil resembled that of geranium and peppermint oils.

  11. A Short Study on the Validity of Miller's Theorem Applied to Transistor Amplifier High-Frequency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Miller's Theorem in the determination of the high-frequency cutoff frequency of transistor amplifiers was recently challenged by a paper published in this TRANSACTIONS. Unfortunately, that paper provided no simulation or experimental results to bring credence to the challenge or to validate the alternate method of determination…

  12. Supercritical fluid extract of Lycium chinense Miller root inhibition of melanin production and its potential mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mode of action of Lycium chinense Miller root extract in skin care has never been explored. In the present study, Lycium chinense Miller root was extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method. Methods In the present study, the components of the root extract were analyzed by HPLC. The effects of the extract on tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically; the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blotting; the possible signaling pathways involved in the root extract-mediated depigmentation were also investigated using specific inhibitors. Results The results revealed that the SFE of Lycium chinense Miller root (2.37-7.11 mg/mL) effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreased the melanin content in B16F10 cells. The root extract also effectively decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the root extract decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The root extract also showed antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular ROS. Conclusions Our results indicate that the SFE of Lycium chinense Miller root inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by down-regulation of both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways or through its antioxidant properties. PMID:24972978

  13. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  14. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  15. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  16. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  17. Miller-Unruh Reading Center: The Comparison of Progress in Reading with Second and Third Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mildred C.

    The study reported was designed to test the hypothesis that no difference in reading achievement scores of second and third grade children requiring remediation would result between Ss receiving both regular classroom and Miller-Unruh Reading Center instruction and Ss receiving classroom instruction only. Reading Center instruction took a…

  18. Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

  19. The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

  20. Concentrated nesting of mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Sharp, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Island-nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) were studied on a 4.5-ha island in 385-ha Miller Lake in northwestern North Dakota during 1976-80. During the 5-year study, 2,561 duck nests of 9 species were found on Island A located 180 m offshore; 59% were mallard and 34% were gadwall. In patches of shrub cover, which contained the greatest concentrations of nests, densities ranged from 241 to 389 mallard nests/ha and from 139 to 237 gadwall nests/ha. Over 97% of the nests were placed in 4 patches of shrubs totaling about 1 ha of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)--Woods rose (Rosa woodsii) cover, which composed about 30% of the island's vegetation. Average hatching success was 85% for clutches of all species. Abandonment averaged 14% (348 of 2,426 nests) and was the major cause of egg failure. Only 15 nests (<1%) were destroyed, primarily by ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) or California gulls (L. californicus). A minimum of 15,960 ducklings including 9,300 mallards and 5,150 gadwalls hatched on 4.5-ha Island A. Hatching rates of eggs in successful nests averaged 83% for mallards and 87% for gadwalls. Despite the close spacing of nests, most individual hens maintained normal nesting regimes. Eighty-one percent of the mallard clutches contained 7-13 eggs and 81% of the gadwall clutches contained 8-14 eggs. Island A in Miller Lake provides an outstanding example of the potential for high reproduction levels of mallards and gadwalls nesting in small areas of predator-free habitats.

  1. Fiber burden and patterns of asbestos-related disease in chrysotile miners and millers.

    PubMed

    Churg, A; Wright, J L; Vedal, S

    1993-07-01

    To examine how fiber type, fiber concentration, and fiber size correlate with the presence of asbestos-related disease in workers with heavy chrysotile exposure, we used analytic electron microscopy to determine the fiber content of the lungs of 94 long-term chrysotile miners and millers from the region of Thetford Mines, Quebec. Mesothelioma, airway fibrosis, and asbestosis were strongly associated with a high tremolite fiber concentration, whereas pleural plaques and carcinoma of the lung showed no relationship to tremolite burden. Similar patterns were seen for chrysotile concentration, but further analysis suggested that the apparent effect of chrysotile probably was due to the high correlation (r = 0.70) between chrysotile and tremolite concentration rather than to an independent effect of chrysotile. Increased tremolite-chrysotile ratio was marginally associated with the presence of pleural plaques but not with any other disease. Very high correlations (r > 0.90) between the concentrations of fibers longer or shorter than 8 microns prevented assessment of the effects of long compared with short fibers. Pleural plaques were very strongly associated with higher mean tremolite fiber aspect ratios, but no differences in mean fiber size (length, width, aspect ratio, surface area, and mass) were seen for any other disease. Total fiber size measures (total fiber length/g and others) showed differences similar to fiber concentration for mesothelioma, airways fibrosis, and asbestosis, but no one measure was clearly better than another or better than fiber concentration. We conclude that, in this population of heavily exposed chrysotile miners and millers, the presence of airways fibrosis and asbestosis and, probably, mesothelioma reflects high tremolite burden.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Comparative sequencing in the genus Lycopersicon. Implications for the evolution of fruit size in the domestication of cultivated tomatoes.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, T Clint; Tanksley, Steven D

    2002-01-01

    Sequence variation was sampled in cultivated and related wild forms of tomato at fw2.2--a fruit weight QTL key to the evolution of domesticated tomatoes. Variation at fw2.2 was contrasted with variation at four other loci not involved in fruit weight determination. Several conclusions could be reached: (1) Fruit weight variation attributable to fw2.2 is not caused by variation in the FW2.2 protein sequence; more likely, it is due to transcriptional variation associated with one or more of eight nucleotide changes unique to the promoter of large-fruit alleles; (2) fw2.2 and loci not involved in fruit weight have not evolved at distinguishably different rates in cultivated and wild tomatoes, despite the fact that fw2.2 was likely a target of selection during domestication; (3) molecular-clock-based estimates suggest that the large-fruit allele of fw2.2, now fixed in most cultivated tomatoes, arose in tomato germplasm long before domestication; (4) extant accessions of L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, the subspecies thought to be the most likely wild ancestor of domesticated tomatoes, appear to be an admixture of wild and cultivated tomatoes rather than a transitional step from wild to domesticated tomatoes; and (5) despite the fact that cerasiforme accessions are polymorphic for large- and small-fruit alleles at fw2.2, no significant association was detected between fruit size and fw2.2 genotypes in the subspecies--as tested by association genetic studies in the relatively small sample studied--suggesting the role of other fruit weight QTL in fruit weight variation in cerasiforme. PMID:12242247

  3. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants.

  4. Mycorrhizal status and diversity of fungal endophytes in roots of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum).

    PubMed

    Likar, Matevz; Bukovnik, Urska; Kreft, Ivan; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Regvar, Marjana

    2008-09-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status and to identify the fungi colonising the roots of the plants, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were inoculated with an indigenous fungal mixture from a buckwheat field. Root colonisation was characterised by the hyphae and distinct microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes, with occasional arbuscules and vesicles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising tartary buckwheat clustered close to the Glomus species group A. Sequences with similarity to the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex, a putative dark septate endophyte fungus, were amplified from the roots of both common and tartary buckwheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in tartary buckwheat and the first molecular characterisation of these fungi that can colonise both of these economically important plant species.

  5. Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH) trial: design, method and sample description

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Lynn; Harris, Elizabeth; McMahon, Catherine; Matthey, Stephen; Vimpani, Graham; Anderson, Teresa; Schmied, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses) over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial). Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home

  6. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  7. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  8. Miller Fisher Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Heterogeneity of Clinical Features and Focused Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yepishin, Ilya V; Allison, Randall Z; Kaminskas, David A; Zagorski, Natalia M; Liow, Kore K

    2016-07-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) that has a geographically variable incidence. It is largely a clinical diagnosis based on the cardinal clinical features of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia, however, other neurological signs and symptoms may also be present. Serological confirmation with the anti-GQ1b antibody is available and allows for greater diagnostic certainty in the face of confounding symptoms. A self-limiting course is typical of MFS. The following case report is that of a patient who presented with generalized weakness, somatic pain, inability to walk, and diplopia following an upper respiratory illness. The patient exhibited the classic triad of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia characteristic of MFS, but also had less typical signs and symptoms making for a more challenging diagnostic workup. Our suspected diagnosis of MFS was serologically confirmed with positive anti-GQ1b antibody titer and the patient was successfully treated with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG).

  9. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates.

  10. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  11. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  12. Amino acids generated from hydrated Titan tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey electric discharge products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, H. James; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernández, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-07-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed ‘tholins’) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FD/ToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4/N2/H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  13. An extension of Miller scaling to scale sorptivity by contact angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallach, Rony; Wang, Qiuling

    2013-10-01

    This study sheds light on the limitations of using [(cos θ)½] to scale sorptivity by contact angle while reaffirming its scaling by geometrical Miller scaling factor (λ½). The sorptivity for uniform and nonuniform (wavy) capillary tubes was determined by a mathematical model that includes the effect of inertia and dynamic contact angle. Given that real porous media are preferably represented by a bundle of nonuniform rather than uniform capillary tubes, the relationship between sorptivity and contact angle was examined for different combinations of contact angles and capillary tube degrees of waviness. A general relationship of S = f [cos θ)β] (with β ≤ ½) was found. The deviation of β from ½ (associated with uniform capillary tubes) increased with contact angle and capillary waviness increase. Zero sorptivity was obtained even for wettable capillaries, θ < 90°, a phenomenon that has been generally associated with hydrophobic capillaries (θ ≥ 90°). Contact angle and nonuniform pore structure had a synergistic effect on sorptivity. Capillary nonuniformity per se diminished sorptivity but its synergy with contact angle markedly magnified this reduction. Thus, following the sorptivity impact on finger width, it is rational to assume that larger-than-zero contact angles are involved in the formation of narrow fingers with an abrupt change between the inner wet and surrounding dry areas.

  14. On the Miller-Tucker-Zemlin Based Formulations for the Distance Constrained Vehicle Routing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Imdat

    2010-11-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), is an extension of the well known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and has many practical applications in the fields of distribution and logistics. When the VRP consists of distance based constraints it is called Distance Constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (DVRP). However, the literature addressing on the DVRP is scarce. In this paper, existing two-indexed integer programming formulations, having Miller-Tucker-Zemlin based subtour elimination constraints, are reviewed. Existing formulations are simplified and obtained formulation is presented as formulation F1. It is shown that, the distance bounding constraints of the formulation F1, may not generate the distance traveled up to the related node. To do this, we redefine the auxiliary variables of the formulation and propose second formulation F2 with new and easy to use distance bounding constraints. Adaptation of the second formulation to the cases where new restrictions such as minimal distance traveled by each vehicle or other objectives such as minimizing the longest distance traveled is discussed.

  15. Solving the hypersingular boundary integral equation for the Burton and Miller formulation.

    PubMed

    Langrenne, Christophe; Garcia, Alexandre; Bonnet, Marc

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an easy numerical implementation of the Burton and Miller (BM) formulation, where the hypersingular Helmholtz integral is regularized by identities from the associated Laplace equation and thus needing only the evaluation of weakly singular integrals. The Helmholtz equation and its normal derivative are combined directly with combinations at edge or corner collocation nodes not used when the surface is not smooth. The hypersingular operators arising in this process are regularized and then evaluated by an indirect procedure based on discretized versions of the Calderón identities linking the integral operators for associated Laplace problems. The method is valid for acoustic radiation and scattering problems involving arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional bodies. Unlike other approaches using direct evaluation of hypersingular integrals, collocation points still coincide with mesh nodes, as is usual when using conforming elements. Using higher-order shape functions (with the boundary element method model size kept fixed) reduces the overall numerical integration effort while increasing the solution accuracy. To reduce the condition number of the resulting BM formulation at low frequencies, a regularized version α = ik/(k(2 )+ λ) of the classical BM coupling factor α = i/k is proposed. Comparisons with the combined Helmholtz integral equation Formulation method of Schenck are made for four example configurations, two of them featuring non-smooth surfaces. PMID:26627805

  16. Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4N2H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  17. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats.

  18. Miller Fisher Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Heterogeneity of Clinical Features and Focused Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yepishin, Ilya V; Allison, Randall Z; Kaminskas, David A; Zagorski, Natalia M; Liow, Kore K

    2016-07-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) that has a geographically variable incidence. It is largely a clinical diagnosis based on the cardinal clinical features of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia, however, other neurological signs and symptoms may also be present. Serological confirmation with the anti-GQ1b antibody is available and allows for greater diagnostic certainty in the face of confounding symptoms. A self-limiting course is typical of MFS. The following case report is that of a patient who presented with generalized weakness, somatic pain, inability to walk, and diplopia following an upper respiratory illness. The patient exhibited the classic triad of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia characteristic of MFS, but also had less typical signs and symptoms making for a more challenging diagnostic workup. Our suspected diagnosis of MFS was serologically confirmed with positive anti-GQ1b antibody titer and the patient was successfully treated with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). PMID:27437164

  19. Enhanced synthesis of alkyl amino acids in Miller's 1958 H2S experiment.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eric T; Cleaves, H James; Callahan, Michael P; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H(2)S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the α-, β-, and γ-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H(2)S, aspartic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H(2)S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H(2)S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth. PMID:22139514

  20. Miller Fisher Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Heterogeneity of Clinical Features and Focused Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Randall Z; Kaminskas, David A; Zagorski, Natalia M; Liow, Kore K

    2016-01-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) that has a geographically variable incidence. It is largely a clinical diagnosis based on the cardinal clinical features of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia, however, other neurological signs and symptoms may also be present. Serological confirmation with the anti-GQ1b antibody is available and allows for greater diagnostic certainty in the face of confounding symptoms. A self-limiting course is typical of MFS. The following case report is that of a patient who presented with generalized weakness, somatic pain, inability to walk, and diplopia following an upper respiratory illness. The patient exhibited the classic triad of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia characteristic of MFS, but also had less typical signs and symptoms making for a more challenging diagnostic workup. Our suspected diagnosis of MFS was serologically confirmed with positive anti-GQ1b antibody titer and the patient was successfully treated with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). PMID:27437164

  1. The petrology and geochemistry of Miller Range 05035: A new lunar gabbroic meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Anand, M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Russell, S. S.

    2008-08-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 05035 is a lunar gabbroic meteorite. The mineralogy, Fe/Mn ratios in olivine and pyroxene, bulk-rock chemical composition and the bulk oxygen isotope values (δ 17O = 2.86-2.97‰ and δ 18O = 5.47-5.71‰) are similar to those of other mare basalts, and are taken as supporting evidence for a lunar origin for this meteorite. The sample is dominated by pyroxene grains (54-61% by area mode of thin section) along with large plagioclase feldspar (25-36% by mode) and accessory quartz, ilmenite, spinel, apatite and troilite. The bulk-rock major element composition of MIL 05035 indicates that the sample has a very low-Ti (VLT) to low-Ti lunar heritage (we measure bulk TiO 2 to be 0.9 Wt.%) and has low bulk incompatible trace element (ITE) concentrations, akin to samples from the VLT mare basalt suite. To account for these geochemical characteristics we hypothesize that MIL 05035's parental melt was derived from a mantle region dominated by early cumulates of the magma ocean (comprised principally of olivine and orthopyroxene). MIL 05035 is likely launch paired with the Asuka-881757 and Yamato-793169 basaltic lunar meteorites and the basaltic regolith breccia MET 01210. This group of meteorites (Y/A/M/M) therefore may be a part of a stratigraphic column consisting of an upper regolith environment underlain by a coarsening downwards basalt lava flow.

  2. Golden jubilee year of Stanley Miller experiment and chemical evolution and origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2013-06-01

    I give a brief review of how some of the major players in the subject approached the problem of the origin of pre-biotic molecules on Earth. For paucity of space, I will start with the developments starting with Stanley Miller's experiment on abiotic synthesis of amino acids till the most recent work on numerical simulation of hydro-chemical processes of collapsing clouds and the evolution of complex bio-molecules. We are evidently far away from actually solving the problem of origin of life. What is clear, however, is that the formation of complex amino acids in interstellar region is indeed possible, independently, in many star forming regions inside protostellar disks. Possibly, the delivery of these important ingredients to the earth was done by comets and meteorites. Finally, I conclude that since only a small part of the universe is involved for a relatively short time to create the present life-form, far more complex and possibly 'super-civilized' systems are possible in this universe, and could even be present elsewhere.

  3. Optimizing the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization with Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-10-01

    The schemes of cumulus parameterization are responsible for the sub-grid-scale effects of convective and/or shallow clouds, and intended to represent vertical fluxes due to unresolved updrafts and downdrafts and compensating motion outside the clouds. Some schemes additionally provide cloud and precipitation field tendencies in the convective column, and momentum tendencies due to convective transport of momentum. The schemes all provide the convective component of surface rainfall. Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) is one scheme to fulfill such purposes in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has tried to optimize the BMJ scheme for operational application. As there are no interactions among horizontal grid points, this scheme is very suitable for parallel computation. With the advantage of Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture, efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials, it allows us to optimize the BMJ scheme. If compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670, the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.4x and 17.0x, respectively.

  4. Stratigraphy and depositional history of Coyote Creek-Miller Creek Trend, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ryer, T.A.; Gustason, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend produces high-gravity, low-sulfur oil from a series of Fall River fields in an area generally characterized by west-southwestward monoclinal dip. The trend includes, from south to north, the Coyote Creek South, Coyote Creek, Donkey Creek, Kummerfeld, and Miller Creek fields. The Wood and West Moorcroft fields produce oil from very similar Fall River traps located several miles east and northeast, respectively, of Miller Creek. Only Donkey Creek includes structural closure; all of the other fields produce from purely stratigraphic traps. The reservoir sandstones are characterized by upward-fining sequences. These sequences locally replace and are generally easily distinguishable from two regionally correlative upward-coarsening sequences. Analyses of cores and nearby outcrops indicate that the upward-fining sequences accumulated on point bars of a meandering river; the upward-coarsening sequences were deposited on the fronts of northwestward-prograding deltas. Detailed mapping of the fluvial and delta-front facies demonstrates that the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend, together with the Wood and West Moorcroft fields, represents a meander-belt system that was contemporaneous with the younger of the two delta-front units. Each of the stratigraphic-type fields occurs at a convexity along the eastern edge of the irregularly shaped meander belt; each consists of numerous point bars. Clay plugs, which resulted from infilling of abandoned meander loops, were preferentially preserved along the margins of the meander belt, where they now serve as updip permeability barriers between the oil-bearing fluvial and water-wet delta-front sandstones.

  5. The Microcosm within: An interview with William B. Miller, Jr., on the Extended Hologenome theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tam

    2015-01-01

    There is a singular unifying reality underlying every biologic interaction on our planet. In immunology, that which does not kill you makes you different. -William B. Miller, Jr. We are experiencing a revolution in our understanding of inner space on a par with our exponentially increasing understanding of outer space. In biology, we are learning that the genetic and epigenetic complexity within organisms is far deeper than suspected. This is a key theme in William B. Miller Jr.'s book, The Microcosm Within: Evolution and Extinction in the Hologenome. We are learning also that a focus on the human genome alone is misleading when it comes to who we really are as biological entities, and in terms of how we and other creatures have evolved. Rather than being defined by the human genome alone, we are instead defined by the "hologenome," the sum of the human genome and the far larger genetic endowment of the microbiome and symbiotic communities that reside within and around us. Miller is a medical doctor previously in private practice in Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona. This book is his first foray into evolutionary theory. His book could have been titled "The Origin of Variation" because this is his primary focus. He accepts that natural selection plays a role in evolution, but he demotes this mechanism to a less important role than the Modern Synthesis suggests. His main gripe, however, concerns random variation. He argues that random variation is unable to explain the origin and evolution of biological forms that we see in the world around us and in the historical record. Miller suggests that, rather than random variation as the engine of novelty, there is a creative impulse at the heart of cellular life, and even at the level of the genetic aggregate, that generates novelty on a regular basis. I probe this assertion in the interview below. He also highlights the strong role of "exogenous genetic assault" in variation and in his immunological model of evolution.

