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Sample records for lymnaea cubensis molusco

  1. Lymnaea cubensis, an experimental intermediate host for Fascioloides magna.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, Philippe; Novobilský, Adam; Höglund, Johan; Kasný, Martin; Pankrác, Jan; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Rondelaud, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Single-miracidium infections of Lymnaea cubensis (Pfeiffer) from Guadeloupe with the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) (Digenea) were carried out during five successive snail generations to determine if this lymnaeid might sustain complete larval development of the parasite. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula (Miller) (a single generation) infected according to the same protocol. It was recorded that prevalence and intensity of F. magna infection in L. cubensis progressively increased from F1 to F5 generations. Cercarial shedding of F. magna was noted only within F5 generation of L. cubensis. However, most measured parameters of infection in this species were significantly lower than those noted for G. truncatula and most L. cubensis died after a single shedding wave. Despite this, L. cubensis can be added to the list of potential intermediate hosts of F. magna. PMID:24822325

  2. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  3. Resistance in Cucumis melo germplasm to Pseudoperonospora cubensis pathotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucumis melo-Pseudoperonospora cubensis host-pathogen interaction is characterized by large variation in specificity. This report summarizes results obtained by laboratory screening of 52 C. melo accessions by 8 isolates of P. cubensis. The isolates represent 8 different pathotypes with low, m...

  4. A re-consideration of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli based on molecular and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2005-07-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA region was carried out with two economically important downy mildews, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, which infects species of Cucumis, Cucurbita, and Citrullus belonging to Cucurbitaceae, and P. humuli, which infects plants of the genus Humulus belonging to Cannabaceae. Two closely related species, P. cannabina and P. celtidis, were also included to reveal taxonomic relationships with the first two mildews. All four species formed a well-resolved clade when compared with the ITS sequences of other downy mildew genera, using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The P. cubensis isolates obtained from different hosts and (or) geographical origins in Korea, exhibited no intraspecific variability in the ITS sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of P. cubensis and P. humuli showed that they share a high level of sequence homology; the morphology of the sporangiophores, sporangia, and dehiscence apparatus confirmed the similarity of the two species. We therefore reduce P. humuli to the status of a taxonomic synonym of P. cubensis.

  5. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NEW SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostovzev in CUCUMBER.

    PubMed

    Szczechura, W; Staniaszek, M; Klosinska, U; Kozik, E U

    2015-10-01

    Downy mildew of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostovzev, is one of the most important foliar diseases of cucurbit crops. Two parental lines resistant PI 197085, susceptible PI 175695 and their F2 generation were used in our study. Inheritance of resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in PI 197085 was quantitative. JoiMap 4.1 and MapQTL 6.0 software was used for a linkage groups construction and QTL mapping. Three QTL were detected: DM1, DM2, DM3. The loci were mapped on chromosome 5 of cucumber genome. Molecular analysis confirmed results of classical quantitative genetics indicating that resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in PI 197085 is polygenic trait. PMID:27169228

  6. [Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days.

  7. Regional and Temporal Population Structure of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Michigan and Ontario.

    PubMed

    Naegele, R P; Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Kurjan, J D; Saude, C; Hausbeck, M K

    2016-04-01

    Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM), caused by the oomycete pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a devastating disease that affects cucurbit species worldwide. This obligate, wind-dispersed pathogen does not overwinter in Michigan or other northern regions and new isolates can enter the state throughout the growing season. To evaluate the regional and temporal population structure of P. cubensis, sporangia from CDM lesions were collected from cucurbit foliage grown in Michigan and Ontario field locations in 2011. Population structure and genetic diversity were assessed in 257 isolates using nine simple sequence repeat markers. Genetic diversity was high for isolates from Michigan and Canada (0.6627 and 0.6131, respectively). Five genetic clusters were detected and changes in population structure varied by site and sampling date within a growing season. The Michigan and Canada populations were significantly differentiated, and a unique genetic cluster was detected in Michigan. PMID:26735060

  8. Resurgence of Pseudoperonospora cubensis: The Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal; Van den Langenberg, Kyle M; Wehner, Todd C; Ojiambo, Peter S; Hausbeck, Mary; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Lebeda, Aleš; Sierotzki, Helge; Gisi, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The downy mildew pathogen, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, which infects plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, has undergone major changes during the last decade. Disease severity and epidemics are far more destructive than previously reported, and new genotypes, races, pathotypes, and mating types of the pathogen have been discovered in populations from around the globe as a result of the resurgence of the disease. Consequently, disease control through host plant resistance and fungicide applications has become more complex. This resurgence of P. cubensis offers challenges to scientists in many research areas including pathogen biology, epidemiology and dispersal, population structure and population genetics, host preference, host-pathogen interactions and gene expression, genetic host plant resistance, inheritance of host and fungicide resistance, and chemical disease control. This review serves to summarize the current status of this major pathogen and to guide future management and research efforts within this pathosystem.

  9. Central Localization of Plasticity Involved in Appetitive Conditioning in "Lymnaea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Volko A.; Styles, Benjamin J.; Ireland, Julie S.; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    Learning to associate a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) results in changes in the processing of CS information. Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of "Lymnaea" feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording…

  10. Fasciola hepatica in Cuba: compatibility of different isolates with two intermediate snail hosts, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A A; Sánchez, J; Pointier, J-P; Théron, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2014-12-01

    In Cuba, only two lymnaeid snails, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, with different ecology and distribution patterns, are intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica. The compatibility of these two species as hosts was analysed through their rates of infection, the production of rediae and survivorship when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Ten populations of G. cubensis, eight of P. columella collected from various habitats and six isolates of F. hepatica sampled in slaughterhouses from different localities were tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that G. cubensis is a more compatible host for F. hepatica in Cuba when compared with P. columella. However, the role that P. columella may have in fascioliasis transmission under certain conditions should not be disregarded. Variation in infectivity among isolates of F. hepatica were also observed and may explain why some regions in Cuba are more commonly subjected to fascioliasis outbreaks.

  11. Commiphora molmol extracts as plant molluscicide against Lymnaea natalensis.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmad M; El-Shazly, Atef M; Nagaty, Ibrahim Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-08-01

    Two extracts from the herbal plant, Commiphora molmol showed a high molluscicidal effect against Lymnaea natalensis. The oil extract was more potent than the oleo-resin. A concentration of 10 ppm of the oil extract killed 100% of L. natalensis after 5th day, but the oleo-resin extract killed 100% of them at a concentration 20 ppm after 5th day. PMID:17985579

  12. Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli detection using species-specific probes and high definition melt curve analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three assays were developed for molecular differentiation of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli, causal agents of cucurbit and hop downy mildew, respectively, for detection of airborne sporangia and diagnosis of symptomatic leaf tissue. The assays were based on previously identified single nuc...

  13. The effect of particle size on the leaching of Scirpus cubensis Poepp & Kunth.

    PubMed

    Bianchini Júnior, I; Antonio, R M

    2003-05-01

    An investigation was made on the effects of detritus particle size on leaching rates in organic matter, and the associated environmental changes caused by detritus re-cycling in an oxbow lake (Lagoa do Infernão). Experiments were conducted during the decay of an aquatic macrophyte specie, S. cubensis, which in turn led to the formation of colored compounds. The S. cubensis were collected from the Lagoa do Infernão and taken to the laboratory where they were washed, dried, and fractionated using a sieve pedological set. The detritus was classified into six groups according to size, viz. 100, 10, 1.13, 0.78, 0.61, and 0.25 mm. Overall, the fragmentation process tended to increase the detritus fraction to be dissolved and to decrease the leaching rates owing to the possible dissolution of refracting matter. Fragmentation also caused the amount of colored compounds to increase and appeared to favor dissolved electrolyte release. Finally, in Lagoa do Infernão fragmentation is probably mediated by the metabolic action of benthic communities. PMID:14509841

  14. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola hepatica in the intermediate snail host Galba cubensis.

    PubMed

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Hernández, Hilda; Sánchez, Jorge; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-07-30

    Fasciolosis is a snail-borne trematode infection that has re-emerged as a human disease, and is considered a significant problem for veterinary medicine worldwide. The evaluation of the transmission risk of fasciolosis as well as the efficacy of the strategies for its control could be carried out through epidemiological surveillance of the snails that act as intermediate hosts of the parasites. The present study aimed to develop the first multiplex PCR to detect Fasciola hepatica in Galba cubensis, an important intermediate host of the parasite in the Americas and especially in the Caribbean basin. The multiplex PCR was optimized for the amplification of a 340 bp fragment of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of F. hepatica rDNA, while another set of primers was designed and used to amplify a conserved segment of the nuclear 18S rDNA of the snail (451 bp), as an internal control of the reaction. The assay was able to detect up to 100 pg of the parasite even at high concentrations of snail DNA, an analytical sensitivity that allows the detection of less than a single miracidium, which is the minimal biological infestation unit. A controlled laboratory-reared G. cubensis - F. hepatica system was used for the evaluation of the developed multiplex PCR, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. This assay constitutes a novel, useful and suitable technique for the survey of fasciolosis transmission through one of the main intermediate hosts in the Western hemisphere. PMID:26012858

  15. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola hepatica in the intermediate snail host Galba cubensis.

    PubMed

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Hernández, Hilda; Sánchez, Jorge; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-07-30

    Fasciolosis is a snail-borne trematode infection that has re-emerged as a human disease, and is considered a significant problem for veterinary medicine worldwide. The evaluation of the transmission risk of fasciolosis as well as the efficacy of the strategies for its control could be carried out through epidemiological surveillance of the snails that act as intermediate hosts of the parasites. The present study aimed to develop the first multiplex PCR to detect Fasciola hepatica in Galba cubensis, an important intermediate host of the parasite in the Americas and especially in the Caribbean basin. The multiplex PCR was optimized for the amplification of a 340 bp fragment of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of F. hepatica rDNA, while another set of primers was designed and used to amplify a conserved segment of the nuclear 18S rDNA of the snail (451 bp), as an internal control of the reaction. The assay was able to detect up to 100 pg of the parasite even at high concentrations of snail DNA, an analytical sensitivity that allows the detection of less than a single miracidium, which is the minimal biological infestation unit. A controlled laboratory-reared G. cubensis - F. hepatica system was used for the evaluation of the developed multiplex PCR, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. This assay constitutes a novel, useful and suitable technique for the survey of fasciolosis transmission through one of the main intermediate hosts in the Western hemisphere.

  16. Morphological and physiological characteristics of dermal photoreceptors in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Tetsuro; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Dermal photoreceptors located in the mantle of Lymnaea stagnalis were histologically and physiologically characterized. Our previous study demonstrated that the shadow response from dermal photoreceptors induces the whole-body withdrawal response. Through the interneuron, RPeD11, we detected that the light-off response indirectly originated from a dermal photoreceptor. Previous observations, based on behavioral pharmacology, revealed that cyclic guanosine monophosphate acts as a second messenger in the dermal photoreceptor. Furthermore, gastropods possess dermal photoreceptors containing rhodopsin, as a photopigment, and another photo-sensitive protein, arrestin, responsible for terminating the light response. Thus, we chose three antibodies, anti-cGMP, anti-rhodopsin, and anti-β-arrestin, to identify the dermal photoreceptor molecules in Lymnaea mantle. Extracellular recording, using a suction electrode on the mantle, revealed a light off-response from the right parietal nerve. Overlapping structures, positive against each of the antibodies, were also observed. Numerous round, granular particles of 3–47 μm in diameter with one nucleus were distributed around pneumostome and/or inside the mantle. The cells surrounding the pneumostome area, located 10 μm beneath the surface, tended to have smaller cell soma ranging from 3 to 25 μm in diameter, while cells located in other areas were distributed uniformly inside the mantle, with a larger diameter ranging from 12 to 47 μm. The histological examination using back-filing Lucifer Yellow staining of the right parietal nerve with the three dermal photoreceptor antibodies confirmed that these overlapping-stained structures were dermal photoreceptors in Lymnaea. PMID:27493502

  17. Epidemiology and population biology of Pseudoperonospora cubensis: a model system for management of downy mildews.

    PubMed

    Ojiambo, Peter S; Gent, David H; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Hausbeck, Mary K; Holmes, Gerald J

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of cucurbit downy mildew has dramatically influenced production of cucurbits and disease management systems at multiple scales. Long-distance dispersal is a fundamental aspect of epidemic development that influences the timing and extent of outbreaks of cucurbit downy mildew. The dispersal potential of Pseudoperonospora cubensis appears to be limited primarily by sporangia production in source fields and availability of susceptible hosts and less by sporangia survival during transport. Uncertainty remains regarding the role of locally produced inoculum in disease outbreaks, but evidence suggests multiple sources of primary inoculum could be important. Understanding pathogen diversity and population differentiation is a critical aspect of disease management and an active research area. Underpinning advances in our understanding of pathogen biology and disease management has been the research capacity and coordination of stakeholders, scientists, and extension personnel. Concepts and approaches developed in this pathosystem can guide future efforts when responding to incursions of new or reemerging downy mildew pathogens.

  18. Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea fuscus are potential but uncommon intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymnaea palustris and L. fuscus are members of the European stagnicolines (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae). The role of stagnicolines in transmission of Fasciola hepatica has been often proposed. To assess the possible relationship between these two stagnicolines and F. hepatica in Sweden, field monitoring in parallel with experimental infections of L. palustris and L. fuscus were conducted. Methods Stagnicoline snails were collected and identified on pastures grazed by either sheep or cattle on four farms suffering from fasciolosis in Sweden during 2011–2012. Field-collected L. palustris and L. fuscus were examined for F. hepatica DNA by PCR. In the laboratory, different age groups of L. palustris, L. fuscus and G. truncatula were each exposed to two F. hepatica miracidia and main infection characteristics were obtained. Results One field-collected L. palustris (out of n = 668) contained F. hepatica as determined by PCR. On the other hand, stagnicolines artificially exposed to F. hepatica miracidia resulted in successful infection with fully differentiated cercariae, but only in juvenile snails (size, 1–2 mm at exposure) and with a prevalence of 51% and 13% in L. palustris and L. fuscus, respectively. In contrast, 90% of juvenile (size, 1–2 mm) and 92% of preadult G. truncatula (size, ≥ 2-4 mm), respectively, were successfully infected. Delayed, reduced and/or no spontaneous cercarial shedding was observed in the two stagnicolines when compared to G. truncatula. However, at snail dissection most cercariae from L. fuscus and L. palustris were able to encyst similarly to those from G. truncatula. Conclusion Both L. fuscus and L. palustris can sustain larval development of F. hepatica but with an apparent level of age resistance. The finding of a single F. hepatica positive specimen of L. palustris, together with infection characteristics from the experimental infection, suggest that L. palustris is a more suitable snail vector of F. hepatica than L

  19. Copper toxicity to the fresh water snail, Lymnaea luteola

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.M.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-07-01

    Haemocyanins are found in arthropoda and mollusca and show a copper content characteristic for each phylum. Heavy metal accumulation by mollusks is widely reported. Approximately one third of the enzymes either required addition of a metal ion as a cofactor in order to exhibit maximum activity or contained a slightly bound metal ion which appeared to be involved in the catalytic process. Copper is the only metal which has been detected in significant amounts in amino oxidase. The present study is designed to evaluate the influence of such copper, which is of such common occurrence in biological material, on some of the lipolytic enzymes of fresh water pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola when added to ambient medium. The present study also highlights the possible detoxification mechanism prevailing in this fresh water mollusk.

  20. Alternative Splicing of a Multi-Drug Transporter from Pseudoperonospora cubensis Generates an RXLR Effector Protein That Elicits a Rapid Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Savory, Elizabeth A.; Zou, Cheng; Adhikari, Bishwo N.; Hamilton, John P.; Buell, C. Robin; Shiu, Shin-Han; Day, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate oomycete pathogen, is the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew, a foliar disease of global economic importance. Similar to other oomycete plant pathogens, Ps. cubensis has a suite of RXLR and RXLR-like effector proteins, which likely function as virulence or avirulence determinants during the course of host infection. Using in silico analyses, we identified 271 candidate effector proteins within the Ps. cubensis genome with variable RXLR motifs. In extending this analysis, we present the functional characterization of one Ps. cubensis effector protein, RXLR protein 1 (PscRXLR1), and its closest Phytophthora infestans ortholog, PITG_17484, a member of the Drug/Metabolite Transporter (DMT) superfamily. To assess if such effector-non-effector pairs are common among oomycete plant pathogens, we examined the relationship(s) among putative ortholog pairs in Ps. cubensis and P. infestans. Of 271 predicted Ps. cubensis effector proteins, only 109 (41%) had a putative ortholog in P. infestans and evolutionary rate analysis of these orthologs shows that they are evolving significantly faster than most other genes. We found that PscRXLR1 was up-regulated during the early stages of infection of plants, and, moreover, that heterologous expression of PscRXLR1 in Nicotiana benthamiana elicits a rapid necrosis. More interestingly, we also demonstrate that PscRXLR1 arises as a product of alternative splicing, making this the first example of an alternative splicing event in plant pathogenic oomycetes transforming a non-effector gene to a functional effector protein. Taken together, these data suggest a role for PscRXLR1 in pathogenicity, and, in total, our data provide a basis for comparative analysis of candidate effector proteins and their non-effector orthologs as a means of understanding function and evolutionary history of pathogen effectors. PMID:22496844

  1. Alcoholic extract of tarantula cubensis improves sharp ruptured tendon healing after primary repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali; Meimandi Parizi, Abdolhamid

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of tarantula cubensis (TC) on the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) rupture after surgical anastomosis, on day 84-postinjury (DPI) in rabbits. Forty white New Zealand, mature, male rabbits were randomly and evenly divided into treated and control groups. After tenotomy and primary repair, the injured legs were immobilized for 2 weeks. TC was injected subcutaneously over the lesion on 3, 7, and 10 DPI. The control animals received subcutaneous injections of normal saline similarly. Animal's weight, tendon diameter, clinical status, radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were recorded at weekly intervals. The animals were euthanized on 84 DPI and the injured tendons and their normal contralaterals were evaluated for histopathologic, histomorphometric, ultrastructural, biomechanical, and percentage dry weight parameters. Treatment significantly improved the clinical performance, cell, collagen and tissue maturation, tissue alignment and remodeling, ultimate strength, stiffness, maximum stress, and dry weight content and decreased the tendon diameter, inflammation, adhesions and degeneration of the injured treated tendons compared to the injured control ones. The present findings showed that TC is effective on sharp ruptured SDFT in rabbits and it could be one of the novel therapeutic options in clinical trial studies. PMID:23431525

  2. Tarantula cubensis extract alters the degree of apoptosis and mitosis in canine mammary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gultiken, Nilgun; Guvenc, Tolga; Kaya, Duygu; Agaoglu, Ali Reha; Ay, Serhan Serhat; Kucukaslan, Ibrahim; Emre, Birten; Findik, Murat; Schäfer-Somi, Sabine; Aslan, Selim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 13 clinical cases of canine mammary adenocarcinoma were evaluated in order to understand the effect of Tarantula cubensis extract (TCE) on tumor tissue. Punch biopsies were taken from the tumors before treatment with TCE. Subcutaneous injections of TCE were administered three times at weekly intervals (3 mL per dog). Between days 7 and 10 after the third injection, the tumor masses were extirpated by complete unilateral mastectomy. Pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues were immunohistochemically assessed. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was found to be higher in pre-treatment compared to post-treatment tissues (p < 0.01) whereas Ki-67 expression was lower in post-treatment tissues (p < 0.01). No significant differences in fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor expression were observed between pre- and post-treatment tissues (p > 0.05). The apoptotic index was determined to be low before treatment and increased during treatment. These results suggest that TCE may be effective for controlling the local growth of canine mammary adenocarcinoma by regulating apoptosis. PMID:25549212

  3. Which Morphological Characteristics Are Most Influenced by the Host Matrix in Downy Mildews? A Case Study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  4. Which morphological characteristics are most influenced by the host matrix in downy mildews? A case study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

    PubMed

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  5. Predator detection enables juvenile Lymnaea to form long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Orr, M V; Hittel, K; Lukowiak, K

    2010-01-15

    Learning and memory provide the flexibility an organism requires to respond to changing social and ecological conditions. Juvenile Lymnaea have previously been shown to have a diminished capacity to form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior. Juvenile Lymnaea, however, can form LTM following classical conditioning of appetitive behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that laboratory-reared juvenile Lymnaea have the ability to detect the presence of a sympatric predator (i.e. crayfish) and respond to the predator by altering their aerial respiratory behavior. In addition to increasing their total breathing time, predator detection confers on juvenile Lymnaea an enhanced capability to form LTM following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior. That is, these juveniles now have the ability to form long-lasting memory. These data support the hypothesis that biologically relevant levels of stress associated with predator detection induce behavioral phenotypic alterations (i.e. enhanced LTM formation) in juveniles, which may increase their fitness. These data also support the notion that learning and memory formation in conjunction with predator detection is a form of inducible defense. PMID:20038665

  6. Predator detection enables juvenile Lymnaea to form long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Orr, M V; Hittel, K; Lukowiak, K

    2010-01-15

    Learning and memory provide the flexibility an organism requires to respond to changing social and ecological conditions. Juvenile Lymnaea have previously been shown to have a diminished capacity to form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior. Juvenile Lymnaea, however, can form LTM following classical conditioning of appetitive behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that laboratory-reared juvenile Lymnaea have the ability to detect the presence of a sympatric predator (i.e. crayfish) and respond to the predator by altering their aerial respiratory behavior. In addition to increasing their total breathing time, predator detection confers on juvenile Lymnaea an enhanced capability to form LTM following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior. That is, these juveniles now have the ability to form long-lasting memory. These data support the hypothesis that biologically relevant levels of stress associated with predator detection induce behavioral phenotypic alterations (i.e. enhanced LTM formation) in juveniles, which may increase their fitness. These data also support the notion that learning and memory formation in conjunction with predator detection is a form of inducible defense.

  7. The combined effect of isolation and Fasciola hepatica infection on the life history traits of Fossaria cubensis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, A; Yong, M; Wong, L; Sánchez, J

    2001-08-01

    Life history traits of Fossaria cubensis were compared between isolated and paired snails after infection with three miracidia of Fasciola hepatica. Four experimental groups were tested: isolated-unexposed, paired-unexposed, isolated-infected, and paired-infected. A repeated-measures ANOVA showed statistically significant interactions among isolation, infection, and age effects for shell size, number of egg masses per snail, number of eggs per snail, and number of viable eggs per snail. Isolated-unexposed snails exhibited the higher values of these variables and those of survival and finite and intrinsic rates of natural increase. Infection stimulated shell growth during the prepatent period, but differences were present only in paired snails since isolation causes a similar effect. Reproduction, in terms of the number of egg masses per snail and the number of eggs per mass per snail, decreases in the presence of parasitic infection, whereas isolation stimulates it. These effects were observed from early stages of infection.

  8. Production and application of an enzyme blend from Chrysoporthe cubensis and Penicillium pinophilum with potential for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Visser, Evan Michael; Falkoski, Daniel Luciano; de Almeida, Maíra Nicolau; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2013-09-01

    Blending of the enzyme extracts produced by different fungi can result in favorable synergetic enhancement of the enzyme blend with regards to the main cellulase activities, as well as the inclusion of accessory enzymes that may not be as abundant in enzyme extracts produced by predominantly cellulase producing fungi. The Chrysoporthe cubensis:Penicillium pinophilum 50:50 (v/v) blend produced herein presented good synergy, especially for FPase and endoglucanase activities which were 76% and 48% greater than theoretical, respectively. This enzyme blend was applied to sugarcane bagasse previously submitted to a simple alkali pretreatment. Glucan hydrolysis efficiency reached an excess of 60% and xylan conversion exceeded 90%. Increasing the hydrolysis temperature from 45 to 50°C also resulted in a 16-20% increase in conversion of both glucan and xylan fractions. The blended enzyme extract obtained therefore showed great potential for application in the lignocellulose hydrolysis process.

  9. Development of Ca2+ hotspots between Lymnaea neurons during synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhong-Ping; Grigoriev, Nikita; Munno, David; Lukowiak, Ken; MacVicar, Brian A; Goldberg, Jeffrey I; Syed, Naweed I

    2002-02-15

    Calcium (Ca2+) channel clustering at specific presynaptic sites is a hallmark of mature synapses. However, the spatial distribution patterns of Ca2+ channels at newly formed synapses have not yet been demonstrated. Similarly, it is unclear whether Ca2+ 'hotspots' often observed at the presynaptic sites are indeed target cell contact specific and represent a specialized mechanism by which Ca2+ channels are targeted to select synaptic sites. Utilizing both soma-soma paired (synapsed) and single neurons from the mollusk Lymnaea, we have tested the hypothesis that differential gradients of voltage-dependent Ca2+ signals develop in presynaptic neuron at its contact point with the postsynaptic neuron; and that these Ca2+ hotspots are target cell contact specific. Fura-2 imaging, or two-photon laser scanning microscopy of Calcium Green, was coupled with electrophysiological techniques to demonstrate that voltage-induced Ca2+ gradients (hotspots) develop in the presynaptic cell at its contact point with the postsynaptic neuron, but not in unpaired single cells. The incidence of Ca2+ hotspots coincided with the appearance of synaptic transmission between the paired cells, and these gradients were target cell contact specific. In contrast, the voltage-induced Ca2+ signal in unpaired neurons was uniformly distributed throughout the somata; a similar pattern of Ca2+ gradient was observed in the presynaptic neuron when it was soma-soma paired with a non-synaptic partner cell. Moreover, voltage clamp recording techniques, in conjunction with a fast, optical differential perfusion system, were used to demonstrate that the total whole-cell Ca2+ (or Ba2+) current density in single and paired cells was not significantly different. However, the amplitude of Ba2+ current was significantly higher in the presynaptic cell at its contact side with the postsynaptic neurons, compared with non-contacted regions. In summary, this study demonstrates that voltage-induced Ca2+ hotspots develop

  10. Development of Ca2+ hotspots between Lymnaea neurons during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhong-Ping; Grigoriev, Nikita; Munno, David; Lukowiak, Ken; MacVicar, Brian A; Goldberg, Jeffrey I; Syed, Naweed I

    2002-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channel clustering at specific presynaptic sites is a hallmark of mature synapses. However, the spatial distribution patterns of Ca2+ channels at newly formed synapses have not yet been demonstrated. Similarly, it is unclear whether Ca2+ ‘hotspots’ often observed at the presynaptic sites are indeed target cell contact specific and represent a specialized mechanism by which Ca2+ channels are targeted to select synaptic sites. Utilizing both soma–soma paired (synapsed) and single neurons from the mollusk Lymnaea, we have tested the hypothesis that differential gradients of voltage-dependent Ca2+ signals develop in presynaptic neuron at its contact point with the postsynaptic neuron; and that these Ca2+ hotspots are target cell contact specific. Fura-2 imaging, or two-photon laser scanning microscopy of Calcium Green, was coupled with electrophysiological techniques to demonstrate that voltage-induced Ca2+ gradients (hotspots) develop in the presynaptic cell at its contact point with the postsynaptic neuron, but not in unpaired single cells. The incidence of Ca2+ hotspots coincided with the appearance of synaptic transmission between the paired cells, and these gradients were target cell contact specific. In contrast, the voltage-induced Ca2+ signal in unpaired neurons was uniformly distributed throughout the somata; a similar pattern of Ca2+ gradient was observed in the presynaptic neuron when it was soma–soma paired with a non-synaptic partner cell. Moreover, voltage clamp recording techniques, in conjunction with a fast, optical differential perfusion system, were used to demonstrate that the total whole-cell Ca2+ (or Ba2+) current density in single and paired cells was not significantly different. However, the amplitude of Ba2+ current was significantly higher in the presynaptic cell at its contact side with the postsynaptic neurons, compared with non-contacted regions. In summary, this study demonstrates that voltage-induced Ca2+ hotspots

  11. Metabolic acceleration in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Elke I.; Ducrot, V.; Jager, T.; Koene, J.; Lagadic, L.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Under constant environmental conditions, most animals tend to grow following the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Deviations from this curve can point to changes in the environment that the animals experience, such as food limitation when the available food is not sufficient or suitable. However, such deviations can also point to a phenomenon called metabolic acceleration, which is receiving increasing attention in the field of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) modeling. Reasons for such an acceleration are usually changes in shape during ontogeny, which cause changes in the surface area to volume ratio of the organism. Those changes, in turn, lead to changes in some of the model parameters that have length in their dimension. The life-history consequences of metabolic acceleration as implemented in the DEB theory are an s-shaped growth curve (when body size is expressed as a length measure) and a prolongation of the hatching time. The great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was earlier found to be food limited during the juvenile phase in laboratory experiments conducted under classical ecotoxicity test protocols. The pond snail has isomorphic shell growth but yet does not exhibit the expected von Bertalanffy growth curve under food limitation. When applying the standard DEB model to data from such life-cycle experiments, we also found that the hatching time is consistently underestimated, which could be a sign of metabolic acceleration. We here present an application of the DEB model including metabolic acceleration to the great pond snail. We account for the simultaneous hermaphroditism of the snail by including a model extension that describes the relative investment into the male and female function. This model allowed us to adequately predict the life history of the snail over the entire life cycle. However, the pond snail does not change in shape substantially after birth, so the original explanation for the metabolic acceleration does not hold. Since the change in shape

  12. Translocation of mercury from substrate to fruit bodies of Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata on oat flakes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel; Kolihová, Dana; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-03-01

    The cultivation and fructification of 15 saprotrophic and wood-rotting fungal strains were tested on three various semi-natural medium. The formation of fruit bodies was observed for Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata in the frame of 1-2 months. Mercury translocation from the substrate to the fruit bodies was then followed in oat flakes medium. Translocation was followed for treatments of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20ppm Hg in the substrate. All four fungi formed fruit bodies in almost all replicates. The fruit body yield varied from 0.5 to 15.3g dry weight. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2.99 was found for P. cubensis at 1.25ppm Hg. The BCF decreased with increasing Hg concentration in the substrate: 2.49, 0, 2.38, 1.71 and 1.82 for P. stipticus; 3.00, 2.78, 2.48, 1.81 and 2.15 for P. cubensis; 2.47, 1.81, 1.78, 1.07 and 0.96 for S. commune; and 1.96, 1.84, 1.21, 1.71 and 0.96 for S. rugosoannulata. The Hg contents in the fruit bodies reflected the Hg contents in the substrate; the highest contents in the fruit bodies were found in P. cubensis (43.08±7.36ppm Hg) and P. stipticus (36.42±3.39ppm).

  13. Translocation of mercury from substrate to fruit bodies of Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata on oat flakes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel; Kolihová, Dana; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-03-01

    The cultivation and fructification of 15 saprotrophic and wood-rotting fungal strains were tested on three various semi-natural medium. The formation of fruit bodies was observed for Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata in the frame of 1-2 months. Mercury translocation from the substrate to the fruit bodies was then followed in oat flakes medium. Translocation was followed for treatments of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20ppm Hg in the substrate. All four fungi formed fruit bodies in almost all replicates. The fruit body yield varied from 0.5 to 15.3g dry weight. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2.99 was found for P. cubensis at 1.25ppm Hg. The BCF decreased with increasing Hg concentration in the substrate: 2.49, 0, 2.38, 1.71 and 1.82 for P. stipticus; 3.00, 2.78, 2.48, 1.81 and 2.15 for P. cubensis; 2.47, 1.81, 1.78, 1.07 and 0.96 for S. commune; and 1.96, 1.84, 1.21, 1.71 and 0.96 for S. rugosoannulata. The Hg contents in the fruit bodies reflected the Hg contents in the substrate; the highest contents in the fruit bodies were found in P. cubensis (43.08±7.36ppm Hg) and P. stipticus (36.42±3.39ppm). PMID:26706395

  14. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria. PMID:26452052

  15. Identification of Genetic Variation between Obligate Plant Pathogens Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli Using RNA Sequencing and Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Carly F.; Gulliford, Colwyn M.; Carlson, Craig H.; Lillis, Jacquelyn A.; Carlson, Maryn O.; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Gent, David H.; Smart, Christine D.

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification from two economically important obligate plant pathogens, Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli. Twenty isolates of P. cubensis and 19 isolates of P. humuli were genotyped using RNA-seq and GBS. Principle components analysis (PCA) of each data set showed genetic separation between the two species. Additionally, results supported previous findings that P. cubensis isolates from squash are genetically distinct from cucumber and cantaloupe isolates. A PCA-based procedure was used to identify SNPs correlated with the separation of the two species, with 994 and 4,231 PCA-correlated SNPs found within the RNA-seq and GBS data, respectively. The corresponding unigenes (n = 800) containing these potential species-specific SNPs were then annotated and 135 putative pathogenicity genes, including 3 effectors, were identified. The characterization of genes containing SNPs differentiating these two closely related downy mildew species may contribute to the development of improved detection and diagnosis strategies and improve our understanding of host specificity pathways. PMID:26599440

  16. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria. PMID:26452052

  17. Identification of Genetic Variation between Obligate Plant Pathogens Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli Using RNA Sequencing and Genotyping-By-Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Summers, Carly F; Gulliford, Colwyn M; Carlson, Craig H; Lillis, Jacquelyn A; Carlson, Maryn O; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Gent, David H; Smart, Christine D

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification from two economically important obligate plant pathogens, Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli. Twenty isolates of P. cubensis and 19 isolates of P. humuli were genotyped using RNA-seq and GBS. Principle components analysis (PCA) of each data set showed genetic separation between the two species. Additionally, results supported previous findings that P. cubensis isolates from squash are genetically distinct from cucumber and cantaloupe isolates. A PCA-based procedure was used to identify SNPs correlated with the separation of the two species, with 994 and 4,231 PCA-correlated SNPs found within the RNA-seq and GBS data, respectively. The corresponding unigenes (n = 800) containing these potential species-specific SNPs were then annotated and 135 putative pathogenicity genes, including 3 effectors, were identified. The characterization of genes containing SNPs differentiating these two closely related downy mildew species may contribute to the development of improved detection and diagnosis strategies and improve our understanding of host specificity pathways. PMID:26599440

  18. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria.

  19. The influence of pretreatment methods on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by an enzyme extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and commercial cocktails: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Visser, Evan Michael; Alfenas, Rafael Ferreira; Nogueira, Bráulio Ris G; de Campos, Guilherme Galvão; Milagres, Adriane Ferreira; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2015-09-01

    Biomass enzymatic hydrolysis depends on the pretreatment methods employed, the composition of initial feedstock and the enzyme cocktail used to release sugars for subsequent fermentation into ethanol. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 and 1% NaOH and the biomass saccharification was performed with 8% solids loading using 10 FPase units/g of bagasse of the enzymatic extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and three commercial cocktails for a comparative study. Overall, the best glucose and xylose release was obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The C. cubensis extract promoted higher release of glucose (5.32 g/L) and xylose (9.00 g/L) than the commercial mixtures. Moreover, the C. cubensis extract presented high specific enzyme activities when compared to commercial cocktails mainly concerning to endoglucanase (331.84 U/mg of protein), β-glucosidase (29.48 U/mg of protein), β-xylosidase (2.95 U/mg of protein), pectinase (127.46 U/mg of protein) and laccase (2.49 U/mg of protein).

  20. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  1. Susceptibility of two-week old Lymnaea natalensis to some plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    The molluscacidal potency of 17 Nigerian plants extracted by the unevaporated crude water (UECW) method was evaluated on two-week old Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Five extracts were not active but extracts of Balanites aegytiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Cissampelos mucronata, Detarium microcarpum, Kigelia africana, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Nauclea latifolia and Securidaca longipedunculata were molluscacidal. There is potential for their future use in the integrated control of Lymnaea natalensis, as well as other snails. Mortality data for lethal concentration values for all extracts were analysed by use of probit transformation. The upper and lower fiducial limits of the LC50 (P = 0.05) were also determined. PMID:2626571

  2. Communication compartments in the post-trochal ectoderm of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Serras, F; Notenboom, R G; Van den Biggelaar, J A

    1990-04-01

    Cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions provides a pathway for the transfer of small molecules and ions which may be significant for control of metabolic cooperation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. We have assessed the patterns of gap junctional communication in embryos of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis during the subdivision of the post-trochal ectoderm into developmental domains. We have microinjected the tracer Lucifer Yellow CH and subsequently analyzed its transfer to other cells. The post-trochal ectoderm of mollucs develops the shell field, the foot, and the stomodeum anlagen. We have found that the cells within the separate anlagen are well dye-coupled but poorly coupled to cells of adjacent anlagen. These results indicate that in Lymnaea embryos the specification of the different developmental domains is associated with the development of corresponding dye-coupling compartments. PMID:2318266

  3. Influence of biologically active substances isolated from Galleria mellonella on neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis in culture.

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, N A; Kostenko, M A; Volkova, S P; Pogorelov, A G; Kondrashova, M N

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolating biologically active substances from Galleria mellonella using a culture of isolated giant neurons of mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis as a test-system is described. Fractions capable of activating neurites and inhibiting aggregation of neuronal cells within a range of concentrations from 1 to 30 micrograms/ml were isolated. The fractions obtained have in their chemical composition about 10.5% N, also contain P and S. They have a carbohydrate component. PMID:6146471

  4. 45Ca uptake from water by snails (Lymnaea vulgaris) in control and detergent-polluted samples.

    PubMed

    Misra, V; Lal, H; Viswanathan, P N; Murti, C R

    1984-02-01

    A biostatic assay method involving 45Ca uptake into shells and tissues of snails (Lymnaea vulgaris) in 72 hr was developed to follow the effect of detergent-polluted water on ecosystems. There was a marked decrease in the 45Ca uptake by shells and tissues of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate-exposed animals as compared to controls. No change in 45Ca uptake was observed in dead shells, thereby excluding the possibility of passive exchange.

  5. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-05-12

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation.

  6. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation. PMID:27394893

  7. Enzyme Inhibition by Molluscicidal Components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. in the Nervous Tissue of Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preetee; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) on certain enzymes in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata Lamarck (Lymnaeidae). In vivo and in vitro treatments of trimyristin and myristicin (active molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt.) significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activities in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata. The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicates that both the trimyristin and myristicin caused competitive noncompetitive inhibition of AChE. Trimyristin caused uncompetitive and competitive/noncompetitive inhibitions of ACP and ALP, respectively whereas the myristicin caused competitive and uncompetitive inhibition of ACP and ALP, respectively. Thus results from the present study suggest that inhibition of AChE, ACP, and ALP by trimyristin and myristicin in the snail Lymnaea acuminata may be the cause of the molluscicidal activity of Myristica fragrans.

  8. Sensory input from the osphradium modulates the response to memory-enhancing stressors in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Vikram; Braun, Marvin; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-02-01

    In the freshwater environment species often rely on chemosensory information to modulate behavior. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is a model species used to characterize the causal mechanisms of long-term memory (LTM) formation. Chemical stressors including crayfish kairomones and KCl enhance LTM formation (≥24 h) in Lymnaea; however, how these stressors are sensed and the mechanism by which they affect the electrophysiological properties of neurons necessary for memory formation are poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the osphradium, a primary chemosensory organ in Lymnaea, modulates LTM enhancement. To test this we severed the osphradial nerve proximal to the osphradium, using sham-operated animals as controls, and assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological response to crayfish kairomones and KCl. We operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in intact, sham and osphradially cut animals, and tested for enhanced memory formation after exposure to the chemical stressors. Sham-operated animals displayed the same memory enhancement as intact animals but snails with a severed osphradial nerve did not show LTM enhancement. Extracellular recordings made from the osphradial nerve demonstrate that these stressors evoked afferent sensory activity. Intracellular recordings from right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), a neuron necessary for LTM formation, demonstrate that its electrophysiological activity is altered by input from the osphradium following exposure to crayfish kairomones or KCl in sham and intact animals but no response is seen in RPeD1 in osphradially cut animals. Therefore, sensory input from the osphradium is necessary for LTM enhancement following exposure to these chemical stressors.

  9. Relationship between developmental synaptic modulation and conditioning-induced synaptic change in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, T; Sato, Nao; Horikoshi, T; Sakakibara, M

    2008-01-01

    Though adult Lymnaea are bimodal breathers, young animals breathe mainly through the skin and adults through the lung. Operant conditioning changes adult breathing behavior from aerial to cutaneous. We hypothesized that this behavioral change is caused by alterations in the neuronal circuit during both development and conditioning. We focused our study on whether the synaptic connection between RPeD1 and RPA6 neurons is modulated during development and conditioning. Our findings indicated that the RPeD1 has an excitatory monosynaptic contact with the RPA6 in young naive and operantly-conditioned adult animals. The relationship of this contact was well correlated with their respiratory behavior.

  10. Lead toxicity, locomotion and feeding in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Pyatt, A J; Pyatt, F B; Pentreath, V W

    2002-04-01

    The effects of lead (5 or 10 ppm) on the survival of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) collected from lead contaminated or uncontaminated environments were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The animals from the contaminated environment had significantly greater survivability than those from the unpolluted environment to subsequent acute (up to 24 days) exposure to lead. Acute (72 h) exposure to lead inhibited several behavioural activities including locomotion, feeding, tentacle extension and emergence from the shell. Lead bioaccumulated in the snail tissues, especially the buccal mass and stomach. The freshwater snail provides a valuable system for studying the bioaccumulation and development of tolerance to environmental lead.

  11. Comparative study of sheep and buffalo isolates of Fasciola gigantica in the intermediate host Lymnaea auricularia.

    PubMed

    al-Kubaisee, R Y; Altaif, K I

    1989-09-01

    A comparison was made of the biological behaviour of two isolates of Fasciola gigantica, obtained from sheep and buffalo, in the aquatic snail Lymnaea auricularia. The sheep isolate exhibited a lower rate of infection, slower larval development and the production of fewer cercariae. Larger eggs, miracidia and metacercariae were obtained from the buffalo isolate while the rediae and cercariae were smaller. Metacercariae of sheep origin were dark brown with a mortality after 80 days of storage at 4 degrees C of 30.6 per cent while those of the buffalo isolate were straw coloured and had a mortality of 10.2 per cent.

  12. Polyethylene mulch modifies greenhouse microclimate and reduces infection of phytophthora infestans in tomato and Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shtienberg, D; Elad, Y; Bornstein, M; Ziv, G; Grava, A; Cohen, S

    2010-01-01

    The individual and joint effects of covering the soil with polyethylene mulch before planting and fungicides commonly used by organic growers on tomato late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) were studied in three experiments conducted from 2002 to 2005. Application of fungicides resulted in inconsistent and insufficient late blight suppression (control efficacy +/- standard error of 34.5 +/- 14.3%) but the polyethylene mulch resulted in consistent, effective, and highly significant suppression (control efficacy of 83.6 +/- 5.5%) of the disease. The combined effect of the two measures was additive. In a second set of three experiments carried out between 2004 and 2006, it was found that the type of polyethylene mulch used (bicolor aluminized, clear, or black) did not affect the efficacy of late blight suppression (control efficacy of 60.1 to 95.8%) and the differences in the effects among the different polyethylene mulches used were insignificant. Next, the ability of the mulch to suppress cucumber downy mildew (caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was studied in four experiments carried out between 2006 and 2008. The mulch effectively suppressed cucumber downy mildew but the effect was less substantial (control efficacy of 34.9 +/- 4.8%) than that achieved for tomato late blight. The disease-suppressing effect of mulch appeared to come from a reduction in leaf wetness duration, because mulching led to reductions in both the frequency of nights when dew formed and the number of dew hours per night when it formed. Mulching also reduced relative humidity in the canopy, which may have reduced sporulation.

  13. Behavioural evidence for a sleep-like quiescent state in a pulmonate mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Richard; Lewis, Vern

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, expresses a sleep-like behavioural state. We found that snails spontaneously enter a relatively brief (22±1 min) quiescent state characterized by postural relaxation of the foot, mantle and tentacles, and cessation of radula rasping. Quiescence was reversed ('aroused') by appetitive (sucrose solution) and aversive (tactile) stimuli. Responsiveness to both stimuli was significantly lower in quiescent snails than in active snails. However, tactile stimuli evoked a more sustained defensive response in quiescent snails. Quiescence bouts were consolidated into 'clusters' over an infradian timescale and were only weakly affected by time of day. Clusters contained 7±0.5 bouts, lasted 13±1 h and were separated by long (37±4 h) intervals of almost continuous activity. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that the quiescent bout duration was described by an exponential probability distribution (time constant 15±1 min). Active bout duration was described by a bi-exponential probability distribution (time constants 62±4 and 592±48 min). We found no evidence for a 'sleep rebound' mechanism and quiescence expression appeared to be regulated through stochastic processes causing state transitions to resemble a Markovian random walk. We conclude that Lymnaea is a potentially valuable model system for studies of cellular function in sleep.

  14. Methamphetamine enhances memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Houmes, Stephen W; Wyrick, Katherine L; Kammerzell, Samuel M; Lukowiak, Ken; Sorg, Barbara A

    2010-06-15

    Amphetamines have been used as cognitive enhancers to promote learning and memory. Amphetamines are also drugs of abuse that may promote the initiation of strong memories that ultimately lead to addiction. To understand how methamphetamine (Meth) may be augmenting learning and memory, we chose a relatively simple system, the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We studied the effects of Meth exposure on the long-term memory (LTM), extinction and reinstatement of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea. We first determined doses of Meth that would acutely alter respiratory behavior. Next, we measured the impact of training snails in Meth solution or water (control group) using a training procedure that produces LTM (>6 h) in control conditions. Meth exposure impaired the expression of LTM 21 h after two training sessions, but this appeared to be a context-dependent effect only. However, snails exposed to 3.3 mumol l(-1) Meth during training had a decreased rate of extinction of the operantly conditioned memory. We then tested whether this decreased ability of snails to extinguish memory was due to enhanced LTM or impaired extinction of that memory. Snails were operantly conditioned in water and exposed to Meth 16 h after their last trial but 4-5 h prior to extinction. Meth produced an increase rather than a decrease in extinction rate. Thus, Meth impaired extinction only when snails were exposed to Meth during training. Last, we tested the effect of Meth on the ability to form LTM using a single training procedure that is suboptimal for LTM formation. Control snails did not demonstrate LTM, as expected, but pre-exposure of snails to 3.3 micromol l(-1) Meth 24 h prior to the single training session produced LTM 24 h later, indicating that Meth pre-exposure primed snails for LTM formation. Taken together, our studies suggest that LTM is strengthened by Meth such that extinction training is less effective. Lymnaea provides a simple and useful model

  15. Effects of Developmental Temperature on Gametocysts and Oocysts of Two Species of Gregarines Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) Parasitizing Blaberid Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae).

