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Sample records for lycopodium clavatum extract

  1. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  2. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods. PMID:26818918

  3. Molecular Evolution and Functional Characterization of a Bifunctional Decarboxylase Involved in Lycopodium Alkaloid Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Hanada, Kousuke; Maruyama, Akira; Aoyagi, Kaori; Komatsu, Kana; Ueno, Hideki; Yamashita, Madoka; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Oikawa, Akira; Yamazaki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Lycopodium alkaloids (LAs) are derived from lysine (Lys) and are found mainly in Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae. LAs are potentially useful against Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and myasthenia gravis. Here, we cloned the bifunctional lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC), the first gene involved in LA biosynthesis, from the LA-producing plants Lycopodium clavatum and Huperzia serrata. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the L. clavatum L/ODC (LcL/ODC). The recombinant LcL/ODC preferentially catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-Lys over l-ornithine (l-Orn) by about 5 times. Transient expression of LcL/ODC fused with the amino or carboxyl terminus of green fluorescent protein, in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, showed LcL/ODC localization in the cytosol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing LcL/ODC enhanced the production of a Lys-derived alkaloid, anabasine, and cadaverine, respectively, thus, confirming the function of LcL/ODC in plants. In addition, we present an example of the convergent evolution of plant Lys decarboxylase that resulted in the production of Lys-derived alkaloids in Leguminosae (legumes) and Lycopodiaceae (clubmosses). This convergent evolution event probably occurred via the promiscuous functions of the ancestral Orn decarboxylase, which is an enzyme involved in the primary metabolism of polyamine. The positive selection sites were detected by statistical analyses using phylogenetic trees and were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, suggesting the importance of those sites in granting the promiscuous function to Lys decarboxylase while retaining the ancestral Orn decarboxylase function. This study contributes to a better understanding of LA biosynthesis and the molecular evolution of plant Lys decarboxylase. PMID:27303024

  4. Molecular Evolution and Functional Characterization of a Bifunctional Decarboxylase Involved in Lycopodium Alkaloid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Hanada, Kousuke; Maruyama, Akira; Aoyagi, Kaori; Komatsu, Kana; Ueno, Hideki; Yamashita, Madoka; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Oikawa, Akira; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2016-08-01

    Lycopodium alkaloids (LAs) are derived from lysine (Lys) and are found mainly in Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae. LAs are potentially useful against Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and myasthenia gravis. Here, we cloned the bifunctional lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC), the first gene involved in LA biosynthesis, from the LA-producing plants Lycopodium clavatum and Huperzia serrata We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the L. clavatum L/ODC (LcL/ODC). The recombinant LcL/ODC preferentially catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-Lys over l-ornithine (l-Orn) by about 5 times. Transient expression of LcL/ODC fused with the amino or carboxyl terminus of green fluorescent protein, in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, showed LcL/ODC localization in the cytosol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing LcL/ODC enhanced the production of a Lys-derived alkaloid, anabasine, and cadaverine, respectively, thus, confirming the function of LcL/ODC in plants. In addition, we present an example of the convergent evolution of plant Lys decarboxylase that resulted in the production of Lys-derived alkaloids in Leguminosae (legumes) and Lycopodiaceae (clubmosses). This convergent evolution event probably occurred via the promiscuous functions of the ancestral Orn decarboxylase, which is an enzyme involved in the primary metabolism of polyamine. The positive selection sites were detected by statistical analyses using phylogenetic trees and were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, suggesting the importance of those sites in granting the promiscuous function to Lys decarboxylase while retaining the ancestral Orn decarboxylase function. This study contributes to a better understanding of LA biosynthesis and the molecular evolution of plant Lys decarboxylase. PMID:27303024

  5. Lycopodium clavatum exine microcapsules enable safe oral delivery of 3,4-diaminopyridine for treatment of botulinum neurotoxin A intoxication.

    PubMed

    Harris, T L; Wenthur, C J; Diego-Taboada, A; Mackenzie, G; Corbitt, T S; Janda, K D

    2016-03-18

    3,4-Diaminopyridine has shown promise in reversing botulinum intoxication, but poor pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window limit its clinical utility. Thus, we developed a pH-dependent oral delivery platform using club moss spore exines. These exine microcapsules slowed 3,4-diaminopyridine absorption, limited its seizure activity, and enabled delivery of doses which prolonged mouse survival after botulism neurotoxin A intoxication. PMID:26906286

  6. Obscurumines H-P, new Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Lycopodium obscurum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; He, Juan; Su, Jia; Cheng, Xiao; Peng, Li-Yan; Shao, Li-Dong; Wu, Xing-De; Yang, Jia-Hui; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2016-03-01

    Seven new fawcettimine-type (1-7) and two new lycopodine-type (8 and 9) Lycopodium alkaloids, as well as 10 known compounds, were isolated from the club moss, Lycopodium obscurum L. The structures of obscurumines H-P (1-9) were determined based on high-resolution MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1 and 2 include a new skeleton that is formed via the linkage of C-9-N-2', which is rarely present in Lycopodium alkaloids. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that 5 exhibited weak anti-AChE activity with an IC50 value of 81.0 μM. Compound 8 exhibited inhibition of the secretion of IL-2 in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated Jurkat cells, and the IC50 value was 17.2 μM.

  7. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus. PMID:27142088

  8. Two new Lycopodium alkaloids from Phlegmariurus phlegmaria (L.) Holub.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhichong; Wu, Jichun; Zhao, Ningdong; Yang, Yiyu; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, 4β-hydroxynankakurine B (1) and Δ(13,N),N(α)-methylphlegmarine-N(β)-oxide (2), together with three known analogues, lycoposerramine E (3), nankakurine B (4) and lobscurinol (5), were isolated from Phlegmariurus phlegmaria. Their structures were established by mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  9. A cluster of Geotrichum clavatum (Saprochaete clavata) infection in haematological patients: a first Italian report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Sarmati, Loredana; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Fontana, Carla; De Santis, Giovanna; Buccisano, Francesco; Maurillo, Luca; De Bellis, Eleonora; Postorino, Massimiliano; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Amadori, Sergio; Pagano, Livio; Venditti, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections, usually Aspergillus and Candida, represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant haematological diseases, but in the last years rare fungal infections have more frequently been reported. Here, we report the clinical history of three patients affected with haematological malignancies who developed an infection caused by Geotrichum (G.) clavatum. Two out of three patients were affected by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and one by mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). All patients received cytarabine-based chemotherapeutic regimens and developed G. clavatum infection within 3 weeks from therapy initiation. In all cases, G. clavatum was isolated from central venous catheter and peripheral blood cultures. In vitro susceptibility test confirmed an intrinsic resistance to echinocandins and, in all cases, visceral localisations (spleen, liver and lung) were documented by total body computed tomography (CT) scan. A prolonged antifungal therapy with high doses liposomal amphotericin-B was necessary to obtain fever resolution. Only the patient with MCL died while the other two AML recovered, and one of them after received an allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We consecutively reviewed all published cases of infection caused by G. clavatum. Our experience and literature review indicate that G. clavatum can cause invasive infection in haematological patients, mainly in those with acute leukaemia. PMID:27061932

  10. Influence of the morphology of lycopodium dust on its minimum ignition energy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.O.; Oakley, G.; Brenton, J. )

    1991-06-01

    Lycopodium, which exhibits a particularly uniform particle size, has been relatively widely used as a reference when studying dust cloud ignition. Lycopodium was used to determine the influence of discharge circuit parameters on minimum ignition energy. It is therefore a natural choice as a calibration dust when developing a new facility for the determination of ignition energies. During the initial evaluation period in this latter study significant differences were observed in the minimum energies of different samples of lycopodium. These differences have now been traced to differing morphologies between the samples.

  11. Development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor cellular membrane affinity chromatography column and its application for on line screening of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, L; Okine, M; Rosenberg, A; Dossou, K S S; Toll, L; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

    2016-01-29

    The α3β4α5 nAChR has been recently shown to be a useful target for smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor column by frontal displacement chromatography. The binding affinity of the nicotine and minor alkaloids found in tobacco smoke condensates were determined for both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nicotinic receptors. It was demonstrated that while no subtype selectivity was observed for nicotine and nornicotine, anabasine was selective for the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor. The non-competitive inhibitor binding site was also studied and it was demonstrated while mecamylamine was not selective between subtypes, buproprion showed subtype selectivity for the α3β4 nicotinic receptor. The application of this methodology to complex mixtures was then carried out by screening aqueous-alcoholic solutions of targeted plant extracts, including Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae) and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fabaceae) against both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nAChRs. PMID:26774122

  12. Concise Total Syntheses of the Lycopodium Alkaloids (±)-Nankakurines A and B via Luciduline

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiayun; Waters, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Total syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids nankakurines A and B have been accomplished in 6 and 7 steps, respectively, via a sequence that passes through a third Lycopodium alkaloid, luciduline, and forgoes the use of protecting groups on nitrogen. Key features include a short preparation of luciduline followed by a concise and stereoselective aminoallylation/ring-closing metathesis protocol to fashion the spiropiperidine ring common to nankakurines A and B. PMID:20014779

  13. First asymmetric total syntheses of cernuane-type Lycopodium alkaloids, cernuine, and cermizine D.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yasuhiro; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2008-05-15

    The first total syntheses of two cernuane-type Lycopodium alkaloids, (-)-cernuine and (+)-cermizine D, were accomplished starting from (+)-citronellal. The syntheses involved organocatalytic alpha-amination to afford oxazolidinone, which is used for diastereoselective allylation, and asymmetric transfer aminoallylation followed by stereoselective construction of an aminal moiety as key steps.

  14. Phleghenrines A-D and Neophleghenrine A, Bioactive and Structurally Rigid Lycopodium Alkaloids from Phlegmariurus henryi.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liao-Bin; Wu, Xing-De; Shi, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2016-09-16

    Five new Lycopodium alkaloids, phleghenrines A-D (1-4) and neophleghenrine A (5), were isolated from Phlegmariurus henryi (Baker) Ching. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined using extensive spectroscopic data coupled with computational calculations and revealed 1-4 possess a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonane core, whereas 5 possesses an unprecedented 9-azaprotoadamantane core. Compounds 1 and 4 showed potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities, and 4 is a good lead natural product for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27583693

  15. Collective synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids and tautomer locking strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A.

    PubMed

    Li, Houhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Hong, Benke; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2013-02-01

    The collective total synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-fawcettimine (1), (+)-fawcettidine (2), (+)-alopecuridine (4), (-)-lycojapodine A (6), and (-)-8-deoxyserratinine (7) has been accomplished from a common precursor (15) based on a highly concise route inspired by the proposed biosynthesis of the fawcettimine- and serratinine-type alkaloids. An intramolecular C-alkylation enabled efficient installation of the challenging spiro quaternary carbon center and the aza-cyclononane ring. The preparation of the tricyclic skeleton as well as the establishment of the correct relative stereochemistry of the oxa-quaternary center were achieved by hydroxyl-directed SmI(2)-mediated pinacol couplings. An unprecedented tandem transannular N-alkylation and removal of a Boc group was discovered to realize a biosynthesis-inspired process to furnish the desired tetracyclic skeleton. Of particular note is the unique and crucial tautomer locking strategy employed to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A (6). The central step in this synthesis is the late-stage hypervalent iodine oxidant (IBX or Dess-Martin periodinane)/TFA-mediated tandem process, which constructed the previously unknown carbinolamine lactone motif and enabled a biomimetic transformation to generate (-)-lycojapodine A (6) in a single operation.

  16. Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo

    PubMed Central

    Renzaglia, Karen S.; Whittier, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and

  17. Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Serratezomine A Using Free Radical-Mediated Vinyl Amination to Prepare a β-Stannyl Enamine Linchpin

    PubMed Central

    Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu’s oxidative allylation in a total synthesis, and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular SNi reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

  18. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. PMID:26805621

  19. Self-assembly of Fmoc-diphenylalanine inside liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans-Georg; Cardoso, André Zamith

    2012-09-01

    Liquid marbles made from Lycopodium clavatum spores are used to encapsulate aqueous solutions of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). Acidification of the Fmoc-FF solution at the liquid/air interface of the liquid marble triggers the self-assembly of ribbon-like peptide fibrils into an ultrathin peptide membrane (50-500 nm). The membrane incorporates the lycopodium microparticles and as a result stabilizes the liquid marble against collapse, that could otherwise occur through particle disintegration at the floating interphase. Ultrathin nanostructured peptide membrane formation at the liquid/air interface is also observed within artificial microstructured floating objects. Thus, peptide membranes formed were inspected by SEM and TEM. Electron diffraction data reveal information about the molecular organization inside the oligopeptide membranes.

  20. Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    Hepeel is a homeopathic remedy commonly used to treat primary and secondary functional disorders of the liver. It consists of highly diluted extracts from the following plants: Chelidonium from Chelidonium majus, L., Carduus marianus from Silybum marianum, L., Veratrum from Veratrum album L., Colocynthis from Citrullus colocynthis L., Lycopodium from Lycopodium clavatum L., Nux moschata from Myristica fragans, Houtt, and China from Cinchona pubescens, Vahl. The antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells of serial dilutions of these plant tinctures were tested, either separately or in various combinations. Upon damage of the cells with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, Carduus marianus, China and Nux moschata, in decreasing order, showed the strongest antioxidative effects. Greater than 95% inhibition of total production of malondialdehyde was reached with these three tinctures at dilutions of D4. The complete combination of the tinctures (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy showed an effect corresponding to the combined effects of the individual tinctures. The antiproliferative influence on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA in normal HepG2 cells was significant (p < 0.01) but relatively weak, and decreased in the order Carduus marianus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum. At a dilution of D4 Colocynthis showed the strongest inhibition (13.5%). The effect of the combination of Colocynthis and Veratrum was markedly higher (22.3%) than that of the individual tinctures, but was not additive. With this combination, cell numbers were reduced. COMB had similar effects on proliferation and cell numbers, with the antiproliferative effect starting at a dilution of 1:40. The conjugation of 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene with glutathione was induced only by Carduus marianus and COMB, while all other tinctures were ineffective. Neither the individual tinctures, nor COMB showed cytotoxic effects in the dilutions tested. These

  1. Extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Dente, M.; Porcari, G.; Robinson, L. F.

    1985-08-06

    Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from oil shale and other solids containing organic matter by passing a liquid organic solvent downwardly through an extraction zone in contact with said solids at an elevated pressure sufficient to maintain said solvent in the liquid phase and at a temperature below about 900/sup 0/ F., preferably between about 650/sup 0/ F. and about 900/sup 0/ F., in order to extract hydrocarbons from the solids into the solvent. The extracted hydrocarbons are then recovered from the solvent by fractionation. Normally, heat is supplied to the extraction zone by passing a hot, nonoxidizing gas, preferably an oxygen-free gas generated within the process, downwardly through the extraction zone in cocurrent flow with the liquid organic solvent.

  2. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  3. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  4. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  5. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  6. Naturally occurring spore particles at planar fluid interfaces and in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Mackenzie, G; Simcock, C; Whitby, C P

    2005-08-30

    We have investigated the potential of utilizing naturally occurring spore particles of Lycopodium clavatum as sole emulsifiers of oil and water mixtures. The preferred emulsions, prepared from either oil-borne or aqueous-borne dispersions of the monodispersed particles of diameter 30 microm, are oil-in-water. The particles act as efficient stabilizers for oils of different polarity. Droplets as large as several millimeters are stable to coalescence indefinitely, despite the low coverage of interfaces by particles observed microscopically. Consistent with the emulsion findings, we discover that particles spontaneously adsorb to bare oil-water interfaces of single drops from oil dispersions, whereas adsorption is less spontaneous and extensive from aqueous dispersions. Monolayers of the spore particles at both air-water and oil-water planar interfaces contain particles in an aggregated state forming clusters and chains. The influence of particle concentration, oil/water ratio, and additives in the aqueous phase is studied.

  7. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Ecophysiology of four co-occurring lycophyte species: an investigation of functional convergence

    PubMed Central

    Zier, Jacqlynn; Belanger, Bryce; Trahan, Genevieve; Watkins, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Lycophytes are the most early divergent extant lineage of vascular land plants. The group has a broad global distribution ranging from tundra to tropical forests and can make up an important component of temperate northeast US forests. We know very little about the in situ ecophysiology of this group and apparently no study has evaluated if lycophytes conform to functional patterns expected by the leaf economics spectrum hypothesis. To determine factors influencing photosynthetic capacity (Amax), we analysed several physiological traits related to photosynthesis to include stomatal, nutrient, vascular traits, and patterns of biomass distribution in four coexisting temperate lycophyte species: Lycopodium clavatum, Spinulum annotinum, Diphasiastrum digitatum and Dendrolycopodium dendroideum. We found no difference in maximum photosynthetic rates across species, yet wide variation in other traits. We also found that Amax was not related to leaf nitrogen concentration and is more tied to stomatal conductance, suggestive of a fundamentally different sets of constraints on photosynthesis in these lycophyte taxa compared with ferns and seed plants. These findings complement the hydropassive model of stomatal control in lycophytes and may reflect canalization of function in this group. Our data also demonstrate functional ecological similarities: De. dendroideum and D. digitatum are species that have substantial belowground biomass investment and are consistently more similar to each other across multiple traits than either is to the more surficial S. annotinum and L. clavatum. Such differences may partition environments in ways that allow for the close coexistence of these species. PMID:26602987

  9. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  11. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  12. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  13. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  14. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  15. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  16. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  19. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  20. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  2. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  3. Advanced PDV velocity extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Daniel; Ao, Tommy; Furnish, Michael

    2015-06-01

    While PDV has become a standard diagnostic, reliable velocity extraction remains challenging. Measurements with multiple real/apparent velocities are intrinsically difficult to analyze, and overlapping frequency components invalidate standard extraction methods. This presentation describes an advanced analysis technique where overlapping frequency components are resolved in the complex Fourier spectrum. Practical matters--multiple region of interest selection, component intersection, and shock transitions--will also be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  6. Second premolar serial extraction.