  6. The Microcosm within: An interview with William B. Miller, Jr., on the Extended Hologenome theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tam

    2015-01-01

    There is a singular unifying reality underlying every biologic interaction on our planet. In immunology, that which does not kill you makes you different. -William B. Miller, Jr. We are experiencing a revolution in our understanding of inner space on a par with our exponentially increasing understanding of outer space. In biology, we are learning that the genetic and epigenetic complexity within organisms is far deeper than suspected. This is a key theme in William B. Miller Jr.'s book, The Microcosm Within: Evolution and Extinction in the Hologenome. We are learning also that a focus on the human genome alone is misleading when it comes to who we really are as biological entities, and in terms of how we and other creatures have evolved. Rather than being defined by the human genome alone, we are instead defined by the "hologenome," the sum of the human genome and the far larger genetic endowment of the microbiome and symbiotic communities that reside within and around us. Miller is a medical doctor previously in private practice in Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona. This book is his first foray into evolutionary theory. His book could have been titled "The Origin of Variation" because this is his primary focus. He accepts that natural selection plays a role in evolution, but he demotes this mechanism to a less important role than the Modern Synthesis suggests. His main gripe, however, concerns random variation. He argues that random variation is unable to explain the origin and evolution of biological forms that we see in the world around us and in the historical record. Miller suggests that, rather than random variation as the engine of novelty, there is a creative impulse at the heart of cellular life, and even at the level of the genetic aggregate, that generates novelty on a regular basis. I probe this assertion in the interview below. He also highlights the strong role of "exogenous genetic assault" in variation and in his immunological model of evolution

  7. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported.

  8. Experimental measurements of plasma properties for Miller SG-100 torch with Mach I setting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.L.T.; Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E. )

    1991-10-01

    In this work measurements of plasma properties, including the fields of temperature, velocity and plasma composition have been completed for the Miller SG-100 plasma torch using argon-helium mixtures with the Mach 1 nozzle at 1 atm pressure. A computer-controlled system combining both spectroscopic and enthalpy probe diagnostics has been developed to allow temperature measurements covering a range from 2000--16000K which includes the plasma flame region which is of interest. The experimental results expose the dominant effects in different spatial areas of argon-helium plasma jets. In the center near the nozzle exit the temperatures exceed 10,000K, and strong diffusion exists due to the steep radial gradients of temperature and particle number densities. In the jet tail region where the temperatures are well below 10,000K and decay in axial and radial direction, the dominant effects in this area are strong cold gas entrainment associated with turbulence. Substantial discrepancies between temperatures evaluated from spectroscopic and enthalpy probe data are particularly severe in the jet fringes indicating that strong deviations from LTE may exist in the jet fringes. In addition, entrainment of the cold surrounding gas into the plasma jet causes severe discrepancies between spectrometric and enthalpy probe data. The validity of the two diagnostic methods will be discussed. The temperature profiles in argon-helium plasma jets are flatter and wider, and the velocities are higher than in a pure argon plasma jet. These features of argon-helium plasma jets may be beneficial for obtaining better performance in the plasma spraying process. 26 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Organic Analysis in the Miller Range 090657 CR2 Chondrite: Part 2 Amino Acid Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Cao, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Messenger, S.; Clemett, S. J.; Aponte, J. C.; Elsila, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of organic material, ranging from soluble discrete molecules to insoluble, unstructured kerogen-like components, as well as structured nano-globules of macromolecular carbon. The relationship between the soluble organic molecules, macromolecular organic material, and host minerals are poorly understood. Due to the differences in extractability of soluble and insoluble organic materials, the analysis methods for each differ and are often performed independently. The combination of soluble and insoluble analyses, when performed concurrently, can provide a wider understanding of spatial distribution, and elemental, structural and isotopic composition of organic material in primitive meteorites. Using macroscale extraction and analysis techniques in combination with in situ microscale observation, we have been studying both insoluble and soluble organic material in the primitive CR2 chondrite Miller Range (MIL) 090657. In accompanying abstracts (Cao et al. and Messenger et al.) we discuss insoluble organic material in the samples. By performing the consortium studies, we aim to improve our understanding of the relationship between the meteorite minerals and the soluble and insoluble organic phases and to delineate which species formed within the meteorite and those that formed in nebular or presolar environments. In this abstract, we present the results of amino acid analyses of MIL 090657 by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Amino acids are of interest because they are essential to life on Earth, and because they are present in sufficient structural, enantiomeric and isotopic diversity to allow insights into early solar system chemical processes. Furthermore, these are among the most isotopically anomalous species, yet at least some fraction are thought to have formed by aqueously-mediated processes during parent body alteration.

  10. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  11. Preliminary report on uranium deposits in the Miller Hill area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    A sequence of radioactive rocks of Miocene (?) age, the Browns Park formation, in the Miller Hill area of southern Wyoming is more than 1,000 feet thick. The formation crops out in an area of approximately 600 square miles, and consists of a basal conglomerate, tuffs, tuffaceous limy sandstones, and thin persistent radioactive algal limestones. Uranium is concentrated in both algal limestones and in tuffaceous limy sandstones. The uranium is believed to have been deposited. at least in part with the sediments, rather than to have come in at a later date. The highest uranium values were found in a widespread algal limestone bed, which contains as much as 0. 15 percent uranium. Values of 0.01 percent uranium or more were obtained from 8 samples taken from approximately 220 feet of stratigraphic section in the Browns Park formation. This is the first reported occurrence of limestone source rock from Wyoming that has been found to contain a commercial grade of uranium. The economic possibilities of the area have not been determined adequately and no estimates of tonnage are warranted at the present time. An airborne radiometric survey was made by the Geophysics Branch of the Geological Survey, of the west half of the area, recommended by the writer for investigation. Ground check of all anomalies reported at that time showed that they were in localities where the background radiation was much higher than average. Additional localities with high background radiation were found on the ground in the area east of that which was flown.

  12. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  13. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia cv. Angelia or on the oilseed radish cv. Nemex and Pegletta. Cyst production was low (<2.5 cysts/plant) on the buckwheat cv. Tardo and Prego and most of the oilseed radish cultivars. Cyst production was intermediate (5-14 cysts/plant) on most of the white mustard cultivars, and high on cabbage (20-110 cysts/plant). In microplot studies conducted over 133 days (approx. 450 degree-days, base 8 C), the reproductive index for H. schachtii was greater than 1.0 for cultivars of phacelia, oilseed radish, and white mustard as welt as in fallow treatments, indicating the need for further research on the use of these crops under field conditions. PMID:19279828

  14. Metabolomic analysis and differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in white- and red-flowered buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Soo-Yun; Thwe, Aye Aye; Seo, Jeong Min; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Red-flowered buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat.

  15. Selenium and its species distribution in above-ground plant parts of selenium enriched buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Vogrincic, Maja; Cuderman, Petra; Kreft, Ivan; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-11-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was foliarly sprayed with a water solution containing 10 mg Se(VI) L(-1) at the beginning of flowering. The total Se content in plant parts in the untreated group was low, whereas in the Se-sprayed group it was approximately 50- to 500-fold higher, depending on the plant part (708-4231 ng Se g(-1) DM(-1) (DM: dry matter)). We observed a similar distribution of Se in plant parts in both control and treated groups, with the highest difference in Se content being in ripe seeds. Water-soluble Se compounds were extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with protease XIV, resulting in above 63% of soluble Se from seeds, approximately 14% from stems, leaves and inflorescences and less than 1% from husks. Se-species were determined in enzymatic extracts using HPLC-UV-HG-AFS (HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with UV treatment). The main Se species found in seeds was SeMet ( approximately 60% according to total Se content), while in stems, leaves and inflorescences the only form of soluble Se present was Se(VI) (up to 10% of total Se). In husks no Se-species were detected. We observed an instability of Se(IV) in seed extracts as a possible consequence of binding to the matrix components. Therefore, special care concerning sample extraction and the storage time of the extracts should be taken.

  16. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases.

  17. Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mohamed, Zaidul Islam Sarker; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuya

    2007-11-14

    The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.

  18. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  19. Changes in free amino acid, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content in tomatoes during 11 stages of growth, and inhibition of cervical, lung, and lymphoma human cancer cells by green tomato extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and secondary metabolites that benefit nutrition and human health. The concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by the maturity of the tomato fruit on the vine. Widely consumed Korean tomato variety Doturakwor...

  20. Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and

  1. Element abundances, patterns, and mobility in Nakhlite Miller Range 03346 and implications for aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopar, Julie D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Velbel, Michael A.; Norman, Marc D.; Vicenzi, Edward P.; Hallis, Lydia J.

    2013-07-01

    Nakhlite Miller Range (MIL) 03346 contains many secondary phases resulting from aqueous processes, including formation of poorly crystalline iddingsite-like veins in olivine, the precipitation of Ca-sulfates and Fe,K-sulfates from evaporating fluids, alteration of titanomagnetite to secondary Fe-oxides, and the dissolution of magmatic Ca-phosphates and residual glass in the mesostasis. A surprising variety of alteration products occur in association with olivine in MIL 03346, including: patches of incipiently-altered olivine, large Si-enriched olivine-hosted veins (up to 10 μm across) some of which are complex in morphology and are composed of several phases, small Fe,S(±K)-rich veinlets that crosscut the Si-enriched veins, Ca-sulfates filling cracks in olivine, and secondary Ca-phosphates. Elemental abundances and distributions in these alteration products are consistent with the mobilization of elements from readily dissolved phases in the mesostasis such as phosphates and residual glass. Under favorable weathering conditions, these phases dissolve more readily than pyroxenes, plagioclase, and even olivine at low pH. The occurrence (crosscut and devolatilized by the fusion crust) and composition of Si-enriched alteration veins in olivine are consistent with their formation on Mars. Si-enriched, poorly crystalline alteration products and secondary Ca-sulfates commonly occur in nakhlites, but the habit and composition of these alteration products differ between meteorites. Elemental distributions in these secondary phases suggest at least two episodes of alteration have affected MIL 03346, and subtle differences in secondary minerals and chemistry indicate that each nakhlite experienced its own unique alteration history either on Mars, Earth, or both. The variable Al content and range of morphologies of the olivine-hosted Si-enriched veins suggest variable alteration conditions consistent with a water-limited regime. If the secondary phases in MIL 03346 can be

  2. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  3. The Microcosm within: An interview with William B. Miller, Jr., on the Extended Hologenome theory of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2015-01-01

    There is a singular unifying reality underlying every biologic interaction on our planet. In immunology, that which does not kill you makes you different. -William B. Miller, Jr. We are experiencing a revolution in our understanding of inner space on a par with our exponentially increasing understanding of outer space. In biology, we are learning that the genetic and epigenetic complexity within organisms is far deeper than suspected. This is a key theme in William B. Miller Jr.'s book, The Microcosm Within: Evolution and Extinction in the Hologenome. We are learning also that a focus on the human genome alone is misleading when it comes to who we really are as biological entities, and in terms of how we and other creatures have evolved. Rather than being defined by the human genome alone, we are instead defined by the “hologenome,” the sum of the human genome and the far larger genetic endowment of the microbiome and symbiotic communities that reside within and around us. Miller is a medical doctor previously in private practice in Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona. This book is his first foray into evolutionary theory. His book could have been titled “The Origin of Variation” because this is his primary focus. He accepts that natural selection plays a role in evolution, but he demotes this mechanism to a less important role than the Modern Synthesis suggests. His main gripe, however, concerns random variation. He argues that random variation is unable to explain the origin and evolution of biological forms that we see in the world around us and in the historical record. Miller suggests that, rather than random variation as the engine of novelty, there is a creative impulse at the heart of cellular life, and even at the level of the genetic aggregate, that generates novelty on a regular basis. I probe this assertion in the interview below. He also highlights the strong role of “exogenous genetic assault” in variation and in his immunological model of

  4. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (<2-fold) A few STOP1/ART1 (SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1/AL RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1)-regulated gene homologs including FeSTAR1, FeALS3 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3), FeALS1 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE1), FeMATE1 and FeMATE2 (MULTIDRUG AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION1 and 2) were also up-regulated in buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat.

  5. Growth and production of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) treated with reduced, ambient, and enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gaberscik, Alenka; Voncina, Meta; Trost, Tadeja; Germ, Mateja; Olof Björn, Lars

    2002-02-01

    The effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. variety 'Darja'), an important high elevation crop, was studied in order to estimate its vulnerability in changing UV-B environment. Plants were grown in outdoor experiments from July to October under reduced and ambient UV-B levels, and an UV-B level simulating 17% ozone depletion in Ljubljana. During the development the following parameters were monitored: light saturated photosynthetic activity, transpiration, potential and effective photochemical efficiencies of photosystem II, the contents of photosynthetic pigments and methanol soluble UV-B absorbing compounds. At the end of the experiment, growth rate and production of seeds were estimated. In the following growth season the seeds collected from plants exposed to different UV-B treatments were tested for germination capacity. Total UV-B absorbing compounds during plant development were increased by UV-B radiation, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) decreased. Photosynthetic rate was lowered in an early stage of development. UV-B treatment resulted in the increase in the transpiration rate and consequently the decrease in water use efficiency (WUE). The disturbances in water economy and in photosynthesis affected the reproduction potential negatively; the production of seeds in plants cultivated under ambient and enhanced UV-B was 57 and 39% of the production of specimens treated with reduced UV-B, respectively. The germination of seeds collected from treated plants revealed on average about 95% success, independently of the treatment, but the time needed for germination was the shortest for seeds developed under enhanced UV-B level treatment. Enhanced UV-B radiation affected water relations and production of buckwheat, but not the potential of seeds for germination.

  6. Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eric T; Cleaves, Henderson J; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2011-04-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H(2)S, CH(4), NH(3), and CO(2). A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H(2)S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H(2)S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments. PMID:21422282

  7. The formation of organic molecules in solar system environments: The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space preflight overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Martins, Z.; Ricco, A.; Blum, J.; Schraepler, R.; van Dongen, J.; Palmans, A.; Sephton, M.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) will investigate the formation of prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment when it is sent to, and later retrieved from, the International Space Station in 2012. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, electrical discharges, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. Two gas mixture compositions (CH4, NH3, H2 and N2, H2, CO) will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 °C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of initial products, intermediates and their abundances. Conducting the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the low gravity, energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur as planetary systems form.

  8. Primordial Synthesis of Amines and Amino Acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-Rich Spark Discharge Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordia! environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.

  9. Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments. PMID:21422282

  10. Proposal for a Modified Dreyfus and Miller Model with simplified competency level descriptions for performing self-rated surveys.

    PubMed

    Park, Janghee

    2015-01-01

    In competency-based education, it is important to frequently evaluate the degree of competency achieved by establishing and specifying competency levels. To self-appraise one's own competency level, one needs a simple, clear, and accurate description for each competency level. This study aimed at developing competency stages that can be used in surveys and conceptualizing clear and precise competency level descriptions. In this paper, the author intends to conceptualize a simple competency level description through a literature review. The author modified the most widely quoted competency level models-Dreyfus' Five-stage Model and Miller's Pyramid-and classified competency levels into the following: The Modified Dreyfus Model comprises absolute beginner, beginner, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert, while the Modified Miller Model uses the levels of knows little, knows and knows how, exercised does, selected does, experienced does, and intuitive does. The author also provided a simple and clear description of competency levels. The precise description of competency levels developed in this study is expected to be useful in determining one's competency level in surveys.

  11. Miller-Dieker syndrome due to maternal cryptic translocation t(10;17)(q26.3;p13.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Masuno, Mitsuo; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Mihoko; Kuroki, Yoshikazu

    1995-12-04

    We report on a 3-month-old girl with Miller-Dieker syndrome resulting from a maternal full-cryptic translocation t(10;17)(q26.3;p13.3) detectable only by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Parental studies using FISH are crucial for genetic counselling in cases of Miller-Dieker syndrome with submicroscopic deletion at 17p13.3. In a family with a parental cryptic translocation and high recurrence risk, prenatal diagnosis using FISH is feasible. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Effect of 1-methylcycloprene on tomato flavour components, shelf life and decay as influenced by harvest maturity and storage temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For years there have been reports of consumer dissatisfaction with fresh market tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicon; formerly known as Lycopersicon esculentum). In Florida, tomatoes are harvested green (GR), which includes mature green (MG) and immature green (IG) fruit, gassed with ethylene and stored a...

  13. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  14. Involvement of Ethylene in Stress-Induced Expression of the TLC1.1 Retrotransposon from Lycopersicon chilense Dun.1[w

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Gerardo; Verdugo, Isabel; Yañez, Mónica; Ahumada, Iván; Theoduloz, Cristina; Cordero, Cecilia; Poblete, Fernando; González, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón

    2005-01-01

    The TLC1 family is one of the four families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons identified in the genome of Lycopersicon chilense. Here, we show that this family of retroelements is transcriptionally active and its expression is induced in response to diverse stress conditions such as wounding, protoplast preparation, and high salt concentrations. Several stress-associated signaling molecules, including ethylene, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, are capable of inducing TLC1 family expression in vivo. A representative of this family, named TLC1.1, was isolated from a genomic library from L. chilense. Transient expression assays in leaf protoplasts and stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants demonstrate that the U3 domain of the 5′-LTR region of this element can drive stress-induced transcriptional activation of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene. Two 57-bp tandem repeated sequences are found in this region, including an 8-bp motif, ATTTCAAA, previously identified as an ethylene-responsive element box in the promoter region of ethylene-induced genes. Expression analysis of wild-type LTR and single and double ethylene-responsive element box mutants fused to the β-glucuronidase gene shows that these elements are required for ethylene-responsive gene expression in protoplasts and transgenic plants. We suggest that ethylene-dependent signaling is the main signaling pathway involved in the regulation of the expression of the TLC1.1 element from L. chilense. PMID:16040666

  15. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  16. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  17. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    PubMed

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost

  18. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    PubMed

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost

  19. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  20. Does the interpersonally sensitive disposition advance research on personality and health? Comment on Marin and Miller (2013).

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W

    2013-09-01

    Marin and Miller (2013) have proposed the interpersonally sensitive disposition as an integrative model of personality characteristics affecting physical health. The model has considerable heuristic value and applied potential, and the related research is discussed with thoughtful attention to long-standing challenges and limitations in research on personality and health. However, their conclusions about the association of interpersonal sensitivity and subsequent health may be premature and overstated. The agenda for future research they propose is valuable, and in addition to the important epidemiologic and psychobiologic studies they describe, the essential research on the measurement of interpersonal sensitivity and its association with other personality and social-environmental risk factors will be best advanced through application of concepts and methods in current personality science and related interpersonal approaches.

  1. Detection strategies for malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: a confirmatory factor analysis of its underlying dimensions.

    PubMed

    Vitacco, Michael J; Jackson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S; Miller, Holly A; Gabel, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively untested. Understanding of its dimensions is critical for construct validity and guiding its proper use. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to provide evidence of a single parsimonious malingering factor to account for the covariation of the M-FAST items in a sample of 244 forensic patients. In addition, the model was cross-validated with an independent sample of 210 forensic patients. Finally, the M-FAST factor was modeled in conjunction with two factors of the SIRS. Results provide further validation of the underlying detection strategy found in the M-FAST.

  2. Variation of the chemical profile and antioxidant behavior of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia fruticosa Miller grown in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Vassiliki; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Papaioannou, Marina; Komaitis, Michael

    2008-08-27

    In this study, the essential oil and the phenolic composition along with the antioxidant activity of R. officinalis L. and S. fruticosa Miller, collected in Zakynthos island (Ionian Sea, Greece), were investigated. The essential oil composition of the plants was characterized by the presence of 1,8-cineole. Mean values of the antioxidant activities of rosemary and sage essential oils indicated slight differences. The antioxidant activity of sage oil was correlated with the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and diterpenes concentrations. Concerning the methanolic extracts, a close relationship between the phenolic content and the development stage during vegetative cycle of these plants was observed. The identified flavonoids, except rutin, seemed to increase with the advancement of developmental stages, while phenolic acids followed an opposite pattern. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of total phenolic content.