    PubMed

    Kolman, Jon A; Clopton, Richard E; Clopton, Debra T

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic environmental conditions, especially temperature and humidity, have profound effects on the growth and development of gregarines, but these effects remain largely undocumented. Quantifying the effects of environmental conditions on the growth and development of exogenous gregarine ontogenetic stages is an important first step in understanding the transmission, population dynamics, and environmental persistence of gregarine infection. In this study, we examined the effect of 6 environmental temperatures (10, 18, 22, 27, 35, and 40 C) at constant humidity (0 mmHg vapor pressure deficit) on gametocyst development and oocyst viability in 2 gregarine species: Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis parasitizing the Tiger-striped Hissing Cockroach, Princisia vanwaerebecki, and the Discoid Cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis, respectively. Temperature has a significant effect on gametocyst development and oocyst viability for both gregarine species. Gametocyst development for both gregarine species displays a similar threshold response to environmental temperature: 10 and 40 C represent extremes outside their developmental range, but within these extremes, the relationship between gametocyst development and temperature is weakly direct. Dehiscence increased with temperature from 68% at 18 C to 93% at 22 C and remained at that level through 35 C. Developmental temperature also has a meaningful but inverse effect on oocyst viability of both B. migrator and B. cubensis. For both species, oocyst viability is highest at 18 and 22 C and is significantly reduced at 27 and 35 C. Thus oocyst production and sporozoite viability are linked but environmentally independent phenomena. Overall, there is an acceptable developmental temperature zone for B. migrator and B. cubensis that ranges from 18 to 27 C, but production of viable sporozoites is greatest in a relatively narrow zone around 22 C. Prior studies have postulated that mechanisms that concentrate oocysts and hosts

  16. High voltage with little current as an unconditional stimulus for taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-10-25

    A new and better taste avoidance conditioning paradigm for Lymnaea has been developed that replaces the previously used tactile unconditional stimulus (US) with an brief electrical stimulus (1000V, 80μA), while continuing to use a sucrose application to the lips as the conditional stimulus (CS). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The LTM persisted for at least one week. While STM was elicited with 5, 8, or 10 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. The new US used here was more consistent than the previously used US, and this stimulus consistency may explain why 15 paired CS-US presentations now result in LTM formation.

  17. A Sodium Leak Current Regulates Pacemaker Activity of Adult Central Pattern Generator Neurons in Lymnaea Stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tom Z.; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The resting membrane potential of the pacemaker neurons is one of the essential mechanisms underlying rhythm generation. In this study, we described the biophysical properties of an uncharacterized channel (U-type channel) and investigated the role of the channel in the rhythmic activity of a respiratory pacemaker neuron and the respiratory behaviour in adult freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Our results show that the channel conducts an inward leak current carried by Na+ (ILeak-Na). The ILeak-Na contributed to the resting membrane potential and was required for maintaining rhythmic action potential bursting activity of the identified pacemaker RPeD1 neurons. Partial knockdown of the U-type channel suppressed the aerial respiratory behaviour of the adult snail in vivo. These findings identified the Na+ leak conductance via the U-type channel, likely a NALCN-like channel, as one of the fundamental mechanisms regulating rhythm activity of pacemaker neurons and respiratory behaviour in adult animals. PMID:21526173

  18. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Sf, Gonçalves; Sk, Davies; Bennett, M; Raab, A; Feldmann, J; Kille, P; Loureiro, S; Dj, Spurgeon; Jg, Bundy

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium.

  19. Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteolo L. , to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1988-08-01

    The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy metals to freshwater snails, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of selected heavy metals to a freshwater pond snail Lymnaea luteolo Lamarck; a locally abundant species and play an important role in the aquatic food chain(s). Static bioassays were conducted with the salts of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc in hard water.

  20. Zinc sensitivity of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea luteola L. , in relation to seasonal variations in temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-07-01

    The aquatic environment has numerous physical and chemical parameters that may influence the physiology and chemical toxicity to freshwater organisms. Temperature is one of the these factors having a marked influence on heavy metal toxicity to fishes and macroinvertebrates. There is a limited and scattered information available on temperature induced changes in acute toxicity of zinc compounds to freshwater pond snails. This information is essential because there are large temperature differences with season and latitudes and the aquatic organisms are subjected to seasonal temperature changes of 20-25/sup 0/C or even more. It is proposed to study the effect of seasonal changes in temperature on zinc toxicity to a freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s) and are widely distributed in lakes, ponds and rivers of India.

  1. Survival characteristics of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis under constant culture conditions: effects of aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Janse, C; Slob, W; Popelier, C M; Vogelaar, J W

    1988-03-01

    Survival characteristics of seven different populations of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis were studied under constant culture conditions. On the basis of these characteristics four populations were considered as healthy and three as infected. In the healthy populations senescence started at an age of about 200 days, 50% survival age varied from 282 to 372 days, 10% survival age from 417 to 508 days and the maximum age from 528 to 673 days. Infected populations differed from healthy ones: (1) in behaviour of the animals; and (2) in shape of survival curve and age-specific death rate. It is concluded that in aging studies in addition to the absolute age of the animals, the following information should be given: the percentage of survival of the population at the time of sampling and a quantitative estimate of the quality of the cultures from which the animals were sampled. The parameters of the Weibull function seem to be suitable for such estimations.

  2. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Sf, Gonçalves; Sk, Davies; Bennett, M; Raab, A; Feldmann, J; Kille, P; Loureiro, S; Dj, Spurgeon; Jg, Bundy

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. PMID:27358197

  3. Non-ocular dermal photoreception in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Chono, Koji; Fujito, Yutaka; Ito, Etsuro

    2002-09-27

    Based on the results of previous behavioral experiments, researchers believe that sensitivity to light stimuli is not restricted to the eyes in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. To determine the presence of a non-ocular dermal photoreception system and to examine the synaptic connections between this peripheral system and the central nervous system, we electrophysiologically examined the activities of the pedal nerves in L. stagnalis by light stimulation. The results demonstrated that light stimulation evokes non-ocular dermal photosensitive responses in the foot, that these responses exert inhibitory, afferent influences through the inferior pedal nerves to the pedal ganglia, and that these responses were independent of the ocular photoreception system in L. stagnalis.

  4. Growth, fecundity and glycogen utilization in Lymnaea palustris exposed to atrazine and hexachlorobenzene in freshwater mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Baturo, W.; Lagadic, L.; Caquet, T.

    1995-03-01

    Freshwater mesocosms were used to study the long-term sublethal effects of atrazine and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on a basommatophoran gastropod, Lymnaea palustris (Mueller). Growth, fecundity, and biochemical parameters related to polysaccharide metabolism of pesticide-exposed snails were compared with those of control animals maintained in untreated mesocosms. HCB inhibited body growth and stimulated egg production, whereas atrazine had no relevant effect on these physiological parameters. Also, HCB stimulated the activity of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes, suggesting that changes in the metabolism of reserve polysaccharides (glycogen) may be involved in the inhibition of growth and increase of fecundity. In contrast, atrazine had no effect on the metabolism of polysaccharides. It is concluded that the effects of HCB are related to its neurotoxicity that would have affected the neurohormonal control of growth and reproduction of exposed snails. It is suggested that polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes may be used as biomarkers to predict the effects of neurotoxic pesticides on freshwater snail populations.

  5. Sequential exposure to a combination of stressors blocks memory reconsolidation in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Shawn Xavier; Lukowiak, Ken

    2015-03-01

    Stress alters the formation of long-term memory (LTM) in Lymnaea. When snails are exposed to more than one stressor, however, how the memory is altered becomes complicated. Here, we investigated how multiple stressors applied in a specific pattern affect an aspect of memory not often studied in regards to stress - reconsolidation. We hypothesized that the application of a sequence of stressors would block the reconsolidation process. Reconsolidation occurs following activation of a previously formed memory. Sequential crowding and handling were used as the stressors to block reconsolidation. When the two stressors were sequentially presented immediately following memory activation, reconsolidation was blocked. However, if the sequential presentation of the stressors was delayed for 1 h after memory activation, reconsolidation was not blocked. That is, LTM was observed. Finally, presentation of either stressor alone did not block reconsolidation. Thus, stressors can block reconsolidation, which may be preferable to pharmacological manipulations. PMID:25617463

  6. [Interpopulation defferences in parameters of hemocyte DNA-comets of snail Lymnaea stagnalis from regions with the different environmental load].

    PubMed

    Koneva, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    The research of hemocytes of snail Lymnaea stagnalis from regions with different environmental load has been carried out by means of DNA-comet assay. Significant interpopulation distinctions in parameters of hemocytes DNA comets, and also significant differences of sensitivity of hemocyte genetic matherial in snails form different ecological zones to the influence of external damaging factors (in particular, heavy metals) have been revealed by means of the software analysis of hemocyte DNA-comet images. Since the two populations of mollusks are characterized by high genetic identity, the different levels of proliferative processes in hemocytes of snail Lymnaea stagnalis from different ecological zones (that we revealed using the comet assay) may act as an indicator of the intensity of damaging effects and environmental quality. PMID:25509116

  7. /sup 45/Ca uptake from water by snails (Lymnaea vulgaris) in control and detergent-polluted samples

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, V.; Lal, H.; Viswanathan, P.N.; Murti, C.R.

    1984-02-01

    A biostatic assay method involving /sup 45/Ca uptake into shells and tissues of snails (Lymnaea vulgaris) in 72 hr was developed to follow the effect of detergent-polluted water on ecosystems. There was a marked decrease in the /sup 45/Ca uptake by shells and tissues of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate-exposed animals as compared to controls. No change in /sup 45/Ca uptake was observed in dead shells, thereby excluding the possibility of passive exchange.

  8. An expressed sequence tag survey of gene expression in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an intermediate vector of trematodes [corrected].

    PubMed

    Davison, A; Blaxter, M L

    2005-05-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is an intermediate vector for the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, a common parasite of ruminants and humans. Yet, despite being a disease of medical and economic importance, as well as a potentially useful comparative tool, the genetics of the relationship between Lymnaea and Fasciola has barely been investigated. As a complement to forthcoming F. hepatica expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we generated 1320 ESTs from L. stagnalis central nervous system (CNS) libraries. We estimate that these sequences derive from 771 different genes, of which 374 showed significant similarity to proteins in public databases, and 169 were similar to ESTs from the snail vector Biomphalaria glabrata. These L. stagnalis ESTs will provide insight into the function of the snail CNS, as well as the molecular components of behaviour and response to parasitism. In the future, the comparative analysis of Lymnaea/Fasciola with Biomphalaria/Schistosoma will help to understand both conserved and divergent aspects of the host-parasite relationship. The L. stagnalis ESTs will also assist gene prediction in the forthcoming B. glabrata genome sequence. The dataset is available for searching on the world-wide web at http://zeldia.cap.ed.ac.uk/mollusca.html.

  9. Effects of endocrine modulating substances on reproduction in the hermaphroditic snail Lymnaea stagnalis L.

    PubMed

    Czech, P; Weber, K; Dietrich, D R

    2001-07-01

    Various man-made agents like pesticides, industrial chemicals and some natural substances have the potential to alter hormonal pathways that regulate reproductive processes in certain species of wildlife. Until now, only a few investigations have been undertaken to determine the effects of these substances on reproductive capacities (fecundity and fertility) in exposed invertebrate aquatic species. In this study one of the most abundant mollusc of European limnic systems, the hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated to determine the effects of endocrine modulating substances on reproductive parameters. Known endocrine modulating substances were tested using the following nominal concentrations; Tributyltin (TBT in ng Sn/l) and beta-sitosterol at 1, 10 and 100 ng/l, respectively, and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) at 1, 10 and 100 microg/l. In addition, experiments were carried out with 1, 10 and 100 ng/l of t-methyltestosterone. All the testing was carried out on recently matured adults of Lymnaea. Fifteen to twenty snails per treatment were exposed for between 7 and 12 weeks in a semi-static test with a weekly exchange of testwater. Shell height and weight and mortality of the adults, egg production, hatching rate of the eggs, and histopathology of the adult snails were analysed. The same parameters were investigated on F(1) generation snails from exposed parents at two dates (1 week after exposure and at the end of the exposure duration). Treatments with TBT and 4-NP had only slight effects on the egg production of the adults and hatching rate of the eggs. However, increased histopathological changes were observed in epithelial tissues of the adult snails, e.g. lung and foot also characterised by extreme inflammatory processes. While beta-sitosterol and t-methyltestosterone had no effect on the shell height and weight or the mortality of adult snails nor on the egg production or ensuing egg hatching rate, beta-sitosterol treated snails presented a

  10. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests.

  11. Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugué, Maël; Collinet, Marc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed to compare the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the range of 0 ng Sn/L to 600 ng Sn/L. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length, and reproduction were monitored in a 21-d semistatic test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. Triphenyltin hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, because snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19 ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the 2 compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared with the sensitivity of prosobranch mollusks with different habitats and different reproductive strategies.

  12. Associative learning and memory in Lymnaea stagnalis: how well do they remember?

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Ken; Sangha, Susan; McComb, Chloe; Varshney, Nishi; Rosenegger, David; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Scheibenstock, Andi

    2003-07-01

    The search for 'the how and the where' of memory formation in the brain, the engram, is still one of the unattained 'Holy Grails' of neuroscience. Over the years, various paths have been trodden in attempts to attain this goal, and while tantalizing glimpses appear now and then on the scientific horizon, the Grail still has not been grasped. One of the paths that investigators have walked is the invertebrate 'model system' approach. Some invertebrates possess relatively simple nervous systems that mediate relatively simple behaviours that are both interesting and trainable. In this commentary, we would like to shed light on a relatively new player, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L., that is being used in the quest to illuminate 'the how and the where' the nervous systems encode and store memory. We will show that it is possible to demonstrate that a single neuron is a site of memory formation and storage for a form of associative learning in this lowly snail. It may be that the Grail is a little closer to being grasped.

  13. Millimeter waves thermally alter the firing rate of the Lymnaea pacemaker neuron

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, S.I.; Kochetkova, N.V.; Ziskin, M.C.; Bolshakov, M.A.

    1997-05-01

    The effects of millimeter waves (mm-waves, 75 GHz) and temperature elevation on the firing rate of the BP-4 pacemaker neuron of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were studied by using microelectrode techniques. The open end of a rectangular waveguide covered with a thin Teflon film served as a radiator. Specific absorption rates (SARs), measured in physiological solution at the radiator outlet, ranged from 600 to 4,200 W/kg, causing temperature rises from 0.3 to 2.2 C, respectively. Irradiation at an SAR of 4,200 W/kg caused a biphasic change in the firing rate, i.e., a transient decrease in the firing rate followed by a gradual increase to a new level that was 68 {+-} 21% above control. The biphasic changes in the firing rate were reproduced by heating under the condition that the magnitude (2 C) and the rate of temperature rise were equal to those produced by the irradiation. The addition of 0.05 mM of ouabain caused the disappearance of transient responses of the neuron to the irradiation. It was shown that the rate of temperature rise played an important role in the development of a transient neuronal response. The threshold stimulus for a transient response of the BP-4 neutron found in warming experiments was a temperature rise of 0.0025 C/s.

  14. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. PMID:24081640

  15. A two-neuron system for adaptive goal-directed decision-making in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Michael; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2016-01-01

    During goal-directed decision-making, animals must integrate information from the external environment and their internal state to maximize resource localization while minimizing energy expenditure. How this complex problem is solved by the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, using a combined behavioural and neurophysiological approach, we demonstrate that the mollusc Lymnaea performs a sophisticated form of decision-making during food-searching behaviour, using a core system consisting of just two neuron types. The first reports the presence of food and the second encodes motivational state acting as a gain controller for adaptive behaviour in the absence of food. Using an in vitro analogue of the decision-making process, we show that the system employs an energy management strategy, switching between a low- and high-use mode depending on the outcome of the decision. Our study reveals a parsimonious mechanism that drives a complex decision-making process via regulation of levels of tonic inhibition and phasic excitation. PMID:27257106

  16. Predominance of outcrossing in Lymnaea stagnalis despite low apparent fitness costs of self-fertilization.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, M; Emily Knott, K; Suonpää, S; Nissinen, K; Kaitala, V

    2007-05-01

    We have quantified the natural mating system in eight populations of the simultaneously hermaphroditic aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis, and studied the ecological and genetic forces that may be directing mating system evolution in this species. We investigated whether the natural mating system can be explained by the availability of mates, by the differential survival of self- and cross-fertilized snails in nature, and by the effects of mating system on parental fecundity and early survival. The natural mating system of L. stagnalis was found to be predominantly cross-fertilizing. Density of snails in the populations had no relationship with the mating system, suggesting that outcrossing rates are not limited by mate availability at the population densities observed. Contrary to expectations for outcrossing species, we detected no evidence for inbreeding depression in survival in nature with inferential population genetic methods. Further, experimental manipulations of mating system in the laboratory revealed that self-fertilization had no effect on parental fecundity, and only minor effects on offspring survival. Predominance of cross-fertilization despite low apparent fitness costs of self-fertilization is at odds with the paradigm that high self-fertilization depression is necessary for maintenance of cross-fertilization in self-compatible hermaphrodites.

  17. Effect of acute exposure to low environmental calcium on respiration and locomotion in Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2010-05-01

    Environmental calcium is a major factor affecting the distribution of freshwater gastropods. Whilst the effects on growth and morphology are fairly well understood, little is known about how calcium availability affects other aspects of gastropod biology. Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) is considered a calciphile and exhibits reduced growth and survival in environments containing less than 20 mg l(-1) Ca(2+). Many freshwater systems exhibit fluctuations in calcium concentration over time: where calcium levels are normally high there may be periods of low [Ca(2+)], for example following periods of flooding. Here we examined the effects of acute periods of low (20 mg l(-1)) environmental calcium on the physiology and behaviour of L. stagnalis, specifically measuring how locomotion and respiration differ between high calcium (80 mg l(-1)) and low calcium (20 mg l(-1)) environments. We found that in a low calcium environment crawling speed is reduced, and that this coincides with an increase in cutaneous respiration, indicating that the increased metabolic demands of calcium acquisition at low [Ca(2+)] reduce the energy available for locomotion. Conversely we found a decrease in aerial respiration in hypoxic conditions in the low calcium relative to the high calcium environment. In conclusion, we found that acute exposure to low environmental calcium has a highly significant effect on locomotion and respiration, which may have consequences for snail fitness when no morphological effects are apparent.

  18. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent.

  19. A two-neuron system for adaptive goal-directed decision-making in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michael; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2016-01-01

    During goal-directed decision-making, animals must integrate information from the external environment and their internal state to maximize resource localization while minimizing energy expenditure. How this complex problem is solved by the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, using a combined behavioural and neurophysiological approach, we demonstrate that the mollusc Lymnaea performs a sophisticated form of decision-making during food-searching behaviour, using a core system consisting of just two neuron types. The first reports the presence of food and the second encodes motivational state acting as a gain controller for adaptive behaviour in the absence of food. Using an in vitro analogue of the decision-making process, we show that the system employs an energy management strategy, switching between a low- and high-use mode depending on the outcome of the decision. Our study reveals a parsimonious mechanism that drives a complex decision-making process via regulation of levels of tonic inhibition and phasic excitation. PMID:27257106

  20. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    PubMed Central

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:26692260

  1. [Individual growth of Lymnaea stagnalis (Lymnaeidae, Gastropoda): II. Late postlarval ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Zotin, A A

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation on the growth of 14 individuals of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was performed in an aquatic culture at 18 degrees C beginning from the 10th week after hatching until death. It has been demonstrated that the increase in the mollusk mass follows an S-like curve during the whole studied period. Linear growth (conch height) follows a parabolic (convex) curve until the age of 39 weeks. Both weight and linear growth during studied period significantly approximate to the Bertalanffy equation, while the interrelation between mass and conch height corresponds to the allometric equation. The meanings of the coefficients of these equations do not differ significantly in different individuals. At the age of 38 to 39 weeks, all mollusks demonstrate breakage in the curve of linear growth, then followed with abrupt slowing of growth until stopping or even decreasing in size in some cases. Neither the Bertalanffy equation nor the allometric relation describe the linear growth of individuals with ages exceeding 39 weeks.

  2. Oxidative stress and genotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles in freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L.

    PubMed

    Ali, Daoud; Alarifi, Saud; Kumar, Sudhir; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the toxic effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organism is the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnology. However, little is known about the toxic mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola (L. luteola). This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by ZnONPs in freshwater snail L. luteola. ZnONPs (32 μg/ml) elicited a significant (p<0.01) reduction in glutathione (42.10% and 61.40%), glutathione-S-transferase (25.60% and 40.24%) and glutathione peroxidase (21.73% and 39.13%) with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde level (54.50% and 57.14%; p<0.01) and catalase (34.88% and 52.56%; p<0.01) in digestive gland of L. luteola after 24 and 96 h exposure, respectively. However, a statistically significant (p<0.01) induction in DNA damage was observed by the comet assay in digestive gland cells treated with ZnONPs for 24 and 96 h. Thus, the results demonstrate that ZnONPs induce genotoxicity in digestive gland cells through oxidative stress. Freshwater snail L. luteola may be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future.

  3. Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis limits aluminum concentrations of the aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jugdaohsingh, R.; Thompson, R.P.H.; Powell, J.J.; Campbell, M.M.; Mccrohan, C.R.; White, K.N.

    1998-09-01

    Extracellular mucopolysaccharide (EPS) is a significant component in many waters. Its role in the cycling and mobilization of metals is unclear. In vitro studies were conducted to examine the influence of EPS, secreted by the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, on soluble water Al concentrations at near-neutral pH. Snails maintained in aerated water of known ion content and added aluminum reduced Al in solution as compared to controls. Although snails accumulated Al into soft tissue, this only accounted for a small percentage of the total reduction. The remaining Al was recovered following acidification of the water. This observation was attributed to pedal EPS secreted by L. stagnalis which is chiefly insoluble and substrate bound. The Al that remained in solution was more labile, possibly due to the influence of soluble EPS. Further experiments with isolated EPS, confirmed that this poorly soluble film binds and reduces Al in solution. The influence of EPS on the solution chemistry and bioavailability of Al and possibly other metals may be important in natural waters.

  4. Environmental versus Anthropogenic Effects on Population Adaptive Divergence in the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Bouétard, Anthony; Côte, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using QST -FST comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean FST = 0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

  5. [Natural infestation of Lymnaea truncatula Muller by Fasciola hepatica in the Tozeur oasis in southwest Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Hammami, H; Ayadi, A

    2000-01-01

    Natural infestation of Lymnaea truncatula by Fasciola hepatica was studied at various sites in the traditional oasis of Tozeur 8 times between September 1997 and August 1998. Infestation of snails was documented in five of the eight sites with a mean level of 26.1 p. 100. Level of infestation varied depending on the site. It was highest in secondary irrigation canals (32.8 p. 100), seguias, (34.8 p. 100), and secondary drainage canals (34.8 p. 100). Lower levels were observed in the main drainage canal, (15.2 p. 100). Two infestation periods were noted at two sites in relation with spreading of manure by farmers in autumn and spring. Perennial infestation due to the permanent presence of animal hosts was noted at one. Infestation of drainage canals is enhanced by incoming parasite eggs from upstream irrigation canals. Infestation was age dependent reaching up to 100 p. 100 in older snails of 5.5 mm. Environmental factors such as climatic conditions and human intervention are important to sustaining snail infestation in the oasis of Tozeur.

  6. [Individual growth of Lymnaea stagnalis (Lymnaeidae, Gastropoda): II. Late postlarval ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Zotin, A A

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation on the growth of 14 individuals of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was performed in an aquatic culture at 18 degrees C beginning from the 10th week after hatching until death. It has been demonstrated that the increase in the mollusk mass follows an S-like curve during the whole studied period. Linear growth (conch height) follows a parabolic (convex) curve until the age of 39 weeks. Both weight and linear growth during studied period significantly approximate to the Bertalanffy equation, while the interrelation between mass and conch height corresponds to the allometric equation. The meanings of the coefficients of these equations do not differ significantly in different individuals. At the age of 38 to 39 weeks, all mollusks demonstrate breakage in the curve of linear growth, then followed with abrupt slowing of growth until stopping or even decreasing in size in some cases. Neither the Bertalanffy equation nor the allometric relation describe the linear growth of individuals with ages exceeding 39 weeks. PMID:20143629

  7. Menin: A Tumor Suppressor That Mediates Postsynaptic Receptor Expression and Synaptogenesis between Central Neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Nichole; Getz, Angela; Visser, Frank; Janes, Tara A.; Syed, Naweed I.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) support neuronal survival, differentiation, and even synaptic plasticity both during development and throughout the life of an organism. However, their precise roles in central synapse formation remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that excitatory synapse formation in Lymnaea stagnalis requires a source of extrinsic NTFs and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. Here we show that NTFs such as Lymnaea epidermal growth factor (L-EGF) act through RTKs to trigger a specific subset of intracellular signalling events in the postsynaptic neuron, which lead to the activation of the tumor suppressor menin, encoded by Lymnaea MEN1 (L-MEN1) and the expression of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We provide direct evidence that the activation of the MAPK/ERK cascade is required for the expression of nAChRs, and subsequent synapse formation between pairs of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, we show that L-menin activation is sufficient for the expression of postsynaptic excitatory nAChRs and subsequent synapse formation in media devoid of NTFs. By extending our findings in situ, we reveal the necessity of EGFRs in mediating synapse formation between a single transplanted neuron and its intact presynaptic partner. Moreover, deficits in excitatory synapse formation following EGFR knock-down can be rescued by injecting synthetic L-MEN1 mRNA in the intact central nervous system. Taken together, this study provides the first direct evidence that NTFs functioning via RTKs activate the MEN1 gene, which appears sufficient to regulate synapse formation between central neurons. Our study also offers a novel developmental role for menin beyond tumour suppression in adult humans. PMID:25347295

  8. Cloning and characterization of a P2X receptor expressed in the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Bavan, Selvan; Straub, Volko A; Webb, Tania E; Ennion, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    P2X receptors are membrane ion channels gated by extracellular ATP. Mammals possess seven distinct P2X subtypes (P2X1-7) that have important functions in a wide array of physiological processes including roles in the central nervous system (CNS) where they have been linked to modulation of neurotransmitter release. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of a P2X receptor from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. This model organism has a relatively simple CNS consisting of large readily identifiable neurones, a feature which together with a well characterized neuronal circuitry for important physiological processes such as feeding and respiration makes it an attractive potential model to examine P2X function. Using CODEHOP PCR we identified a single P2X receptor (LymP2X) in Lymnaea CNS which was subsequently cloned by RT-PCR. When heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, LymP2X exhibited ATP evoked inward currents (EC(50) 6.2 µM) which decayed during the continued presence of agonist. UTP and ADP did not activate the receptor whereas αβmeATP was a weak agonist. BzATP was a partial agonist with an EC(50) of 2.4 µM and a maximal response 33% smaller than that of ATP. The general P2 receptor antagonists PPADS and suramin both inhibited LymP2X currents with IC(50) values of 8.1 and 27.4 µM respectively. LymP2X is inhibited by acidic pH whereas Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions exhibited a biphasic effect, potentiating currents up to 100 µM and inhibiting at higher concentrations. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization detected expression of LymP2X mRNA in neurones of all CNS ganglia suggesting this ion channel may have widespread roles in Lymnaea CNS function. PMID:23209755

  9. Presence of Trichobilharzia szidati in Lymnaea stagnalis and T. franki in Radix auricularia in northeastern France: molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Ferté, Hubert; Depaquit, Jérôme; Carré, Sophie; Villena, Isabelle; Léger, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    A molecular approach was used to analyse a focus of cercarial dermatitis in northeastern France (Lake Der-Chantecoq), including both cercariae and snails,by sequencing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 for ocellate furcocercariae and ITS2 for snails). Lymnaea stagnalis were found infected with the furcocercariae of Trichobilharzia szidati, and T. franki furcocercariae were found in Radix auricularia. The record of these two visceral parasites of birds in northern France confirms strong host-parasite relationships. The use of these standardised markers will be of the highest significance for our understanding of the epidemiology of cercarial dermatitis in this recreational lake.

  10. [Combined and alternate control of Lymnaea truncatula Müller: comparative study of 3 technics for spreading of the molluscacide].

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D

    1988-01-01

    A combined control of Lymnaea truncatula with two applications of a 1-mg/l cupric chloride solution in April and the use of predatory snails in June eliminates the host snails in 77% of its sedimentary habitats in a single year. The better results were obtained with a first discharge of the toxic in the running water of the habitats, and with a further pulverization on emerged areas. A time of 6-12 h between the two applications increased the mortality rate for the L truncatula of winter generation. The increase of the toxic volume during the first application had little effect on the mortality increase.

  11. Environmental Persistence and Infectivity of Oocysts of Two Species of Gregarines, Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae), Parasitizing Blaberid Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae).

    PubMed

    Clopton, Richard E; Steele, Shelby M; Clopton, Debra T

    2016-04-01

    For apicomplexan parasites using an oral-fecal transmission route with significant environmental exposure, the environmental persistence and infectivity of the oocyst has a direct impact on local infection dynamics, including the ability to withstand extended periods without readily available hosts. Herein we quantify the environmental persistence and infectivity of the oocysts of 2 septate gregarine species at controlled temperature and humidity and demonstrate that they can persist over multiple generational time spans. Species of Blabericola generally complete their endogenous life cycles from oocyst to oocyst within 10 days. The median residual environmental oocyst lifetime for Blabericola oocysts in this study is 21-28 days, but a significant number of oocysts of Blabericola migrator persisted and remained infective in the environment for up to 39 days while those of Blabericola cubensis persisted and remained infective for up to 92 days. Although long-lived relative to their own generational time, the oocysts of Blabericola species infecting cockroaches are short-lived relative to gregarines infecting tenebrionid beetles. For these gregarines, oocysts can persist in the environment and remain infective for up to 787 days. Mechanistically, environmental persistence and infectivity are probably energy-limited phenomena related to the amount of stored amylopectin and the basal metabolic rate of quiescent oocysts.

  12. Natural prevalence in Cuban populations of the lymnaeid snail Galba cubensis infected with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica: small values do matter.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Antonio A; Sánchez, Jorge; Alba, Annia; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Natural infections of lymnaeid snails by Fasciola hepatica are of primary importance to study transmission. Also, infected snails in the field can be used to explore the existing compatibility in host-parasite interactions. This paper aimed to describe the infection rate of Galba cubensis populations in fasciolosis transmission areas. Eight sites were sampled in western Cuba and 24 infected snails at six sites were found. The mean prevalence was 2.94% and the maximum value was 11.4%. The intensity of parasite infection was assessed as the number of rediae inside a single snail. High variation within the sites examined was observed, but a maximum of 76 rediae was recovered from one individual. Although the presence of two other trematode families (Schistosomatidae and Paramphistomatidae) was discovered in dissected individuals, no co-infection with F. hepatica was observed. This is the first time a study of natural prevalence of F. hepatica infection is carried out in Cuba, considered a hyper endemic country for bovine fasciolosis. Our results suggest that fasciolosis transmission may occur even when the number of infected snails remains relatively low.

  13. Role for electrical synapses in shaping the output of coupled peptidergic neurons from Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Beekharry, Christopher C; Zhu, Guan Z; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-04-01

    Electrically coupled neurons communicate through channel assemblies called gap junctions, which mediate the transfer of current from one cell to another. Electrical synapses ensure spike synchronization and reliable transmission, which influences bursting patterns and firing frequency. The present study concerns an electrically coupled two-neuron network in the gastropod mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis. The neurons, designated Visceral Dorsal 1 (VD1) and Right Parietal Dorsal 2 (RPD2), are peptidergic, innervate aspects of the cardio-respiratory system, and show strong coupling, such that they fire synchronously. Using dual sharp-electrode current-clamp recording and morphological staining in isolated brain preparations, the hypothesis that the electrical synapse is necessary for accurate network output was tested. We found that both cells make extensive projections within and out of the brain, including across the visceral-parietal connective, which links VD1 and RPD2. Cutting this connective uncoupled the neurons and disrupted the firing rate and pattern of RPD2 more than VD1, consistent with VD1 being the master and RPD2 the follower. The electrical synapse was inhibited by select gap junction blockers, with niflumic acid and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid decreasing the VD1→RPD2 and RPD2→VD1 coupling coefficients, whereas carbenoxolone, α-glycyrrhetinic acid, meclofenamic acid, and quinine were ineffective. There was little-to-no impact on VD1↔RPD2 firing synchrony or frequency when coupling was reduced pharmacologically. However, in the presence of gap junction blockers, suppressing the activity of VD1 by prolonged hyperpolarization revealed a distinct, low-frequency firing pattern in RPD2. This suggests that strong electrical coupling is key to maintaining a synchronous output and proper firing rate.

  14. Novel neural correlates of operant conditioning in normal and differentially reared Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdullah M; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2009-04-01

    The aerial respiratory behaviour of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis is an important homeostatic behaviour that can be operantly conditioned. The central pattern generator underlying this behaviour, as well as motorneurons innervating the respiratory orifice, the pneumostome, have been identified and their activity can be monitored in the semi-intact preparation using electrophysiological recordings. In this study, we used both intact animals and semi-intact preparations to identify novel changes in the respiratory central pattern generator following operant conditioning. In addition, we reared animals in the absence of this respiratory behaviour throughout development, to investigate whether previous experience and activity-dependent plasticity during development are essential to allow neural plasticity in the adult. We found that animals raised normally (allowed to perform aerial respiratory behaviour) exhibited the expected reduction in aerial respiratory behaviour following operant conditioning. Then, using the semi-intact preparation, we identified novel neural changes within the network as a result of the conditioning. These included specific changes at the level of the central pattern generator interneurons, as well as the motor output. In the differentially reared intact animals, there was no behavioural reduction as a result of operant conditioning, although their baseline respiratory behaviour was already significantly reduced as a result of their differential rearing. There were, however, significant differences found in the network parameters in the semi-intact preparation, similar to those observed in normally reared animals. We thus provide evidence for neural plasticity within the network in the absence of significant behavioural changes in differentially reared animals, and show that plasticity was not dependent on previous activity of the network during development.

  15. Enhanced memory persistence is blocked by a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Ken; Heckler, Benjamin; Bennett, Thomas E; Schriner, Ellen K; Wyrick, Kathryn; Jewett, Cynthia; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A

    2014-08-15

    Lymnaea stagnalis provides an excellent model system for studying memory because these snails have a well-described set of neurons, a single one of which controls expression of long-term memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior. We have shown that several different manipulations, including pre-training exposure to serotonin (5-HT) or methamphetamine, submersion of snails after training to prevent memory interference, and exposure to effluent from predatory crayfish (CE), enhance memory persistence. Changes in DNA methylation underlie formation of strong memories in mammals and 5-HT-enhanced long-term facilitation in Aplysia. Here we determined the impact of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA; 87 μmol l(-1)), on enhanced memory persistence by all four manipulations. We found that 5-HT (100 μmol l(-1)) enhanced memory persistence, which was blocked by 5-AZA pretreatment. Snails pre-exposed to 3.3 μmol l(-1) Meth 4 h prior to training demonstrated memory 72 h later, which was not present in controls. This memory-enhancing effect was blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. Similarly, submersion to prevent interference learning as well as training in CE produced memory that was not present in controls, and these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. In contrast, 5-AZA injection did not alter expression of normal (non-enhanced) memory, suggesting that these four stimuli enhance memory persistence by increasing DNA methyltransferase activity, which, in turn, increases expression of memory-enhancing genes and/or inhibits memory suppressor genes. These studies lay important groundwork for delineating gene methylation changes that are common to persistent memory produced by different stimuli.

  16. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries. PMID:27688849

  17. Neonicotinoid insecticides inhibit cholinergic neurotransmission in a molluscan (Lymnaea stagnalis) nervous system.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Á; Farkas, A; Ács, A; Stoliar, O; Székács, A; Mörtl, M; Győri, J

    2015-10-01

    Neonicotinoids are highly potent and selective systemic insecticides, but their widespread use also has a growing impact on non-target animals and contaminates the environment, including surface waters. We tested the neonicotinoid insecticides commercially available in Hungary (acetamiprid, Mospilan; imidacloprid, Kohinor; thiamethoxam, Actara; clothianidin, Apacs; thiacloprid, Calypso) on cholinergic synapses that exist between the VD4 and RPeD1 neurons in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In the concentration range used (0.01-1 mg/ml), neither chemical acted as an acetylcholine (ACh) agonist; instead, both displayed antagonist activity, inhibiting the cholinergic excitatory components of the VD4-RPeD1 connection. Thiacloprid (0.01 mg/ml) blocked almost 90% of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), while the less effective thiamethoxam (0.1 mg/ml) reduced the synaptic responses by about 15%. The ACh-evoked membrane responses of the RPeD1 neuron were similarly inhibited by the neonicotinoids, confirming that the same ACh receptor (AChR) target was involved. We conclude that neonicotinoids act on nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the snail CNS. This has been established previously in the insect CNS; however, our data indicate differences in the background mechanism or the nAChR binding site in the snail. Here, we provide the first results concerning neonicotinoid-related toxic effects on the neuronal connections in the molluscan nervous system. Aquatic animals, including molluscs, are at direct risk while facing contaminated surface waters, and snails may provide a suitable model for further studies of the behavioral/neuronal consequences of intoxication by neonicotinoids. PMID:26340121

  18. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries.

  19. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Spiecker, Lisa; Messerschmidt, Claudia; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Landfester, Katharina; Markl, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Rhogocytes, also termed "pore cells", occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing) freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing) freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized hemocyanin molecules

  20. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries. PMID:27688849

  1. An ancient process in a modern mollusc: early development of the shell in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The morphological variety displayed by the molluscan shell underlies much of the evolutionary success of this phylum. However, the broad diversity of shell forms, sizes, ornamentations and functions contrasts with a deep conservation of early cell movements associated with the initiation of shell construction. This process begins during early embryogenesis with a thickening of an ectodermal, ‘dorsal’ (opposite the blastopore) population of cells, which then invaginates into the blastocoel to form the shell gland. The shell gland evaginates to form the shell field, which then expands and further differentiates to eventually become the adult shell-secreting organ commonly known as the mantle. Despite the deep conservation of the early shell forming developmental program across molluscan classes, little is known about the fine-scale cellular or molecular processes that underlie molluscan shell development. Results Using modern imaging techniques we provide here a description of the morphogenesis of a gastropod shell gland and shell field using the pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis as a model. We find supporting evidence for a hypothesis of molluscan shell gland specification proposed over 60 years ago, and present histochemical assays that can be used to identify a variety of larval shell stages and distinct cell populations in whole mounts. Conclusions By providing a detailed spatial and temporal map of cell movements and differentiation events during early shell development in L. stagnalis we have established a platform for future work aimed at elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks that underlie the evo-devo of the molluscan shell. PMID:23845038

  2. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Spiecker, Lisa; Messerschmidt, Claudia; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Landfester, Katharina; Markl, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Rhogocytes, also termed “pore cells”, occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing) freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing) freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized hemocyanin molecules

  3. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries.

  4. Aluminum-dependent regulation of intracellular silicon in the aquatic invertebrate Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Desouky, Mahmoud; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; McCrohan, Catherine R.; White, Keith N.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon is essential for some plants, diatoms, and sponges but, in higher animals, its endogenous regulation has not been demonstrated. Silicate ions may be natural ligands for aluminum and here we show that, in the freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis), intracellular silicon seems specifically up-regulated in response to sublethal aluminum exposure. X-ray microanalysis showed that exposure of snails to low levels of aluminum led to its accumulation in lysosomal granules, accompanied by marked up-regulation of silicon. Increased lysosomal levels of silicon were a specific response to aluminum because cadmium and zinc had no such effect. Furthermore, intra-lysosomal sulfur from metallothionein and other sulfur-containing ligands was increased after exposure to cadmium and zinc but not aluminum. To ensure that these findings indicated a specific in vivo response, and not ex vivo formation of hydroxy-aluminosilicates (HAS) from added aluminum (555 μg/liter) and water-borne silicon (43 μg/liter), two further studies were undertaken. In a ligand competition assay the lability of aluminum (527 μg/liter) was completely unaffected by the presence of silicon (46 μg/liter), suggesting the absence of HAS. In addition, exogenous silicon (6.5 mg/liter), added to the water column to promote formation of HAS, caused a decrease in lysosomal aluminum accumulation, showing that uptake of HAS would not explain the loading of aluminum into lysosomal granules. These findings, and arguments on the stability, lability, and kinetics of aluminum–silicate interactions, suggest that a silicon-specific mechanism exists for the in vivo detoxification of aluminum, which provides regulatory evidence of silicon in a multicellular organism. PMID:11891333

  5. Serotonergic and dopaminergic influence of the duration of embryogenesis and intracapsular locomotion of Lymnaea stagnalis L.

    PubMed

    Filla, Adrienn; Hiripi, L; Elekes, K

    2004-01-01

    The role of the dopaminergic and serotonergic system was studied during the embryonic development of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, with special attention to the effect of dopamine and serotonin as well as their agonists and antagonists on the rotation of the veliger larvae, and to the effect of precursors and inhibitors of the synthetizing enzymes on the duration of the embryonic life. Serotonin, D-lysergic acid diethylamide and N,N-dimethyltryptamine increased at a concentration of 1 microM the rotation by 50%, 90% and 87% respectively, and among them D-Lysergic acid diethylamide was found to be the most potent agonist. Other serotonergic agonists and antagonists enhanced the frequency of the rotation (from 165% to 355%) at higher threshold concentrations in the following rank order: methysergid > tryptamine > 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine > 5-carboxyamidotryptamine > bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide > 7-methyltryptamine. Application of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine decreased the rotation by 76%. The reuptake inhibitor desipramine completely blocked the rotation and killed the embryos. Dopaminergic agonists accelerated the rotation by 62% to 233%, and their effect was ranged as follows: dopamine > apomorphine > m-tyramine approximately equal to p-tyramine. Chlorpromazine at 100 microM concentration killed the embryos. At a concentration of 100 microg/ml, tyrosine, the precursor of DA, slowed down the embryonic development by increasing the duration of the embryonic life from 8 to 10 days. Decarboxylase inhibitors, alpha-methyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (25 microg/ml) and m-hydroxybenzylhydrazin (5 microg/ml), killed 50% of the embryos, meanwhile the rest hatched ten days later, compared to the control animals. The development was partially blocked by the serotonin precusor L-tryptophane (50 microg/ml). Trytophan hydroxylase blocker, p-chlorphenylalanine (50 microg/ml) resulted in a distortion of the body pattern of the embryos, and prevented the hatching

  6. [The double DNA content is detected in hemocytes of snail Lymnaea stagnalis from a population with high radiation load].

    PubMed

    Koneva, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The research of hemocytes of laboratory cultivated pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis originating from two areas near Chernobyl with different radiation load has been carried out by means of comet assay. Significant interpopulation distinctions in parameters of DNA-comets have been revealed by means of the software analysis of hemocyte DNA-comet images: hemocytes of mollusks from radiationally unfavourable "Perstok" population have contained a twice DNA quantity in comparison with "Pripyat" population, and also have been statistically more resistant to the influence of strontium. Strontium reduces the amount of DNA in hemocytes, at that strontium dose of 0.5 MPC is already substantial (i.e., causes a negative impact).for snail Lymnaea stagnalis. According to a RAPD-analysis previously conducted, the snails of two populations are characterized by high genetic similarity, on the basis of which a hypothesis is suggested that the observed differences in the DNA content of hemocytes and resistance to strontium are inherited as prolonged adaptive modification (epigenetic change) in response to the intensive damaging impact of environment. Comet assay can be its indicator while carrying out the environmental monitoring.

  7. [The double DNA content is detected in hemocytes of snail Lymnaea stagnalis from a population with high radiation load].

    PubMed

    Koneva, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The research of hemocytes of laboratory cultivated pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis originating from two areas near Chernobyl with different radiation load has been carried out by means of comet assay. Significant interpopulation distinctions in parameters of DNA-comets have been revealed by means of the software analysis of hemocyte DNA-comet images: hemocytes of mollusks from radiationally unfavourable "Perstok" population have contained a twice DNA quantity in comparison with "Pripyat" population, and also have been statistically more resistant to the influence of strontium. Strontium reduces the amount of DNA in hemocytes, at that strontium dose of 0.5 MPC is already substantial (i.e., causes a negative impact).for snail Lymnaea stagnalis. According to a RAPD-analysis previously conducted, the snails of two populations are characterized by high genetic similarity, on the basis of which a hypothesis is suggested that the observed differences in the DNA content of hemocytes and resistance to strontium are inherited as prolonged adaptive modification (epigenetic change) in response to the intensive damaging impact of environment. Comet assay can be its indicator while carrying out the environmental monitoring. PMID:25782279

  8. Embryogenesis of the histaminergic system in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L.: an immunocytochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, E; Kaslin, J; Elekes, K

    2004-01-01

    Embryogenesis of the histaminergic system in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry and HPLC assay. From the earliest onset of the of histamine-immunoreactive (HA-IR) elements, the labelled neurons were confined to the pedal, cerebral and buccal ganglia, whereas no IR cells within the pleural, parietal and visceral ganglia were detectable during the embryogenesis. Peripheral projections of the embryonic HA-IR neurons were missing. No transient HA-IR neurons could be found either inside or outside the CNS. The first HA-IR elements appeared at about E55% of embryonic development, at the beginning of metamorphosis, and were represented by three pairs of neurons located in the cerebral ganglia. Following metamorphosis, four pairs of HA-IR neurons were added; two of them occurred in the pedal (E65% stage of development) and two in the buccal (E90% stage of development) ganglia. During embryogenesis, HA-IR fibers were present in the cerebro-pedal connectives and in the cerebral, pedal and buccal commissures, whereas only little arborization could be observed in the neuropil of the ganglia. HPLC measurements revealed a gradual increase of HA content in the embryos during development, corresponding well to the course of the appearance of immunolabeled elements. It is suggested that the developing HAergic system plays a specific role in the process of gangliogenesis and CNS plasticity of embryonic Lymnaea.