    PubMed

    Joondeph, D R; Riedel, R A

    1976-02-01

    Serial extraction of mandibular second premolars should be considered if they are impacted or in cases with moderate arch length deficiency combined with an absence of dentofacial protrusion. The favorable dental changes associated with this approach greatly minimize future orthodontic treatment complexity and time.

  7. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  8. Extractable Work from Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  9. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  10. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  11. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  12. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  13. Slow extraction at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Resonant slow extraction at the SSC will permit fixed-target operation. Stochastic extraction appears to be a promising technique for achieving spill times of the order of 1000 s. However, systematic sextupole error fields in the SSC dipoles must be reduced a factor of twenty from the design values; otherwise the extraction process will be perturbed or suppressed. In addition, good regulation of the SSC power supplies is essential for smooth extraction over the spill period. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  16. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  17. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  18. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  19. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  20. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  1. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  2. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  3. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei.

  4. Feature extraction through LOCOCODE.

    PubMed

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1999-04-01

    Low-complexity coding and decoding (LOCOCODE) is a novel approach to sensory coding and unsupervised learning. Unlike previous methods, it explicitly takes into account the information-theoretic complexity of the code generator. It computes lococodes that convey information about the input data and can be computed and decoded by low-complexity mappings. We implement LOCOCODE by training autoassociators with flat minimum search, a recent, general method for discovering low-complexity neural nets. It turns out that this approach can unmix an unknown number of independent data sources by extracting a minimal number of low-complexity features necessary for representing the data. Experiments show that unlike codes obtained with standard autoencoders, lococodes are based on feature detectors, never unstructured, usually sparse, and sometimes factorial or local (depending on statistical properties of the data). Although LOCOCODE is not explicitly designed to enforce sparse or factorial codes, it extracts optimal codes for difficult versions of the "bars" benchmark problem, whereas independent component analysis (ICA) and principal component analysis (PCA) do not. It produces familiar, biologically plausible feature detectors when applied to real-world images and codes with fewer bits per pixel than ICA and PCA. Unlike ICA, it does not need to know the number of independent sources. As a preprocessor for a vowel recognition benchmark problem, it sets the stage for excellent classification performance. Our results reveal an interesting, previously ignored connection between two important fields: regularizer research and ICA-related research. They may represent a first step toward unification of regularization and unsupervised learning.

  5. Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

    2005-04-15

    Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance.

  6. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  7. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  8. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  9. Femoral approach to lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Mulpuru, Siva K; Hayes, David L; Osborn, Michael J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2015-03-01

    Laser and radiofrequency energy-assisted lead extraction has greatly facilitated this complex procedure. Although success rates are high, in some instances alternate methods of extraction are required. In this review, we discuss techniques for femoral extraction of implanted leads and retained fragments. The major tools available, including commonly used snares and delivery tools, are discussed. We briefly describe combined internal jugular and femoral venous extraction approaches, as well as complimentary utilization of more than one technique via the femoral vein. Animated and procedural sequences are included to help the reader visualize the key components of these techniques. PMID:25311643

  10. Developments in multiple headspace extraction.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Minna

    2007-03-10

    This paper reviews new developments in multiple headspace extraction (MHE), especially its combination with two miniaturized extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME). The combination of the techniques broadens the applicability of SPME and SDME to quantitative determination of analytes in complex liquid and solid matrixes. These new methods offer several advantages over traditional liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and headspace extraction techniques. The potential applications include extraction of volatiles and semivolatiles from environmental and physiological samples and from different polymer products such as medical and biomedical materials, food packaging and building materials. The theoretical principals of the techniques are also briefly reviewed. PMID:17081616

  11. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  12. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.

  13. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  14. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  15. Nonlocal intracranial cavity extraction.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Eskildsen, Simon F; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E; Collins, D Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  16. The Uses of Film Extracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1967-01-01

    The use of film extracts, either alone or with the whole feature, encourages students to concentrate on a limited number of learning objectives, whereas a full-length film frequently gives rise to confusion and vague generalizations on the part of students. Extracts can be used to illustrate screen language, the style of the director, the history…

  17. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  19. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  20. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  1. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  2. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  3. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.

  4. HYPOGLYCAMIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FO FICUS GLOMERATA

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, K.; Venkiteshwarlu, V.; Reddy, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum ether (60-80o), chloroform methanol extracts of leaves and root bark of ficus glomerata (Moraceae) were prepared by successive solvent extraction followed by vacuum evaporation and the marc left after successive solvent extraction was extracts with boiling water to get aqueous extracts, all the extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. All the extracts were screened for their hypoglycaemic activity in normal and fasted rabbits fed with glucose, chloroform and methanolic extracts of leaves and chloroform extract of root bark of R. glomerata exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity. PMID:22556762

  5. Dental extractions using improvised equipment.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2013-12-01

    Extracting a tooth is the final treatment for multiple dental problems. Persons who are not dentists, however, have little experience with tooth extractions. When a remote setting makes it impossible to send a patient for optimal dental treatment, the clinician may need to extract teeth, sometimes using improvised equipment. The following cases of two patients with three carious, painful molars describe such a situation. The non-dental clinicians had to improvise not only appropriate dental tools, but also personal protective equipment, a functional suction machine, medications for a dental block, a dental chair, and dental consent forms and follow-up instructions in the patients' language. In these cases, they also communicated with their patients through a translator. To prepare to do tooth extractions in remote settings, clinicians should learn and practice dental blocks and review extraction techniques before they deploy. If they must do an extraction, clinicians should use the closest approximation available to the appropriate dental tools. When done correctly, a dental extraction can take some time and should not be rushed. PMID:24076092

  6. Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea

    SciTech Connect

    Ukkonen, K.

    1982-02-01

    In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

  7. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  8. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  9. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  11. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements. PMID:26130934

  12. Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cure the infection without completely removing all hardware from the body. This requires removal of the ... Footnotes References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Article Tools Print Citation Tools Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction ...

  13. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'.

  14. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  15. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  16. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  17. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  18. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  19. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  20. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  1. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  2. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  3. Comprehensive comparison of classic Soxhlet extraction with Soxtec extraction, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil.

    PubMed

    Sporring, Sune; Bøwadt, Søren; Svensmark, Bo; Björklund, Erland

    2005-10-01

    This paper compares the extraction effectiveness of six different commonly applied extraction techniques for the determination of PCBs in soil. The techniques included are Soxhlet, Soxtec, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction. For none of the techniques were the extraction conditions optimized, but instead the extraction parameters were based on the experience from previous successful investigation published by a number of research groups worldwide. In general, all extraction techniques were capable of producing accurate data for one native PCB contaminated soil diluted with another soil sample to obtain two concentration levels. It could therefore be concluded that any of the investigated techniques can be used with success if the extraction conditions applied are chosen wisely.

  4. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  5. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that

  6. Extraction versus non-extraction: evaluation by digital subtraction radiography.

    PubMed

    Akyalçin, Sercan; Hazar, Serpil; Güneri, Pelin; Gögüs, Selin; Erdinç, Aslihan Mediha Ertan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the facial profile changes of patients treated with and without extractions of four first premolars using novel computer-based digital subtraction software. The pre- and post-treatment radiographic image pairs of 25 extraction (13 girls and 12 boys, mean age = 12.64 +/- 1.82 years) and 24 non-extraction (12 girls and 12 boys, mean age = 12.48 +/- 1.66 years) Class I patients were subtracted by the software. Student's t-tests were used to determine whether the subtraction values for the linear measurements of radiographic differences registered at various anatomical landmark parameters were statistically different between the groups. To further determine whether any variables related to upper and lower lip changes, regression analyses were performed. The main soft tissue differences between the groups were established at labrale superior, labrale inferior, and sulcus inferior points, with extraction patients showing significantly more retruded upper and lower lips. However, the mean differences between the groups did not exceed 1 mm for these variables. Changes at labrale superior and labrale inferior were associated with sagittal movement of the maxillary (r = 0.549) and mandibular (r = 0.630) incisor midpoints. Changes at sulcus inferior were associated with both sagittal and vertical displacement of mandibular incision point (r = 0.676). Some dentofacial alterations were found but in view of the differences between the groups pretreatment, the inter-group differences reflect different treatment intent rather than differences arising from the extraction and non-extraction modalities.

  7. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  8. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  9. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  10. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  11. Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai

    2014-05-01

    Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties.

  12. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  13. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  14. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  15. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  16. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  17. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  18. TOXICITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM EXTRACT

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Bhushan; Saraf, M.N.; David, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Toxicity by oral route administration of S. anacardium extract with peanut oil was compared against the same extract emulsified with Tween-80 saline. The traditional way of administration with peanut oil was found to be safe and upto 25 mg/kg/day x9 days, increase in weight, RBCs & haemoglobin % was observed without mortality. Same dose with Tween-80 saline was found to have adverse effects regarding all the pharameters with 16.5% mortality. This study support Ayurvedic method of administration for efficacy without toxicity. PMID:22557639

  19. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    PubMed

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  1. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  2. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  3. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  4. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  5. Ant Ecdysteroid Extraction and Radioimmunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids are a group of steroid compounds present in many plant and invertebrate species. In arthropods, they function primarily as hormones involved in the regulation of molting. This protocol describes how to extract ecdysteroid hormones from ant specimens and subsequently quantify circulating...

  6. Development of new natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described.

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  8. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, N.R.

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  10. Cell Cytoskeleton and Tether Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, B.; Viana, N.B.; Salgado, L.T.; Farina, M.; Neto, V. Moura; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation of the force × deformation curve in tether extraction from 3T3 cells by optical tweezers. Contrary to conventional wisdom about tethers extracted from cells, we find that actin filaments are present within them, so that a revised theory of tether pulling from cells is called for. We also measure steady and maximum tether force values significantly higher than previously published ones for 3T3 cells. Possible explanations for these differences are investigated. Further experimental support of the theory of force barriers for membrane tube extension is obtained. The potential of studies on tether pulling force × deformation for retrieving information on membrane-cytoskeleton interaction is emphasized. PMID:21723813

  11. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  12. Metals extraction from sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Larue, G.J.; Morgan, D.T.

    1981-10-06

    A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced.

  13. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    PubMed

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  14. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    PubMed

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  15. Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    At some landfills, hazardous wastes were placed into disposal pits with other waste oils. Volatile organic wastes, such as cleaning solvents, when combined with oil are much more difficult to remove from the soils because the oil makes the volatile organic chemical evaporate much slower. The typical vacuum extraction remediation method could become a lengthy campaign. Since all chemicals evaporate faster when they are heated, if the contaminated soil could be heated, the chemicals would be easier to remove from the soil. By using heating techniques developed by the Oil and Gas Industry to enhance the removal of oil and gas resources from the soil, the problem of removing contamination from the soils could be solved. The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration will combine vacuum vapor extraction technology with powerline frequency soil heating and radiofrequency soil heating to accelerate the soil decontamination process. The premise that soil heating technology can actually reduce the costs of soil decontamination is complicated by the high capital costs of the soil heating equipment and the cost of electrode installation. By performing this field demonstration, Sandia will be able to collect the information needed to see if this new technology will improve the decontamination of soils.

  16. Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.

    1992-12-31

    At some landfills, hazardous wastes were placed into disposal pits with other waste oils. Volatile organic wastes, such as cleaning solvents, when combined with oil are much more difficult to remove from the soils because the oil makes the volatile organic chemical evaporate much slower. The typical vacuum extraction remediation method could become a lengthy campaign. Since all chemicals evaporate faster when they are heated, if the contaminated soil could be heated, the chemicals would be easier to remove from the soil. By using heating techniques developed by the Oil and Gas Industry to enhance the removal of oil and gas resources from the soil, the problem of removing contamination from the soils could be solved. The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration will combine vacuum vapor extraction technology with powerline frequency soil heating and radiofrequency soil heating to accelerate the soil decontamination process. The premise that soil heating technology can actually reduce the costs of soil decontamination is complicated by the high capital costs of the soil heating equipment and the cost of electrode installation. By performing this field demonstration, Sandia will be able to collect the information needed to see if this new technology will improve the decontamination of soils.

  17. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP). PMID:24415470

  18. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  19. Contour extraction of Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Kambhamettu, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Contour extraction of Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos is an important step to build a computational system for matching expression pattern of embryonic images to assist the discovery of the nature of genes. Automatic contour extraction of embryos is challenging due to severe image variations, including 1) the size, orientation, shape, and appearance of an embryo of interest; 2) the neighboring context of an embryo of interest (such as nontouching and touching neighboring embryos); and 3) illumination circumstance. In this paper, we propose an automatic framework for contour extraction of the embryo of interest in an embryonic image. The proposed framework contains three components. Its first component applies a mixture model of quadratic curves, with statistical features, to initialize the contour of the embryo of interest. An efficient method based on imbalanced image points is proposed to compute model parameters. The second component applies active contour model to refine embryo contours. The third component applies eigen-shape modeling to smooth jaggy contours caused by blurred embryo boundaries. We test the proposed framework on a data set of 8,000 embryonic images, and achieve promising accuracy (88 percent), that is, substantially higher than the-state-of-the-art results.

  20. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  1. Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

    2015-03-01

    A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses.

  2. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

      Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the ... in a CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Vertical Feature Mask feature classification flag value. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) ...

  3. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  4. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  5. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  6. Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    gowri, S. Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S.; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

  7. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  8. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng. PMID:18969327

  10. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X F; Zhang, H X; Lo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

  11. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  12. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  13. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  14. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted.

  15. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  16. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  17. Extraction parameters significantly influence the quantity and the profile of PLFAs extracted from soils.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evagelia S; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2011-10-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a robust method for characterizing soil microbial communities. We determined the effects of extraction solvent (chloroform vs dichloromethane) and buffer (phosphate vs citrate) on the yield and the profile of PLFAs extracted from an acidic (pH 5.5) and an alkaline (pH 8.6) soil following two 2-h sequential extractions. The yield and the profile of the PLFAs obtained separately by the first and the second 2-h extraction were compared to identify the impact of sequential extractions on the PLFA extraction efficiency. Chloroform-citrate and a 2 × 2-h extraction maximized PLFA yields in both soils. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the choice of the extraction mixture did not significantly influence the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the first 2-h extraction, whereas it had a profound effect on the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the second 2-h extraction. Most PLFAs were extracted during the first extraction except 18:2ω6,9 and 22:0 which were almost equally extracted by the two sequential extractions. The choice of organic solvent significantly influenced the profile of the PLFAs extracted; their yield increased with chloroform with the exception of 18:2ω6,9 and 22:0 which were favored by dichloromethane. Overall, a 2 × 2-h extraction with chloroform/methanol/citrate is expected to provide maximum PLFA yields. PMID:21556882

  18. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  19. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  20. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  1. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  2. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  3. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  8. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  13. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  15. Guidance in feature extraction to resolve uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Michael; Streltsov, Simon; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Automated Feature Extraction (AFE) plays a critical role in image understanding. Often the imagery analysts extract features better than AFE algorithms do, because analysts use additional information. The extraction and processing of this information can be more complex than the original AFE task, and that leads to the "complexity trap". This can happen when the shadow from the buildings guides the extraction of buildings and roads. This work proposes an AFE algorithm to extract roads and trails by using the GMTI/GPS tracking information and older inaccurate maps of roads and trails as AFE guides.

  16. RESONANT EXTRACTION PARAMETERS FOR THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.; CULLEN,J.; GLENN,J.W.; MAPES,M.; MARNERIS,I.; TSOUPAS,N.; SNYDSTRUP,L.; VAN ASSELT,W.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven's AGS Booster is the injector for the AGS. It is being modified to send resonant extracted heavy ions to a new beam line, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The design of the resonant extraction system for BAF was described in [1]. This note will give a more detailed description of the system and describe the predicted resonant beam time structure. We will describe tune space manipulations necessary to extract the resonant beam at the maximum Booster rigidity, schemes for performing resonant extraction, and describe the modifications required to perform bunched beam extraction to the BAF facility.

  17. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  18. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  19. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  20. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, P.

    1989-10-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics.

  1. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  2. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  3. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  4. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  5. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-10-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  7. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation.

    PubMed

    Günther, Martina; Maus, Martin; Wagner, Karl Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter Christian

    2005-06-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter delta and the partial solubility parameters delta(d) for the van der Waals and delta(EL) for the polar forces. Thus, delta(EL) enabled the estimation of the polarity of the extraction fluids and the solute molecules. If the value of delta(EL) of the extraction fluid reached the value of the solute molecule in the crude drug, i.e. minimum extraction value, the compound was soluble at the distinct extraction conditions. For a further increase in yield of the hydrophilic solutes, the polarity of the extraction fluid had to be increased, too. That means delta(EL) of the fluid exceeded the minimum extraction value. All simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin). CO2 extractions of the flowers of Matricaria recutita ((-)-alpha-bisabolol) were obtained from literature data. These four constituents with different properties, like molecular size and the allocation of polar functional groups were extracted, analysed, simulated and the extract content was correlated with the extraction fluid used, respectively. PMID:15911229

  8. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  11. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  12. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  13. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  14. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  15. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science. PMID:27368796

  16. DNA extraction, preservation, and amplification.

    PubMed

    Knebelsberger, Thomas; Stöger, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a routine practice in biodiversity research is strongly dependent on the quality of the source material, DNA extraction method, and selection of adequate primers in combination with optimized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. For the isolation of nucleic acids, silica-gel membrane methods are to be favored because they are easy to handle, applicable for high sample throughput, relatively inexpensive, and provide high DNA quality, quantity, and purity which are pre-requisites for successful PCR amplification and long-term storage of nucleic acids in biorepositories, such as DNA banks. In this section, standard protocols and workflow schemes for sample preparation, DNA isolation, DNA storage, PCR amplification, PCR product quality control, and PCR product cleanup are proposed and described in detail. A PCR troubleshooting and primer design section may help to solve problems that hinder successful amplification of the desired barcoding gene region.