  3. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  4. An investigation into critical aspects of a new form of low energy lunar transfer, the Belbruno-Miller trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krish, V.; Belbruno, E. A.; Hollister, W. M.

    1992-08-01

    This paper documents an integrated Belbruno-Miller (B-M) trajectory and its corresponding injection period. The B-M trajectories use Weak Stability Boundaries (WSB) resulting from four-body perturbative dynamics between the earth, moon, sun, and spacecraft to significantly reduce maneuver requirements for lunar transfer. It is determined that the presented nominal trajectory has a viable 4-day injection period considering maneuver constraints. The nominal B-M trajectory produces saving varying from 150 m/s to 222 m/s over traditional Hohmann means thus pointing to the practical utility of the WSB method. Energy savings are extracted at the price of extended flight time of approximately 6-months. Usefulness of this procedure was recently dramatized by the Japanese spacecraft Hiten when it arrived a the moon on October 2, 1991 following its entry into B-M trajectory on April 25, 1991.

  5. Electrochemical Measurement of the β-Galactosidase Reporter from Live Cells: A Comparison to the Miller Assay.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Zhou, Xinyi Y; Ueda, Hana; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Kim, Eunkyoung; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2016-01-15

    In order to match our ability to conceive of and construct cells with enhanced function, we must concomitantly develop facile, real-time methods for elucidating performance. With these, new designs can be tested in silico and steps in construction incrementally validated. Electrochemical monitoring offers the above advantages largely because signal transduction stems from direct electron transfer, allowing for potentially quicker and more integrated measurements. One of the most common genetic reporters, β-galactosidase, can be measured both spectrophotometrically (Miller assay) and electrochemically. However, since the relationship between the two is not well understood, the electrochemical methods have not yet garnered the attention of biologists. With the aim of demonstrating the utility of an electrochemical measurement to the synthetic biology community, we created a genetic construct that interprets and reports (with β-galactosidase) on the concentration of the bacterial quorum sensing molecule autoinducer-2. In this work, we provide a correlation between electrochemical measurements and Miller Units. We show that the electrochemical assay works with both lysed and whole cells, allowing for the prediction of one from the other, and for continuous monitoring of cell response. We further present a conceptually simple and generalized mathematical model for cell-based β-galactosidase reporter systems that could aid in building and predicting a variety of synthetic biology constructs. This first-ever in-depth comparison and analysis aims to facilitate the use of electrochemical real-time monitoring in the field of synthetic biology as well as to facilitate the creation of constructs that can more easily communicate information to electronic systems.

  6. Source identification and fish exposure for polychlorinated biphenyls using congener analysis from passive water samplers in the Millers River basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish and in streambed sediments of the Millers River Basin, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, have been reported without evidence of the PCB source. In 1999, an investigation was initiated to determine the source(s) of the elevated PCB concentrations observed in fish and to establish the extent of fish exposure to PCBs along the entire main stems of the Millers River and one of its tributaries, the Otter River. Passive samplers deployed for 2-week intervals in the water-column at 3 1 stations, during summer and fall 1999, were used to assess PCB concentrations in the Millers River Basin. The samplers concentrate PCBs, which diffuse from the water column through a polyethylene membrane to hexane (0.200 liters) contained inside the samplers. Only dissolved PCBs (likely equivalent to the bioavailable fraction) are subject to diffusion through the membrane. The summed concentrations of all targeted PCB congeners (summed PCB) retrieved from the samplers ranged from 1 to 8,000 nanograms per hexane sample. Concentration and congener-pattern comparisons indicated that the historical release of PCBs in the Millers River Basin likely occurred on the Otter River at the upstream margin of Baldwinville, Mass. Elevated water-column concentrations measured in a wetland reach on the Otter River downstream from Baldwinville were compatible with a conceptual model for a present-day (1999) source in streambed sediments, to which the PCBs partitioned after their original introduction into the Otter River and from which PCBs are released to the water now that the original discharge has ceased or greatly decreased. Two four-fold decreases in summed PCB concentrations in the Millers River, by comparison with the highest concentration on the Otter River, likely were caused by (1) dilution with water from the relatively uncontaminated upstream Millers River and (2) volatilization of PCBs from the Millers River in

  7. Clinical relevance of the determination of anti-GQ1b antibodies in Miller Fisher and Guillain-Barré syndromes.

    PubMed

    Goffette, S; Jeanjean, A; Pierret, F; Peeters, A; Sindic, C J

    1998-12-01

    Anti-GQ1b antibodies were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from patients with non-neurological disorders (N = 20), and with various neurological disorders (N = 59), including nine cases of Miller Fisher syndrome, 16 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and one case of acute post-infectious ophthalmoparesis. Such antibodies were found in most cases (8 out of 9) of Miller Fisher syndrome, and at very high titres, in one case of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterised by an initial ophthalmoparesis, and in the case of isolated post-infectious ophthalmoparesis. The latter was characterised by a long-lasting occurrence of these antibodies. Anti-GQ1b antibodies are specific for an immune-mediated neuropathy of the cranial, especially oculomotor, nerves.

  8. Malingering and PTSD: Detecting malingering and war related PTSD by Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malingering is prevalent in PTSD, especially in delayed-onset PTSD. Despite the attempts to detect it, indicators, tools and methods to accurately detect malingering need extensive scientific and clinical research. Therefore, this study was designed to validate a tool that can detect malingering of war-related PTSD by Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST). Methods In this blind clinical diagnosis study, one hundred and twenty veterans referred to War Related PTSD Diagnosis Committee in Iran in 2011 were enrolled. In the first step, the clients received Psychiatry diagnosis and were divided into two groups based on the DSM-IV-TR, and in the second step, the participants completed M-FAST. Results The t-test score within two groups by M-FAST Scale showed a significant difference (t = 14.058, P < 0.0001), and 92% of malingering war-related PTSD participants scored more than 6 and %87 of PTSD group scored less than 6 in M-FAST Scale. Conclusions M-FAST showed a significant difference between war-related PTSD and malingering participants. The ≥6 score cutoff was suggested by M-FAST to detect malingering of war-related PTSD. PMID:23714274

  9. DNA methylation during sexual embryogenesis and implications on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Miller.

    PubMed

    Viejo, M; Rodríguez, R; Valledor, L; Pérez, M; Cañal, M J; Hasbún, R

    2010-12-01

    From anthesis to mature seed formation, burrs from cross-pollinated adult Castanea sativa Miller trees were characterized and seven developmental stages defined based on macro and micromorphological traits. In order to get an insight into the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual embryogenesis and to define somatic embryogenesis induction capability, global DNA methylation and the somatic embryogenic competence were quantified. On cross-pollinated trees once fertilization takes place, at least one ovule per ovary becomes dominant, and transient DNA demethylation occurs coinciding with the start of the sexual embryogenic programme. Unfertilized ovules from the same cluster, which maintain their prior size, increase their methylation level and undergo degeneration. These results were validated using non-cross-pollinated trees and the asynchrony of flower receptivity. When testing in vitro somatic embryogenesis response of isolated dominant ovules and axes from zygotic embryos under cross-pollinated conditions, the highest competence was found for reaching seed maturity. Thus, a "developmental window" of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut has been characterized. It includes from fertilization to embryo maturity, and a transient decrease in methylation is necessary after fertilization for the development of the somatic embryogenesis response.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of Lycium chinense Miller fruit and its constituent betaine in CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Meejung; Park, Jong Sang; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Hyun, Jin Won; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activities of Lycium chinense Miller (LC) fruit extract and its component betaine were investigated under carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The treatment of LC fruit extract significantly suppressed the increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the sera of CCl4 injured rats, and restored the decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. To visualize the potential activity of betaine, a component of LC fruit, betaine was substituted for LC extract in CCl4 injured rats. The biochemical profile in CCl4 injured rats co-treated with betaine matched those of LC fruit treated CCl4 injured rats. The ameliorative effects of LC extract, as well as betaine, were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Collectively, the present findings imply that LC fruit, via its component betaine, mitigate CCl4-induced hepatic injury by increasing antioxidative activity and decreasing inflammatory mediators including iNOS and COX-1/COX-2.

  11. Overlapping patterns of morphometric and genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean goby Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in Tunisian lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Randa; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hassine, Nesrine; Arculeo, Marco; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and morphological variations of Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 were studied in samples collected from three Tunisian lagoons. The morphological analysis included 18 morphometric measurements and was based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), whereas the genetic analysis was based on the 16S-rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes. Both analyses differentiated the populations and demonstrated consistently a well-supported differentiation between the western Mediterranean samples (Bizerta and Tunis South lagoons) and the eastern Mediterranean sample (El Bibane lagoon). The observed differentiation could be explained in terms of the geographic isolation of the various populations and the influence of environmental factors, which differ greatly between the different sites. The molecular results revealed that the populations are characterised by unique haplotypes which are well defined in relation to limited gene flow and restricted dispersal abilities. Additionally, it seems that local selective pressures have modelled biometrical variation. Morphological results can reflect a differential habitat use revealed in the cephalic features and a different response to hydrodynamic constraints developed in dissimilar dorsal and pelvic fin lengths.

  12. Potent inhibitory effect of Foeniculum vulgare Miller extract on osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2012-06-01

    Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss. To find natural compounds that may inhibit osteoclastogenesis, we screened herbal extracts on bone marrow cultures. In this study, we found that an aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller seed (FvMs) at low concentration, which has traditionally been used as a treatment for a variety of ailments, inhibits the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts. We further investigated the effects of FvMs on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss using microcomputed tomography, biomechanical tests and serum marker assays for bone remodeling. Oral administration of FvMs (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks had an intermediary effect on the prevention of femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and other parameters compared to OVX controls. In addition, FvMs slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were accelerated by OVX. The bone-protective effects of FvMs may be due to suppression of an OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, our findings indicate that FvMs have potential in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis by reducing both osteoclast differentiation and function.

  13. Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice on oxidative stress biomarkers in aerobic cells using Artemia franciscana as a model.

    PubMed

    Sirdaarta, J; Cock, I E

    2010-03-01

    This study reports on the induction of oxidative stress in aerobic cell systems by Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) juice using the salt water crustacean Artemia franciscana as a model. A consistent pattern was observed in which Artemia franciscana nauplii responded to Aloe vera juice exposure with a decrease in the overall activity of redox related enzymes. Exposure of Artemia franciscana to sub-lethal levels of Aloe vera juice resulted in a decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase by 34% (66% enzymatic activity), 79% (21% enzymatic activity) and 90% (10% enzymatic activity), respectively. Similarly apparent was the trend whereby the co-exposure of the nauplii to vitamin E counteracted this effect. For each of the biomarker enzymes tested, vitamin E co-exposure resulted in enzyme activities closer to the control value (78%, 56% and 32% of control enzymatic activities for thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity, respectively). These results indicate that exposure to sub-lethal doses of Aloe vera juice induces alterations in the cellular redox status of Artemia franciscana and that the addition of vitamin E helps the Artemia franciscana nauplii to overcome/block the juice induced oxidative stress.

  14. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Singh, Prashant; Bhatia, Daksh

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

  15. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits.

  16. Microstructural analysis of a FeAl/quasicrystal-based composite prepared using a focused ion beam miller.

    PubMed

    Cairney, J. M.; Munroe, P. R.; Sordelet, D. J.

    2001-02-01

    A composite consisting of a brittle multiphase matrix containing both an Al-based quasicrystalline phase (psi) and an ordered body centred cubic phase (beta) and a relatively ductile ordered body centred cubic intermetallic FeAl phase has been developed as an abrasive wear-resistant coating material. It is applied as a 500 µm thick layer onto stainless steel substrates through plasma spray processing. The microstructure of such materials can be readily examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, but the inherent difficulty of preparing transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples has inhibited higher resolution studies. However, the relatively recent development of the focused ion beam (FIB) miller as a tool in materials science provides a method ideal for the preparation of TEM specimens of these materials. In this study a coating consisting of a mixture of an Al-Cu-Fe based quasicrystal and FeAl+Cr was deposited on to a 304 stainless steel substrate. TEM specimens were prepared using a FIB and subjected to detailed microstructural characterization. The structure consisted of elongated bands of a FeAl phase about 100 nm in width and several micrometres in length, which enclosed more equiaxed regions about 1 µm in diameter that consisted of fine mixtures of quasicrystal and two Al-Fe-Cu phases isostructurally related to FeAl.

  17. Structural characterization of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharide outer cores associated with Guillain-Barre and Miller Fisher syndromes.

    PubMed

    Godschalk, Peggy C R; Kuijf, Mark L; Li, Jianjun; St Michael, Frank; Ang, C Wim; Jacobs, Bart C; Karwaski, Marie-France; Brochu, Denis; Moterassed, Ali; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Gilbert, Michel

    2007-03-01

    Molecular mimicry between lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Campylobacter jejuni and gangliosides in peripheral nerves plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. jejuni-related Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We have analyzed the LOS outer core structures of 26 C. jejuni strains associated with GBS and its variant, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Sixteen out of 22 (73%) GBS-associated and all 4 (100%) MFS-associated strains expressed LOS with ganglioside mimics. GM1a was the most prevalent ganglioside mimic in GBS-associated strains (10/22, 45%), and in eight of these strains, GM1a was found in combination with GD1a mimics. All seven strains isolated from patients with ophthalmoplegia (GBS or MFS) expressed disialylated (GD3 or GD1c) mimics. Three out of 22 GBS-associated strains (14%) did not express sialylated ganglioside mimics because their LOS locus lacked the genes necessary for sialylation. Three other strains (14%) did not express ganglioside mimics because of frameshift mutations in either the cstII sialyltransferase gene or the cgtB galactosyltransferase gene. It is not possible to determine if these mutations were already present during C. jejuni infection. This is the first report in which mass spectrometry combined with DNA sequence data were used to infer the LOS outer core structures of a large number of neuropathy-associated C. jejuni strains. We conclude that molecular mimicry between gangliosides and C. jejuni LOS is the presumable pathogenic mechanism in most cases of C. jejuni-related GBS. However, our findings suggest that in some cases, other mechanisms may play a role. Further examination of the disease etiology in these patients is mandatory.

  18. A study of the effects of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2012-04-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) from Rosaceae family is a fruit tree cultivated in many countries mainly in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) in rats. Rats were grouped (n=6) and fasted for 36 h before colitis induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treatments were made for 5 days starting 6 h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally, QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Albeit the examined doses of QJ and QHE were apparently effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/Length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished with quince treatments while the results correlated with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that QJ and QHE were effective to diminish inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis. Although QHE with different doses was effective in induced colitis, the dose and/or route of administration dependency was not confirmed. So quince fractions could be considered as a suitable anticolitic alternative, however further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:23181087

  19. Inherent point defects at the thermal higher-Miller index (211)Si/SiO{sub 2} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Iacovo, S.; Stesmans, A.

    2014-12-29

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out on the higher-Miller index (211)Si/SiO{sub 2} interface thermally grown in the temperature range T{sub ox} = 400–1066 °C to assess interface quality in terms of inherently incorporated point defects. This reveals the presence predominantly of two species of a P{sub b}-type interface defect (interfacial Si dangling bond), which, based on pertinent ESR parameters, is typified as P{sub b0}{sup (211)} variant, close to the P{sub b0} center observed in standard (100)Si/SiO{sub 2}—known as utmost detrimental interface trap. T{sub ox} ≳ 750 °C is required to minimize the P{sub b0}{sup (211)} defect density (∼4.2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}; optimized interface). The data clearly reflect the non-elemental nature of the (211)Si face as an average of (100) and (111) surfaces. It is found that in oxidizing (211)Si at T{sub ox} ≳ 750 °C, the optimum Si/SiO{sub 2} interface quality is retained for the two constituent low-index (100) and (111) faces separately, indicating firm anticipating power for higher-index Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces in general. It implies that, as a whole, the quality of a thermal higher-index Si/SiO{sub 2} interface can never surmount that of the low-index (100)Si/SiO{sub 2} structure.

  20. Aqueous corrosion of olivine in the Mars meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 03346 during Antarctic weathering: Implications for water on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Several nakhlites (clinopyroxenite meteorites from Mars) contain olivine phenocrysts with corrosion features identical in size, shape and distribution to the smaller etch-pits of well-characterized weathered terrestrial olivine. Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is an Antarctic nakhlite find, recovered after long exposure to Antarctic conditions. The distribution of discrete olivine etch-pits almost exclusively within a few hundred microns of allocation MIL 03346,171's documentably exposed surface suggests that they formed by terrestrial weathering in Antarctica. The small size of olivine etch-pits in MIL 03346,171 relative to commonly much larger etch-pits in even incipiently weathered terrestrial examples suggests that the duration of its exposure to weathering conditions was short, or the weathering conditions to which it was exposed did not favor olivine corrosion (in the form of etch-pit formation), or both. Time-scales for the formation of etch-pits, estimated from experimentally determined dissolution rates of olivine over a range of pHs, are comparable to the measured terrestrial age of the meteorite and short relative to the time available for possible similar corrosion on Mars. Etch-pits of the observed size on MIL 03346 olivine phenocrysts would be relatively easy to form supraglacially under brief episodic acidic Antarctic conditions, but the terrestrial age of MIL 03346 is long enough that its olivine might have been weathered to the observed state by englacial films of alkaline Antarctic water. The paucity of similar etch-pits in olivine from the interior of MIL 03346 suggests that olivine in this Mars meteorite was exposed to even less aqueous alteration after iddingsitization during its 1.3 billion years on Mars than its exterior was subjected to during its Pleistocene-Holocene exposure to Antarctic weathering conditions.

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (SHEFTH00410018) on Town Highway 41, crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00410018 on Town Highway 41 crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 16.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Millers Run has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 50.9 mm (0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, which is evident in the moderate to severe fluvial erosion in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 41 crossing of the Millers Run is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening. The computed

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (STOWTH00430036) on Town Highway 43, crossing Miller Brook, Stowe, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOWTH00430036 on Town Highway 43 crossing the Miller Brook, Stowe, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 5.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly forested. In the study area, the Miller Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 70.4 mm (0.231 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 15, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 43 crossing of the Miller Brook is a 24-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 21-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is also 10 degrees. The footing on the left abutment was exposed 2.5 ft and the footing on the right abutment was exposed 3.0 ft during

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (SHEFTH00410018) on Town Highway 41, crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00410018 on Town Highway 41 crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 16.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Millers Run has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 50.9 mm (0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, which is evident in the moderate to severe fluvial erosion in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 41 crossing of the Millers Run is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening. The computed

  4. Optimal recovery of high-purity rutin crystals from the whole plant of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) by extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Hyung Hwan; Kwon, Ik Boo; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2005-10-01

    Rutin, one of the flavonoids derived from plants, is increasingly in demand in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its various biological and physiological activities including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-hypertension. The whole plant of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a major source of natural rutin. This study developed a low-cost process encompassing the efficient extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization to obtain high-purity rutin from buckwheat, and it could improve the economic utilization of this abundant low-value agricultural product. The sequential separation and purification procedures established in this study involved extraction with 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at 80 degrees C for 1 h followed by elution with water and aqueous ethanols at 20% and 30% (v/v) on a styrene-based resin column, and recrystallization at 4 degrees C for 12 h. These conditions resulted in the recovery of 92% of total rutin with over 95% purity. In the present study, high-purity rutin was obtained from whole buckwheat through low-cost processes, the separation and purification strategy established in this study could provide valuable information to the relevant industries.