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present and biochemically active in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

  10. Lymnaea schirazensis, an Overlooked Snail Distorting Fascioliasis Data: Genotype, Phenotype, Ecology, Worldwide Spread, Susceptibility, Applicability

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, María Dolores; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Flores, Rosmary; Glöer, Peter; Rojas-García, Raúl; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Falkner, Gerhard; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymnaeid snails transmit medical and veterinary important trematodiases, mainly fascioliasis. Vector specificity of fasciolid parasites defines disease distribution and characteristics. Different lymnaeid species appear linked to different transmission and epidemiological patterns. Pronounced susceptibility differences to absolute resistance have been described among lymnaeid populations. When assessing disease characteristics in different endemic areas, unexpected results were obtained in studies on lymnaeid susceptibility to Fasciola. We undertook studies to understand this disease transmission heterogeneity. Methodology/Principal Findings A ten-year study in Iran, Egypt, Spain, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, demonstrated that such heterogeneity is not due to susceptibility differences, but to a hitherto overlooked cryptic species, Lymnaea schirazensis, confused with the main vector Galba truncatula and/or other Galba/Fossaria vectors. Nuclear rDNA and mtDNA sequences and phylogenetic reconstruction highlighted an old evolutionary divergence from other Galba/Fossaria species, and a low intraspecific variability suggesting a recent spread from one geographical source. Morphometry, anatomy and egg cluster analyses allowed for phenotypic differentiation. Selfing, egg laying, and habitat characteristics indicated a migration capacity by passive transport. Studies showed that it is not a vector species (n = 8572 field collected, 20 populations): snail finding and penetration by F. hepatica miracidium occur but never lead to cercarial production (n = 338 experimentally infected). Conclusions/Significance This species has been distorting fasciolid specificity/susceptibility and fascioliasis geographical distribution data. Hence, a large body of literature on G. truncatula should be revised. Its existence has henceforth to be considered in research. Genetic data on livestock, archeology and history along the 10,000-year

  11. Analysis of hemocytes in Lymnaea stagnalis: Characterization and effects of repeated hemolymph collections.

    PubMed

    Boisseaux, Paul; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Abbaci, Khédidja; Thomas, Hélène; Garric, Jeanne

    2016-10-01

    The first part of the study was devoted to test the hypothesis according to which the hemolymph of Lymnaea stagnalis can be collected repeatedly - regardless the time-intervals - at an individual scale without impact on survival nor immunocapacity defined as the hemocyte density and viability. No significant effects on snail survival were observed when repeated hemolymph samplings were performed at frequencies ranging from 96 h up to 24 h. The frequency of hemolymph sampling had no significant effects on hemocyte density but the hemocyte viability was slightly increased for the 24 h frequency group. Hence, we recommend setting the frequency lower than 48 h after two consecutive samplings for further assessment of hemocyte density and viability. Furthermore, a slight "day" effect was observed on snail immunocapacity. These results support the idea that L. stagnalis is a promising gastropod model in environmental immunotoxicology. A time-course analysis of individual hemocytes parameters can be evaluated with a relative confidence in the non-detrimental effect of the sampling. Linear mixed-effect models allow taking the "day" effect into account and so the possible effect of an environmental factor (i.e. xenobiotic exposures) can be analyzed. Statistical inferences indicated that the inter-individual variability for these hemocyte endpoints were on the same order of magnitude than intra-individual variability. The second part of the study was devoted to provide greater insights into the structure/ultrastructure of hemocytes in L. stagnalis. Only one type of hemocyte has been observed. The hemocytes in their free-floating status showed ovoid or spherical shapes. Some hemocytes exerted filopodia and structures shaped like sailboats. Their ultrastructure showed signs of intense cellular activity. Two peculiar organelles were observed. One corresponds to a massive perinuclear structure of dense aspect. The other corresponds to a structure with fibrillary arrangements

  12. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of oxygen binding to the haemocyanin from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, A; Wood, E J

    1982-01-01

    The binding of oxygen by the haemocyanin of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis was studied by equilibrium and kinetic methods. The studies were performed under conditions in which the haemocyanin molecule was in the native state. Over the pH range 6.8-7.6, in the presence of 10mM-CaCl2 the haemocyanin bound O2 cooperatively. Over this pH range the haemocyanin molecule displayed a normal Bohr effect whereby the O2 affinity of the molecule decreased with a fall in the pH of the solution. The maximum slope of the Hill plot (hmax.) was 3.5, obtained at pH 7.5. An increase in the CaCl2 concentration from 5 to 20 mM at pH 6.8 resulted in a slight increase in the oxygen affinity, with hmax. remaining virtually unchanged. At constant pH and CaCl2 concentration, an increase in NaCl concentration from 0 to 50 mM resulted in a small decrease in O2 affinity, but a significant increase in the value of hmax. from 3.5 to 8.6. Temperature-jump relaxation experiments over a range of O2 concentrations produced single relaxation times. The dependence of the relaxation time on the reactant concentrations indicated a simple bimolecular binding process. The calculated association and dissociation rate constants for this process at pH 7.5 are 29.5 X 10(6) M-1 X S-1 and 49 S-1 respectively. The association rate constant kon was found to be essentially independent of pH and CaCl2 concentration. The dissociation rate constant, koff, however, increased with a decrease in the pH, but was also independent of CaCl2 concentration. These results indicate that the stability of the haemocyanin-O2 complex is determined by the dissociation rate constant. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:7181856

  13. The toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Grosell, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis is extremely sensitive to metals (Co, Ni, Pb) in chronic exposures. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and chronic sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Cu and investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of toxic action. A 96-h LC50 of 31μg L(-1) Cu was estimated indicating L. stagnalis was moderately acutely sensitive to Cu relative to other aquatic organisms. However, in a 30-day chronic exposure using juvenile snails an EC20 of 1.8μg L(-1) Cu was estimated for snail growth making L. stagnalis the most sensitive organism tested to date for Cu. Hardness-based and BLM-based water quality criteria for Cu at the water quality conditions used in this study were 7.8 and 1.5μg L(-1), respectively, indicating L. stagnalis is significantly under-protected by hardness-based WQC. Investigations into the mechanism(s) of toxic action for Cu were conducted on young adult snails necessitating higher Cu exposures. Exposure to Cu at 12μg L(-1) resulted in no detectable effects on hemolymph osmolality, net Ca(2+) uptake, titratable acid excretion, or ammonia excretion. Exposure to 48μg L(-1) Cu was shown to significantly reduce (91%) net Ca(2+) uptake which is strongly correlated with shell deposition and corresponding snail growth. Snails exposed to 48μg L(-1) Cu also exhibited reduced ammonia excretion, a marked hemolymph acidosis, and a compensatory increase in titratable acid excretion. The reduction in net Ca(2+) uptake was hypothesized to be a secondary effect of Cu-induced inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, but no reduction in carbonic anhydrase activity was detected. Overall, it remains unclear whether inhibition of Ca(2+) uptake is a direct result of Cu exposure or, along with the other observed physiological effects, is secondary to an unidentified primary mode of toxic action. Given the hypersensitivity of L. stagnalis to Cu, further study into the

  14. Nitric oxide level regulates the embryonic development of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis: pharmacological, behavioral, and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Serfözö, Zoltán; Elekes, Károly

    2002-10-01

    On the basis of the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity, we have previously suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) in the development of Lymnaea stagnalis. In the present study, the long-term effects of NO donors (sodium nitroprusside, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester [L-NAME], N(G)-nitro-L-arginine [L-NOARG]) were tested on the survival, length of embryonic (intracapsular) life, locomotion (gliding), heartbeat activity and feeding behavior, as well as on the ultrastructure of the developing ganglia in the embryonic Lymnaea. No effect of any of the substances applied can be observed under 10(-5) M concentration, whereas at 10(-3) M concentration both kinds of treatment proved to be toxic. Between 10(-5) M and 10(-3) M concentrations the effects are reversible. At 10(-4) M concentration, NO donors slightly increase the frequency of gliding and heartbeat of E70% embryos, and evoke a more than twofold enhancement of the feeding activity, i.e., the frequency of radula protrusions in the E90% embryonic stage. In contrast, NOS inhibitors at 10(-4) M concentration strongly inhibit the locomotion and heartbeat of E70% embryos, and the feeding of E90% embryos. Under 10(-3) M concentration, L-arginine diminishes the effect of NOARG, whereas the D-isomer of NAME has little or no significant effect. Neither type of treatment alters the course of gangliogenesis, and the light-microscopic appearance of neurons also remains unaffected. Ultrastructural analysis of the central nervous system of E90% embryos treated with 10(-4) M NOS inhibitors revealed a significant reduction of the glycogen granule content and accumulation of lipid droplets in a number of the neuronal perikarya, as well as the occurrence of disintegrated mitochondria in axonal profiles. The effect of 10(-4) M NO donors is mainly characterized by the increased number of lysosomes, disintegrated mitochondria and degenerating

  15. Effect of DDT and MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) on reproduction of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L

    SciTech Connect

    Woin, P.; Broenmark, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Reproduction is the single most important function in the life cycle of an organism. Successful reproduction determines fitness of organisms. The inability of an organism to complete any one stage of the reproductive process severely reduces its lifetime reproductive success. Disruptions in the reproduction will ultimately affect the abundance and distribution of the species. Therefore, laboratory tests of long-term impact of sublethal pollutant concentrations on organisms preferably is done on the reproductive success. Pollutants of diverse structure may affect the reproductive system which is sensitive to toxic agents. Certain pollutants, notably the organochlorine compounds, have been shown to affect the male and female reproductive systems. The authors have studied the effect of sublethal concentrations of DDT and the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the reproductive output of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis under a 2-mon exposure period.

  16. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase).

  17. Distribution of metals and accumulation of lead by different tissues in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatt, F.B.; Pyatt, A.J.; Pentreath, V.W.

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of several metals in different body tissues of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), collected from an uncontaminated environment, were measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Significant concentrations of the potentially toxic elements manganese, titanium, and copper were detected in all tissues, although they were not detectable in the water sampled at collection; bioaccumulation is thus evidenced. Highest concentrations of manganese and copper were present in the shell, while highest concentrations of titanium were present in the head and foot. Experimental snails were continuously exposed to lead chloride (lead at 5 ppm) for an experimental period of 3 weeks. Both elements were accumulated to different extents by the snail tissues but with high concentrations again in the head of the animals, and chloride also in the visceral hump. No significant alterations in the distribution of the other elements measured were observed in the lead chloride-exposed animals.

  18. Storage and incubation of Echinostoma revolutum eggs recovered from wild Branta canadensis, and their infectivity to Lymnaea tomentosa snails.

    PubMed

    Davis, N E

    2005-12-01

    Echinostoma revolutum eggs recovered from naturally infected wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were cold stored (4-6 degrees C) for up to 72 weeks. Successful hatching followed incubation for from 6 to 8 days at an optimum temperature of between 25 and 30 degrees C. A partial life cycle from adult worm to metacercarial encystment in Lymnaea tomentosa snails was completed in the laboratory. Snails were infected both by free miracidia and by ingestment of unhatched embryonated eggs. Infection was equally successful in environmental temperature ranges from 10 to 25 degrees C, and at challenge levels of 2, 5 or 10 embryonated eggs per snail. Exposure to 10 eggs was lethal. Ingestion by snails of embryonated eggs with successful infection at 10 degrees C suggests that embryonated eggs may be used to infect wild snails when the environmental water temperature has reached 10 degrees C. PMID:16336715

  19. Genetic variation of Lymnaea stagnalis tolerance to copper: A test of selection hypotheses and its relevance for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Côte, Jessica; Bouétard, Anthony; Pronost, Yannick; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Coke, Maïra; Piquet, Fabien; Caquet, Thierry; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2015-10-01

    The use of standardized monospecific testing to assess the ecological risk of chemicals implicitly relies on the strong assumption that intraspecific variation in sensitivity is negligible or irrelevant in this context. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in copper sensitivity of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using lineages stemming from eight natural populations or strains found to be genetically differentiated at neutral markers. Copper-induced mortality varied widely among populations, as did the estimated daily death rate and time to 50% mortality (LT50). Population genetic divergence in copper sensitivity was compared to neutral differentiation using the QST-FST approach. No evidence for homogenizing selection could be detected. This result demonstrates that species-level extrapolations from single population studies are highly unreliable. The study provides a simple example of how evolutionary principles could be incorporated into ecotoxicity testing in order to refine ecological risk assessment.

  20. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  1. Immunocytochemical localization in the central nervous system of four different insect species of molecules immunoreactive against peptides present in the caudodorsal cells of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Theunis, W; Van Minnen, J; De Loof, A

    1990-09-01

    The use of polyclonal antisera directed against three peptides (ovulation hormone (CDCH), alpha, and beta caudodorsal cell peptide (alpha- and beta-CDCP) produced by the caudodorsal cells of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis resulted in positive immunoreaction in Sarcophaga bullata (Diptera), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera), Locusta migratoria, and Periplaneta americana (Orthoptera). In three species, colocalization was detected using the antisera against CDCH and alpha-CDCP.

  2. Identification and functional expression of a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the central nervous system of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Pim; Bertrand, Sonia; Munno, David W; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; van Minnen, Jan; Spafford, J David; Syed, Naweed I; Bertrand, Daniel; Smit, August B

    2006-01-20

    We described a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits underlying cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. By using degenerate PCR cloning, we identified 12 subunits that display a high sequence similarity to nAChR subunits, of which 10 are of the alpha-type, 1 is of the beta-type, and 1 was not classified because of insufficient sequence information. Heterologous expression of identified subunits confirms their capacity to form functional receptors responding to acetylcholine. The alpha-type subunits can be divided into groups that appear to underlie cation-conducting (excitatory) and anion-conducting (inhibitory) channels involved in synaptic cholinergic transmission. The expression of the Lymnaea nAChR subunits, assessed by real time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, indicates that it is localized to neurons and widespread in the CNS, with the number and localization of expressing neurons differing considerably between subunit types. At least 10% of the CNS neurons showed detectable nAChR subunit expression. In addition, cholinergic neurons, as indicated by the expression of the vesicular ACh transporter, comprise approximately 10% of the neurons in all ganglia. Together, our data suggested a prominent role for fast cholinergic transmission in the Lymnaea CNS by using a number of neuronal nAChR subtypes comparable with vertebrate species but with a functional complexity that may be much higher.

  3. The Early Worm Catches the Bird? Productivity and Patterns of Trichobilharzia szidati Cercarial Emission from Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Digenean trematodes are common and abundant in aquatic habitats and their free-living larvae, the cercariae, have recently been recognized as important components of ecosystems in terms of comprising a significant proportion of biomass and in having a potentially strong influence on food web dynamics. One strategy to enhance their transmission success is to produce high numbers of cercariae which are available during the activity peak of the next host. In laboratory experiments with 13 Lymnaea stagnalis snails infected with Trichobilharzia szidati the average daily emergence rate per snail was determined as 2,621 cercariae, with a maximum of 29,560. During a snail’s lifetime this summed up to a mass equivalent of or even exceeding the snail’s own body mass. Extrapolated for the eutrophic pond where the snails were collected, annual T. szidati biomass may reach 4.65 tons, a value equivalent to a large Asian elephant. Emission peaks were observed after the onset of illumination, indicating emission synchronizing with the high morning activities of the definitive hosts, ducks. However, high cercarial emission is possible throughout the day under favorable lightning conditions. Therefore, although bird schistosomes, such as T. szidati constitute only a fraction of the diverse trematode communities in the studied aquatic ecosystem, their cercariae can still pose a considerable risk for humans of getting cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) due to the high number of cercariae emitted from infected snails. PMID:26895541

  4. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  5. Two proteolytic fragments of menin coordinate the nuclear transcription and postsynaptic clustering of neurotransmitter receptors during synaptogenesis between Lymnaea neurons

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Angela M.; Visser, Frank; Bell, Erin M.; Xu, Fenglian; Flynn, Nichole M.; Zaidi, Wali; Syed, Naweed I.

    2016-01-01

    Synapse formation and plasticity depend on nuclear transcription and site-specific protein targeting, but the molecular mechanisms that coordinate these steps have not been well defined. The MEN1 tumor suppressor gene, which encodes the protein menin, is known to induce synapse formation and plasticity in the CNS. This synaptogenic function has been conserved across evolution, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unidentified. Here, using central neurons from the invertebrate Lymnaea stagnalis, we demonstrate that menin coordinates subunit-specific transcriptional regulation and synaptic clustering of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) during neurotrophic factor (NTF)-dependent excitatory synaptogenesis, via two proteolytic fragments generated by calpain cleavage. Whereas menin is largely regarded as a nuclear protein, our data demonstrate a novel cytoplasmic function at central synapses. Furthermore, this study identifies a novel synaptogenic mechanism in which a single gene product coordinates the nuclear transcription and postsynaptic targeting of neurotransmitter receptors through distinct molecular functions of differentially localized proteolytic fragments. PMID:27538741

  6. The Early Worm Catches the Bird? Productivity and Patterns of Trichobilharzia szidati Cercarial Emission from Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Selbach, Christian; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Digenean trematodes are common and abundant in aquatic habitats and their free-living larvae, the cercariae, have recently been recognized as important components of ecosystems in terms of comprising a significant proportion of biomass and in having a potentially strong influence on food web dynamics. One strategy to enhance their transmission success is to produce high numbers of cercariae which are available during the activity peak of the next host. In laboratory experiments with 13 Lymnaea stagnalis snails infected with Trichobilharzia szidati the average daily emergence rate per snail was determined as 2,621 cercariae, with a maximum of 29,560. During a snail's lifetime this summed up to a mass equivalent of or even exceeding the snail's own body mass. Extrapolated for the eutrophic pond where the snails were collected, annual T. szidati biomass may reach 4.65 tons, a value equivalent to a large Asian elephant. Emission peaks were observed after the onset of illumination, indicating emission synchronizing with the high morning activities of the definitive hosts, ducks. However, high cercarial emission is possible throughout the day under favorable lightning conditions. Therefore, although bird schistosomes, such as T. szidati constitute only a fraction of the diverse trematode communities in the studied aquatic ecosystem, their cercariae can still pose a considerable risk for humans of getting cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) due to the high number of cercariae emitted from infected snails. PMID:26895541

  7. Characterization and response of antioxidant systems in the tissues of the freshwater pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) during acute copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Atli, Gülüzar; Grosell, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The response of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX and glutathione reductase, GR) and non-enzymatic responses (glutathione, GSH, oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG) against acute Cu toxicity (2-90μg/mL for 48h) in different tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis were measured. Incubation conditions for enzymatic activity measurements were optimized for L. stagnalis tissues. Three examined tissues, the hepatopancreas, the foot muscle and the mantle, exhibited variable responses in antioxidant parameters as a function of Cu concentrations. The most responsive antioxidant enzymes were GPX and CAT while GR appeared less sensitive. In general antioxidant enzymes at higher Cu concentrations though GSH levels at lower Cu concentrations exhibited the greatest changes in hepatopancreas and foot muscle, respectively. All antioxidant enzymes except GR increased after exposure to the highest Cu concentration in mantle. Total and reduced GSH increased in hepatopancreas but decreased with GSH/GSSG ratios at all Cu concentrations in foot muscle. The present results show that antioxidants respond to acute Cu exposure at concentrations as low as 2μg Cu/L in adult L. stagnalis with variable responses in different tissues. Antioxidants both including enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters may account, in part, for the high tolerance to acute metal exposure observed in adult L. stagnalis and could form suited biomarkers to evaluate the metal exposure and toxicity in aquatic environment even at relatively low level short term exposure. PMID:27108202

  8. Modelling effects of diquat under realistic exposure patterns in genetically differentiated populations of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R. R.; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide use leads to complex exposure and response patterns in non-target aquatic species, so that the analysis of data from standard toxicity tests may result in unrealistic risk forecasts. Developing models that are able to capture such complexity from toxicity test data is thus a crucial issue for pesticide risk assessment. In this study, freshwater snails from two genetically differentiated populations of Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to repeated acute applications of environmentally realistic concentrations of the herbicide diquat, from the embryo to the adult stage. Hatching rate, embryonic development duration, juvenile mortality, feeding rate and age at first spawning were investigated during both exposure and recovery periods. Effects of diquat on mortality were analysed using a threshold hazard model accounting for time-varying herbicide concentrations. All endpoints were significantly impaired at diquat environmental concentrations in both populations. Snail evolutionary history had no significant impact on their sensitivity and responsiveness to diquat, whereas food acted as a modulating factor of toxicant-induced mortality. The time course of effects was adequately described by the model, which thus appears suitable to analyse long-term effects of complex exposure patterns based upon full life cycle experiment data. Obtained model outputs (e.g. no-effect concentrations) could be directly used for chemical risk assessment. PMID:20921047

  9. [Biological control of Lymnaea truncatula Müller in Haute-Vienne, France. Apropos of several factors limiting its application].

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D

    1981-01-01

    The author analyzes the positive and negative results of a year of biological control by predation on 49 stations of Lymnaea truncatula in Haute-Vienne, France. The negative results can be explained by the effects of 6 natural factors: 1--the rainfall over the habitats during the first 10 days of the experimentation. The rate of natural mortality and predation of L. truncatula is reduced at values above 8 mm rainfall. The predatory snails leave the sodden soil and do not consume L. truncatula; 2--the presence of stone blocks on the habitat. These blocks constitute shelters for L. truncatula; 3--the quality of the plant cover. Rushes and graminaceae preferentially must be used; 4--the previous treatment of the habitat by a molluscicide (copper sulphate) just before the application of biological control. The predators preferentially consume the more poisoned L. truncatula and forsake the more healthy snails; 5--the presence of phoretic acaridae on the predators which die; 6--the behaviour of sheep on the habitats situated on pastures with steep slopes. Their repeated passages cause the squashing of the predators. The proposed solutions are discussed in the limits of the region of experimentation.

  10. Reduction of growth and haemolymph Ca levels in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis chronically exposed to cobalt.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Koene, Joris M; Heijerick, Dagobert G; Janssen, Colin R

    2008-09-01

    The ecological risk assessment and the development of water-quality criteria for Co are currently still hampered by insufficient knowledge about the toxicity of Co to freshwater organisms. A relevant group of organisms, for which no toxicity data with Co are available, is the class of the herbivorous pulmonate freshwater snails, which fulfil a pivotal role in the consumption and decomposition of aquatic plants and epihyton. We measured the growth rate of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis chronically exposed for 28 days to a series of Co concentrations. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for growth rate were 26 and 79 microg Co/L, respectively. Growth rate of snails exposed to 79 microg Co/L and higher concentrations was more impaired in the final 2 weeks of exposure than in the first 2 weeks of exposure. The reduced growth rate at 79 microg Co/L was accompanied by a reduced concentration of Ca in the haemolymph at the end of the exposure. Possible mechanisms of toxicity of Co to snail growth were suggested to be an impairment of Ca uptake and homeostasis and/or feeding inhibition. Although additional research is needed to investigate the relative importance of these mechanisms, as well as the interrelatedness between them, the toxicity data currently presented can assist in risk assessment and water-quality criteria development. PMID:17727948

  11. Feeding of Bait to Snail Lymnaea acuminata and Their Effect on Certain Enzyme in the Nervous Tissue.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis, has been recognized for a long time because of its major veterinary and human impact. Different Bait formulations were fed to the snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations was prepared from different binary combination (1 : 1 ratio) of carbohydrates (glucose, starch 10 mM) and amino acid (methionine, histidine 10 mM) in 100 ml of 2% agar solution + sublethal (20% and 60% of 24 h and 96 h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails fed on bait containing sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides and the snail attractant, causing a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Maximum inhibition in ALP (20% of control) and AChE (49.49% of control) activity was observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96 h LC50 of eugenol in the bait pellets containing starch + histidine, starch + methionine, respectively.

  12. Feeding of Bait to Snail Lymnaea acuminata and Their Effect on Certain Enzyme in the Nervous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V. K.; Singh, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis, has been recognized for a long time because of its major veterinary and human impact. Different Bait formulations were fed to the snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations was prepared from different binary combination (1 : 1 ratio) of carbohydrates (glucose, starch 10 mM) and amino acid (methionine, histidine 10 mM) in 100 ml of 2% agar solution + sublethal (20% and 60% of 24 h and 96 h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails fed on bait containing sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides and the snail attractant, causing a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Maximum inhibition in ALP (20% of control) and AChE (49.49% of control) activity was observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96 h LC50 of eugenol in the bait pellets containing starch + histidine, starch + methionine, respectively. PMID:25969756

  13. Role of aminergic (serotonin and dopamine) systems in the embryogenesis and different embryonic behaviors of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Filla, Adrienn; Hiripi, László; Elekes, Károly

    2009-01-01

    A detailed biochemical and pharmacological analysis of the dopaminergic (DAergic) and serotonergic (5-HTergic) systems was performed during the embryogenesis of Lymnaea stagnalis, to monitor their role in development and different behaviors. The dopamine (DA) level and the synthesizing decarboxylase enzyme activity showed a continuous increase, whereas the serotonin (5-HT) concentration remained low until late postmetamorphic development, when they all showed a rapid and significant increase. Application of monoamine precursors increased, whereas enzyme inhibitors and neurotoxins reduced monoamine levels; all treatments resulting in a prolongation of embryogenesis. Following, p-chlorphenylalanine (pCPA) and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (Nsd-1015) treatments, no 5-HT immunoreactivity could be detected in the embryonic nervous system. These findings suggest that changes of monoamine levels in either (negative or positive) direction cause slowing of embryogenesis. Embryonic rotation and radula protrusion rate was enhanced following both serotonin and dopamine application, whereas frequency of gliding was increased by serotonin treatment. These results clearly indicate the involvement of 5-HT and DA in the regulation of a broad range of embryonic behaviors. Pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT receptor associated with the L. stagnalis embryonic behaviors studied revealed that a mammalian 5-HT(1)-like receptor type is involved in the 5-HTergic regulation of locomotion activity.

  14. Development of an embryo toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis using the model substance tributyltin and common solvents.

    PubMed

    Bandow, Cornelia; Weltje, Lennart

    2012-10-01

    The development of a chronic mollusc toxicity test is a current work item on the agenda of the OECD. The freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is one of the candidate snail species for such a test. This paper presents a 21-day chronic toxicity test with L. stagnalis, focussing on embryonic development. Eggs were collected from freshly laid egg masses and exposed individually until hatching. The endpoints were hatching success and mean hatching time. Tributyltin (TBT), added as TBT-chloride, was chosen as model substance. The selected exposure concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 10 μg TBT/L (all as nominal values) and induced the full range of responses. The embryos were sensitive to TBT (the NOEC for mean hatching time was 0.03 μg TBT/L and the NOEC for hatching success was 0.1 μg TBT/L). In addition, data on maximum limit concentrations of seven common solvents, recommended in OECD aquatic toxicity testing guidelines, are presented. Among the results, further findings as average embryonic growth and mean hatching time of control groups are provided. In conclusion, the test presented here could easily be standardised and is considered useful as a potential trigger to judge if further studies, e.g. a (partial) life-cycle study with molluscs, should be conducted.

  15. Bioaccumulation of copper and toxic effects on feeding, growth, fecundity and development of pond snail Lymnaea luteola L.

    PubMed

    Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2011-01-15

    We studied the bioaccumulation and the toxic effects of Cu on survival, number of eggs and eggmasses laying, embryo development, growth, and food consumption in an Indian pond snail, Lymnaea luteola L. exposed for 7 weeks. Copper caused loss of chemoreception, locomotion and inhibited food consumption significantly during 7 weeks of exposure. Food consumption in Cu exposed snails significantly decreased and at 56 and 100 μg L(-1), snail stopped feeding activity. Mean number of eggmasses or eggs significantly decreased in Cu concentrations during the 7 week study. The percentage hatching decreased in Cu concentrations but there was more than 95% hatched in control in 10-11 days after spawning. Egg development was completely inhibited at 100 μg L(-1), while abnormal embryonic development observed at 32 and 56 μg L(-1) of Cu. The Cu concentration in tissues increased in Cu treated snails and bioaccumulation factor ranged from 2.3 to 18.7. Snail growth at 5.6 and 10 μg L(-1) was reduced by 6.2% and 16.9%, respectively. The study revealed that snail embryos and adults could be used as in vivo test models for ecotoxicological studies. Findings of present study are helpful for advancing water quality guidelines for protecting aquatic biota.

  16. Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, D K

    2006-06-01

    The molluscicidal activity of dried root latex powder of Ferula asafoetida, flower-bud powder of Syzygium aromaticum and seed powder of Carum carvi against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of all the three plant products was found to be both time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of S. aromaticum flower-bud powder (96 h LC(50):51.98 mg/l) was more pronounced than that of root latex powder of F. asafoetida (96 h LC(50):82.71 mg/l) and seed powder of C. carvi (96 h LC(50):140.58 mg/l). Ethanol extract was more toxic than other organic extracts. The ethanol extract of S. aromaticum (24h LC(50):83.53 mg/l) was more effective than that of F. asafoetida (24h LC(50):132.31 mg/l) and C. carvi (24h LC(50):130.61 mg/l) in killing the test animals. The 96 h LC(50) of column purified fraction of seed powder of C. carvi was 5.40 mg/l whereas those of flower-bud powder of S. aromaticum and dried root latex powder of F. asafoetida were 7.87 and 9.67 mg/l, respectively. The product of F. asafoetida, S. aromaticum and C. carvi may be used as potent molluscicides.

  17. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. PMID:24641838

  18. The occurrence of the snail Lymnaea columella on grazing areas in New South Wales and studies on its susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Boray, J C; Fraser, G C; Williams, J D; Wilson, J M

    1985-01-01

    Field surveys were carried out in the Lismore and Casino area for the presence of fresh water snails potentially responsible for the transmission of trematodes in ruminants. Although the North American snail, Lymnaea columella has previously only been reported from metropolitan areas, large populations of the snail were found east of Lismore. Natural infection with F. hepatica was detected in some of the snails and laboratory studies showed that this snail species was highly susceptible to infection with miracidia of F. hepatica and produced viable metacercariae. Three species of planorbid snails, Helicorbis australiensis, Pygmanisus pelorius and Gyraulus gilberti were also found. The first 2 planorbid species were infected with paramphistomid cercariae.

  19. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant mitigates the reproductive toxicity of fomesafen on the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in outdoor experimental ponds.

    PubMed

    Jumel, Audrey; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent

    2002-09-01

    The influence of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO), formulated as the adjuvant Agral 90, on the effects of the diphenyl ether herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated, with particular attention to the reproductive performances and underlying energetic and hormonal processes. Separate short-term exposures to low concentrations of fomesafen and fomesafen-Agral mixture were performed in the laboratory. Outdoor experimental ponds (mesocosms) were used for long-term exposures to higher chemical concentrations. At the concentrations used in the studies, NPEO were known as nontoxic in L stagnalis. Fomesafen was mixed with the adjuvant in the 3:7 ratio recommended for agricultural uses (nominal herbicide concentrations of 22 and 40 microg/L in laboratory and mesocosm, respectively). In mesocosms, multiple application of fomesafen, leading to maximal herbicide concentrations of 60.33 +/- 2.68 microg/L in water, resulted in reduced number of egg masses and altered glycogen metabolism in contaminated snails. These changes, as well as affected steroid-like levels in fomesafen-exposed snails, support the hypothesis of impaired neuroendocrine functions. When Agral 90 was added to the herbicide, results obtained in mesocosms showed that the adjuvant softened the impact of fomesafen. In mesocosms treated with the fomesafen-Agral mixture, significantly lower herbicide levels were found in the water (30.33 +/- 14.91 microg/L at the end of the contamination period). Consequently, internal exposure of the snails to fomesafen was reduced when the herbicide was mixed with the adjuvant. Mitigation of the effects of fomesafen by the adjuvant may therefore result from nonionic surfactant activity of NPEO that prevented fomesafen from reaching the snails.

  20. Fasciola gigantica: cercarial shedding pattern from Lymnaea natalensis after long-term exposure to cadmium at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the response of Fasciola spp., inside its snail host to pollutant toxicity. The effect of long-term exposure of Lymnaea natalensis to 0.1 microg/l, 10 microg/l, or 100 microg/l cadmium (Cd) on the infection rates with F. gigantica, percentage of cercariae-shedding snails and cercariae shedding pattern was investigated. The snails were exposed to Cd for 7 days either pre-infection with single Fasciola miracidium or during the late pre-patent period of the infection. The possible interaction between metal exposure and acclimatization temperature was also studied in three ranges; 16-18 degrees C, 23-25 degrees C and 30-32 degrees C. Results clearly showed that host exposure to 100 microg/l Cd significantly affected the pattern of Fasciola development inside its snail host, and that the acclimatization temperature was a key factor affecting the role played by Cd. Pre-infection exposure to Cd caused a significant reduction in the infection rates where the effect was temperature-dependent. Post-infection exposure to Cd significantly increased the percentage of cercariae-shedding snails; the effect was temperature-independent. Interestingly, post-infection exposure significantly altered the differential cercarial output pattern, while no clear impact on the total was found. The alteration in the differential cercarial output was represented as a significantly higher proportion of floating metacercaria as compared to fixed ones and also higher proportion of dead cercariae which may directly reduce the transmission of Fasciola to the final host. The mechanisms of cadmium impact are briefly discussed. PMID:19101545

  1. Proteomic Analysis of the Reproductive Organs of the Hermaphroditic Gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Different Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Arnaud; Leprince, Pierre; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD). In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin) could constitute relevant

  2. Pesticide Mixture Toxicity in Surface Water Extracts in Snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) by an in Vitro Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Assay and Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Wassenaar, Pim N H; Osorio, Victoria; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G; Lamoree, Marja H

    2016-04-01

    Many chemicals in use end up in the aquatic environment. The toxicity of water samples can be tested with bioassays, but a metabolomic approach has the advantage that multiple end points can be measured simultaneously and the affected metabolic pathways can be revealed. A current challenge in metabolomics is the study of mixture effects. This study aims at investigating the toxicity of an environmental extract and its most abundant chemicals identified by target chemical analysis of >100 organic micropollutants and effect-directed analysis (EDA) using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) bioassay and metabolomics. Surface water from an agricultural area was sampled with a large volume solid phase extraction (LVSPE) device using three cartridges containing neutral, anionic, and cationic sorbents able to trap several pollutants classes like pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and perfluorinated surfactants. Targeted chemical analysis and AChE bioassay were performed on the cartridge extracts. The extract of the neutral sorbent cartridge contained most of the targeted chemicals, mainly imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and pirimicarb, and was the most potent AChE inhibitor. Using an EDA approach, other AChE inhibiting candidates were identified in the neutral extract, such as carbendazim and esprocarb. Additionally, a metabolomics experiment on the central nervous system (CNS) of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis was conducted. The snails were exposed to the extract, the three most abundant chemicals individually, and a mixture of these. The extract disturbed more metabolic pathways than the three most abundant chemicals individually, indicating the contribution of other chemicals. Most pathways perturbed by the extract exposure overlapped with those related to exposure to neonicotinoids, like the polyamine metabolism involved in CNS injuries. Metabolomics for the straightforward comparison between a complex mixture and single compound toxicity is still challenging but

  3. Effects of copper on the egg development and hatching of a freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea luteola L.

    PubMed

    Khangarot, B S; Das, Sangita

    2010-07-15

    A freshwater invertebrate egg development and hatching toxicity test with an Indian freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola, comprising the following developmental endpoints was described: mortality, development, formation of eyes and foot structure, heart rate, duration of different larval stages, and hatching time. Developmental stages were morula, and at third, fifth, and eighth days; the trochophore, veliger, and hippo larvae, respectively. At the age of about 9th to 11th days after egg laying; more than 95% young snail hatched in control laboratory conditions. To evaluate effects on embryonic development, the pulmonate snail eggs of 24-h old were exposed to a series of nominal copper concentrations. The percentage survival of embryos treated in 10-32 microg l(-1) of Cu after 240 h of exposure drops sharply at veliger and hippo stages. All embryos died at 100-320 microg l(-1) of Cu within 168 h of exposure at trochophore and early veliger stages. The detected abnormalities were malformation of foot, eyes, thinness and incomplete formation of shell, growth retardation, and slow rotation of embryo within the egg capsule as compared to control embryos. Lethal and sublethal effects in terms of mortality and significant delay in hatching could be found in the 3.2, 5.6 and 10 microg l(-1) of Cu concentrations. This species is widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent freshwater reservoirs and more sensitive to Cu than other tested aquatic test organisms; therefore, could be used as a test model of Cu and possibly other pollutants for rapid risk assessment of environmental pollutants. The snail egg embryo bioassay is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, cost-effective, and easy to test under standardized laboratory conditions.

  4. Direct mass spectrometric peptide profiling and sequencing of nervous tissues to identify peptides involved in male copulatory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreisewerd, Klaus; Kingston, Robert; Geraerts, Wijnand P. M.; Li, Ka Wan

    1997-12-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was performed directly on a small piece of single penis nerve of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, and reveals the presence of complex peptide profiles, including many hitherto undescribed peptides. Two of the peptides have molecular weights corresponding exactly to the previously described Lymnaea small cardioactive peptides (SCP) A and B. We confirmed their identities by structural characterization of the two peptides directly from a single penis nerve by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization high-energy collision tandem MS analysis. MALDI-MS of nervous tissues also demonstrates that a cluster of central neurons, which send their axons to the penis nerve, contain the two peptides. As the penis nerve is the nerve that innervates the penis complex, we propose that the peptides are involved in the modulation of male copulatory processes. A bioassay indeed showed that the peptides increase the contraction frequency of the vas deference in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrate the potential of direct MALDI-MS analysis of nervous tissue to complement or substitute conventional biochemical techniques for the identification and localization of neuropeptides.

  5. Aptitude of Lymnaea palustris and L. stagnalis to Fasciola hepatica larval development through the infection of several successive generations of 4-mm-high snails.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-06-01

    Bimiracidial infections of Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea stagnalis (shell height at exposure, 4 mm) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during six successive snail generations to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants issuing from eggs laid by parents already exposed to this digenean. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula (a single generation) infected according to the same protocol. In a first experiment performed with the F1 to F5 generations of L. palustris, the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased. Immature rediae and a few cercariae-containing rediae of the digenean were observed in L. stagnalis from the F3 generation, but no free cercaria was noted in the bodies of this lymnaeid from the F4 to F6 generations. In another experiment carried out with the F6 generation of L. palustris, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. palustris than in G. truncatula. This mode of snail infection suggests an explanation for cases of human fasciolosis occurring in central France after the collection of wild watercress from beds where L. palustris was the sole lymnaeid.

  6. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme.

  7. The effect of abiotic factors on the toxicity of cypermethrin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata in the control of fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Singh, D K

    2009-03-01

    Every month during the year 2006-2007, the 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide, cypermethrin, were determined for a snail Lymnaea acuminata, with concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24 h toxicity assay, it was noted that LC50 values of 10.39, 10.90 and 11.19 mg l- 1 during the months of May, June and July, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while the molluscicide was least effective in the month of January, when its 24 h LC50 was 65.84 mg l- 1.There was a significant positive correlation between LC50 of cypermethrin and levels of dissolved O2/pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between LC50 and dissolved CO2/temperature of test water in the same months. In order to ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not coincidental, the nervous tissue of the snail was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to sublethal concentrations (40% and 80%) of 24 h LC50 during each of the 12 months of the same year. The findings confirmed that abiotic factors indeed influence toxicity of cypermethrin in the snail. A significant positive rank correlation between AChE, ACP and ALP activity did exist following exposure to the corresponding sublethal concentrations. Moreover, there was a maximum inhibition of 61.29 and 76.16% of AChE and ACP, respectively, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24 h LC50 in the month of May. A similar treatment caused a maximum inhibition of 70.53% of ALP activity in the month of June. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control the snail population with cypermethrin is during the months of May and June.

  8. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  9. EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ram P.; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  10. Time-related expression profiles for heat shock protein gene transcripts (HSP40, HSP70) in the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nicola L; Lukowiak, Ken; Henry, Theodore B

    2015-01-01

    Organisms exposed to environmental stressors respond by rapidly synthesising a suite of highly conserved proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs). Environmental stress can also enhance and/or block memory formation, with long-term memory formation requiring gene activation and protein synthesis. Thermal stress in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can enhance memory formation, and, in this study, the effect of thermal stress on HSP gene expression in the nervous system was investigated. Time-related expression profiles for HSP40 and HSP70 indicated rapid (<30 min) induction for both transcripts. For HSP40, induction was <20 fold relative to control and expression returned to control levels within 8 h, whereas HSP70 induction was >100 fold and expression did not return to control levels within 8 h. PMID:26478775

  11. Uptake and distribution of copper sulfate and its effect on the respiration rate of the hemocyanin-producing freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolmarans, C.T.; Yssel, E.

    1988-08-01

    Copper sulfate was one of the earliest compounds suggested as a molluscicide and although several new compounds have since been developed, copper sulfate is still widely used against freshwater snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites causing bilharzia. However, the toxic effect that copper sulfate may have on these species has not yet been investigated adequately. This incomplete picture of the action of copper sulfate on freshwater snails is further complicated by the fact that some of these snail species have hemocyanin (a protein containing copper) as respiration pigment. Because of the existence of a copper metabolic pathway, these species may handle external copper differently from those species with hemoglobin as respiration pigment. In the present study, the uptake of external copper in the form of copper sulfate, as well as the effect of this ion on respiration rate, was investigated in Lymnaea natalensis, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. This snail possesses hemocyanin as respiratory pigment.

  12. Comparative studies of the effect of thiourea and BHC on behaviour and mortality in adult snails of the species Lymnaea stagnalis and on their egg masses.

    PubMed

    Bhide, M

    1989-01-01

    When adult Lymnaea stagnalis specimens were treated with aqueous thiourea and BHC solutions for up to 30 days, they displayed hyperirritability after 3 +/- 2 days, manifested in climbing behaviour at the surface of the water to avoid contact with the treated medium and to take in fresh air. They remained clinging to the wall of the container for long intervals without feeding and their feeding rate as a whole was slow throughout the experiment. Owing to decalcification the shell became thin, fragile and semi-transparent. Egg mass production by the adults increased slightly, but there were fewer egg capsules (3-8/egg mass), indicating that the fertility rate was reduced. Mortality among the adult snails was high during prolonged treatment. The egg masses were swollen and were less sticky than in the controls. None of them survived. The effects of BHC treatment were more pronounced and faster than in thiourea treatment.

  13. DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern Andean countries, with description of L. meridensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Livestock fascioliasis is a problem throughout Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, mainly in Andean areas where the disease also appears to affect humans. Transmission patterns and epidemiological scenarios of liver fluke infection have shown to differ according to the lymnaeid vector snail species involved. These Andean countries present the vectors Lymnaea cousini, L. bogotensis and L. ubaquensis, unknown in the rest of Latin America. An exhaustive combined haplotype study of these species is performed by means of DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal 18S RNA gene, ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene. Results The conserved 5.8S rDNA sequence corroborated that no pseudogenes are involved in the numerous non-microsatellite/minisatellite-related indels appearing between the ITS-2 and ITS-1 sequences when comparing different L. cousini - L. bogotensis populations. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction methods including other lymnaeid vector species show that (i) L. bogotensis is a synonym of L. cousini, (ii) L. ubaquensis is a synonym of Pseudosuccinea columella, and (iii) populations of L. cousini hitherto known from Venezuelan highlands indeed belong to a new species for which the name L. meridensis n. sp. is proposed. This new species is described and a complete phenotypic differentiation provided. Conclusions ITS-2, ITS-1 and cox1 prove to be good markers for specimen classification and haplotype characterisation of these morphologically similar lymnaeids in endemic areas. Analysis of the 18S gene and phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that L. cousini and L. meridensis n. sp. cluster in an evolutionary line different from the one of P. columella, despite their external resemblance. This suggests an evolutionary phenotypic convergence related to similar environments and which has given rise to frequent specimen misclassification. Body size and phylogenetic relationships of L. meridensis n. sp. with well-known vectors as

  14. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D. K.; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails. PMID:26925296

  15. Training Lymnaea in the presence of a predator scent results in a long-lasting ability to form enhanced long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Forest, Jeremy; Sunada, Hiroshi; Dodd, Shawn; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Lymnaea exposed to crayfish effluent (CE) gain an enhanced ability to form long-term memory (LTM). We test the hypothesis that a single CE exposure and operant conditioning training leads to long lasting changes in the capability of snails to form LTM when tested in pond water four weeks later. We trained both juvenile and adult snails with a single 0.5 h training session in CE and show that LTM was present 24 h later. Snails trained in a similar manner in just pond water show no LTM. We then asked if such training in CE conferred enhanced memory forming capabilities on these snails four weeks later. That is, would LTM be formed in these snails four weeks later following a single 0.5 h training session in pond water? We found that both adult and juvenile snails previously trained in CE one month previously had enhanced LTM formation abilities. The injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, prior to training in adult snails blocked enhanced LTM formation four weeks later. Finally, this enhanced LTM forming ability was not passed on to the next generation of snails. PMID:27138222

  16. The role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition in structuring trematode communities in the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Kuris, Armand M.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed how spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition structure larval trematode communities in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. To postulate a dominance hierarchy, mark-release-recapture was used to monitor replacements of trematode species within snails over time. In addition, we sampled the trematode community in snails in different ponds in 3 consecutive years. A total of 7,623 snails (10,382 capture events) was sampled in 7 fishponds in the Jindřichův Hradec and Třeboň areas in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) from August 2006 to October 2008. Overall, 39% of snails were infected by a community of 14 trematode species; 7% of snails were infected with more than 1 trematode species (constituting 16 double- and 4 triple-species combinations). Results of the null-model analyses suggested that spatial heterogeneity in recruitment among ponds isolated trematode species from each other, whereas seasonal pulses in recruitment increased species interactions in some ponds. Competitive exclusion among trematodes led to a rarity of multiple infections compared to null-model expectations. Competitive relationships among trematode species were hypothesized as a dominance hierarchy based on direct evidence of replacement and invasion and on indirect evidence. Seven top dominant species with putatively similar competitive abilities (6 rediae and 1 sporocyst species) reduced the prevalence of the other trematode species developing in sporocysts only.