  17. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  18. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  19. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects. PMID:23594449

  20. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  1. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  2. Extraction of TNT from aggregate soil fractions.

    PubMed

    Williford, C W; Mark Bricka, R

    1999-04-23

    Past explosives manufacture, disposal, and training activities have contaminated soil at many military facilities, posing health and environmental risks through contact, potential detonation, and leaching into ground water. While methods have been confirmed for extraction and measuring explosives concentration in soil, no work has addressed aggregate size material (the >2 mm gravel and cobbles) that often occurs with the smaller soil fractions. This paper describes methods and results for extraction and measurement of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in aggregate material from 1/2 to 2-1/1 from a WWII era ammunition plant. TNT was extracted into acetonitrile by both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction methods. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses of extracts showed expected variation among samples. Also effective extraction and determination of TNT concentration for each aggregate size fraction was achieved.

  3. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  4. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  5. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  6. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    PubMed

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  7. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  8. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  9. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  10. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  12. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types.

  13. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  14. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    PubMed

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  15. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  16. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  17. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.30(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with annatto extract may...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.30(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with annatto extract may...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.30(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with annatto extract may...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.30(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with annatto extract may...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.30(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with annatto extract may...

  3. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    PubMed Central

    Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/mL for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that leaf aqueous extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor, while ethanolic extract shows a competitive inhibition effect on mushroom tyrosinase using L-DOPA as substrate. In addition, the inhibitory effect of leaf extracts on tyrosinase activity and melanin production was examined in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as levels of melanin synthesis are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by extracts in cells treated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The effects are comparable, and sometimes even better, than that of kojic acid, a well known tyrosinase inhibitor used for reference. All these results suggest that E. characias could be a great source of the natural inhibitors from tyrosinase and has the potential to be used as a whitening agent in therapeutic fields. PMID:26500815

  4. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.

    PubMed

    Olajide, O A; Ajayi, F F; Ekhelar, A I; Awe, S O; Makinde, J M; Alada, A R

    1999-06-01

    The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.

  5. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  6. Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

    1969-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

  7. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

    1996-12-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  8. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  9. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  10. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  11. Extracting Data From Integrated Student Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    An integrated student information system (ISIS) at Trinity University (Texas) is described with attention to how data are entered and how data are extracted for purposes of institutional research. The structure of the original ISIS files, the extract files, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) files is examined. An outline is…

  12. [Guided tooth eruption via serial extraction].

    PubMed

    Luyten, C

    1995-01-01

    Crowding of teeth is the result of arch length discrepancy (ALD). Minimal crowding can be solved with slice-technique, more severe crowding (ALD > or = 5 mm) can be intercepted with a serial extraction procedure. In this paper a sequence of serial extraction will be explained and illustrated with case reports.

  13. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  14. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J.S. )

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  15. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  16. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  17. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  18. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

  19. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  20. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  1. Total lipid extraction of homogenized and intact lean fish muscles using pressurized fluid extraction and batch extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Eriksson, Ulla; Odham, Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2005-07-13

    The reliability and efficiency of pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) technique for the extraction of total lipid content from cod and the effect of sample treatment on the extraction efficiency have been evaluated. The results were compared with two liquid-liquid extraction methods, traditional and modified methods according to Jensen. Optimum conditions were found to be with 2-propanol/n-hexane (65:35, v/v) as a first and n-hexane/diethyl ether (90:10, v/v) as a second solvent, 115 degrees C, and 10 min of static time. PFE extracts were cleaned up using the same procedure as in the methods according to Jensen. When total lipid yields obtained from homogenized cod muscle using PFE were compared yields obtained with original and modified Jensen methods, PFE gave significantly higher yields, approximately 10% higher (t test, P < 0.05). Infrared and NMR spectroscopy suggested that the additional material that inflates the gravimetric results is rather homogeneous and is primarily consists of phospholipid with headgroups of inositidic and/or glycosidic nature. The comparative study demonstrated that PFE is an alternative suitable technique to extract total lipid content from homogenized cod (lean fish) and herring (fat fish) muscle showing a precision comparable to that obtained with the traditional and modified Jensen methods. Despite the necessary cleanup step, PFE showed important advantages in the solvent consumption was cut by approximately 50% and automated extraction was possible.

  2. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. PMID:26593602

  3. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.

  4. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (<0.2 µm) P that, at least partly, took place at the expense of the large-sized (>0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP

  5. Comparison of conventional extraction under reflux conditions and microwave-assisted extraction of oil from popcorn.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Po; Dai, Jianming; Nemes, Simona; Raghavan, G S Vijaya

    2007-01-01

    Popcorn offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the commercial synthetic loose-fill packing materials. Popcorn could be used for cushioning purposes if the oil is extracted after the popping process. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used for oil extraction from whole and ground, popped and unpopped kernels. The conventional extraction method achieved 68.5% oil recovery from whole popped kernels. However, whole unpopped kernels were not efficiently de-oiled with either of the methods. Extraction of oil from popped kernels is recommended; corn varieties with higher starch content and lower oil content should be used. PMID:18161415

  6. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  7. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  8. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  9. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman S

    2007-09-01

    This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and

  10. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts.

    PubMed

    Merly, Liza; Simjee, Shabana; Smith, Sylvia L

    2007-03-01

    Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFalpha than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFalpha induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNgamma at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFalpha. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation. PMID:17276897

  12. Antimicrobial effect of Pistacia atlantica leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Ali Roozegar, Mohamad; Azizi Jalilian, Farid; Reza Havasian, Mohamad; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of the mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica) under in vitro conditions has been reported. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of the plant leaf extract (aqueous) on bacterial load in mouth and saliva. The leaf of the Pistacia atlantica plant was collected and cleaned, dried at 40⁰c and then powdered. The extraction was carried out using the maceration method in vacuum with the rotary evaporator device. Bacterial inhibition (Streptococcus species) by the leaf extract was studied using the disc diffusion and embedding sink diffusion methods. The values of MIC and MBC were determined. The collected data was further analyzed using t-test and repeated measure statistical tests. The disc diffusion technique showed a significant inhibitory effect for Pistacia atlantica leaf extract on S. mutans (ATCC 35668) and S. mitis (ATCC 49456) with inhibition zones of 19 and 25 millimeters, respectively. This is for the highest leaf extract concentration used in this study (p<0.01). The values of MIC and MBC for S.mutans was 60, 90 μg/ml and for S. mitis was 75, 110 μg/ml (p<0.01 significance). The leaf extract has no significant effect on S. salivarius (ATCC 13419). Thus, the antimicrobial properties of the aqueous leaf extract from Pistacia atlantica is demonstrated in this study. PMID:27212840

  13. Antimicrobial effect of Pistacia atlantica leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ali Roozegar, Mohamad; Azizi Jalilian, Farid; Reza Havasian, Mohamad; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of the mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica) under in vitro conditions has been reported. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of the plant leaf extract (aqueous) on bacterial load in mouth and saliva. The leaf of the Pistacia atlantica plant was collected and cleaned, dried at 40⁰c and then powdered. The extraction was carried out using the maceration method in vacuum with the rotary evaporator device. Bacterial inhibition (Streptococcus species) by the leaf extract was studied using the disc diffusion and embedding sink diffusion methods. The values of MIC and MBC were determined. The collected data was further analyzed using t-test and repeated measure statistical tests. The disc diffusion technique showed a significant inhibitory effect for Pistacia atlantica leaf extract on S. mutans (ATCC 35668) and S. mitis (ATCC 49456) with inhibition zones of 19 and 25 millimeters, respectively. This is for the highest leaf extract concentration used in this study (p<0.01). The values of MIC and MBC for S.mutans was 60, 90 μg/ml and for S. mitis was 75, 110 μg/ml (p<0.01 significance). The leaf extract has no significant effect on S. salivarius (ATCC 13419). Thus, the antimicrobial properties of the aqueous leaf extract from Pistacia atlantica is demonstrated in this study. PMID:27212840

  14. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. [Comparison of two extraction methods for maxingshigan decoction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Sun, X; Wang, L; Liu, H; Lu, Q

    1997-07-01

    The semi-bionic extraction and the extraction with water, two methods for the Maxingshigan Decoction, were compared. The results show that the semi-bionic extraction is superior to the extraction with water in the yield of ephedrine, hydrocyanic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, calcium ion and extract. PMID:11038900

  16. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM BY EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for the recovery and separation of uranium and thorium values contained in an aqueous nitric acid solution which is more than 3 M in nitric acid. The uranium and thorium containing solution preferable about 7 M in nitric acid is contacted with tributyl phosphatekerosene mixture. Both U and Th are extracted by the immiscible organic. After phase separation the Th is selectively back extracted by contacting with an aqueous nitric acid solution preferably between 0.1 to 1.5 M in nitric acid. The uranium which is still in the organic extractant phase may be recovered by contacting with water.

  17. Copper leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jergensen, G.V. II

    1999-07-01

    This volume recognizes the growing role of solvent extraction and electrowinning technology in the global copper business. This process is an efficient and cost effective way to extract copper. This proceedings documents the present status of the SX-EW business. It represents a substantial body of historical, scientific, engineering, and commercial information regarding the growth and application of the technology. Sections include: the business and technology of SX-EW, theory and practice of copper leaching, theory and practice of tankhouse operations, and theory and practice of solvent extraction.

  18. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity. PMID:25778665

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Gentiana lutea L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Savikin, Katarina; Menković, Nebojsa; Zdunić, Gordana; Stević, Tatjana; Radanović, Dragoja; Janković, Teodora

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of flowers and leaves of Gentiana lutea L., together with the isolated compounds mangiferin, isogentisin and gentiopicrin, were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant. A variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the yeast Candida albicans has been included in this study. Both extracts and isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.12-0.31 mg/ml. Our study indicated that the synergistic activity of the pure compounds may be responsible for the good antimicrobial effect of the extracts. Quantification of the secondary metabolites was performed using HPLC.

  20. 3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

  1. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  2. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  3. Atraumatic extraction, implant placement and immediate provisionalization.

    PubMed

    Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Calixto, Amanda Martins; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Gomes, Mario Gilson Nina; Malheiros, Adriana Santos

    2014-01-01

    Front tooth extraction typically results in significant loss of hard and soft tissue volume, both in the vestibular-lingual and mesiodistal directions. As these changes can compromise the esthetic results of prosthetic rehabilitation, extraction techniques that cause minimal trauma to the remnant tissues are applied in combination with immediate implant placement to minimize such alterations. The case reported in the present article illustrates a therapeutic plan consisting of atraumatic extraction followed by immediate implant placement and provisionalization. When carefully indicated and planned, our results indicate that this technique may provide promising immediate results relative to the maintenance and stability of the peri-implanted tissues. PMID:25576122

  4. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  5. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  6. Optimization of extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Sumaira; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Asif

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves using response surface methodology (RSM). A user-defined design was applied to determine the effects of extraction time (min), extraction temperature ((o)C) and ethanol concentration (%), on total phenolic content (TPC) from Moringa oleifera leaves dried by three methods (oven, sunlight and ambient air). The RSM was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of TPC of Moringa oleifera leaves. The optimum conditions that maximize the extraction of TPC were extraction time, 60 min; extraction temperature, 90(o)C and % of methanol, 50 % (v/v). TPC extracted under these conditions were 12.28, 12.65 and 13.14 mg GAE/g DW for samples dried by different methods. Significant difference between drying methods was found (p<0.001). Pair wise significant difference was found only between oven and ambient air drying methods (p<0.001).

  7. Novel extraction approach for liquid samples: stir cake sorptive extraction using monolith.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Chen, Linli; Lin, Fuhua; Yuan, Dongxing

    2011-08-01

    In this study, a new extraction approach for liquid samples--stir cake sorptive extraction using monoliths as extractive medium was developed. The preparation procedure of stir cake is very simple. First, monolithic cake is synthesized according to the in situ polymerization of monolith; then, the cake is inserted in an original unit (holder), which is constructed from a syringe cartridge and allows the magnetic stirring of the cake during the extraction process. The effects of dimension of monolithic cake and unit design on the extraction performance were optimized in detail. To demonstrate the usability of this new extraction approach, poly(vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) was prepared and acted as the extractive cake. The analysis of steroid hormones in milk samples by the combination of stir cake with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, was selected as a paradigm for the practical evaluation of stir cake sorptive extraction. Under the optimized extraction conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) and quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range between 0.33-0.69 and 1.08-2.28 μg/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, repeatability, high feasibility and acceptable recoveries. Because the monolithic cake does not contact with the vessel wall during stirring, there is no friction loss of extractive medium and the stir cake can be used for more than 1000 h.

  8. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between

  9. Automatically generating extraction patterns from untagged text

    SciTech Connect

    Riloff, E.

    1996-12-31

    Many corpus-based natural language processing systems rely on text corpora that have been manually annotated with syntactic or semantic tags. In particular, all previous dictionary construction systems for information extraction have used an annotated training corpus or some form of annotated input. We have developed a system called AutoSlog-TS that creates dictionaries of extraction patterns using only untagged text. AutoSlog-TS is based on the AutoSlog system, which generated extraction patterns using annotated text and a set of heuristic rules. By adapting AutoSlog and combining it with statistical techniques, we eliminated its dependency on tagged text. In experiments with the MUC-4 terrorism domain, AutoSlog-TS created a dictionary of extraction patterns that performed comparably to a dictionary created by AutoSlog, using only preclassified texts as input.

  10. Partial oxidation process with extractant purification

    SciTech Connect

    Stellaccio, R.J.

    1983-09-06

    A partial oxidation process is disclosed with an extractant purifier for removing the particulate carbon entrained in a vaporized stream of normally liquid organic extractant-carbon-water dispersion from a decanter and producing a clean vaporized mixture of liquid organic extractant and water and a separate liquid stream of liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel-carbon dispersion. The extractant purifier comprises a closed, vertical, cylindrical, thermally insulated vessel with an unobstructed central passage. Supported in the upper section of the vessel is a gas-solids separator for separating the particulate carbon from the vaporized dispersion flowing up the vessel and discharging the particulate carbon into atomized liquid hydrocarbon fuel located within the lower section of the purifier.

  11. Recent Developments in Australian Gold Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Rodney B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes new technologies that have greatly improved the extraction efficiency of gold ore, including: altering plant layout to promote efficiency, engaging Filiblast forced oxidation and bioxidation systems, and updating the electrowinning procedure at the gold recovery stage. (JRH)

  12. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  13. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  15. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  16. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  17. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  18. Comparison of Bacterial Extracellular Polymer Extraction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Melanie J.; Lester, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Five different bacterial extracellular polymer extraction methods and a combination of two of these methods were compared on cultures of activated sludge, synthetic activated sludge, and Klebsiella aerogenes. High-speed centrifugation was the most effective extraction method for the K. aerogenes culture, based on the comparatively small amount of cell disruption and the relatively high extracellular polymer yield. Steaming treatment was the most effective extraction method for the activated sludges, since it released a significant quantity of extracellular polymers from the flocs and caused less cellular disruption than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hydroxide treatments. Sodium hydroxide treatment caused extensive disruption in all cultures. Ultrasonication released low concentrations of extracellular polymers from all cultures. However, it caused no significant cell disruption and therefore may be useful as a preliminary treatment in conjunction with another extraction method. PMID:16345600

  19. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    MI,J.L.; SANDBERG,J.; SANDERS,R.; SOUKAS,A.; ZHANG,W.

    2000-06-27

    The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted.

  20. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  1. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrate of water extract of germinated barley grain, with or without added safe preservative. Malt syrup..., grinding, extracting, filtering, and evaporating, to produce malt syrup (malt extract) with 75 to...

  3. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants.

  4. ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Mahesh A.

    The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy. The performance of this system is evaluated in a pilot study using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

  5. Key frames extraction in athletic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.

  6. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines.

  7. Device for Extracting Flavors and Fragrances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    Machine for making coffee and tea in weightless environment may prove even more valuable on Earth as general extraction apparatus. Zero-gravity beverage maker uses piston instead of gravity to move hot water and beverage from one chamber to other and dispense beverage. Machine functions like conventional coffeemaker during part of operating cycle and includes additional features that enable operation not only in zero gravity but also extraction under pressure in presence or absence of gravity.

  8. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

  9. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  10. Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas

    2010-08-27

    Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

  11. COMPARISON OF SELECTED WELD DEFECT EXTRACTION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, R.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Chady, T.; Rucinski, W.; Swiadek, K.; Caryk, M.; Lopato, P.

    2008-02-28

    This paper presents three different methods of welding defects detection from radiographs. First two methods are dedicated for extraction of flaws directly from radiograms. Fuzzy logic system considers whether the pixel belongs to crack (or background) using defects probability maps together with simple fuzzy rules. Neural network method uses knowledge gathered from radiographs with known defects. Indirect method extracts defects by subtracting background from the radiograph and next using various local thresholding methods.

  12. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  13. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  14. Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Viet

    Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

  15. Accelerated Sonochemical Extraction of Cellulose Nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Amélia S F; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Oliveira, Juliano E; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Medeiros, Eliton S

    2016-06-01

    Studies on sonochemical hydrolysis of cellulose have been suggested as an alternative route to obtaining cellulose nanoparticles. In this work, the potential use of acid hydrolysis assisted by sonication to obtain cellulose whiskers was studied. Parameters such as acid concentration, hydrolysis time and temperature were investigated to evaluate their effect on the morphological properties of the nanowhiskers, as compared to the conventional extraction process by acid hydrolysis with mechanical stirring. Morphology and degree of crystallinity of the nanowhiskers were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results indicated that the extraction time was reduced from about 45 min to less than 3 min using the same acid concentration and temperature used in conventional acid hydrolysis treatment. Likewise, it was possible, within the range of 30 min, to extract whiskers at room temperature or using half the concentration of acid by raising the temperature to about 80 degrees C. These are promising results towards a more economically viable and ecologically friendly extraction procedure used to obtain cellulose nanowhiskers, since both extraction time and acid concentration, used in nanowhisker extraction, were significantly reduced by replacing mechanical with sonochemical stirring.