  5. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  6. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) based on transcriptome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Demidenko, Natalia V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A

    2011-05-12

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits). These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1), AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND) and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS) are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  7. IgE-binding epitopic peptide mapping on a three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) consists of three protomers exhibiting the cupin motif, arranged in a homotrimer around a three-fold symmetry axis. Using the SPOT technique, 11 continuous IgE-binding epitopic peptides were characterized on the molecular surface of the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat. Except for one of them, they all correspond to well exposed regions containing electropositiveley and/or electronegatively charged residues, which cover up to 40% of the molecular surface of the allergen. Some of these epitopes come in close contact to probably create more extended discontinuous epitopes, especially those located on the edge of the 13S globulin homotrimer. Half of the identified epitope peptides remain unaltered in a core structure protected against hydrolysis by digestive proteases and are thus assumed to promote the allergenicity of the 13S globulin. In addition, a few of these epitopes coincide with sequential IgE-binding epitopes previously characterized in soybean 11S globulins, that could account for the IgE-binding cross-reactions observed between soybean and buckwheat in Western blot experiments.

  8. Determination of rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Danila, Ana-Maria; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2007-02-21

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). The relative standard deviations for rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate peak heights were less than 0.86% (n = 5). The detection limit of rutin was 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the present method was applied to the distribution analysis of these compounds in buckwheat seed. The embryo proper and cotyledons of a mature buckwheat seed contained rutin with the highest concentration as compared to other parts. This method is useful in determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat with a small amount of sample for quality control in the food industry.

  9. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  10. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information.

  11. Remote sensing and serological analysis of the resistance of tomato plants (Lycopersicon escylentum L.) to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Hristova, Dimitrina; Iliev, Ilko; Yanev, Tony

    Diseases caused by Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are among the most important factors lim-iting tomato production worldwide, as they can completely destroy the crop. ToMV occurs in most countries of the world, and causes disease epidemics in many crops. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defence mechanism that plays a central role in disease re-sistance. SAR is induced by most pathogens that cause tissue necrosis. Spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence analysis were applied to establish injury of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon escylentum L.) infected with ToMV. Leaf spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were registered by a portable Ocean Optics spectrometer USB 2000 in the visi-ble and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm) at a spectral resolution of 1.5 nm. As a model system, tomato plants of cultivar Nuton resistant to ToMV were used. The plants were grown in a green house under controlled conditions. They were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of untreated (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with ToMV. The other four groups were treated with following growth regulators: preparations Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin VS. On the next day, the tomato plants of these four groups were inoculated with ToMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). All analysis were performed on detached leaves from 20 uninfected and up to 20 leaves from infected plants on the 7th and 14th day after the inocu-lation. The differences between the reflectance spectra of virus-infected and uninfected leaves were analysed in the four most informative for green plants wavelength intervals: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-710 nm) and near infrared (720-760 nm

  12. Miller Fisher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensory information to the spinal cord and brain. Magnetic resonance (MRI) or other imaging of the brain and/or spinal cord are usually normal. Spinal fluid protein is often elevated. Pure Fisher syndrome is ...

  13. Josh Miller HEARTS Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sutton, Betty [D-OH-13

    2009-03-06

    06/03/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. A route to elucidate the authenticity and origin of Rosa damascena Miller essential oils.

    PubMed

    Krupčík, Ján; Gorovenko, Roman; Špánik, Ivan; Sandra, Pat; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of Bulgarian and Turkish Rosa damascena Miller essential oils was performed by flow-modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using simultaneous detection of the second column effluent by flame ionization and quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Enantioselective separations were obtained by running the samples on 2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin column as the first column and on polyethylene glycol as the second column. The determination of enantiomeric or diastereomeric excess of some terpenoic solutes is a possible route for quality or authenticity control as well as for the elucidation of the country of origin.

  15. Enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. A route to elucidate the authenticity and origin of Rosa damascena Miller essential oils.

    PubMed

    Krupčík, Ján; Gorovenko, Roman; Špánik, Ivan; Sandra, Pat; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of Bulgarian and Turkish Rosa damascena Miller essential oils was performed by flow-modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using simultaneous detection of the second column effluent by flame ionization and quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Enantioselective separations were obtained by running the samples on 2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin column as the first column and on polyethylene glycol as the second column. The determination of enantiomeric or diastereomeric excess of some terpenoic solutes is a possible route for quality or authenticity control as well as for the elucidation of the country of origin. PMID:26235111

  16. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession.

    PubMed

    Rath, Avita; Varma, Smrithi; Paul, Renny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)(§). Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131

  17. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Renny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)§. Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131

  18. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness. PMID:26595842

  19. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period.

  20. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness.

  1. Miller, Mulberry, Brewer, and Evered nominations. Hearing before Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Four presidential nominees were questioned by members of the committee and by 11 witnesses, who also made statements pertinent to the nomination: Daniel N. Miller, Jr., to be Ass't. Secy. of Interior for Energy and Minerals; Richard Mulberry, to be Inspector General, Dept. of Interior; Shelby T. Brewer to be Ass't. Secy. for Nuclear Energy; and J. Erich Evered, to be Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. The statements and responses are followed by additional material submitted for the record and informational statements and responses of the nominees. The nominees were questioned about past activities and their policy goals as well as their plans for conducting their respective offices. (DCK)

  2. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period. PMID:27617133

  3. Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Combination with a Tunnel Technique for the Treatment of Miller Class II and III Gingival Recessions in Mandibular Incisors: Clinical and Esthetic Results.

    PubMed

    Nart, Jose; Valles, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the effect of the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) on root coverage in the mandibular anterior region. A sample of 15 Miller Class II and III recessions were treated in 15 patients using a SCTG with a tunnel technique. After a mean follow-up of 20.53 months, the mean percentage of root coverage was 83.25% for all treated recessions. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase of keratinized tissue was observed at the end of the evaluation period (2.66 mm; P = .001). The combination of tunnel technique and SCTG should be considered a treatment option to obtain root coverage in mandibular incisors with Class II and III recession defects. PMID:27333018

  4. Comparative clinical evaluation of laterally positioned pedicle graft and subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession: A 6 months study

    PubMed Central

    Dulani, Kirti Satish; Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Trivedi, Sakshee Rahul; Trivedi, Rahul Anil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare clinical outcomes of laterally positioned pedicle graft (LPPG) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects, at the end of 6 months. Materials and Methods: Sixty Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defects (≥3 mm) (n = 30 each) on the labial aspect of anterior teeth were treated by either of the above techniques. Clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), percentage of root coverage (%RC), and complete RC were recorded at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test intragroup and Student's t-test intergroup. Results: In LPPG, RD decreased from 4.9 ± 0.99 mm to 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and WKG increased from 0.7 ± 0.87 to 4.5 ± 0.86 mm at 6 months, while in SCTG, RD decreased from 4.67 ± 1.12 mm to 0.46 ± 0.68 mm and WKG increased from 1.1 ± 0.99 to 5.33 ± 0.72 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The values of the soft tissue coverage remained stable for 6 months. Conclusions: Highly significant and effective soft tissue coverage was obtained by both techniques. LPPG resulted in effective soft tissue coverage for isolated deep narrow defects while SCTG in isolated and multiple, deep narrow and wide defects. PMID:26941517

  5. Within-plant distribution and sampling of single and mixed infestations of Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in winter tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Arnó, Judit; Albajes, Ramon; Gabarra, Rosa

    2006-04-01

    In several areas of Spain, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), coexist in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller. For integrated pest management decision-making, it is important to know the abundance of each species, because they exhibit different abilities to transmit viruses, are susceptible to different biological control agents, and have different responses to insecticides. This study was conducted to provide information on the vertical distribution of T. vaporariorumn and B. tabaci in tomato plants grown in greenhouses in winter and to determine the optimal sampling unit and the sample size for estimating egg and nymphal densities of both whitefly species. Eggs of T. vaporariorum were mainly located on the top stratum of the plant, whereas B. tabaci eggs were mainly found on the middle stratum. Nymphs of both species mainly concentrated in the bottom stratum of the plant. When pest abundance and low relative variation were considered, the bottom stratum was selected as the most convenient for sampling nymphs of both whitefly species. Conversely, the same two criteria indicated that either the top or the middle strata could be used when sampling T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci eggs. Several different sampling units were compared to optimize the estimation of nymphal and egg densities in terms of cost efficiency. One disk (1.15 cm in diameter) per leaflet collected from the top stratum of the tomato plant was the most efficient sampling unit for simultaneously estimating the egg densities of the two whitefly species.

  6. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Julianne E.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1984-01-01

    Cross and longitudinal sections were prepared for light microscopy from vertical control plants (Xanthium strumarium L. Chicago strain), free-bending horizontal stems, plants restrained 48 hours in a horizontal position, and plants restrained 48 hours and then released, bending immediately about 130°. Top cells of free-bending stems shrink or elongate little; bottom cells continue to elongate. In restrained stems, bottom cells elongate some and increase in diameter; top cells elongate about as much but decrease in diameter. Upon release, bottom cells elongate more and decrease in diameter, while top cells shorten and increase in diameter, accounting for the bend. During restraint, bottom cells take up water while tissue pressures increase; top cells fail to take up water although tissue pressures are decreasing. Settling of amyloplasts was observed in cells of the starch sheath. Removal of different amounts of stem (Xanthium; Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, cv Bonny Best; Ricinus communis L. cv Yolo Wonder) showed that perception of gravity occurs in the bending (elongation) zone, although bending of fourth and fifth internodes from the top was less than in uncut controls. Uniform application of 1% indoleacetic acid in lanolin to cut stem surfaces partially restored bending. Reversing the gradient in tension/compression in horizontal stems (top under compression, bottom under tension) did not affect gravitropic bending. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16663939

  7. Promotive effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharides on the inducing drought resistance of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruizhi; Jiang, Xiaolu; Guan, Huashi; Li, Xiaoxia; Du, Yishuai; Wang, Peng; Mou, Haijin

    2009-09-01

    In order to determine the role of alginate-derived oligosaccharides (ADO) in drought stress resistance of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) seedlings, the leaves were exposed to different concentrations of ADO (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.50%) after drought stress was simulated by exposing the roots to 0.6 molL-1 PEG-6000 solution for 6 h. Changes in biomass, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA), free proline, total soluble sugars (TSS) and abscisic acid (ABA), the enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were measured to investigate the effects of ADO treatment. The results showed that the treatment with an ADO concentration of 0.20% exhibited the highest performance of drought stress resistance in the tomato seedlings by decreasing the electrolyte leakage and the concentration of MDA, increasing the contents of free proline, TSS and ABA, and increasing the activities of CAT, SOD, POD and PAL after treatment with ADO. It is suggested that changes in electrolyte leakage, MDA, osmotic solutes, ABA, anti-oxidative enzyme and PAL activities were responsible for the increased drought stress resistance in tomato seedlings. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of ADO treatment on enhancing the drought stress resistance of tomato seedlings.

  8. New Insecticides for Management of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl, a Virus Vectored by the Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H. A.; Giurcanu, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato—cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor—and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  9. New insecticides for management of tomato yellow leaf curl, a virus vectored by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Smith, H A; Giurcanu, M C

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato-cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor-and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  10. Copper toxicity in soils under established vineyards in Europe: a survey.

    PubMed

    Ruyters, Stefan; Salaets, Peter; Oorts, Koen; Smolders, Erik

    2013-01-15

    Copper (Cu) containing fungicides have been used for more than one century in Europe on agricultural soils, such as vineyard soils. Total Cu concentrations in such soils can exceed toxicological limits that are commonly derived using artificially spiked soils. This study surveyed Cu toxicity in vineyard soils with reference to soils spiked with CuCl(2). Soil was collected in six established European vineyards. At each site, samples representing a Cu concentration gradient were collected. A control (uncontaminated) soil sampled nearby the vineyard was spiked with CuCl(2). Toxicity was tested using standard ecotoxicity tests: two plant assays (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller (tomato) and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) growth), one microbial assay (nitrification) and one invertebrate assay (Enchytraeus albidus reproduction). Maximal total Cu concentrations in the vineyard sites ranged 435-690 mg Cu kg(-1), well above the local background (23-105 mg Cu kg(-1)). Toxicity in spiked soils (50% inhibition) was observed at added soil Cu concentrations from 190 to 1039 mg Cu kg(-1) (mean 540 mg Cu kg(-1)) depending on the assay and the site. In contrast, significant adverse effects were only found for three bioassays in vineyard samples of one site and for two bioassays in another site. Biological responses in these cases were more importantly explained by other soil properties than soil Cu. Overall, no Cu toxicity to plants, microbial processes and invertebrates was observed in vineyard soil samples at Cu concentrations well above European Union limits protecting the soil ecosystem.

  11. Screening of Miners and Millers at Decreasing Levels of Asbestos Exposure: Comparison of Chest Radiography and Thin-Section Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Terra-Filho, Mario; Bagatin, Ericson; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Nápolis, Lara Maris; Neder, José Alberto; de Souza Portes Meirelles, Gustavo; Silva, C. Isabela; Muller, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chest radiography (CXR) is inferior to Thin-section computed tomography in the detection of asbestos related interstitial and pleural abnormalities. It remains unclear, however, whether these limitations are large enough to impair CXR´s ability in detecting the expected reduction in the frequency of these asbestos-related abnormalities (ARA) as exposure decreases. Methods Clinical evaluation, CXR, Thin-section CT and spirometry were obtained in 1418 miners and millers who were exposed to progressively lower airborne concentrations of asbestos. They were separated into four groups according to the type, period and measurements of exposure and/or procedures for controlling exposure: Group I (1940–1966/tremolite and chrysotile, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group II (1967–1976/chrysotile only, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group III (1977–1980/chrysotile only, initiated measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure) and Group IV (after 1981/chrysotile only, implemented measurements of exposure and a comprehensive procedures for controlling exposure). Results In all groups, CXR suggested more frequently interstitial abnormalities and less frequently pleural plaques than observed on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). The odds for asbestosis in groups of decreasing exposure diminished to greater extent at Thin-section CT than on CXR. Lung function was reduced in subjects who had pleural plaques evident only on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). In a longitudinal evaluation of 301 subjects without interstitial and pleural abnormalities on CXR and Thin-section CT in a previous evaluation, only Thin-section CT indicated that these ARA reduced as exposure decreased. Conclusions CXR compared to Thin-section CT was associated with false-positives for interstitial abnormalities and false-negatives for pleural plaques, regardless of the intensity of asbestos exposure

  12. Phenolic compositions and antioxidant attributes of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller harvested at various times.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Jau-Tien; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shen, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chang, Ya-Ling; Shih, Chia-Huing; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2017-01-15

    Antioxidant components and properties (assayed by scavenging DPPH radicals, TEAC, reducing power, and inhibiting Cu(2+)-induced human LDL oxidation) of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller, namely ML01, ML02 and ML02-TY, harvested from January to April were studied. Their flavonoid and phenolic acid compositions were also analyzed by HPLC. For each variety, the leaves and stems collected in higher temperature month had higher contents of total phenol, total flavonoid and condensed tannin. Contents of these components in the samples collected in different months were in the order: April (22.3°C)>March (18.0°C)>January (15.6°C)>February (15.4°C). Antioxidant activities of the leaves and stems for all assays also showed similar trends. The samples from different varieties collected in the same month also possessed different phenolic compositions and contents and antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with flavonoid and phenolic contents. PMID:27542477

  13. Realization of the Atkinson-Miller cycle in spark-ignition engine by means of the fully variable inlet valve control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmudka, Zbigniew; Postrzednik, Stefan; Przybyła, Grzegorz

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical analysis of the charge exchange process in a spark ignition engine has been presented. This process has significant impact on the effectiveness of engine operation because it is related to the necessity of overcoming the flow resistance, followed by the necessity of doing a work, so-called the charge exchange work. The flow resistance caused by the throttling valve is especially high during the part load operation. The open Atkinson-Miller cycle has been assumed as a model of processes taking place in the engine. Using fully variable inlet valve timing the A-M cycle can be realized according to two systems: system with late inlet valve closing and system with early inlet valve closing. The systems have been analysed individually and comparatively with the open Seiliger-Sabathe cycle which is a theoretical cycle for the classical throttle governing of the engine load. Benefits resulting from application of the systems with independent inlet valve control have been assessed on the basis of the selected parameters: fuel dose, cycle work, charge exchange work and a cycle efficiency. The use of the analysed systems to governing of the SI engine load will enable to eliminate a throttling valve from the system inlet and reduce the charge exchange work, especially within the range of part load operation.

  14. Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: Frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated island in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, D.H.; Ledbetter, S.A.; vanTuinen, P.; Summers, K.M.; Robinson, T.J.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Wolff, R.; White, R.; Barker, D.F.; Wallace, M.R.; Collins, F.S.; Dobyns, W.B. )

    1989-07-01

    The Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), composed of characteristic facial abnormalities and a severe neuronal migration disorder affecting the cerebral cortex, is caused by visible or submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 17p13. Twelve anonymous DNA markers were tested against a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing 17p deletions from seven MDS patients. All patients, including three with normal karyotypes, are deleted for a variable set of 5-12 markers. Two highly polymorphic VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) probes, YNZ22 and YNH37, are codeleted in all patients tested and make molecular diagnosis for this disorder feasible. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, YNZ22 and YNH37 were shown to be within 30 kilobases (kb) of each other. Cosmid clones containing both VNTR sequences were identified, and restriction mapping showed them to be <15 kb apart. Three overlapping cosmids spanning >100 kb were completely deleted in all patients, providing a minimum estimate of the size of the MDS critical region. A hypomethylated island and evolutionarily conserved sequences were identified within this 100-kb region, indications of the presence of one or more expressed sequences potentially involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The conserved sequences were mapped to mouse chromosome 11 by using mouse-rat somatic cell hybrids, extending the remarkable homology between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 by 30 centimorgans, into the 17p telomere region.

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

  16. Paleogeographic significance of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller (Conodonta) and other Ibexian conodonts in an early Paleozoic carbonate platform facies of the Argentine Precordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Repetski, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pre-Tremadocian conodonts and trilobites and Tremadocian conodonts are reported from the Cambrian and Ordovician La Silla Formation in the Cerro La Silla section in east-southeast Ja??chal, San Juan Province, Argentina. A shallow marine conodont fauna contains elements of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller, a common species in North America, but reported for the first time from the early Paleozoic platform carbonates of the western Argentine Precordillera. The presence of this species suggests a correlation with the Clavohamulus hintzei conodont subbiozone of the Cordylodus intermedius conodont biozone in North America, considered Early Ordovician (Skullrockian Stage, Ibexian Series) in North America, but by South American and European standards, this biozone would be of latest Cambrian age. C. hintzei and associated conodonts of the La Silla Formation are typical of the tropical faunas of the North American Midcontinent Faunal Province; Late Cambrian trilobites from lower in the formation also are typical North American taxa. The presence of these faunas in the platform carbonates is consistent with plate reconstructions suggesting that the Precordillera was in a tropical or subtropical position close to Laurentia during the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic. These new paleontological data provide one more argument for recent models of the Precordillera as a displaced terrane derived from the Ouachita Embayment at the southern margin of Laurentia.