  17. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  18. A 5-HT1A-like receptor is involved in the regulation of the embryonic rotation of Lymnaea stagnalis L.

    PubMed

    Hiripi, László; Elekes, Károly

    2010-06-01

    Cilia driven rotation of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis embryos is regulated by serotonin (5-HT). In the present study, physiological and biochemical assays were used to identify the 5-HT receptor type involved in rotation. The 5-HTergic agonists applied stimulated the rotation by 180-400% and their rank order potency was as follows: LSD>5-HT>8-OH-DPAT>WB4101>5-CT. The applied antagonists, spiperone, propranalol and mianserin inhibited the 5-HT or 8-OH-DPAT stimulated rotation of the embryos by 50-70%. (3)H-5-HT was bound specifically to the washed pellet of the embryo homogenates. The specific binding of (3)H-5-HT was saturable and showed a single, high affinity binding site with K(d) 7.36 nM and B(max) 221 fmol/mg pellet values. This is the first report demonstrating the high affinity binding of (3)H-5-HT to the native receptor in molluscs. All of the pharmacons that stimulated the rotation or inhibited the 5-HT or 8-OH-DPAT evoked stimulation displaced effectively the binding of (3)H-5-HT. 5-HT resulted in the inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP accumulation, showing that 5-HT is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Our results suggest that in the 5-HTergic regulation of the embryonic rotation in L. stagnalis a 5-HT(1A)-like receptor of the vertebrate type is involved.

  19. Effects of self-fertilization, environmental stress and exposure to xenobiotics on fitness-related traits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Lagadic, Laurent

    2006-03-01

    Genetic and ecological factors may interact in their effects on fitness. Such interactions are thus to be expected between inbreeding and exposure of a population to a toxicant. The magnitude of inbreeding depression is thought to increase in stressful environments. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the combined effects of environmental conditions and inbreeding on fitness in the self-fertile snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using a stress gradient (0-2) applied to a 100 isolated and paired lineages: laboratory control (0), outdoor microcosm control (1) and pesticide exposure under outdoor microcosm conditions (2). Outdoor stress conditions were maintained for 28 days prior to measurements of fitness traits (fecundity, hatching success, and size at hatching) under laboratory conditions, so that delayed environmental effects could be estimated. Under laboratory control conditions, we found significant initial family level heterogeneity for most measured traits, including physiological performances as assessed through energetic biomarkers. Whatever the environmental conditions, inbreeding depression was very low for progeny performances. Negative values of self-fertilization depression (SFD) were obtained. Unexpectedly, SFD showed a negative relationship with the assumed stress intensity, reflecting a higher sensitivity under pairing than under selfing, mostly due to parental fecundity. This suggests that stressful conditions may favour selfing. Stress intensity increased the distribution limits of both depression indices, suggesting that changes in fitness are less predictable in a population under stress. Implications of such findings for environmental risk assessment of pesticides are discussed.

  20. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of cadmium on feeding and growth of an Indian pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved cadmium exposure on the survival, feeding, growth rates and accumulation in Indian pond snails Lymnaea luteola L. were examined for a period of 7 weeks. The concentrations of cadmium tested were 0, 10, 32, 100, 320, 560, and 1000 microg l(-1). Cadmium exposure significantly inhibited the feeding and growth rates. At higher Cd concentrations snails refused to consume food offered as plant Marsilia sp. leaves. Cadmium mainly accumulated in soft tissues in a dose-dependent manner. After 4 and 7 weeks of exposure, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of Cd was 10 microg l(-1) and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 32 microg l(-1). Reduction of growth (decrease in wet weight) was noticed followed by a high mortality in higher Cd concentrations. Significant reduction in food consumption and growth rates was found at 32 microg l(-1) and above Cd concentration. A significant relationship between Cd exposure and growth and feeding rates was noticed. The results obtained with these key aquatic organisms in the food chains complement those obtained with other aquatic organisms and gastropod snails. The findings of the present study and those of earlier studies suggested that Indian pond snail L. luteola are useful test organisms for ecotoxicology bioassays.

  1. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Barsi, Alpar; Jager, Tjalling; Collinet, Marc; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-07-01

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information is provided regarding test design for TKTD modeling. A case study is presented for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to the narcotic compound acetone, in which the data on all endpoints were analyzed together using a relatively simple TKTD model called DEBkiss. Furthermore, the influence of the data used for calibration on accuracy and precision of model parameters is discussed. The DEBkiss model described toxic effects on survival, growth, and reproduction over time well, within a single integrated analysis. Regarding the parameter estimates (e.g., no-effect concentration), precision rather than accuracy was affected depending on which data set was used for model calibration. In addition, the present study shows that the intrinsic sensitivity of snails to acetone stays the same across different life stages, including the embryonic stage. In fact, the data on egg development allowed for selection of a unique metabolic mode of action for the toxicant. Practical and theoretical considerations for test design to accommodate TKTD modeling are discussed in the hope that this information will aid other researchers to make the best possible use of their test animals.

  2. The population density of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Lymnaeidae) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Caparaó microregion, ES, Brazil.

    PubMed

    D'Almeida, S C G; Freitas, D F; Carneiro, M B; Camargo, P F; Azevedo, J C; Martins, I V F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the population density of Lymnaea columella, an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in various aquatic habitats and in drinking water in the area of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, on Caparaó Microregion, municipality of Alegre, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Monthly samplings were performed at certain points between drainage areas and drinking water in cattle and goat production systems during the years 2010 to 2013. The mean temperature, precipitation and the frequency of samples of L. columella were analysed graphically according the monthly average during the study period. A total of 2,038 molluscs were collected, 1558 of which were L. columella, that predominated in all sampled points. The highest average of specimens observed for L. columella was in the years 2010 and 2013 (51.0), and occurred decreased in 2011 (19.8). The temperature and precipitation averaged is 23.7 °C and 141 mm/year, respectively. Rainfall peak occurred in March (2011, 2013) and November (2012), during these periods the population of L. columella growth. There was no significant difference in the relationship between the specimens observed with seasons (dry-wet), thus the population of L. columella remained stable and can be found throughout the year.

  3. Acquisition of Ca2+ and HCO3−/CO32− for shell formation in embryos of the common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Michael J.; Grosell, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis develop to hatch within 10 days under control conditions (22°C, Miami-Dade tap water) and this development is impaired by removal of ambient calcium. In contrast, embryos did not exhibit dependence upon an ambient HCO3−/CO32− source, developing and hatching in HCO3−/CO32−-free water at rates comparable to controls. Post-metamorphic, shell-laying embryos exhibited a significant saturation-type calcium uptake as a function of increasing ambient calcium concentration. However, changes in ambient bicarbonate concentration did not influence calcium or apparent titratable alkalinity uptake. There was a distinct shift from no significant flux in pre-metamorphic embryos to net uptake of calcium in post-metamorphic stages as indicated by an increased uptake from the micro-environment surrounding the egg mass and increased net uptake in 24-h, whole egg mass flux measurements. Furthermore, HCO3−/CO32− acquisition as measured by titratable alkalinity flux is at least partially attributable to an endogenous carbonate source that is associated with acid extrusion. Thus, calcium requirements for embryonic shell formation are met via uptake but HCO3−/CO32−, which is also necessary for shell formation is acquired in part from endogenous sources with no detectable correlation to ambient HCO3−/CO32− availability. PMID:20361194

  4. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp(®) Flash) stressors.

    PubMed

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, Julia; Holbech, Bente Frost; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam; Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, Christine; Wiegand, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Freshwater gastropods are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors in the field such as the herbicide glyphosate in Roundup formulations and cyanobacterial blooms either producing or not producing microcystins (MCs), potentially leading to interacting effects. Here, the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis to a 21-day exposure to non-MC or MC-producing (33μgL(-1)) Planktothrix agardhii alone or in combination with the commercial formulation RoundUp(®) Flash at a concentration of 1μgL(-1) glyphosate, followed by 14days of depuration, were studied via i) accumulation of free and bound MCs in tissues, and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites. The GST activity was induced by RoundUp(®) Flash alone or in combination with non MC-producing cyanobacteria, but was inhibited by MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash. Moreover, MC accumulation in L. stagnalis was 3.2 times increased when snails were concomitantly exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with RoundUp(®), suggesting interacting effects of MCs on biotransformation processes. The potent inhibition of detoxication systems by MCs and RoundUp(®) Flash was reversible during the depuration, during which CAT and GST activities were significantly higher in snails previously exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash than in other conditions, probably related to the oxidative stress caused by accumulated MCs remaining in tissues. PMID:27267390

  5. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp(®) Flash) stressors.

    PubMed

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, Julia; Holbech, Bente Frost; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam; Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, Christine; Wiegand, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Freshwater gastropods are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors in the field such as the herbicide glyphosate in Roundup formulations and cyanobacterial blooms either producing or not producing microcystins (MCs), potentially leading to interacting effects. Here, the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis to a 21-day exposure to non-MC or MC-producing (33μgL(-1)) Planktothrix agardhii alone or in combination with the commercial formulation RoundUp(®) Flash at a concentration of 1μgL(-1) glyphosate, followed by 14days of depuration, were studied via i) accumulation of free and bound MCs in tissues, and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites. The GST activity was induced by RoundUp(®) Flash alone or in combination with non MC-producing cyanobacteria, but was inhibited by MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash. Moreover, MC accumulation in L. stagnalis was 3.2 times increased when snails were concomitantly exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with RoundUp(®), suggesting interacting effects of MCs on biotransformation processes. The potent inhibition of detoxication systems by MCs and RoundUp(®) Flash was reversible during the depuration, during which CAT and GST activities were significantly higher in snails previously exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash than in other conditions, probably related to the oxidative stress caused by accumulated MCs remaining in tissues.

  6. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September.

  7. Effects of the mixture of diquat and a nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant on fecundity and progeny early performances of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis in laboratory bioassays and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Delous, Georges; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent

    2008-09-01

    Effects of the bipyridylium herbicide diquat and tank-mix adjuvant Agral90 were investigated on various life history traits of the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Trait expression was measured in simple laboratory bioassays on small size groups of snails, and under more complex, indoor microcosm conditions, on larger groups of snails. Microcosms were provided with sediment, plants, and fish, thus allowing a more complex level of intra and inter-specific interactions to develop. Treatments were performed with substances alone or in mixture, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 222.2microgl(-1) for diquat, and from 10 to 500microgl(-1) for Agral 90, under a fixed ratio design. Adult growth was negatively affected by diquat and its mixture with Agral 90 both at the highest concentrations (222.2 and 500microgl(-1), respectively). Fecundity expressed differently in bioassays and microcosms, but no effect of the chemicals could be observed on this trait. Progeny development was impaired by 222.2microgl(-1) diquat and its mixture with 500microgl(-1) Agral 90, as reflected by longer development time and reduced hatching rate of clutches laid by the exposed animals, as compared to the controls. Hatching data suggested that diquat bioavailability was lower in microcosms than under bioassay conditions. Consistently, chemical analysis showed that diquat disappeared more rapidly from the water in microcosms than in bioassays. Moreover, the differential expression of several life history traits under bioassays and microcosms conditions was probably also influenced by the level of intraspecific interaction, which differed among the systems. When significant, the effect of diquat was attenuated by the presence of Agral 90, indicating antagonistic interaction between the two substances. Such a deviation from additivity was partly validated statistically.

  8. Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Munley, Kathleen M; Brix, Kevin V; Panlilio, Jennifer; Deforest, David K; Grosell, Martin

    2013-03-15

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Ni) based on 28 d early life-stage (ELS) tests in which growth was the most sensitive endpoint. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has expressed concern that growth in 28 d ELS tests with mollusks may overpredict toxicity because of the potential for recovery in a full life-cycle (LC) test. Consequently, the USEPA only accepts the survival endpoint for these tests in establishing water quality criteria (WQC). To address this concern, the current study aimed to test the sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Pb in a 56 d full LC test evaluating survival, growth, reproductive and embryonic growth endpoints and compare the estimated effect levels to those established using the 28 d ELS test design. The most sensitive endpoints in this study were 28 d growth and 56 d egg mass production, both with a NOEC of <1.0 μg L(-1) and a LOEC of 1.0 μg L(-1), showing that the ELS growth endpoint is predictive of the 56 d reproduction endpoint. Snails exposed to 1.0 and 2.7 μg L(-1) Pb showed full and partial recovery from growth inhibition between 28 and 56 d. While this recovery supports the USEPA's concern about the 28 d growth endpoint; considering the reproductive lifespan of L. stagnalis and the recovery dose-response, we conclude that the 28 d growth endpoint will be within a factor of 3 of full LC endpoints. This is consistent with the level of precision previously determined for fish ELS tests, which the USEPA accepts for WQC derivation, and suggests that tests using 28 d ELS growth endpoint for L. stagnalis may be acceptable for inclusion in WQC derivation.

  9. Development of partial life-cycle experiments to assess the effects of endocrine disruptors on the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis: a case-study with vinclozolin.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Virginie; Teixeira-Alves, Mickaël; Lopes, Christelle; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Charles, Sandrine; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Long-term effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs) on aquatic invertebrates remain difficult to assess, mainly due to the lack of appropriate sensitive toxicity test methods and relevant data analysis procedures. This study aimed at identifying windows of sensitivity to EDs along the life-cycle of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a candidate species for the development of forthcoming test guidelines. Juveniles, sub-adults, young adults and adults were exposed for 21 days to the fungicide vinclozolin (VZ). Survival, growth, onset of reproduction, fertility and fecundity were monitored weekly. Data were analyzed using standard statistical analysis procedures and mixed-effect models. No deleterious effect on survival and growth occurred in snails exposed to VZ at environmentally relevant concentrations. A significant impairment of the male function occurred in young adults, leading to infertility at concentrations exceeding 0.025 μg/L. Furthermore, fecundity was impaired in adults exposed to concentrations exceeding 25 μg/L. Biological responses depended on VZ concentration, exposure duration and on their interaction, leading to complex response patterns. The use of a standard statistical approach to analyze those data led to underestimation of VZ effects on reproduction, whereas effects could reliably be analyzed by mixed-effect models. L. stagnalis may be among the most sensitive invertebrate species to VZ, a 21-day reproduction test allowing the detection of deleterious effects at environmentally relevant concentrations of the fungicide. These results thus reinforce the relevance of L. stagnalis as a good candidate species for the development of guidelines devoted to the risk assessment of EDs.

  10. Molecular characterisation of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis from Cajamarca, Peru and their potential role in transmission of human and animal fascioliasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a "valley transmission pattern", to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Methods Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. Conclusions The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities

  11. Impact of the redox-cycling herbicide diquat on transcript expression and antioxidant enzymatic activities of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Bouétard, Anthony; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Vassaux, Danièle; Lagadic, Laurent; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2013-01-15

    The presence of pesticides in the environment results in potential unwanted effects on non-target species. Freshwater organisms inhabiting water bodies adjacent to agricultural areas, such as ditches, ponds and marshes, are good models to test such effects as various pesticides may reach these habitats through several ways, including aerial drift, run-off, and drainage. Diquat is a non-selective herbicide used for crop protection or for weed control in such water bodies. In this study, we investigated the effects of diquat on a widely spread aquatic invertebrate, the holarctic freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Due to the known redox-cycling properties of diquat, we studied transcript expression and enzymatic activities relative to oxidative and general stress in the haemolymph and gonado-digestive complex (GDC). As diquat is not persistent, snails were exposed for short times (5, 24, and 48 h) to ecologically relevant concentrations (22.2, 44.4, and 222.2 μg l(-1)) of diquat dibromide. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the transcription of genes encoding catalase (cat), a cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod), a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a glutathione reductase (gred), the retinoid X receptor (rxr), two heat shock proteins (hsp40 and hsp70), cortactin (cor) and the two ribosomal genes r18S and r28s. Enzymatic activities of SOD, Gpx, Gred and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were investigated in the GDC using spectrophoto/fluorometric methods. Opposite trends were obtained in the haemolymph depending on the herbicide concentration. At the lowest concentration, effects were mainly observed after 24 h of exposure, with over-transcription of cor, hsp40, rxr, and sod, whereas higher concentrations down-regulated the expression of most of the studied transcripts, especially after 48 h of exposure. In the GDC, earlier responses were observed and the fold-change magnitude was generally much higher: transcription of all target genes increased

  12. Detection of mRNA molecules coding for neuropeptide hormones of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis by radioactive and non-radioactive in situ hybridization: a model study for mRNA detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, R.W.; Raap, A.K.; Van Minnen, J.; Vreugdenhil, E.; Smit, A.B.; Van der Ploeg, M.

    1989-01-01

    To develop and optimize non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques for mRNA detection, we used the neuropeptidergic system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a biological model system. First, we investigated the in situ hybridization procedure using radioactive-labeled cDNA and synthetic oligonucleotide probes specific for egg-laying hormone (ELH) mRNA and molluscan insulin-like peptide (MIP) mRNA. The results show an intense grain deposit above the caudodorsal cells and light-green cells expressing, respectively, ELH mRNA and MIP mRNA. Good results with relation to signal strength and tissue morphology were obtained with freeze-dry paraformaldehyde vapor fixation. The necessity to perform tissue pre-treatment appeared to be dependent on the cell type of interest. The optimized in situ hybridization protocol proved to be applicable using probes that are either sulfonated/transaminated or labeled with acetylaminofluorene (AAF). In situ hybridization of such haptenized probes led to intense and specific staining of the cytoplasm of the caudodorsal cells. Egg-laying hormone mRNA appeared not to be homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm but showed a patch-like pattern. Nuclear and axoplasmic staining for mRNA was also observed.

  13. Occurrence of a sibling species complex within neotropical lymnaeids, snail intermediate hosts of fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Durand, P; Pointier, J P; Escoubeyrou, K; Arenas, J A; Yong, M; Amarista, M; Bargues, M D; Mas-Coma, S; Renaud, F

    2002-09-01

    The delimitation of cryptic species within the genus Lymnaea, which are the main vectors of fascioliasis, remains a topic of controversy. An analysis of genetic variability based on 12 enzyme loci revealed different fixed alleles at 9 loci between two sympatric samples of Lymnaea viatrix at the type locality in Lima, Peru. The absence of heterozygotes within this locality indicates the presence of isolated populations or cryptic species within L. viatrix. Significant genetic differences were also found between these two L. viatrix samples from Lima and other populations of L. viatrix in South America and in addition to species such as L. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. columella. Moreover, the lack of variability within each Lymnaea samples studied indicates the existence of a high selfing rate in each species.

  14. Fascioliasis of livestock and snail host for Fasciola in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Arandia, R; Morales, G; Medina, G

    1975-01-01

    Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica was a serious problem for sheep and alpacas in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia. In some provinces close to Lake Titicaca, the raising of sheep was forced to discontinue, because infection with the fluke made it unprofitable and almost impossible. It was proved that in the Altiplano Region, two species of freshwater snails, Lymnaea viatrix and L. cubensis var., served as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica. In some subtropical areas of Bolivia, these snails could not be found, although other Lymnaea sp. was widely distributed there. As it is possible for Lymnaea sp. to be intermediate host for the fluke, further studies are required on the identification. Acute fascioliasis of sheep occurred in the Altiplano Region principally during a period from May to July, or the dry season. In some areas, the mortality rate of infected sheep was roughly estimated as 15 to 25% annually. Contamination with Fasciola metacercariae of herbage and semi-aquatic plants grown in a swamp in one of these areas was biologically assessed, using guinea pigs. Plants of Compositae and Eleocharis sp. were contaminated most intensely and those of Senicio sp. and Vallisneria sp. carried a fairly large number of cysts, while plants of Scirpus sp. and Ranunclaceae carried only a few cysts. No signs of Fasciola infection were observed in any animal given the plants of Liliaceae.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Vincent P.; Rees, Evan R.; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  16. Epidemiology and population biology of pseudoperonospora cubensis: a model system for management of downy mildews

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of cucurbit downy mildew has dramatically influenced production of cucurbits and disease management systems at multiple scales. Long-distance dispersal is a fundamental aspect of epidemic development that influences the timing and extent of disease outbreaks. Dispersal potential of th...

  17. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping.

    PubMed

    Sica, Vincent P; Rees, Evan R; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H; Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet-based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  18. Phylogeography and genetic divergence of some lymnaeid snails, intermediate hosts of human and animal fascioliasis with special reference to lymnaeids from the Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Jabbour-Zahab, R; Pointier, J P; Jourdane, J; Jarne, P; Oviedo, J A; Bargues, M D; Mas-Coma, S; Anglés, R; Perera, G; Balzan, C; Khallayoune, K; Renaud, F

    1997-04-15

    A population genetic study using starch gel electrophoresis was performed on populations of several species of lymnaeid snails acting as intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Plathyhelminth). Lymnaea viatrix was collected in 16 sites from the Bolivian Northern Altiplano. L. cubensis were obtained in one site from Venezuela, one site from Guadeloupe, three sites from Cuba and one site from the Dominican Republic. L. truncatula were collected in one site from France, one from Portugal and one from Morocco. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) were determined for 282 snails at 18 loci. A complete monomorphism was encountered at each geographic site. However, among these 18 loci, 13 are polymorphic and low and high levels of genetic divergence were observed between samples. Two genotypic groups can be differentiated by their multilocus genotypes. The western genotypic group associates together samples from Venezuela, Guadeloupe, Cuba and Dominican Republic (L. cubensis) while samples from France, Portugal and Morocco (L. truncatula) belong to the eastern genotypic group. Surprisingly, the Northern Bolivian Altiplano populations (L. viatrix) do not present any genetic divergence with the Portuguese sample. Therefore, the Bolivian snails belong entirely to the eastern genetic group. Within each group slight genetic divergences were observed. These results strongly support the European origin of the lymnaeid snails from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

  19. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a

  20. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

  1. Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal activity of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) on Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea cailliaudi.

    PubMed

    Allam, A F; el-Sayad, M H; Khalil, S S

    2001-12-01

    The molluscicidal properties of the oil extract of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) were tested against Egyptian snail species: Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Limnaea cailliaudi. The impact of the extract on the egg cluches of B. alexandrina and L. cailliaudi was also evaluated. Snails and their eggs were exposed for 24 and 48 hr at 22-26 degrees C to various concentrations of the extract. The results showed different susceptibilities B. alexandrina showed higher LD50 and LD90 (155, 195 ppm) than B. truncatus (50, 95 ppm) and L. cailliaudi (50, 85 ppm) after 24 hr exposure. 100% mortality was obtained for the egg cluches of B. alexandrina and L. cailliaudi at concentrations of 100 ppm and 75 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations were needed to obtain the same results after 48 hr. The present laboratory studies demonstrated that Myrrh has a molluscicidal effect on the snail intermediate hosts, particularly on their eggs. Field studies are recommended. PMID:11775095

  2. [Formation of basal bodies in the ciliary epithelium of molluscs Buccinum undatum L. and Lymnaea stagnalis L].

    PubMed

    Domaratskiĭ, K E; Onishchenko, G E

    2002-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of the leg ciliary epithelium was carried out in two mollusks. In the epithelium of the leg of adult animals, the centrioles were mostly formed de novo with participation of deuterosomes during the formation of basal bodies. Transformation of the centriolar cylinder in a mature basal body is accompanied by the cylinder elongation and appearance of pericentriolar structures, such as rootlet system, basal legs, and basal plate. Centriolegenesis proceeds in both ciliate and nonciliate (with microvilli) cells of the epithelium. It has been proposed that the cell with microvilli represent a transitional stage in differentiation of the ciliary cells.

  3. Ecotoxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes to freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L.: Impacts on oxidative stress and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Daoud; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Huma

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but there is very limited data on ecogenotoxicity to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to determine eco-geno toxic effects of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in fresh water snail, Lymnea luteola (L. luteola). A static test system was used to expose L. luteola to a freshwater control, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.46 mg/L SWCNTs for up to 4 days. SWCNTs changed a significant reduction in glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase with in hepatopancreas of L. luteola. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase showed dose- and time-dependent and statistically significant increase in hepatopancreas during SWCNTs exposure compared with control. However, a significant (p < 0.01) induction in DNA damage was observed by the comet assay in hepatopancreas cells treated with SWCNTs. These results demonstrate that SWCNTs are ecogenotoxic to freshwater snail L. luteola. The oxidative stress and comet assay can successfully be used as sensitive tools of aquatic pollution biomonitoring.

  4. Influence of certain fertilizers on the activity of some molluscicides against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Fawzy; Shoukry, Nahla M

    2006-12-01

    Effect of the fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, potassium sulphate and urea) on molluscicidal activity of the molluscicides (copper sulphate, niclosamide & mollutox) against B. alexandrina and L. natalensis was investigated. The molluscicides were more potant than fertilizers. Snails were exposed for 24 hr to a fertilizers using LC0 (1/10 & LC50) then, to molluscicides. Pre-exposure to potassium sulphate caused a synergistic action with copper sulphate, niclosamide and mollutox on L. natalen-sis. Pre-exposure to urea caused an additive effect with niclo-samide and mollutox against L. natalensis and B. alexandrina respectively. Pre-exposure to ammonium nitrate caused an additive action to niclosamide on L. natalensis. Snails were exposed for 24hr to one molluscicide, then exposed to fertilizers, showed that pre-exposure to niclosamide or mollutox caused an additive effect with ammonium nitrate and potassium sulphate. Pre-exposure to mollutox caused an additive effect with urea on the two snails' sp. juvenile or adult B. alexandrina were ex-posed to LC0 of molluscicide-fertilizer mixture, showed that urea when mixed with each molluscicides showed greatly reduced on the growth rate percent (0.00), survival rate and snail fecundity. Molluscicides and fertilizers mixed at different ratios of LC (40:10, 30:20, 25:25, 20:30 & 10:40), the toxicity of the mixtures caused antagonistic effect on adult B. alexandrina, but a mixture of niclosamide-ammonium nitrate caused a potent effect (synergism or additive) except at ratio 20:30 which showed an antagonism on L. natalensis. Mixtures of copper sulphatepotassium sulphate (10:40), niclosamide-potassium sulphate (20:30), mollutox-ammonium nitrate (25:25) revealed an additive effect on L. natalensis.

  5. Transient and big are key features of an invertebrate T-type channel (LCav3) from the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Adriano; Spafford, J David

    2010-03-01

    Here we describe features of the first non-mammalian T-type calcium channel (LCa(v)3) expressed in vitro. This molluscan channel possesses combined biophysical properties that are reminiscent of all mammalian T-type channels. It exhibits T-type features such as "transient" kinetics, but the "tiny" label, usually associated with Ba(2+) conductance, is hard to reconcile with the "bigness" of this channel in many respects. LCa(v)3 is 25% larger than any voltage-gated ion channel expressed to date. It codes for a massive, 322-kDa protein that conducts large macroscopic currents in vitro. LCa(v)3 is also the most abundant Ca(2+) channel transcript in the snail nervous system. A window current at typical resting potentials appears to be at least as large as that reported for mammalian channels. This distant gene provides a unique perspective to analyze the structural, functional, drug binding, and evolutionary aspects of T-type channels. PMID:20056611

  6. Chemoattraction and penetration of Echinostoma trivolvis and E. caproni cercariae in the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes dialysate.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Frazer, B A; Reddy, A

    1997-01-01

    A petri-dish bioassay was used to study the chemoattraction and penetration of the cercariae of Echinostoma trivolvis and E. caproni in the presence of snail dialysates from Helisoma trivolvis (Pennsylvania and Colorado strains). Biomphalaria glabrata, and Lynmaea elodes. Significant chemoattraction was seen with E. trivolvis cercariae in the presence of all snail dialysates released from nonperforated dialysis sacs with a molecular-weight exclusion of 12,000. Under the same conditions, E. caproni was significantly attracted to B. glabrata and H. trivolvis (CO strain) but not to L. elodes or H. trivolvis (PA strain). Dialysis sacs were perforated with needles to allow the release of snail substances of all molecular weights into the bioassay. Cercariae of both species were significantly attracted to all snail dialysates released from perforated sacs. Moreover, cercariae entered these sacs and penetrated the snails, and 24 h later the percentage of cysts per snail species ranged from 70% to 83% for E. trivolvis and from 73% to 93% for E. caproni. Dialysates released from intact sacs were extracted in choloroform-methanol (2:1) to obtain hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. When these extracts were placed on agar plugs in the bioassay, the lipophilic fraction, but not the hydrophilic fraction, was mainly chemoattractive. PMID:9039703

  7. Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

    2013-09-01

    Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

  8. Plant eR Genes That Encode Photorespiratory Enzymes Confer Resistance against Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taler, Dvir; Galperin, Marjana; Benjamin, Ido; Cohen, Yigal; Kenigsbuch, David

    2004-01-01

    Downy mildew caused by the oomycete pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis is a devastating foliar disease of cucurbits worldwide. We previously demonstrated that the wild melon line PI 124111F (PI) is highly resistant to all pathotypes of P. cubensis. That resistance was controlled genetically by two partially dominant, complementary loci. Here, we show that unlike other plant disease resistance genes, which confer an ability to resist infection by pathogens expressing corresponding avirulence genes, the resistance of PI to P. cubensis is controlled by enhanced expression of the enzymatic resistance (eR) genes At1 and At2. These constitutively expressed genes encode the photorespiratory peroxisomal enzyme proteins glyoxylate aminotransferases. The low expression of At1 and At2 in susceptible melon lines is regulated mainly at the transcriptional level. This regulation is independent of infection with the pathogen. Transgenic melon plants overexpressing either of these eR genes displayed enhanced activity of glyoxylate aminotransferases and remarkable resistance against P. cubensis. The cloned eR genes provide a new resource for developing downy mildew–resistant melon varieties. PMID:14688292

  9. QTL mapping of downy mildew resistance in PI 197088 and PI 330628 cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is a devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction lines have been identified with high resistance to the post-2004 new DM strain found in the U.S. However, the inheritance of DM resistance is still not well defined. Molecu...

  10. Honey with Psilocybe mushrooms: a revival of a very old preparation on the drug market?

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Maier, R D; Schäfer, A T; Erkens, M

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 samples of suspicious honey preparations were confiscated at the Dutch-German border. The labels on the 50 ml jars indicated that the honey contained Stropharia cubensis (better known as Psilocybe cubensis). The jars were filled with honey with a ca. 1 cm layer of fine particles on the top. The particles were collected and subjected to microscopic and chemical analysis. By microscopy mushroom tissue (plectenchym) and spores typical for the genus Psilocybe were identified in all samples. The HPLC analysis with atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry and diode array detection revealed psilocine but psilocybine was not found. The quantitative analysis was very difficult due to the matrix problems. A search showed that the honey with Psilocybe can be purchased in Dutch coffee shops without any limitations although psilocine and psilocybine belong to listed substances according to Dutch law. PMID:9587797

  11. Helminth parasites of the Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, United States with a summary of helminths of this host.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    One hundred-thirty six Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus, were collected between December 1986 and March 2016 in Hardin (n = 7), Harris (n = 57), and Tom Green (n = 72) counties, Texas, USA., and examined for helminth parasites. Fifty-two H. turcicus (38%) were infected with at least one helminth species. Found were a trematode, Mesocoelium meggitti, three cestodes, Mesocestoides sp. (tetrathyridia), Oochoristica ameivae and Oochoristica scelopori, and four nematodes, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Parapharyngodon cubensis, and larvae of Physaloptera sp. Oochoristica ameivae, O. scelopori, P. cubensis, Physaloptera sp., and Os. pipiens represent new host records for H. turcicus and M. meggitti is reported from Texas for the first time. A summary of the helminth parasites of both native and non-native H. turcicus is presented. PMID:27447223

  12. Helminth parasites of the Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, United States with a summary of helminths of this host.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    One hundred-thirty six Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus, were collected between December 1986 and March 2016 in Hardin (n = 7), Harris (n = 57), and Tom Green (n = 72) counties, Texas, USA., and examined for helminth parasites. Fifty-two H. turcicus (38%) were infected with at least one helminth species. Found were a trematode, Mesocoelium meggitti, three cestodes, Mesocestoides sp. (tetrathyridia), Oochoristica ameivae and Oochoristica scelopori, and four nematodes, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Parapharyngodon cubensis, and larvae of Physaloptera sp. Oochoristica ameivae, O. scelopori, P. cubensis, Physaloptera sp., and Os. pipiens represent new host records for H. turcicus and M. meggitti is reported from Texas for the first time. A summary of the helminth parasites of both native and non-native H. turcicus is presented.

  13. Apertural features and surface texture of upper Paleogene biserial planktonic foraminifers: links between Chiloguembelina and Streptochilus.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, R.Z.; Gosnell, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Several upper Paleogene species of Chiloguembelina have an internal apertural plate that is very similar to the internal plate typical of the Neogene genus Streptochilus. The type species of Chiloguembelina, C. midwayensis midwayensis (Cushman), however, lacks any internal apertural structure or modifications. Therefore, the following 'Chiloguembelina', which have an internal plate, are assigned to Streptochilus: S. cubensis (Palmer), S. martini (Pijpers) and S. sp.aff. S. martini. -Authors

  14. Calcium channel structural determinants of synaptic transmission between identified invertebrate neurons.

    PubMed

    Spafford, J David; Munno, David W; Van Nierop, Pim; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Jarvis, Scott E; Gallin, Warren J; Smit, August B; Zamponi, Gerald W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-02-01

    We report here that unlike what was suggested for many vertebrate neurons, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea stagnalis occurs independent of a physical interaction between presynaptic calcium channels and a functional complement of SNARE proteins. Instead, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea requires the expression of a C-terminal splice variant of the Lymnaea homolog to mammalian N- and P/Q-type calcium channels. We show that the alternately spliced region physically interacts with the scaffolding proteins Mint1 and CASK, and that synaptic transmission is abolished following RNA interference knockdown of CASK or after the injection of peptide sequences designed to disrupt the calcium channel-Mint1 interactions. Our data suggest that Mint1 and CASK may serve to localize the non-L-type channels at the active zone and that synaptic transmission in invertebrate neurons utilizes a mechanism for optimizing calcium entry, which occurs independently of a physical association between calcium channels and SNARE proteins.

  15. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Lymnaeid Snails and Their Potential Role in Transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated. PMID:24516270

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of lymnaeid snails and their potential role in transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated.

  17. A novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay for epidemiological surveillance of the vector snails of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea).

    PubMed

    Alba, Annia; Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Vázquez, Antonio A; Figueredo, Mabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Otero, Oscar; Sarracent, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Fasciolosis is a globally distributed snail-borne disease which requires economic consideration due to its enormous impact on veterinary medicine. During recent decades, this parasitosis has also shown increasing prevalence in human populations worldwide. The dissemination and successful transmission of fasciolosis ultimately depends on the existence of susceptible snails that act as intermediate hosts. Therefore, to accomplish effective control of this disease, surveillance and detection of the infected intermediate host would be essential. The screening of trematodes within snails using classical parasitological examination of the larvae can be unreliable (sensitivity and specificity vary depending on the time of infection and the experience of the observer) and relatively costly when using molecular biological methods during large-scale monitoring. Here we propose a novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay to detect ongoing Fasciola hepatica infection in lymnaeid snails. Anti-F. hepatica rediae mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated and used to develop a double monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for parasite detection. Fasciola hepatica-infected and uninfected laboratory-reared Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella were used for assessment of the developed ELISA. Experimentally infected snails were dissected and examined for parasite larvae as the "gold standard" method. Sensitivity results were 100% for both snail species, while specificity was 98% for G. cubensis and 100% for P. columella. No cross-reactivity was detected in lymnaeids infected with Trichobilharzia sp. or Cotylophoron sp. The ELISA enabled detection of the infection from day 8 p.i. in G. cubensis while in P. columella it was noted as early as day 4. To our knowledge no previous immunoassays have been reported to detect helminth-infected snails and the developed sandwich ELISA method is therefore suggested for infection status validation in natural populations of lymnaeid

  18. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  19. First description of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Edward J.; Brooks, Annabelle M. L.; Williams, Sean; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Abercrombie, Debra; Chapman, Demian D.; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Grubbs, R. Dean

    2015-05-01

    Deep-sea chondrichthyans, like many deep-water fishes, are very poorly understood at the most fundamental biological, ecological and taxonomic levels. Our study represents the first ecological investigation of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in The Bahamas, and the first assessment of species-specific resilience to capture for all of the species captured. Standardised deep-water longline surveys (n=69) were conducted September to December 2010 and 2011 between 472 m and 1024 m deep, resulting in the capture of 144 sharks from 8 different species. These included the Cuban dogfish, Squalus cubensis, the bigeye sixgill shark, Hexanchus nakamurai, the bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis insularis, the roughskin dogfish, Centroscymnus owstoni, Springer's sawtail catshark, Galeus springeri and the false catshark, Pseudotriakis microdon. Preliminary genetic analysis indicated two or more species of gulper sharks, Centrophorus spp.; however, for the present study they were treated as a single species complex. Water depth and distance from the rocky structure of the Exuma Sound wall were inversely correlated with species richness, whereas seabed temperature was directly correlated with species richness. These variables also had a significant influence on the abundance and distribution of many species. Expanded depth ranges were established for S. cubensis and H. nakamurai, which, in the case of S. cubensis, is thought to be driven by thermal preferences. At-vessel mortality rates increased significantly with depth, and post-release mortality was thought to be high for some species, in part due to high post-release predation. This study highlights the importance of utilising strategic geographic locations that provide easy access to deep water, in combination with traditional expedition-based deep-ocean science, to accelerate the acquisition of fundamental ecological and biological insights into deep-sea elasmobranchs.

  20. Forensic analysis of hallucinogenic mushrooms and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) using cation-exchange liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Laussmann, Tim; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid

    2010-02-25

    Hallucinogenic mushrooms (e.g. Psilocybe and Panaeolus species) as well as leaves and young shoots of the khat tree (Catha edulis Forsk) are illicit drugs in many countries. The exact concentration of the hallucinogenic alkaloids psilocin and psilocybin in mushrooms and the sympathomimetic alkaloids cathinone and cathine in khat is usually essential for jurisdiction. Facing an increasing number of mushroom and khat seizures by German customs authorities, a convenient comprehensive quantitative HPLC method based on cation-exchange liquid chromatography for these rather "exotic" drugs has been developed which avoids time-consuming multi-step sample preparation or chemical derivatization procedures. Using this method a number of different hallucinogenic fungi species and products that are mainly distributed via the internet have been analysed (dried and fresh Psilocybe cubensis Singer as well as P. cubensis collected from "grow boxes", Panaeolus cyanescens Berkeley and Broome and so-called "philosopher stones" (sclerotia of Psilocybe species)). Highest total amounts of psilocin have been detected in dried P. cyanescens reaching up to 3.00+/-0.24 mg per 100 mg. The distribution of khat alkaloids in different parts of the khat shoots has been studied. High concentrations of cathinone have not only been detected in leaves but also in green parts and barks of stalks. Additionally, the sample treatment for fresh mushroom and khat samples has been optimised. Highest amounts of alkaloids were found when fresh material was freeze-dried.

  1. Morphological and chemical analysis of magic mushrooms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Ohmae, Yoshihito; Sugita, Ritsuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

    2003-12-17

    Morphological and toxicological analyses were performed on hallucinogenic mushrooms that are currently circulated in Japan. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a three-dimensional microstructures in the mushrooms. The complementary use of SEM with an optical microscope was effective for observing characteristic tissues, such as basidiomycetes, spores, cystidia and basidia. Hallucinogenic alkaloids were extracted with methanol and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV detector set at 220 nm. The psilocin/psilocybin contents in Psilocybe cubensis were in the range of 0.14-0.42%/0.37-1.30% in the whole mushroom (0.17-0.78%/0.44-1.35% in the cap and 0.09-0.30%/0.05-1.27% in the stem), respectively. The hallucinogenic alkaloids in Copelandia were 0.43-0.76%/0.08-0.22% in the whole mushroom (0.64-0.74%/0.02-0.22% in the cap and 0.31-0.78%/0.01-0.39% in the stem). It thus appears that P. cubensis is psilocybin-rich, whereas Copelandia is psilocin-rich.

  2. [Bounds of change in unsaturation index of fatty acid composition of phospholipids at adaptation of molluscs to biogenic and abiogenic factors of external medium].

    PubMed

    Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Shukoliukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2011-01-01

    Comparative study of fatty acid composition of total phospholipids, as well as of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from hepatopancreas and leg muscle was performed on several representatives of gasteropods (Gastropoda) molluscs and bivalve (Bivalvia) mussel (Mytilus edulus). The objects of our study were marine litorins (Littorina saxsatilis) adapted to different temperature conditions of White Sea and Barents Sea, freshwater lymnaea (Lymnaea stagnalis) infested by Trematoda and mussels from White Sea and Black Sea. It was shown that depending on the existence conditions of studied tissue or lipid, the maximal change is observed in the percentage of saturated acids (4-83 %), the percentage of unsaturated acids was less expressed (1-14 %) and the changes in unsaturation index (UI) did not exceed 20 % on average. It was supposed that observed quantitative bounds of UI change under the action of different external factors is utmost for maintenance of membrane fluidity necessary for normal vital activity of cell, particularly in studied ectothermic molluscs. PMID:22145319

  3. [Significance of electron interactions of fatty acids of phospholipid molecules in the organism adaptation to habitation temperature].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Arakelova, E S; Shukoliukova, E P; Furaev, V V; Kalandarov, A M; Feĭzulaev, B A; Krivchenko, A I

    2009-01-01

    Data in the fatty acid composition of muscle tissue phospholipids of some representatives of gastropod molluscs (Gastropoda) have been presented for the first time. In the lake phytophagues Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata the long-chained C22-acid was not detected, whereas in the predator common whelk Buccinum undatum, C22:6omega3 was present. Comparison of absorption spectra (240-720 nm) of lipid extracts of the studied invertebrates and of rat has been performed. The obtained data are discussed from the point of view of participation of pi-electrons of phospholipid fatty acid molecules in adaptation of membranes to the habitation temperature, which arises owing to interelectron attraction and to the process of formation of Cooper's pairs.

  4. A homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is both necessary and instructive for the rapid formation of associative memory in an invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Pirger, Zsolt; László, Zita; Kemenes, Ildikó; Tóth, Gábor; Reglodi, Dóra; Kemenes, György

    2010-10-13

    Similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate animals, cAMP-dependent signaling cascades are key components of long-term memory (LTM) formation in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an established experimental model for studying evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms of long-term associative memory. Although a great deal is already known about the signaling cascades activated by cAMP, the molecules involved in the learning-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) in Lymnaea remained unknown. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy in combination with biochemical and immunohistochemical methods, recently we have obtained evidence for the existence of a Lymnaea homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and for the AC-activating effect of PACAP in the Lymnaea nervous system. Here we first tested the hypothesis that PACAP plays an important role in the formation of robust LTM after single-trial classical food-reward conditioning. Application of the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP6-38 around the time of single-trial training with amyl acetate and sucrose blocked associative LTM, suggesting that in this "strong" food-reward conditioning paradigm the activation of AC by PACAP was necessary for LTM to form. We found that in a "weak" multitrial food-reward conditioning paradigm, lip touch paired with sucrose, memory formation was also dependent on PACAP. Significantly, systemic application of PACAP at the beginning of multitrial tactile conditioning accelerated the formation of transcription-dependent memory. Our findings provide the first evidence to show that in the same nervous system PACAP is both necessary and instructive for fast and robust memory formation after reward classical conditioning.

  5. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hussein M.; Omer, Osama H.; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors’ opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  6. Pulley reef: a deep photosynthetic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culter, J.K.; Ritchie, K.B.; Earle, S.A.; Guggenheim, D.E.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Hine, A.C.; Jarrett, B.D.; Locker, S.D.; Jaap, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pulley Reef (24°50′N, 83°40′W) lies on a submerged late Pleistocene shoreline feature that formed during a sea-level stillstand from 13.8 to 14.5 ka (Jarrett et al. 2005). The reef is currently 60–75 m deep, exhibits 10–60% coral cover, and extends over approximately 160 km2 of the sea floor. Zooxanthellate corals are primarily Agaricia lamarcki, A. fragilis, Leptoseris cucullata, and less common Madracis formosa, M. pharensis, M. decactis, Montastraea cavernosa, Porites divaricata, Scolymia cubensis and Oculina tenella. Coralline algae are comparable in abundance to stony corals. Other macroalgae include Halimeda tuna, Dictyota divaricata, Lobophora variegata, Ventricatri ventricosa, Verdigelas pelas, and Kallymenia sp. Anadyomene menziesii is abundant. The reef provides a habitat for organisms typically observed at much shallower depths, and is the deepest known photosynthetic coral reef on the North America continental shelf (Fig. 1).