  16. Ultrasonication assisted lipid extraction from oleaginous microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Drogui, Patrick; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2014-04-01

    Various solvents, including water, hexane, methanol, and chloroform/methanol (1:1 v/v), were tested to identify the efficiency of lipid extraction from Trichosporon oleaginosus and an oleaginous fungal strain SKF-5 under ultrasonication (520 kHz 40 W and 50 Hz 2800 W) and compared with the conventional chloroform methanol (2:1 v/v) extraction method. The highest lipid recovery 10.2% and 9.3% with water, 43.2% and 33.2% with hexane, 75.7% and 65.1% with methanol, 100% and 100% w/w biomass with chloroform/methanol were obtained from T. oleaginosus and SKF-5 strain, respectively, at ultrasonication frequency 50 Hz and power input 2800 W. Ultrasonication chloroform/methanol extraction recovered total lipid in a short time (15 min) and low temperature (25°C). Whereas the conventional chloroform methanol extraction to achieve total lipid recovery required 12h at 60°C. Ultrasonication chloroform/methanol extraction would be a promising method of lipid extraction from the microorganisms.

  17. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  18. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    PubMed

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds. PMID:24647154

  19. Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals.

  20. Error margin analysis for feature gene extraction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Feature gene extraction is a fundamental issue in microarray-based biomarker discovery. It is normally treated as an optimization problem of finding the best predictive feature genes that can effectively and stably discriminate distinct types of disease conditions, e.g. tumors and normals. Since gene microarray data normally involves thousands of genes at, tens or hundreds of samples, the gene extraction process may fall into local optimums if the gene set is optimized according to the maximization of classification accuracy of the classifier built from it. Results In this paper, we propose a novel gene extraction method of error margin analysis to optimize the feature genes. The proposed algorithm has been tested upon one synthetic dataset and two real microarray datasets. Meanwhile, it has been compared with five existing gene extraction algorithms on each dataset. On the synthetic dataset, the results show that the feature set extracted by our algorithm is the closest to the actual gene set. For the two real datasets, our algorithm is superior in terms of balancing the size and the validation accuracy of the resultant gene set when comparing to other algorithms. Conclusion Because of its distinct features, error margin analysis method can stably extract the relevant feature genes from microarray data for high-performance classification. PMID:20459827

  1. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  2. Information extraction during simultaneous motion processing.

    PubMed

    Rideaux, Reuben; Edwards, Mark

    2014-02-01

    When confronted with multiple moving objects the visual system can process them in two stages: an initial stage in which a limited number of signals are processed in parallel (i.e. simultaneously) followed by a sequential stage. We previously demonstrated that during the simultaneous stage, observers could discriminate between presentations containing up to 5 vs. 6 spatially localized motion signals (Edwards & Rideaux, 2013). Here we investigate what information is actually extracted during the simultaneous stage and whether the simultaneous limit varies with the detail of information extracted. This was achieved by measuring the ability of observers to extract varied information from low detail, i.e. the number of signals presented, to high detail, i.e. the actual directions present and the direction of a specific element, during the simultaneous stage. The results indicate that the resolution of simultaneous processing varies as a function of the information which is extracted, i.e. as the information extraction becomes more detailed, from the number of moving elements to the direction of a specific element, the capacity to process multiple signals is reduced. Thus, when assigning a capacity to simultaneous motion processing, this must be qualified by designating the degree of information extraction. PMID:24333279

  3. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are interchangeable terms for a viscous concentrate of water extract of germinated barley grain, with... grain then undergoes processing, such as drying, grinding, extracting, filtering, and evaporating,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are interchangeable terms for a viscous concentrate of water extract of germinated barley grain, with... grain then undergoes processing, such as drying, grinding, extracting, filtering, and evaporating,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are interchangeable terms for a viscous concentrate of water extract of germinated barley grain, with... grain then undergoes processing, such as drying, grinding, extracting, filtering, and evaporating,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are interchangeable terms for a viscous concentrate of water extract of germinated barley grain, with... grain then undergoes processing, such as drying, grinding, extracting, filtering, and evaporating,...

  7. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.

  8. Effects of different extraction methods and conditions on the phenolic composition of mate tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Grujic, Nevena; Lepojevic, Zika; Srdjenovic, Branislava; Vladic, Jelena; Sudji, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v) and liquid CO₂ extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar) and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C). Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO₂ with aqueous ethanol (40%) as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction for the enrichment of edible oils with phenols from olive leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Japón-Luján, R; Luque de Castro, M D

    2008-04-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method to enrich edible oils--olive, sunflower, and soy oils--with phenols from olive leaf extracts is proposed. After microwave assistance to remove the phenols from three varieties of olive leaves, concentrations in the extracts between 12921 and 5173 mg/L of oleuropein, between 488 and 192 mg/L of apigenin-7-glucoside, between 444 and 219 mg/L of luteolin-7-glucoside, and between 501 and 213 mg/L of verbascoside were obtained, which clearly depended on the target variety. After optimization of the liquid-liquid extraction step, the concentrations in oils were 442, 162, and 164 mg/L of oleuropein, respectively, which were also enriched in apigenin-7-glucoside (between 8 and 15 mg/L, depending of the oil), lutelin-7-glucoside (between 11 and 12 mg/L), and verbascoside (between 11 and 13 mg/L). The oil-extract distribution factor of these compounds was also calculated for all olive leaf varieties and edible oils using different extracts concentrations and also different oil-extract volume ratios. Thus, a door is open to enrichment of any oil with olive phenols at preset concentrations using extracts preconcentrated as required and taking into account the distribution factor of the target compounds between the oil and the extracts. PMID:18324773

  10. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  11. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  12. [Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin.

  13. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  14. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. PMID:25929197

  15. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  16. Maximizing net extraction using an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Luo, Jian

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we examine the maximum net extraction rate from the novel arrangement of an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer, where fresh groundwater is reinjected through the injection well located between the interface toe and extraction well. Complex potential theory is employed to derive a new analytical solution for the maximum net extraction rate and corresponding stagnation-point locations and recirculation ratio, assuming steady-state, sharp-interface conditions. The injection-extraction well-pair system outperforms a traditional single extraction well in terms of net extraction rate for a broad range of well placement and pumping rates, which is up to 50% higher for an aquifer with a thickness of 20 m, hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, and fresh water influx of 0.24 m(2) /d. Sensitivity analyses show that for a given fresh water discharge from an inland aquifer, a larger maximum net extraction is expected in cases with a smaller hydraulic conductivity or a smaller aquifer thickness, notwithstanding physical limits to drawdown at the pumping well that are not considered here. For an extraction well with a fixed location, the optimal net extraction rate linearly increases with the distance between the injection well and the sea, and the corresponding injection rate and recirculation ratio also increase. The analytical analysis in this study provides initial guidance for the design of well-pair systems in coastal aquifers, and is therefore an extension beyond previous applications of analytical solutions of coastal pumping that apply only to extraction or injection wells. PMID:22880816

  17. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  18. Comparison and optimization of ancient DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Rohland, Nadin; Hofreiter, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Ancient DNA analyses rely on the extraction of the tiny amounts of DNA remaining in samples that are hundreds to tens of thousands of years old. Despite the critical role extraction efficiency plays in this field of research, no study has comprehensively compared ancient DNA extraction techniques to date. There are a wide range of methods currently in use, which rely on such disparate principles as spin columns, alcohol precipitation, or binding to silica. We have compared a number of these methods using quantitative PCR and then optimized each step of the most promising method. We found that most chemicals routinely added to ancient DNA extraction buffers do not increase, and sometimes even decrease, DNA yields. Consequently, our optimized method uses a buffer consisting solely of EDTA and proteinase K for bone digestion and binding DNA to silica via guanidinium thiocyanate for DNA purification. In a comparison with published methods, this minimalist approach, on average, outperforms all other methods in terms of DNA yields as measured using quantitative PCR. We also found that the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the PCR helps to overcome inhibitors in ancient DNA extracts. Finally, we observed a marked difference in the performance between different types of DNA polymerases, as measured by amplification success.

  19. Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan

    2012-08-10

    For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. PMID:22560346

  20. Acid gas extraction of pyridine from water

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, A.; Kaunisto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyridine was extracted from aqueous solutions initially containing 5 or 15 wt % pyridine by using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide at 10 MPa as a solvent in a mechanically agitated countercurrent extraction column. The lowest pyridine concentration in the raffinate was 0.06 wt %, whereas the pyridine concentration in the extract was 86--94 wt %. From the initial amount of pyridine, 96--99% was transferred from the feed stream to the extract by using relatively small solvent-to-feed ratios of 2.8--4.6 (kg of solvent/kg of feed). The measured distribution coefficients for the water/pyridine/carbon dioxide system ranged from 0.3 to 1 (weight units), depending on the initial pyridine concentration in water. Carbon dioxide is a particularly suitable solvent for the extraction of pyridine from concentrated aqueous solutions. The efficiency may be the result of an acid-base interaction between weakly basic pyridine solute and weakly acidic carbon dioxide solvent in an aqueous environment.

  1. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources.

  2. Feature Extraction Based on Decision Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. We note that feature extraction is equivalent to retaining informative features or eliminating redundant features; thus, the terms 'discriminantly information feature' and 'discriminantly redundant feature' are first defined relative to feature extraction for classification. Next, it is shown how discriminantly redundant features and discriminantly informative features are related to decision boundaries. A novel characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that usually only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is therefore introduced. Next, a procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary is proposed. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: (1) It predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and (2) it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal class means or equal class covariances as some previous algorithms do. Experiments show that the performance of the proposed algorithm compares favorably with those of previous algorithms.

  3. Natural resource extraction and exploration under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Devarajan, S.

    1981-01-01

    There are at least two reasons why the market for natural resources may differ from that of a standard commodity in a perfectly competitive economy. First, natural resources are nonrenewable: extracting a barrel of oil today leaves one less barrel for future generations. Second, the global endowment of resources - the size, quality and location of resource deposits - is for most part unknown. In this dissertation, a model is presented that captures these two aspects of natural resources, but does so in a manner somewhat different from the standard literature. The resource is viewed as inexhaustible, but occurring in a continuum of grades. Having spelled out this two-period, stochastic dynamic optimization model, it is used to answer three questions: (1) if extraction today places a burden on future users, what is the social cost of extracting a nonrenewable resource and how may it be estimated; (2) how does risky exploration affect the optimal strategies of resource firms; since extraction depletes reserves while exploration augments them, the uncertainty can affect both the extractive and exploratory decisions; and (3) the normative question, does exploratory risk cause the competitive equilibrium to diverge from the social optimum.

  4. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  5. Efficient extraction of vaccines formulated in aluminum hydroxide gel by including surfactants in the extraction buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daming; Huang, Shuhui; McClellan, Holly; Dai, Weili; Syed, Najam R; Gebregeorgis, Elizabeth; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Long, Carole; Martin, Laura B.; Narum, David; Duffy, Patrick; Miller, Louis H.; Saul, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Efficient antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on aluminum hydroxide gels is a critical step for the evaluation of the quality of vaccines following formulation. It has been shown in our laboratory that the efficiency of antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on Alhydrogel decreased significantly with increased storage time. To increase antigen extraction efficiency, the present study determined the effect of surfactants on antigen recovery from vaccine formulations. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated on Alhydrogel and stored at 2-8 °C for three years was used as a model in this study. The AMA1 on Alhydrogel was extracted in the presence or absence of 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 20 mM cetylpyridinium chloride in the extraction buffer (0.60 M citrate, 0.55 M phosphate, pH 8.5) using our standard antigen extraction protocols. Extracted AMA1 antigen was analyzed by 4-20% Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining or western blotting. The results showed that inclusion of SDS or cetylpyridinium chloride in extraction buffer increased the antigen recovery dramatically and can be used for efficient characterization of Alhydrogel vaccines. PMID:22107848

  6. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste. PMID:27368409

  7. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.

  8. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution : sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4 mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30 : 1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6 h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan. PMID:24350250

  9. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase.

  10. Selective extraction of metal ions with polymeric extractants by ion exchange/redox

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1987-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for the extraction of metal ions having a reduction potential of above about +0.3 from an aqueous solution. The method includes contacting the aqueous solution with a polymeric extractant having primary phosphinic acid groups, secondary phosphine oxide groups, or both phosphinic acid and phosphine oxide groups.

  11. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K

    2015-06-17

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green.

  12. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Bartosik, Hannes; Cornelis, Karel; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wenninger, Jorg

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  13. Audio fingerprint extraction for content identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we present an audio content identification system that identifies some unknown audio material by comparing its fingerprint with those extracted off-line and saved in the music database. We will describe in detail the procedure to extract audio fingerprints and demonstrate that they are robust to noise and content-preserving manipulations. The main feature in the proposed system is the zero-crossing rate extracted with the octave-band filter bank. The zero-crossing rate can be used to describe the dominant frequency in each subband with a very low computational cost. The size of audio fingerprint is small and can be efficiently stored along with the compressed files in the database. It is also robust to many modifications such as tempo change and time-alignment distortion. Besides, the octave-band filter bank is used to enhance the robustness to distortion, especially those localized on some frequency regions.

  14. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  15. The extraction of work from quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Lostaglio, Matteo; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Jennings, David

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between quantum-mechanical properties, such as coherence, and classical notions, such as energy, is a subtle topic at the forefront of quantum thermodynamics. The traditional Carnot argument limits the conversion of heat to work; here we critically assess the problem of converting coherence to work. Through a careful account of all resources involved in the thermodynamic transformations within a fully quantum-mechanical treatment, we show that there exist thermal machines extracting work from coherence arbitrarily well. Such machines only need to act on individual copies of a state and can be reused. On the other hand, we show that for any thermal machine with finite resources not all the coherence of a state can be extracted as work. However, even bounded thermal machines can be reused infinitely many times in the process of work extraction from coherence.

  16. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  17. Extracting tissue deformation using Gabor filter banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillo, Albert; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for accurate extraction of tissue deformation imaged with tagged MR. Our method, based on banks of Gabor filters, adjusts (1) the aspect and (2) orientation of the filter"s envelope and adjusts (3) the radial frequency and (4) angle of the filter"s sinusoidal grating to extract information about the deformation of tissue. The method accurately extracts tag line spacing, orientation, displacement and effective contrast. Existing, non-adaptive methods often fail to recover useful displacement information in the proximity of tissue boundaries while our method works in the proximity of the boundaries. We also present an interpolation method to recover all tag information at a finer resolution than the filter bank parameters. Results are shown on simulated images of translating and contracting tissue.

  18. Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Anthony M; Archibald, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is the utilization of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to automatically perform endmember extraction from hyperspectral data. The strengths of SVM are exploited to provide a fast and accurate calculated representation of high-dimensional data sets that may consist of multiple distributions. Once this representation is computed, the number of distributions can be determined without prior knowledge. For each distribution, an optimal transform can be determined that preserves informational content while reducing the data dimensionality, and hence, the computational cost. Finally, endmember extraction for the whole data set is accomplished. Results indicate that this Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction (SVM-BEE) algorithm has the capability of autonomously determining endmembers from multiple clusters with computational speed and accuracy, while maintaining a robust tolerance to noise.

  19. Maxillary second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wilson; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Ikegami, Tomio; Hägg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the rationales, indications, methods, and effects of orthodontic treatment with maxillary second molar extractions. In addition to the patient's malocclusion, specific considerations about the status and position of the maxillary second and third molars should be taken into account. In recent years, the development of temporary anchorage devices, in addition to extraoral traction and intraoral distalization appliances, has become another armamentarium in the distalization of the maxillary posterior teeth, which may affect the selection of teeth to be extracted from second to third molars. In conclusion, extraction of maxillary second molars is a viable option in selected cases at present, but it is important to understand the indications and limitations of this treatment choice.

  20. Method for contour extraction for object representation

    DOEpatents

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2005-08-30

    Contours are extracted for representing a pixelated object in a background pixel field. An object pixel is located that is the start of a new contour for the object and identifying that pixel as the first pixel of the new contour. A first contour point is then located on the mid-point of a transition edge of the first pixel. A tracing direction from the first contour point is determined for tracing the new contour. Contour points on mid-points of pixel transition edges are sequentially located along the tracing direction until the first contour point is again encountered to complete tracing the new contour. The new contour is then added to a list of extracted contours that represent the object. The contour extraction process associates regions and contours by labeling all the contours belonging to the same object with the same label.

  1. Sequencing of proteins extracted from stones.

    PubMed

    Binette, J P; Binette, M B

    1994-01-01

    Proteins from urinary tract and gallbladder stones were extracted and characterized to determine the composition of the matrix and possibly unravel the role of the organic phase in stone formation. Proteins from crushed stones were extracted by electrodialysis and concentrated in the Amicon centricon cartridge or by lyophilization after dialysis against distilled water. Aliquots were first analyzed by isoelectric focusing in gel and if suitable subjected to two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis. The most promising spots were harvested and the N-terminal amino acids sequenced, thus providing maximum information with minimum expenditure of material. The 2D separations and amino acid sequences of several protein extracts demonstrated similarities and differences in composition and achieved the identification or demonstration of previously and recently detected polypeptides.

  2. Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

    2012-02-01

    Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

  3. Extraction of lipids from microalgae by ultrasound application: prospection of the optimal extraction method.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Fernandes, Jader O; Cartaxo, Samuel J M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry will depend on the selection of appropriate microalgal strains and the selection of the most suitable lipid extraction method. In this paper, five extraction methods were evaluated regarding the extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris: Bligh and Dyer, Chen, Folch, Hara and Radin, and Soxhlet. Furthermore, the addition of silica powder was studied to evaluate the introduction of more shear stress to the system as to increase the disruption of cell walls. Among the studied methods, the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound resulted in the highest extraction of oil from C. vulgaris (52.5% w/w). Addition of powder silica did not improve the extraction of oil. PMID:22938999

  4. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base...