  17. The Ar-Ar age and petrology of Miller Range 05029: Evidence for a large impact in the very early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, J. R.; Wittmann, A.; Isachsen, C. E.; Rumble, D.; Swindle, T. D.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 05029 is a slowly cooled melt rock with metal/sulfide depletion and an Ar-Ar age of 4517 ± 11 Ma. Oxygen isotopes and mineral composition indicate that it is an L chondrite impact melt, and a well-equilibrated igneous rock texture with a lack of clasts favors a melt pool over a melt dike as its probable depositional setting. A metallographic cooling rate of approximately 14 °C Ma-1 indicates that the impact occurred at least approximately 20 Ma before the Ar-Ar closure age of 4517 Ma, possibly even shortly after accretion of its parent body. A metal grain with a Widmanstätten-like pattern further substantiates slow cooling. The formation age of MIL 05029 is at least as old as the Ar-Ar age of unshocked L and H chondrites, indicating that endogenous metamorphism on the parent asteroid was still ongoing at the time of impact. Its metallographic cooling rate of approximately 14 °C Ma-1 is similar to that typical for L6 chondrites, suggesting a collisional event on the L chondrite asteroid that produced impact melt at a minimum depth of 5-12 km. The inferred minimum crater diameter of 25-60 km may have shattered the 100-200 km diameter L chondrite asteroid. Therefore, MIL 05029 could record the timing and petrogenetic setting for the observed lack of correlation of cooling rates with metamorphic grades in many L chondrites.

  18. Mechanism of the Skraup and Doebner-von Miller quinoline syntheses: Cyclization of. alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated N-aryliminium salts via 1,3-dizaetidinium ion intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.; Dluzniewski, T. )

    1989-03-17

    The hydrochlorides of cinnamaldehyde anils of the type ArCH=CHCH=NAr{prime}, where Ar and Ar{prime} are phenyl or p-tolyl groups, have been shown to react between 25{degree}C and 100{degree}C, in a toluene suspension or in a solution of DMSO or acetonitrile, to yield 2-substituted quinolines and N-cinnamylanilines ArCH=CHCH{sub 2}NHAr{prime}. The reaction proceeds under anhydrous conditions by cyclization of the anil hydrochlorides themselves to produce ultimately 2-substituted quinolines. The kinetics of the reaction follow a first-order dependence on the anil hydrochloride. Rapid exchange occurring between dissimilar anil hydrochlorides suggests that such anil metatheses take place by way of 1,3-diazetidinium ion intermediates, which previous studies have shown would possess the requisite metastability. The foregoing experimental observations are reconciled in terms of a novel mechanism for the formation of quinolines directly from anils under acidic conditions, namely, the reversible formation of diazetidinium ions and their irreversible cyclization to quinolines. It is proposed that this pathway is the operative mechanism in the classic Skraup and Doehner-von Miller quinoline syntheses. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-01-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae). PMID:27395696

  20. Bioassay-guided chemical study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Senna villosa (Miller) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae) in TPA-induced ear edema.

    PubMed

    Susunaga-Notario, Ana del Carmen; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Almanza-Pérez, Julio Cesar; Gutiérrez-Carrillo, Atilano; Arrieta-Báez, Daniel; López-López, Ana Laura; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Flores-Sáenz, José Luis Eduardo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2014-07-15

    Senna villosa (Miller) is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2), heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2) and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2). This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa.

  1. Bioassay-guided chemical study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Senna villosa (Miller) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae) in TPA-induced ear edema.

    PubMed

    Susunaga-Notario, Ana del Carmen; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Almanza-Pérez, Julio Cesar; Gutiérrez-Carrillo, Atilano; Arrieta-Báez, Daniel; López-López, Ana Laura; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Flores-Sáenz, José Luis Eduardo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Senna villosa (Miller) is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2), heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2) and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2). This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa. PMID:25029073

  2. Yale University's Institute of Human Relations and the Spanish Civil War: Dollard and Miller's study of fear and courage under battle conditions.

    PubMed

    Gondra, José María; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    In the late 1930s, the Institute of Human Relations of Yale University developed a research program on conflict and anxiety as an outcome of Clark Hull's informal seminar on the integration of Freud's and Pavlov's theories. The program was launched at the 1937 Annual Meeting of the APA in a session chaired by Clark L. Hull, and the experiments continued through 1941, when the United States entered the Second World War. In an effort to apply the findings from animal experiments to the war situation, John Dollard and Neal E. Miller decided to study soldiers' fear reactions in combat. As a first step, they arranged interviews with a few veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Taking these interviews as a point of departure, Dollard devised a questionnaire to which 300 former Lincoln brigaders responded. The present paper analyzes the main outcomes of the questionnaire, together with the war experiences reported in the interview transcripts. Our purpose was to evaluate a project which was initially investigated by the FBI because of the communists among the Lincoln ranks, but eventually supported by the American Army, and which exerted great influence on the military psychology of the time.

  3. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  4. Tomatine-Containing Green Tomato Extracts Inhibit Growth of Human Breast, Colon, Liver, and Stomach Cancer Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) synthesize the glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and a–tomatine, possibly as a defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. We investigated six green and three red tomato extracts for their ability to induce cell death in human cancer and normal cells ...

  5. Evaluation of ethylene as a mediator of gravitropism by tomato hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. A.; Pickard, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Assessments of the participation of ethylene in gravitropism by hypocotyls of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) indicate that gravitropism can occur without substantial change in ethylene production. Moreover, lowering or evaluating ethylene over a considerable range, as well as inhibiting ethylene action, fails to influence gravitropic bending. This vitiates the possibility that ethylene is a mediator of the primary, negative gravitropic response of tomato shoots.

  6. Burst of ethylene upon horizontal placement of tomato seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M.; Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers emit a pulse of ethylene during the first 2 to 4 minutes following horizontal placement. Because this burst appears too rapid and brief to be mediated by increase in net activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, it might result form accelerated transformation of vacuolar 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene.

  7. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  8. Hydrology of the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah, before, during, and after underground coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slaughter, C.B.; Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    From 1988-92 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, studied the effects of underground coal mining and the resulting subsidence on the hydrologic system near the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah. The subsidence caused open fractures at land surface, debris slides, and rockfalls in the canyon above the mined area. Land surface subsided and moved several feet horizontally. The perennial stream and a tributary upstream from the mined area were diverted below the ground by surface fractures where the overburden thickness above the Wattis coal seam is 300 to 500 feet. The reach downstream was dry but flow resumed where the channel traversed the Star Point Sandstone, which forms the aquifer below the coal seams where ground-water discharge provides new base flow. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in the stream water sampled just downstream from the mined area increased from about 300 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to more than 1,500 mg/L, and the water changed from primarily a magnesium calcium bicarbonate to primarily a magnesium sulfate type. Monitored water levels in two wells completed in the perched aquifer(s) above the mine indicate that fractures from subsidence- related deformation drained the perched aquifer in the Blackhawk Formation. The deformation also could have contributed to the decrease in discharge of three springs above the mined area, but discharge from other springs in the area did not change ubstantially; thus, the relation between subsidence and spring discharge, if any, is not clear. No significant changes in the chemical character of water discharging from springs were detected, but the dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from a perched sandstone aquifer overlying the mined coal seams increased during mining activity.

  9. Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole-Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  10. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Miller syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and/or a split in the upper lip ( cleft lip ). These abnormalities frequently cause feeding problems in infants ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (6 links) Encyclopedia: Cleft Lip and Palate Encyclopedia: Ectropion Encyclopedia: Hearing Loss - Infants ...

  12. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-8. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} is partially mediated by IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-{alpha} and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-{alpha} secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince

  13. Hydrologic Conditions and Water-Quality Conditions Following Underground Coal Mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek Drainage Basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed. During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus-Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001. Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999-2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by land

  14. Coarse Clasts Imply Substantial Mid-Late Miocene Slip and Complex Kinematics on Miller Creek and Related Faults, East San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buising, A. V.; Walker, J. P.; Allen, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Coarse-clast study is providing new insight into Neogene slip on poorly understood but potentially important structures between the Hayward and Calaveras faults. The Miller Creek fault (MCF) is a comparatively little studied NW-striking feature exposed in the East Bay Hills east of EBMUD’s Upper San Leandro Reservoir (USLR). Stratigraphic separation on the MCF is locally substantial, with Cretaceous Great Valley Group strata to the west juxtaposed against Neogene units to the east. Outcrop relationships generally indicate a steep westward dip and reverse separation on the MCF, although poorly exposed outcrops suggest near-vertical and eastward dips and/or normal separation on some of the fault's multiple strands. Previous workers have suggested that the MCF continues north as the Moraga fault through the Berkeley Hills and the Moraga and/or Pinole fault east of Point Pinole. The Pinole fault may be an eastern trace of the Moraga system or a separate structure; map geometries suggest steeper dips on it than on the Moraga fault proper. East of the MCF, clast assemblages in the Contra Costa Group (CCG) at USLR are dominated by Coast Range-derived clasts including red, brown, black, and green chert; greywacke; sandstone; vein quartz; Tertiary mafic volcanics; metasediments; blueschist; and metavolcanics. Monterey Group porcellanite is locally present in small quantities. The basal CCG at USLR interfingers with the underlying San Pablo Group (SPG). Age constraints on the CCG at USLR are given by an ~6.2-Ma tuff in the mid- to upper CCG in adjacent Cull Canyon. At Happy Valley, ~15 km NNW of USLR, clast assemblages containing greywacke, blueschist, vein quartz, and metavolcanics suggest that a conglomerate of poorly constrained age (7-9 Ma?) enclosed in typical upper SPG strata and identified as upper SPG by previous workers may actually be a lense of CCG; we tentatively interpret this as a northward continuation of the interfingering CCG-SPG relationship at USLR. West

  15. Description of a New Genus and Species of Stygobiontic Diving Beetle, Psychopomporus felipi Jean, Telles, and Miller (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae), from the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer System of Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Jean, April; Telles, Nicole D.; Gibson, J. Randy; Foley, Dan; Miller, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopomporus felipi Jean, Telles, and Miller, new genus and new species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), is described from San Felipe Springs, Val Verde County, Texas, USA, which emerges from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. Psychopomporus felipi shows several features typical of subterranean diving beetles, such as depigmentation, compound eyes reduced, elytra fused, and flight wings absent. Psychopomporus differs from other hydroporine genera in having a broad elytral epipleuron, the prosternal process small and with a medial, strongly produced prominence, and the meso- and (to a lesser extent) protibia apically broadly expanded and medially distinctly curved. This is the fourth stygobiontic diving beetle described from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in south-central Texas, USA. PMID:25177045

  16. Clinical comparison of coronally-advanced flap plus amniotic membrane or subepithelial connective tissue in the treatment of Miller's class I and II gingival recessions: A split-mouth study.

    PubMed

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Abolfazli, Nader; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Eyvazi, Masoumeh; Eskandari, Amir; Salehsaber, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to compare coronally advanced flap (CAF) plus amniotic membrane (AM) to CAF with connective tissue graft (CTG) in the treatment of Miller's class I and II gingival recessions. Methods. Eleven healthy subjects with thirty Miller's class І and ІІ gingival recessions ≥3 mm, were selevted for this research and randomly assigned to two groups in a split-mouth design. In the control group gingival recessions were treated with CAF and CTG; however, in the test group the lesions were treated with (AM) and CAF. The clinical parameters, including recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), keratinized tissue width (WKT), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), were measured at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.01. Results. Position changes of RD, RW, CAL, and MGJ were significant between baseline and one month after surgery (P < 0.01) in both the test and control groups and these values remained unchanged at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. There were no statistically significant differences in PD and WKT between baseline and 1-, 3- and 6-months intervals postoperatively. The mean root coverage values after 6 months were 75.5% and 63.1% for two groups, respectively. The mean recession depth reductions were 2.63±0.63 mm and 2±1.4 mm in the test and control groups, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this research showed that application of AM instead of connective tissue decreased surgical operation time and patient discomfort but the amount of root coverage was not significantly different between the two methods. PMID:27651882

  17. Acclimation of two tomato species to high atmospheric CO sub 2 : I. Sugar and starch concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, S.; Beeson, R.C. Jr.; Trudel, M.J.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Vedettos and Lycopersicon chmielewskii Rick, LA1028, were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations for 10 weeks. Tomato plants grown at 900 microliters per liter contained more starch and more sugars than the control. However, we found no significant accumulation of starch and sugars in the young leaves of L. esculentum exposed to high CO{sub 2}. Carbon exchange rates were significantly higher in CO{sub 2}-enriched plants for the first few weeks of treatment but thereafter decreased as tomato plants acclimated to high atmospheric CO{sub 2}. This indicates that the long-term decline of photosynthetic efficiency of leaf 5 cannot be attributed to an accumulation of sugar and/or starch. The average concentration of starch in leaves 5 and 9 was always higher in L. esculentum than in L. chmielewskii (151.7% higher). A higher proportion of photosynthates was directed into starch for L. esculentum than for L. chmielewskii. However, these characteristics did not improve the long-term photosynthetic efficiency of L. chmielewskii grown at high CO{sub 2} when compared with L. esculentum. The chloroplasts of tomato plants exposed to the higher CO{sub 2} concentration exhibited a marked accumulation of starch. The results reported here suggest that starch and/or sugar accumulation under high CO{sub 2} cannot entirely explain the loss of photosynthetic efficiency of high CO{sub 2}-grown plants.

  18. Structural analysis of xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of plants in the subclass Asteridae.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matt; Jia, Zhonghua; Peña, Maria J; Cash, Michael; Harper, April; Blackburn, Alan R; Darvill, Alan; York, William S

    2005-08-15

    The structures of xyloglucans from several plants in the subclass Asteridae were examined to determine how their structures vary in different taxonomic orders. Xyloglucans, solubilized from plant cell walls by a sequential (enzymatic and chemical) extraction procedure, were isolated, and their structures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All campanulids examined, including Lactuca sativa (lettuce, order Asterales), Tenacetum ptarmiciflorum (dusty miller, order Asterales), and Daucus carota (carrot, order Apiales), produce typical xyloglucans that have an XXXG-type branching pattern and contain alpha-d-Xylp-, beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp-, and alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp- side chains. However, the lamiids produce atypical xyloglucans. For example, previous analyses showed that Capsicum annum (pepper) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), two species in the order Solanales, and Olea europaea (olive, order Lamiales) produce xyloglucans that contain arabinosyl and galactosyl residues, but lack fucosyl residues. The XXGG-type xyloglucans produced by Solanaceous species are less branched than the XXXG-type xyloglucan produced by Olea europaea. This study shows that Ipomoea pupurea (morning glory, order Solanales), Ocimum basilicum (basil, order Lamiales), and Plantago major (plantain, order Lamiales) all produce xyloglucans that lack fucosyl residues and have an unusual XXGGG-type branching pattern in which the basic repeating core contains five glucose subunits in the backbone. Furthermore, Neruim oleander (order Gentianales) produces an XXXG-type xyloglucan that contains arabinosyl, galactosyl, and fucosyl residues. The appearance of this intermediate xyloglucan structure in oleander has implications regarding the evolutionary development of xyloglucan structure and its role in primary plant cell walls.

  19. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Hidehiko; Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tamai, Ikuko; Yamaji, Sachiyo; Ozaki, Sayaka; Kuzuya, Hiroshi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2006-02-20

    We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi aloe leaf skin juice by ultra filtration) significantly suppressed the elevation of blood sugar as compared to a control group receiving basal diet. In contrast, there was no significant effect with Aloe vera leaf pulp powder. Insulitis emerged at the rate of 87% in the basal diet group. On the contrary, the whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction groups significantly decreased the incidence of insulitis and incidence rates of whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction powder were 51 and 38%, respectively. While insulin levels in the basal diet group averaged at 0.05 ng, more than four times the insulin level was observed in the 10 KDa group relative to the basal diet group. Secondary, the inhibitory effects of test materials on intestinal glucose absorption were observed using the jejunum of rats. A strong inhibitory action on intestinal glucose absorption was observed in the 10 KDa fraction powder group. Thirdly, phenol compounds derived from aloe in the blood serum and organs were quantitatively measured by a HPLC following forced administration of aloe components to rats to determine absorption kinetics of aloe components inside the body. The primary component of aloe phenol compounds is the same component of the 10 KDa

  20. Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that when an equal-arm Michelson interferometer is involved in rotation (for example, Earth's rotation around its axis or around the Sun) and its arms are oriented differently with respect to the plane of rotation, a phase difference arises between the light rays that pass through different arms. This phase difference is due to the fact that the arms experience variously the Newtonian (nonrelativistic) scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces. It is shown that the phase difference is proportional to the length of the interferometer arm, the square of the angular velocity of the rotation, and the square of the distance from the center of rotation — hence, the proposal to call this phenomenon the quadratic Sagnac effect. In the present paper, we consider, as an illustrative example, the results of the once well-known experiments of D C Miller, who claimed to observe the translational motion of Earth relative to the hypothetical ‘luminiferous ether’. It is shown that this claim can actually be explained by the fact that, because of the orbital revolution of Earth, the time dilations in the orthogonal arms of the Michelson interferometer are influenced differently by the scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces.

  1. Modelling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) using dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS)-based approach: case study of Klamath River at Miller Island Boat Ramp, OR, USA.

    PubMed

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present application of an artificial intelligence (AI) technique model called dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS) based on an evolving clustering method (ECM), for modelling dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. To demonstrate the forecasting capability of DENFIS, a one year period from 1 January 2009 to 30 December 2009, of hourly experimental water quality data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS Station No: 420853121505500) station at Klamath River at Miller Island Boat Ramp, OR, USA, were used for model development. Two DENFIS-based models are presented and compared. The two DENFIS systems are: (1) offline-based system named DENFIS-OF, and (2) online-based system, named DENFIS-ON. The input variables used for the two models are water pH, temperature, specific conductance, and sensor depth. The performances of the models are evaluated using root mean square errors (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott index of agreement (d) and correlation coefficient (CC) statistics. The lowest root mean square error and highest correlation coefficient values were obtained with the DENFIS-ON method. The results obtained with DENFIS models are compared with linear (multiple linear regression, MLR) and nonlinear (multi-layer perceptron neural networks, MLPNN) methods. This study demonstrates that DENFIS-ON investigated herein outperforms all the proposed techniques for DO modelling. PMID:24705953

  2. Supplement to the paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)]) is amended and supplemented with information concerning earlier work on the influence of rotation on Michelson - Morley's nonzero results.

  3. Fumigant combinations for Cyperus esculentum L control.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Chad M; McGiffen, Milton E; Sims, James J; Becker, J Ole

    2004-04-01

    The phase-out of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant has stimulated research into the use of other soil fumigants for weed control. Methyl bromide, methyl iodide, propargyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam-sodium were tested alone and in combination with chloropicrin in laboratory experiments to determine their efficacy against Cyperus esculentus L (yellow nutsedge) tubers. Propargyl bromide and metam-sodium were the most efficacious fumigants tested, with EC50 values of 3.7 and 6.5 microM, respectively. The relative potencies of methyl iodide and chloropicrin were not significantly different but were 2.6 and 2.9 times more potent than methyl bromide, respectively. The EC50 values for all fumigants other than 1,3-D were significantly lower than that of methyl bromide. Combining each fumigant with 17% chloropicrin resulted in a synergistic interaction. The greatest increase in potency between the expected result and the actual result was a relative potency of 3.8 with the methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination. The smallest increase in efficacy was with propargyl bromide and chloropicrin, with a relative potency of 1.5. There was no significant difference between the EC50 values of methyl bromide/chloropicrin and methyl iodide/chloropicrin combinations. Combining 1,3-D with 17% chloropicrin resulted in an EC50 value for C. esculentus control similar to that of methyl iodide applied alone. PMID:15119599

  4. Planned Parenthood, Sioux Falls Clinic v. Miller.

    PubMed

    1994-08-22

    The U.S. District Court for the District of South Dakota ruled constitutionally valid those parts of a South Dakota statute requiring that a minor give one parent 48 hours notice prior to having an abortion and specifying information to be disclosed to a woman seeking an abortion. The court found that information required for informed consent to an abortion amounted to reasonable disclosure. Other state abortion requirements, however, were found to be invalid. These included a provision permitting bypass of parental notification, because the provision applied to only abused or neglected minors and in effect made any pregnant teenager who wished to bypass parental notification an abused or neglected minor. Provisions in the law for financial penalties for persons performing or attempting to perform an abortion without following state law were determined to be an impermissible obstacle to the right to an abortion, particularly in this case where only one physician in the state and within a 235-mile radius performs abortions.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Miller-Dieker syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  6. High-resolution mapping and genetic characterization of the Lazy-2 gravitropic mutant of tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Mutation of the Lazy-2 (Lz-2) gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) produces a phytochrome-dependent reversal of shoot gravitropism, providing a unique genetic resource for investigating how signals from light modulate gravitropism. We mapped the Lz-2 gene using RFLPs and a PCR-based technique to assess the feasibility of positional cloning. Analysis of a 1338 plant backcross population between L. esculentum and L. pennellii placed Lz-2 within a 1.2 cM interval on chromosome 5, 0.4 cM from TG504-CT201A interval. The inabililty to resolve these markers indicates that Lz-2 resides in a centromeric region in which recombination is highly suppressed. Lazy-2 is tightly linked to but does not encode the gene for ACC4, an enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We also observed that Lz-2 is partially dominant under certain conditions and stages of development.