  7. Effects of a non-native cichlid fish (African jewelfish, Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage 1880) on a simulated Everglades aquatic community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Gregoire, Denise R.; Loftus, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-month mesocosm experiment, we examined how a simulated Everglades aquatic community of small native fishes, snails, and shrimp changed with the addition of either a native predator (dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus) or a non-native predator (African jewelfish Hemichromis letourneuxi) compared to a no-predator control. Two snail species (Planorbella duryi, Physella cubensis) and the shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) displayed the strongest predator-treatment effects, with significantly lower biomasses in tanks with Hemichromis. One small native fish (Heterandria formosa) was significantly less abundant in Hemichromis tanks, but there were no significant treatment effects for Gambusia holbrooki, Jordanella floridae, or Pomacea paludosa (applesnail). Overall, there were few treatment differences between native predator and no-predator control tanks. The results suggest that the potential of Hemichromis to affect basal food-web species that link primary producers with higher-level consumers in the aquatic food web, with unknown consequences for Florida waters.

  8. Taxonomic revision of Coniceromyia Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae), with the description of three new species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ament, Danilo César; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    The 55 known species of Coniceromyia are herein revised. Three new species from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil are described-C. apioneura, sp.nov., C. neofusca, sp.nov. and C. tanycrossa, sp.nov.-and fourteen species are redescribed. Most of the species have foreleg, wing, hind femur, and male terminalia illustrated. Characters previously unnoticed are described for the first time. Coniceromyia cubensis Brues, previously accepted as a synonym of C. latimana (Malloch), has its status reinstated. Taxonomic problems in the genus are addressed, including the condition of the damaged holotypes of C. boliviana Borgmeier and C. vespertilio Schmitz, and our inability to associate males with the female holotypes of C. arizonensis Borgmeier, C. fusca Borgmeier and C. grenadensis (Brues). The holotypes of Coniceromyia angularis Borgmeier & Prado and Coniceromyia laticosta Prado are considered to be lost. PMID:27394322

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of new (E)-alpha-(Methoxyimino)benzeneacetate derivatives containing a substituted pyrazole ring.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Liu, Chang-Ling; Yang, Ji-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Bo; Li, Zhi-Nian; Zhang, Hong; Li, Zheng-Ming

    2010-03-10

    Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin analogues with high activity, a series of new strobilurin derivatives containing a substituted pyrazole in the side chain were synthesized and their biological activities were tested. The compounds were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and elemental analysis. The test results indicated that the compounds exhibited strong fungicidal activities against Pyricularia oryzae , Phytophthora infestans , Pseudoperonospora cubensis , and Erysiphe graminis . The relationship between structure and biological activity is discussed in terms of the effects of the substituents on the pyrazole ring. The present work demonstrates that strobilurin analogues with a 3-(substituted phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-oxy side chain can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals. PMID:19961182

  10. A revision of the genus Atelecrinus PH Carpenter (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    PubMed

    Messing, Charles G

    2013-01-01

    The unusual bathyal comatulid crinoid genus Atelecrinus is widespread in the Atlantic and tropical Pacific Oceans and currently includes three recognized species. A re-assessment based on examination of new and existing specimens requires establishment of two new genera and five new species, and returns three junior synonyms to species-level status. Paratelecrinus is erected to accommodate Atelecrinus wyvilli PH Carpenter, A. conifer AH Clark, A. cubensis PH Carpenter, P. orthotriremis, new species, P. amenouzume new species, P. laticonulus new species and P. telo new species. Adelatelecrinus is erected to accommodate Atelecrinus sulcatus AH Clark and Adelatelecrinus vallatus new species. Atelecrinus retains A. balanoides PH Carpenter and A. helgae AH Clark, which restricts the genus to the Atlantic. In both Paratelecrinus and Adelatelecrinus, the basals articulate with the centrodorsal via ligament bundles anchored in deep ringlike interradial pits that project into the centrodorsal cavity, whereas in Atelecrinus the centrodorsal rim has shallow interradial concavities and attaches to the basals via a tight junction with no obvious ligament bundles. The spoon-shaped aboral fossa in the basals of Paratelecrinus appears to be unique among articulate crinoids and differs from the smooth fossa found in both Atelecrinus and Adelatelecrinus. New material extends the range of the family to the Indian Ocean. A few species are now known from enough specimens to identify some ontogenetic and distributional variations. Proximal ray morphology varies substantially with size in P. cubensis and P. orthotriremis. A. balanoides generally occurs in deeper water in the Lesser Antilles than in the Bahamas and Strait of Florida, while P. orthotriremis occurs in shallower water in the Lesser Antilles and deeper in the Bahamas.

  11. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dida, Gabriel O.; Gelder, Frank B.; Anyona, Douglas N.; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O.; Adoka, Samson O.; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K.; Owuor, Phillip O.; Ofulla, Ayub V. O.

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss – the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus – the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss – the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin. PMID:25405008

  12. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community. PMID:18217942

  13. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  14. Peculiarities of studying an isolated neuron by the method of laser interference microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yusipovich, Alexander I; Kazakova, Tatiana A; Erokhova, Liudmila A; Brazhe, Nadezda A; Maksimov, Georgy V; Novikov, Sergey M; Lazarev, Grigory L

    2006-09-30

    Actual aspects of using a new method of laser interference microscopy (LIM) for studying nerve cells are discussed. The peculiarities of the LIM display of neurons are demonstrated by the example of isolated neurons of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. A comparative analysis of the images of the cell and subcellular structures of a neuron obtained by the methods of interference microscopy, optical transmission microscopy, and confocal microscopy is performed. Various aspects of the application of LIM for studying the lateral dimensions and internal structure of the cytoplasm and organelles of a neuron in cytology and cell physiology are discussed. (laser biology)

  15. Characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Nicot, Antoine; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Debain, Chantal; David, Patrice; Jarne, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    We characterized 15 new variable microsatellites in the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea (Lymnaea) columella, as well as conditions for multiplexing and simultaneously genotyping sets of loci. Two to six alleles were detected per locus over the six populations studied. Gene diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.498, but essentially no heterozygous individuals were observed. This resulted in extremely high F(IS) estimates, and therefore high selfing rates. The F(ST) estimates ranged from 0.18 to 1 among populations, but was generally high. These markers will constitute efficient tools for investigating the population structure of this invasive species. Cross-species amplification was on the whole unsuccessful.

  16. LASER BIOLOGY: Peculiarities of studying an isolated neuron by the method of laser interference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusipovich, Alexander I.; Novikov, Sergey M.; Kazakova, Tatiana A.; Erokhova, Liudmila A.; Brazhe, Nadezda A.; Lazarev, Grigory L.; Maksimov, Georgy V.

    2006-09-01

    Actual aspects of using a new method of laser interference microscopy (LIM) for studying nerve cells are discussed. The peculiarities of the LIM display of neurons are demonstrated by the example of isolated neurons of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. A comparative analysis of the images of the cell and subcellular structures of a neuron obtained by the methods of interference microscopy, optical transmission microscopy, and confocal microscopy is performed. Various aspects of the application of LIM for studying the lateral dimensions and internal structure of the cytoplasm and organelles of a neuron in cytology and cell physiology are discussed.

  17. [Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S

    2008-01-01

    Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters. PMID:19140337

  18. Neurotrophic activities of trk receptors conserved over 600 million years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Beck, Gad; Munno, David W; Levy, Zehava; Dissel, Helga M; Van-Minnen, Jan; Syed, Naweed I; Fainzilber, Mike

    2004-07-01

    The trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases is crucial for neuronal survival in the vertebrate nervous system, however both C. elegans and Drosophila lack genes encoding trks or their ligands. The only invertebrate representative of this gene family identified to date is Ltrk from the mollusk Lymnaea. Did trophic functions of trk receptors originate early in evolution, or were they an innovation of the vertebrates? Here we show that the Ltrk gene conserves a similar exon/intron order as mammalian trk genes in the region encoding defined extracellular motifs, including one exon encoding a putative variant immunoglobulin-like domain. Chimeric receptors containing the intracellular and transmembrane domains of Ltrk undergo ligand-induced autophosphorylation followed by MAP kinase activation in transfected cells. The chimeras are internalized similarly to TrkA in PC12 cells, and their stimulation leads to differentiation and neurite extension. Knock-down of endogenous Ltrk expression compromises outgrowth and survival of Lymnaea neurons cultured in CNS-conditioned medium. Thus, Ltrk is required for neuronal survival, suggesting that trophic activities of the trk receptor family originated before the divergence of molluscan and vertebrate lineages approximately 600 million years ago.

  19. Differential proteomics reveals multiple components in retrogradely transported axoplasm after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Perlson, Eran; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Munno, David W; Syed, Naweed I; Burlingame, Alma L; Fainzilber, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Information on axonal damage is conveyed to neuronal cell bodies by a number of signaling modalities, including the post-translational modification of axoplasmic proteins. Retrograde transport of a subset of such proteins is thought to induce or enhance a regenerative response in the cell body. Here we report the use of a differential 2D-PAGE approach to identify injury-correlated retrogradely transported proteins in nerves of the mollusk Lymnaea. A comprehensive series of gels at different pI ranges allowed resolution of approximately 4000 spots by silver staining, and 172 of these were found to differ between lesioned versus control nerves. Mass spectrometric sequencing of 134 differential spots allowed their assignment to over 40 different proteins, some belonging to a vesicular ensemble blocked by the lesion and others comprising an up-regulated ensemble highly enriched in calpain cleavage products of an intermediate filament termed RGP51 (retrograde protein of 51 kDa). Inhibition of RGP51 expression by RNA interference inhibits regenerative outgrowth of adult Lymnaea neurons in culture. These results implicate regulated proteolysis in the formation of retrograde injury signaling complexes after nerve lesion and suggest that this signaling modality utilizes a wide range of protein components.

  20. Fasciola hepatica in snails collected from water-dropwort fields using PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwang-Yong; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Rok; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Cha, Guang-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis mainly in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Fascioliasis has been reported in Korea; however, determining F. hepatica infection in snails has not been done recently. Thus, using PCR, we evaluated the prevalence of F. hepatica infection in snails at 4 large water-dropwort fields. Among 349 examined snails, F. hepatica-specific internal transcribed space 1 (ITS-1) and/or ITS-2 markers were detected in 12 snails and confirmed using sequence analysis. Morphologically, 213 of 349 collected snails were dextral shelled, which is the same aperture as the lymnaeid snail, the vectorial host for F. hepatica. Among the 12 F. hepatica-infected snails, 6 were known first intermediate hosts in Korea (Lymnaea viridis and L. ollula) and the remaining 6 (Lymnaea sp.) were potentially a new first intermediate host in Korea. It has been shown that the overall prevalence of the snails contaminated with F. hepatica in water-dropwort fields was 3.4%; however, the prevalence varied among the fields. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of F. hepatica infection using the vectorial capacity of the snails in Korea.

  1. [Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S

    2008-01-01

    Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters.

  2. Is a mosaic embryo also a mosaic of communication compartments?

    PubMed

    Serras, F; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1987-03-01

    We have studied the pathways of cell communication in embryos of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis in which the developmental fate of a cell or a group of cells is known from cell lineage studies. We iontophoretically injected Lucifer Yellow CH and followed the spread of fluorescence between cells interconnected via gap junctions. In early stages all blastomeres appear to be dye-coupled, but later on communication is restricted within compartments. The pattern of cell communication corresponds with the development of compartments with specific cell fates. Dye-spread is limited by communication boundaries which completely or mostly prevent the passage of dye to adjacent compartments with different developmental fates. These boundaries appear progressively during development. Our results suggest that, during the development of Lymnaea, the progressive changes in the pattern of dye spread correspond with the progressive restrictions of the developmental fates of individual cells or groups of cells. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cell communication and in the appearance of communication compartments are not exclusive features of regulative embryos. PMID:3817285

  3. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Alan Gruenhagen

    2003-12-12

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized Cd

  4. Intron Derived Size Polymorphism in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Closely Related Chrysoporthe Species.

    PubMed

    Kanzi, Aquillah Mumo; Wingfield, Brenda Diana; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Naidoo, Sanushka; van der Merwe, Nicolaas Albertus

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Chrysoporthe austroafricana (190,834 bp), C. cubensis (89,084 bp) and C. deuterocubensis (124,412 bp) were determined. Additionally, the mitochondrial genome of another member of the Cryphonectriaceae, namely Cryphonectria parasitica (158,902 bp), was retrieved and annotated for comparative purposes. These genomes showed high levels of synteny, especially in regions including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer, unique open reading frames (uORFs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as intron positions. Comparative analyses revealed signatures of duplication events, intron number and length variation, and varying intronic ORFs which highlighted the genetic diversity of mt genomes among the Cryphonectriaceae. These mt genomes showed remarkable size polymorphism. The size polymorphism in the mt genomes of these closely related Chrysoporthe species was attributed to the varying number and length of introns, coding sequences and to a lesser extent, intergenic sequences. Compared to publicly available fungal mt genomes, the C. austroafricana mt genome is the second largest in the Ascomycetes thus far.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluorine-containing stilbene derivatives as fungicidal agents against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Jian, Weilin; He, Daohang; Xi, Pinggen; Li, Xinwei

    2015-11-18

    The rising development of resistance to conventional fungicides is driving the search for new alternative candidates to control plant diseases. In this study, a series of new fluorine-containing stilbene derivatives was synthesized on the basis of our previous quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis results. Bioassays in vivo revealed that the title compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum lagenarium and Pseudoperonospora cubensis) from cucumber plants. In comparison to the previous results, the introduction of a fluorine moiety showed improved activities of some compounds against those fungi. Notably, compound 9 exhibited a control efficacy against C. lagenarium (83.4 ± 1.3%) comparable to that of commercial fungicide (82.7 ± 1.7%). For further understanding the possible mode of action of the stilbene against C. lagenarium, the effects on hyphal morphology, electrolyte leakage, and respiration of mycelial cell suspension were studied. Microscopic observation showed considerably deformed mycelial morphology. The conductivity of mycelial suspension increased in the presence of compound 9, whereas no significantly inhibitory effect on respiration was observed. Taken together, the fungicidal mechanism of this stilbene is associated with its membrane disruption effect, resulting in increased membrane permeability. These results provide important clues for mechanistic study and derivatization of stilbenes as alternative sources of fungicidal agents for plant disease control.

  6. Synoptic revision of Blabericola (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) parasitizing blaberid cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae), with comments on delineating gregarine species boundaries.

    PubMed

    Clopton, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Complete synoptic redescriptions, including complete morphometric data for all life cycle stages, species recognition characters, and differential comparisons are presented for the 4 gregarine species comprising Blabericola . Blabericola cubensis ( Peregrine, 1970 ), Blabericola haasi (Geus, 1969), Blabericola migrator ( Clopton, 1995 ), and Blabericola princisi ( Peregrine, 1970 ) are redescribed from their type hosts, i.e., the discoid cockroach Blaberus discoidalis , the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea , the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa , and the Bolivian cockroach Blaberus boliviensis , respectively. These gregarine species descriptions are stabilized through deposition of extensive new voucher collections. Species of Blabericola are distinguished by differences in relative metric ratios, morphology of oocysts, and by relative metric ratios of mature gamonts in association. This work is discussed as a model for morphological species descriptions in the Eugregarinorida including the 6 principles for morphological gregarine species descriptions, i.e., a centroid and population variation approach, adequate sample size, partitioning developmental variation and sexual dimorphism, recognition and minimization of fixation and physiological artifacts to eliminate false morphotypes, and comparative data sets across multiple life cycle stages.

  7. Intron Derived Size Polymorphism in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Closely Related Chrysoporthe Species

    PubMed Central

    Kanzi, Aquillah Mumo; Wingfield, Brenda Diana; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Naidoo, Sanushka; van der Merwe, Nicolaas Albertus

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Chrysoporthe austroafricana (190,834 bp), C. cubensis (89,084 bp) and C. deuterocubensis (124,412 bp) were determined. Additionally, the mitochondrial genome of another member of the Cryphonectriaceae, namely Cryphonectria parasitica (158,902 bp), was retrieved and annotated for comparative purposes. These genomes showed high levels of synteny, especially in regions including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer, unique open reading frames (uORFs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as intron positions. Comparative analyses revealed signatures of duplication events, intron number and length variation, and varying intronic ORFs which highlighted the genetic diversity of mt genomes among the Cryphonectriaceae. These mt genomes showed remarkable size polymorphism. The size polymorphism in the mt genomes of these closely related Chrysoporthe species was attributed to the varying number and length of introns, coding sequences and to a lesser extent, intergenic sequences. Compared to publicly available fungal mt genomes, the C. austroafricana mt genome is the second largest in the Ascomycetes thus far. PMID:27272523

  8. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

  9. Taxonomic revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales)

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Ramona-Elena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Rochefortia is a small taxon of woody plants in the Ehretiaceae (Boraginales) exhibiting coriaceous leaves with cystoliths, small whitish flowers and drupaceous fruits containing four pyrenes. It shares the dioecious sex distribution with its sister group Lepidocordia and can be delimited from the latter (and all other Ehretiaceae) by the presence of thorns. Neotropical Rochefortia is distributed over most Caribbean islands, Central America and northern South America. Twenty-eight validly published names (corresponding to twenty-one typified taxa at the species level and below) are available in Rochefortia, but the precise number of species to be accepted has been elusive before this revision. New information In the course of the present revision, 353 herbarium collections, comprising approximately 540 Rochefortia specimens, were entried into a BRAHMS data base providing information about protologues and types and retrospective georeferences if possible. Based on the combination of molecular and morphological data we propose to recognise nine species of Rochefortia, namely R. acanthophora, R. bahamensis, R. barloventensis, R. cubensis, R. cuneata, R. lundellii, R. oblongata, R. spinosa and R. stellata (the remaining nineteen validly published names are synonymised under such names). Morphological description of each species and an identification key are provided. PMID:27346952

  10. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  11. Synthesis and fungicidal activities of novel indene-substituted oxime ether strobilurins.

    PubMed

    Tu, Song; Xu, Long-He; Ye, Li-Yi; Wang, Xi; Sha, Yong; Xiao, Zong-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    Nineteen novel indene-substituted oxime ether strobilurins, which used an indene group to stabilize the ( E)-styryl group in SYP-Z071 (an unsaturated oxime strobilurin fungicide under development by the Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry), were designed and synthesized. The biological assay results showed that all compounds possessed good or excellent fungicidal activities. It was found that most of the compounds showed higher fungicidal activities against Pyricularia oryzae, Phytophthora infestans, Erysiphe graminis, and Colletotrichum lagenarium than SYP-Z071 at the tested concentration. The biological assay results also indicated that most of the compounds exhibited higher in vivo fungicidal activities against cucumber Pseudoperonospora cubensis and C. lagenarium than the commercial fungicides trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl at a concentration of 6.25 mg/L. Furthermore, it was found that alpha-(methoxyimino)- N-methylphenylacetamide oxime ethers 6m- s exhibited a broad spectrum and remarkably higher activities against all tested fungi. Especially, the 6-methylindene-substituted compound 6p was identified as the most promising candidate for further study. PMID:18547049

  12. Memory block: a consequence of conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Ito, Etsuro; Yamagishi, Miki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Fujito, Yutaka; Dyakonova, Varvara; Lukowiak, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Food deprivation for 1 day in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis before aversive classical conditioning results in optimal conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and long-term memory (LTM) formation, whereas 5-day food deprivation before training does not. We hypothesize that snails do in fact learn and form LTM when trained after prolonged food deprivation, but that severe food deprivation blocks their ability to express memory. We trained 5-day food-deprived snails under various conditions, and found that memory was indeed formed but is overpowered by severe food deprivation. Moreover, CTA-LTM was context dependent and was observed only when the snails were in a context similar to that in which the training occurred.

  13. Immune defence under extreme ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-02-23

    Owing to global climate change, the extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an extreme temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance.

  14. Multifunctional role of PACAP-like peptides in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Kiss, T; Pirger, Z

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in a range of physiological and behavioral processes of gastropod molluscs, Helix and Lymnaea. Since its discovery in 1989 PACAP has become increasingly recognized for its important and diversified roles in the central and peripheral nervous system and in several peripheral organs of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Twenty-two years after its discovery, PACAP is now one of the most extensively studied of the neuropeptides. This review surveys the importance of PACAP and PACAP-like peptides in invertebrates, focusing mainly on the gastropod molluscs. The relevance of studies on lower vertebrates and invertebrates, which do not have a pituitary gland, is to contribute to the unraveling of fundamental effects of PACAP or PACAP-like peptides and to provide a comparative view.

  15. Noninvasive neuroelectronic interfacing with synaptically connected snail neurons immobilized on a semiconductor chip

    PubMed Central

    Zeck, Günther; Fromherz, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid circuit of a semiconductor chip and synaptically connected neurons was implemented and characterized. Individual nerve cells from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis were immobilized on a silicon chip by microscopic picket fences of polyimide. The cells formed a network with electrical synapses after outgrowth in brain conditioned medium. Pairs of neurons were electronically interfaced for noninvasive stimulation and recording. Voltage pulses were applied to a capacitive stimulator on the chip to excite the attached neuron. Signals were transmitted in the neuronal net and elicited an action potential in a second neuron. The postsynaptic excitation modulated the current of a transistor on the chip. The implementation of the silicon-neuron-neuron-silicon circuit constitutes a proof-of-principle experiment for the development of neuroelectronic systems to be used in studies on neuronal signal processing, neurocomputation, and neuroprosthetics. PMID:11526244

  16. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period

    PubMed Central

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  17. Axonal trafficking of an antisense RNA transcribed from a pseudogene is regulated by classical conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Korneev, Sergei A.; Kemenes, Ildiko; Bettini, Natalia L.; Kemenes, George; Staras, Kevin; Benjamin, Paul R.; O'Shea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are endogenous RNA molecules that are complementary to known RNA transcripts. The functional significance of NATs is poorly understood, but their prevalence in the CNS suggests a role in brain function. Here we investigated a long NAT (antiNOS-2 RNA) associated with the regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the CNS of Lymnaea, an established model for molecular analysis of learning and memory. We show the antiNOS-2 RNA is axonally trafficked and demonstrate that this is regulated by classical conditioning. Critically, a single conditioning trial changes the amount of antiNOS-2 RNA transported along the axon. This occurs within the critical time window when neurotransmitter NO is required for memory formation. Our data suggest a role for the antiNOS-2 RNA in establishing memories through the regulation of NO signaling at the synapse. PMID:23293742

  18. Range limits and parasite prevalence in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed Central

    Briers, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Geographical range limits are thought to be set by species' physiological or ecological adaptation to abiotic factors, but the importance of biotic factors such as parasitism in determining range limits has not been well explored. In this study the prevalence of trematode parasitism in populations of a freshwater gastropod snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, increased sharply as this species approached its western UK range limit. The likelihood of trematode infection increased with snail size, but high prevalence at the range edge was not a result of interpopulation variation in snail size. Changes in population growth rates resulting from high rates of parasitism at the range edge could contribute to range limitation. The mechanism driving high rates of parasitism at the range edge is not clear, but changes in abiotic factors towards the range limit may influence snail life history and immune response to trematode infection, indirectly altering the prevalence of parasites in marginal host populations. PMID:14667375

  19. Biosynthesis of galactogen: purification of a 1. -->. 6 D-galactosyltransferase from Helix pomatia

    SciTech Connect

    Goudsmit, E.M.

    1986-05-01

    A (1 ..-->.. 6) D-galactosyltransferase from a pellet fraction (8000xg) of Helix pomatia albumen gland has been purified over 2000-fold by affinity chromatography on UDP-p-amino-phenyl-Sepharose. The enzyme catalyzes transfer of D-galactose from UDP-galactose to a 1 ..-->.. 6 linkage on acceptor H. pomatia galactogen. Three other polymers served as acceptors; beef lung galactan, Lymnaea stagnalis galactogen and arabinogalactan from larch wood. To determine the linkage of added galactose termini, acceptor galactogen of H. pomatia that had been tritiated by treatment with galactose oxidase and (/sup 3/H)KBH/sub 4/ was incubated with UDP-D-galactose and purified enzyme extract. /sup 3/H-galactogen reaction product was recovered, methylated, hydrolyzed and acetylated; tritiated derivatives were identified by collection of effluent fractions from gas chromatography.

  20. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period.

    PubMed

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  1. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  2. Predator avoidance and immune defence: costs and trade-offs in snails.

    PubMed

    Rigby, M C; Jokela, J

    2000-01-22

    Organisms are often confronted by both predators and pathogens. Defending against such widely divergent enemies requires more than one type of defence. Multiple defences, however, raise the possibility of trade-offs among defences. We tested for such trade-offs by manipulating the level of predator-avoidance behaviour and immune function in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Our results show that predator avoidance and immune function had clear costs in terms of reproduction and survival. Further, we show that increased levels of predator-avoidance behaviour reduced the snails' ability to defend against potential pathogens. Predator-avoidance behaviour may thus have the additional indirect cost of reduced immunocompetence and increased susceptibility to pathogens. Our results suggest that ecological factors (e.g. predator density) may considerably modify the expression and costs of immune defences.

  3. Commercial watercress as an emerging source of fascioliasis in Northern France in 2002: results from an outbreak investigation.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Capek, I; Ajana, F; Schepens, C; Ilef, D; Vaillant, V

    2006-10-01

    In April 2002, five cases of fascioliasis were diagnosed in Tourcoing. A case-finding and a case-control study were carried out to identify the source of the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Eighteen cases were identified through the medical laboratories carrying out serology for fascioliasis. Fourteen cases and 23 controls, identified by the physicians of the cases, were interviewed on symptoms of the disease and their consumption of uncooked plants. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten commercialized raw watercress (OR 86.7, P < 0.001) and 13 (93%) of the cases reported its consumption. A single producer common to all cases was identified. The inspection of his watercress beds showed a lack of protection against Lymnaea truncatula. This outbreak of fascioliasis due to commercialized watercress indicates that actual sanitary regulations do not allow for the efficient prevention of infestation of watercress production in France.

  4. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  5. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds. PMID:2626572

  6. Phytochemical screening and molluscicidal potency of some Zairean medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Chifundera, K; Baluku, B; Mashimango, B

    1993-12-01

    A total number of 48 plants used in the Zairean pharmacopoeia were tested against molluscan intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from five plants: Maesa lanceolata, Chenopodium ugandae, Asparagus racemosus, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius and Crinum zeylanicum, exhibited high mortality rate (100%) against Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis. Their LC50 was respectively 0.1, 5, 5, 10 and 50 mg ml-1 for B. pfeifferi and 0.5, 5, 1, 10 and 10 mg ml-1 for L. natalensis. The activities are attributed to the presence of terpenoids, steroids and saponins in the plant extracts. Except for the extracts from Ch. ugandae however, the plants have shown toxic effect on fishes and aquatic insects. PMID:8140033

  7. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations. PMID:11495286

  8. Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis): epidemiology, economic impact and public health significance.

    PubMed

    Saleha, A A

    1991-12-01

    Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) is an important parasitic disease found worldwide affecting sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo, as well as other domestic ruminants. The common causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica which require various species of Lymnaea, fresh water snails, as their intermediate hosts. The epidemiology of the disease and its prevalence in Malaysia is mentioned briefly. The disease causes considerable impact on the economy of the livestock industry. The economic losses consist of costs of anthelmintics, drenches, labor, liver condemnation at meat inspection; and losses in production due to mortality, reduction in meat, milk and wool production; and reduction in growth rate, fertility and draught power. The disease also has public health significance, causing human fascioliasis and "halzoun".

  9. Dose-dependent effects of the clinical anesthetic isoflurane on Octopus vulgaris: a contribution to cephalopod welfare.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Winlow, William; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in animal welfare legislation relating to invertebrates has provoked interest in methods for the anesthesia of cephalopods, for which different approaches to anesthesia have been tried but in most cases without truly anesthetizing the animals. For example, several workers have used muscle relaxants or hypothermia as forms of "anesthesia." Several inhalational anesthetics are known to act in a dose-dependent manner on the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a pulmonate mollusk. Here we report, for the first time, on the effects of clinical doses of the well-known inhalational clinical anesthetic isoflurane on the behavioral responses of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris. In each experiment, isoflurane was equilibrated into a well-aerated seawater bath containing a single adult O. vulgaris. Using a web camera, we recorded each animal's response to touch stimuli eliciting withdrawal of the arms and siphon and observed changes in the respiratory rate and the chromatophore pattern over time (before, during, and after application of the anesthetic). We found that different animals of the same size responded with similar behavioral changes as the isoflurane concentration was gradually increased. After gradual application of 2% isoflurane for a maximum of 5 min (at which time all the responses indicated deep anesthesia), the animals recovered within 45-60 min in fresh aerated seawater. Based on previous findings in gastropods, we believe that the process of anesthesia induced by isoflurane is similar to that previously observed in Lymnaea. In this study we showed that isoflurane is a good, reversible anesthetic for O. vulgaris, and we developed a method for its use. PMID:25369208

  10. Two dopamine receptors: biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stoof, J C; Kebabian, J W

    1984-12-01

    In 1979, two categories of dopamine (DA) receptors (designated as D-1 and D-2) were identified on the basis of the ability of a limited number of agonists and antagonists to discriminate between these two entities. In the past 5 years agonists and antagonists selective for each category of receptor have been identified. Using these selective drugs it has been possible to attribute the effects of DA upon physiological and biochemical processes to the stimulation of either a D-1 or a D-2 receptor. Thus, DA-induced enhancement of both hormone release from bovine parathyroid gland and firing of neurosecretory cells in the CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis has been attributed to stimulation of a D-1 receptor. Likewise, the DA-induced inhibition of the release of prolactin and alpha-MSH from the pituitary gland, as well as of acetylcholine, DA and beta-endorphin from brain, the DA-induced inhibition of chemo-sensory discharge in rabbit carotid body and the DA-induced hyperpolarization of neurosecretory cells in the CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis have been attributed to stimulation of a D-2 receptor. Independently two categories of DA receptors (designated as DA-1 and DA-2) were identified in the cardiovascular system. Stimulation of a DA-1 receptor increases the vascular cyclic AMP content and causes a relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in renal blood vessels, whereas stimulation of a DA-2 receptor inhibits the release of norepinephrine from certain postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Recent studies with the newly developed drugs discriminating between D-1 and D-2 receptors suggest however that the independently developed schemata for classification of dopamine receptors in either the central nervous and endocrine systems or the cardiovascular system are similar although maybe not completely identical. PMID:6390056

  11. Leech egg-laying-like hormone: structure, neuronal distribution and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Verger-Bocquet, M; Vandenbulcke, F; Van Minnen, J

    1997-10-01

    Cells immunoreactive to antisera specifically directed against Lymnaea stagnalis caudo dorsal cells egg-laying hormone (CDCH) or against alpha- and beta-peptides (CDCP), encoded on the egg-laying hormone precursor, were detected in central nervous system (CNS) of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum. A co-localization of the CDC-like hormone and CDC-like peptides was found in T. tessulatum as in L. stagnalis CNS. approximately 45 immunoreactive cells to the anti-CDCH were detected in leech brain but this number varies according to the stage of the animal life cycle, i.e. it reaches a maximum just before egg-laying while after it decreases to 2-3 cells. CDCH and alpha-CDCP epitopes recognized by anti-CDCH and anti-alpha-CDCP were contained in neurosecretory granules. Following an extensive purification, including HPGPC and reverse-phase HPLC, the CDC-like hormone contained in the T. tessulatum CNA was isolated. The sequence (GSGVSNGGTEMIQLSHIRERQRYWAQDNLRRRFLEK-amide) was established by a combination of automated Edman degradation, arginyl-endopeptidase digestion, electrospray mass spectrometry measurement and carboxypeptidase A treatment. The results demonstrate that the peptide recognized by the anti-CDCH in the leech CNS possesses 27.8, 37.2 and 47.2% sequence identity with Aplysia parvula, Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica ELH, respectively. This molecule was named the leech egg-laying-like hormone (L-ELH). The secondary structure prediction of the L-ELH and all mollusks ELH, revealed the existence of a conserved segment (segment 29-34) in a strong helicoidal bend that might be important for receptor recognition and/or activation. This finding constitutes the first biochemical characterization of an egg-laying hormone in other invertebrates than mollusks.

  12. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  13. Dose-dependent effects of the clinical anesthetic isoflurane on Octopus vulgaris: a contribution to cephalopod welfare.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Winlow, William; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in animal welfare legislation relating to invertebrates has provoked interest in methods for the anesthesia of cephalopods, for which different approaches to anesthesia have been tried but in most cases without truly anesthetizing the animals. For example, several workers have used muscle relaxants or hypothermia as forms of "anesthesia." Several inhalational anesthetics are known to act in a dose-dependent manner on the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a pulmonate mollusk. Here we report, for the first time, on the effects of clinical doses of the well-known inhalational clinical anesthetic isoflurane on the behavioral responses of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris. In each experiment, isoflurane was equilibrated into a well-aerated seawater bath containing a single adult O. vulgaris. Using a web camera, we recorded each animal's response to touch stimuli eliciting withdrawal of the arms and siphon and observed changes in the respiratory rate and the chromatophore pattern over time (before, during, and after application of the anesthetic). We found that different animals of the same size responded with similar behavioral changes as the isoflurane concentration was gradually increased. After gradual application of 2% isoflurane for a maximum of 5 min (at which time all the responses indicated deep anesthesia), the animals recovered within 45-60 min in fresh aerated seawater. Based on previous findings in gastropods, we believe that the process of anesthesia induced by isoflurane is similar to that previously observed in Lymnaea. In this study we showed that isoflurane is a good, reversible anesthetic for O. vulgaris, and we developed a method for its use.

  14. Graded hypoxia acts through a network of distributed peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors to produce changes in respiratory behaviour and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Janes, Tara A; Xu, Fenglian; Syed, Naweed I

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory behaviour relies critically upon sensory feedback from peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors. During environmental or systemic hypoxia, chemoreceptor input modulates respiratory central pattern generator activity to produce reflex-based increases in respiration and also shapes respiratory plasticity over longer timescales. The best-studied oxygen chemoreceptors are undoubtedly the mammalian carotid bodies; however, questions remain regarding this complex organ's role in shaping respiration in response to varying oxygen levels. Furthermore, many taxa possess distinct oxygen chemoreceptors located within the lungs, airways and cardiovasculature, but the functional advantage of multiple chemoreceptor sites is unclear. In this study, it is demonstrated that a distributed network of peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors exists in Lymnaea stagnalis and significantly modulates aerial respiration. Specifically, Lymnaea breath frequency and duration represent parameters that are shaped by interactions between hypoxic severity and its time-course. Using a combination of behaviour and electrophysiology approaches, the chemosensory pathways underlying hypoxia-induced changes in breath frequency/duration were explored. The current findings demonstrate that breath frequency is uniquely modulated by the known osphradial ganglion oxygen chemoreceptors during moderate hypoxia, while a newly discovered area of pneumostome oxygen chemoreception serves a similar function specifically during more severe hypoxia. Together, these findings suggest that multiple oxygen chemosensory sites, each with their own sensory and modulatory properties, act synergistically to form a functionally distributed network that dynamically shapes respiration in response to changing systemic or environmental oxygen levels. These distributed networks may represent an evolutionarily conserved strategy vis-à-vis respiratory adaptability and have significant implications for the understanding of fundamental

  15. Thirty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    This third supplement subsequent to the 6th edition (1983) of the A.O.U. "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature as of 1 March 1989. The changes fall into nine categories: (1) six species are added to the main list (Pterodroma longirostris, Larus crassirostris, Streptopelia decaocto, Cocccyzus julieni, Chrysolampis mosquitus, Emberiza aureola) because of new distributional information; (2) five species (Ara cubensis, Chlorostilbon bracei, Empidonax occidentalis, Polioptila californica, Pipilo crissalis) are added to the main list because of the splitting of species already on the list; (3) one name (Anthus rubescens) is changed because of the splitting of a species from outside the Checklist area; (4) two names (Morus bassanus, Nyctanassa violacea) is removed from the main list to Appendix B because of re-evaluation of Northern Hemisphere records; (6) three species (Pterodrama rostrata, P. alba, P. solandri) are moved from Appendix A to Appendix B, and one (P. defilippiana) is added to Appendix B because of questionable sight records; (7)A.O.U. numbers are added to three species (Ciccaba virgata, Myiopagis viridicata, Molothrus bonariensis) on the basis on new distributional records or supporting data; (8) several corrections in spelling or citations are made; and (9) English names are changed for twelve species to accommodate worldwide usage of these names. No new distributional information is included except as indicated above (i.e. minor changes of distribution are not noted). These actions bring the number of species recognized as occurring in North America (main list) to 1,945.

  16. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses.

  17. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses. PMID:26995910

  18. Psychoactive mushroom use in Koh Samui and Koh Pha-Ngan, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Allen, J W; Merlin, M D

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of recent ethnomycological exploration in southern Thailand. Field observations, interviews and collection of fungi specimens were carried out primarily on two islands, Koh Samui and Koh Pha-ngan, situated in the western region of the Gulf of Siam. Some fieldwork was also conducted in the northern Thai province of Chiang Dao and in the southern Thai province of Surat Thani. During five separate excursions (1989-90), observations were made of occurrence, harvesting, use, and marketing of psychoactive fungi by local Thai natives (males and females, adults and children), foreign tourists, and German immigrants. The first records of psychoactive Psilocybe subcubensis and Copelandia dung fungi in Thailand are presented in this paper. These fungi exhibited intense bluing reactions when handled, indicating the presence of psilocybin and/or psilocin. Seven collections of Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer and/or Psilocybe subcubensis Guzman and four collections of Copelandia sp. were harvested and sun-dried for herbarium deposit. These fungi are cultivated or occur spontaneously, often appearing in the decomposed manure of domesticated water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and at least three different species of cattle (Bos indicus, B. guarus, and B. sundaicus). The psychoactive fungi are cultivated in clandestine plots, both indoors and outdoors, in the uplands and villages on Koh Samui by both Thai natives and some foreigners. The sale of psychoactive fungi directly to tourists and to resort restaurants for use in edible food items such as omelettes and soups is discussed in detail. The preparation and sale of mushroom omelettes adulterated with artificial hallucinogens in some restaurants is also discussed. In addition, the marketing of items such as hand painted T-shirts, post cards, and posters bearing mushroom related motifs in Thailand is described.

  19. Molecular recognition of neonicotinoid insecticides: the determinants of life or death.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2009-02-17

    Until the mid-20th century, pest insect control in agriculture relied on largely inorganic and botanical insecticides, which were inadequate. Then, the remarkable insecticidal properties of several organochlorines, organophosphates, methylcarbamates, and pyrethroids were discovered, leading to an arsenal of synthetic organics. The effectiveness of these insecticides, however, diminished over time due to the emergence of resistant insect strains with less sensitive molecular targets in their nervous systems. This created a critical need for a new type of neuroactive insecticide with a different yet highly sensitive target. Nicotine in tobacco extract was for centuries the best available agent to prevent sucking insects from damaging crops, although this alkaloid was hazardous to people and not very effective. The search for unusual structures and optimization revealed a new class of potent insecticides, known as neonicotinoids, which are similar to nicotine in their structure and action as agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Fortunately, neonicotinoids are much more toxic to insects than mammals due in large part to differences in their binding site interactions at the corresponding nAChRs. This Account discusses the progress that has been made in defining the structural basis of neonicotinoid and nicotinoid potency and selectivity. The findings are based on comparisons of two acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) with distinct pharmacological profiles that serve as structural surrogates for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the nAChRs. Saltwater mollusk (Aplysia californica) AChBP has high neonicotinoid sensitivity, whereas freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) AChBP has low neonicotinoid and high nicotinoid sensitivities, pharmacologies reminiscent of insect and vertebrate nAChR subtypes, respectively. The ligand-receptor interactions for these AChBPs were established by photoaffinity labeling and X-ray crystallography. Both

  20. Trophic factor-induced excitatory synaptogenesis involves postsynaptic modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Woodin, Melanie A; Munno, David W; Syed, Naweed I

    2002-01-15

    Neurotrophic factors have well established roles in neuronal development, although their precise involvement in synapse formation and plasticity is yet to be fully determined. Using soma-soma synapses between identified Lymnaea neurons, we have shown recently that trophic factors are required for excitatory but not inhibitory synapse formation. However, neither the precise site (presynaptic versus postsynaptic cell) nor the underlying mechanisms have yet been defined. In the present study, synapse formation between the presynaptic cell visceral dorsal 4 (VD4) and its postsynaptic partner right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1) was examined to define the cellular mechanisms mediating trophic factor-induced excitatory synaptogenesis in cell culture. When paired in a soma-soma configuration in the presence of defined media (DM, nonproteinacious), mutually inhibitory synapses were appropriately reconstructed between VD4 and RPeD1. However, when cells were paired in the presence of increasing concentrations of Lymnaea brain-conditioned medium (CM), a biphasic synapse (initial excitatory synaptic component followed by inhibition) developed. The CM-induced excitatory synapse formation required trophic factor-mediated activation of receptor tyrosine kinases in the postsynaptic cell, RPeD1, and a concomitant modulation of existing postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Specifically, when RPeD1 was isolated in DM, exogenously applied ACh induced a hyperpolarizing response that was sensitive to the AChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). In contrast, a single RPeD1 isolated in CM exhibited a biphasic response to exogenously applied ACh. The initial depolarizing phase of the biphasic response was sensitive to both mecamylamine and hexamethonium chloride, whereas the hyperpolarizing phase was blocked by MLA. In soma-soma-paired neurons, the VD4-induced synaptic responses in RPeD1 were sensitive to the cholinergic antagonists in a concentration range similar to that

  1. Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072 m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150 m and 1947 m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n = 10) opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) at 3640 m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (<1500 m) and high (>1500 m) altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0), respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4) and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3). The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937 m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix) natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800 m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000 m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800 m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several

  2. Larval settlement and spat recovery rates of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819) using different systems to induce metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Silveira, R C; Silva, F C; Gomes, C H M; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability--that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.

  3. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  4. Phospholipase A2 – nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability, and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Petra M.; Watson, Shawn N.; Wildering, Willem C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging brain undergoes a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (per)oxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the biology of cognitive aging we portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain. PMID:25538730

  5. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano: a region highly endemic for human fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Mas-Coma, S; Anglés, R; Esteban, J G; Bargues, M D; Buchon, P; Franken, M; Strauss, W

    1999-06-01

    The worldwide importance of human infection by Fasciola hepatica has been recognized in recent years. The endemic region between Lake Titicaca and the valley of La Paz, Bolivia, at 3800-4100 m altitude, presents the highest prevalences and intensities recorded. Large geographical studies involving Lymnaea truncatula snails (malacological, physico-chemical, and botanic studies of 59, 28 and 30 water bodies, respectively, inhabited by lymnaeids; environmental mean temperature studies covering a 40-year period), livestock (5491 cattle) and human coprological surveys (2723 subjects, 2521 of whom were school children) were conducted during 1991-97 to establish the boundaries and distributional characteristics of this endemic Northern Altiplano region. The endemic area covers part of the Los Andes, Ingavi, Omasuyos and Murillo provinces of the La Paz Department. The human endemic zone is stable, isolated and apparently fixed in its present outline, the boundaries being marked by geographical, climatic and soil-water chemical characteristics. The parasite distribution is irregular in the endemic area, the transmission foci being patchily distributed and linked to the presence of appropriate water bodies. Prevalences in school children are related to snail population distribution and extent. Altiplanic lymnaeids mainly inhabit permanent water bodies, which enables parasite transmission during the whole year. A confluence of several factors mitigates the negative effects of the high altitude.

  6. DEBkiss or the quest for the simplest generic model of animal life history.

    PubMed

    Jager, Tjalling; Martin, Benjamin T; Zimmer, Elke I

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the life cycle of individual animals, and how it responds to stress, requires a model that causally links life-history traits (feeding, growth, development and reproduction). Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory offers a powerful and formalised framework for building process-based models for organism life cycles. However, it takes some serious investment to understand the resulting equations and to implement them into software, and a substantial amount of data to parameterise. For many practical applications, there is therefore a need for further simplification. Here, we present a simple and transparent model that fully specifies the life cycle of an (invertebrate) animal, applies a strict mass balance, and has direct access to the primary parameters that determine the metabolic processes. We derive our 'DEBkiss' in a formalised manner, starting from an explicit formulation of the simplifying assumptions. The presented model can serve as a teaching tool and a smooth introduction into the much richer world of DEB theory. Furthermore, the model may prove useful as a building block for individual-based population modelling (where simplicity of the blocks is essential), and for the analysis of toxicity data (where ease of model verification and parameterisation is crucial). The model is illustrated using a fit on growth and reproduction data for the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) at three food levels, and subsequent predictions for embryonic growth and respiration (oxygen use), and weight loss on starvation, for the same species. PMID:23523873

  7. The neuronal control of cardiac functions in Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Kodirov, Sodikdjon A

    2011-10-01

    In this manuscript, I review the current and relevant classical studies on properties of the Mollusca heart and their central nervous system including ganglia, neurons, and nerves involved in cardiomodulation. Similar to mammalian brain hemispheres, these invertebrates possess symmetrical pairs of ganglia albeit visceral (only one) ganglion and the parietal ganglia (the right ganglion is bigger than the left one). Furthermore, there are two major regulatory drives into the compartments (pericard, auricle, and ventricle) and cardiomyocytes of the heart. These are the excitatory and inhibitory signals that originate from a few designated neurons and their putative neurotransmitters. Many of these neurons are well-identified, their specific locations within the corresponding ganglion are mapped, and some are termed as either heart excitatory (HE) or inhibitory (HI) cells. The remaining neurons are classified as cardio-regulatory, and their direct and indirect actions on the heart's function have been documented. The cardiovascular anatomy of frequently used experimental animals, Achatina, Aplysia, Helix, and Lymnaea is relatively simple. However, as in humans, it possesses all major components including even trabeculae and atrio-ventricular valves. Since the myocardial cells are enzymatically dispersible, multiple voltage dependent cationic currents in isolated cardiomyocytes are described. The latter include at least the A-type K(+), delayed rectifier K(+), TTX-sensitive Na(+), and L-type Ca(2+) channels.