  6. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  7. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of...

  8. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  9. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of...

  10. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  11. Changes in hair properties by Eucalyptus extract.

    PubMed

    Mamada, Akira; Ishihama, Mariko; Fukuda, Reiko; Inoue, Shigeto

    2008-01-01

    A long-term usage investigation of a scalp lotion containing Eucalyptus extract, which increases the amount of ceramide in the skin, was carried out to explore the change in physical properties of the hair fiber. Half-head or whole-head usage studies of a scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract were carried out for the following groups: Japanese female, Japanese senior female, Japanese male, and Caucasian female panelists. As a result, the improvement in hair luster and bounce in the root part of the hair were recognized by the panelists after the long-term application of the scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract. Measurement of hair gloss intensity and bending stress at the root suggests that this improvement is based on changes in these physical properties. These results indicate that the recognition of panelists is based on an actual change in the hair fiber properties. The efficacy of Eucalyptus extract is expressed regardless of race, age, or gender, since similar results were confirmed in all panelist groups. In order to investigate the cause of these phenomena, we measured the elasticity (Young's modulus) of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract-treated hair and placebo hair by the nano-indentation method of atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results suggest that the Young's modulus of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract treated-hair increases in comparison with placebo hair. The IR spectra of treated samples of hair show changes that appear to confirm a decrease in the alpha-helix structure and an increase in the beta-sheet structure.

  12. Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure. PMID:24083058

  13. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  14. Extraction of phenolic compounds from a Spodosol profile: an evaluation of three extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, G.F.; Boyd, S.A.; Mokma, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The authors extracted phenolic compounds from each horizon of a Spodosol profile using three extractants: 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 7.0 and 10.2, and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide at pH 13.4. Of 28 standard compounds evaluated seven phenolic compounds were identified: three carboxylic acids - protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids; two aldehydes - vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; and two cinnamic acids - trans p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The three most abundant compounds evaluated were protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid. The amounts of each phenolic compound extracted increased with increasing pH of the extractant except for protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid was extracted in the highest amounts by sodium pyrophosphate pH 10. The pyrophosphate (pH .10) extracts revealed that protocatechuic acid tended to accumulate in the B horizons, suggesting that it may play a role in the translocation of metal ions during podzolization. The two cinnamic acids, trans p-coumaric and ferulic, were extracted primarily by NaOH. The identification of these cinnamic derivatives in an NaOH extraction of roots separated from the B horizon suggested that their presence may be due to degradation of plant residues by NaOH. Pyrophosphate (pH 7) extracted only small amounts of phenolic compounds. The specificity of pyrophosphate (pH 10) in removing organic complexes of a possible pedogenic nature suggest that it was the better extractant. Sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) is recommended for use in future pedological studies of phenolic substances.

  15. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-06-01

    6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry. PMID:24471079

  16. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-07-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  17. Ultrasound-guided thoracoscopic dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Samir R; Ruiz, Rodrigo; Brudnicki, Adele

    2013-09-01

    Recurrent pneumonias in children may be from an unrecognized aspirated foreign body. Our patient was a 10-year-old neurologically impaired child with an aspirated tooth in the right lower lobe segmental bronchus that was inaccessible to extraction using flexible bronchoscopy because of its extremely distal location. We used intraoperative ultrasound during thoracoscopy to locate the foreign body, a tooth, and to facilitate a wedge resection of the involved lung. This combined approach with ultrasound and thoracoscopy can be useful in managing an aspirated foreign body that cannot be extracted from the airway using conventional rigid or flexible bronchoscopy.

  18. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  19. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  20. Annotation for information extraction from mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selen; Gulkesen, Kemal Hakan; Rubin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Inter and intra-observer variability in mammographic interpretation is a challenging problem, and decision support systems (DSS) may be helpful to reduce variation in practice. Since radiology reports are created as unstructured text reports, Natural language processing (NLP) techniques are needed to extract structured information from reports in order to provide the inputs to DSS. Before creating NLP systems, producing high quality annotated data set is essential. The goal of this project is to develop an annotation schema to guide the information extraction tasks needed from free-text mammography reports. PMID:23823416

  1. Case study of isosurface extraction algorithm performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, P M; Hansen, C D; Shen, H; Schikore, D

    1999-12-14

    Isosurface extraction is an important and useful visualization method. Over the past ten years, the field has seen numerous isosurface techniques published leaving the user in a quandary about which one should be used. Some papers have published complexity analysis of the techniques yet empirical evidence comparing different methods is lacking. This case study presents a comparative study of several representative isosurface extraction algorithms. It reports and analyzes empirical measurements of execution times and memory behavior for each algorithm. The results show that asymptotically optimal techniques may not be the best choice when implemented on modern computer architectures.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

  3. Extracting knowledge from the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Henzinger, Monika; Lawrence, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unprecedented opportunity to automatically analyze a large sample of interests and activity in the world. We discuss methods for extracting knowledge from the web by randomly sampling and analyzing hosts and pages, and by analyzing the link structure of the web and how links accumulate over time. A variety of interesting and valuable information can be extracted, such as the distribution of web pages over domains, the distribution of interest in different areas, communities related to different topics, the nature of competition in different categories of sites, and the degree of communication between different communities or countries. PMID:14745041

  4. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-10-13

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  5. Software Artifacts Extraction for Program Comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Ghulam; Philippow, Ilka

    The maintenance of legacy software applications is a complex, expensive, quiet challenging, time consuming and daunting task due to program comprehension difficulties. The first step for software maintenance is to understand the existing software and to extract the high level abstractions from the source code. A number of methods, techniques and tools are applied to understand the legacy code. Each technique supports the particular legacy applications with automated/semi-automated tool support keeping in view the requirements of the maintainer. Most of the techniques support the modern languages but lacks support for older technologies. This paper presents a lightweight methodology for extraction of different artifacts from legacy COBOL and other applications

  6. Large datasets: Segmentation, feature extraction, and compression

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

    1996-07-01

    Large data sets with more than several mission multivariate observations (tens of megabytes or gigabytes of stored information) are difficult or impossible to analyze with traditional software. The amount of output which must be scanned quickly dilutes the ability of the investigator to confidently identify all the meaningful patterns and trends which may be present. The purpose of this project is to develop both a theoretical foundation and a collection of tools for automated feature extraction that can be easily customized to specific applications. Cluster analysis techniques are applied as a final step in the feature extraction process, which helps make data surveying simple and effective.

  7. Stabilized Hollow Ions Extracted in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Azuma, T.; Komaki, K.; Koike, F.; Masuda, H.; Kuroki, K.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1997-06-01

    K x rays emitted from 2.1 keV/uN{sup 6+} ions passed through a thin Ni microcapillary foil were measured in coincidence with the exit charge states. Ions with a K hole but with several electrons in outershells, i.e., hollow ions formed above a surface (in the first generation), were successfully extracted in vacuum. It was found that a considerable fraction of extracted hollow ions had extremely long lifetimes of the order of ns. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Allelopathic potential of Rapanea umbellata leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Paula; Imatomi, Maristela; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Lacret, Rodney; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-08-01

    The stressful conditions associated with the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) environment were supposed to favor higher levels of allelochemicals in Rapanea umbellata from this ecosystem. The allelopathic potential of R. umbellata leaf extracts was studied using the etiolated wheat coleoptile and standard phytotoxicity bioassays. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation, which allowed identifying lutein (1) and (-)-catechin (2) as potential allelochemicals. Finally, the general bioactivity of the two compounds was studied, which indicated that the presence of 1 might be part of the defense mechanisms of this plant. PMID:23939802

  9. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  10. RNA extraction from cereal vegetative tissue.

    PubMed

    Pattemore, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction is the necessary first step in many protocols, primarily to investigate genes and gene expression. RNA comes in a variety of forms: total RNA, ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), and small interfering RNA (siRNA) to name a few. In some instances, total RNA is all that is required; however most applications will require the enrichment for some particular form of RNA. In plants, including cereals, total RNA is a mixture of many types of RNA and enrichment is generally required. In this protocol, the TRIzol(®) method of RNA extraction from cereal leaf material is described, as it is a relatively simple technique.

  11. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  12. Extracting Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Will Detmold, William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-05-01

    Charged and neutral, pion and kaon electric polarizabilities are extracted from lattice QCD using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions. We utilize classical background fields to access the polarizabilities from two-point correlation functions. Uniform background fields are achieved by quantizing the electric field strength with the proper treatment of boundary flux. These external fields, however, are implemented only in the valence quark sector. A novel method to extract charge particle polarizabilities is successfully demonstrated for the first time.

  13. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies.

  14. Acceleration of Automated HI Source Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenhorst, S. J.; Blyth, S.; Kuttel, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    We aim to enable fast automated extraction of neutral hydrogen (HI) sources from large survey data sets. This requires both handling the large files (>5 TB) to be produced by next-generation interferometers and acceleration of the source extraction algorithm. We develop an efficient multithreaded implementation of the A'Trous wavelet reconstruction algorithm, which we evaluate against the serial implementation in the DUCHAMP package. We also evaluate three memory management libraries (Mmap, Boost and Stxxl) that enable processing of data files too large to fit into main memory, to establish which provides the best performance.

  15. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  16. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  17. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  18. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  19. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum

    PubMed Central

    Poonkothai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity. PMID:22557222

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum.

    PubMed

    Poonkothai, M

    2006-07-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity. PMID:22557222

  2. Supercritical extraction of sunflower oil: A central composite design for extraction variables.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Mohanty, Bikash; Bhargava, Ravindra

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of sunflower seed for the production of vegetable oil is investigated and compared to conventional methods. The effects of extracting variables, namely pressure, temperatures, particle size, SC-CO2 flow rate and co-solvent, on SC-CO2 extraction are investigated. The maximum yield for sunflower oil is found to be about 54.37 wt%, and is obtained when SC-CO2 extraction is carried out at 80 °C, 400 bar, 0.75 mm particle and 10 g/min solvent flow with 5% co-solvent. A central composite design is used to develop the model and also to predict the optimum conditions. At optimum conditions obtained based on desirability function, 80.54 °C, 345 bar, 1.00 mm, 10.50 g/min and 7.58% ethanol, SC-CO2 extraction has performed and found that extraction yield dropped by 2.88% from the predicted value. Fatty acid composition of SC-CO2 and hexane extracted oil shows negligible difference and found high source of linoleic acid.

  3. Supercritical extraction of sunflower oil: A central composite design for extraction variables.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Mohanty, Bikash; Bhargava, Ravindra

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of sunflower seed for the production of vegetable oil is investigated and compared to conventional methods. The effects of extracting variables, namely pressure, temperatures, particle size, SC-CO2 flow rate and co-solvent, on SC-CO2 extraction are investigated. The maximum yield for sunflower oil is found to be about 54.37 wt%, and is obtained when SC-CO2 extraction is carried out at 80 °C, 400 bar, 0.75 mm particle and 10 g/min solvent flow with 5% co-solvent. A central composite design is used to develop the model and also to predict the optimum conditions. At optimum conditions obtained based on desirability function, 80.54 °C, 345 bar, 1.00 mm, 10.50 g/min and 7.58% ethanol, SC-CO2 extraction has performed and found that extraction yield dropped by 2.88% from the predicted value. Fatty acid composition of SC-CO2 and hexane extracted oil shows negligible difference and found high source of linoleic acid. PMID:26304395

  4. Optimization of olive leaf extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Selin; Samlı, Rüya

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polyphenols from agricultural and industrial waste of olive oil and table oil productions, olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as solvent concentration (0-100% ethanol (EtOH), v/v), the ratio of solid to solvent (25-50mg/mL) and extraction time (20-60 min), and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). The extract yield was stated as mg extract per g of dried leaf (DL). Total phenolic content was expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried leaf. Free radical scavenging activity for the antioxidant capacity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The second order polynomial model gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. 201.2158 mg extract/g DL, 25.0626 mg GAE/g DL, and 95.5610% in respect to inhibition of DPPH radical were predicted at the optimum operating conditions (500 mg solid to 10 mL solvent ratio, 60 min of extraction time and 50% EtOH composition), respectively. PMID:22964032

  5. Sono-assisted extraction of alcohol-insoluble extract from Althaea rosea: purification and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Meghdad; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and water to raw material ratio on extraction yield of alcohol-insoluble polysaccharide of Althaea rosea leaf (ARLP). Purification was carried out by dialysis method. Chemical analysis of ARLP revealed contained 12.69 ± 0.48% moisture, 79.33 ± 0.51% total sugar, 3.82 ± 0.21% protein, 11.25 ± 0.37% uronic acid and 3.77 ± 0.15% ash. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant quadratic regression equation with high R(2) (=0.9997) was successfully fitted for extraction yield of ARLP as function of independent variables. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of ultrasonic power 91.85 W, extraction time 29.94 min, extraction temperature 89.78 °C, and the ratio of water to raw material 28.77 (mL/g). At this optimum point, extraction yield of ARLP was 19.47 ± 0.41%. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found between the actual and predicted (19.30 ± 0.075%) values. The results demonstrated that ARLP had strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals.

  6. Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.

    PubMed

    Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 μmol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively.

  7. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  8. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  9. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  10. Cell Cycle Synchronization in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Neusiedler, Julia; Creavin, Kevin; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2016-01-01

    Many important discoveries in cell cycle research have been made using cell-free extracts prepared from the eggs of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These extracts efficiently support the key nuclear functions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. Here, we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei. We detail how these extracts can be used to study the key transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe conditions under which these transitions can be manipulated by addition of drugs that either retard or advance passage. In addition, we describe in detail essential techniques that provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in the operation of the eukaryotic cell cycle.

  11. Sophia: A Expedient UMLS Concept Extraction Annotator

    PubMed Central

    Divita, Guy; Zeng, Qing T; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Duvall, Scott; Nebeker, Jonathan; Samore, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity exists for meaningful concept extraction and indexing from large corpora of clinical notes in the Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record. Currently available tools such as MetaMap, cTAKES and HITex do not scale up to address this big data need. Sophia, a rapid UMLS concept extraction annotator was developed to fulfill a mandate and address extraction where high throughput is needed while preserving performance. We report on the development, testing and benchmarking of Sophia against MetaMap and cTAKEs. Sophia demonstrated improved performance on recall as compared to cTAKES and MetaMap (0.71 vs 0.66 and 0.38). The overall f-score was similar to cTAKES and an improvement over MetaMap (0.53 vs 0.57 and 0.43). With regard to speed of processing records, we noted Sophia to be several fold faster than cTAKES and the scaled-out MetaMap service. Sophia offers a viable alternative for high-throughput information extraction tasks. PMID:25954351

  12. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  13. Psychophysical pain control during tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Herod, E L

    1995-01-01

    A case of a patient with multiple allergies to local anesthesia and who required extraction of a maxillary canine is reported. The patient used her psychophysical capabilities to control the pain and anxiety associated with the surgery. A discussion of psychophysical pain control is presented.

  14. Biological activities of Morus celtidifolia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Oranday-Cárdenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Verde-Star, María Julia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this research were to examine the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antiradical/antioxidant activities of the organic extracts obtained from the leaves of the medicinal plant Morus celtidifolia (Family: Moraceae). To evaluate its antimicrobial properties, M. celtidifolia was tested against the bacteria of medical importance: Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay and also by toxicity screening against human cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma). The free radical-scavenging activity was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Results revealed that the hexanic extract has antibacterial activity only against Gram positive strains, while the methanolic extract showed better cytotoxic and antioxidant activities than the non- polar extract with a median lethal dose (LD₅₀) of 125μg/ml, 90μg/ml and 75μg/ml against A. salina, MCF-7 and HeLa cells respectively, and median effective concentration (EC₅₀) of 152μg/ml on radical scavenging assay. This is the first study reporting the biological activities of leaves of Morus celtidifolia.

  15. Bacteremia in children following dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Coulter, W A; Coffey, A; Saunders, I D; Emmerson, A M

    1990-10-01

    The incidence and intensity of bacteremia following tooth extraction in children were measured by blood culture. The effects on bacteremia of the number and type of teeth extracted, oral hygiene, gingival health, presence of abscess, and antibiotic prophylaxis were assessed. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the incidence of bacteremia from 63% to 35%. The intensity of bacteremia was 2 cfu/mL of blood or less in 80% of the children. An agar pour-plate method of blood culture was significantly more effective than broth in culturing the small volumes of inoculum. Of 83 bacterial strains characterized, 39 were strict anaerobes or micro-aerophilic, and the remainder mainly streptococci. S. mitior and S. sanguis were most commonly isolated, often in pure culture, and were generally sensitive to antibiotics. No direct association was demonstrated between the plaque and gingival indices and incidence of bacteremia or between the number of teeth extracted and the incidence or intensity of bacteremia. It is concluded that all children at risk from infective endocarditis require antibiotic prophylaxis prior to tooth extraction, since it is impossible for the likelihood or intensity of transient bacteremia to be clinically predicted.