  7. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. I - A role for ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and two inhibitors of ethylene action, Ag(+) and CO2, are shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag(+) further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect.

  8. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis: III. The Action of Streptomycin on the Synthesis of Chlorophyll and Anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, A L; Yang, C P; Lindquist, P; Anderson, O R; Rabino, I

    1975-02-01

    Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated.

  9. Ozone-induced ethylene release from leaf surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rodecap, K.D.; Tingey, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Ozone-induced stress-ethylene emissions from the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of four plant species (Glycine max (L) Merr. cv. Dare, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma VF, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Hedera helix L.) were studied to determine if the stress ethylene diffused through the stomata or cuticle. In plants not exposed to ozone, basal ethylene was detected above both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of all the plant species examined, indicating that some ethylene can diffuse across the leaf cuticle. Oxone-induced stress ethylene production in all species examined. These data indicate that ozone-induced stress ethylene primarily diffuses from the leaf via the stomata.

  10. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. Mass Spectrometric Identification of Isoforms of PR Proteins in Xylem Sap of Fungus-Infected Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during compatible or incompatible interactions. A new member of the PR-5 family was identified that accumulated early in both types of interaction. Other pathogenesis-related proteins appeared in compatible interactions only, concomitantly with disease development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using proteomics for the identification of known and novel proteins in xylem sap, and provides insights into plant-pathogen interactions in vascular wilt diseases. PMID:12376655

  12. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis: III. The Action of Streptomycin on the Synthesis of Chlorophyll and Anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, A L; Yang, C P; Lindquist, P; Anderson, O R; Rabino, I

    1975-02-01

    Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated. PMID:16659061

  13. Optothermal transient emission radiometry for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.

    2004-10-01

    Optothermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.

  14. Rheological Properties of Enzymatically Isolated Tomato Fruit Cuticle.

    PubMed Central

    Petracek, P. D.; Bukovac, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Rheological properties were determined for cuticular membranes (CMs) enzymatically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Pik Red) fruit. The cuticle responded as a viscoelastic polymer in stress-strain studies. Both CM and dewaxed CM expanded and became more elastic and susceptible to fracture when hydrated, suggesting that water plasticized the cuticle. Dewaxing of the CM caused similar changes in elasticity and fracturing, indicating that wax may serve as a supporting filler in the cutin matrix. Exposure of the cuticle to the surfactant Triton X-100 did not significantly affect its rheological properties. PMID:12228622

  15. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  16. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  17. Relationships, origin, and diversity of Galapagos tomatoes: implications for the conservation of natural populations.

    PubMed

    Nuez, Fernando; Prohens, Jaume; Blanca, José M

    2004-01-01

    Endemic Galápagos tomatoes (Lycopersicon cheesmanii) are of great value for cultivated tomato (L. esculentum) breeding, and therefore their conservation is of significance. Although within L. cheesmanii there is heterogeneity for many traits and formal infraspecific classification is not justified, here we distinguish three forms, without taxonomic significance, of L. cheesmanii that are of interest to breeders because of their distinctive morphology and habitat preferences: L. cheesmanii 'short' (one- to two-pinnate leaves, short internodes, and coastal habitats), L. cheesmanii 'long' (one- to two-pinnate leaves, long internodes, and inland habitats), and L. cheesmanii forma minor (three- to four-pinnate leaves, short internodes, and coastal habitats). In a recent survey of tomato populations in the Galápagos Islands, we found that several populations of L. cheesmanii reported 30-50 years earlier had disappeared, mostly as a consequence of human activity. In addition, a previously unreported invasive wild red-fruited form, which we named L. esculentum 'Gal cer,' was found on the island of Santa Cruz. The total diversity (estimated with amplified fragment length polymorphisms [AFLPs]) within L. cheesmanii (H(T) = 0.051) is almost as high as that for the mainland wild species L. pimpinellifolium (H(T) = 0.072). Lycopersicon esculentum 'Gal cer,' on the other hand, has a much lower diversity (H(T) = 0.014). Comparison of AFLP fragments shared by L. esculentum 'Gal cer' with other species showed that it is closely related to weedy tomato L. esculentum var. cerasiforme and, therefore, likely of recent origin. Genetic differentiation among the three native L. cheesmanii forms is low (G(ST) = 0.235), indicating that they share a common genetic background. Nonetheless, L. cheesmanii 'short' is about twice as diverse as L. cheesmanii 'long' or L. cheesmanii f. minor. UPGMA cluster and principal components analysis distinguish four groups within Eulycopersicon: L

  18. Respiratory Diseases in Iron Ore Miners and Millers

    PubMed Central

    Edstrom, Harry W.

    1989-01-01

    Workers in iron mines are at risk of developing interstitial lung disease if the dust levels are above the threshold limit value. However, they more commonly develop the usual diseases that affect all workers. Some illnesses, such as chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and the collagen vascular diseases that affect the lung, may be more severe because of the inhalation of dust. The most difficult problem is to differentiate asymptomatic sarcoidosis from pneumoconiosis. The family doctor who also acts as the company doctor must be aware of the potential conflict of interest. PMID:21248910

  19. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Confusions and Controversies about Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hans Asperger drew attention to individuals who show the core symptoms of autism in the presence of high verbal intelligence. Methods: A review of the literature explores current issues concerning the diagnosis and nature of Asperger syndrome. Results: The behavioural and neurophysiological evidence to date suggests that Asperger…

  20. A study of dermatitis in trona miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Moshell, A.; Greaves, W.; Bang, K.M.; Holthouser, M.; Campbell, D.; Bernstein, R.

    1983-04-01

    Trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) is mined from an underground deposit in Wyoming and processed for use in the manufacture of glass, paper, and detergents, and in chemical applications. Trona dust is alkaline (pH 10.5) and may have an irritant effect on the respiratory airways, mucous membranes, and the skin. One hundred forty-two underground miners and 88 surface workers from one trona facility participated voluntarily in an epidemiologic and clinical study. Their mean age was 37.6 and their mean working period, 10.0 years. One half of the study participants complained of skin symptoms; dermatologic symptoms increased from twofold to fifteenfold after the subjects began trona mining. Trona dermatitis consists of pruritic, erythematous, raised, dry, and fissured lesions commonly affecting the hands, arms, and legs. A dose-response relationship was observed among underground workers. Patch testing with 10% aqueous trona and sodium carbonate was negative, suggesting that the dermatitis was primarily irritant in nature.

  1. Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa, Inc. v. Miller.

    PubMed

    1999-09-24

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit found an Iowa statute banning partial-birth abortions to be unconstitutional. Nonprofit corporations that operate abortion clinics, physicians who perform abortions, and medical professors who taught abortion methods, had challenged the constitutionality of Iowa's statute in a lower court. The lower court had held that Iowa's statute was unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and the U.S. Court of Appeals agreed. Although the Iowa statute was intended to ban the dilation and extraction procedure, it implicitly banned commonly used abortion procedures in the second trimester, such as suction-curettage and dilation and evacuation. The Court of Appeals ruled that the Iowa statute created an undue burden for women seeking pre-viability abortions. PMID:11648440

  2. What Killed Leah Miller: Abuse or Natural Causes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    An Amish infant suddenly dies, and autopsy findings lead law enforcement agencies to suspect the parents of child abuse. Experts who advocate for the parents argue that a lack of vitamin K combined with a genetic liver disorder common in the Amish population may have resulted in the baby's death. Students assume the role of a police detective and…

  3. Teaching Selected Poems from Jim Wayne Miller's "The Brier Poems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tammy

    All lessons in this unit of study are designed to introduce some of the basic elements of poetry (simile, metaphor, alliteration, sensory language, etc.) while exposing students to a realistic slice of Appalachian life. Appropriate grade levels and a time frame are suggested, and relevant Virginia Standards of Learning are outlined in the unit.…

  4. Mark Miller, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. 75 FR 8330 - Miller and Miller; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... electronically via the Internet in lieu of paper; see 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the... things, that it is deemed to be the intent of a licensee to surrender a license, if the licensee abandons... Internet in lieu of paper; See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web...

  6. 75 FR 19956 - Miller and Miller, Waterpower LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Worthville Dam Project No. 3156, located on the Deep River in Randolph County, North Carolina. Applicants... Commission's Web site under the ``e-Filing'' link. If unable to be filed electronically, documents may be... information on how to submit these types of filings please go to the Commission's Web site located at...

  7. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops. [Ipomoea batatas; Ipomoea reptans; Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Sources of Resistance to Pepino Mosaic Virus in Solanum habrochaites (Lycopersicon hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging disease on greenhouse tomato. A major tomato germplasm core collection was evaluated for its resistance against PepMV. These accessions included 23 Solanum lycopersicum L., 8 S. pimpinellifolium L., 33 S. peruvianum L., 18 S. chilense (Dunal) Reiche, and ...

  9. Effect of Soils from Six Management Systems on Root-knot Nematodes and Plant Growth in Greenhouse Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Chellemi, D. O.; Périès, X.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of soil management systems on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) eggs and gall incidence on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) following tomato were evaluated. Soil was collected from a replicated field experiment in which six management systems were being assessed for vegetable production. Soil management systems were conventional production, organic production, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture, bahiagrass: Stylosanthes (Stylosanthes guianensis) pasture, bare ground fallow, and weed fallow. Soil was collected from field plots and used in greenhouse experiments. Identification of egg-parasitic fungi and the incidence of root-knot nematode galling were assessed both on tomato and cucumber planted in the same pots following the removal of tomato plants. Organic, bare ground fallow and conventional production treatments reduced galling both on tomato and on cucumber following tomato. Although no treatment consistently enhanced egg-parasitic fungi, management system did affect egg viability and the types of fungi isolated from parasitized eggs. PMID:19262892

  10. Structures and functions of oligosaccharins. Progress report, June 15, 1993--March 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.

    1995-03-01

    This research focuses on the following: Purification, characterization, and cell wall localization of an {alpha}-fucosidase that inactivates a xyloglucan oligosaccharin; Oligogalacturonides inhibit the formation of roots on tobacco explants; Activation of a tobacco glycine-rich protein gene by a fungal glucan preparation; Fusarium moniliforme secretes four endopolygalacturonases derived from a single gene product; Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors and fungal infection; Generation of {beta}-glucan elicitors by plant enzymes and inhibition of the enzymes by a fungal protein; Polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Immunological relatedness and specificity of polygalacturonase inhibition; Fungi protect themselves against plant pathogenesis-related glycanases; Purification, cloning, and characterization of two xylanases from Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast fungus; and Molecular cloning and expression pattern of an {alpha}-fucosidase gene from pea seedlings.

  11. Agarose plating and a bead type culture technique enable and stimulate development of protoplast-derived colonies in a number of plant species.

    PubMed

    Shillito, R D; Paszkowski, J; Potrykus, I

    1983-10-01

    Two novel techniques improve division and colony formation from protoplasts: 1) Plating in agarose stimulates colony formation of protoplasts from a wide range of species. Protoplasts from Nicotiana tabacum developed to colonies from lower initial population densities in agarose than in agar or liquid. Protoplasts from Hyoscyamus muticus which do not divide in agar divided and formed colonies in agarose at higher efficiencies than in liquid medium. 2) Culture of gel embedded protoplasts in large volumes of liquid medium on a gyrotatory shaker ('bead culture') further improved plating efficiencies in some species (e.g. Lycopersicon esculentum and Crepis capillaris) and enabled sustained proliferation of protoplasts which had not previously developed beyond the few cell colony stage (Brassica rapa and a mutator gene variety of Petunia hybrida). The combination of 'agarose plating' and 'bead culture' dramatically improved plating efficiencies of protoplasts in all species tested.

  12. Evaluation of toxicity of trichloroethylene for plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, S.B.; Davis, L.C.; Dana, J.; Selk, K.; Erickson, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure of several species of plants was studied. Although earlier studies indicated that the root systems of plants could tolerate an aqueous phase concentration of 1 mM for a day, toxicity to whole plants was observed at somewhat lower levels in the gas phase in this study. The tested species included pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Dioscoria batata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Damage was observable as wilting or failure of the gravitropic response of shoots at levels above about 0.2 mM in the gas phase, which corresponds to 0.5 mM in the aqueous phase. Plants were usually killed quickly at gas phase concentrations above 0.4 mM.

  13. Tomato responses to ammonium and nitrate nutrition under controlled root-zone pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, M. M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Tolley, L. C.; Robarge, W. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. 'Vendor') plants were grown for 21 days in flowing solution culture with N supplied as either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+. Acidity in the solutions was automatically maintained at pH 6.0. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter and total N and net photosynthetic rate were not affected by source of N. Thus, when rhizosphere acidity was controlled at pH 6.0 during uptake, either NO3- or NH4+ can be used efficiently by tomato. Uptake of K+ and Ca2+ were not altered by N source, but uptake of Mg2+ was reduced in NH4(+)-fed plants. This indicates that uptake of Mg2+ was regulated at least partially by ionic balance within the plant.

  14. Bio-fabrication of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of red tomato and its use as a colorimetric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Gadadhar; Maiti, Swarnali; Laha, Jayasree Konar

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we report a green method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNP) using the aqueous extract of red tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum). We believe that citric acid and ascorbic acid present in tomato juice are responsible for the reduction of gold ions. This biosynthesized GNP in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate has been used as a colorimetric sensor to detect and estimate the pesticide, methyl parathion. The GNP in the presence of methyl parathion shows a new peak at 400 nm due to the formation of 4-nitrophenolate ion by catalytic hydrolysis of methyl parathion in alkaline medium. A calibration curve between the absorption coefficients of the 400-nm peak versus the concentration of the pesticide allows the quantitative estimation of the 4-nitrophenolate ion, thereby enabling indirect estimation of methyl parathion present in the system.

  15. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  16. Metal-accelerated oxidation in plant cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M. )

    1993-05-01

    Cadmium and mercury toxicity is further enhanced by external oxidizing conditions O[sub 3] or inherent plant processes. Lepidium sativum L, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or Phaseolus vulgaris L, were grown inpeat-lite to maturity under continuous cadmium exposure followed by one oxidant (O[sub 3]-6 hr. 30 pphm) exposure, with or without foliar calcium pretreatments. In comparison, Daucus carota, L and other species grown in a 71-V suspension, with or without 2,4-D were exposed continuously to low levels of methylmercury during exponential growth and analyzed in aggregates of distinct populations. Proteins were extracted and analyzed. Mechanisms of toxicity and eventual cell death are Ca-mediated and involve chloroplast, stomatal-water relations and changes in oxidant-anti-oxidant components in cells. Whether the metal-accelerated oxidative damage proceeds to cell death, depends on the species and its differential biotransformation system and cell association component.

  17. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  18. Natural and synthetic podolactones with potential use as natural herbicide models.

    PubMed

    Macías, F A; Simonet, A M; Pacheco, P C; Barrero, A F; Cabrera, E; Jiménez-González, D

    2000-07-01

    A collection of 11 natural and synthetic podolactones have been tested as allelochemicals in a range between 10(-4) and 10(-9) M, and their potential use as natural herbicide models is discussed. Their effects on the germination and growth of the dicots Lactuca sativa (cv. Nigra and cv. Roman), Lepidium sativum, and Lycopersicon esculentum and the monocots Allium cepa, Hordeum vulgare, and Triticum aestivum as standard target species have been studied. An important inhibitory effect on the germination and growth of all tested species (average = 90%) was produced by compounds 9-11 at 10(-4) M. The specific structural requirements related to their activities are studied. On the basis of these results, their use as potential natural herbicide models is proposed. PMID:10898656

  19. Effects of Fumigant Nematicides on Yield and Quality of Paste Tomatoes Grown in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, L. B.; Olthof, Th. H. A.; Potter, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted at the Delhi Research Station, Ontario, Canada, on a Fox loamy sand soil during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate the effects of row application of the fumigants Telone II, Telone C-17, Vorlex Plus, and Vorlex Plus CP on the yield and quality of paste tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ferry Morse 6203). The four fumigants were equally effective in controlling the natural field populations of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb). A significant reduction in marketable red fruit yield due to different nematode densities at time of transplanting was observed in 1988. Fumigation did not significantly affect the yield of nonmarketable fruit, the relative maturation rate, or the processing quality in either year. PMID:19283042

  20. Interrelationship of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne hapla on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Invasion of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) roots by combined and sequential inoculations of Meloidogyne hapla and a tomato population of Heterodera schachtii was affected more by soil temperature than by nematode competition. Maximum invasion of tomato roots, by M. hapla and H. schachtii occurred at 30 and 26 C, respectively. Female development and nematode reproduction (eggs per plant) of M. hapla was adversely affected by H. schachtii in combined inoculations of the two nematode species. Inhibition of M. hapla development and reproduction on tomato roots from combined nematode inoculations was more pronounced as soil temperature was increased over a range of 18-30 C and with prior inoculation of tomato with H. schachtii. M. hapla minimally affected H. schachtii female development, but there was significant reduction in the buildup of H. schachtii when M. hapla inoculation preceded that of H. schachtii by 20 days. PMID:19294113

  1. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is localized to both the cytoplasm and plastids in developing pericarp of tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Wang, Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular location of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) in developing pericarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) has been investigated by immunolocalization. With the use of a highly specific anti-tomato fruit AGP antibody, the enzyme was localized in cytoplasm as well as plastids at both the light and electron microscope levels. The immunogold particles in plastids were localized in the stroma and at the surface of the starch granule, whereas those in the cytoplasm occurred in cluster-like patterns. Contrary to the fruit, the labeling in tomato leaf cells occurred exclusively in the chloroplasts. These data demonstrate that AGP is localized to both the cytoplasm and plastids in developing pericarp cells of tomato.

  2. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    PubMed

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  3. Effect of Alcohols and Their Interaction with Ethylene on the Ripening of Epidermal Pericarp Discs of Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Saltveit, Mikal E.

    1989-01-01

    Ethanol concentrations that were induced in pericarp discs of mature-green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv Castlemart) either by anaerobic metabolism or by exposure to ethanol vapor inhibited ripening without increasing the rate of ion leakage. Inhibition of ripening (i.e. lycopene synthesis) of excised tomato pericarp tissue by ethanol vapor was reversed by increasing concentrations of the plant hormone ethylene. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated noncompetitive interaction between ethanol and ethylene. Methanol and n-propanol also inhibited lycopene synthesis without significantly increasing ion leakage. The similar inhibitory effects of methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol at concentrations which did not stimulate ion leakage, and the relationship between activity and lipophilia of the alcohols suggest that their mode of action was through disruption of membranes associated with ethylene action. PMID:16666729

  4. Temperature-based Prediction of Egg-Mass Production by Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Diana G.; Rothfus, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A mturation-rate relationship for Meloidogyne incognita on Lycopersicon esculentum 'Rutgers' was derived and used to estimate harvest dates for maximmn egg hatch from laboratory cultures at ambient temperatures. Daily maturation increments were totaled (nematode maturation total, NMT) and correlated with hatch from isolated white, yellow, and amber egg masses. Hatch per mass fluctuated periodically from ca. 1.0 NMT, when egg masses were first visible, to 2.5 NMT by which time plants showed stress. Maximum yields from white and yellow masses occurred, with a shorter than expected periodicity, at 1.5-1.8 and 2.1-2.2 NMT. White masses decreased from 90% of the total masses at 1.0 NMT to 5% at 2.5 NMT, as the proportion of yellow and amber masses increased concomitantly. Harvested masses per gram of root varied from 97 to 276; hatch per gram of root, 11,000 to 86,000. PMID:19305857

  5. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses.