  8. A biodynamic understanding of dietborne metal uptake by a freshwater invertebrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic organisms accumulate metals from dissolved and particulate phases. Dietborne metal uptake likely prevails in nature, but the physiological processes governing metal bioaccumulation from diet are not fully understood. We characterize dietborne copper, cadmium, and nickel uptake by a freshwater gastropod (Lymnaea stagnalis) both in terms of biodynamics and membrane transport characteristics. We use enriched stable isotopes to trace newly accumulated metals from diet, determine food ingestion rate (IR) and estimate metal assimilation efficiency (AE). Upon 18-h exposure, dietborne metal influx was linear over a range encompassing most environmental concentrations. Dietary metal uptake rate constants (kuf) ranged from 0.104 to 0.162 g g -1 day-1, and appeared to be an expression of transmembrane transport characteristics. Although kuf values were 1000-times lower than uptake rate constants from solution, biodynamic modeling showed that diet is the major Cd, Cu, and Ni source in nature. AE varied slightly among metals and exposure concentrations (84-95%). Suppression of Cd and Cu influxes upon exposure to extreme concentrations coincided with a 10-fold decrease in food IR, suggesting that feeding inhibition could act as an end point for dietary metal toxicity in L. stagnalis.

  9. A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615

  10. Unraveling the complexities of circadian and sleep interactions with memory formation through invertebrate research

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Maximilian; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Across phylogeny, the endogenous biological clock has been recognized as providing adaptive advantages to organisms through coordination of physiological and behavioral processes. Recent research has emphasized the role of circadian modulation of memory in generating peaks and troughs in cognitive performance. The circadian clock along with homeostatic processes also regulates sleep, which itself impacts the formation and consolidation of memory. Thus, the circadian clock, sleep and memory form a triad with ongoing dynamic interactions. With technological advances and the development of a global 24/7 society, understanding the mechanisms underlying these connections becomes pivotal for development of therapeutic treatments for memory disorders and to address issues in cognitive performance arising from non-traditional work schedules. Invertebrate models, such as Drosophila melanogaster and the mollusks Aplysia and Lymnaea, have proven invaluable tools for identification of highly conserved molecular processes in memory. Recent research from invertebrate systems has outlined the influence of sleep and the circadian clock upon synaptic plasticity. In this review, we discuss the effects of the circadian clock and sleep on memory formation in invertebrates drawing attention to the potential of in vivo and in vitro approaches that harness the power of simple invertebrate systems to correlate individual cellular processes with complex behaviors. In conclusion, this review highlights how studies in invertebrates with relatively simple nervous systems can provide mechanistic insights into corresponding behaviors in higher organisms and can be used to outline possible therapeutic options to guide further targeted inquiry. PMID:25136297

  11. Novel interactive effects of darkness and retinoid signaling in the ability to form long-term memory following aversive operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Cailin M; Simmons, Jason; Peters, Grace; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2014-10-01

    The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, is important for memory formation and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in vertebrate species. In our studies in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, we have shown that retinoic acid plays a role in memory formation following operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behaviour. Inhibition of either retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) or the retinoid receptors prevents long-term memory (LTM) formation, whereas synthetic retinoid receptor agonists promote memory formation by converting intermediate-term memory (ITM) into LTM. In this study, animals were exposed to constant darkness in order to test whether light-sensitive retinoic acid would promote memory formation. However, we found that exposure to constant darkness alone (in the absence of retinoic acid) enhanced memory formation. To determine whether the memory-promoting effects of darkness could override the memory-inhibiting effects of the retinoid signaling inhibitors, we exposed snails to RALDH inhibitors or a retinoid receptor antagonist in constant darkness. We found that darkness overcame the inhibitory effects of RALDH inhibition, but did not overcome the inhibitory effects of the retinoid receptor antagonist. We also tested whether constant darkness and training affected the mRNA levels of the retinoid metabolic enzymes RALDH and Cyp26, or the mRNA levels of the retinoid receptors, but found no significant effect. Overall, these data demonstrate an interaction between environmental light conditions and the retinoid signaling pathway, which influence long-term memory formation in a mollusc.

  12. Diaphanous gene mutation affects spiral cleavage and chirality in snails

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Reiko; Fujikura, Kohei; Abe, Masanori; Hosoiri, Yuji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Miho; Umeda, Shin; Ichikawa, Futaba; Takahashi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    L-R (left and right) symmetry breaking during embryogenesis and the establishment of asymmetric body plan are key issues in developmental biology, but the onset including the handedness-determining gene locus still remains unknown. Using pure dextral (DD) and sinistral (dd) strains of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as well as its F2 through to F10 backcrossed lines, the single handedness-determining-gene locus was mapped by genetic linkage analysis, BAC cloning and chromosome walking. We have identified the actin-related diaphanous gene Lsdia1 as the strongest candidate. Although the cDNA and derived amino acid sequences of the tandemly duplicated Lsdia1 and Lsdia2 genes are very similar, we could discriminate the two genes/proteins in our molecular biology experiments. The Lsdia1 gene of the sinistral strain carries a frameshift mutation that abrogates full-length LsDia1 protein expression. In the dextral strain, it is already translated prior to oviposition. Expression of Lsdia1 (only in the dextral strain) and Lsdia2 (in both chirality) decreases after the 1-cell stage, with no asymmetric localization throughout. The evolutionary relationships among body handedness, SD/SI (spiral deformation/spindle inclination) at the third cleavage, and expression of diaphanous proteins are discussed in comparison with three other pond snails (L. peregra, Physa acuta and Indoplanorbis exustus). PMID:27708420

  13. Spiral cleavages determine the left-right body plan by regulating Nodal pathway in monomorphic gastropods, Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Kuroda, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    The handedness of gastropods is genetically determined, but the molecular nature of the gene responsible and the associated mechanisms remain unknown. In order to characterize the chiromorphogenesis pathway starting from the gene to the left-right asymmetric body plan, we have closely analyzed the cytoskeletal dynamics of the Physa (P.) acuta embryo, a fresh water non-dimorphic sinistral snail, during the early developmental stage by mechanically altering the handedness of the embryos at the critical spiral third cleavage. A fertile situs inversus was created and the nodal-Pitx gene expression patterns were completely mirror imaged to the wild type at the trochophore stage. Together with our previous work on Lymnaea (L.) stagnalis, we could show that chirality is established at the third cleavage, as dictated by the single handedness-determining gene locus, and then chirality information is transferred via subsequent spiral fourth and fifth cleavages to the later developmental stage, dictating the nodal-Pitx expression pathway. The cytoskeletal dynamics of manipulated and non-manipulated embryos of sinistral P. acuta and dextral dominant L. stagnalis are compared. PMID:25690966

  14. Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Haataja, Maarit; Kuosa, Marja; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-05-01

    Genetics, physiology, and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state, and foraging behavior on the susceptibility of Lymnaea stagnalis snails to infection by a trematode parasite that uses chemical cues to locate its hosts. In experimental exposures, we found that snails in the long-term food deprivation treatment contracted fewer parasites than snails that were continuously well-fed, possibly because well-fed snails grew larger and attracted more transmission stages. When we kept the long-term feeding rates the same, but manipulated the physiological state and foraging behavior of the snails with short-term food deprivation treatment, we found that snails that were fed before the exposure contracted more parasites than snails that were fed during the exposure. This suggests that direct physiological effects of food processing, but not foraging behavior, predisposed snails to infection. Feeding treatments also affected the family-level variation in snail susceptibility, suggesting that the relative susceptibility of host genotypes was context dependent.

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  16. [The radioactive contamination dynamics of water body ecosystems of different types in the Chernobyl atomic station alienation zone in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A P; Sikorskiĭ, V G; Kalinin, V N; Afonin, V Iu; Chekan, G S

    2007-01-01

    The long-term (1986-2005) gamma-activity dynamics in dominating zoobenthos species and the bottom sediments in the inlet of Pripyat river and the non-flowing Perstok lake within the Chernobyl alienation zone was determined. Immediately after the accident (1986-1987) zoonehthos y-activity achieved the maximal values (up to 300-1100 kBq/kg) and after that began to decline steadily due to natural decay of man-caused radionuclides of "Chernobyl origin". Up to summer 2005 gastropod mollusks gamma-activity (Lymnaea stagnalis, Viviparus viviparus) approached to the natural level (less than 6 Bq/kg) in the inlet of Pripyat river, but it remained at the very high level up to 979-1638 Bq/kg in the Perstok lake. The positive correlation between gamma-activity of mollusks and bottom sediments has been established. In turn, the long-term variations of atmospheric precipitate amounts which wash down radionuclides from surrounding territories to water bodies and the amounts of annual flow of the Pripyat river as well as shoreline position changes in water bodies within the Chernobyl alienation zone influence on these values too.

  17. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails' somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals' shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production. PMID:27391787

  18. Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta,Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  19. Experimental Life Cycle of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Block, 1872) Diez, 1909(Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Parasite from the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    AZIZI, Hekmat; FARAHNAK, Ali; MOBEDI, Iraj; MOLAEI RAD, MohamadBagher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human Echinostomiasis is an intestinal disease caused by the members of family Echinostomatidae parasites. The aim of present research was to identify echinostomatidae cercariae emitted by Lymnaea palustris snails from Mazandaran province in the north of Iran based on the morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the different stages of experimental parasite life cycle. Methods: Echinostomatidae cercariae were collected from L. palustris (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) of the north of Iran. To collect metacercaria, 50 healthy snails were infected with cercariae experimentally (50 cercariae for each). To obtain the adult stage, 9 laboratory animals (3 ducks, 2 rats, 2 mice and 2 quails) were fed with 60 metacercaria for each. To identify parasite, the different stages of worm were examined using light microscope and then the figures were draw under camera Lucida microscope and measures were determined. Results: Averagely, 15metacercaria were obtained from each snail that had been previously exposed with cercariae. Ducks presented worm eggs in feces after 10–15 days post-infection. Intestinal worms were collected and identified as Hypoderaeum conoideum on the bases of figures and measures of cephalic collar, the number of collar spine, suckers diameter ratio, testes arrangement, etc. Conclusion: H. conoideum cercariae and adult worm are described. This is the first report of the different stages of the experimental life cycle of this parasite in Iran. PMID:25904952

  20. Morphology and life cycle of Apatemon hypseleotris species novum from Australia including metacercariae viability and excystment.

    PubMed

    Negm-Eldin, M; Davies, R W

    2002-07-01

    Experimental infection of pigeon squabs and rats with encysted metacercariae from the Western Carp gudgeon (Hypseleotris klunzingeri) showed them to be infected with a new strigeid trematode, Apatemon hypseleotris. Growth and development of A. hypseleotris in pigeons were significantly higher than in rats. Eggs appeared in pigeon faeces within 7-14 days; miracidia hatched within 15-21 days and in the snail Lymnaea tomentosa released within 21 days. Cercariae experimentally encysted in the leeches Helobdella papillornata (86.7%) and Alboglossiphonia australiensis (73.3%). In fish, encystation occurred in the abdominal cavity (100%) and muscles (40%) of Hypseleotris klunzingeri, in the abdominal cavity (80%) and head (30%) of Gambusia affinis and in the abdominal cavity (62.5%) of Oncorhynchus mykiss but no encystation occurred in Moenkhausia pittieri. Freezing (-7 degrees C for 3-7 days or -21 degrees C for 8-12 hours), chilling (6 degrees C for 12 days), boiling (3 minutes) or salting for 3-5 days of encysted metacercariae did not significantly reduce infectivity. In vitro excystation of metacercariae was achieved using pepsin followed by trypsin and/or bile salts. PMID:12161969

  1. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase activity in Fasciola gigantica cercaria by phytoconstituents.

    PubMed

    Sunita, Kumari; Habib, Maria; Kumar, P; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Singh, D K

    2016-02-01

    Fasciolosis is an important cattle and human disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. One of the possible methods to control this problem is to interrupt the life cycle of Fasciola by killing its larva (redia and cercaria) in host snail. Molecular identification of cercaria larva of F. gigantica was done by comparing the nucleotide sequencing with adult F. gigantica. It was noted that nucleotide sequencing of cercaria larva and adult F. gigantica were 99% same. Every month during the year 2011-2012, in vivo treatment with 60% of 4 h LC50 of phyto cercaricides citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cytochrome oxidase activity in the treated cercaria larva of F. gigantica. Whereas, activity of both enzymes were not significantly altered in the nervous tissues of vector snail Lymnaea acuminata exposed to same treatments. Maximum reduction in AChE (1.35% of control in month of June) and cytochrome oxidase (3.71% of control in the month of July) activity were noted in the cercaria exposed to 60% of 4 h LC50 of azadirachtin and allicin, respectively. PMID:26536397

  2. Acute combined exposure to heavy metals (Zn, Cd) blocks memory formation in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Byzitter, Jovita; Lukowiak, Ken; Karnik, Vikram; Dalesman, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    The effect of heavy metals on species survival is well documented; however, sublethal effects on behaviour and physiology are receiving growing attention. Measurements of changes in activity and respiration are more sensitive to pollutants, and therefore a better early indicator of potentially harmful ecological impacts. We assessed the effect of acute exposure (48 h) to two heavy metals at concentrations below those allowable in municipal drinking water (Zn: 1,100 μg/l; Cd: 3 μg/l) on locomotion and respiration using the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. In addition we used a novel assessment method, testing the ability of the snail to form memory in the presence of heavy metals in both intact snails, and also snails that had the osphradial nerve severed which connects a chemosensory organ, the osphradium, to the central nervous system. Aerial respiration and locomotion remained unchanged by acute exposure to heavy metals. There was also no effect on memory formation of these metals when administered alone. However, when snails were exposed to these metals in combination memory formation was blocked. Severing the osphradial nerve prevented the memory blocking effect of Zn and Cd, indicating that the snails are sensing these metals in their environment via the osphradium and responding to them as a stressor. Therefore, assessing the ability of this species to form memory is a more sensitive measure of heavy metal pollution than measures of activity, and indicates that the snails' ability to demonstrate behavioural plasticity may be compromised by the presence of these pollutants.

  3. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation.

  4. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

  5. Liming of River Audna, Southern Norway: a large-scale experiment of benthic invertebrate recovery.

    PubMed

    Raddum, Gunnar G; Fjellheim, Arne

    2003-04-01

    This study describes the recovery of sensitive invertebrates after liming of the anadromous part of River Audna in 1985. The river lost its salmon population during 1960-1970. The aim of the liming was to produce a water quality with pH > 6.0 and ANC > 20 microg L(-1) and to reduce the content of labile aluminum. Highly sensitive invertebrates like the mayfly Baetis rhodani were not found in the river before liming. Two years after liming, several sensitive invertebrate species showed a positive response. B. rhodani was then recorded at 2 sites in the lower part of the river. In the following 5 years several species of sensitive invertebrates recolonized the whole limed reach of the river and became numerous. Ten years after liming the snail Lymnaea peregra was recorded in the river. The dispersa of this species was also very fast and after 5 years it was found at all investigated sites in the limed main river covering a reach of 40 km. Reduced sulfur deposition in the area also resulted in water-quality improvements in th unlimed stretches of River Audna. Comparisons between limed and unlimed localities indicated that the water quality and the critical limits of sensitive species are the ma factors determining the fauna composition in River Audna independent of the reason for the change in water quality.

  6. Habitat stability, predation risk and 'memory syndromes'.

    PubMed

    Dalesman, S; Rendle, A; Dall, S R X

    2015-05-27

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits ('memory syndrome') related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population.

  7. Efficacy of temperature, and two commonly used molluscicides and fertilizers on Fasciola gigantica eggs.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Aly A; Shoukary, Nahla M; Ismail, Nahed M M

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of temperature, molluscicides (Copper sulphate and Niclosamide), fertilizers (Superphosphate and Ammonium sulphate) on the hatchability of Fasciola gigantica eggs. The results showed that hatchability decreased to 4% when eggs were incubated in bile secretion at 37 degrees C for 5 days and to 1.4% for 10 days, but few eggs incubated in water at 37 degrees C hatched. Bile secretion at 37 degrees C was a poor medium for in-vitro egg preservation. But, hatching occurred only when eggs were transferred to water at 26 degrees C. Temperature fluctuation from 26-4 degrees C or from 32-4 degrees C had an inhibitory effect on embryos development (35.2% & 32.3%, respectively) as compared to controls (60% & 63.9%, respectively). The incubation period (19 & 17 days) was higher than controls (14 & 12 days, respectively). The LC50 & LC90 of Copper sulphate and Niclosamide against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalenesis had no toxic effect on Fasciola eggs. The higher concentrations of Copper sulphate (30 ppm) and Niclosamide (1 ppm) slightly lower eggs hatchability rate than controls. The rate decreased by increasing the exposure time from 3 to 6 hours with both molluscicides. Ammonium sulphate had a lethal effect on eggs, but Superphosphate had some inhibitory effect on egg development, which increased by increasing Superphosphate concentration or with the prolongation of the exposure time. PMID:18853633

  8. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  9. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Sunita, Kumari; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio) of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio) was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L). Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae. PMID:24037283

  10. Estimating Genetic and Maternal Effects Determining Variation in Immune Function of a Mixed-Mating Snail.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Langeloh, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of host defenses such as immune function requires heritable genetic variation in them. However, also non-genetic maternal effects can contribute to phenotypic variation, thus being an alternative target for natural selection. We investigated the role of individuals' genetic background and maternal effects in determining immune defense traits (phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of hemolymph), as well as in survival and growth, in the simultaneously hermaphroditic snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We utilized the mixed mating system of this species by producing full-sib families in which each parental snail had produced offspring as both a dam and as a sire, and tested whether genetic background (family) and non-genetic maternal effects (dam nested within family) explain trait variation. Immune defense traits and growth were affected solely by individuals' genetic background. Survival of snails did not show family-level variation. Additionally, some snails were produced through self-fertilization. They showed reduced growth and survival suggesting recessive load or overdominance. Immune defense traits did not respond to inbreeding. Our results suggest that the variation in snail immune function and growth was due to genetic differences. Since immune traits did not respond to inbreeding, this variation is most likely due to additive or epistatic genetic variance. PMID:27551822

  11. [The radioactive contamination dynamics of water body ecosystems of different types in the Chernobyl atomic station alienation zone in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A P; Sikorskiĭ, V G; Kalinin, V N; Afonin, V Iu; Chekan, G S

    2007-01-01

    The long-term (1986-2005) gamma-activity dynamics in dominating zoobenthos species and the bottom sediments in the inlet of Pripyat river and the non-flowing Perstok lake within the Chernobyl alienation zone was determined. Immediately after the accident (1986-1987) zoonehthos y-activity achieved the maximal values (up to 300-1100 kBq/kg) and after that began to decline steadily due to natural decay of man-caused radionuclides of "Chernobyl origin". Up to summer 2005 gastropod mollusks gamma-activity (Lymnaea stagnalis, Viviparus viviparus) approached to the natural level (less than 6 Bq/kg) in the inlet of Pripyat river, but it remained at the very high level up to 979-1638 Bq/kg in the Perstok lake. The positive correlation between gamma-activity of mollusks and bottom sediments has been established. In turn, the long-term variations of atmospheric precipitate amounts which wash down radionuclides from surrounding territories to water bodies and the amounts of annual flow of the Pripyat river as well as shoreline position changes in water bodies within the Chernobyl alienation zone influence on these values too. PMID:17867501

  12. The identification and characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort. 1914) new comb. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) based on experimental evidence of the life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanev, I.; Sorensen, R.; Sterner, M.; Cole, R.; Fried, B.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort, 1914) comb. n. has been completed experimentally. All of the developmental stages egg, miracidium, sporocyst, mother and daughter rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, and adult were examined and described. The miracidia infected freshwater snails of the genus Physa , P. gyrina and P. occidentalis. Attempts to infect snails of the genera Lymnaea, L. auricularis, L. peregra, L. truncatula and Bulinus, B. truncatus failed. Cercariae infected various pulmonate and prosobranch freshwater snails, mussels, frogs, water turtles and planarians. The adults developed in the small intestine of birds and mammals. The identity and major characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum are discussed. Synonyms of E. rubrum are Cercaria rubra Cort, 1914; Cercaria biflexa Faust, 1917; Cercaria chisolenata Faust, 1918; Echinostoma callawayensis Barker et Noll, 1915; Echinostoma revolutum of Johnson (1920); Echinoparyphium elegans of Cannon (1938), of Bain and Trelfall (1977), of Mahoney and Trelfall (1977); and Echinoparyphium recurvatum of Jilek (1977), Harley (1972), Sankurathri and Holmes (1976). Comparisons are made between E. rubrum and its 43-collar-spined allies: E. flexum from North America, E. cinctum from Europe, E. dunni from Asia and E. elegans from Africa.

  13. Silver bioaccumulation dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate after aqueous and dietary exposures to nanosized and ionic Ag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    le Croteau, Marie-Noe; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    We compared silver (Ag) bioavailability and toxicity to a freshwater gastropod after exposure to ionic silver (Ag+) and to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with citrate or with humic acid. Silver form, exposure route, and capping agent influence Ag bioaccumulation dynamics in Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails efficiently accumulated Ag from all forms after either aqueous or dietary exposure. For both exposure routes, uptake rates were faster for Ag+ than for Ag NPs. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from Ag NPs mixed with diatoms (assimilation efficiency (AE) ranged from 49 to 58%) and from diatoms pre-exposed to Ag+ (AE of 73%). In the diet, Ag NPs damaged digestion. Snails ate less and inefficiently processed the ingested food, which adversely impacted their growth. Loss rates of Ag were faster after waterborne exposure to Ag NPs than after exposure to dissolved Ag+. Once Ag was taken up from diet, whether from Ag+ or Ag NPs, Ag was lost extremely slowly. Large Ag body concentrations are thus expected in L. stagnalis after dietborne exposures, especially to citrate-capped Ag NPs. Ingestion of Ag associated with particulate materials appears as the most important vector of uptake. Nanosilver exposure from food might trigger important environmental risks.

  14. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  15. [Osphradial chemosensory organ as a probable trigger of the cardiac system adaptive reaction to the effect of heavy metals in aquatic mollusks].

    PubMed

    Kamardin, N N; Lubimtsev, V A; Kornienko, E L; Udalova, G P; Kholodkevich, S V; Apostolov, S A

    2015-01-01

    The responses of osphradium in the fresh-water mollusk Viviparus sp. and single osphradial neurons in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis to L-glutamine and L-asparagine as well as the changes in these responses under the effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd) were recorded electrophysiologically. The functional connections of osphradium with the identified neurons of the central pattern generator of respiratory movements and cardiac activity as well as the modification of these connections under the effect of short-term application of HgCl2 solution on the snail's osphradium were investigated. The cardiac rhythm in the mollusk Littorina littorea under the effect of Cu ions was registered non-invasively in long-lasting experiments. The dose-dependent short-term effects of heavy metals changes after osphradium injury were revealed. The implication of osphradium in adaptive reactions of the cardiac system in aquatic mollusks to the environmental heavy metal pollution is suggested. The dependence of cardiac rhythm on the degree of accumulation of copper ions in the mollusk tissues was detected. The results obtained are essential for unraveling neural mechanisms and pathways allowing heavy metals to affect the functional state of hydrobionts, particularly, the cardiac activity frequency characteristics of which are widely used as informative biomarkers to assess physiological condition of aquatic invertebrates. PMID:25859605

  16. Predicting dietborne metal toxicity from metal influxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Dietborne metal uptake prevails for many species in nature. However, the links between dietary metal exposure and toxicity are not well understood. Sources of uncertainty include the lack of suitable tracers to quantify exposure for metals such as copper, the difficulty to assess dietary processes such as food ingestion rate, and the complexity to link metal bioaccumulation and effects. We characterized dietborne copper, nickel, and cadmium influxes in a freshwater gastropod exposed to diatoms labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly with dietborne metal concentrations over a range encompassing most environmental exposures. Dietary Cd and Ni uptake rate constants (kuf) were, respectively, 3.3 and 2.3 times higher than that for Cu. Detoxification rate constants (k detox) were similar among metals and appeared 100 times higher than efflux rate constants (ke). Extremely high Cu concentrations reduced feeding rates, causing the relationship between exposure and influx to deviate from linearity; i.e., Cu uptake rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g-1 day-1. L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni from food but detoxifies the accumulated metals, instead of reducing uptake or intensifying excretion. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed.

  17. Mitochondrial Insult in a Parkinson's like symptoms model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrizales, Julio; Cantu, Manuel; Plas, Daniel; Daniel Plas Lab Team, Dr.

    2014-03-01

    Healthy cells require healthy mitochondria. If these organelles are damaged, many health consequences follow. For example, Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause, but much evidence points to the mitochondrion as a key player in the onset of this disease. PD has been studied in animal models challenged with toxins that target the mitochondria. In our work, we have used the pesticide, Rotenone, a known inhibitor of protein Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. When this toxin is applied to the freshwater mollusk, Lymnaea stagnalis, or pond snail, severe motor deficits ensue. In this project, we are studying the direct effects of this toxin on mitochondrial structure and physiology. We expected that the morphology of the organelle may be altered. In addition, it is likely that the mitochondrial membrane potential necessary for normal function may decrease as the electron transport loses the ability to move protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space. we also are going to use Electrophysiology to compare and Identify the difference of the electrical signaling among healthy and unhealthy neurons. HHMI

  18. Biogeochemical controls of uranium bioavailability from the dissolved phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Cain, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insights into the risks associated with uranium (U) mining and processing, we investigated the biogeochemical controls of U bioavailability in the model freshwater speciesLymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda). Bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) was characterized in controlled laboratory experiments over a range of water hardness, pH, and in the presence of complexing ligands in the form of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM). Results show that dissolved U is bioavailable under all the geochemical conditions tested. Uranium uptake rates follow first order kinetics over a range encompassing most environmental concentrations. Uranium uptake rates in L. stagnalis ultimately demonstrate saturation uptake kinetics when exposure concentrations exceed 100 nM, suggesting uptake via a finite number of carriers or ion channels. The lack of a relationship between U uptake rate constants and Ca uptake rates suggest that U does not exclusively use Ca membrane transporters. In general, U bioavailability decreases with increasing pH, increasing Ca and Mg concentrations, and when DOM is present. Competing ions did not affect U uptake rates. Speciation modeling that includes formation constants for U ternary complexes reveals that the aqueous concentration of dicarbonato U species (UO2(CO3)2–2) best predicts U bioavailability to L. stagnalis, challenging the free-ion activity model postulate

  19. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Ariel S.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment.

  20. Brefeldin A or monensin inhibits the 3D organizer in gastropod, polyplacophoran, and scaphopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric E; van der Zee, Maurijn; Dictus, Wim J A G; van den Biggelaar, Jo

    2007-02-01

    In molluscs, the 3D vegetal blastomere acts as a developmental signaling center, or organizer, and is required to establish bilateral symmetry in the embryo. 3D is similar to organizing centers in other metazoans, but detailed comparisons are difficult, in part because its organizing function is poorly understood. To elucidate 3D function in a standardized fashion, we used monensin and brefeldin A (BFA) to rapidly and reversibly interfere with protein processing and secretion, thereby inhibiting the signaling interactions that underlie its specification and patterning. In the gastropods, Patella vulgata and Lymnaea stagnalis, the polyplacophoran, Mopalia muscosa, and the scaphopod, Antalis entalis, treatments initiated before the organizer-dependent onset of bilateral cleavage resulted in radialization of subsequent development. In radialized P. vulgata, L. stagnalis, and M. muscosa, organizer specification was blocked, and embryos failed to make the transition to bilateral cleavage. In all four species, the subsequent body plan was radially symmetric and was similarly organized about a novel aboral-oral axis. Our results demonstrate that brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin can be used to inhibit 3D's organizing function in a comparative fashion and that, at least in M. muscosa, the organizer-dependent developmental architecture of the embryo predicts subsequent patterns of morphogenetic movements in gastrulation and, ultimately, the layout of the adult body plan.

  1. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ariel S; Huntington, Thomas G; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-05-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment.

  2. Synapse formation between isolated axons requires presynaptic soma and redistribution of postsynaptic AChRs.

    PubMed

    Meems, Ryanne; Munno, David; van Minnen, Jan; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-05-01

    The involvement of neuronal protein synthetic machinery and extrinsic trophic factors during synapse formation is poorly understood. Here we determine the roles of these processes by reconstructing synapses between the axons severed from identified Lymnaea neurons in cell culture, either in the presence or absence of trophic factors. We demonstrate that, although synapses are maintained between isolated pre- and postsynaptic axons for several days, the presynaptic, but not the postsynaptic, cell body, however, is required for new synapse formation between soma-axon pairs. The formation of cholinergic synapses between presynaptic soma and postsynaptic axon requires gene transcription and protein synthesis solely in the presynaptic neuron. We show that this synaptogenesis is contingent on extrinsic trophic factors present in brain conditioned medium (CM). The CM-induced excitatory synapse formation is mediated through receptor tyrosine kinases. We further demonstrate that, although the postsynaptic axon does not require new protein synthesis for synapse formation, its contact with the presynaptic cell in CM, but not in defined medium (no trophic factors), differentially alters its responsiveness to exogenously applied acetylcholine at synaptic compared with extrasynaptic sites. Together, these data suggest a synergetic action of cell-cell signaling and trophic factors to bring about specific changes in both pre- and postsynaptic neurons during synapse formation.

  3. Synapse number and synaptic efficacy are regulated by presynaptic cAMP and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Munno, David W; Prince, David J; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-05-15

    The mechanisms by which neurons regulate the number and strength of synapses during development and synaptic plasticity have not yet been defined fully. This lack of fundamental knowledge in the fields of neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity can be attributed, in part, to compensatory mechanisms by which neurons accommodate for the loss of function in their synaptic partners. This is generally achieved either by scaling up neuronal transmitter release capabilities or by enhancing the postsynaptic responsiveness. Here, we demonstrate that regulation of synaptic strength and number between identified Lymnaea neurons visceral dorsal 4 (VD4, the presynaptic cell) and left pedal dorsal 1 (LPeD1, the postsynaptic cell) requires presynaptic activation of a cAMP-PKA-dependent signal. Experimental activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway resulted in reduced synaptic efficacy, whereas inhibition of the cAMP-PKA cascade permitted hyperinnervation and an overall enhancement of synaptic strength. Because synaptic transmission between VD4 and LPeD1 does not require a cAMP-PKA pathway, our data show that these messengers may play a novel role in regulating the synaptic efficacy during early synaptogenesis and plasticity.

  4. Recordings of cultured neurons and synaptic activity using patch-clamp chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Marzia; Luk, Collin; Py, Christophe; Martinez, Dolores; Comas, Tanya; Monette, Robert; Denhoff, Mike; Syed, Naweed; Mealing, Geoffrey A. R.

    2011-06-01

    Planar patch-clamp chip technology has been developed to enhance the assessment of novel compounds for therapeutic efficacy and safety. However, this technology has been limited to recording ion channels expressed in isolated suspended cells, making the study of ion channel function in synaptic transmission impractical. Recently, we developed single- and dual-recording site planar patch-clamp chips and demonstrated their capacity to record ion channel activity from neurons established in culture. Such capacity provides the opportunity to record from synaptically connected neurons cultured on-chip. In this study we reconstructed, on-chip, a simple synaptic circuit between cultured pre-synaptic visceral dorsal 4 neurons and post-synaptic left pedal dorsal 1 neurons isolated from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis. Here we report the first planar patch-clamp chip recordings of synaptic phenomena from these paired neurons and pharmacologically demonstrate the cholinergic nature of this synapse. We also report simultaneous dual-site recordings from paired neurons, and demonstrate dedicated cytoplasmic perfusion of individual neurons via on-chip subterranean microfluidics. This is the first application of planar patch-clamp technology to examine synaptic communication.

  5. Unraveling the complexities of circadian and sleep interactions with memory formation through invertebrate research.

    PubMed

    Michel, Maximilian; Lyons, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    Across phylogeny, the endogenous biological clock has been recognized as providing adaptive advantages to organisms through coordination of physiological and behavioral processes. Recent research has emphasized the role of circadian modulation of memory in generating peaks and troughs in cognitive performance. The circadian clock along with homeostatic processes also regulates sleep, which itself impacts the formation and consolidation of memory. Thus, the circadian clock, sleep and memory form a triad with ongoing dynamic interactions. With technological advances and the development of a global 24/7 society, understanding the mechanisms underlying these connections becomes pivotal for development of therapeutic treatments for memory disorders and to address issues in cognitive performance arising from non-traditional work schedules. Invertebrate models, such as Drosophila melanogaster and the mollusks Aplysia and Lymnaea, have proven invaluable tools for identification of highly conserved molecular processes in memory. Recent research from invertebrate systems has outlined the influence of sleep and the circadian clock upon synaptic plasticity. In this review, we discuss the effects of the circadian clock and sleep on memory formation in invertebrates drawing attention to the potential of in vivo and in vitro approaches that harness the power of simple invertebrate systems to correlate individual cellular processes with complex behaviors. In conclusion, this review highlights how studies in invertebrates with relatively simple nervous systems can provide mechanistic insights into corresponding behaviors in higher organisms and can be used to outline possible therapeutic options to guide further targeted inquiry.

  6. Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, a Novel Facet in the Pleiotropic Activities of Snake Venom Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Vulfius, Catherine A.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Osipov, Alexey V.; Andreeva, Tatyana V.; Filkin, Sergey Yu.; Gorbacheva, Elena V.; Astashev, Maxim E.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. To check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases A2, we have studied the capability of these enzymes from other snakes to block the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to acetylcholine or cytisine and to inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins. Here we present the evidence that phospholipases A2 from venoms of vipers Vipera ursinii and V. nikolskii, cobra Naja kaouthia, and krait Bungarus fasciatus from different snake families suppress the acetylcholine- or cytisine-elicited currents in L. stagnalis neurons and compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to muscle- and neuronal α7-types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as to acetylcholine-binding proteins. As the phospholipase A2 content in venoms is quite high, under some conditions the activity found may contribute to the deleterious venom effects. The results obtained suggest that the ability to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may be a general property of snake venom phospholipases A2, which add a new target to the numerous activities of these enzymes. PMID:25522251

  7. [A focus study from a case of human fascioliasis in Neuquén].

    PubMed

    Rubel, Diana; Prepelitchi, Lucila; Kleiman, Florencia; Carnevale, Silvana; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    An epidemiological focal study was performed in Loncopué, Neuquén, Argentina, in November 2002 to detect the origin of the infection in a human case of fascioliasis confirmed by an indirect-ELISA test, six months before the study. Thirty five individual fecal samples were taken from domestic livestock, and watercress plants and snails were collected from the irrigation ditches connected to a main canal in the surroundings of the patient's house. A new blood sample was taken from the already recovered patient. The patient was still seropositive to Fasciola hepatica antigens. No metacercariae were found in the 222 watercress leaves checked. All the snails collected (n=130) were identified as Lymnaea viatrix and two out of 101 (2%) were infected with F. hepatica larvae. Coprological analysis showed F. hepatica eggs in 100% of goats (10/10), 82% of sheep (9/11) and 86% of bovines (6/7). The number of eggs per gram shed by positive goats (median=20.7, Q1=6.2, Q3=34.5) and sheep (4, 1.8, 13) was significantly higher than in cows (0.3, 0.3, 1.7) (p < 0.01). Local veterinary control programs were apparently not effective in this case. Anthelmintics used and treatment schedule should be revised and small herds raised at households should also be included and treated.

  8. The definitive and intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in the natural watercress beds in central France.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Abrous, M; Dreyfuss, G

    2001-06-01

    Field investigations were carried out over a two-year period in 52 natural watercress beds located in the Limousin region of central France to list the mammal and bird species that frequented these sites. This enabled detection of the definitive hosts of Fasciola hepatica and determination of the prevalence of natural infection in snails. A total of 13 mammal and five bird species were listed in these watercress beds. Adult flukes were found in Lepus capensis (39.2%), Oryctolagus cuniculus (42.0%), and Sylvilagus floridanus (25.0%). No infection with F. hepatica was noted in the five species of rodents studied. Snails infected with F. hepatica were found in 14 watercress beds. The global prevalence of natural infection was 1.1% in Lymnaea truncatula and 0.3% in L. glabra. Among the other trematode larval forms detected, the most frequent was Haplometra cylindracea (0.5%). In the Limousin region, the presence of hares and rabbits in watercress beds ensured the continuation of the F. hepatica life cycle and permitted the subsequent infection of humans when this wild watercress was eaten.

  9. Crystal structure of acetylcholine-binding protein from Bulinus truncatus reveals the conserved structural scaffold and sites of variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Celie, Patrick H N; Klaassen, Remco V; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sarah E; van Elk, René; van Nierop, Pim; Smit, August B; Sixma, Titia K

    2005-07-15

    The crystal structure of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis is the established model for the ligand binding domains of the ligand-gated ion channel family, which includes nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), types A and C, and glycine receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a remote homolog, AChBP from Bulinus truncatus, which reveals both the conserved structural scaffold and the sites of variation in this receptor family. These include rigid body movements of loops that are close to the transmembrane interface in the receptors and changes in the intermonomer contacts, which alter the pentamer stability drastically. Structural, pharmacological and mutational analysis of both AChBPs shows how 3 amino acid changes in the binding site contribute to a 5-10-fold difference in affinity for nicotinic ligands. Comparison of these structures will be valuable for improving structure-function studies of ligand-gated ion channel receptors, including signal transduction, homology modeling, and drug design. PMID:15899893

  10. Sequence of a functional invertebrate GABAA receptor subunit which can form a chimeric receptor with a vertebrate alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R J; Vreugdenhil, E; Zaman, S H; Bhandal, N S; Usherwood, P N; Barnard, E A; Darlison, M G

    1991-01-01

    The sequence of an invertebrate GABAA receptor subunit is described. This was deduced from a cDNA which was isolated from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis and which corresponds to a transcript of extremely low abundance. The cDNA was isolated using short exonic sequences from part of the corresponding gene in combination with a variant of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) known as RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The mature polypeptide has a predicted molecular weight of 54,569 Daltons and exhibits approximately 50% identity to vertebrate GABAA receptor beta subunits. The six intron-exon boundaries determined to date in the molluscan gene occur at the same relative positions as those found in vertebrate GABAA receptor genes. Functional expression, in Xenopus oocytes, of the molluscan cDNA alone results in the formation of GABA-activated chloride ion channels that have a finite open probability even in the absence of agonist. These GABA-evoked currents can be reversibly blocked by the vertebrate GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Surprisingly, the molluscan beta subunit is capable of replacing vertebrate beta subunits in co-expression experiments with the bovine GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit. These findings suggest that invertebrate GABAA receptors exist in vivo as hetero-oligomeric complexes. PMID:1655414

  11. Testing the stress gradient hypothesis in herbivore communities facilitation peaks at intermediate nutrient levels.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Elisabeth S; Dobrescu, Ioana; Straile, Dietmar; Holmgren, Milena

    2013-08-01

    The role of positive interactions in structuring plant and animal communities is increasingly recognized, but the generality of current theoretical models has remained practically unexplored in animal communities. The stress gradient hypothesis predicts a linear increase in the intensity of facilitation as environmental conditions become increasingly stressful, whereas other theoretical models predict a maximum at intermediate environmental stress. We tested how competition and facilitation between herbivores change over a manipulated gradient of nutrient availability. We studied the effect of grazing by pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) as bulk grazers on aquatic caterpillars (Acentria ephemerella Denis and Schiffermüller) as small specialist grazers along an experimental gradient of environmental nutrient concentration. Higher nutrient levels increased overall total plant biomass but induced a shift toward dominance of filamentous algae at the expense of macrophytes. Facilitation of caterpillars by snail presence peaked at intermediate nutrient levels. Both caterpillar biomass and caterpillar grazing on macrophytes were highest at intermediate nutrient levels. Snails facilitated caterpillars possibly by removing filamentous algae and increasing access to the macrophyte resource, whereas they did not affect macrophyte biomass or C: nutrient ratios, a measure of food quality. We conclude that competition and facilitation in herbivore communities change along nutrient availability gradients that affect plant biomass and community composition. Understanding how interspecific interactions may change in strength and direction along environmental gradients is important to predict how the diversity and structure of communities may respond to the introduction or removal of herbivore species in ecosystems. PMID:24015521

  12. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase activity in Fasciola gigantica cercaria by phytoconstituents.

    PubMed

    Sunita, Kumari; Habib, Maria; Kumar, P; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Singh, D K

    2016-02-01

    Fasciolosis is an important cattle and human disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. One of the possible methods to control this problem is to interrupt the life cycle of Fasciola by killing its larva (redia and cercaria) in host snail. Molecular identification of cercaria larva of F. gigantica was done by comparing the nucleotide sequencing with adult F. gigantica. It was noted that nucleotide sequencing of cercaria larva and adult F. gigantica were 99% same. Every month during the year 2011-2012, in vivo treatment with 60% of 4 h LC50 of phyto cercaricides citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cytochrome oxidase activity in the treated cercaria larva of F. gigantica. Whereas, activity of both enzymes were not significantly altered in the nervous tissues of vector snail Lymnaea acuminata exposed to same treatments. Maximum reduction in AChE (1.35% of control in month of June) and cytochrome oxidase (3.71% of control in the month of July) activity were noted in the cercaria exposed to 60% of 4 h LC50 of azadirachtin and allicin, respectively.

  13. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  14. Brefeldin A or monensin inhibits the 3D organizer in gastropod, polyplacophoran, and scaphopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric E; van der Zee, Maurijn; Dictus, Wim J A G; van den Biggelaar, Jo

    2007-02-01

    In molluscs, the 3D vegetal blastomere acts as a developmental signaling center, or organizer, and is required to establish bilateral symmetry in the embryo. 3D is similar to organizing centers in other metazoans, but detailed comparisons are difficult, in part because its organizing function is poorly understood. To elucidate 3D function in a standardized fashion, we used monensin and brefeldin A (BFA) to rapidly and reversibly interfere with protein processing and secretion, thereby inhibiting the signaling interactions that underlie its specification and patterning. In the gastropods, Patella vulgata and Lymnaea stagnalis, the polyplacophoran, Mopalia muscosa, and the scaphopod, Antalis entalis, treatments initiated before the organizer-dependent onset of bilateral cleavage resulted in radialization of subsequent development. In radialized P. vulgata, L. stagnalis, and M. muscosa, organizer specification was blocked, and embryos failed to make the transition to bilateral cleavage. In all four species, the subsequent body plan was radially symmetric and was similarly organized about a novel aboral-oral axis. Our results demonstrate that brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin can be used to inhibit 3D's organizing function in a comparative fashion and that, at least in M. muscosa, the organizer-dependent developmental architecture of the embryo predicts subsequent patterns of morphogenetic movements in gastrulation and, ultimately, the layout of the adult body plan. PMID:17120024

  15. Estimating Genetic and Maternal Effects Determining Variation in Immune Function of a Mixed-Mating Snail

    PubMed Central

    Seppälä, Otto; Langeloh, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of host defenses such as immune function requires heritable genetic variation in them. However, also non-genetic maternal effects can contribute to phenotypic variation, thus being an alternative target for natural selection. We investigated the role of individuals’ genetic background and maternal effects in determining immune defense traits (phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of hemolymph), as well as in survival and growth, in the simultaneously hermaphroditic snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We utilized the mixed mating system of this species by producing full-sib families in which each parental snail had produced offspring as both a dam and as a sire, and tested whether genetic background (family) and non-genetic maternal effects (dam nested within family) explain trait variation. Immune defense traits and growth were affected solely by individuals’ genetic background. Survival of snails did not show family-level variation. Additionally, some snails were produced through self-fertilization. They showed reduced growth and survival suggesting recessive load or overdominance. Immune defense traits did not respond to inbreeding. Our results suggest that the variation in snail immune function and growth was due to genetic differences. Since immune traits did not respond to inbreeding, this variation is most likely due to additive or epistatic genetic variance. PMID:27551822

  16. Structural and Population Polymorphism of RT-Like Sequences in Avian Schistosomes Trichobilharzia szidati (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Schistosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Semyenova, S K; Chrisanfova, G G; Guliaev, A S; Yesakova, A P; Ryskov, A P

    2015-01-01

    Recently we developed the genus-specific markers of the avian schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia, the causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis. The 7 novel genome sequences of T. franki, T. regenti, and T. szidati revealed similarity with genome repeat region of African schistosome Schistosoma mansoni. In the present work we analyzed the 37 new T. szidati sequences to study intragenome variability and host specificity for the parasite from three localities of East Europe. DNAs were isolated from cercariae or single sporocysts obtained from 6 lymnaeid snails Lymnaea stagnalis and L. palustris from Belarus and Russia. All sequences formed three diverged groups, one of which consists of the sequences with multiple deletions; other groups involved two paralogous copies with stop codons and frameshift mutations. Strong association between geographical distribution and snail host specificity cannot be established. All studied sequences have homology with the reverse transcriptase domain (RT) of Penelope-like elements (PLE) of S. mansoni and S. japonicum and new members of RT family were identified. We proposed that three diverged groups RT sequences of T. szidati are results of duplication or transposition of PLE during parasite evolution. Implications of the retroelement dynamics in the life history of avian schistosomes are discussed.