  16. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Firouzjah, Ahmad; Rahnama, Reyhaneh

    2013-11-15

    In this research, a novel extraction technique termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (SADSPE) was developed for the first time. The new method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample to maximize the contact surface. In this method, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by injecting a solution of the sorbent into the aqueous sample. Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the dispersion of the fine particles of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analyte in the sedimented phase could be determined by instrumental methods. The performance of SADSPE was illustrated with the determination of the trace amounts of cobalt(II) as a test analyte in food and environmental water samples by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Some key parameters for SADSPE, such as sorbent selection and amount, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, chelating agent concentration, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, good limit of detection (as low as 0.2 µg L(-1)) and repeatability of extraction (RSD below 2.2%, n=10) was obtained. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (SRM-1643e and SRM-1640a) and spiked addition. The advantages of SADSPE method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and enrichment factor. PMID:24148429

  17. Visual Routines for Extracting Magnitude Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michal, Audrey L.; Uttal, David; Shah, Priti; Franconeri, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Linking relations described in text with relations in visualizations is often difficult. We used eye tracking to measure the optimal way to extract such relations in graphs, college students, and young children (6- and 8-year-olds). Participants compared relational statements ("Are there more blueberries than oranges?") with simple…

  18. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

  19. Universal extraction method for gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Fenella D; Lee, Adele V; Couto-Parada, Xose; Polley, Spencer D; Ling, Clare; Jenkins, Claire; Chalmers, Rachel M; Elwin, Kristin; Gray, Jim J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Wain, John; Clark, Duncan A; Bolton, Frederick J; Manuel, Rohini J

    2013-10-01

    A universal stool extraction method for recovery of nucleic acids (NAs) from gastrointestinal pathogens was developed to support rapid diagnostics for the London 2012 Olympics. The method involved mechanical disruption (bead beating) of the stools, followed by automated extraction and detection using real-time PCR. This method had been used extensively in the Second Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (IID2) for the isolation of NA from bacteria and parasites (and was effective for the robust recovery of Cryptosporidium spp.) but had not been used for enteric viruses. To ensure this method was universally suitable, panels of samples known to contain target bacteria, viruses or parasites were processed in triplicate using the pre-treatment method routinely used for each target and the new extraction method (bead beating). The extracts were tested using real-time PCR and the cycle threshold values were compared. The results from this study showed that bead beating improved yields for the bacterial and parasitic targets and was suitable for the viral targets. The implementation of this universal method should confer cost- and time-saving benefits and streamline the processes required for the characterization of an array of pathogens from faecal samples. PMID:23831766

  20. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  1. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... name of the food shall include the designation “_-fold”, the blank being filled in with the whole... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. Biological activities of Morus celtidifolia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Oranday-Cárdenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Verde-Star, María Julia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this research were to examine the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antiradical/antioxidant activities of the organic extracts obtained from the leaves of the medicinal plant Morus celtidifolia (Family: Moraceae). To evaluate its antimicrobial properties, M. celtidifolia was tested against the bacteria of medical importance: Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay and also by toxicity screening against human cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma). The free radical-scavenging activity was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Results revealed that the hexanic extract has antibacterial activity only against Gram positive strains, while the methanolic extract showed better cytotoxic and antioxidant activities than the non- polar extract with a median lethal dose (LD₅₀) of 125μg/ml, 90μg/ml and 75μg/ml against A. salina, MCF-7 and HeLa cells respectively, and median effective concentration (EC₅₀) of 152μg/ml on radical scavenging assay. This is the first study reporting the biological activities of leaves of Morus celtidifolia. PMID:26142508

  3. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Avgerinos, George C.

    1983-01-01

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  4. Recent developments in stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    As a crucial step in qualitative and quantitative analysis, sample pretreatment is commonly used to isolate the target analytes, concentrate them, or convert them into the forms tailored to the instrumental analysis. In recent years, there has been a trend for sample pretreatment techniques to become more miniaturized and more environmentally friendly. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), which was developed in 1999, is such an environmentally friendly microextraction technique. Compared with other microextraction techniques, including solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction, SBSE provides a higher extraction efficiency and better reproducibility owing to the much greater amount of the extraction phase, and no special skills are required. However, there are some problems associated with SBSE, such as the limited applicable coatings, coating abrasion of the laboratory-made stir bar, and the difficulty in automation, which restrict the further improvement and application of SBSE. This review focuses on the development of SBSE in the past decade, in terms of coating preparation, automated systems, novel extraction modes, its use with various instruments, and applications in food, environmental, and biological samples.

  5. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert; Lovely, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snap-shot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: (1) Shocks, (2) Vortex cores, (3) Regions of recirculation, (4) Boundary layers, (5) Wakes. Three papers and an initial specification for the (The Fluid eXtraction tool kit) FX Programmer's guide were included. The papers, submitted to the AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, are entitled : (1) Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions, (2) Shock Detection from Computational Fluid Dynamics results and (3) On the Velocity Gradient Tensor and Fluid Feature Extraction.

  6. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    SciTech Connect

    Doring, Michael

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  7. An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsterdamsky, Claude

    1998-02-01

    As a laboratory exercise the constitents of a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, methoxybenzene and benzoic acid are separated by a combination of extraction and distillation. The crude products are further purified by recrystallization for the solid and redistillation for the liquids. Three important laboratory techniques are thus taught in two 4h laboratory periods.

  8. Iatrogenic traumatic brain injury during tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old spayed female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation of progressive neurological signs after a routine dental prophylaxis with tooth extractions. The patient was circling to the left and blind in the right eye with right hemiparesis. Neurolocalization was to the left forebrain. MRI revealed a linear tract extending from the caudal oropharynx, through the left retrobulbar space and frontal lobe, into the left parietal lobe. A small skull fracture was identified in the frontal bone through which the linear tract passed. Those findings were consistent with iatrogenic trauma from slippage of a dental elevator during extraction of tooth 210. The dog was treated empirically with clindamycin. The patient regained most of its normal neurological function within the first 4 mo after the initial injury. Although still not normal, the dog has a good quality of life. Traumatic brain injury is a rarely reported complication of extraction. Care must be taken while performing dental cleaning and tooth extraction, especially of the maxillary premolar and molar teeth to avoid iatrogenic damage to surrounding structures.

  9. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  10. Extraction of SUSY Parameters from Collider Data

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwas, Dirk

    2008-11-23

    The extraction of the parameters of the supersymmetric Lagrangian is discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the rigorous treatment of experimental and theoretical errors. While the LHC can provide a valuable first estimate of the parameters, the combination of LHC and ILC will be necessary to determine with high precision the parameters of the MSSM.

  11. Iatrogenic traumatic brain injury during tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old spayed female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation of progressive neurological signs after a routine dental prophylaxis with tooth extractions. The patient was circling to the left and blind in the right eye with right hemiparesis. Neurolocalization was to the left forebrain. MRI revealed a linear tract extending from the caudal oropharynx, through the left retrobulbar space and frontal lobe, into the left parietal lobe. A small skull fracture was identified in the frontal bone through which the linear tract passed. Those findings were consistent with iatrogenic trauma from slippage of a dental elevator during extraction of tooth 210. The dog was treated empirically with clindamycin. The patient regained most of its normal neurological function within the first 4 mo after the initial injury. Although still not normal, the dog has a good quality of life. Traumatic brain injury is a rarely reported complication of extraction. Care must be taken while performing dental cleaning and tooth extraction, especially of the maxillary premolar and molar teeth to avoid iatrogenic damage to surrounding structures. PMID:25695556

  12. DNA extraction from keratin and chitin.

    PubMed

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    DNA extracted from keratinous and chitinous materials can be a useful source of genetic information. To effectively liberate the DNA from these materials, buffers containing relatively high levels of DTT, proteinase K, and detergent are recommended, followed by purification using either silica-column or organic methods.

  13. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  14. Nonrenewable resource extraction under discontinuous price policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Otten, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Temporal discontinuities in public policy with respect to nonrenewable resource pricing can have significant impacts on the time patterns of resource extraction. These impacts arise from the effect of price discontinuities on the relative values of Hotelling rents across time periods. Whether faced with intertemporal price continuity or price discontinuity, the planning task of the wealth-maximizing producer is to equate the present value of each period's marginal contribution to the stream of net revenues from production across time. This rule for extraction provides the key to understanding the response to a price jump such as occurs upon the removal of price controls. The rational producer holds back at least some output until the price jump occurs. At the moment, the producer pushes output up sharply, raising marginal extraction cost by the absolute amount of the price jump and, thereby, maintaining the value of the Hotelling rent given by the gap between price and marginal extraction cost. US natural gas policy options, as well as plausible alternatives, are simulated to illustrate the effects of discontinuous regulatory regimes. 15 references, 1 table.

  15. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  16. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  17. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  18. Psychophysical pain control during tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Herod, E L

    1995-01-01

    A case of a patient with multiple allergies to local anesthesia and who required extraction of a maxillary canine is reported. The patient used her psychophysical capabilities to control the pain and anxiety associated with the surgery. A discussion of psychophysical pain control is presented. PMID:8940584

  19. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  20. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  1. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  2. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  3. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  4. Solvent extraction of phenols from water

    SciTech Connect

    Greminger, D.C.; Burns, G.P.; Lynn, S.; Hanson, D.H.; King, C.J.

    1980-02-01

    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) have been evaluated as solvents for extraction of phenols, at high dilution, from water. Equilibrium distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) have been measured for phenol, dihydroxybenzenes and trihydroxybenzenes in both solvents as a function of pH. Particularly for the multihydric phenols, MIBK gives substantially higher values of K/sub D/ than does DIPE. The effect of pH can be described quantitatively through a simple ionization model, using published values of dissociation constants for the various phenols. Some method for removal of residual dissolved solvent must ordinarily be included in any extraction process for phenols. Possibilities include atmospheric-steam or inert-gas stripping, vacuum-steam stripping, and extraction with a second solvent. Vacuum-steam stripping is a particularly attractive choice for removal of MIBK; this reinforces the utility of MIBK as a solvent. The optimal temperature for vacuum stripping is generally the temperature of the extraction operation, which in turn is related to the effect of temperature on K/sub D/. Values of K/sub D/ for phenol-water-MIBK were determined at 30, 50, and 75/sup 0/C, and were found to decrease with increasing temperature at all concentrations.

  5. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  6. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirulina extract. 73.530 Section 73.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... foods for which standards of identity have been issued under section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  7. Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Abbey, W. A.; Tsapin, A. T.; Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.

    2004-01-01

    In the robotic search for life on Mars, different proposed missions will analyze the chemical and biological signatures of life using different platforms. The analysis of samples via analytical instrumentation on the surface of Mars has thus far only been attempted by the two Viking missions. Robotic arms scooped relogith material into a pyrolysis oven attached to a GC/MS. No trace of organic material was found on any of the two different samples at either of the two different landing sites. This null result puts an upper limit on the amount of organics that might be present in Martian soil/rocks, although the level of detection for each individual molecular species is still debated. Determining the absolute limit of detection for each analytical instrument is essential so that null results can be understood. This includes investigating the trade off of using pyrolysis versus liquid solvent extraction to release organic materials (in terms of extraction efficiencies and the complexity of the sample extraction process.) Extraction of organics from field samples can be accomplished by a variety of methods such utilizing various solvents including HCl, pure water, supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction. Utilizing 6N HCl is one of the most commonly used method and frequently utilized for extraction of organics from meteorites but it is probably infeasible for robotic exploration due to difficulty of storage and transport. Extraction utilizing H2O is promising, but it could be less efficient than 6N HCl. Both supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction methods require bulky hardware and require complex steps, inappropriate for inclusion on rover spacecraft. This investigation reports the efficiencies of pyrolysis and solvent extraction methods for amino acids for different terrestrial samples. The samples studied here, initially created in aqueous environments, are sedimentary in nature. These particular samples were chosen because they possibly represent one of the

  8. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type “clinical trials” to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first

  9. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  10. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  11. Extraction systems for the study of dubnium

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Ali, M.N.; Calvert, M.G.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P.A.; Garcia, M.A.; Gharibyan, N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Nelson, S.L.; Neumann, S.H.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    The chemistry of transactinide elements (Z {ge} 104) is a topic of great interest in current nuclear chemistry research. The chemical systems that can be used in these studies are limited by the short half-lives of the isotopes and the small production rates of atoms per minute or even atoms per week. In the initial investigations, the chemistry used had to be very selective to the periodic group of interest to separate the transactinide atom from all the other unwanted nuclear reaction products, e.g., transfer products. By using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) as a physical pre-separator, we are able concentrate on systems that are selective between the members of the group of interest, because all other interfering products and the beam are being suppressed by the BGS [1]. We are developing suitable extraction systems for the study of element 105, dubnium. For this purpose we have studied the extraction of niobium and tantalum, the lighter homologs of dubnium, from mineral acids with different organophosphorus compounds. All studies were performed online, using short-lived niobium and tantalum produced in the {sup 124}Sn({sup 51}V,5n){sup 170}Ta and {sup 74}Se({sup 18}O,p3n){sup 88}Nb reactions. This allowed for the study of the lighter homologues at metal concentrations of 10{sup -16} M. At these low metal concentrations, the formation of polymeric species is largely prohibited. As seen in Fig. 1, by varying the extractant and the hydrochloric acid concentration from 1 to 11 M, we are able to see a difference in extraction behavior between niobium and tantalum. While the system is suitable for determining chemical differences between the lighter homologues, the extraction of tantalum from hydrochloric acid shows slow kinetics. Figure 2 shows that after 90 seconds of mixing, the system is not in equilibrium. However, experiments indicate that equilibrium is reached faster at higher acid concentrations. We have studied the influence of hydrogen ion

  12. Comparison of soil-monolith extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Rupp, H.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    In the international literature the term „lysimeter" is used for different objectives, e.g. suction cups, fluxmeters, etc. According to our understanding it belongs to the direct methods to measure water and solute fluxes in soil. Depending on the scientific task the shape and dimensions of the lysimeter as well as the type of filling (disturbed or undisturbed) and the specific instrumentation can be different. In any case where water dynamics or solute transport in natural soil is considered, lysimeters should be filled with 'undisturbed' monoliths which are large enough to contain the small scale heterogeneity of a site since flow and transport is highly sensitive to soil structure. Furthermore, lysimeters with vegetation should represent the natural crop inventory and the maximum root penetration depth should be taken into account. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview about different methods for obtaining undisturbed soil monoliths, in particular about i) techniques for the vertical and ii) for the horizontal extraction and iii) to evaluate the most frequently used procedures based on X-ray tomography images. Minimal disturbance of the soil monolith during extraction and subsequence filling of the lysimeter vessel is of critical importance for establishing flow and transport conditions corresponding approximately to natural field conditions. In the past, several methods were used to extract and fill lysimeter vessels vertically - including hand digging, employing sets of trihedral scaffold with lifting blocks and ballast, or using heavy duty excavators, which could shear and cut large blocks of soil. More recently, technologies have been developed to extract cylindrical soil monoliths by using ramming equipment or screw presses. One of the great disadvantages of the mentioned methods is the compaction or settling of soil that occurs during the "hammering" or "pressing". For this reason a new technology was developed, which cuts the outline of

  13. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  14. Real-time structured light depth extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kurtis; Ackerman, Jeremy D.

    2000-03-01

    Gathering depth data using structured light has been a procedure for many different environments and uses. Many of these system are utilized instead of laser line scanning because of their quickness. However, to utilize depth extraction for some applications, in our case laparoscopic surgery, the depth extraction must be in real time. We have developed an apparatus that speeds up the raw image display and grabbing in structured light depth extraction from 30 frames per second to 60 and 180 frames per second. This results in an updated depth and texture map of about 15 times per second versus about 3. This increased update rate allows for real time depth extraction for use in augmented medical/surgical applications. Our miniature, fist-sized projector utilizes an internal ferro-reflective LCD display that is illuminated with cold light from a flex light pipe. The miniature projector, attachable to a laparoscope, displays inverted pairs of structured light into the body where these images are then viewed by a high-speed camera set slightly off axis from the projector that grabs images synchronously. The images from the camera are ported to a graphics-processing card where six frames are worked on simultaneously to extract depth and create mapped textures from these images. This information is then sent to the host computer with 3D coordinate information of the projector/camera and the associated textures. The surgeon is then able to view body images in real time from different locations without physically moving the laparoscope imager/projector, thereby, reducing the trauma of moving laparoscopes in the patient.

  15. Comparison of in vitro antioxidant activities and bioactive components of green tea extracts by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi; Deji, Shen; Ye, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2011-04-15

    In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities and bioactive components of green tea extracts (GTE) by ultrahigh pressure extraction and conventional extraction methods (microwave extraction, ultrasonic extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction) were investigated. DPPH radical-scavenging and FTC method were applied to test the antioxidant activities. The bioactive components were determined by chemical methods. The results indicated that the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities. The contents of polyphenols and catechins in the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction were significantly higher than those by other extraction methods, which was possibly responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction. From the results we can draw the conclusion that not only the more bioactive components are obtained but also the extract has better free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities through ultrahigh pressure extraction method. These findings further illustrate that ultrahigh pressure extraction has a bright prospect for extracting active ingredients from plant materials. PMID:21310224

  16. Extraction of Uranium, Neptunium and Plutonium from Caustic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia H.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Engle, Nancy L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jade

    2004-03-28

    5 Fundamental research on uranium, neptunium and plutonium separation from alkaline media using solvent extraction is being conducted. Specific extractants for these actinides from alkaline media have been synthesized to investigate the feasibility of selective removal of these elements. Two families of extractants have been studied: terephthalamide and tetra(hydroxybenzyl)ethylene diamine derivatives. Fundamental studies were conducted to characterize their extraction behavior from a wide variety of aqueous conditions. The terephthalamide derivatives exhibit a significant extraction strength along with a discriminatory behavior among the actinides, plutonium being extracted the most strongly. Quantitative extraction of plutonium and moderate extraction of neptunium and uranium was achieved from a simple caustic solution. Interestingly, strontium is also quantitatively extracted by these derivatives. However, their stability to highly caustic solutions still needs to be imp roved. Tetra(hydroxybenzyl)ethylene diamine derivatives exhibit a very good stability to caustic conditions and are currently being studied.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B

    2015-01-22

    In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectin from sisal waste was investigated and optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions (ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio). Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield. The experimental yield (29.32%) was obtained under the optimal condition (ultrasonic power of 61 W, temperature of 50°C, time of 26 min and SL ratio of 1:28 g/ml) was well agreement with predicted values. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used as an alternative method to extract pectin from sisal waste with the advantages of lower extraction temperatures, shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption. PMID:25439955

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  19. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B

    2015-01-22

    In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectin from sisal waste was investigated and optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions (ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio). Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield. The experimental yield (29.32%) was obtained under the optimal condition (ultrasonic power of 61 W, temperature of 50°C, time of 26 min and SL ratio of 1:28 g/ml) was well agreement with predicted values. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used as an alternative method to extract pectin from sisal waste with the advantages of lower extraction temperatures, shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption.