  6. Slow-growth phenotype of transgenic tomato expressing apoplastic invertase

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.D.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The growth of transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants that express in their apoplast yeast invertase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter is severely inhibited. The higher the level of invertase, the greater the inhibition of growth. A second phenotypic characteristic of these transgenic plants is the development of yellow and necrotic spots on the leaves, and leaf curling. Again the severity of the symptoms is correlated with the level of invertase. These symptoms do not develop in shaded leaves indicating the need for photosynthesis. Keeping the plants in the dark for a prolonged period (24 hours) results in the disappearance of leaf starch from the control plants, but not from the plants with apoplastic invertase. These results are consistent with the interpretation that apoplastic invertase prevents photosynthate export from source leaves and that phloem loading includes an apoplastic step.

  7. Flower development in normal tomato and a gibberellin-deficient (ga-2) mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Vester, J.E.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Flower buds of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) gibberellin-deficient mutant (ga-2/ga-2) were initiated, but did not develop to maturity and eventually aborted. If GA{sub 1} was applied to a developing inflorescence or stem tip, completion of flower bud development and fruit set occurred. In development of the ga-2 flowers, the corolla and stamens did not elongate and the style was misshapen or extended past the tip of the anthers. Light microscope observation indicated that meiosis of both microsporocytes and megasporocytes did not occur. Cells of the sporogenous layer were initiated, but growth was arrested and they eventually degenerated. The ovary was normal in appearance. However, the megasporocytes degenerated, giving rise to a cavity in the ovule. Thus, although GA is not required for flower initiation in tomato, it is essential for meiosis of the microsporocytes and megasporocytes and elongation of the corolla and stamens.

  8. Enhanced Levels of the Aroma and Flavor Compound S-Linalool by Metabolic Engineering of the Terpenoid Pathway in Tomato Fruits1

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Schalechet, Fernond; Wilkinson, Jack; Matsui, Kenji; Tadmor, Yaakov; Nam, Kyoung-Hee; Amar, Orit; Lastochkin, Elena; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Hiatt, William; Gepstein, Shimon; Pichersky, Eran

    2001-01-01

    The aromas of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are mixtures of volatile metabolites, often present in parts per billion levels or less. We show here that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants transgenic for a heterologous Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase (LIS) gene, under the control of the tomato late-ripening-specific E8 promoter, synthesize and accumulate S-linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool in ripening fruits. Apart from the difference in volatiles, no other phenotypic alterations were noted, including the levels of other terpenoids such as γ- and α-tocopherols, lycopene, β-carotene, and lutein. Our studies indicate that it is possible to enhance the levels of monoterpenes in ripening fruits by metabolic engineering. PMID:11706204

  9. Evidence for surfactant solubilization of plant epicuticular wax.

    PubMed

    Tamura, H; Knoche, M; Bukovac, M J

    2001-04-01

    The solubilization of isolated, reconstituted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit and broccoli (Brassica oleracaea var. botrytis L.) leaf epicuticular waxes (ECW) by nonionic octylphenoxypolyethoxy ethanol surfactant (Triton X-100) was demonstrated in a model system by TLC and fluorescence analysis using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. ECW was solubilized at or above the surfactant critical micelle concentration; solubilization increased with an increase in micelle concentration. As shown by the fluorescence quenching of pyrene, surfactant solubilization of the ECW increased rapidly for the first 12 h, then approached a plateau, increased linearly with an increase in temperature (22--32 degrees C), and decreased linearly with the log of the polyoxyethylene chain length (range 5--40 oxyethylenes). These data are discussed in relation to surfactant effects on phytotoxicity and performance of foliar spray application of agrochemicals. PMID:11308330

  10. Stimulation of Cadmium Uptake in Relation to the Cadmium Content of Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Charles M.; Ringoet, Arthur; Myttenaere, Constant

    1978-01-01

    The time course of cadmium uptake by the roots of intact tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was measured in a nutrient solution with a micromolar cadmium concentration until all cadmium in the medium was exhausted. Exhaustion taking a few hours, cadmium was repeatedly added to the nutrient solution. The initial rate of cadmium uptake was computed for each cadmium addition. This rate sharply increased and ultimately leveled off, the maximum value being about three times higher than the value measured after the first cadmium addition. The stimulating effect of cadmium was associated with an inhibitory effect at higher levels of cadmium concentrations. An increase in the net cadmium influx with time could not be explained by the binding of heavy metal to a fixed number of organic compounds. Conceivably, the production of binding sites could be increased and cadmium might play a part in controlling the rate of sites production. PMID:16660557

  11. Physico-chemical changes in tomato with modified atmosphere storage and UV treatment.

    PubMed

    Vunnam, R; Hussain, A; Nair, G; Bandla, R; Gariepy, Y; Donnelly, D J; Kubow, S; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-09-01

    Physico-chemical changes in ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were analyzed on day 0 and 2 weeks after ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light treatment or modified atmosphere (MA) storage and combined UV-C + MA storage at 10 °C. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) film was used to create MA conditions. The tomatoes were evaluated for surface colour, mass loss, firmness, respiration rate, total soluble solids and antioxidant capacity. The tomatoes treated with UV-C and MA storage underwent least changes in their physico-chemical properties, indicating that combination of UV-C and MA storage was successful in retaining the attributes of the fresh product. The increase in antioxidant capacity of the tomatoes during UV-C treatment suggested that UV treatment during post harvest handling may be successfully combined with MA storage, resulting in a product with better nutritive value. PMID:25190870

  12. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the tomato yellow leaf curl virus capsid protein are resistant to the virus.

    PubMed

    Kunik, T; Salomon, R; Zamir, D; Navot, N; Zeidan, M; Michelson, I; Gafni, Y; Czosnek, H

    1994-05-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) gene that encodes the capsid protein (V1) was placed under transcriptional control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and cloned into an Agrobacterium Ti-derived plasmid and used to transform plants from an interspecific tomato hybrid, Lycopersicon esculentum X L. pennellii (F1), sensitive to the TYLCV disease. When transgenic F1 plants, expressing the V1 gene, were inoculated with TYLCV using whiteflies fed on TYLCV-infected plants, they responded either as untransformed tomato or showed expression of delayed disease symptoms and recovery from the disease with increasingly more resistance upon repeated inoculation. Transformed plants that were as sensitive to inoculation as untransformed controls expressed the V1 gene at the RNA level only. All the transformed plants that recovered from disease expressed the TYLCV capsid protein. PMID:7764709

  13. Vermicomposting of solid waste generated from leather industries using epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Dinesh, S L; Kennedy, L John; Sekaran, G

    2008-12-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) generated as solid waste from tannery industries was vermicomposted using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. The mixing ratio of ANFL with cow dung and agricultural residues as feed mixtures was maintained to be 3:1:1 respectively during the vermicomposting experiments for 50 days. Vermicomposting resulted in the reduction of pH 6.74 and C:N ratio 15.5 compared to the control sample. A notable increase in earthworm biomass was also observed in the vermin bioreactor. The germination index of 84% for tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1) was observed for the vermicomposted soil. Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were recorded to identify the changes in surface morphology and functional groups in the control and vermicomposted samples. The results obtained from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. foetida was able to convert ANFL into nutrient-enriched products.

  14. Isolation of a cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of CAAX-prenyltransferases from Catharanthus roseus and the expression of the active recombinant protein farnesyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Courdavault, Vincent; Burlat, Vincent; St-Pierre, Benoit; Gantet, Pascal; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Crfta/ggt_Ia (AF525030), a cDNA encoding the ?-subunit of the two types of CaaX-prenyltransferase (CaaX-PTase), i.e. protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) and type I protein geranylgeranyltransferase, was cloned from Catharanthus roseus via a PCR strategy. Crfta/ggt_Ia is 1381-bp long and bears a 999-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 332 residues (FTA) that shares 66% identity with its Lycopersicon esculentum orthologue. Southern blot analysis revealed that FTA is encoded by a single gene copy per haploid genome. Co-expression of Crfta/ggt_Ia and Crftb encoding the beta-subunit of PFT yielded purified active recombinant PFT. This enzyme is able to prenylate proteins from C. roseus, and could be used as a potent tool for prenylated protein identification.

  15. Inositol-Containing Lipids in Suspension-Cultured Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drøbak, Bjørn K.; Ferguson, Ian B.; Dawson, Alan P.; Irvine, Robin F.

    1988-01-01

    Polar lipids were extracted from suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cells and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Four major inositol-containing compounds were found, and incorporation of [32P]orthosphosphate, [2-3H]glycerol, and myo-[2-3H]inositol was studied. Results showed that phosphatidylinositol-monophosphate is the phospholipid in these cells displaying the most rapid incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate. We suggest that the tracer is incorporated primarily into the phosphomonoester group. Two inositol-containing lipids showed chromatographic behavior similar to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate when using standard thin layer chromatography techniques. The labeling pattern of these compounds, however, reveals that it is unlikely that either of these is identical to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. Should phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate be present in suspension cultured plant cells, our data indicate chemical abundancies substantially lower than previously reported. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16666106

  16. Comparison of plant cell turgor pressure measurement by pressure probe and micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Hukin, David; Pritchard, Jeremy; Thomas, Colin

    2006-08-01

    The conventional method of measuring plant cell turgor pressure is the pressure probe but applying this method to single cells in suspension culture is technically difficult and requires puncture of the cell wall. Conversely, compression testing by micromanipulation is particularly suited to studies on single cells, and can be used to characterise cell wall mechanical properties, but has not been used to measure turgor pressure. In order to demonstrate that the micromanipulation method can do this, pressure measurements by both methods were compared on single suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum vf36) cells and generally were in good agreement. This validates further the micromanipulation method and demonstrates its capability to measure turgor pressure during water loss. It also suggests that it might eventually be used to estimate plant cell hydraulic conductivity.

  17. Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level

    SciTech Connect

    Freidus, D. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

  18. Stimulating Effects of Seed Treatment by Magnetized Plasma on Tomato Growth and Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meiqiang; Huang, Mingjing; Ma, Buzhou; Ma, Tengcai

    2005-12-01

    Tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. cv. zhongshu No. 6) were treated by magnetized plasma before being sown to investigate its effect on the growth and yield of tomatoes. Biochemical analysis showed that dehydrogenase activity increased with the increase of the current but decreased when the current was higher than 1.5 A. The activities of peroxidase (POD) isoenzyme changed in the same pattern. There was no difference in germination percentage between treatments and control, which were carried out in laboratory conditions. However, significant (α = 0.01) difference was observed in germination percentage in the pot experiment. In the pot experiment, the sprouting rate for the treatment with a 1.5 A current was 32.75%, whereas the untreated was only 4.75% on the eleventh day. Germination time is more than one day earlier than the control. The 1.5 A treatment increased the tomato yield by 20.7%.

  19. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    2005-02-22

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identified and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.

  20. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-09-29

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and toward extracted tomato-plant volatiles presented in the absence of other cues. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) also elicit directed growth. Moreover, seedlings can distinguish tomato and wheat volatiles and preferentially grow toward the former. Several individual compounds from tomato and wheat elicit directed growth by C. pentagona, whereas one compound from wheat is repellent. These findings provide compelling evidence that volatiles mediate important ecological interactions among plant species.

  1. Involvement of plant growth substances in the alteration of leaf gas exchange of flooded tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Bradford, K J

    1983-10-01

    Ethylene, abscisic acid, and cytokinins were tested for their ability to either induce or prevent the changes which occur in gas exchange characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) leaves during short-term soil flooding. Ethylene, which increases in the shoots of flooded plants, had no effect on stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity of drained plants. Abscisic acid, which also accumulates in the shoots of flooded plants, could reproduce the stomatal behavior of flooded plants when sprayed on the leaves of drained plants. However, photosynthetic capacity of drained plants was unaffected by abscisic acid sprays. Cytokinin export from the roots to the shoots declines in flooded plants. Spray applications of benzyladenine increased stomatal conductance in both flooded and drained plants. In addition, the decline in photosynthetic capacity during flooding was largely prevented by supplementary cytokinin applications. The possible involvement of these growth substances in modifying leaf gas exchange during flooding is discussed.

  2. Tomato metabolism and porphyrin-catalyzed oxidation of pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2005-06-29

    Investigation of the metabolism of [(14)C]pyriproxyfen [4-phenoxyphenyl (R,S)-2-(2-pyridyloxy)propyl ether] in tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ponterosa) was conducted by topical application of acetonitrile solution or emulsifiable concentration formulation three times at 35, 21, and 7 days before harvest. Most of the radioactivity remained on the fruit surface or in the plant tissues as intact pyriproxyfen with minor metabolites formed via hydroxylation at the 4'-position of the phenoxy ring or cleavage of ether linkages. The biomimic chemical oxidation model using iron porphyrin as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide was found to well reproduce the primary metabolites detected in the metabolism study. The electrophilic reaction indices obtained by AM1 molecular orbital calculations supposing involvement of cytochrome P-450 were successfully applied to evaluate the potentially higher reactive sites in pyriproxyfen.

  3. Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

  4. Signal transduction events in aluminum-induced cell death in tomato suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Yakimova, Elena T; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta M; Woltering, Ernst J

    2007-06-01

    In this study, some of the signal transduction events involved in AlCl(3)-induced cell death in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells were elucidated. Cells treated with 100 microM AlCl(3) showed typical features of programmed cell death (PCD) such as nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation. Cell death was effectively inhibited by protease and human caspase inhibitors indicating a cell death execution mechanism with similarities to animal apoptosis. Cell death was suppressed by application of antoxidants and by inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase D (PLD) and ethylene signalling pathways. The results suggest that low concentrations of heavy metal ions stimulate both PLC and PLD signalling pathways leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent cell death executed by caspase-like proteases.

  5. Comparative genetics of hybrid incompatibility: sterility in two Solanum species crosses.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2008-07-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid sterility can provide insight into the genetic and evolutionary origins of species barriers. We examine the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two diploid plant species in the plant clade Solanum sect. Lycopersicon. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing the wild species Solanum pennellii (formerly Lycopersicon pennellii) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (formerly L. esculentum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on a modest number of loci, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number, and seed-infertility QTL act additively or recessively. These findings are remarkably consistent with our previous analysis in a different species pair, S. lycopersicum x S. habrochaites. Data from both studies contrast strongly with data from Drosophila. Finally, QTL for pollen and seed sterility from the two Solanum studies were chromosomally colocalized, indicating a shared evolutionary history for these QTL, a nonrandom genomic distribution of loci causing sterility, and/or a proclivity of certain genes to be involved in hybrid sterility. We show that comparative mapping data can delimit the probable timing of evolution of detected QTL and discern which sterility loci likely evolved earliest among species.

  6. Fine mapping of the parthenocarpic fruit ( pat) mutation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Beraldi, D; Picarella, M E; Soressi, G P; Mazzucato, A

    2004-01-01

    The parthenocarpic fruit ( pat) gene of tomato is a recessive mutation conferring parthenocarpy, which is the capability of a plant to set seedless fruits in the absence of pollination and fertilization. Parthenocarpic mutants offer a useful method to regulate fruit production and a suitable experimental system to study ovary and fruit development. In order to map the Pat locus, two populations segregating from the interspecific cross Lycopersicon esculentum x Lycopersicon pennellii were grown, and progeny plants were classified as parthenocarpic or wild-type by taking into account some characteristic aberrations affecting mutant anthers and ovules. Through bulk segregant analysis, we searched for both random and mapped AFLPs linked to the target gene. In this way, the Pat locus was assigned to the long arm of chromosome 3, as also confirmed by the analysis of a set of L. pennellii substitution and introgression lines. Afterwards, the Pat position was refined by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and conserved ortholog set (COS) markers mapping in the target region. The tightest COSs were converted into CAPS or SCAR markers. At present, two co-dominant SCAR markers encompassing a genetic window of 1.2 cM flank the Pat locus. Considering that these markers are orthologous to Arabidopsis genes, a positional cloning exploiting the tomato- Arabidopsis microsynteny seems to be a short-term objective. PMID:14564391

  7. Potassium and Sodium Absorption Kinetics in Roots of Two Tomato Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Wrona, Anne F.; Epstein, Emanuel

    1985-01-01

    Excised roots of the tomato species, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Walter (the commercial species) and of Lycopersicon cheesmanii ssp. minor (Hook.) C.H. Mull. (a wild species from the Galapagos Islands), were used in comparative studies of their absorption of K+ and Na+. Uptake of 86Rb-labeled K+ and 22Na-labeled Na+ by excised roots of `Walter' and L. cheesmanii varied as a function of genotype and tissue pretreatment with or without K+. Excised roots of `Walter' consistently absorbed more 86Rb-labeled K+ than those of L. cheesmanii. Absorption of K+ from solutions ranging from 0.01 to 0.2 millimolar KCl showed saturation kinetics in both K+-pretreated and K+-depleted roots of `Walter,' and for K+-depleted roots of L. cheesmanii. K+-pretreated roots of L. cheesmanii had exceedingly low rates of K+ uptake with strikingly different, linear kinetics. Pretreatment with K+ caused a decrease in rates of K+ uptake in both genotypes. Potassium depleted roots of L. cheesmanii absorbed Na+ at a greater rate than those of `Walter,' whereas K+-pretreated roots of `Walter' absorbed Na+ at a greater rate than those of L. cheesmanii. The results confirm and extend previous conclusions to the effect that closely related genotypes may exhibit widely different responses to the two alkali cations, K+ and Na+. PMID:16664530

  8. Identification of group B streptococcal antigen with lectin-bound polystyrene particles.

    PubMed Central

    Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R

    1987-01-01

    The lectin of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, or of the potato, Solanum tuberosum, can be passively coupled to amide-modified polystyrene spheres to be used as a detection reagent for the specific identification of group B streptococcal cultures grown in selective or nonselective Todd-Hewitt broth for 5 and 4 h, respectively. Agglutination occurred when the lectin reagents were allowed to react with either the cell suspension, clarified broth, or antigen extracts from group B streptococci grown in Todd-Hewitt broth. No agglutination occurred when these lectins were allowed to react with strains of serogroup A, C, D, F, or G streptococci. False-negative agglutination responses may occur with certain serotype of group B streptococci grown on Columbia sheep blood agar. A 20-min staining time permitted the specific labeling of fixed smears of group B streptococci with fluorescein-conjugated Lycopersicon lectin. The lectin from the solanaceous plant Datura stramonium did not agglutinate group B streptococci or other clinically significant streptococcal serogroups. PMID:3301888

  9. Acclimation of two tomato species to high atmospheric CO sub 2 : II. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, S.; Beeson, R.C. Jr.; Trudel, M.J.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Vedettos and Lycopersicon chmielewskii Rick, LA 1028, were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations for 10 weeks. The elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the initial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity of both species for the first 5 weeks of treatment but the difference did not persist during the last 5 weeks. The activity of Mg{sup 2+}-CO{sub 2}-activated Rubisco was higher in 900 microliters per liter for the first 2 weeks but declined sharply thereafter. After 10 weeks, leaves grown at 330 microliters per liter CO{sub 2} had about twice the Rubisco activity compared with those grown at 900 microliters per liter CO{sub 2}. The two species showed the same trend to Rubisco declines under high CO{sub 2} concentrations. The percent activation of Rubisco was always higher under high CO{sub 2}. The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) activity measured in tomato leaves averaged 7.9% of the total Rubisco. PEPCase showed a similar trend with time as the initial Rubisco but with no significant difference between nonenriched and CO{sub 2}-enriched plants. Long-term exposure of tomato plants to high CO{sub 2} was previously shown to induce a decline of photosynthetic efficiency. Based on the current study and on previous results, we propose that the decline of activated Rubisco is the main cause of the acclimation of tomato plants to high CO{sub 2} concentrations.