  17. Novel and nontraditional use of stable isotope tracers to study metal bioavailability from natural particles.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J; Fuller, Christopher C

    2013-04-01

    We devised a novel tracing approach that involves enriching test organisms with a stable metal isotope of low natural abundance prior to characterizing metal bioavailability from natural inorganic particles. In addition to circumventing uncertainties associated with labeling natural particles and distinguishing background metals, the proposed "reverse labeling" technique overcomes many drawbacks inherent to using radioisotope tracers. Specifically, we chronically exposed freshwater snails ( Lymnaea stagnalis ) to synthetic water spiked with Cu that was 99.4% (65)Cu to increase the relative abundance of (65)Cu in the snail's tissues from ~32% to >80%. The isotopically enriched snails were then exposed to benthic algae mixed with Cu-bearing Fe-Al particles collected from the Animas River (Colorado), an acid mine drainage impacted river. We used (63)Cu to trace Cu uptake from the natural particles and inferred their bioavailability from calculation of Cu assimilation into tissues. Cu assimilation from these particles was 44%, indicating that 44% of the particulate Cu was absorbed by the invertebrate. This demonstrates that inorganic particulate Cu can be bioavailable. The reverse labeling approach shows great potential in various scientific areas such as environmental contamination and nutrition for addressing questions involving uptake of an element that naturally has multiple isotopes.

  18. Predicting dietborne metal toxicity from metal influxes.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N

    2009-07-01

    Dietborne metal uptake prevails for many species in nature. However, the links between dietary metal exposure and toxicity are not well understood. Sources of uncertainty include the lack of suitable tracers to quantify exposure for metals such as copper, the difficulty to assess dietary processes such as food ingestion rate, and the complexity to link metal bioaccumulation and effects. We characterized dietborne copper, nickel, and cadmium influxes in a freshwater gastropod exposed to diatoms labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly with dietborne metal concentrations over a range encompassing most environmental exposures. Dietary Cd and Ni uptake rate constants (k(uf)) were, respectively, 3.3 and 2.3 times higher than thatfor Cu. Detoxification rate constants (k(detox)) were similar among metals and appeared 100 times higher than efflux rate constants (K(e)). Extremely high Cu concentrations reduced feeding rates, causing the relationship between exposure and influx to deviate from linearity, i.e., Cu uptake rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g(-1) day(-1). L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni from food but detoxifies the accumulated metals, instead of reducing uptake or intensifying excretion. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed.

  19. Susceptibility of memory consolidation during lapses in recall

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Vincenzo; O’Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    Memories that can be recalled several hours after learning may paradoxically become inaccessible for brief periods after their formation. This raises major questions about the function of these early memory lapses in the structure of memory consolidation. These questions are difficult to investigate because of the lack of information on the precise timing of lapses. However, the use of a single-trial conditioning paradigm in Lymnaea solves this problem. Here we use electrophysiological and behavioural experiments to reveal lapses in memory recall at 30 min and 2 h post conditioning. We show that only during these lapses is consolidation of long-term memory susceptible to interruption by external disturbance. These shared time points of memory lapse and susceptibility correspond to transitions between different phases of memory that have different molecular requirements. We propose that during periods of molecular transition memory recall is weakened, allowing novel sensory cues to block the consolidation of long-term memory. PMID:23481386

  20. The conformation of acetylcholine at its target site in the membrane-embedded nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, P. T. F.; Verhoeven, A.; Miller, K. W.; Meier, B. H.; Watts, A.

    2007-01-01

    The conformation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine bound to the fully functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor embedded in its native membrane environment has been characterized by using frequency-selective recoupling solid-state NMR. Six dipolar couplings among five resolved 13C-labeled atoms of acetylcholine were measured. Bound acetylcholine adopts a bent conformation characterized with a quaternary ammonium-to-carbonyl distance of 5.1 Å. In this conformation, and with its orientation constrained to that previously determined by us, the acetylcholine could be docked satisfactorily in the agonist pocket of the agonist-bound, but not the agonist-free, crystal structure of a soluble acetylcholine-binding protein from Lymnaea stagnali. The quaternary ammonium group of the acetylcholine was determined to be within 3.9 Å of five aromatic residues and its acetyl group close to residues C187/188 of the principle and residue L112 of the complementary subunit. The observed >CO chemical shift is consistent with H bonding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor residues γY116 and δT119 that are homologous to L112 in the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein. PMID:17989232

  1. Novel and non-traditional use of stable isotope tracers to study metal bioavailability from natural particles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    We devised a novel tracing approach that involves enriching test organisms with a stable metal isotope of low natural abundance prior to characterizing metal bioavailability from natural inorganic particles. In addition to circumventing uncertainties associated with labeling natural particles and distinguishing background metals, the proposed "reverse labeling" technique overcomes many drawbacks inherent to using radioisotope tracers. Specifically, we chronically exposed freshwater snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) to synthetic water spiked with Cu that was 99.4% 65Cu to increase the relative abundance of 65Cu in the snail’s tissues from 32% to >80%. The isotopically enriched snails were then exposed to benthic algae mixed with Cu-bearing Fe–Al particles collected from the Animas River (Colorado), an acid mine drainage impacted river. We used 63Cu to trace Cu uptake from the natural particles and inferred their bioavailability from calculation of Cu assimilation into tissues. Cu assimilation from these particles was 44%, indicating that 44% of the particulate Cu was absorbed by the invertebrate. This demonstrates that inorganic particulate Cu can be bioavailable. The reverse labeling approach shows great potential in various scientific areas such as environmental contamination and nutrition for addressing questions involving uptake of an element that naturally has multiple isotopes.

  2. Dietary uptake of Cu sorbed to hydrous iron oxide is linked to cellular toxicity and feeding inhibition in a benthic grazer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Ringwood, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas feeding inhibition caused by exposure to contaminants has been extensively documented, the underlying mechanism(s) are less well understood. For this study, the behavior of several key feeding processes, including ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency, that affect the dietary uptake of Cu were evaluated in the benthic grazer Lymnaea stagnalis following 4–5 h exposures to Cu adsorbed to synthetic hydrous ferric oxide (Cu–HFO). The particles were mixed with a cultured alga to create algal mats with Cu exposures spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude at variable or constant Fe concentrations, thereby allowing first order and interactive effects of Cu and Fe to be evaluated. Results showed that Cu influx rates and ingestion rates decreased as Cu exposures of the algal mat mixture exceeded 104 nmol/g. Ingestion rate appeared to exert primary control on the Cu influx rate. Lysosomal destabilization rates increased directly with Cu influx rates. At the highest Cu exposure where the incidence of lysosomal membrane damage was greatest (51%), the ingestion rate was suppressed 80%. The findings suggested that feeding inhibition was a stress response emanating from excessive uptake of dietary Cu and cellular toxicity.

  3. In Vitro Studies of Neuronal Networks and Synaptic Plasticity in Invertebrates and in Mammals Using Multielectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Tessadori, Jacopo; Ghirardi, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Brain functions are strictly dependent on neural connections formed during development and modified during life. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis and plastic changes involved in learning and memory have been analyzed in detail in simple animals such as invertebrates and in circuits of mammalian brains mainly by intracellular recordings of neuronal activity. In the last decades, the evolution of techniques such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs) that allow simultaneous, long-lasting, noninvasive, extracellular recordings from a large number of neurons has proven very useful to study long-term processes in neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. In this work, we start off by briefly reviewing the microelectrode array technology and the optimization of the coupling between neurons and microtransducers to detect subthreshold synaptic signals. Then, we report MEA studies of circuit formation and activity in invertebrate models such as Lymnaea, Aplysia, and Helix. In the following sections, we analyze plasticity and connectivity in cultures of mammalian dissociated neurons, focusing on spontaneous activity and electrical stimulation. We conclude by discussing plasticity in closed-loop experiments. PMID:25866681

  4. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails’ somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals’ shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production. PMID:27391787

  5. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    PubMed

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food.

  6. In vitro studies of neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity in invertebrates and in mammals using multielectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Massobrio, Paolo; Tessadori, Jacopo; Chiappalone, Michela; Ghirardi, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Brain functions are strictly dependent on neural connections formed during development and modified during life. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis and plastic changes involved in learning and memory have been analyzed in detail in simple animals such as invertebrates and in circuits of mammalian brains mainly by intracellular recordings of neuronal activity. In the last decades, the evolution of techniques such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs) that allow simultaneous, long-lasting, noninvasive, extracellular recordings from a large number of neurons has proven very useful to study long-term processes in neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. In this work, we start off by briefly reviewing the microelectrode array technology and the optimization of the coupling between neurons and microtransducers to detect subthreshold synaptic signals. Then, we report MEA studies of circuit formation and activity in invertebrate models such as Lymnaea, Aplysia, and Helix. In the following sections, we analyze plasticity and connectivity in cultures of mammalian dissociated neurons, focusing on spontaneous activity and electrical stimulation. We conclude by discussing plasticity in closed-loop experiments.

  7. Retinoid signaling is necessary for, and promotes long-term memory formation following operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Cailin M; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acid, a metabolite of vitamin A, is proposed to play an important role in vertebrate learning and memory, as well as hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, it has not yet been determined whether retinoic acid plays a similar role in learning and memory in invertebrates. In this study, we report that retinoid signaling in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, is required for long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of its aerial respiratory behaviour. Animals were exposed to inhibitors of the RALDH enzyme (which synthesizes retinoic acid), or various retinoid receptor antagonists. Following exposure to these inhibitors, neither learning nor intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h) was affected, but long-term memory formation (tested at either 24 or 72 h) was inhibited. We next demonstrated that various retinoid receptor agonists promoted long-term memory formation. Using a training paradigm shown only to produce intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h, but not 24 h) we found that exposure of animals to synthetic retinoids promoted memory formation that lasted up to 30 h. These findings suggest that the role of retinoids in memory formation is ancient in origin, and that retinoid signaling is also important for the formation of implicit memories, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in hippocampal-dependent memories.

  8. About a Snail, a Toad, and Rodents: Animal Models for Adaptation Research

    PubMed Central

    Roubos, Eric W.; Jenks, Bruce G.; Xu, Lu; Kuribara, Miyuki; Scheenen, Wim J. J. M.; Kozicz, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Neural adaptation mechanisms have many similarities throughout the animal kingdom, enabling to study fundamentals of human adaptation in selected animal models with experimental approaches that are impossible to apply in man. This will be illustrated by reviewing research on three of such animal models, viz. (1) the egg-laying behavior of a snail, Lymnaea stagnalis: how one neuron type controls behavior, (2) adaptation to the ambient light condition by a toad, Xenopus laevis: how a neuroendocrine cell integrates complex external and neural inputs, and (3) stress, feeding, and depression in rodents: how a neuronal network co-ordinates different but related complex behaviors. Special attention is being paid to the actions of neurochemical messengers, such as neuropeptide Y, urocortin 1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. While awaiting new technological developments to study the living human brain at the cellular and molecular levels, continuing progress in the insight in the functioning of human adaptation mechanisms may be expected from neuroendocrine research using invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. PMID:22649351

  9. Schistosoma incognitum and its zoonotic potential role in Phitsanulok and Phichit provinces, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bunnag, T; Thirachandra, S; Impand, P; Vorasanta, P; Imlarp, S

    1983-06-01

    A study on Schistosoma incognitum, a blood fluke of a variety of mammals, was conducted in different ecological conditions in Phitsanulok and Phichit, northern Thailand. The intermediate host of S. incognitum in permanent water habitats studied, i.e; swamps and ditches is Radix (Lymnaea) auricularia rubiginosa. Of 44,412 mollusks representing 13 different species collected from 24 water habitats studied, 7,186 were R. a. rubiginosa. S. incognitum infection rate in the snails was 2.1%. 483 Rattus rattus, 8 R. argentiventer, 280 Bandicota indica and 65 B. savilei were found infected with S. incognitum with an overall infection rate of 41.7%. R. argentiventer and B. savilei are reported as new mammalian hosts of the parasite. Also, 3.9% of dogs in the study area were found excreting S. incognitum eggs in their stools for the first time. The possibility of S. incognitum as a zoonotic potentiality to humans is discussed and is still an equivocal issue deserving further study.

  10. Importance of toxicokinetics for interspecies variation in sensitivity to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Anna-Maija; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2014-05-20

    Interspecies variation in sensitivity to synthetic chemicals can be orders of magnitude large. Species traits causing the variation can be related to toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, biotransformation, elimination) or toxicodynamics (interaction with biological target sites). We present an approach to systematically measure and model the contribution of uptake, biotransformation, internal distribution, and elimination kinetics toward species sensitivity differences. The aim is to express sensitivity as target tissue specific, internal lethal concentrations. A case study with the pesticides diazinon, imidacloprid, and propiconazole and the aquatic invertebrates Gammarus pulex, Gammarus fossarum, and Lymnaea stagnalis illustrates the approach. L. stagnalis accumulates more pesticides than Gammaridae when measured in whole organisms but less in target tissues such as the nervous system. Toxicokinetics, i.e. biotransformation and distribution, explain the higher tolerance of L. stagnalis to the insecticide diazinon when compared to Gammaridae. L. stagnalis was again more tolerant to the other neurotoxicant imidacloprid; however, the difference in sensitivity could not be explained by toxicokinetics alone, indicating the importance of toxicodynamic differences. Sensitivity to propiconazole was comparable among all species and, when expressed as internal lethal concentrations, falls in the range of baseline toxicity.

  11. Mercury net methylation in five tropical flood plain regions of Brazil: high in the root zone of floating macrophyte mats but low in surface sediments and flooded soils.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J R; Meili, M; Hylander, L D; de Castro e Silva, E; Roulet, M; Mauro, J B; de Lemos, R

    2000-10-16

    In aquatic systems, bottom sediments have often been considered as the main methylmercury (MeHg) production site. In tropical floodplain areas, however, floating meadows and flooded forests extend over large areas and can be important Hg methylating sites. We present here a cross-system comparison of the Hg net methylation capacity in surface sediments, flooded soils and roots of floating aquatic macrophytes, assayed by in situ incubation with 203Hg and extraction of formed Me203 Hg by acid leaching and toluene. The presence of mono-MeHg was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and other techniques. Study areas included floodplain lakes in the Amazon basin (Tapajós, Negro and Amazon rivers), the Pantanal floodplain (Paraguay river basin), freshwater coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro and oxbow lakes in the Mogi-Guaçú river, São Paulo state. Different Hg levels were added in assays performed in 1994-1998, but great care was taken to standardise all other test parameters, to allow data comparisons. Net MeHg production was one order of magnitude higher (mean 13.8%, range 0.28-35) in the living or decomposing roots of floating or rooted macrophyte mats (Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes, Paspalum sp., Eleocharis sellowiana, Salvinia sp., S. rotundifolia and Scirpus cubensis) than in the surface layer of underlying lake sediments (mean 0.6%, range 0.022-2.5). Methylation in flooded soils presented a wide range and was in some cases similar to the one found in macrophyte roots but usually much lower. In a Tapajós floodplain lake, natural concentrations of MeHg in soil and sediment cores taken along a lake-forest transect agreed well with data on net methylation potentials in the same samples. E. azurea, E. crassipes and Salvinia presented the highest methylation potentials, up to 113 times higher than in sediments. Methylation in E. azurea from six lakes of the Paraguay and Cuiabá rivers, high Pantanal, was determined in the 1998 dry and wet seasons and ranged from

  12. Paleogene paleoclimate reconstruction using oxygen isotopes from land and freshwater organisms: the use of multiple paleoproxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Stephen T.; Mattey, David P.; Hooker, Jerry J.; Collinson, Margaret E.

    2003-11-01

    Understanding past climate change is critical to the interpretation of earth history. Even though relative temperature change has been readily assessed in the marine record, it has been more difficult in the terrestrial record due to restricted taxonomic distribution and isotopic fractionation. This problem could be overcome by the use of multiple paleoproxies. Therefore, the δ 18O isotopic composition of five paleoproxies (rodent tooth enamel, δ 18O Phosphate = +17.7 ± 2.0‰ n = 74 (VSMOW); fish scale ganoine δ 18O Phosphate = +19.7 ± 0.7‰ n = 20 (VSMOW); gastropod shell δ 18O Calcite = -1.7 ± 1.3‰ n = 50 (VPDB); charophyte gyrogonite δ 18O Calcite = -2.4 ± 0.5‰ n = 20 (VPDB); fish otolith δ 18O Aragonite = δ 18O = -3.6 ± 0.6‰ n = 20 (VPDB)) from the Late Eocene (Priabonian) Osborne Member (Headon Hill Formation, Solent Group, Hampshire Basin, UK) were determined. Because diagenetic alteration was shown to be minimal the phosphate oxygen component of rodent tooth enamel (as opposed to enamel carbonate oxygen) was used to calculate an initial δ 18O Local water value of 0.0 ± 3.4‰. However, a skewed distribution, most likely as a result of the ingestion of evaporating water, necessitated the calculation of a corrected δ 18O Local water value of -1.3 ± 1.7‰ (n = 62). This δ 18O Local water value corresponds to an approximate mean annual temperature of 18 ± 1°C. Four other mean paleotemperatures can also be calculated by combining the δ 18O Local water value with four independent freshwater paleoproxies. The calculated paleotemperature using the fish scale thermometry equations most likely represents the mean temperature (21 ± 2°C) of the entire length of the growing season. This should be concordant with the paleotemperature calculated using the Lymnaea shell thermometry equation (23 ± 2°C). The lack of concordance is interpreted to be the result of diagenetic alteration of the originally aragonitic Lymnaea shell to calcite. The

  13. Quercetin Targets Cysteine String Protein (CSPα) and Impairs Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fenglian; Proft, Juliane; Gibbs, Sarah; Winkfein, Bob; Johnson, Jadah N.; Syed, Naweed; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysteine string protein (CSPα) is a synaptic vesicle protein that displays unique anti-neurodegenerative properties. CSPα is a member of the conserved J protein family, also called the Hsp40 (heat shock protein of 40 kDa) protein family, whose importance in protein folding has been recognized for many years. Deletion of the CSPα in mice results in knockout mice that are normal for the first 2–3 weeks of life followed by an unexplained presynaptic neurodegeneration and premature death. How CSPα prevents neurodegeneration is currently not known. As a neuroprotective synaptic vesicle protein, CSPα represents a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that the flavonoid quercetin promotes formation of stable CSPα-CSPα dimers and that quercetin-induced dimerization is dependent on the unique cysteine string region. Furthermore, in primary cultures of Lymnaea neurons, quercetin induction of CSPα dimers correlates with an inhibition of synapse formation and synaptic transmission suggesting that quercetin interfers with CSPα function. Quercetin's action on CSPα is concentration dependent and does not promote dimerization of other synaptic proteins or other J protein family members and reduces the assembly of CSPα:Hsc70 units (70kDa heat shock cognate protein). Conclusions/Significance Quercetin is a plant derived flavonoid and popular nutritional supplement proposed to prevent memory loss and altitude sickness among other ailments, although its precise mechanism(s) of action has been unclear. In view of the therapeutic promise of upregulation of CSPα and the undesired consequences of CSPα dysfunction, our data establish an essential proof of principle that pharmaceutical agents can selectively target the neuroprotective J protein CSPα. PMID:20548785

  14. Deep mRNA Sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea Brain Transcriptome Provides Access to Gene Homologues for Neuronal Excitability, Synaptic Transmission and Peptidergic Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level. Results We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes). BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis) revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA. Conclusions Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain. PMID:25719197

  15. Multiple types of control by identified interneurons in a sensory-activated rhythmic motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, G; Staras, K; Benjamin, P R

    2001-04-15

    Modulatory interneurons that can drive central pattern generators (CPGs) are considered as good candidates for decision-making roles in rhythmic behaviors. Although the mechanisms by which such neurons activate their target CPGs are known in detail in many systems, their role in the sensory activation of CPG-driven behaviors is poorly understood. In the feeding system of the mollusc Lymnaea, one of the best-studied rhythmical networks, intracellular stimulation of either of two types of neuron, the cerebral ventral 1a (CV1a) and the slow oscillator (SO) cells, leads to robust CPG-driven fictive feeding patterns, suggesting that they might make an important contribution to natural food-activated behavior. In this paper we investigated this contribution using a lip-CNS preparation in which feeding was elicited with a natural chemostimulant rather than intracellular stimulation. We found that despite their CPG-driving capabilities, neither CV1a nor SO were involved in the initial activation of sucrose-evoked fictive feeding, whereas a CPG interneuron, N1M, was active first in almost all preparations. Instead, the two interneurons play important and distinct roles in determining the characteristics of the rhythmic motor output; CV1a by modulating motoneuron burst duration and SO by setting the frequency of the ongoing rhythm. This is an example of a distributed system in which (1) interneurons that drive similar motor patterns when activated artificially contribute differently to the shaping of the motor output when it is evoked by the relevant sensory input, and (2) a CPG rather than a modulatory interneuron type plays the most critical role in initiation of sensory-evoked rhythmic activity.

  16. [Geographic variations in freshwater molluscs].

    PubMed

    Vinarskiĭ, M V

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of geographic variation is known in practically all taxa of living beings. However, the reality of this phenomenon in freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) has many times been questioned in the past. It was accepted that these animals do not demonstrate spatially-oriented variation, where specific "local race" is arisen in each specific habitat. Till the beginning of 1970s, there was no statistical evidence that geographic clines in freshwater molluscs really exist. However, a few species of freshwater molluscs has been studied in this respect so far, therefore it is almost impossible to draw any general patterns of geographical variation in this group of animals. Most species of freshwater molluscs studied to the date exhibit statistically significant decrease of their body size in the south-north direction. Perhaps, it may be explained by decrease of the duration of the growth season in high latitudes. Some species of freshwater snails demonstrate clinal changes in shell proportions. This allows to reject subspecies separation within these species since diagnostic characters of such "subspecies" may blur when geographic variation is taken into consideration. The data on geographic variation in anatomical traits in freshwater molluscs is much more scarce. At least one species of pond snails (Lymnaea terebra) demonstrates clinal variation in proportions of the copulative apparatus in the south-north direction. Further studies of geographic variation in freshwater molluscs should reveal whether it is truly adaptive, i.e. whether geographical clines have underlying genetic basis. Otherwise, the clines may arise as a result of direct modifying effect of a habitat.

  17. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  18. Predators and Resources Influence Phosphorus Transfer along an Invertebrate Food Web through Changes in Prey Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, Loreto; Costantini, Maria Letizia

    2013-01-01

    Predators play a fundamental role in prey trophic behaviour, with indirect consequences for species coexistence and ecosystem functioning. Resource quality and availability also influence prey trophic behaviour, with potential effects on predator-prey dynamics. Although many studies have addressed these topics, little attention has been paid to the combined effects of predators and resources on prey species coexistence and nutrient transfer along food chains, especially in detritus-based systems. To determine the influence of predators and resource quality on the movement and P uptake of detritivores, we carried out a field experiment on the River Kelvin (Scotland) using 32P to test the hypothesis of reduced prey vagility among resource patches as a strategy to avoid predation. Thirty leaf sacks containing alder leaves and two detritivore prey populations (Asellus aquaticus and Lymnaea peregra) were placed in cages, half of them with two predator species (Dendrocoelum lacteum and Erpobdella octoculata) and the other half without predators. Five alder leaf bags, each individually inoculated with a different fungus strain to simulate a patchy habitat, were placed inside each leaf sack. One bag in each sack was labelled with 32P, in order to assess the proportion of detritivores using it as food and thus their movement among the five resource patches. Three replicates for each labelled fungus and each predation treatment (i.e. with and without predators) were left on the riverbed for 7 days. The presence of predators had negligible effects on the number of detritivores in the leaf bags, but it did reduce the proportion of 32P-labelled detritivores and their P uptake. The most strongly affected species was A. aquaticus, whose vagility, trophic overlap with L. peregra and P uptake were all reduced. The results confirm the importance of bottom-up and top-down forces acting simultaneously to regulate nutrient transfer along food chains in patchy habitats. PMID:23750242

  19. [The fate of subspecies category in zoological systematics. 2. The present].

    PubMed

    Vinarski, M V

    2015-01-01

    The present approach to the use of subspecies category in zoological systematics is an integrative one. It counts as obligatory to confirm the validity of subspecies, defined by morphological data, with genetic criteria. This allows marking out those subspecies that really exist as separate monophyletic population groups. As a result, the system would be cleared of many 'phantom' taxa established in course of non-critical use of the subspecies concept. However, detailed analyses of intra-species variability by methods of molecular taxonomy in many cases reveal a quite complicated divergence pattern which cannot be adequately described in terms of the classic scheme of 'species and its subspecies'. Keeping in mind the irregularity of intra-species divergence rate when dealing with molecular and morphological traits, it is proposed to use an extended system of subspecies taxa when describing 'extra complicated' situations. In addition to a 'subspecies' such categories as 'allospecies', 'morphotype', 'morphospecies' may be used for which operational definitions are suggested. As an example, the micro-systematics of the great pond snails (the complex Lymnaea stagnalis s. lato) from Palaearctic region is examined. The provisional system of this group, developed by the author, is based on morphological and phylogeographical data. Applying the series of subspecies categories of different level allows reflecting with maximal completeness the intra-species variability of great pond snails and, to some extent, the process of their genetic divergence and geographic range forming. The second part of the article deals with modern approaches to subspecies category usage in zoological systematics as well as the problems of so called micro-systematics, i.e., systematics operating at the lowest level of categories such as ones of subspecies and infra-subspecies rank (Mayr, 1982). PMID:25985485

  20. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoiber, Tasha L.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Romer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO3 and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO3. Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (kuw, l g-1 d-1 ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag.

  1. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Jamie Lead,

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  2. Biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater ecosystems of Europe.

    PubMed

    Faltýnková, Anna; Sures, Bernd; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    We analysed two novel databases containing 2,380 and 8,202 host-parasite-locality records for trematode parasites of molluscs and fishes, respectively, to assess the biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater environment in Europe. The "mollusc" dataset covers large numbers of pulmonate (29 spp.), "prosobranch" (15 spp.) and bivalve (11 spp.) molluscs acting as first intermediate hosts for 171 trematode species of 89 genera and 35 families. Of these, 23 and 40 species utilise freshwater fishes as definitive and second intermediate hosts, respectively. The most frequently recorded families are the Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899, Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 and Schistosomatidae Stilles & Hassal, 1898, and the most frequently recorded species are Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819), D. pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 and Echinoparyphium recurvatum (von Linstow, 1873). Four snail species harbour extremely rich trematode faunas: Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) (41 spp.); Planorbis planorbis (L.) (39 spp.); Radix peregra (O.F. Müller) (33 spp.); and R. ovata (Draparnaud) (31 spp.). The "fish" dataset covers 99 fish species of 63 genera and 19 families acting as second intermediate hosts for 66 species of 33 genera and nine families. The most frequently recorded families are the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886, Strigeidae Railliet, 1919 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most frequently recorded species are Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819), Tylodelphys clavata (von Nordmann, 1832) and Posthodiplostomum cuticola (von Nordmann, 1832). Four cyprinid fishes exhibit the highest species richness of larval trematodes: Rutilus rutilus (L.) (41 spp.); Abramis brama (L.) (34 spp.); Blicca bjoerkna (L.) (33 spp.); and Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) (33 spp.). Larval stages of 50 species reported in fish are also reported in freshwater molluscs, thus indicating a relatively good knowledge of the life-cycles of fish trematodes in

  3. Assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of isotopically modified ZnO nanoparticles using enriched isotope tracers and biodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, M.; Dybowska, A.; Luoma, S. N.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2009-12-01

    Industrially produced nanoparticles (NPs) are dispersed in the environment with little knowledge of their environmental impacts. The unique physicochemical properties of metal NPs influence their interactions in the environment and modulate, in part, their bioavailability and toxicity. The limited research to date has focused on NPs dispersed in water at high concentrations, microscopic observation of their uptake, and acute toxicity responses. But the links between NP characteristics, bioaccumulation and toxicity are still unclear. Quantification of bioavailability from both food and water requires understanding uptake and loss rates, but few if any methodology exists for quantifying metallo-NP bioavailability. We introduce a novel approach to quantify engineered metal NPs bioavailability from food and water and develop links to toxicity. The approach combines the synthesis of isotopically modified metal NPs of defined size, composition and unique stable isotope ratios, and the use of organisms as integrators of the biogeochemical processes affecting metal bioavailability. Specifically, we used enriched Zn67 to synthesize isotopically modified ZnO nanoparticles, allowing distinguishing newly accumulated Zn from background Zn levels. We ask whether the NPs themselves are bioavailable or whether they act as a carrier for metals to enter cells. We conducted a series of experiments to determine the physiological parameters controlling the uptake and loss of 67Zn-NP in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We compared metal assimilation efficiency, uptake rates and loss rates between metal nanoparticles and those found for the pure metal. Our results indicate that 67ZnO-NPs are taken up by L. stagnalis through food. High dietborne concentrations of 67ZnO-NPs reduced feeding in the snail, suggesting that the particles elicited a biological response. Solubilisation of 67ZnO-NPs was negligible; suggesting that dietborne uptake of Zn is the most important uptake pathway

  4. A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.

    PubMed

    Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-10-15

    Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.

  5. Allelopathic potential and ecotoxicity evaluation of gallic and nonanoic acids to prevent cyanobacterial growth in lentic systems: A preliminary mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Fontaine, Pascal; Personne, Aline; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2016-03-15

    The increase in anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting many freshwater ecosystems combined with global warming may lead to cyanobacterial blooms on an increasingly frequent basis. Among the various physicochemical and biological methods which have been proposed to rapidly control blue-green algae growth, the use of plant-derived substances such as allelochemicals has gained great interest as an environment-friendly approach. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of gallic and nonanoic acid application to preemptively inhibit cyanobacterial growth in lentic hydrosystems. In order to address the process feasibility under realistic exposure scenarios, thirteen outdoor freshwater mesocosms (unit volume: 3m(3)) were designed, each containing phytoplankton (including local blue-green algae species) and various non-target organisms from higher trophic levels (Physa, Lymnaea, Gammarus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus). After an 8-week mesocosm stabilization period, a full factorial design based on the presence/absence of gallic acid (GA) and nonanoic acid (NA) (including a control group) was implemented into the exposure tanks. Regular monitoring of major phytoplankton taxa was conducted during a 28-day experiment using an on-line fluorometer. The main results suggested that gallic acid was more efficient than nonanoic acid at limiting cyanobacterial growth at concentrations as low as 1 mg L(-1). Successive gallic acid applications (at 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1)) at the early stages of cyanobacterial growth did not allow the complete elimination of blue-green algae from the mesocosms. However, the specificity of the allelopathic effect of gallic acid towards cyanobacteria was compatible with the maintenance of a primary productivity in the treated tanks as indicated by the photoautotrophic growth of other algal taxa. Finally, no biomarker induction signal could be reported in non-target species. Further gallic acid application trials in lentic systems such

  6. Experimental Life History and Biological Characteristics of Fasciola gigantica (Digenea: Fasciolidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phalee, Anawat; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29ºC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts. PMID:25748710

  7. Snail odour-clouds: spreading and contribution to the transmission success of Trichobilharzia ocellata (Trematoda, Digenea) miracidia.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Jan; Holweg, Alexander; Haberl, Bernhard; Kalbe, Martin; Haas, Wilfried

    2006-02-01

    Chemical communication among freshwater organisms is an adaptation to improve their coexistence. Here,we focus on the chemical cues secreted by the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, which are known to stimulate behavioural responses of Trichobilharzia ocellata (Plathelminthes, Digenea, Trematoda) miracidia. Such responses are commonly claimed to influence transmission positively, but in response to chemical cues miracidia randomly change their swimming direction. This kind of response does not necessarily increase transmission, because miracidia may be trapped at the periphery of very large snail odour-clouds, which may prevent them from approaching the snail. On the other hand, the odour clouds may be too small to improve host-localisation. To shed light on these scenarios, the spreading of molecules released around L. stagnalis (active space) was visualised by recording host-finding responses of T. ocellata miracidia when they approached snails. Behavioural responses of miracidia indicated the spreading of compounds forming an attractive active space only around the host-snail L. stagnalis, but not around sympatric non-host-snail species. The active space increased approximately linearly with the time the snail rested at the same spot and within 5 min it reached a volume of more than 30 times that of the snail. We also demonstrated in a large-scale experiment, that the active space of L. stagnalis significantly increases the transmission success of T. ocellata miracidia. Additionally, the microhabitat selection of T. ocellata miracidia was studied, demonstrating that peripheral locations near the water surface were preferred, which are also preferred sites of L. stagnalis. Improved chemoperception and microhabitat selection may have been a consequence of coevolution with snails and benefited miracidia, which became efficient transmissive stages.

  8. Dynamic control of a central pattern generator circuit: a computational model of the snail feeding network.

    PubMed

    Vavoulis, Dimitris V; Straub, Volko A; Kemenes, Ildikó; Kemenes, György; Feng, Jianfeng; Benjamin, Paul R

    2007-05-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are networks underlying rhythmic motor behaviours and they are dynamically regulated by neuronal elements that are extrinsic or intrinsic to the rhythmogenic circuit. In the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, the extrinsic slow oscillator (SO) interneuron controls the frequency of the feeding rhythm and the N3t (tonic) has a dual role; it is an intrinsic CPG interneuron, but it also suppresses CPG activity in the absence of food, acting as a decision-making element in the feeding circuit. The firing patterns of the SO and N3t neurons and their synaptic connections with the rest of the CPG are known, but how these regulate network function is not well understood. This was investigated by building a computer model of the feeding network based on a minimum number of cells (N1M, N2v and N3t) required to generate the three-phase motor rhythm together with the SO that was used to activate the system. The intrinsic properties of individual neurons were represented using two-compartment models containing currents of the Hodgkin-Huxley type. Manipulations of neuronal activity in the N3t and SO neurons in the model produced similar quantitative effects to food and electrical stimulation in the biological network indicating that the model is a useful tool for studying the dynamic properties of the feeding circuit. The model also predicted novel effects of electrical stimulation of two CPG interneurons (N1M and N2v). When tested experimentally, similar effects were found in the biological system providing further validation of our model.

  9. [The fate of subspecies category in zoological systematics. 2. The present].

    PubMed

    Vinarski, M V

    2015-01-01

    The present approach to the use of subspecies category in zoological systematics is an integrative one. It counts as obligatory to confirm the validity of subspecies, defined by morphological data, with genetic criteria. This allows marking out those subspecies that really exist as separate monophyletic population groups. As a result, the system would be cleared of many 'phantom' taxa established in course of non-critical use of the subspecies concept. However, detailed analyses of intra-species variability by methods of molecular taxonomy in many cases reveal a quite complicated divergence pattern which cannot be adequately described in terms of the classic scheme of 'species and its subspecies'. Keeping in mind the irregularity of intra-species divergence rate when dealing with molecular and morphological traits, it is proposed to use an extended system of subspecies taxa when describing 'extra complicated' situations. In addition to a 'subspecies' such categories as 'allospecies', 'morphotype', 'morphospecies' may be used for which operational definitions are suggested. As an example, the micro-systematics of the great pond snails (the complex Lymnaea stagnalis s. lato) from Palaearctic region is examined. The provisional system of this group, developed by the author, is based on morphological and phylogeographical data. Applying the series of subspecies categories of different level allows reflecting with maximal completeness the intra-species variability of great pond snails and, to some extent, the process of their genetic divergence and geographic range forming. The second part of the article deals with modern approaches to subspecies category usage in zoological systematics as well as the problems of so called micro-systematics, i.e., systematics operating at the lowest level of categories such as ones of subspecies and infra-subspecies rank (Mayr, 1982).

  10. Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

    2011-12-01

    Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution.

  11. [About effect of habitat and motor activity of molluscs on fatty acid composition of triglycerides and phospholipids].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Ivanova, V P

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acids (FA) in neutral and phospholipids of digestive gland and pedal muscle has been performed in molluscs from various ecological groups differing by belonging to sea or fresh water, trophic types or the associated motor activity. In freshwater pulmonary gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis and Limnaea ovalis and marine prosobranchial molluscs Buccinum undatum and Littorina littorea the total content of omega3-acids in phospholipids of the studied tissues differed more than twice, predominantly due to the combined effect of temperature and salinity of the habitat. The lower viscosity of cell membranes in marine species (omega3/omega6 < 1) is determined to the greatest degree by the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid that accounts for 22-25 % of the FA sum in marine species. Comparison of the molluscs by their trophic belonging has revealed the presence of linoleic acid in triglycerides in digestive glands of phytophages (8-12 %), but the practically complete absence of this acid in the predator B. undulatum (<0.8 %. By mobility, L. littorea inhabiting the high-low tide littoral was inferior to freshwater pulmonary gastropods and to marine predator, as it stops moving twice a day during the low tide. In phospholipids of pedal muscle of this mollusc the amount of long-chain polyunsaturated C:22 FA was 3-6 times lower than that in other studied species, which might possibly indicate the role of these acids in functioning of the pedal muscle contractile tissue. On the whole, use of the FA characteristics as parameters determining belonging to certain ecological group requires a certain caution due to a complex action of biotic and abiotic factors on the animal metabolism. The exception is the omega3/omega6 ratio in total phospholipids of freshwater and marine gastropods. PMID:19370988

  12. Natural compounds interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from low-molecular weight ones to peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  13. Determining metal assimilation efficiency in aquatic invertebrates using enriched stable metal isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Pellet, B.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a novel approach that combines pulse-chase feeding and multi-labelled stable isotopes to determine gut passage time (GPT), gut retention time (GRT), food ingestion rate (IR) and assimilation efficiency (AE) of three trace elements for a freshwater gastropod. Lettuce isotopically enriched in 53Cr, 65Cu and 106Cd was fed for 2 h to Lymnaea stagnalis. The release of tracers in feces and water was monitored for 48 h, during which unlabelled lettuce was provided ad libidum. The first defecation of 53Cr occurred after 5 h of depuration (GPT), whereas 90% of the ingested 53Cr was recovered in the feces after 22.5 h of depuration (GRT). 53Chromium was not significantly accumulated in the soft tissues upon exposure. In contrast, 65Cu and 106Cd assimilation was detectable for most experimental snails, i.e., 65/63Cu and 106/114Cd ratios in exposed snails were higher than those for controls. Food IR during the labelled feeding phase was 0.16 ?? 0.07 g g-1 d-1. IR was inferred from the amount of 53Cr egested in the feces during depuration and the concentration of 53Cr in the labelled lettuce. Assimilation efficiencies (??95% CI) determined using mass balance calculations were 84 ?? 4% for Cu and 85 ?? 3% for Cd. The ratio method yields similar AE estimates. Expanding the application of this novel stable isotope tracer technique to other metals in a wide variety of species will provide unique opportunities to evaluate the interplay between digestive processes and dietary influx of metals. Understanding the biological processes that modulate dietborne metal uptake is crucial to assess the toxicity of dietborne metals. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in snail ecology lead to infection pattern variation of Echinostoma spp. larval stages.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

    2014-09-01

    The infection patterns of parasites are often tied to host behavior. Although most studies have investigated definitive hosts and their parasites, intermediate host behavior may play a role in shaping the distribution and accumulation of parasites, particularly the larval stages. In an attempt to answer this question, more than 4,500 pulmonate snails were collected from 11 states in the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern United States in the summer of 2012. These snails were necropsied and echinostome metecercariae were commonly observed infecting the snails as 2(nd) intermediate hosts (20.0%). The snails included species of 3 genera with distinct differences in the infection patterns of Echinostoma spp. metacercariae among them. Physa spp. (comprising of P. acuta and P. gyrina) snails exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of infection (23.5%) than both Lymnaea columella (11.6%) and Helisoma spp. (comprising of H. anceps and H. trivolvis) (14.2%; P < 0.05), with no difference in prevalence observed between the latter 2 genera (P > 0.05). The intensity of metacercariae within the snail hosts was significantly different between the 3 genera (P < 0.05), with L. columella having the highest intensity (24.3 ± 5.6), followed by Physa spp. (15.2 ± 1.5) and Helisoma spp. (5.0 ± 0.9). Differences in prevalence and intensity were also observed when the different snail families co-habited the same body of water. The disparities in infection patterns are likely due to distinct differences in the behavioral and feeding ecology of the snail hosts.

  15. From Polyplacophora to Cephalopoda: comparative analysis of nitric oxide signalling in mollusca.

    PubMed

    Moroz, L L; Gillette, R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cells has been analysed using NADPH-d histochemistry in the CNS and peripheral tissues in more than 2D ecologically and systematically different molluscan genera representing 3 main classes of the phylum MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora (Lepidopleurus, Lepidozona, Katharina), Gastropoda (Littorina, Lymnaea, Aplexa, Physa, Planorbarius, Planorbis, Helisoma, Biomphalaria, Helix, Limax, Cepaea, Bulla, Aplysia, Phyllaplysia, Philine, Pleurobranchea, Tritonia, Armina, Flabellina, Cadlina) and Cephalopoda (Octopus, Sepia, Rossia, Loligo). Several species were used for more detailed immunohistochemical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological studies to further assay of NOS activity and to analyse functional roles of nitric oxide (NO) in these animals. The main conclusions of our comparative analysis and literature survey can be summarised as following: (i) There is strong evidence for the presence of NO-dependent signalling pathways in different molluscan species. (ii) We hypothesise that a general tendency in the evolution of NADPH-d-reactive cells in Mollusca is a migration of nitrergic function from periphery to the CNS. Also, different isoforms of NOS appear to be present in any one species. (iii) One of the main functional targets of NO signalling is the feeding system. However, there are obvious differences between predators (many labelled central motoneurons) and herbivorous species (many labelled peripheral putative sensory cells) as well as between land/freshwater and marine animals. Nevertheless, in all species tested NO-activated feeding-like motor patterns in the buccal ganglia. Additional functional and cellular targets for NO in molluscs are also considered. We briefly review neuromodulatory mechanisms of NO action and we consider molluscs as useful model systems for investigations of the roles of NO.

  16. Costs of receipt and donation of ejaculates in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual conflicts between mating partners can strongly impact the evolutionary trajectories of species. This impact is determined by the balance between the costs and benefits of mating. However, due to sex-specific costs it is unclear how costs compare between males and females. Simultaneous hermaphrodites offer a unique opportunity to determine such costs, since both genders are expressed concurrently. By limiting copulation of focal individuals in pairs of pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) to either the male role or the female role, we were able to compare the fecundity of single sex individuals with paired hermaphrodites and non-copulants. Additionally, we examined the investment in sperm and seminal fluid of donors towards feminized snails and hermaphrodites. Results Compared to non-mating focal snails, reciprocating individuals as well as male and female copulants experienced a significant fecundity reduction (~40%) after, on average, 3.07 ± 0.12 copulations in their allowed roles (for donors 2.98 ± 0.16 copulations and for recipients 3.14 ± 0.12 copulations). In a single copulation, significantly more sperm was donated to partners that were restricted to mating in the female role than to hermaphrodites, while seminal fluid transfer was unaffected by recipient type. Conclusions Our data indicate that the costs of mating in both sex functions are high in L. stagnalis. This conclusion is based on fecundity data collected separately for male and female copulants. Male mating costs result from investment in expensive ejaculates, composed of sperm and seminal fluid. For female copulants, fecundity reduction correlated with transferred sperm numbers in the first copulation, while differences in transferred quantities of seminal fluid were not detected. These findings may point toward a "sperm effect" as a novel feature of pond snail reproductive ecology. In conclusion, sex allocation and sexual conflict both contribute to decreased female fecundity in

  17. Allelopathic potential and ecotoxicity evaluation of gallic and nonanoic acids to prevent cyanobacterial growth in lentic systems: A preliminary mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Fontaine, Pascal; Personne, Aline; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2016-03-15

    The increase in anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting many freshwater ecosystems combined with global warming may lead to cyanobacterial blooms on an increasingly frequent basis. Among the various physicochemical and biological methods which have been proposed to rapidly control blue-green algae growth, the use of plant-derived substances such as allelochemicals has gained great interest as an environment-friendly approach. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of gallic and nonanoic acid application to preemptively inhibit cyanobacterial growth in lentic hydrosystems. In order to address the process feasibility under realistic exposure scenarios, thirteen outdoor freshwater mesocosms (unit volume: 3m(3)) were designed, each containing phytoplankton (including local blue-green algae species) and various non-target organisms from higher trophic levels (Physa, Lymnaea, Gammarus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus). After an 8-week mesocosm stabilization period, a full factorial design based on the presence/absence of gallic acid (GA) and nonanoic acid (NA) (including a control group) was implemented into the exposure tanks. Regular monitoring of major phytoplankton taxa was conducted during a 28-day experiment using an on-line fluorometer. The main results suggested that gallic acid was more efficient than nonanoic acid at limiting cyanobacterial growth at concentrations as low as 1 mg L(-1). Successive gallic acid applications (at 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1)) at the early stages of cyanobacterial growth did not allow the complete elimination of blue-green algae from the mesocosms. However, the specificity of the allelopathic effect of gallic acid towards cyanobacteria was compatible with the maintenance of a primary productivity in the treated tanks as indicated by the photoautotrophic growth of other algal taxa. Finally, no biomarker induction signal could be reported in non-target species. Further gallic acid application trials in lentic systems such

  18. Indirect effects of heavy metals on parasites may cause shifts in snail species compositions.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, H; Aguon, M Q; Bond, K A; Chapman, K R; Chaquette, R; Clark, J; Kornachuk, P; Lang, B Z; Martin, J C

    2002-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect effects of pollution on the distributions and abundances of two closely related species of pulmonate freshwater snails. Physella columbiana is more numerous at heavy metal-polluted lakes, and Lymnaea palustris is more numerous at reference lakes. Both species are present at all sites, as are predatory bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The direct effects examined included the snails' growth and reproduction in both the presence and absence of heavy metals and their short-term survival when exposed to large concentrations of heavy metals. The indirect effects were the species' ability to elude capture by sunfish and the diversity and abundance of parasites within the snails. We found that heavy metals had little direct effect on growth and reproduction and that both species acquired similar levels of metals in their tissues. Interestingly, P. columbiana (the more abundant species in polluted lakes) actually exhibited higher recruitment in the absence of metals than did L. palustris (reference lakes). L. palustris has life history characteristics that favor increased growth and reduced reproduction. These characteristics resulted in decreased predation of adults by gape-limited predators and a greater ability to cope with heavy parasite burdens. P. columbiana exhibited slower growth, which resulted in increased predation although higher reproduction rates may compensate.The major effect of heavy metals on species distributions was indirect on the snails' parasites. Parasites appeared to be very susceptible to metals, and this resulted in lower parasite diversity and intensities at polluted sites for both species of snails. P. columbiana may only be able to outcompete L. palustris at polluted sites due to the indirect effects of heavy metals; the negative effect of heavy metals on parasites, and a proposed negative effect of metals on the foraging ability of sunfish that favors the faster-reproducing P. columbiana.