  20. EXTRACT: Interactive extraction of environment metadata and term suggestion for metagenomic sample annotation

    SciTech Connect

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra; Pereira, Emiliano; Schnetzer, Julia; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Here the comparison of fully manual and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15–25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.

  1. Extraction chromatography of neodymium by an organophosphorous extractant supported on various polymeric resins

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y.

    1993-04-01

    Fifteen resins coated with dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphonate (CMP) were studied for their extraction of neodymium (Nd) in 4.0 and 7.0 M nitric acid. Resin properties, such as chemical composition and physical morphology, which can influence Nd extraction as well as subsequent resin regeneration (Nd stripping), were identified. Hydrophilic or polar resins coated with CMP efficiently extracted the Nd. Resins initially washed free of residual monomer and solvent before CMP coating outperformed their untreated counterparts. The macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene hydrophobic resins that were high in surface area were less effective supports compared with hydrophilic microporous Aurorez, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and macroporous Amberlite polyacrylic resins. Only one resin, Duolite C-467, showed no measurable improvement in Nd extraction with CMP coating. CMP-coated Aurorez PBI, a microporous and hydrophilic polymeric resin with an average surface area, showed the best overall efficiency for Nd removal and resin regeneration.

  2. Extraction of polyphenols from black tea--conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Both, Simon; Chemat, Farid; Strube, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Products from plant raw materials gain increasing importance in food-, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. By way of contrast, due to lack of detailed physico-chemical fundamentals, existing production processes are economically not optimal designed. This leads to a need for deeper understanding of the processes and furthermore a systematic process and equipment design for the potentially applicable extraction techniques. Using the example of polyphenol extraction from black tea (Kenya), the conventional and ultrasound assisted extractions are investigated. Here, the state of the art as well as a comparison between the two techniques is in focus. Especially, resulting quasi-equilibria and mass transport kinetics serves as a criteria. The physico-chemical background is discussed taking particle size distributions and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements into account. Conclusively, process alternatives are projected and discussed. Hence, the present study makes influences of ultrasound technique on physico-chemical characteristics during extraction a subject of discussion.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples.

  4. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase. PMID:24616421

  5. Building Extraction Using Multi Sensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastikli, N.; Uzar, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the automatic building extraction is aimed using object-based image analysis method with multi sensor system includes LiDAR, digital camera and GPS/IMU. The image processing techniques, segmentation and classification methods were used for automatic object extraction with defined rule set. The proposed method based on object based classification to overcome the limitation of traditional pixel based classification such as confusion of classes. The generated Digital Surface Model (DSM) from LiDAR point cloud was used to separate building and vegetation classes. The morphologic filters were utilized also optimization of mixed classes. In our proposed approach for building extraction, multi-resolution, contrast-difference and chessboard segmentations were applied. The object-based classification method was preferred in classification process with defined fuzzy rules. First, vegetation and ground classes were generated than building regions were derived with using the results of the classification and segmentation. The data set was obtained from the project of "NABUCCO Gas Pipeline Project". The data set actually was collected for corridor mapping of pipeline which will link the Eastern border of Turkey, to Baumgarten in Austria via Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. The study area is a suburban neighborhood located in the city of Sivas, Turkey. The Leica ALS60 LiDAR system, DiMAC, Dalsa Area Bayer RGB Charge Coupled (CCD) Camera and GPS and CUS6 IMU system were used for data collection. The additional data sets were generated with point cloud collected by LiDAR and RGB images from digital camera. The rule sets for automatic building extraction were developed in Definiens e-Cognition Developer 8.64 program system. To evaluate the performance of proposed automatic building extraction approach, reference data set was generated with digitizing of extracted building over the orthoimage. The accuracy assessment was performed with completeness and correctness

  6. Seismicity and faulting attributable to fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Castle, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The association between fluid injection and seismicity has been well documented and widely publicized. Less well known, but probably equally widespread are faulting and shallow seismicity attributable solely to fluid extraction, particularly in association with petroleum production. Two unequivocable examples of seismicity and faulting associated with fluid extraction in the United States are: The Goose Creek, Texas oil field event of 1925 (involving surface rupture); and the Wilmington, California oil field events (involving subsurface rupture) of 1947, 1949, 1951 (2), 1955, and 1961. Six additional cases of intensity I-VII earthquakes (M < 4.6) without reported faulting may be attributable to shallow production from other large oil and gas fields. In addition to these examples are thirteen cases of apparently aseismic surface rupture associated with production from California and Texas oil fields. Small earthquakes in the Eloy-Picacho area of Arizona may be attributable to withdrawal of groundwater, but their relation to widespread fissuring is enigmatic. The clearest example of extraction-induced seismicity outside of North America is the 1951 series of earthquakes associated with gas production from the Po River delta near Caviga, Italy. Faulting and seismicity associated with fluid extraction are attributed to differential compaction at depth caused by reduction of reservoir fluid pressure and attendant increase in effective stress. Surface and subsurface measurements and theoretical and model studies show that differential compaction leads not only to differential subsidence and centripetally-directed horizontal displacements, but to changes in both vertical- and horizontal-strain regimes. Study of well-documented examples indicates that the occurrence and nature of faulting and seismicity associated with compaction are functions chiefly of: (1) the pre-exploitation strain regime, and (2) the magnitude of contractional horizontal strain centered over the

  7. Enhancing radiative energy transfer through thermal extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yixuan; Liu, Baoan; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Zongfu

    2016-06-01

    Thermal radiation plays an increasingly important role in many emerging energy technologies, such as thermophotovoltaics, passive radiative cooling and wearable cooling clothes [1]. One of the fundamental constraints in thermal radiation is the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which limits the maximum power of far-field radiation to P0 = σT4S, where σ is the Boltzmann constant, S and T are the area and the temperature of the emitter, respectively (Fig. 1a). In order to overcome this limit, it has been shown that near-field radiations could have an energy density that is orders of magnitude greater than the Stefan-Boltzmann law [2-7]. Unfortunately, such near-field radiation transfer is spatially confined and cannot carry radiative heat to the far field. Recently, a new concept of thermal extraction was proposed [8] to enhance far-field thermal emission, which, conceptually, operates on a principle similar to oil immersion lenses and light extraction in light-emitting diodes using solid immersion lens to increase light output [62].Thermal extraction allows a blackbody to radiate more energy to the far field than the apparent limit of the Stefan-Boltzmann law without breaking the second law of thermodynamics. Thermal extraction works by using a specially designed thermal extractor to convert and guide the near-field energy to the far field, as shown in Fig. 1b. The same blackbody as shown in Fig. 1a is placed closely below the thermal extractor with a spacing smaller than the thermal wavelength. The near-field coupling transfers radiative energy with a density greater than σT4. The thermal extractor, made from transparent and high-index or structured materials, does not emit or absorb any radiation. It transforms the near-field energy and sends it toward the far field. As a result, the total amount of far-field radiative heat dissipated by the same blackbody is greatly enhanced above SσT4, where S is the area of the emitter. This paper will review the progress in thermal

  8. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.

  9. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  10. [Extraction of lambda-cyhalothrin from aqueous dioxan solutions].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2011-01-01

    The results of extraction of lambda-cigalotrin from dioxan aqueous solutions by hydrophobic organic solvents are presented. It is shown that the degree of extraction depends on the nature of the extractant, the water to dioxan ratio, and saturation of the water-dioxan layer with the electrolyte. The highest efficiency of lambda-cigalotrin extraction was achieved using chlorophorm as a solvent under desalination conditions. The extraction factor was calculated necessary to obtain the desired amount of lambda-cigalotrin from the water-dioxan solution (4:1) with the help of the extractants being used.

  11. Synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Ya.I.; Minasyants, V.A.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Sel'manshchuk, N.N.; Aleksyuk, M.P.

    1988-01-10

    The extraction of phenols from dilute aqueous solutions was studied; the extracting agents were n-butyl acetate, C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols, nitrobenzene, and tributyl phosphate. Isotherms of extraction of phenol by isomolar mixtures of n-butyl acetate and nitrobenzene, n-hexyl alcohol and tributyl phosphate are shown. The synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenol with mixtures of solvents are represented based on n-butyl acetate. The effect of dialkyl phthalates on extraction of pyrocatechol with C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols was studied; in extraction of pyrocatechol with solutions of dialkyl phthalates in alcohols, synergism was observed.

  12. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves. PMID:25726419

  13. Extraction of rotenone from Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis by pressurized liquid extraction compared with maceration.

    PubMed

    Sae-Yun, Attawadee; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Itharat, Arunporn; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2006-09-01

    The extraction of active compounds from plants is one of the most critical steps in the commercial development of natural products for medicinal, herbicidal or pesticidal use. The focus of this study was to compare conventional maceration and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) techniques for the efficient extraction of rotenone from the stem and root of Derris elliptica Benth and Derris malaccensis Prain. The effects of experimental variables, such as solvent, temperature and pressure, on PLE efficiency have been studied. Chloroform was determined to be a good extraction solvent (rotenone content 40.6%, w/w) compared to commonly used solvent, 95% ethanol (rotenone content 15.0%, w/w). The optimal conditions for PLE were 50 degrees C and 2000 psi. PLE showed higher extraction efficiency (rotenone content 46.1%, w/w) as compared with conventional maceration method (rotenone content 40.6%, w/w). The order of rotenone content found in crude extract obtained by optimized method from the highest to the lowest was root (46.1%, w/w) and stem (9.4%, w/w) of D. elliptica and stem of D. malaccensis (5.2%, w/w), respectively. Moreover, the results from this study indicated that PLE was considerably less time and solvent consuming (30 min, 3 ml/g of dried sample) than the conventional maceration techniques (72 h, 10 ml/g of dried sample). PMID:16787651

  14. Extraction efficiency and extraction time of the SHIPTRAP gas-filled stopping cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S. A.; Block, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Di, Z.; Habs, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Neumayr, J. B.; Plaß, W. R.; Rauth, C.; Thirolf, P. G.; Vorobjev, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-05-01

    The extraction efficiency and extraction time of the SHIPTRAP gas-filled stopping cell were measured and chemical processes occurring during extraction of the stopped ions were investigated. The measurements were performed using 219Rn recoil ions from the α-decay of a calibrated point-like 223Ra ion source. The extraction time was measured to be shorter than 10 ms at a helium gas pressure in the gas cell of 40 mbar. Thus, nuclides with half-lives on the order of a few milliseconds are accessible for the various precision experiments planned at SHIPTRAP. Extraction efficiencies of up to 30% were obtained at a helium pressure of 50 mbar. The estimated total efficiency of the gas cell, derived from the product of calculated stopping and measured extraction efficiency, amounts to about 10%. Factors limiting the efficiency are quantitatively understood. Under standard operating conditions, ion-molecule reactions in the gas cell do not seem to limit the efficiency of the gas cell significantly.

  15. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  16. Single step purification of lactoperoxidase from whey involving reverse micelles-assisted extraction and its comparison with reverse micellar extraction.

    PubMed

    Nandini, K E; Rastogi, Navin K

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of lactoperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) from whey was studied using single step reverse micelles-assisted extraction and compared with reverse micellar extraction. The reverse micelles-assisted extraction resulted in extraction of contaminating proteins and recovery of lactoperoxidase in the aqueous phase leading to its purification. Reverse micellar extraction at the optimized condition after forward and backward steps resulted in activity recovery of lactoperoxidase and purification factor of the order of 86.60% and 3.25-fold, respectively. Whereas reverse micelles-assisted extraction resulted in higher activity recovery of lactoperoxidase (127.35%) and purification factor (3.39-fold). The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles also evidenced that higher purification was obtained in reverse micelles-assisted extraction as compared of reverse micellar extracted lactoperoxidase.

  17. Kinetic modeling of pressure-assisted solvent extraction of polyphenols from green tea in comparison with the conventional extraction.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Lianggong

    2015-01-01

    In the study, the kinetics of pressure-assisted solvent extraction (PSE) of polyphenols from green tea at different pressures (300, 400, 500 MPa) was studied. The model derived from Patricelli, which describes the two step extraction consisting of rapid washing followed by slow diffusion, had been applied to estimate the extraction kinetics. The model parameters were calculated using the experimental results obtained from PSE and conventional solvent extraction (CSE). The results showed a good prediction of Patricelli's model for extraction kinetics in all experiments (R(2)≥0.996), which gave the possibility for estimation of the extraction rate and extent of PSE. The results also showed that the extraction by washing was more efficient with PSE than CSE. In addition, the initial extraction rate of the PSE was always much larger than that of the CSE. Therefore, PSE was more effective for extracting the green tea polyphenols than the CSE. PMID:25053058

  18. Actinomyces meyeri brain abscess following dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Clancy, U; Ronayne, A; Prentice, M B; Jackson, A

    2015-04-13

    We describe the rare occurrence of an Actinomyces meyeri cerebral abscess in a 55-year-old woman following a dental extraction. This patient presented with a 2-day history of hemisensory loss, hyper-reflexia and retro-orbital headache, 7 days following a dental extraction for apical peridonitis. Neuroimaging showed a large left parietal abscess with surrounding empyema. The patient underwent craniotomy and drainage of the abscess. A. meyeri was cultured. Actinomycosis is a rare cause of cerebral abscess. The A. meyeri subtype is particularly rare, accounting for less than 1% of specimens. This case describes an unusually brief course of the disease, which is usually insidious. Parietal lobe involvement is unusual as cerebral abscesses usually have a predilection for the frontal and temporal regions of the brain. Although there are no randomised trials to guide therapy, current consensus is to use a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics, followed by 6-12 months of oral therapy.

  19. Energy extraction from crustal magma bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    An open heat exchanger system for extracting thermal energy directly from shallow crustal magma bodies is described. The concept relies on natural properties of magma to create a permeable, solidified region surrounding a borehole drilled into the magma chamber. The region is fractured, possessing large surface area, and is sealed from the overburden. Energy is extracted by circulating a fluid through the system. Thermal stress analysis shows that such a fractured region can be developed at depths up to 10 km. An open heat exchanger experiment conducted in the partial melt zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake demonstrated the validity of this concept. Effective heat transfer surface area an order of magnitude greater than the borehole area was established during a two-day test period. The open heat exchanger concept greatly extends the number of magma systems that can be economically developed to produce energy.

  20. AN INJECTION/EXTRACTION SCENARIO FOR EMMA

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.S.

    2009-05-04

    EMMA is an experiment to study beam dynamics in a linear non-scaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG). It accelerates an electron beam from 10 to 20 MeV kinetic energy. To optimally perform these studies, one must be able to inject the beam at any energy within the machine's energy range. Furthermore, because we wish to study the behavior of large-emittance beams in such a machine, the injection systems must be able to inject the beam anywhere within a transverse phase space ellipse with a normalized acceptance of 3 mm, and the extraction systems must be able to extract from that same ellipse. I describe a computation of kicker and septum fields to achieve all of these requirements, and discuss how this interacts with the hardware constraints.

  1. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  2. Coronary tree extraction using motion layer separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ling, Haibin; Prummer, Simone; Zhou, Kevin Shaohua; Ostermeier, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-01-01

    Fluoroscopic images contain useful information that is difficult to comprehend due to the collapse of the 3D information into 2D space. Extracting the informative layers and analyzing them separately could significantly improve the task of understanding the image content. Traditional Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is not applicable for coronary angiography because of heart beat and breathing motion. In this work, we propose a layer extraction method for separating transparent motion layers in fluoroscopic image sequences, so that coronary tree can be better visualized.. The method is based on the fact that different anatomical structures possess different motion patterns, e.g., heart is beating fast, while lung is breathing slower. A multiscale implementation is used to further improve the efficiency and accuracy. The proposed approach helps to enhance the visibility of the vessel tree, both visually and quantitatively.

  3. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jener David G; Espeleta, Alexandre F; Branco, Alexsandro; de Assis, Sandra A

    2013-02-15

    In this work, sisal waste was used as a source of pectin. Sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibres, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal, producing more than 246,000 tonnes. However, the process of removing the fibres of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. This study investigated the effect of the liquid/solid ratio (%), time (min), and temperature (°C) on the yield of the pectin obtained from sisal waste by attractive environmentally friendly process. A statistical Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the yield of pectin, the dependent variable. Significant models were obtained. The yield of the extracted pectin ranged from 4.61 to 19.2%. The conditions that produced the highest yield (19.2%) were a temperature of 85 °C, extraction time of 60 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 2%. PMID:23399250

  4. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  5. Fuel alcohol extraction technology commercialization conference

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A. L.; Griffith, W. L.; Googin, J. M.

    1980-12-01

    The fualex, or fuel alcohol extraction process, uses a combination of hydrocarbon and surfactant to remove neutral solvents, such as butanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone, from aqueous solution. The hydrocarbon extractants use may be fuels, such as gasoline, furnace oil, and diesel fuel. Surfactant concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g/liter and hydrocarbon raning from 0.01 to 1 liter per liter aqueous alcohols solution have been investigated. The fualex process was tested on solutions which contain 5% w/v total neutral solvents, since this is near maximum for the fermentation product stream. The neutral solvents are removed in the form of an emulsion which is white to light bluish in the visible range. The emulsion has potential for direct use in fuels or as an intermediate for obtaining purified solvents.

  6. Fast Hough transform for automatic bridge extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qiwei; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang; Zhang, Huaili

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a new method to recognize bridge in the complicated background is presented. The algorithm takes full advantages of the characteristics of the bridge image. Firstly, the image is preprocessed and the object edges are extracted. Then according to the limitations of traditional Hough transform (HT), the extraction method of the image line segment characteristic of HT is improved, which eliminates spurious peaks on the basis of global and local thresholds, discriminates the position relation between two straight line segments, and merges segments with near endpoints, etc. Experiments show that this algorithm is more precise and efficient than traditional HT, moreover it can provide a complete description of the bridge in a complicated background.

  7. Characteristics of wax extracted from lubricant basestocks

    SciTech Connect

    Guzauskas, J.F.; Abbott, F.P.; Baumgartner, N.R.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes a process for characterizing wax extracted from lubricant basestocks. The authors chose seven basestocks coming from different global regions and having a wide range of low-temperature properties. The wax was extracted from each basestock at-40{degrees}C using a cold-filtering method. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), and optical microscopy (OM) were used to characterize these waxes. These data were compared to each basestock/s viscosity, pour point, and borderline pumping temperature, and some correlations were found between the wax characteristics and the cold temperature properties of the basestocks. This method of characterization can be useful when trying to select the optimal pour point depressant for engine lubricants. 10 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Butterbur extract: prophylactic treatment for childhood migraines.

    PubMed

    Utterback, Gretchann; Zacharias, Rayna; Timraz, Shahrazad; Mershman, Denay

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of migraine headaches in childhood is increasing. Migraines are often difficult to diagnose in pediatrics and even more difficult to treat and prevent. In order to decrease the impact of the condition on the child and the family, prophylactic treatment is recommended if the child is experiencing disabling migraines. The medications currently prescribed for the prevention of pediatric migraines often have significant side effects and are of questionable therapeutic value. For those patients and parents who are interested in alternative therapies and natural remedies for preventive treatment of pediatric migraines, butterbur extract derived from the butterbur plant, Petasites hybridus, has emerged as a promising treatment. This paper discusses the impact of migraines among pediatric patients, the rationale for the preventative treatment of pediatric migraines, the current therapies and the relevance of butterbur extract as a prophylactic treatment for migraines in this patient population.

  9. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  11. Extracting Critical Path Graphs from MPI Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M

    2005-07-27

    The critical path is one of the fundamental runtime characteristics of a parallel program. It identifies the longest execution sequence without wait delays. In other words, the critical path is the global execution path that inflicts wait operations on other nodes without itself being stalled. Hence, it dictates the overall runtime and knowing it is important to understand an application's runtime and message behavior and to target optimizations. We have developed a toolset that identifies the critical path of MPI applications, extracts it, and then produces a graphical representation of the corresponding program execution graph to visualize it. To implement this, we intercept all MPI library calls, use the information to build the relevant subset of the execution graph, and then extract the critical path from there. We have applied our technique to several scientific benchmarks and successfully produced critical path diagrams for applications running on up to 128 processors.

  12. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jener David G; Espeleta, Alexandre F; Branco, Alexsandro; de Assis, Sandra A

    2013-02-15

    In this work, sisal waste was used as a source of pectin. Sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibres, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal, producing more than 246,000 tonnes. However, the process of removing the fibres of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. This study investigated the effect of the liquid/solid ratio (%), time (min), and temperature (°C) on the yield of the pectin obtained from sisal waste by attractive environmentally friendly process. A statistical Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the yield of pectin, the dependent variable. Significant models were obtained. The yield of the extracted pectin ranged from 4.61 to 19.2%. The conditions that produced the highest yield (19.2%) were a temperature of 85 °C, extraction time of 60 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 2%.

  13. Magnetic relaxation: Coal swelling, extraction, pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1992-11-06

    The goals for year I of the grant were to extract the Argonne Coals, to swell them, to reswell their residues, to seal the various samples for measurements, to perform analyses of the samples and to measure their NMR decays. Because of an unexpected characteristic of the extraction process, more detailed analyses of the samples are being done than originally anticipated. The mass spectrometric analyses have not been completed. Because routine NMR analyses needed to be done in greater detail than anticipated, the NMR decay measurements have also been delayed. In order to offset these delays, all of the EPR samples, which were to have been examined in year III, have been prepared and a substantial proportion of the pulsed EPR measurements have been made.

  14. Extraction of Chromosomal DNA from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-05-02

    Extraction of DNA from Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells is required for various uses, including templating polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), Southern blotting, library construction, and high-throughput sequencing. To purify high-quality DNA, the cell wall is removed by digestion with Zymolyase or Lyticase and the resulting spheroplasts lysed using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Cell debris, SDS, and SDS-protein complexes are subsequently precipitated by the addition of potassium acetate and removed by centrifugation. Finally, DNA is precipitated using isopropanol. At this stage, purity is usually sufficient for PCR. However, for more sensitive procedures, such as restriction enzyme digestion, additional purification steps, including proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform extraction, are recommended. All of these steps are described in detail here.

  15. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Mohd; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ahmad, Mohd Imtiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs) of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae). Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested. PMID:24302834

  16. Extractable heavy metals in Atlantic coast soils

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, K.S.; Langille, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of soils, using 0.1 N HCl as an extractant for the heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb on fine textured North Shore and coarse textured Annapolis Valley soils was completed. Results show ranges of 0.012 to 0.469 ppM Cd, 0.102 to 2.90 ppM Cr, 0.16 to 29.25 ppM Ni, and 0.12 to 244.8 ppM Pb. Correlation studies indicate that the heavy metal content of fine textured soils is less influenced by changes in clay content and organic matter than are coarse textured soils. Generally the surface layers (0 to 15 cms) are higher in extractable heavy metal content than the lower layers (15 to 30 cms).

  17. Lichenic extracts and metabolites as UV filters.

    PubMed

    Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Legouin, Béatrice; Couteau, Céline; Boustie, Joël; Coiffard, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    Three lichen extracts and ten lichenic compounds have been screened for their photoprotective activities. The determination of their Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and Protection Factor-UVA (PF-UVA) values was done in vitro. Among them, a Lasallia pustulata extract and gyrophoric acid exhibited SPF values over 5, which is better than Homosalate (SPF≈4). Their photoprotective properties are only slightly modified after a 2-hours period of irradiation. Salazinic acid and L. pustulata presented characteristics of a UVA booster like the butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) (PF-UVA≈2 vs. 2.8 for Avobenzone). Salazinic acid was a better anion superoxide scavenger than ascorbic acid and none of them exhibited a photosensitizing cytotoxicity by exposing them on HaCaT cells to UVA radiations (photo-irritancy factor PIF<5).

  18. Extraction of stationary components in biosignal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Vargas, J D; Cardenas-Pena, D; Castellanos-Dominguez, G

    2012-01-01

    Biosignal recordings are widely used in the medical environment to support the evaluation and the diagnosis of pathologies. Nevertheless, the main difficulty lies in the non-stationary behavior of the biosignals, difficulting the obtention of patterns characterizing the changes in physiological or pathological states. Thus, the obtention of the stationary and non-stationary components of a biosignal is still an open issue. This work proposes a methodology to detect time-homogeneities based on time-frequency analysis with aim to extract the non-stationary behavior of the biosignal. Results show an increase in the stationarity and in the distance between classes of the reconstructions from the enhanced time-frequency representations. The stationary components extracted with the proposed approach can be used to solve biosignal classification problems. PMID:23365817

  19. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  20. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. PMID:26471585

  1. Polysaccharide extraction from Sphallerocarpus gracilis roots by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zheng, Cuiping; Zhan, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    The extraction process of Sphallerocarpus gracilis root polysaccharides (SGRP) was optimized using response surface methodology with two methods [hot-water extraction (HWE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE)]. The antioxidant activities of SGRP were determined, and the structural features of the untreated materials (HWE residue and UAE residue) and the extracted polysaccharides were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the optimal UAE conditions were extraction temperature of 81°C, extraction time of 1.7h, liquid-solid ratio of 17ml/g, ultrasonic power of 300W and three extraction cycles. The optimal HWE conditions were 93°C extraction temperature, 3.6h extraction time, 21ml/g liquid-solid ratio and three extraction cycles. UAE offered a higher extraction yield with a shorter time, lower temperature and a lower solvent consumption compared with HWE, and the extracted polysaccharides possessed a higher antioxidant capacity. Therefore, UAE could be used as an alternative to conventional HWE for SGRP extraction. PMID:27032488

  2. Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Su, J.; Wetzel, S.; Pekarek, S.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-06-01

    A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of hydrocarbons with a nonpolar solvent may be less efficient. A shaking method was designed to fill the need for simpler and more efficient extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil. A systematic study of extraction conditions was performed for various soil types, soil weights, solvents, extraction times, and extraction cycles. The results were compared to those for Soxhlet extraction. Shaking 1 g of soil with a sequence of three 10-mL aliquots of dichloromethane or acetone was found to be equivalent to Soxhlet extraction for total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Shaking with acetone was more consistent than all other methods for the extraction of specific compounds from aged, contaminated soil. The shaking method appears to be applicable to a wide range of soil types and petroleum contaminants but should be compared to Soxhlet extraction for new conditions.

  3. Automatic Extraction of JPF Options and Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luks, Wojciech; Tkachuk, Oksana; Buschnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Documenting existing Java PathFinder (JPF) projects or developing new extensions is a challenging task. JPF provides a platform for creating new extensions and relies on key-value properties for their configuration. Keeping track of all possible options and extension mechanisms in JPF can be difficult. This paper presents jpf-autodoc-options, a tool that automatically extracts JPF projects options and other documentation-related information, which can greatly help both JPF users and developers of JPF extensions.

  4. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  5. Screening botanical extracts for quinoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B M; Bolton, J L; van Breemen, R B

    2001-11-01

    Botanical dietary supplements represent a significant share of the growing market for alternative medicine in the USA, where current regulations do not require assessment of their safety. To help ensure the safety of such products, an in vitro assay using pulsed ultrafiltration and LC-MS-MS has been developed to screen botanical extracts for the formation of electrophilic and potentially toxic quinoid species upon bioactivation by hepatic cytochromes P450. Rat liver microsomes were trapped in a flow-through chamber by an ultrafiltration membrane, and samples containing botanical extracts, GSH and NADP(H), were flow-injected into the chamber. Botanical compounds that were metabolized to reactive intermediates formed stable GSH adducts mimicking a common in vivo detoxification pathway. If present in the ultrafiltrate, GSH conjugates were detected using LC-MS-MS with precursor ion scanning followed by additional characterization using product ion scanning and comparison to standard compounds. As expected, no GSH adducts of reactive metabolites were found in extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), which are under investigation as botanical dietary supplements for the management of menopause. However, extracts of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), all of which are known to contain compounds that are either carcinogenic or toxic to mammals, produced GSH adducts during this screening assay. Several compounds that formed GSH conjugates including novel metabolites of rosmarinic acid were identified using database searching and additional LC-MS-MS studies. This assay should be useful as a preliminary toxicity screen during the development of botanical dietary supplements. A positive test suggests that additional toxicological studies are warranted before human consumption of a botanical product.

  6. SEEK: Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeret, Joel; Seehars, Sebastian; Chang, Chihway; Monstein, Christian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    SEEK (Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer) processes time-ordered-data from single dish radio telescopes or from the simulation pipline HIDE (ascl:1607.019), removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and recovers the astronomical radio signal. With its companion code HIDE (ascl:1607.019), it provides end-to-end simulation and processing of radio survey data.

  7. Screening botanical extracts for quinoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B M; Bolton, J L; van Breemen, R B

    2001-11-01

    Botanical dietary supplements represent a significant share of the growing market for alternative medicine in the USA, where current regulations do not require assessment of their safety. To help ensure the safety of such products, an in vitro assay using pulsed ultrafiltration and LC-MS-MS has been developed to screen botanical extracts for the formation of electrophilic and potentially toxic quinoid species upon bioactivation by hepatic cytochromes P450. Rat liver microsomes were trapped in a flow-through chamber by an ultrafiltration membrane, and samples containing botanical extracts, GSH and NADP(H), were flow-injected into the chamber. Botanical compounds that were metabolized to reactive intermediates formed stable GSH adducts mimicking a common in vivo detoxification pathway. If present in the ultrafiltrate, GSH conjugates were detected using LC-MS-MS with precursor ion scanning followed by additional characterization using product ion scanning and comparison to standard compounds. As expected, no GSH adducts of reactive metabolites were found in extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), which are under investigation as botanical dietary supplements for the management of menopause. However, extracts of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), all of which are known to contain compounds that are either carcinogenic or toxic to mammals, produced GSH adducts during this screening assay. Several compounds that formed GSH conjugates including novel metabolites of rosmarinic acid were identified using database searching and additional LC-MS-MS studies. This assay should be useful as a preliminary toxicity screen during the development of botanical dietary supplements. A positive test suggests that additional toxicological studies are warranted before human consumption of a botanical product. PMID:11712913

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark; Redelman, Douglas

    2004-03-01

    Epifluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used in different combinations with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled immunoglobulins M and G3 to estimate the numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil extracts containing 10 to 10,017 oocysts/ml. No combination had a systematic effect on accuracy or precision. Background debris may have produced overestimates at low oocyst concentrations when flow cytometry was used. PMID:15006810

  9. Biotechnology for the extractive metals industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is an alternative process for the extraction of metals, the beneficiation of ores, and the recovery of metals from aqueous systems. Currently, microbial-based processes are used for leaching copper and uranium, enhancing the recovery of gold from refractory ores, and treating industrial wastewater to recover metal values. Future developments, emanating from fundamental and applied research and advances through genetic engineering, are expected to increase the use and efficiency of these biotechnological processes.

  10. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  11. Demonstrating the extraction and use of sunoil

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.L.; Hauck, D.D.

    1982-12-01

    A reliable source of fuel for farm power units is essential. The recent oil embargo and increasing fuel prices has brought about an interest in alternate fuels. Sunflower oil shows potential and can be removed from the seed by squeezing. After filtering, this oil can be used to fuel a diesel engine. A demonstration was developed with an expeller and farm tractor to show North Dakota residents oil extraction and use in an engine.

  12. Extracting TMDs from CLAS12 data

    SciTech Connect

    Aghasyan, Mher M.; Avakian, Harut A.

    2014-01-01

    We present studies of double longitudinal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator, which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model based on the fully differential cross section for the process. Additionally we employ Bessel-weighting to the MC events to extract transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and also discuss possible uncertainties due to kinematic correlation effects.

  13. Solid-phase extraction in segmented flow.

    PubMed

    Rendl, Martin; Brandstetter, Thomas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Two-phase flow systems are increasingly popular for miniaturized, high-throughput performance of analytical or chemical reactions. In this contribution, we extend a previously described method that allows to increase the range of applications of heterogeneous reactions in two-phase flow, i.e., reactions that rely on isolation and purification of the compound of interest for downstream analysis. Our concept is based on liquid plugs, which serve as miniaturized compartments for the analytical reactions. Purification of the target compound is achieved by extracting the analyte from the aqueous compartments using magnetic beads as solid carriers. In the present paper, we elucidate the influence of parameters such as the polarity of the liquid/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces, the magnetic forces and the fluidic conditions onto the extraction performance. The conditions for reliable extraction and purification of the target compounds are determined. Furthermore, we investigate how to facilitate breaking of the plugs through reduction of the surface tension of the solid/liquid interface. When a lower surface tension is employed, a smaller number of beads is required for the extraction process, which implies a higher sensitivity of the device. In addition, we generate channels with different surface chemistries, which are able to manipulate the flow of the two immiscible liquids. We describe a very simple way to generate such devices and show that we can achieve a transition from segmented flow of plugs to a side-by side flow of the two immiscible liquids, a key requirement for the purification of the compounds. PMID:25300748

  14. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    DOEpatents

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source. (auth)

  15. Extraction of motion information from peripheral processes.

    PubMed

    Jain, R

    1981-05-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with low-level processes in machine perception of motion. A motion analysis system should exploit information contained in ``early warning signals'' during the intensity based peripheral phase of motion perception. We show that intensity based difference pictures contain motion information about objects in a dynamic scene, and present methods for the extraction of motion information in the peripheral phase. Some experiments with laboratory generated and real world scenes demonstrate the potential of the technique.

  16. 45Ti extraction using hydroxamate resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    As an attractive radionuclide for positron emission tomography, this study explores the extraction and reactivity of 45Ti produced via the 45Sc(p,n)45Ti reaction on a GE PETtrace. Using a small hydroxamate column, we have demonstrated an overall recovery of >50% of 45Ti in ˜1 mL of 1M oxalic acid. Conditions for reacting with desferal were also explored, with effective specific activities up to 38 GBq/μmol obtained.

  17. Solvent extraction behaviour of thiocyanic acid.

    PubMed

    Jurriaanse, A; Kemp, D M

    1968-11-01

    The solvent extraction behaviour of thiocyanic acid with isobutyl methyl ketone and xylene as solvents is described. In the ketone system the thiocyanic acid is solvated in the organic phase to give a complex with a proposed composition of HSCN. 2IBMK. Deviations from ideal behaviour, which can be attributed to variations in the activity coefficient of the acid in the aqueous phase, are shown.

  18. Remote sensing and extractable biological resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    The nature and quantity of extractable biological resources available in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The application of miniaturized radio sensors to track the movement of fish and birds is described. The specific uses of remote sensors for detecting and mapping areas of algae, red tide, thermal pollution, and vegetation beds are presented. The necessity for obtaining information on the physical, chemical, and meteorological features of the entire bay in order to provide improved resources management is emphasized.

  19. Extracting insight from noisy cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Landry, Christian R; Levy, Emmanuel D; Abd Rabbo, Diala; Tarassov, Kirill; Michnick, Stephen W

    2013-11-21

    Network biologists attempt to extract meaningful relationships among genes or their products from very noisy data. We argue that what we categorize as noisy data may sometimes reflect noisy biology and therefore may shield a hidden meaning about how networks evolve and how matter is organized in the cell. We present practical solutions, based on existing evolutionary and biophysical concepts, through which our understanding of cell biology can be enormously enriched. PMID:24267884

  20. Extraction of Transversity and Collins Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; D'Alesio, Umberto; Melis, Stefano; Murgia, Francesco; Prokudin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    We present a global re-analysis of recent experimental data on azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, from the HERMES and COMPASS Collaborations, and in e{sup +}e{sup -} --> h_1h_2X processes, from the Belle Collaboration. The transversity distribution and the Collins functions are extracted simultaneously, in a revised analysis which also takes into account a new parameterization of the unknown functions.