  10. Acclimation of two tomato species to high atmospheric CO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, S.; Beeson, R.C. Jr.; Tudel, M.J.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Vedettos and Lycopersicon chmielewskii Rick, LA 1028, were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations for 10 weeks. The elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the in situ Rubisco activity of both species for the first 5 weeks of treatment but the difference did not persist during the last 5 weeks. The Activity Mg{sup 2+}-CO{sub 2} activated Rubisco was higher in 900 {mu}l.L{sup {minus}1} for first 2 weeks but declined sharply thereafter. After 10 weeks, leaves grown at 330 {mu}l.L{sup {minus}1}CO{sub 2} had about twice the Rubisco activity compared to those grown at 900 {mu}.L{sup {minus}1}CO{sub 2}. The percent activation of Rubisco was always higher under high CO{sub 2}. The PEPCase activity measured in tomato leaves averaged 7.9% of the total Rubisco. PEPCase showed a similar trend with time as the in situ Rubisco but with no significant difference between non-enriched and CO{sub 2} enriched plants. Long-term exposure of tomato plants to high CO{sub 2} was previously shown to induce a decline of photosynthetic efficiency. Based on the current study and on previous results, we propose that the decline of activated Rubisco is the main cause of the acclimation of tomato plants to high CO{sub 2} concentrations.

  11. The activation process of Arabidopsis thaliana A1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha is conserved among angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Liboz, T; Montané, M H; Rouan, D; Axelos, M; Lescure, B

    1992-04-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the activation process of the A1 EF-1 alpha gene depends on several elements. Using the GUS reporter gene, transient expression experiments have shown that mutations of upstream cis-acting elements of the A1 promoter, or the deletion of an intron located within the 5' non-coding region, similarly affect expression in dicot or monocot protoplasts. The results reported here strongly suggest that this 5' intron is properly spliced in Zea mays. We show that two trans-acting factors, specifically interacting with an upstream activating sequence (the TEF 1 box), are present in nuclear extracts prepared from A. thaliana, Brassica rapa, Nicotiana tabacum and Z. mays. In addition, a DNA sequence homologous to the TEF 1 box, found at approximately the same location within a Lycopersicon esculentum EF-1 alpha promoter, interacts with the same trans-acting factors. Homologies found between the A. thaliana and L. esculentum TEF 1 box sequences have allowed us to define mutations of this upstream element which affect the interaction with the corresponding trans-acting factors. These results support the notion that the activation processes of A. thaliana EF-1 alpha genes have been conserved among angiosperms and provide interesting data on the functional structure of the TEF 1 box.

  12. Potato virus X TGBp1 induces plasmodesmata gating and moves between cells in several host species whereas CP moves only in N. benthamiana leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Amanda R.; Heppler, Marty L.; Ju, Ho-Jong; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Payton, Mark E.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie . E-mail: verchot@okstate.edu

    2004-10-25

    Experiments were conducted to compare the plasmodesmal transport activities of Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1 and coat protein (CP) in several plant species. Microinjection experiments indicated that TGBp1 gates plasmodesmata in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. These results support previous microinjection studies indicating that TGBp1 gates plasmodesmata in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana clevelandii leaves. To study protein movement, plasmids expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the PVX TGBp1 or CP genes were biolistically bombarded to leaves taken from four different PVX host species. GFP/TGBp1 moved between adjacent cells in N. tabacum, N. clevelandii, N. benthamiana, and Lycopersicon esculentum, whereas GFP/CP moved only in N. benthamiana leaves. Mutations m12 and m13 were introduced into the TGBp1 gene and both mutations eliminated TGBp1 ATPase active site motifs, inhibited PVX movement, reduced GFP/TGBp1 cell-to-cell movement in N. benthamiana leaves, and eliminated GFP/TGBp1 movement in N. tabacum, N. clevelandii, and L. esculentum leaves. GFP/TGBp1m13 formed aggregates in tobacco cells. The ability of GFP/CP and mutant GFP/TGBp1 fusion proteins to move in N. benthamiana and not in the other PVX host species suggests that N. benthamiana plants have a unique ability to promote protein intercellular movement.

  13. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Potential of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart.

    PubMed

    Candido, Lafayette P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems, and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth, and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate, and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculentum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella. PMID:27482860

  14. Characterization of LeMir, a root-knot nematode-induced gene in tomato with an encoded product secreted from the root.

    PubMed

    Brenner, E D; Lambert, K N; Kaloshian, I; Williamson, V M

    1998-09-01

    A tomato gene that is induced early after infection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) encodes a protein with 54% amino acid identity to miraculin, a flavorless protein that causes sour substances to be perceived as sweet. This gene was therefore named LeMir (L. esculentum miraculin). Sequence similarity places the encoded protein in the soybean trypsin-inhibitor family (Kunitz). LeMir mRNA is found in root, hypocotyl, and flower tissues, with the highest expression in the root. Rapid induction of expression upon nematode infection is localized to root tips. In situ hybridization shows that LeMir is expressed constitutively in the root-cap and root-tip epidermis. The LeMir protein product (LeMir) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris for generation of antibodies. Western-blot analysis showed that LeMir expression is up-regulated by nematode infection and by wounding. LeMir is also expressed in tomato callus tissue. Immunoprint analysis revealed that LeMir is expressed throughout the seedling root, but that levels are highest at the root/shoot junction. Analysis of seedling root exudates revealed that LeMir is secreted from the root into the surrounding environment, suggesting that it may interact with soil-borne microorganisms. PMID:9733543

  15. The morama bean (Tylosema esculentum): a potential crop for southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jose C; Duodu, Kwaku G; Holse, Mette; Lima de Faria, Margarida D; Jordaan, Danie; Chingwaru, Walter; Hansen, Aase; Cencic, Avrelija; Kandawa-Schultz, Martha; Mpotokwane, Selalelo M; Chimwamurombe, Percy; de Kock, Henrietta L; Minnaar, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The morama bean is an underutilized leguminous oilseed native to the Kalahari Desert and neighboring sandy regions of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa (Limpopo, North-West, Gauteng, and Northern Cape provinces), and forms part of the diet of the indigenous population in these countries. It is also known as gemsbok bean, moramaboontjie, elandboontjie, braaiboonjie, marama, marumana, tsi, tsin, gami, and ombanui. It is reported as an excellent source of good quality protein (29-39%); its oil (24-48%) is rich in mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids and contains no cholesterol. Morama is a good source of micronutrients such as calcium, iron, zinc, phosphate, magnesium, and B vitamins including folate. It is also reported to be a potential source of phytonutrients including phenolic compounds (e.g., tannins), trypsin inhibitors, phytates, and oligosaccharides, components which have been shown in other foods to contribute to health in particular, prevention of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and some cancers. From a nutritional and health perspective, the morama bean has potential commercial value as a cash crop and value-added products, particularly in the communities where it is found.

  16. Bioactive compounds, folates and antioxidant properties of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) during vine ripening.

    PubMed

    Jesús Periago, María; García-Alonso, Javier; Jacob, Karin; Belén Olivares, Ana; José Bernal, Ma; Dolores Iniesta, Ma; Martínez, Carmen; Ros, Gaspar

    2009-12-01

    Bioactive compounds and their relationship with antioxidant activity were determined in three tomato cultivars (Ronaldo, Siena and Copo) during vine ripening. The lycopene, chlorophyll (total, a and b), total phenolic, flavonoid, vitamin C and folate contents, and the antioxidant activity, by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay and the beta-carotene lineolate system, were determined in the samples. Tomato ripening involved the breakdown of chlorophylls, accompanied by a continuous increase in the lycopene content. Total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C increased significantly during ripening, whereas the folate content fell markedly as tomatoes turned from green to red. The lycopene and flavonoid content was highest in the Copo cultivar, vitamin C and folate highest in Ronaldo, and total phenolics highest in Siena. The antioxidant activity, as measured with the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, increased significantly during ripening in all extracts, and showed a positive correlation with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. However, when measured with the beta-carotene lineolate system, the antioxidant activity decreased significantly during ripening; perhaps due to the antioxidant activity of chlorophylls and the peroxidation activity of vitamin C. PMID:19919517

  17. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation.

  18. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-08-15

    Buckwheat grain has well-balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in studies on the hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. The insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco-2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol-induced gallstones and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  19. Antigenotoxic effect of Tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum) buckwheat flour.

    PubMed

    Vogrinčič, Maja; Kreft, Ivan; Filipič, Metka; Zegura, Bojana

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our work was to determine and to compare the possible antigenotoxic effect of methanolic extracts of common buckwheat (CB) and Tartary buckwheat (TB) flour, containing naturally present rutin (R), and quercetin (Q), and of R and Q in chemical form, against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). R and Q content of CB and TB flour extracts was determined by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and antigenotoxic effect of flour extracts, R and Q was evaluated using the comet assay. R (100 μM) and Q (50 μM) decreased the extent of t-BOOH induced DNA damage for 51% and 67%, respectively. CB and TB flour extracts showed high antioxidant capacity and prominent genoprotective ability. CB extract containing up to 0.1 μM R decreased t-BOOH induced DNA damage for 34%, and TB extract containing up to 12.64 μM R, and 2.86 μM Q for 40%. The obtained results show high antigenotoxic activity of buckwheat and furthermore, they suggest that complex nutrient and flavonoid rich food products are more efficient in their health promoting effects compared to a single active substance.

  20. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  1. Spatial characteristics of aluminum uptake and translocation in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Klug, Benjamin; Horst, Walter J

    2010-06-01

    The detoxification of aluminum (Al) in root tips of the Al accumulator buckwheat by exudation of oxalate leading to reduced Al uptake (Al resistance) is difficult to reconcile with the Al accumulation (Al tolerance). The objective of this study was to analyze resistance and tolerance mechanisms at the same time evaluating particularly possible stratification of Al uptake, Al transport and oxalate exudation along the root apex. The use of a minirhizotron made it possible to differentiate between spatial responses to Al along the root apex with regard to Al uptake and organic acid anion exudation, but also to measure at the same time Al and organic acid transport in the xylem. Al accumulates particularly in the 3-mm root apex. The study showed that Al taken up by the 10-mm root apex is rapidly transferred to the xylem which differentiates in the 10 to 15-mm root zone as revealed by a microscopic study. Al induces the release of oxalate from the root apex but particularly from the subapical 6-20 mm root zone even when Al was applied only to the 5-mm root apex suggesting a basipetal signal transduction. Citrate proved to be the most likely ligand for Al in the xylem because Al and citrate transport rates were positively correlated. In conclusion, the data presented show that the Al-induced release of oxalate, and Al uptake as well as Al accumulation are spatially not separated in the root apex.

  2. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    PubMed

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  3. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  4. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  5. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  6. Distribution of Vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin in common buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Kalinova, Jana; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2006-07-26

    Buckwheat leaves and young parts of the plant are consumed in some countries as a vegetable. Green flour, obtained by milling of the dried plants, is used as a natural food colorant. The distribution of vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin (as the most important antioxidants) within buckwheat plants, as well as changes of their content within leaves during the growing season, were determined by GC-MS and HPLC analyses. alpha-Tocopherol was found as the main component of vitamin E in all parts of the plant; epicatechin and squalene were also detected. For the use of buckwheat as an antioxidant source in the human diet, the most suitable part of the plants seems to be the leaves and the flowers at the stage of full flowering due to the considerable amounts of rutin and epicatechin. alpha-Tocopherol content correlates positively with temperature, drought, and duration of solar radiation. Certain differences appear among varieties of buckwheat, especially in their squalene and rutin contents.

  7. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process. PMID:24682661

  8. Phytomodulatory potential of lycopene from Lycopersicum esculentum against doxorubicin induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Shubrant; Gupta, Prachi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated level of serum urea and creatinine was observed in doxorubicin (DOX) treated animals indicating DOX-induced nephrotoxicity. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the renal tissue was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities. Administration of lycopene (LycT) extracted from tomato to DOX treated mice showed a significant reduction in serum creatinine and urea levels which were associated with significantly low levels of LPO and significantly enhanced level of GSH and related antioxidant enzymes activity (GPx, GR and CAT) when compared to DOX group. Histopathological analysis revealed severe damage in the renal tissue of DOX treated animals. However, animals pretreated with LycT were observed to have reduced damage. Thus, from present results it may be inferred that lycopene may be beneficial in mitigating DOX induced nephrotoxicity in mice. PMID:24228387

  9. Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).

    PubMed

    Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection.

  10. Effect of processing on the flavonoid content in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) grain.

    PubMed

    Dietrych-Szostak, D; Oleszek, W

    1999-10-01

    Six flavonoids have been isolated and identified in buckwheat grain. These are rutin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, isovitexin, and isoorientin. Rutin and isovitexin are the only flavonoid components of buckwheat seeds while hulls contain all six identified compounds. The total flavonoid concentration in the seeds was 18.8 and in the hulls 74 mg/100 g of dry matter. Dehulling the grain by using different temperature regimes resulted in drastic reductions of the total flavonoid concentration in the grain (by 75% of the control) and smaller but significant (15-20%) reduction in the hulls.

  11. Extraction of rutin from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench) seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kreft, S; Knapp, M; Kreft, I

    1999-11-01

    The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131-476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19-168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake.

  12. Race-Class Relations and Integration in Secondary Education: The Case of Miller High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Eick explores the history of a comprehensive high school from the world views of its assorted student body, confronting issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, nationality, and religion. Her case study examines the continuities and differences in student relationships over five decades. While she discusses the "dark side" of the high school…

  13. Synthesis of zinc ultrafine powders via the Guen–Miller flow-levitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Jigatch, A. N. Leipunskii, I. O.; Kuskov, M. L.; Afanasenkova, E. S.; Berezkina, N. G.; Gorbatov, S. A.

    2015-12-15

    Zinc ultrafine powders (UFPs) with the average particle size of 0.175 to 1.24 μm are synthesized via the flow-levitation method. The peculiarities of the formation of zinc UFPs are considered with respect to the carrier gas properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient), as well as the gas flow parameters (pressure and flow rate). The obtained zinc particles are studied via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The factors determining the crystal structure of zinc particles and their size distribution are discussed as well. The data on oxidation of zinc stored in unsealed containers under normal conditions are also presented.

  14. Aqueous extraction kinetics of soluble solids, phenolics and flavonoids from sage (Salvia fruticosa Miller) leaves.

    PubMed

    Torun, Mehmet; Dincer, Cuneyt; Topuz, Ayhan; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, aqueous extraction kinetics of total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) from Salvia fruticosa leaves were investigated throughout 150 min. of extraction period against temperature (60-80 °C), particle size (2-8 mm) and loading percentage (1-4 %). The extract yielded 25 g/100 g TSS which contained 30 g/100 g TPC and 25 g/100 g TFC. The extraction data in time course fit with reversible first order kinetic model. All tested variables showed significant effect on the estimated kinetic parameters except equilibrium concentration. Increasing the extraction temperature resulted high extraction rate constants and equilibrium concentrations of the tested variables notably above 70 °C. By using the Arrhenius relationship, activation energy of the TSS, TPC and TFC were determined as 46.11 ± 5.61, 36.80 ± 3.12 and 33.52 ± 2.23 kj/mol, respectively. By decreasing the particle size, the extraction rate constants and diffusion coefficients exponentially increased whereas equilibrium concentrations did not change significantly. The equilibrium concentrations of the tested parameters showed linear behavior with increasing the loading percentage of the sage, however; the change in extraction rates did not show linear behavior due to submerging effect of 4 % loading.

  15. The Case for Better Evaluation Theory: Comments on Miller, Kirkhart, and Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been tension underscoring the nature, role, and importance of theory in the evaluation field. Some notable evaluation scholars contend that there is little need for evaluation theory and that good evaluative practice can occur with little or no regard to evaluation theory. Yet, others maintain that evaluation…

  16. Polyphenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) varieties.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Oszmiański, Jan; Bielicki, Paweł

    2013-03-20

    Phytochemical profiles (phenolic compounds, L-ascorbic acid, antioxidant and PPO activities) of 13 different quince varieties and 5 genotypes were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-PDA-QTof/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA and UPLC-FL. A total of 26 polyphenolic compounds found in quince tissues were identified and presented: 9 flavan-3-ols ((-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, 3 procyanidin dimers and trimers, and 1 tetramer); 8 hydroxycinnamates, derivatives of caffeoylquinic and coumaroylquinic acid; and 9 kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. The content of total polyphenols was between 1709.43 (genotype 'S1') and 3436.56 mg/100 g dry weight ('Leskovač'). Flavan-3-ols, which are the major class of quince polyphenols, represented between 78 and 94% of the total polyphenolic compounds. The activity of PPO enzyme ranged from 709.85 to 1284.59 ΔU/min, and that of L-ascorbic acid ranged from 5.86 to 26.42 mg/100 g. Some quince varieties and their products characterized by a higher content of phenolic compounds may be selected to promote their positive effect on health.

  17. Petrography, Geochemistry, and Pairing Relationships of Basaltic Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 13317

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-08-01

    A petrographic and geochemical description of "new" lunar meteorite MIL 13317, an evolved lunar basaltic regolith breccia. The pairing relationships with previously described lunar meteorites are also explored.

  18. Chrysotile asbestos and health in Zimbabwe: II. Health status survey of active miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Lopez-Carrillo, L.; Alli, B.; Pace, P.E.; Shalat, S.L.; Baloyi, R.S. )

    1991-02-01

    As part of the effort to establish industrial practice and public policy regarding asbestos in Zimbabwe, we have conducted a cross-sectional study of the chrysotile mines and mills. A stratified random sample of workers with greater than 10 years of exposure has been evaluated by spirometry, chest radiographs, and employment history. The latter was converted to quantitative estimates of exposure dose, using a matrix based on measured and reconstructed fiber levels for each job and facility during the years of work. Based on these data, a clear dose-response between asbestos exposure and functional loss has been demonstrated, with mean losses from predicted of about 400-600 cc in vital capacity in the 10% of the population with heaviest exposures. Low-grade parenchymal radiographic abnormalities (ILO grade greater than or equal to 1/0) were evident in 8.7% of the total study group and were almost 10 times more common in those with more than 100 fibers/cc.years cumulative exposure than in those with 16 fibers/cc.years or less. Pleural disease was relatively rare, occurring in just under 10% of the study group, and was unrelated to exposure dose. Overall, these findings are compatible with results of similar studies in Quebec and Swaziland and suggest that similar control strategies are probably indicated.

  19. Modernity in Two Great American Writers' Vision: Ernest Miller Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshmiri, Fahimeh; Darzikola, Shahla Sorkhabi

    2016-01-01

    Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway, American memorable novelists have had philosophic ideas about modernity. In fact their idea about existential interests of American, and the effects of American system on society, is mirrored in their creative works. All through his early works, Fitzgerald echoes the existential center of his era. Obviously,…

  20. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Early Onset Depressions--Meanings, Mechanisms and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyer, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depressive syndromes in children and adolescents constitute a serious group of mental disorders with considerable risk for recurrence. A more precise understanding of aetiology is necessary to improve treatment and management. Methods: Three neuroactive agents are purported to be involved in the aetiology of these disorders: serotonin,…