  19. Low environmental calcium blocks long-term memory formation in a freshwater pulmonate snail.

    PubMed

    Dalesman, Sarah; Braun, Marvin H; Lukowiak, Ken

    2011-05-01

    The freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) is considered a calciphile and exhibits reduced growth and survival in environments containing less than 20 mg/l environmental calcium. Although it has no apparent effect on survival at 20 mg/l, reducing environmental calcium increases metabolic demand, and as such we consider that this level of calcium acts as a stressor on the snail. We exposed snails to acute periods of low environmental calcium and tested their ability to form intermediate-term memory (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) following one trial operant conditioning (1TT) to reduce aerial respiratory activity in hypoxic conditions. We also assessed whether there were changes in the electrophysiological properties of a single neuron, right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), which has been demonstrated to be necessary for LTM formation. Following training in high (80 mg/l) environmental calcium, L. stagnalis formed ITM and LTM lasting 24 h and demonstrated a significant reduction in all activity measured from RPeD1; however when snails were exposed to low (20 mg/l) environmental calcium they were able to form ITM but not LTM. Although no behavioral LTM was formed, a partial reduction in RPeD1 activtiy measured 24 h after training was observed, indicating a residual effect of training. The strong effect that environmental calcium concentration had on physiology and behavior in response to training to reduce aerial respiration in L. stagnalis suggests that it is an element of gastropod husbandry that needs to be carefully considered when studying other traits. This study also indicates that L. stagnalis found naturally in low calcium environments may be less able to adapt to novel stressors than populations found in harder waters.

  20. Responses of neurons to extreme osmomechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Wan, X; Harris, J A; Morris, C E

    1995-05-01

    Neurons are often regarded as fragile cells, easily destroyed by mechanical and osmotic insult. The results presented here demonstrate that this perception needs revision. Using extreme osmotic swelling, we show that molluscan neurons are astonishingly robust. In distilled water, a heterogeneous population of Lymnaea stagnalis CNS neurons swelled to several times their initial volume, yet had a ST50 (survival time for 50% of cells) > 60 min. Cells that were initially bigger survived longer. On return to normal medium, survivors were able, over the next 24 hr, to rearborize. Reversible membrane capacitance changes corresponding to about 0.7 muF/cm2 of apparent surface area accompanied neuronal swelling and shrinking in hypo- and hyperosmotic solutions; reversible changes in cell surface area evidently contributed to the neurons' ability to accommodate hydrostatic pressures then recover. The reversible membrane area/capacitance changes were not dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Neurons were monitored for potassium currents during direct mechanical inflation and during osmotically driven inflation. The latter but not the former stimulus routinely elicited small potassium currents, suggesting that tension increases activate the currents only if additional disruption of the cortex has occurred. Under stress in distilled water, a third of the neurons displayed a quite unexpected behavior: prolonged writhing of peripheral regions of the soma. This suggested that a plasma membrane-linked contractile machinery (presumably actomyosin) might contribute to the neurons' mechano-osmotic robustness by restricting water influx. Consistent with this possibility, 1 mM N-ethyl-maleimide, which inhibits myosin ATPase, decreased the ST50 to 18 min, rendered the survival time independent of initial size, and abolished writhing activity. For neurons, active mechanical resistance of the submembranous cortex, along with the mechanical compliance supplied by insertion or eversion of membrane

  1. Molluscan neurons in culture: shedding light on synapse formation and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Schmold, Nichole; Syed, Naweed I

    2012-08-01

    From genes to behaviour, the simple model system approach has played many pivotal roles in deciphering nervous system function in both invertebrates and vertebrates. However, with the advent of sophisticated imaging and recording techniques enabling the direct investigation of single vertebrate neurons, the utility of simple invertebrate organisms as model systems has been put to question. To address this subject meaningfully and comprehensively, we first review the contributions made by invertebrates in the field of neuroscience over the years, paving the way for similar breakthroughs in higher animals. In particular, we focus on molluscan (Lymnaea, Aplysia, and Helisoma) and leech (Hirudo) models and the pivotal roles they have played in elucidating mechanisms of synapse formation and plasticity. While the ultimate goal in neuroscience is to understand the workings of the human brain in both its normal and diseased states, the sheer complexity of most vertebrate models still makes it difficult to define the underlying principles of nervous system function. Investigators have thus turned to invertebrate models, which are unique with respect to their simple nervous systems that are endowed with a finite number of large, individually identifiable neurons of known function. We start off by discussing in vivo and semi-intact preparations, regarding their amenability to simple circuit analysis. Despite the 'simplicity' of invertebrate nervous systems however, it is still difficult to study individual synaptic connections in detail. We therefore emphasize in the next section, the utility of studying identified invertebrate neurons in vitro, to directly examine the development, specificity, and plasticity of synaptic connections in a well-defined environment, at a resolution that it is still unapproachable in the intact brain. We conclude with a discussion of the future of invertebrates in neuroscience in elucidating mechanisms of neurological disease and developing

  2. Evidence of Fasciola hepatica infection in Radix peregra and a mollusc of the family Succineidae in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relf, V; Good, B; McCarthy, E; de Waal, T

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide molluscs of the genera Lymnaea, Pseudosuccinea, Galba and Stagnicola act as intermediate hosts of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Galba truncatula is the only recorded intermediate host of F. hepatica within Ireland and is the principle intermediate host within Europe. To investigate the transmission of liver fluke on the Teagasc hill sheep farm, Co. Mayo, Ireland, snail species other than G. truncatula, were collected from the lowland pasture (snail sp. 'A') in May (n=23) and from the hill area (snail sp. 'B') in March, April and May 2008 (n=78, 53 and 36 respectively). Morphological characteristics identified snail sp. 'A' as a Succinea sp. and snail sp. 'B' as Radix peregra. PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 18S gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of the snail rDNA were used for molecular identification. The 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences revealed a 99% similarity with Omalonyx matheroni (Succineidae) for snail sp. 'A', and for snail sp. 'B' a 99% and 98% similarity with Radix auricularia and R. peregra, respectively. The ITS-2 sequences of snail sp. 'B' revealed a 100% similarity with R. peregra. Using PCR F. hepatica DNA was identified in 73.9% (n=17) of snail sp. 'A' collected during May and 10.3% (n=8), 60.4% (n=32) and 61.1% (n=22) of snail sp. 'B' collected during March, April and May, respectively. A priori knowledge of habitat preference and environmental tolerances of G. truncatula has failed to explain the prevalence of infection recorded in the hill sheep flock on Teagasc hill sheep farm. These findings may explain the presence of infection in sheep populations grazing hill habitats considered too acidic to maintain G. truncatula populations.

  3. Predicting impacts of climate change on Fasciola hepatica risk.

    PubMed

    Fox, Naomi J; White, Piran C L; McClean, Colin J; Marion, Glenn; Evans, Andy; Hutchings, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a physically and economically devastating parasitic trematode whose rise in recent years has been attributed to climate change. Climate has an impact on the free-living stages of the parasite and its intermediate host Lymnaea truncatula, with the interactions between rainfall and temperature having the greatest influence on transmission efficacy. There have been a number of short term climate driven forecasts developed to predict the following season's infection risk, with the Ollerenshaw index being the most widely used. Through the synthesis of a modified Ollerenshaw index with the UKCP09 fine scale climate projection data we have developed long term seasonal risk forecasts up to 2070 at a 25 km square resolution. Additionally UKCIP gridded datasets at 5 km square resolution from 1970-2006 were used to highlight the climate-driven increase to date. The maps show unprecedented levels of future fasciolosis risk in parts of the UK, with risk of serious epidemics in Wales by 2050. The seasonal risk maps demonstrate the possible change in the timing of disease outbreaks due to increased risk from overwintering larvae. Despite an overall long term increase in all regions of the UK, spatio-temporal variation in risk levels is expected. Infection risk will reduce in some areas and fluctuate greatly in others with a predicted decrease in summer infection for parts of the UK due to restricted water availability. This forecast is the first approximation of the potential impacts of climate change on fasciolosis risk in the UK. It can be used as a basis for indicating where active disease surveillance should be targeted and where the development of improved mitigation or adaptation measures is likely to bring the greatest benefits. PMID:21249228

  4. The effects of temperature on the interactions between volatile general anaesthetics and a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, R.; Lieb, W. R.; Franks, N. P.

    1995-01-01

    1. Completely isolated identified neurones from the right parietal ganglion of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were investigated under two-electrode voltage clamp. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) currents were studied at low acetylcholine concentrations (< or = 200 nM). 2. Inhibition of the ACh-induced currents by three volatile general anaesthetics (halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane) and the specific inhibitor (+)-tubocurarine was studied as a function of temperature (over the range 4-25 degrees C). 3. The inhibition by the volatile anaesthetics increased (inhibition constants decreased) with decreasing temperature while the inhibition by (+)-tubocurarine did not change significantly near room temperature, but decreased at lower temperatures. The (+)-tubocurarine inhibition appeared to be competitive in nature and showed no significant voltage-dependence. 4. The van't Hoff plots (logarithms of the dissociation constants against reciprocal absolute temperature) were linear for the anaesthetics, but markedly non-linear for (+)-tubocurarine. From these plots, values for the changes in the standard Gibbs free energy delta G degrees water-->AChR, enthalpy delta H degree water-->AChR, entropy delta S degree water-->AChR and heat capacity delta Cp degree water-->AChR were determined. Tubocurarine was found to bind very much tighter to the receptor than the volatile anaesthetics due, entirely, to a favourable increase in entropy on binding. 5. A comparison between the temperature-dependence of the anaesthetic inhibition of the ACh receptor and that of general anaesthetic potencies in animals indicates that the temperature-dependence of animal potencies might be simply accounted for in terms of changes in anaesthetic/receptor binding. PMID:8680729

  5. [About effect of habitat and motor activity of molluscs on fatty acid composition of triglycerides and phospholipids].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Ivanova, V P

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acids (FA) in neutral and phospholipids of digestive gland and pedal muscle has been performed in molluscs from various ecological groups differing by belonging to sea or fresh water, trophic types or the associated motor activity. In freshwater pulmonary gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis and Limnaea ovalis and marine prosobranchial molluscs Buccinum undatum and Littorina littorea the total content of omega3-acids in phospholipids of the studied tissues differed more than twice, predominantly due to the combined effect of temperature and salinity of the habitat. The lower viscosity of cell membranes in marine species (omega3/omega6 < 1) is determined to the greatest degree by the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid that accounts for 22-25 % of the FA sum in marine species. Comparison of the molluscs by their trophic belonging has revealed the presence of linoleic acid in triglycerides in digestive glands of phytophages (8-12 %), but the practically complete absence of this acid in the predator B. undulatum (<0.8 %. By mobility, L. littorea inhabiting the high-low tide littoral was inferior to freshwater pulmonary gastropods and to marine predator, as it stops moving twice a day during the low tide. In phospholipids of pedal muscle of this mollusc the amount of long-chain polyunsaturated C:22 FA was 3-6 times lower than that in other studied species, which might possibly indicate the role of these acids in functioning of the pedal muscle contractile tissue. On the whole, use of the FA characteristics as parameters determining belonging to certain ecological group requires a certain caution due to a complex action of biotic and abiotic factors on the animal metabolism. The exception is the omega3/omega6 ratio in total phospholipids of freshwater and marine gastropods.

  6. Unusual snail species involved in the transmission of Fasciola hepatica in watercress beds in central France.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, G; Vignoles, P; Abrous, M; Rondelaud, D

    2002-06-01

    Four freshwater pulmonate species (Lymnaea ovata, L. stagnalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis leucostoma) were living in several watercress beds known for their relationships with human cases of fasciolosis, whereas L. truncatula was never found. The aims of these studies were to determine the prevalence of natural infections with Fasciola hepatica in snails and to verify if these species might ensure the full larval development of this trematode (with cercarial shedding) when they were experimentally subjected to F. hepatica only, or to co-infections with an other trematode species. Investigations were so carried out in six snail populations living in watercress beds (including three for P. acuta) and in four others originating from three brooks or a pond (as controls). Snails naturally infected with F. hepatica were found in two watercress beds inhabited by L. ovata (prevalence of infection: 1.4%) and P. leucostoma (0.1%), respectively. The L. ovata from the watercress bed could be infected at a higher size than those from the control population and the prevalence of this infection was greater in the bed population. Similar findings were noted for L. stagnalis. Despite single or dual infections, the results obtained with the four populations of P. acuta were unsuccessful. In contrast, the co-infections of young P. leucostoma with Paramphistomum daubneyi and F. hepatica resulted in the shedding of some F. hepatica cercariae. According to the authors, the occurrence of fasciolosis in these watercress beds would be the consequence of frequent natural encounters between parasite and snails (L. ovata, L. stagnalis), or of co-infections with P. daubneyi and F. hepatica (P. leucostoma). In watercress beds only colonized by P. acuta, a lymnaeid species would have ensured the larval development of F. hepatica but it would have been eliminated by P. acuta, as this last species was known to be invasive and could colonize open drainage ditches on siliceous soil.

  7. Metal-contaminated Sediment Effects on Biofilm Communities: Impairment of Multiple Stream Ecosystem Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G.; Costello, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photosynthetic biofilms are crucial drivers of many important stream ecosystem functions (e.g., primary and secondary production, N cycling), yet we have a limited understanding of how these critical communities respond to contaminated sediments. Divalent metals (e.g., Cu, Ni, Zn) are ubiquitous in urban streams and may be contributing to the decline in ecosystem function in urban waters. We exposed natural biofilm communities in five different streams to a common sediment amended with four concentrations of Ni and Cu. Contaminated sediments were placed into cups, covered with mesh disks for biofilm attachment, and secured to the streambed. After 6 weeks, biofilm-colonized disks were analyzed for net primary production (NPP), chlorophyll a, and metal content. Sediments below the biofilms were analyzed for total metals, acid volatile sulfide, and high-resolution vertical dissolved oxygen concentrations. Additional biofilm disks were separated from the sediment and fed to Lymnaea stagnalis to assess indirect effects of sediment metal on grazers. Among our five streams, we found variation in the biofilm response to metals with the most productive stream (Elm Creek) showing the strongest negative response to metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminated sediments in Elm Creek reduced biofilm growth, slowed primary production, and prevented penetration of oxygen into surface sediments. In the less productive streams, biofilms did not reduce NPP in the presence of sediment metal and there was still substantial penetration of oxygen into sediments; however, metals moved out of the sediment and accumulated in the biofilm. L. stagnalis exposed to metal-contaminated biofilms fed at a slower rate than those given clean biofilms. This study suggests that biofilms, and the biogeochemical cycles they drive, can potentially be impaired by contaminated sediment but the response is context dependent. Further, indirect dietary effects of contaminated sediment occur more widely than

  8. Balanced Plasticity and Stability of the Electrical Properties of a Molluscan Modulatory Interneuron after Classical Conditioning: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Vavoulis, Dimitris V.; Nikitin, Eugeny S.; Kemenes, Ildikó; Marra, Vincenzo; Feng, Jianfeng; Benjamin, Paul R.; Kemenes, György

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Giant Cells (CGCs) are a pair of identified modulatory interneurons in the Central Nervous System of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis with an important role in the expression of both unconditioned and conditioned feeding behavior. Following single-trial food-reward classical conditioning, the membrane potential of the CGCs becomes persistently depolarized. This depolarization contributes to the conditioned response by facilitating sensory cell to command neuron synapses, which results in the activation of the feeding network by the conditioned stimulus. Despite the depolarization of the membrane potential, which enables the CGGs to play a key role in learning-induced network plasticity, there is no persistent change in the tonic firing rate or shape of the action potentials, allowing these neurons to retain their normal network function in feeding. In order to understand the ionic mechanisms of this novel combination of plasticity and stability of intrinsic electrical properties, we first constructed and validated a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of the CGCs. We then used this model to elucidate how learning-induced changes in a somal persistent sodium and a delayed rectifier potassium current lead to a persistent depolarization of the CGCs whilst maintaining their firing rate. Including in the model an additional increase in the conductance of a high-voltage-activated calcium current allowed the spike amplitude and spike duration also to be maintained after conditioning. We conclude therefore that a balanced increase in three identified conductances is sufficient to explain the electrophysiological changes found in the CGCs after classical conditioning. PMID:20485464

  9. Triassic and Jurassic rocks at Currie, Nevada Preliminary paleontologic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.A.; Dubiel, R.F.; Brouwers, E.M. ); Litwin, R.J. ); Ash, S.R. ); Good, S.C. )

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of continental rocks overlies the Lower Triassic Thaynes Formation in a poorly exposed syncline near Currie in northeastern NV. The authors recognize four lithostratigraphic units above the Thaynes near Currie and provide new paleontologic data. In ascending order, unit 1 (120 ft) consists of reddish-brown, very fine grained sandstone. Unit 2 (50 ft) consists of light-gray, trough cross-stratified, coarse-grained, conglomeratic sandstone. Unit 3 (at least 500 ft) consists of green, red, and brown sandstone and mudstone. Unit 4 occurs as isolated outcrops of reddish-orange, fine- to medium-grained sandstone. New fossil evidence, while not definitive, constrain the age of this sequence. Plant megafossils in unit 1 include (1) a specimen with narrow ovate leaves, possibly from an early Mesozoic conifer and (2) abundant fragments of probable Neocalamites. The presence of these fossils and the absence of any angiosperm leaves or wood fragments suggest an early Mesozoic age. Ostracodes in unit 3 are exclusively Darwinula sp., and their association with conchostracans in the absence of younger ostracodes suggests a Triassic age. Finally, two small outcrops, previously mapped as Triassic/Jurassic, contain the gastropods Pilidae indet. and Lymnaea sp., which resemble Late Cretaceous to Paleocene faunas. The sequence is similar to the nearest Lower Mesozoic section on the Colorado Plateau at Cove Fort, Utah, 165 miles to the southeast. The authors' new evidence supports the longstanding correlation of units 1--4 with the Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation (part), the Shinarump and Petrified Forest Members of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of the Plateau. These rocks at Currie demonstrate that the Early Mesozoic depositional systems of the Colorado Plateau extended at least this far west and provide constraints on Early Mesozoic tectonism in the eastern Great Basin.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of the Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Mao, Yong; Huang, Zixia; Qu, Meng; Chen, Jun; Ding, Shaoxiong; Hong, Jingni; Sun, Tiantian

    2012-01-01

    Background Cephalopoda are a class of Mollusca species found in all the world's oceans. They are an important model organism in neurobiology. Unfortunately, the lack of neuronal molecular sequences, such as ESTs, transcriptomic or genomic information, has limited the development of molecular neurobiology research in this unique model organism. Results With high-throughput Illumina Solexa sequencing technology, we have generated 59,859 high quality sequences from 12,918,391 paired-end reads. Using BLASTx/BLASTn, 12,227 contigs have blast hits in the Swissprot, NR protein database and NT nucleotide database with E-value cutoff 1e−5. The comparison between the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system (CNS) library and the Aplysia californica/Lymnaea stagnalis CNS ESTs library yielded 5.93%/13.45% of O. vulgaris sequences with significant matches (1e−5) using BLASTn/tBLASTx. Meanwhile the hit percentage of the recently published Schistocerca gregaria, Tilapia or Hirudo medicinalis CNS library to the O. vulgaris CNS library is 21.03%–46.19%. We constructed the Phylogenetic tree using two genes related to CNS function, Synaptotagmin-7 and Synaptophysin. Lastly, we demonstrated that O. vulgaris may have a vertebrate-like Blood-Brain Barrier based on bioinformatic analysis. Conclusion This study provides a mass of molecular information that will contribute to further molecular biology research on O. vulgaris. In our presentation of the first CNS transcriptome analysis of O. vulgaris, we hope to accelerate the study of functional molecular neurobiology and comparative evolutionary biology. PMID:22768275

  11. Multi-linear regression analysis, preliminary biotic ligand modeling, and cross species comparison of the effects of water chemistry on chronic lead toxicity in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; De Schamphelaere, K; Grosell, M

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined the chronic toxicity of lead (Pb) to three invertebrate species: the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis and the rotifer Philodina rapida. The test media consisted of natural waters from across North America, varying in pertinent water chemistry parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calcium, pH and total CO(2). Chronic toxicity was assessed using reproductive endpoints for C. dubia and P. rapida while growth was assessed for L. stagnalis, with chronic toxicity varying markedly according to water chemistry. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting chronic Pb toxicity for each species. DOC was an integral component of MLR models for C. dubia and L. stagnalis, but surprisingly had no predictive impact on chronic Pb toxicity for P. rapida. Furthermore, sodium and total CO(2) were also identified as important factors affecting C. dubia toxicity; no other factors were predictive for L. stagnalis. The Pb toxicity of P. rapida was predicted by calcium and pH. The predictive power of the C. dubia and L. stagnalis MLR models was generally similar to that of the current C. dubia BLM, with R(2) values of 0.55 and 0.82 for the respective MLR models, compared to 0.45 and 0.79 for the respective BLMs. In contrast the BLM poorly predicted P. rapida toxicity (R(2)=0.19), as compared to the MLR (R(2)=0.92). The cross species variability in the effects of water chemistry, especially with respect to rotifers, suggests that cross species modeling of invertebrate chronic Pb toxicity using a C. dubia model may not always be appropriate.

  12. Determining metal assimilation efficiency in aquatic invertebrates using enriched stable metal isotope tracers.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N; Pellet, Bastien

    2007-06-15

    We employ a novel approach that combines pulse-chase feeding and multi-labelled stable isotopes to determine gut passage time (GPT), gut retention time (GRT), food ingestion rate (IR) and assimilation efficiency (AE) of three trace elements for a freshwater gastropod. Lettuce isotopically enriched in (53)Cr, (65)Cu and (106)Cd was fed for 2h to Lymnaea stagnalis. The release of tracers in feces and water was monitored for 48 h, during which unlabelled lettuce was provided ad libidum. The first defecation of (53)Cr occurred after 5h of depuration (GPT), whereas 90% of the ingested (53)Cr was recovered in the feces after 22.5h of depuration (GRT). (53)Chromium was not significantly accumulated in the soft tissues upon exposure. In contrast, (65)Cu and (106)Cd assimilation was detectable for most experimental snails, i.e., (65/63)Cu and (106/114)Cd ratios in exposed snails were higher than those for controls. Food IR during the labelled feeding phase was 0.16+/-0.07 g g(-1)d(-1). IR was inferred from the amount of (53)Cr egested in the feces during depuration and the concentration of (53)Cr in the labelled lettuce. Assimilation efficiencies (+/-95% CI) determined using mass balance calculations were 84+/-4% for Cu and 85+/-3% for Cd. The ratio method yields similar AE estimates. Expanding the application of this novel stable isotope tracer technique to other metals in a wide variety of species will provide unique opportunities to evaluate the interplay between digestive processes and dietary influx of metals. Understanding the biological processes that modulate dietborne metal uptake is crucial to assess the toxicity of dietborne metals.

  13. Ancient origin of somatic and visceral neurons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A key to understanding the evolution of the nervous system on a large phylogenetic scale is the identification of homologous neuronal types. Here, we focus this search on the sensory and motor neurons of bilaterians, exploiting their well-defined molecular signatures in vertebrates. Sensorimotor circuits in vertebrates are of two types: somatic (that sense the environment and respond by shaping bodily motions) and visceral (that sense the interior milieu and respond by regulating vital functions). These circuits differ by a small set of largely dedicated transcriptional determinants: Brn3 is expressed in many somatic sensory neurons, first and second order (among which mechanoreceptors are uniquely marked by the Brn3+/Islet1+/Drgx+ signature), somatic motoneurons uniquely co-express Lhx3/4 and Mnx1, while the vast majority of neurons, sensory and motor, involved in respiration, blood circulation or digestion are molecularly defined by their expression and dependence on the pan-visceral determinant Phox2b. Results We explore the status of the sensorimotor transcriptional code of vertebrates in mollusks, a lophotrochozoa clade that provides a rich repertoire of physiologically identified neurons. In the gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica, we show that homologues of Brn3, Drgx, Islet1, Mnx1, Lhx3/4 and Phox2b differentially mark neurons with mechanoreceptive, locomotory and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis, we show that Phox2 marks the stellate ganglion (in line with the respiratory — that is, visceral— ancestral role of the mantle, its target organ), while the anterior pedal ganglion, which controls the prehensile and locomotory arms, expresses Mnx. Conclusions Despite considerable divergence in overall neural architecture, a molecular underpinning for the functional allocation of neurons to interactions with the environment or to homeostasis was inherited from the urbilaterian ancestor by

  14. [Glycemia and free sugar levels of the goby Perccottus glehni depending on period before the beginning and after the end of hibernation].

    PubMed

    Karanova, M V

    2009-01-01

    Goby Perccottus glehni is one of the most winterhardy species of fresh-water eurythermal fish. Study of grounds of biochemical adaptation of these animals to hibernation under conditions of ice, which are currently absent, are of undoubted for understanding of the nature of hypometabolic states. This work deals with a study of changes in the content of glucose and other free sugars in goby blood and muscle tissue under different physiological states: active, prehibernation, and arousal after experimental cooling to negative near-zero temperature. (1) A relatively high glycemia level with fluctuation amplitude from 9.8 +/- 2.1 to 24.4 +/- 2.4 mmol/ml is revealed. The minimal value of these fluctuations is recorded at the period almost coinciding with beginning of hibernation, while the maximal value--at the period of artificial termination of the three-month hibernation in ice at -1.5 degrees C. The high blood glycemia level correlating with that in the muscle tissue might probably be due to the protector role of this sugar in adaptive mechanisms of the studied fish not much to winter hypothermia, but rather to the winter hibernation on ice. (2) The level of disaccharide maltose in muscle tissue that is maximal in April is predominantly in reciprocal dependence on the fructose content that is maximal in July. (3) Dynamics of changes in the mono- and disaccharide content depending on the stage of preparation of hibernation basically coincided with the previously revealed dynamics for the fresh-water mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, which indicated homology of mechanisms of the low-temperature adaptation for animals of different phylogenetic levels. PMID:19569557

  15. Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the environmental implications of nanotechnology lies in studying nanoparticle uptake in organisms at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Typically, high exposure concentrations are needed to trigger measurable effects and to detect accumulation above background. But application of tracer techniques can overcome these limitations. Here we synthesised, for the first time, citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles using Ag that was 99.7 % 109Ag. In addition to conducting reactivity and dissolution studies, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these isotopically modified Ag nanoparticles (109Ag NPs) to a freshwater snail under conditions typical of nature. We showed that accumulation of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs is detectable in the tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis after 24-h exposure to aqueous concentrations as low as 6 ng L–1 as well as after 3 h of dietary exposure to concentrations as low as 0.07 μg g–1. Silver uptake from unlabelled Ag NPs would not have been detected under similar exposure conditions. Uptake rates of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs mixed with food or dispersed in water were largely linear over a wide range of concentrations. Particle dissolution was most important at low waterborne concentrations. We estimated that 70 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration in L. stagnalis at exposures –1 originated from the newly solubilised Ag. Above this concentration, we predicted that 80 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration originated from the 109Ag NPs. It was not clear if agglomeration had a major influence on uptake rates.

  16. Acute combined exposure to heavy metals (Zn, Cd) blocks memory formation in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Byzitter, Jovita; Lukowiak, Ken; Karnik, Vikram; Dalesman, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    The effect of heavy metals on species survival is well documented; however, sublethal effects on behaviour and physiology are receiving growing attention. Measurements of changes in activity and respiration are more sensitive to pollutants, and therefore a better early indicator of potentially harmful ecological impacts. We assessed the effect of acute exposure (48 h) to two heavy metals at concentrations below those allowable in municipal drinking water (Zn: 1,100 μg/l; Cd: 3 μg/l) on locomotion and respiration using the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. In addition we used a novel assessment method, testing the ability of the snail to form memory in the presence of heavy metals in both intact snails, and also snails that had the osphradial nerve severed which connects a chemosensory organ, the osphradium, to the central nervous system. Aerial respiration and locomotion remained unchanged by acute exposure to heavy metals. There was also no effect on memory formation of these metals when administered alone. However, when snails were exposed to these metals in combination memory formation was blocked. Severing the osphradial nerve prevented the memory blocking effect of Zn and Cd, indicating that the snails are sensing these metals in their environment via the osphradium and responding to them as a stressor. Therefore, assessing the ability of this species to form memory is a more sensitive measure of heavy metal pollution than measures of activity, and indicates that the snails' ability to demonstrate behavioural plasticity may be compromised by the presence of these pollutants. PMID:22218978

  17. Experimental life history and biological characteristics of Fasciola gigantica (Digenea: Fasciolidae).

    PubMed

    Phalee, Anawat; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29ºC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.

  18. Development of a Solid-Phase Receptor-Based Assay for the Detection of Cyclic Imines Using a Microsphere-Flow Cytometry System

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Laura P.; Vilariño, Natalia; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Louzao, M. Carmen; Taylor, Palmer; Talley, Todd; Botana, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Biologically active macrocycles containing a cyclic imine were isolated for the first time from aquaculture sites in Nova Scotia, Canada, during the 1990s. These compounds display a “fast-acting” toxicity in the traditional mouse bioassay for lipophilic marine toxins. Our work aimed at developing receptor-based detection method for spirolides using a microsphere/flow cytometry Luminex system. For the assay two alternatives were considered as binding proteins, the Torpedo marmorata nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine binding protein (Ls-AChBP). A receptor-based inhibition assay was developed using the immobilization of nAChR or Ls-AChBP on the surface of carboxylated microspheres and the competition of cyclic imines with biotin-α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX) for binding to these proteins. The amount of biotin-α-BTX bound to the surface of the microspheres was quantified using phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled streptavidin and the fluorescence was analyzed in a Luminex 200 system. AChBP and nAChR bound to 13-desmethyl spirolide C efficiently; however the cross-reactivity profile of the nAChR for spirolides and gymnodimine more closely matched the relative toxic potencies reported for these toxins. The nAChR was selected for further assay development. A simple sample preparation protocol consisting of an extraction with acetone yielded a final extract with no matrix interference on the nAChR/microsphere-based assay for mussels, scallops and clams. This cyclic imine detection method allowed the detection of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in the range of 10–6000 μg/kg of shellfish meat, displaying a higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range than other receptor-based assays previously published. This microsphere-based assay provides a rapid, sensitive and easily performed screening method that could be multiplexed for the simultaneous detection of several marine toxins. PMID:23343192

  19. Comparisons of the ecology and stable isotopic compositions of living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Sulu and South China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, A. E.; Corliss, B. H.; Tappa, K. D.; Lohmann, K. C.

    1996-10-01

    , Gavelinopsis lobatulus, (0-4 cm) which produces significantly lower δ13C values than deep infaunal taxa, and the shallow infaunal species, Ceratobulimina pacifica (also aragonitic) and Bolivinopsis cubensis (deep infaunal), which yield higher carbon isotopic values than epifaunal taxa. These exceptions are found primarily in only one core, and additional samples are needed to confirm the relationship between their distribution patterns and isotopic compositions. Each of the species examined has a relatively consistent δ13C value throughout its distribution within the sediments that may result from heterogeneity of microhabitats within the intervals sampled. Intrageneric differences in δ13C of Cibicidoides, and possibly Uvigerina and Bulimina, are evident. The isotopic differences between C. bradyi and many other Cibicidoides species are related to differences in microhabitat preferences between species. The δ13C results confirm the influence of microhabitat preferences on the carbon isotopic composition of deep-sea benthic foraminifera and reaffirm the importance of assessing the microhabitat preferences of species used for isotopic analyses.

  20. Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Eshetu; Giday, Mirutse; Erko, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of aqueous extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) against Ethiopian Biomphalaria pfeifferi (B. pfeifferi), Lymnaea natalensis (L. natalensis) and Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) cercariae. Methods Extracts of seeds, endocarp, mesocarp, and fruit of B. aegyptiaca were tested for their activities against adult B. pfeifferi and L. natalensis. The cercariacidal activity of the seeds of the plant was also evaluated against S. mansoni. Bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by WHO. Snail mortalities were compared between each plant part and snail species, and LC50 and LC90 values for the plant parts tested were computed. The cercariacidal activity of the plant was assessed by exposing the mice to the cercariae pre-exposed to aqueous extract of B. aegyptiaca seeds. Results For the molluscicidal activities of seeds, endocarp, mesocarp and whole fruit, the LC50 values against B. pfeifferi were 56.32, 77.53, 65.51 and 66.63 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 77.70, 120.04, 89.50 and 97.55 mg/L. Similarly, the LC50 values for the seeds, endocarp, mesocarp and whole fruit against L. natalensis were 80.33, 92.61, 83.52 and 87.84 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 102.30, 138.21, 115.42 and 127.69 mg/L. B. pfeifferi were found to be more susceptible to B. aegyptiaca than L. natalensis. S. mansoni cercariae exposed to 15 mg/L of extract of seeds were incapable of infecting mice. The mean egg load of tissue was reduced in mice infected with the cercariae exposed to 5 and 10 mg/L of the extract. Conclusions The aqueous extracts of different parts of B. aegyptiaca exhibited reasonable molluscicidal activity against B. pfeifferi and L. natalensis, as well as cercariacidal activity against S. mansoni cercariae. However, comprehensive laboratory evaluation is recommended prior to field tests of the plant parts since their impact on other

  1. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal & mosquito larvicidal activities of leaves of Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides has created serious problem for the aquatic flora and fauna, and also resulted in appearance of pesticide resistance in vector population. This study was designed to evaluate the biocontrol efficacy of aqueous and solvent extracts of mature leaves of Solanum nigrum L., against fresh water snail Lymnaea acuminata f. rufescens (Gray) (an intermediate host of parasites causing fasciolopsiasis) and larvae of Culex vishnui group (Reuben) (vector of Japanese encephalitis). Methods: Aqueous and solvent extracts of fresh, mature, green/shed dried leaves of S. nigrum were tested against adult L. acuminata and larvae of Cx. vishnui group. The lethal concentration was determined and the appropriate lethal concentration at 24 h of benzene extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Daphnia sp, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was carried out in search of active ingredient and the chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated by infrared (IR) analysis. Results: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5 and 3 per cent extract against larvae of Cx. vishnui group and L. acuminata, respectivela. In the benzene solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 150 ppm against L. acuminata and at 50 ppm against larvae of Cx. vishnui group with LC50 values of 55.45 and 11.59 ppm, respectively at 72 h. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest value at 72 h of exposure. Qualitative phytochemical analysis reported the presence of some biochemical compounds, such as saponin, flavonoids, steroid and tannin. Among these, the toxic compound was detected by IR analysis having Rf = 0.87 (showed 66.70% and 76.70% mortality of L. acuminata and larvae of Cx. vishnui group, respectively). IR analysis provided preliminary information about the aliphatic

  2. The effect of organic and inorganic aqueous uranium speciation on U(VI) bioavailability to an aquatic invertebrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C.; Croteau, M. N.; Campbell, K. M.; Cain, D.; Aiken, G.

    2015-12-01

    Growing world-wide demand for uranium (U) as an energy source has raised concerns of the human and ecological risks of U extraction and processing in the United States. Because of limited information on the relationship between U speciation and bioavailability, particularly in aquatic animals, we are characterizing U uptake by a model freshwater invertebrate (the snail Lymnaea stagnalis). This species grazes on biofilms and is thus key in the trophic transfer of contaminants through aquatic food webs. We determined the bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) over a range of water hardness, pH (6 to 8), and the presence of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) as a competing ligand, to test the effect of aqueous speciation on uptake. Bioavailability was assessed using U uptake rate constants (kuw) derived from a kinetic bioaccumulation model. Dissolved U (1 to 1000 nM) was bioavailable over the range of geochemical conditions tested with kuw (L/g/d) decreasing with increasing dissolved Ca and with increasing pH. For example, kuw decreased from 1.6 to 0.3 as dissolved Ca was increased from 0.04 to 1.5 mM, suggesting competition between bioavailable U(VI) species and strong ternary calcium uranyl carbonato complexes. At pH 7.5 in synthetic moderately hard freshwater, kuw decreased from 0.22 in the absence of NOM to 0.07 in the presence of a hydrophobic acid NOM isolate of high aromaticity (SUVA = 5) consistent with strong aqueous complexation of U(VI) by the NOM. The co-variance of U uptake and aqueous U species distribution is being analyzed to determine which U species are bioavailable. U speciation in systems with NOM is calculated using conditional U-NOM binding constants derived by equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange methodology. The bioavailability of dietborne U is being tested since dietary metal uptake prevails for many aquatic species. These experiments include addition of ferrihydrite with U sorbed, both in the presence and absence of NOM, and mixed with diet.

  3. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    . Species of sanitary interest are the propagators of: schistosomiasis -Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila, Planorbidae-, fasciolasis -Lymnaea viatrix and L. columnella, Lymnaeidae- and dermatitis -Chilina gibbosa and C. fluminea, Chilinidae. Invasive species are: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae) and Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae). The construction of new areas for the protection and conservation of the high risk endemic species of freshwater molluscs is a priority. It is necessary to give special attention to the species of the patagonic mountain range and of the mesopotamic area of the Del Plata Basin.

  4. Identification of the prokaryotic ligand-gated ion channels and their implications for the mechanisms and origins of animal Cys-loop ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Tasneem, Asba; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Jakobsson, Eric; Aravind, L

    2005-01-01

    Background Acetylcholine receptor type ligand-gated ion channels (ART-LGIC; also known as Cys-loop receptors) are a superfamily of proteins that include the receptors for major neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine, GABA, glutamate and histamine, and for Zn2+ ions. They play a central role in fast synaptic signaling in animal nervous systems and so far have not been found outside of the Metazoa. Results Using sensitive sequence-profile searches we have identified homologs of ART-LGICs in several bacteria and a single archaeal genus, Methanosarcina. The homology between the animal receptors and the prokaryotic homologs spans the entire length of the former, including both the ligand-binding and channel-forming transmembrane domains. A sequence-structure analysis using the structure of Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein and the newly detected prokaryotic versions indicates the presence of at least one aromatic residue in the ligand-binding boxes of almost all representatives of the superfamily. Investigation of the domain architectures of the bacterial forms shows that they may often show fusions with other small-molecule-binding domains, such as the periplasmic binding protein superfamily I (PBP-I), Cache and MCP-N domains. Some of the bacterial forms also occur in predicted operons with the genes of the PBP-II superfamily and the Cache domains. Analysis of phyletic patterns suggests that the ART-LGICs are currently absent in all other eukaryotic lineages except animals. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis and conserved sequence motifs also suggest that a subset of the bacterial forms is closer to the metazoan forms. Conclusions From the information from the bacterial forms we infer that cation-pi or hydrophobic interactions with the ligand are likely to be a pervasive feature of the entire superfamily, even though the individual residues involved in the process may vary. The conservation pattern in the channel-forming transmembrane

  5. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies.

  6. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models.

    PubMed

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The environmental quality standard for Ni in the European Commission's Water Framework Directive is bioavailability based. Although some of the available chronic Ni bioavailability models are validated only for pH ≤ 8.2, a considerable fraction of European surface waters has a pH > 8.2. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of a change in pH from 8.2 to 8.7 on chronic Ni toxicity in 3 invertebrate (Daphnia magna, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Brachionus calyciflorus) and 2 plant species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor). Nickel toxicity was almost always significantly higher at pH 8.7 than at pH 8.2. To test whether the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2 can be used at higher pH levels, Ni toxicity at pH 8.7 was predicted based on Ni toxicity observed at pH 8.2. This resulted in a consistent underestimation of toxicity. The results suggest that the effect of pH on Ni(2+) toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: the slope of the pH effect is steeper above than below pH 8.2 for species for which a species-specific bioavailability model exists. Therefore, the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models were modified to allow predictions of chronic Ni toxicity to invertebrates and plants in the pH range of 8.2 to 8.7 by applying a pH slope (SpH ) dependent on the pH of the target water. These modified Ni bioavailability models resulted in more accurate predictions of Ni toxicity to all 5 species (within 2-fold error), without the bias observed using the bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2. The results of the present study can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based environmental quality standard under the Water Framework Directive for high-pH regions in Europe. PMID:26335781

  7. The MAPK cascade in equally cleaving spiralian embryos.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

    2003-11-15

    Spiralian development is shared by several protostome phyla and characterized by regularities in early cleavage, fate map, and larva. Experimental evidence from multiple spiralian species implicates cells in the D quadrant lineage as the organizer of future axial development of the embryo. However, the mechanisms by which the D quadrant is specified differ between species with equal and unequal spiral cleavage. Equally cleaving mollusc embryos establish the D quadrant via cell-cell interactions between the micromeres and macromeres at the 24- to 36-cell stage. In unequally cleaving embryos, the D quadrant is established at the 4-cell stage via asymmetries in the first 2 cell divisions. We have begun to explore the molecular mechanisms of D quadrant patterning in spiralians. Previously, we showed that, in the unequally cleaving embryo of the mollusc Ilyanassa obsoleta, the MAPK pathway is activated and functionally required in 3D and also in the micromeres known to require a signal from 3D. Here, we examine the role of MAPK signaling in 4 spiralians with equal cleavage. In 3 equally cleaving molluscs, the chiton Chaetopleura, the limpet Tectura, and the snail Lymnaea, the MAPK pathway is activated in the 3D cell but not in the overlying micromeres. In the equally cleaving embryo of the polychaete annelid Hydroides, MAPK activation was not detected in the 3D macromere but was observed in one of its daughter cells, 4d. In addition, inhibiting Tectura MAPK activation disrupts differentiation of 3D and cells induced by it, supporting a functional role for MAPK in axis specification in equally cleaving spiralians. Thus, MAPK signaling may have a conserved role in the D quadrant organizer cell 3D in molluscs. However, there have been at least 2 evolutionary changes in the activation of the MAPK pathway during spiralian evolution. MAPK function in the Ilyanassa micromeres is a recent cooption and, since the divergence of annelids and molluscs, there has been a shift in

  8. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelaere, K A C; Stubblefield, W; Rodriguez, P; Vleminckx, K; Janssen, C R

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO(4)(2-)). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this study can

  9. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, Tasha; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Römer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO(3) and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO(3). Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (k(uw), l g(-1) d(-1) ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag. PMID:25676617

  10. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. PMID:26455549

  11. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    along with a discussion of the distributional patterns. Detailed descriptions, differential diagnoses, synonymic listings, illustrations, material listings and measurements are given of all 26 currently known species and subspecies of Haplopodini. Four new genera are described within Haplopodini. The monotypical Apteroplopus n. gen. (type-species: Dyme grosse-tuberculata Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) from Honduras is the only taxon of the tribe represented in Central America. It is only known from the male which differs from all other genera by being entirely apterous. Cephaloplopus n. gen. (type-species: Cephaloplopus pulchellus n. sp.) and Parhaplopus n. gen. (type-species: Haplopus cubensis Saussure, 1868) occur only on Hispaniola and Cuba. Both are closely related to Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 but in addition to having noticeably different eggs, both genera differ from Haplopus in several morphological characters. The monotypical Venupherodes n. gen. (type-species: Platycrana venustula Audinet-Serville, 1838) is endemic to Cuba, and in females being apterous resembles the second exclusively Cuban genus Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938. It however differs from all other members of Haplopodini by the laterally expanded mesonotum of females, which overlaps the mesopleurae, as well as the morphology of the eggs. Two species-groups are recognized within Diapherodes Gray, 1835. The gigantea species-group comprises the species from the Lesser Antilles, which are: D. angulata (Fabricius, 1793), Diapherodes dominicae (Rehn & Hebard, 1938), D. gigantea gigantea (Gmélin, 1789), D. gigantea saintluciae n. ssp. and Diapherodes martinicensis Lelong & Langlois, 2005. The three species of the jamaicensis species-group, which are D. achalus (Rehn, 1904), D. jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) and D. laevicollis Redtenbacher, 1906, are restricted to the two Greater Antillean islands Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 is the most widely distributed genus being represented on all

  12. Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Reworked Mesozoic and Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton from the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin confirms the data derived from planktonic Foraminifera. The existence of reworked planktonic Foraminifera influences the biostratigraphic interpretation of the assemblage ranges attributed to "Série grise" samples. Facultatively reworked planktonic Foraminifera as Subbotina utilisindex and Pseudohastigerina micra ranging from the Lutetian to the Late Rupelian should not be included in the biostratigraphic analyses, as the occurrences of these facultatively reworked species are always linked to those of exclusively Cretaceous and Eocene age. Therefore the age of the "Série grise" deposits at Allschwil-2 is most likely to be placed within the "Chiloguembelina cubensis - Globigerinella obesa / Globorotaloides variabilis"-assemblage range of Mid P20 to Final P21a, lasting considerably longer than the very short Mid P20 range based on the presence of Pseudohastigerina micra as "last occurrence"-marker (PIRKENSEER 2007). This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: BERGER, J.-P., REICHENBACHER, B., BECKER, D., et al. (2005): Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB). - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 94, 4: 711-731. FISCHER, H. (1965): Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Blauen und Pfirter Jura. - Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz, NF 122: 106p. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg. ROUSSÉ, S. (2006): Architecture et dynamique des séries marines et continentales de ĺOligocène Moyen et Supérieur du Sud du Fossé Rhénan: Evolution des milieux de dépôt en contexte de rift en marge de ĺavant-pays alpin. - PhD: 471p

  13. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelaere, K A C; Nys, C; Janssen, C R

    2014-10-01

    model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment. PMID:25089923

  14. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelaere, K A C; Nys, C; Janssen, C R

    2014-10-01

    model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment.