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Sample records for lymphocyte blood counts

  1. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  2. Performance Evaluation of High Fluorescence Lymphocyte Count: Comparability to Atypical Lymphocyte Count and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Tantanate, Chaicharoen; Klinbua, Cherdsak

    2018-06-15

    To investigate the association between high-fluorescence lymphocyte cell (HFLC) and atypical lymphocyte (AL) counts, and to determine the clinical significance of HFLC. We compared automated HFLC and microscopic AL counts and analyzed the findings. Patient clinical data for each specimen were reviewed. A total of 320 blood specimens were included. The correlation between HFLC and microscopic AL counts was 0.865 and 0.893 for absolute and percentage counts, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of HFLC at the cutoff value of 0.1 × 109 per L for detection of AL were 0.8, 0.77, and 0.8, respectively. Studied patients were classified into 4 groups: infection, immunological disorders, malignant neoplasms, and others. Patients with infections had the highest HFLC. Most of those patients (67.7%) had dengue infection. HFLC counts were well-correlated with AL counts with the acceptable test characteristics. Applying HFLC flagging may alert laboratory staff to be aware of ALs.

  3. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  4. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  5. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

  6. The role of blood neutrophil count and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictive factor for prostate biopsy results.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Koosha; Ashrafi, Mojtaba; Shadpour, Pejman; Ameli, Mojtaba; Khayyamfar, Amirmahdi; Abolhasani, Maryam; Azizpoor, Amin

    2018-04-01

    It is apparent that prostate cancer has harmful effects on the erythrocytes, leucocytes, and platelets. In addition, it has been suggested that the toxic granules in neutrophils lead to inflammation in the cancerous tissues besides the activation of monocytes, so in this study we aimed to evaluate the blood neutrophil count besides the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictive factor for prostate biopsy results and their relationship with prostate cancer grade in patients undergoing biopsy of the prostate. For all men with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms visiting Hasheminezhad Hospital from January to July 2015, in case of having a suspicious digital rectal examination or aged above 40 years, prostate-specific antigen was requested and in case of abnormal results, they underwent prostate biopsy. In order to examine the study hypothesis, the blood neutrophil count and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were measured and compared with the abnormal prostate-specific antigen results and suspicious digital rectal examination. Among the 500 referred samples for biopsy, 352 (70.4%) had a negative biopsy result, while it was positive in the other 148 (29.6). The mean neutrophil count showed no statistical difference regarding the biopsy results (p = 0.381). When measuring the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio again with biopsy results, no statistically significant difference was obtained based on the biopsy results (p = 0.112). Neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cannot be predictive factors for positive prostate cancer biopsy.

  7. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (p<0.0001 for all). Both white blood cell counts and NLR can be used as a simple test in the diagnosis of testicular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  8. Use of the lymphocyte count as a diagnostic screen in adults with suspected Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Timothy C; Hayes, Stephen M; Bird, Jonathan H; Harries, Philip G; Salib, Rami J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive diagnostic accuracy of the lymphocyte count in Epstein-Barr virus-related infectious mononucleosis (IM). Retrospective case note and blood results review within a university-affiliated teaching hospital. A retrospective review of 726 patients undergoing full blood count and Monospot testing was undertaken. Monospot testing outcomes were compared with the lymphocyte count, examining for significant statistical correlations. With a lymphocyte count of ≤4 × 10(9) /L, 99% of patients had an associated negative Monospot result (sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 94%). A group subanalysis of the population older than 18 years with a lymphocyte count ≤4 × 10(9) /L revealed that 100% were Monospot negative (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97%). A lymphocyte count of ≤4 × 10(9) /L correlated significantly with a negative Monospot result. A lymphocyte count of ≤4 × 10(9) /L appears to be a highly reliable predictor of a negative Monospot result, particularly in the population aged >18 years. Pediatric patients, and adults with strongly suggestive symptoms and signs of IM, should still undergo Monospot testing. However, in adults with more subtle symptoms and signs, representing the vast majority, Monospot testing should be restricted to those with a lymphocyte count >4 × 10(9) /L. NA Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Can the big five factors of personality predict lymphocyte counts?

    PubMed

    Ožura, Ana; Ihan, Alojz; Musek, Janek

    2012-03-01

    Psychological stress is known to affect the immune system. The Limbic Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (LHPA) axis has been identified as the principal path of the bidirectional communication between the immune system and the central nervous system with significant psychological activators. Personality traits acted as moderators of the relationship between life conflicts and psychological distress. This study focuses on the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and immune regulation as indicated by Lymphocyte counts. Our study included 32 professional soldiers from the Slovenian Army that completed the Big Five questionnaire (Goldberg IPIP-300). We also assessed their white blood cell counts with a detailed lymphocyte analysis using flow cytometry. The correlations between personality variables and immune system parameters were calculated. Furthermore, regression analyses were performed using personality variables as predictors and immune parameters as criteria. The results demonstrated that the model using the Big Five factors as predictors of Lymphocyte counts is significant in predicting the variance in NK and B cell counts. Agreeableness showed the strongest predictive function. The results offer support for the theoretical models that stressed the essential links between personality and immune regulation. Further studies with larger samples examining the Big five factors and immune system parameters are needed.

  10. Correlation between the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio and bacterial infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusnadi, D.; Liwang, M. N. I.; Katu, S.; Mubin, A. H.; Halim, R.

    2018-03-01

    Parameters for starting antibiotic therapy such as CRP andleukocytosis are considered non-specific. Previous studies have shown the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLCR) can serve as the basis of bacterial infection, the level of infection, and the basis of antibiotic therapy. Compared with the Procalcitonin parameter, this NLCR is rapid, an inexpensive and requires no additional sampling. To determine the correlation between The Neutrophil-LymphocyteCount Ratio to bacterial infection in HIV patients. This study was a cross-sectional observational approach to HIV subject at Wahidin Sudirohusodo and Hasanuddin University Hospital. The subjects performed routine blood, microbiology test,and blood Procalcitonin levels tests. Then performed NLCR calculations based on routine blood results. The subjects then grouped the presence or absence of bacterial infection.In 146 study subjects, there were 78 (53.4%) with bacterial infections and 68 (46.6%) without bacterial infection as controls. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher total neutrophils (84.83) compared with non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had total lymphocytes with an average of 8.51 lower than non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher NLCR values with an average of 12.80. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio can become a marker of bacterial infection in HIV patients.

  11. [A multicenter study of correlation between peripheral lymphocyte counts and CD(+)4T cell counts in HIV/AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Qiu, Zhifeng; Han, Yang; Li, Yanling; Song, Xiaojing; Li, Taisheng

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of lymphocyte count as a surrogate for CD(+)4T cell count in treatment-naїve HIV-infected adults. A total of 2 013 HIV-infected patients were screened at 23 sites in China. CD(+)4T cell counts were measured by flow cytometry. Correlation between CD(+)4T cell count and peripheral lymphocyte count were analyzed by spearman coefficient. AUCROC were used to evaluate the performance of lymphocyte count as a surrogate for CD(+)4T cell count. The lymphocyte count and CD(+)4T cell count of these 2 013 patients were (1 600 ± 670) × 10(6)/L and (244 ± 148) × 10(6)/L respectively. CD(+)4T cell count were positively correlated with lymphocyte count (r = 0.482, P < 0.000 1). AUCROC of lymphocyte count as a surrogate for CD(+)4T cell counts of <100×10(6)/L, <200×10(6)/L and <350×10(6)/L were 0.790 (95%CI 0.761-0.818, P < 0.000 1), 0.733 (95%CI 0.710-0.755, P < 0.000 1) and 0.732 (95%CI 0.706-0.758, P < 0.000 1) respectively. Lymphocyte count could be considerad as a potential surrogate marker for CD(+)4T cell count in HIV/AIDS patients not having access to T cell subset test by flowcytometry.

  12. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  13. Pre-treatment haemoglobin and peripheral blood lymphocyte count as independent predictors of outcome in carcinoma of cervix.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, P J; Rojas, A M; Peiris, S N; Mullassery, V; Chong, I Y

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment haemoglobin and peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) counts as predictors of treatment outcome in cervix carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiation. Pre-treatment PBL counts and haemoglobin concentrations were retrieved from full blood count examinations from 111 patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Overall survival and relapse-free survival were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method by ranking the data by median haemoglobin and PBL, singly and then in association. Their independence and significance as predictors of outcome were analysed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Survival rates were significantly higher in patients whose haemoglobin level or PBL counts were at or above the corresponding median value. At 5 years, rates of overall survival were 77% versus 41% (P = 0.0003) and 75% versus 42% (P = 0.002), when dichotomised around median haemoglobin and PBL, respectively. In multivariate and univariate analyses, both PBL and haemoglobin were independent and significant predictors for risk of death and relapse. Their predictive power was dramatically enhanced when the data were stratified into four groups by associating patients with haemoglobin ≥ median or < median with those whose PBL was ≥ or < median. Baseline PBL and haemoglobin seem to be strong, independent predictors of treatment outcome in carcinoma of the cervix, particularly if patient response is ranked using the predictors simultaneously. The hypothesis needs to be tested and, if confirmed, the markers should be used in combination to identify those at greater risk of failure who may benefit from additional therapy, with further validation in prospective trials offering treatment modification. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/μL3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  15. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Wear particles from metal–on–metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above–average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The T–lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2–year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of –0.04 × 109cells/year (95% CI: –0.08 to –0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on T–cells with 2–year whole–blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of –0.10 (95% CI: –0.16 to –0.04) × 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of –0.06 (–0.09 to –0.03) × 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of –0.02 (–0.03 to –0.00) × 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating T–lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions—particularly cobalt—may have a general depressive effect on T– and B–lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762 PMID:23597114

  16. Association of asymptomatic oral candidal carriage, oral candidiasis and CD4 lymphocyte count in HIV-positive patients in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Liu, H; Guo, Z; Luan, W

    2006-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of asymptomatic oral candidal carriage in healthy volunteers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in China, as well as to investigate the relationship between CD4+ lymphocyte count and oral candidal colonization or oral candidiasis. Oral candidal carriage and oral candidiasis were investigated in 101 patients with HIV-infection seen at Youan Hospital, Beijing, China. Two hundred and seventeen healthy volunteers were involved as a control. Culture from saliva was used to test for the presence of oral Candida. CD4+ lymphocyte count was measured by flow cytometry. All data were analyzed statistically by SAS. Asymptomatic oral candidal carriage rate (28.6%) in HIV-positive group was similar to that in the healthy group (18.0%; P = 0.07). No significant difference in CD4+ lymphocyte count was found between oral Candida carriers and non-carriers among HIV-positive subjects (P = 0.89). However, the frequency of oral candidiasis increased with the decrease in CD4+ lymphocyte count (P < 0.0001), and pseudomembranous candidiasis was predominant in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ <200 cells microl(-1) (66.7%). In HIV-positive subjects, asymptomatic oral candidal colonization is not related to CD4+ lymphocyte count of blood, and the carriage rate is similar to that in the healthy population. Oral candidiasis is more likely to be observed in HIV-positive patients who have a low CD4+ lymphocyte count.

  17. [Prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Riskó, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The low peripheral absolute lymphocyte and high monocyte count have been reported to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various lymphomas and other cancers. However, a few data known about the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The aim of the authors was to investigate the impact of absolute monocyte count measured at the time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia on the time to treatment and overal survival. Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012, 223 patients with newly-diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were included. The rate of patients needing treatment, time to treatment, overal survival and causes of mortality based on Rai stages, CD38, ZAP-70 positivity and absolute monocyte count were analyzed. Therapy was necessary in 21.1%, 57.4%, 88.9%, 88.9% and 100% of patients in Rai stage 0, I, II, III an IV, respectively; in 61.9% and 60.8% of patients exhibiting CD38 and ZAP-70 positivity, respectively; and in 76.9%, 21.2% and 66.2% of patients if the absolute monocyte count was <0.25 G/l, between 0.25-0.75 G/l and >0.75 G/l, respectively. The median time to treatment and the median overal survival were 19.5, 65, and 35.5 months; and 41.5, 65, and 49.5 months according to the three groups of monocyte counts. The relative risk of beginning the therapy was 1.62 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count <0.25 G/l or >0.75 G/l, as compared to those with 0.25-0.75 G/l, and the risk of overal survival was 2.41 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count lower than 0.25 G/l as compared to those with higher than 0.25 G/l. The relative risks remained significant in Rai 0 patients, too. The leading causes of mortality were infections (41.7%) and the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (58.3%) in patients with low monocyte count, while tumours (25.9-35.3%) and other events (48.1 and 11.8%) occurred in patients with medium or high monocyte counts. Patients with low and high monocyte

  18. Complete blood count reference values of cord blood in Taiwan and the influence of gender and delivery route on them.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Wang, Tso-Fu; Lin, Teng-Yi; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Shu-Huey

    2011-06-01

    Cord blood banking has become more popular in recent years. Checking cord blood complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts (DCs) is essential before cryopreserving the cord blood units. Therefore, establishing the normal reference values of cord blood CBC and WBC DC is important in clinical practice and research. To obtain a large-scale population-based normal CBC and WBC DC reference values of healthy neonates' cord blood from a public cord blood bank and to investigate the influence of the gender and delivery route. From September 2001 to November 2006, the cord blood of healthy Taiwanese neonates with gestational age 36 weeks and more were collected by Tzu Chi Cord Blood Bank with written informed consents. All cord blood samples were analyzed by Sysmex XE2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) to obtain the CBC. The WBC DC was calculated by manual method. We used Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test for investigating the influences of gender and delivery route on the CBC and WBC DC reference values. The results were presented by mean±standard deviation or 2.5-97.5th percentiles. In the study period, totally 5602 cord blood samples were collected eligibly for analysis. The cord blood CBC and WBC DC normal reference values were calculated. The female neonates had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, and WBC count, but lower red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, and mean corpuscular Hb concentration values (p<0.001). Newborns through vaginal delivery had significantly higher RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, platelet count, and WBC count (p<0.001). The percentages of some different types WBC were significantly influenced by gender and delivery routes. Male babies had higher lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and nucleated RBC ratios than the female neonates. Newborns through cesarean section had significantly lower neutrophil, monocyte, and nucleated RBC

  19. Changes in hematological indices and lymphocyte subsets in response to whole blood donation in healthy male donors.

    PubMed

    Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Alsobhi, Enaam; Al Sofyani, Abeer; Balgoon, Dalal; Farzal, Anwar; Almohammadi, Mohammed; Al-Amri, Abdulafattah; Bahijri, Suhad; Alrowaili, Daad; Bassiuni, Wafaa; Saleh, Ayman; Alrowaili, Norah; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits. Following blood donation, changes in CBC and erythropoietin were as expected. The neutrophil count increased by 11.3% at 8 days (p < .001). Novel changes were observed in lymphocyte subsets as the CD4/CD8 ratio increased by 9.2% (p < .05) at 8 days and 13.7% (p < .05) at 22 days. CD16-56 cells decreased by 16.2% (p < .05) at 8 days. All the subsets had returned to baseline by 106 days. Regression analysis showed that the changes in CD16-56 cells and CD4/CD8 ratio were not significant (Wilk's lambda = 0.15 and 0.94, respectively) when adjusted for BMI. In conclusion, following whole blood donation, there are transient changes in lymphocyte subsets. The effect of BMI on lymphocyte subsets and the effect of this immunomodulation on the immune response merit further investigation.

  20. Reduced lymphocyte count as an early marker for predicting infected pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Jing; Ke, Lu; Zou, Lei; Li, Baiqiang; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-10-26

    Early occurrence of immunosuppression is a risk factor for infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in the patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). However, current measures for the immune systems are too cumbersome and not widely available. Significantly decreased lymphocyte count has been shown in patients with severe but not mild type of AP. Whereas, the correlation between the absolute lymphocyte count and IPN is still unknown. We conduct this study to reveal the exact relationship between early lymphocyte count and the development of IPN in the population of AP patients. One hundred and fifty-three patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to Jinling Hospital during the period of January 2012 to July 2014 were included in this retrospective study. The absolute lymphocyte count and other relevant parameters were measured on admission. The diagnosis of IPN was based on the definition of the revised Atlanta classification. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of IPN. Thirty patients developed infected necrotizing pancreatitis during the disease course. The absolute lymphocyte count in patients with IPN was significantly lower on admission (0.62 × 10(9)/L, interquartile range [IQR]: 0.46-0.87 × 10(9)/L vs. 0.91 × 10(9)/L, IQR: 0.72-1.27 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.001) and throughout the whole clinical course than those without IPN. Logistic regression indicated that reduced lymphocyte count was an independent risk factor for IPN. The optimal cut-offs from ROC curve was 0.66 × 10(9)/L giving sensitivity of 83.7 % and specificity of 66.7 %. Reduced lymphocyte count within 48 h of AP onset is significantly and independently associated with the development of IPN.

  1. Mortality prediction to hospitalized patients with influenza pneumonia: PO2 /FiO2 combined lymphocyte count is the answer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shu Jing; Li, Hui; Liu, Meng; Liu, Ying Mei; Zhou, Fei; Liu, Bo; Qu, Jiu Xin; Cao, Bin

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores perform well in predicting mortality of CAP patients, but their applicability in influenza pneumonia is powerless. The aim of our research was to test the efficiency of PO 2 /FiO 2 and CAP severity scores in predicting mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission with influenza pneumonia patients. We reviewed all patients with positive influenza virus RNA detection in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital during the 2009-2014 influenza seasons. Outpatients, inpatients with no pneumonia and incomplete data were excluded. We used receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) to verify the accuracy of severity scores or indices as mortality predictors in the study patients. Among 170 hospitalized patients with influenza pneumonia, 30 (17.6%) died. Among those who were classified as low-risk (predicted mortality 0.1%-2.1%) by pneumonia severity index (PSI) or confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age ≥65 year (CURB-65), the actual mortality ranged from 5.9 to 22.1%. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that hypoxia (PO 2 /FiO 2  ≤ 250) and lymphopenia (peripheral blood lymphocyte count <0.8 × 10 9 /L) were independent risk factors for mortality, with OR value of 22.483 (95% confidence interval 4.927-102.598) and 5.853 (95% confidence interval 1.887-18.152), respectively. PO 2 /FiO 2 combined lymphocyte count performed well for mortality prediction with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.945, which was significantly better than current CAP severity scores of PSI, CURB-65 and confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age ≥65 years for mortality prediction (P < 0.001). The scores or indices for ICU admission prediction to hospitalized patients with influenza pneumonia confirmed a similar pattern and PO 2 /FiO 2 combined lymphocyte count was also the best predictor for predicting ICU admission. In conclusion, we found that PO 2 /FiO 2 combined lymphocyte count is simple and reliable predictor

  2. Workers exposed to low levels of benzene present in urban air: Assessment of peripheral blood count variations.

    PubMed

    Casale, Teodorico; Sacco, Carmina; Ricci, Serafino; Loreti, Beatrice; Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola; Antuono, Vittorio; De Marco, Federica; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco; Rosati, Maria Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Few studies in the literature have examined the effects of benzene on blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation between the blood benzene levels and the blood cell counts. From a population of 2658 workers, we studied a group of 215 subjects. Each worker underwent blood sampling for the assessment of the blood benzene levels and the blood cell counts. The Mann-Whitney U test for two-mode variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test for more-than-two-mode variables were performed on all subjects. We estimated the Pearson correlation index between the variables in the total sample and the subgroups divided according to sex, the smoking habit, and job. After the main confounding factors were evaluated, multiple linear regression was performed on both the total sample and the subgroups. A significant inverse correlation was found among the blood benzene levels and the white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in traffic policemen, motorcyclists, and other outdoor workers. We did not find any significant correlation with any other parameters of blood cell count. Our results, which must be considered preliminary, indicate that increased blood benzene levels in outdoor workers lead to decreased counts of white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, because of possible immune effects. These are worth investigating in the future by specific immune tests. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system. II - Lymphocyte counts and reactivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.

  4. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P < 0.001), and only a borderline significant risk factor for relapse (HR = 1.28 [95% CI: 1.00-1.64], P = 0.046) when ANC was excluded from the Cox model. This study indicates that a low neutrophil count is likely to be the best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  6. [Basic studies on oral administration of lentinan (I)--influence on lymphocyte subsets in peripheral venous blood].

    PubMed

    Hanaue, H; Tokuda, Y; Machimura, T; Tsukui, M; Mizutani, K; Huang, C M; Kamijoh, A; Kondo, Y; Ogoshi, K; Makuuchi, H

    1989-08-20

    The effect of oral administration of lentinan (LTN), a biological response modifier, in the control of systemic immune function was studied in 6-week old male Wistar-Imamichi SPF rats. In the LTN group, 1 mg LTN dissolved in 1 ml physiological saline was administration forcibly into the stomach twice weekly. Physiological saline alone was administered in a similar fashion to the control group. Blood samples were obtained prior to and after four and eight weeks of administration. White blood cells and lymphocyte counts were obtained and lymphocyte subsets were measured using monoclonal antibodies W3/13, W3/25 and 0 X 8 (Sera-Lab), and a laser flow cytometry system (Orthospectrum III, Orthodiagnostic System). The T cell ratio, helper/inducer T (Th) cell ratio, and suppressor/cytotoxic T (Ts) cell ratio were measured. The peripheral white blood cell count and lymphocyte count were not significantly different between the control and LTN groups. After four weeks of LTN administration, however, the LTN group showed a significantly higher T cell ratio, Th cell ratio and Th/Ts cell ratio than did the control group, and the Ts cell ratio was significantly lower. In the groups undergoing administration for eight weeks, no difference was noted in the lymphocyte subsets between the two groups. Oral administration of LTN apparently modulates the systemic immune function through T cell stimulation, especially Th cells, but continued administration may induce a tolerance to the effect of LTN.

  7. Combined blood cell counting and classification with fluorochrome stains and flow instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, H M; Schildkraut, E R; Curbelo, R; Laird, C W; Turner, B; Hirschfeld, T

    1976-01-01

    A multiparameter flow cytophotometer was used to count and classify fixed human blood cells fluorochromed with a mixture of ethidium bromide (EB), brilliant sulfaflavine and a blue fluorescent stilbene disulfonic acid derivative (LN). The system measures light scattered by the cells and absorption at 420 nm for all cells. In addition, nuclear EB fluorescence (540 leads to 610 nm) and cytoplasmic fluorescence from LN (366 leads to 470 nm), brilliant sulfaflavine (420 leads to 520 nm) and EB exicted by energy transfer from LN (366 leads to 610 nm) are measured for all nucleated cells. This information is sufficient to perform red and white blood cell counts and to classify leukocytes as lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils or neutrophils. Light scattering and/or nuclear and cytoplasmic fluorescence values may be further analyzed to obtain the ratio of immature to mature neutrophils. Counts produced by the system are in reasonable agreement with those obtained by electronic cells counting and examination of Wright's-stained blood smears; some discrepancies appear to be due to systematic errors in the manual counting method.

  8. Moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise increases lymphocyte counts, specific subsets, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lai, Hsiu-Ling; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu-Kuan; Yang, Yu-Yeng; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-09-01

    Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization. The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise. Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn't change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P < .01). The control group without exercise revealed insignificant change of lymphocyte subsets or lymphocyte polarization. This study shows that MAE increases specific lymphocyte subsets and enhances Treg cell differentiation. It is suggested to encourage moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.

  9. Factors affecting the CD34+ cell yields from the second donations of healthy donors: The steady-state lymphocyte count is a good predictive factor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Tao; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yu; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Chang, Ying-Jun

    2016-12-01

    A second allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion using cells from the same donor is a therapeutic option in the case of stem-cell graft failure or disease relapse, but little is known about the factors associated with the CD34 + cell yields from second donations. One-hundred healthy donors who underwent a second mobilization treatment and peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSC) collection were studied. For both mobilization processes, 5 µg of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor per kg per day was administered. The blood counts of the donors were monitored during the processes. The second donations from the same donors provided lower apheresis yields than did the initial collections. The number of CD34 + cells collected from normal donors after a second cycle of PBSC mobilization was associated with their steady-state lymphocyte counts and the intertransplantation interval. Female sex negatively affected the CD34 + cell yields. The cutoff value for the steady-state absolute lymphocyte count was 2.055 × 10 9 /L. To harvest greater numbers of CD34 + cells from second collections, male donors and those with intervals of longer than 9 months between donations should be selected. The lymphocyte counts prior to the first donations may predict the content of CD34 + cells in the allografts prepared using the second donations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  11. Neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, and risk of prostate cancer outcomes in white and black men: results from the SEARCH database.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Adriana C; Howard, Lauren E; de Hoedt, Amanda; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Amling, Christopher L; Taioli, Emanuela; Fowke, Jay H; Freedland, Stephen J

    2018-06-01

    Systemic inflammation, as measured by C-reactive protein, has been linked with poor prostate cancer (PC) outcomes, predominantly in white men. Whether other immune measures like white blood cell counts are correlated with PC progression and whether results vary by race is unknown. We examined whether complete blood count (CBC) parameters were associated with PC outcomes and whether these associations varied by race. Analyses include 1,826 radical prostatectomy patients from six VA hospitals followed through medical record review for biochemical recurrence (BCR). Secondary outcomes included castration-resistant PC (CRPC), metastasis, all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific mortality (PCSM). Cox-proportional hazards were used to assess the associations between pre-operative neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with each outcome. We used a Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 0.05/5 = 0.01 as the threshold for statistical significance. Of 1,826 men, 794 (43%) were black and 1,032 (57%) white. Neutrophil count (p < 0.001), NLR (p < 0.001), and PLR (p < 0.001) were significantly lower, while lymphocyte count (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in black versus white men. After adjusting for clinicopathological features, no CBC measures were significantly associated with BCR. There were no interactions between CBC and race in predicting BCR. Similarly, no CBC values were significantly associated with CRPC, metastases, or PCSM either among all men or when stratified by race. However, higher neutrophil count was associated with higher ACM risk in white men (p = 0.004). Pre-operative CBC measures were not associated with PC outcomes in black or white men undergoing radical prostatectomy, except for neutrophils-positive association with risk of ACM in white men. Whether circulating immune cell markers provide insight to the pathophysiology of PC progression or adverse treatment

  12. CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omotola Toyin; Shokunbi, Wuraola Adebola

    2014-05-01

    Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS) is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks) attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/μL vs 920 ± 364cells/μL). It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

  13. Establishment of reference intervals for complete blood count parameters during normal pregnancy in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiwei; Yang, Shuo; Zhang, Jie; Qiao, Rui

    2017-11-01

    To observe the changes of complete blood count (CBC) parameters during pregnancy and establish appropriate reference intervals for healthy pregnant women. Healthy pregnant women took the blood tests at all trimesters. All blood samples were processed on Sysmex XE-2100. The following CBC parameters were analyzed: red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), white blood cell count (WBC), and leukocyte differential count. Reference intervals were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of the distribution. Complete blood count parameters showed dynamic changes during trimesters. RBC, Hb, Hct declined at trimester 1, reaching their lowest point at trimester 2, and began to rise again at trimester 3. WBC, neutrophil count (Neut), monocyte count (MONO), RDW, and PDW went up from trimester 1 to trimester 3. On the contrary, MCHC, lymphocyte count (LYMPH), PLT, and MPV gradually descended during pregnancy. There were statistical significances in all CBC parameters between pregnant women and normal women, regardless of the trimesters (P<.001). The median obtained were (normal vs pregnancy) as follows: RBC 4.50 vs 3.94×10 12 /L, Hb 137 vs 120 g/L, WBC 5.71 vs 9.06×10 9 /L, LYMPH% 32.2 vs 18.0, Neut% 58.7 vs 75.0, and PLT 251 vs 202×10 9 /L. The changes of CBC parameters during pregnancy are described, and reference intervals for Beijing pregnant women are demonstrated in this study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8 + T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4 + and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Monoclonal B lymphocytes with the characteristics of "indolent" chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in 3.5% of adults with normal blood counts.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, Andy C; Green, Michael J; Kuzmicki, Anita; Kennedy, Ben; Fenton, James A L; Evans, Paul A S; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Richards, Stephen J; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S; Hillmen, Peter

    2002-07-15

    Molecular and cellular markers associated with malignant disease are frequently identified in healthy individuals. The relationship between these markers and clinical disease is not clear, except where a neoplastic cell population can be identified as in myeloma/monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). We have used the distinctive phenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to determine whether low levels of these cells can be identified in individuals with normal complete blood counts. CLL cells were identified by 4-color flow cytometric analysis of CD19/CD5/CD79b/CD20 expression in 910 outpatients over 40 years old. These outpatients were age- and sex-matched to the general population with normal hematologic parameters and no evident history of malignant disease. CLL phenotype cells were detectable in 3.5% of individuals at low level (median, 0.013; range, 0.002- 1.458 x 10(9) cells/L), and represented a minority of B lymphocytes (median, 11%; range, 3%-95%). Monoclonality was demonstrated by immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in all cases with CLL phenotype cells present and confirmed in a subset of cases by consensus-primer IgH-polymerase chain reaction. As in clinical disease, CLL phenotype cells were detected with a higher frequency in men (male-to-female ratio, 1.9:1) and elderly individuals (2.1% of 40- to 59-year-olds versus 5.0% of 60- to 89-year-olds, P =.01). The neoplastic cells were identical to good-prognosis CLL, being CD5+23+20(wk)79b(wk)11a(-)22(wk)sIg(wk)CD38-, and where assessed had a high degree (4.8%-6.6%) of IgH somatic hypermutation. The monoclonal CLL phenotype cells present in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a very early stage of indolent CLL and should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.

  16. The association between cigarette smoking, virologic suppression, and CD4+ lymphocyte count in HIV-Infected Russian women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Winhusen, Theresa; DiClemente, Ralph J; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Safonova, Polina; Levina, Olga; Belyakov, Nikolay; Rassokhin, Vadim V

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but findings regarding the association between cigarette smoking and HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been inconsistent. This study characterized the prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV-infected Russian women and examined the association between smoking frequency and quantity and HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts. HIV-infected Russian women (N = 250; M age = 30.0) in St. Petersburg, Russia, completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey assessing cigarette use, antiretroviral medication adherence, and provided blood samples assayed for HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts. The majority (60.4%) reported cigarette smoking in the past month; 49.0% of recent smokers were classified as moderate or heavy smokers, defined as smoking ≥10 cigarettes daily. Viral load status did not differ between infrequent smokers and regular smokers. However, moderate/heavy smokers (relative to light smokers) were more likely to have a detectable viral load (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.1). There were no significant differences in CD4+ lymphocyte counts by smoking frequency or quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results highlight the need for additional research to examine the association between cigarette smoking and virologic suppression and markers of HIV disease progression. Adverse health consequences of cigarette smoking coupled with a potential link between heavy smoking and poor virologic suppression highlight the need for assessment of cigarette use and provision of evidence-based smoking-cessation interventions within HIV medical care.

  17. Initial lymphocyte count and low BMI may affect fingolimod-induced lymphopenia.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Clemens; Dehmel, Thomas; Ramanujam, Ryan; Holmen, Carolina; Nordin, Nina; Wolfram, Kathleen; Leussink, Verena I; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Olsson, Tomas; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2014-12-02

    To assess whether pretreatment-lymphocyte counts, treatment before fingolimod, age, sex, or body mass index (BMI) affects the risk of fingolimod-induced lymphopenia in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Data were obtained from a German multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of patients with RRMS treated with fingolimod, and findings were validated in an independent Swedish national pharmacovigilance study. Four hundred eighteen patients with RRMS from Germany and 438 patients from Sweden were included. A nadir ≤0.2 × 10(9) lymphocytes/L was reached in 15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12%-17%) of all 856 patients. Patients with lower starting lymphocyte counts (below 1.6 × 10(9)/L) and patients with BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m(2) (women only) were at higher risk of developing lymphopenia with values ≤0.2 × 10(9)/L in the combined analysis, increasing the risk in these subgroups to 26% (95% CI 20%-31%) or 46% (95% CI 23%-71%), respectively. In the German cohort, infection rates were similar in patients who developed severe lymphopenia and those who did not. Our findings suggest that patients with low baseline lymphocyte counts and underweight women in which fingolimod treatment will be initiated should possibly be monitored more closely. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C.

  19. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P < .001); similar correlations were found also for white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. The point-of-care device had the ability to predict blood eosinophil cutoffs used to select patients for biologic treatments for severe eosinophilic asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of blood T-lymphocyte subpopulations involved in host cellular immunity in dogs with mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Karayannopoulou, Maria; Anagnostou, Tilemachos; Margariti, Apostolia; Kostakis, Charalampos; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Psalla, Dimitra; Savvas, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Cancer-bearing patients are often immunosuppressed. In dogs with mammary or other cancers, various alterations in blood cell populations involved in host cellular immunity have been reported; among these cell populations some T-lymphocyte subsets play an important role against cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate any alterations in circulating T-lymphocyte subpopulations involved in cellular immunity in bitches with mammary cancer, in comparison to age-matched healthy intact bitches. Twenty eight dogs with mammary cancer and 14 control dogs were included in this study. Twelve out of the 28 bitches had mammary cancer of clinical stage II and 16/28 of stage III. Histological examination revealed that 23/28 animals had carcinomas, 3/28 sarcomas and 2/28 carcinosarcomas. White blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte absolute numbers were measured by complete blood count. Furthermore, blood T-lymphocyte population (CD3 + ) and the subpopulations CD4 + , CD8 + and CD5 low+ were assessed by flow cytometry. White blood cell and neutrophil but not lymphocyte absolute numbers were higher (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively) in cancer patients than controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the relative percentage of T-lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and of CD4 + , CD8 + subpopulations was lower (the CD4 + /CD8 + ratio was higher), whereas the percentage of CD5 low+ T-cells was higher, in dogs with cancer compared to controls; however, a statistically significant difference was found only in the case of CD8 + T-cells (P=0.014), whereas in the case of the CD4 + /CD8 + ratio the difference almost reached statistical significance (P=0.059). Based on these findings, it can be suggested that, although the absolute number of blood lymphocytes is unchanged, the relative percentages of T-lymphocyte subpopulations involved in host cell-mediated immunity are altered, but only cytotoxic CD8 + T-cells are significantly suppressed, in dogs with mammary cancer of clinical

  1. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Kul'chyns'kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems.

  2. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  3. Perfect count: a novel approach for the single platform enumeration of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Storie, Ian; Sawle, Alex; Goodfellow, Karen; Whitby, Liam; Granger, Vivian; Ward, Rosalie Y; Peel, Janet; Smart, Theresa; Reilly, John T; Barnett, David

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of reliable CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts is vital for the monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic effectiveness in HIV(+) individuals. Flow cytometry has emerged as the method of choice for CD4(+) T lymphocyte enumeration, with single-platform technology, coupled with reference counting beads, fast becoming the "gold standard." However, although single-platform, bead-based, sample acquisition requires the ratio of beads to cells to remain unchanged, there is no available method, until recently, to monitor this. Perfect Count beads have been developed to address this issue and to incorporate two bead populations, with different densities, to allow the detection of inadequate mixing. Comparison of the relative proportions of both beads with the manufacture's defined limits enables an internal QC check during sample acquisition. In this study, we have compared CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts, obtained from 104 HIV(+) patients, using TruCount beads with MultiSet software (defined as the predicated method) and the new Perfect Count beads, incorporating an in house sequential gating strategy. We have demonstrated an excellent degree of correlation between the predicate method and the Perfect Count system (r(2) = 0.9955; Bland Altman bias +27 CD4(+) T lymphocytes/microl). The Perfect Count system is a robust method for performing single platform absolute counts and has the added advantage of having internal QC checks. Such an approach enables the operator to identify potential problems during sample preparation, acquisition and analysis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). When smokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (p<0.05). Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increases in correlation with pack/year while platelet/lymphocyte ratio is not affected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  5. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A comparison of the neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte and monocyte-lymphocyte ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients - a retrospective file review.

    PubMed

    Özdin, Selçuk; Sarisoy, Gökhan; Böke, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have recently been used as indicators of inflammation. Higher MLR and PLR values have been determined in the euthymic and manic periods in patients with bipolar disorder compared to a control group. High NLR values were determined in the only study investigating this ratio in schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study was to compare NLR, PLR and MLR values and complete blood count elements in patients receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenic psychotic episode and bipolar disorder manic episode. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria among subjects receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenia-psychotic episode and bipolar affective disorder-manic episode at the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Psychiatry Department, Turkey, in 2012-2016 were included in our study. A total of 157 healthy donors were included as a control group. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet and monocyte numbers were noted retrospectively from complete blood counts at time of admission, and NLR, PLR and MLR were calculated from these. NLR, PLR and MLR values and platelet numbers in this study were higher and lymphocyte numbers were lower in bipolar disorder patients compared to the controls. Elevation in NLR, MLR and PLR values and neutrophil numbers and lower lymphocyte numbers were determined in schizophrenia patients compared to the controls. Higher NLR and MLR values were found in schizophrenia patients compared to bipolar disorder. Findings of our study supported the inflammation hypothesis for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  7. Ocular surface epithelium induces expression of human mucosal lymphocyte antigen (HML-1) on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, J A P; Dua, H S; Rizzo, L V; Nishi, M; Joseph, A; Donoso, L A

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: Peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes that home to mucosal surfaces express the human mucosal lymphocyte antigen (HML-1). At mucosal surfaces, including the ocular surface, only intraepithelial CD8+ lymphocytes express HML-1. These lymphocytes are retained in the intraepithelial compartment by virtue of the interaction between HML-1 and its natural ligand, E-cadherin, which is expressed on epithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ocular surface epithelial cells (ocular mucosa) could induce the expression of human mucosal lymphocyte antigen on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: Human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both non-activated and activated lymphocytes were used in the experiments. After 7 days of incubation, lymphocytes were recovered and analysed for the antigens CD8/HML-1, CD4/HML-1, CD3/CD8, CD3/CD4, CD3/CD25, CD8/CD25, and CD4/CD25 by flowcytometry. Results: Significant statistical differences were observed in the CD8/HML-1 expression when conjunctival epithelial cells were co-cultured with non-activated and activated lymphocytes (p = 0.04 for each) and when corneal epithelial cells were co-cultured with non-activated lymphocytes (p = 0.03). Significant statistical difference in CD4/HML-1 expression was observed only when conjunctival epithelial cells were co-cultured with activated lymphocytes (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Ocular surface epithelial cells can induce the expression of human mucosal lymphocyte antigen on CD8+ (and to some extent on CD4+) lymphocytes. This may allow the retention of CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes within the epithelial compartment of the conjunctiva and play a part in mucosal homing of lymphocytes. PMID:14736792

  8. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Kul’chyns’kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey’s immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. Methods In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG (“NeuroCom Standard”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV (“Cardiolab+VSR”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Results Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Conclusion Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:28730179

  9. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1

  10. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lympho

  11. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05) and control group (262 ± 95 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05). In GD group, more platelet-bound lymphocytes (332 ± 91 /µL) were found than that in TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  12. Platelet indices and netrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, I D; Machairas, N; Damaskos, C; Doula, C; Tsaparas, P; Charalampoudis, P; Spartalis, E; Sotiropoulos, G C; Kouraklis, G

    2016-03-01

    A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with histologically proven acute appendicitis upon admission, and of 50 healthy adults (20 men and 30 women). The parameters for white blood cells and platelets were compared between the two groups, and for each gender separately. A higher white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and lower lymphocyte percentage was reported in patients with acute appendicitis than that in the healthy controls, with high areas under the curve (AUC), sensitivities, specifi cities, positive predictive values (PPVs) and moderate negative predictive values (NPVs). The lymphocyte count was lower in patients than it was in the healthy controls. The platletcrit was lower in the female patients than that in the female controls, whereas a difference was not detected in the male participants. Differences were not detected with regard to platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width for both genders. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increases and lymphocyte percentage decreases in acute appendicitis, and can be used as an additional diagnostic marker. Plateletcrit, and therefore total platelet mass, is reduced in women with acute appendicitis, indicating the involvement of platelets in its pathophysiology. However, it is neither a reliable predictor or excluder of the disease.

  13. Long-term increases in lymphocytes and platelets in human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection

    PubMed Central

    Bartman, Melissa T.; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Hirschkorn, Dale; Sacher, Ronald A.; Fridey, Joy; Garratty, George; Gibble, Joan; Smith, James W.; Newman, Bruce; Yeo, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic viruses types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) cause chronic infections of T lymphocytes that may lead to leukemia and myelopathy. However, their long-term effects on blood counts and hematopoiesis are poorly understood. We followed 151 HTLV-I–seropositive, 387 HTLV-II–seropositive, and 799 HTLV-seronegative former blood donors from 5 U.S. blood centers for a median of 14.0 years. Complete blood counts were performed every 2 years. Multivariable repeated measures analyses were conducted to evaluate the independent effect of HTLV infection and potential confounders on 9 hematologic measurements. Participants with HTLV-II had significant (P < .05) increases in their adjusted lymphocyte counts (+126 cells/mm3; approximately +7%), hemoglobin (+2 g/L [+0.2 g/dL]) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV; 1.0 fL) compared with seronegative participants. Participants with HTLV-I and HTLV-II had higher adjusted platelet counts (+16 544 and +21 657 cells/mm3; P < .05) than seronegatives. Among all participants, time led to decreases in platelet count and lymphocyte counts, and to increases in MCV and monocytes. Sex, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption all had significant effects on blood counts. The HTLV-II effect on lymphocytes is novel and may be related to viral transactivation or immune response. HTLV-I and HTLV-II associations with higher platelet counts suggest viral effects on hematopoietic growth factors or cytokines. PMID:18755983

  14. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Lymphocyte thymidine kinase and treatment response in acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Russo, S A; Harris, M B; Greengard, O

    1987-01-01

    The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) and the proportion of its isozymes (TK1/TK2) were studied in peripheral lymphoid cells of 37 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The high TK in 25 untreated subjects (31.5 +/- 8.9) decreased during chemotherapy-induced remission to uniformly low (5.3 +/- 0.4) normal values, and rose again during relapse to a mean of (24.8 +/- 8.1). The proportion of isozyme 1 followed the same pattern but TK was a more sensitive indicator of disease state. The lymphocyte fractions' TK (per mg protein) correlated with the number (per ml blood) of WBCs, blasts and lymphocytes. Although the higher TK of blasts than of apparently normal lymphocytes was confirmed in cases permitting clean physical separation, the lymphocyte fraction of several untreated subjects with minimal blast counts also exhibited elevated TK. Moreover, this elevation was also seen in relapsed cases even if their blood (unlike bone marrow) was devoid of blasts. The results indicate that quantification of TK can reveal a subpopulation of maldifferentiated lymphocytes which are microscopically normal and that it may provide an objective parameter of prognostic differences between ALL subjects with similar hematological characteristics.

  16. TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT AND SERUM ALBUMIN AS PREDICTORS OF NUTRITIONAL RISK IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA, Naruna Pereira; FORTES, Renata Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early detection of changes in nutritional status is important for a better approach to the surgical patient. There are several nutritional measures in clinical practice, but there is not a complete method for determining the nutritional status, so, health professionals should only choose the best method to use. Aim: To evaluate the total lymphocyte count and albumin as predictors of identification of nutritional risk in surgical patients. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 69 patients undergoing surgery of the gastrointestinal tract. The assessment of nutritional status was evaluated by objective methods (anthropometry and biochemical tests) and subjective methods (subjective global assessment). Results: All parameters used in the nutritional assessment detected a high prevalence of malnutrition, with the exception of BMI which detected only 7.2% (n=5). The albumin (p=0.01), the total lymphocytes count (p=0.02), the percentage of adequacy of skinfolds (p<0.002) and the subjective global assessment (p<0.001) proved to be useful as predictors of risk of postoperative complications, since the smaller the values of albumin and lymphocyte count and higher the score the subjective global assessment were higher risks of surgical complications. Conclusions: A high prevalence of malnutrition was found, except for BMI. The use of albumin and total lymphocyte count were good predictor for the risk of postoperative complications and when used with other methods of assessing the nutritional status, such as the subjective global assessment and the percentage of adequacy of skinfolds, can be useful for identification of nutritional risk and postoperative complications. PMID:26537145

  17. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  18. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  19. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  20. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  3. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures (Video Landing Page) Getting a Blood Test (Video) Medical Tests: What to Expect ... View more About Us Contact Us ...

  4. Correlation of neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio with visual acuity and macular thickness in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Elvan Alper; Artunay, Ozgur; Kockar, Alev; Afacan, Ceyda; Rasier, Rifat; Gun, Palmet; Yalcin, Nazli Gul; Yuzbasioglu, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the place of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of and prognosis for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS One hundred AMD patients and 100 healthy controls were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained from the venous blood, which is used for routine analysis, and these samples were subjected to complete blood count. NLR was defined as the neutrophil count divided by the number of lymphocytes, and PLR was defined as the platelet count divided by the number of lymphocytes. RESULTS No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups under consideration in terms of demographic features (P>0.05). The average NLR in the patient group was found to be significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (P<0.05). The average PLR was significantly higher in the patient group as compared to the control group (P<0.05). As best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) increased, both NLR and PLR decreased (significant negative correlations at 49.8% and 63.0%, respectively), whereas as central macular thickness (CMT) increased, both NLR and PLR increased (significant positive correlations at 59.3% and 70.0%, respectively). CONCLUSION NLR and PLR levels are higher among neovascular AMD patients as compared to healthy control group. NLR and PLR levels were found to be inversely proportional to BCVA and directly proportional to CMT. PMID:28546933

  5. Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count correlates with better cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, F. I.; Rambe, A. S.; Fitri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Neurocognitive disorders in HIV-AIDS are still prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and seem to be under-recognized. Plasma lymphocyte CD4 count is a marker for general immunology status, but its association with cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma CD4 lymphocyte and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.This was a cross-sectional study involving 48 HIV-AIDS patients. All subjects underwent physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts.This study included 48 subjects consisted of 29 males (60.4%) and 19 females (39.6%). The mean age was 39.17±11.21 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r=0.347, p=0.016).Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count is correlated with better cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  6. [Association of CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 with periodontal parameters in HIV-positive periodontitis patients].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongcheng; Wang, Xuan; Hua, Wenhao; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Wen; Fu, Qian

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) with periodontal status in HIV-positive patients with periodontitis. Twenty subjects were selected according to inclusion criteria. The plasmatic CD(+)4 T lymphocytes were counted. All the individuals were divided into three groups, group A (CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count < 200 cell/mm(3)), group B (200 cell/mm(3) ≤ CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count ≤ 500 cell/mm(3)) and group C (CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count > 500 cell/mm(3)). Periodontal indexes, including plaque index(PLI), bleeding index(BI), attachment level(AL) and probing depth(PD) were recorded.GCF samples were taken from 120 index teeth by means of sterile paper strips.GCF PGE2 levels were determined by radioimmunoassays. Mann-Whitney was used to compare the periodontal indexes and PGE2 levels among the three groups. Partial correlations and Spearman correlations were applied to analyze the correlation of CD(+)4 T lymphocytes count and PGE2 in gingival crevicular fluid with periodontal status. BI value, PGE2 concentration and total PGE2 were 3.00(2.00), 90.75(30.60) µg/L, 447.58 (243.08) pg in group B, which were higher than those in group A[2.00(1.25), 79.75(30.50) µg/L and 339.52 (200.97) pg respectively] and group C[2.00(1.00), 73.38 (14.83) µg/L and 299.18 (108.33) pg respectively] (P < 0.0167). But the differences of PD and AL among the three groups were not significantly different(P > 0.0167). The correlations were observed between CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count and BI for the subpopulations with CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm(3) (r = 0.657, P < 0.05) and between 200-500 cells/mm(3) (r = -0.369, P < 0.05). PGE2 concentration was negatively correlated with BI, PD and AL (P < 0.05), and total PGE2 was positively correlated with PD and AL(P < 0.05). There was an association between the periodontal status and CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count in HIV(+) patients.GCF PGE2 level was related to

  7. Prediction of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma by Using Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio.

    PubMed

    Ozgonul, Cem; Sertoglu, Erdim; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Gokce, Gokcen

    2016-12-01

    To assess the levels of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare the NLR and PLR results of patients with PEX, PEX glaucoma (PXG), and healthy controls. In total, 34 patients with PEX, 29 patients with PXG, and 42 healthy subjects were enrolled in this retrospective study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and complete blood count measurements were performed of all subjects. Complete blood counts were performed within 2 h of blood collection. There was a significant difference in NLR between PEX and control groups (p = 0.012) and PXG and control groups (p = 0.003). Also, a significant difference was found in PLR values between control and PXG groups (p = 0.024). Our study for the first time provides evidence that PLR and NLR may be useful for predicting the prognosis of PEX patients and progression to PXG.

  8. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Denaxas, Spiros; Nicholas, Owen; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophil and lymphocyte counts are commonly performed in clinical practice. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence of association with cardiovascular diseases. We used linked primary care, hospitalisation, disease registry and mortality data in England (the CALIBER (CArdiovascular disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records) programme). We included people aged 30 or older without cardiovascular disease at baseline, and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific HRs for the association of eosinophil or lymphocyte counts with the first occurrence of cardiovascular disease. The cohort comprised 775 231 individuals, of whom 55 004 presented with cardiovascular disease over median follow-up 3.8 years. Over the first 6 months, there was a strong association of low eosinophil counts (<0.05 compared with 0.15-0.25×10(9)/L) with heart failure (adjusted HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.72 to 2.43), unheralded coronary death (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.69), ventricular arrhythmia/sudden cardiac death and subarachnoid haemorrhage, but not angina, non-fatal myocardial infarction, transient ischaemic attack, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Low eosinophil count was inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.89). There were similar associations with low lymphocyte counts (<1.45 vs 1.85-2.15×10(9)/L); adjusted HR over the first 6 months for heart failure was 2.25 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.67). Associations beyond the first 6 months were weaker. Low eosinophil counts and low lymphocyte counts in the general population are associated with increased short-term incidence of heart failure and coronary death. NCT02014610; results.

  9. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J

    2017-08-01

    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  10. Evaluation of blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width as inflammatory markers in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Semra; Büyükavcı, Raikan

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by chronic widespread pain and systemic symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are not yet fully understood. Blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammatory response. Platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are the determinants of platelet activation and studied as markers in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate levels of NLR,PDW and MPV in patients with fibromyalgia. A total of 197 FMS patients and 53 healthy controls are included in the study. Demographic characteristics, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume levels were recorded. In the patient group, the blood NLR and MPV were significantly higher and the PDW was significantly lower compared to the control group. In the roc curve analysis, blood PDW ≥had 90.4% sensitivity and 90% specificity in predicting fibromyalgia. The results of this study suggest NLR and PDW as promising inflammatory markers indicating fibromyalgia and may be beneficial in facilitating the diagnosis of FMS patients.

  11. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  12. [Full blood count reference values in children of 8 to 12 years old residing at 2,760 m above sea level].

    PubMed

    Armando García-Miranda, L; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-04-01

    To determine reference values for full blood count parameters in a population of children 8 to 12 years old, living at an altitude of 2760 m above sea level. Our sample consisted of 102 individuals on whom a full blood count was performed. The parameters included: total number of red blood cells, platelets, white cells, and a differential count (millions/μl and %) of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Additionally, we obtained values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric test, to divide the sample in quartiles and obtain the lower and upper limits for our intervals. Moreover, the values for the intervals obtained from this analysis were compared to intervals obtained estimating+- 2 standard deviations above and below from our mean values. Our results showed significant differences compared to normal interval values reported for the adult Mexican population in most of the parameters studied. The full blood count is an important laboratory test used routinely for the initial assessment of a patient. Values of full blood counts in healthy individuals vary according to gender, age and geographic location; therefore, each population should have its own reference values. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytomitogens in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Foad, B.; Adams, L. E.; Litwin, A.; Hess, E. V.

    1976-01-01

    Foad, B., Adams, L. E., Litwin, A., and Hess, E. V. (1976).Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 35, 407-414. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytomitogens in systemic lupus erythematosus. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to the phytomitogens, PHA, Con A, and PWM, was evaluated in 30 SLE patients and in 30 age, sex, and race-matched controls using dose and time responses. The proliferative response to the three phytomitogens was not depressed in this group of subacute and chronic SLE patients. Active lupus nephritis and a slow acetylator phenotype were associated with a decreased lymphocyte response. The incidence of a slow acetylator phenotype in spontaneous SLE was 68%. In interpreting the lymphocyte response to phytomitogens, the importance of a clear definition of the SLE group under study, the activity of the disease, and treatment status are emphasized. PMID:1234408

  14. Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 ± 85.1 and 5.9 ± 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 ± 9.0 and 0.8 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ≤13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely. PMID:24734183

  15. Risk factors associated with low CD4+ lymphocyte count among HIV-positive pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abimiku, Alash'le; Villalba-Diebold, Pacha; Dadik, Jelpe; Okolo, Felicia; Mang, Edwina; Charurat, Man

    2009-09-01

    To determine the risk factors for CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/mm(3) or lower in HIV-positive pregnant women in Nigeria. A cross-sectional data analysis from a prospective cohort of 515 HIV-positive women attending a prenatal clinic. Risk of a low CD4+ count was estimated using logistic regression analysis. CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/mm(3) or lower (280+/-182 cells/mm(3)) were recorded in 187 (36.3%) out of 515 HIV-positive pregnant women included in the study. Low CD4+ count was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-95.53), lack of condom use (aOR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.12-23.8), history of genital ulcers (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.12-2.82), and history of vaginal discharge (aOR; 1.62; 1.06-2.48). Over 35% of the HIV-positive pregnant women had low CD4+ counts, indicating the need for treatment. The findings underscore the need to integrate prevention of mother-to-child transmission with HIV treatment and care, particularly services for sexually transmitted infections.

  16. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool.

  17. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  18. [Correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaomeng; Wang, Leijie; Yao, Mingjie; Wen, Xiajie; Chen, Xiangmei; You, Hong; Jia, Jidong; Zhao, Jingmin; Lu, Fengmin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in red blood cell count in patients with different liver diseases and the correlation between red blood cell count and degree of liver damage. The clinical data of 1427 patients with primary liver cancer, 172 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 185 patients with hepatitis were collected, and the Child-Pugh class was determined for all patients. The differences in red blood cell count between patients with different liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed, and the correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status was investigated. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, rank sum test, Spearman rank sum correlation test, and chi-square test were performed for different types of data. Red blood cell count showed significant differences between patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and liver cirrhosis and was highest in patients with chronic hepatitis and lowest in patients with liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). In the patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count tended to decrease in patients with a higher Child-Pugh class (P < 0.05). For patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count can reflect the degree of liver damage, which may contribute to an improved liver function prediction model for these patients.

  19. Analytic errors in Sysmex-generated hematology results in blood from a dog with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Martini, Valeria; Grande, Carmen; Comazzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    A blood sample from a 14-year-old dog was submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory of the University of Milan for marked leukocytosis with atypical cells. A diagnosis of chronic T-cell lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was made based on blood smear evaluation and flow cytometric phenotyping. A CBC by Sysmex XT-2000iV revealed a moderate normocytic normochromic anemia. Red blood cells counted by optic flow cytometry (RBC-O) resulted in a higher value than using electrical impedance (RBC-I). The relative reticulocyte count based on RNA content and size was 35.3%, while the manual reticulocyte count was < 1%. The WBC count of 1,562,680 cells/μL was accompanied by a flag. Manual counts for RBC and WBC using the Bürker chamber confirmed the Sysmex impedance results. Finally the manual PCV was lower than HCT by Sysmex. While Sysmex XT can differentiate between RBC and WBC by impedance, even in the face of extreme lymphocytosis due to CLL, RBC-O can be affected by bias, resulting in falsely increased RBC and reticulocyte numbers. Overestimation of RBC-O may be due to incorrect Sysmex classification of leukemic cells or their fragments as reticulocytes. This phenomenon is known as pseudoreticulocytosis and can lead to misinterpretation of regenerative anemia. On the other side PCV can be affected by bias in CLL due to the trapping of RBC in the buffy coat, resulting in a pink hue in the separation area. As HGB concentration is not affected by flow cytometric or other cell-related artifacts it may represent the most reliable variable to assess the degree of anemia in cases of CLL. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioprotective effects of Hawthorn against genotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Mahmoudzadeh, Aziz; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2009-02-01

    The radioprotective effect of hawthorn (Crataegus microphylla) fruit extract was investigated in cultured blood lymphocytes from human volunteers. Peripheral blood samples were collected from five human volunteers 10 min before and 1, 2 and 3 h after a single oral ingestion of 500 mg hawthorn powder extract. At each time point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 150 cGy of cobalt-60 gamma irradiation, and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. The lymphocytes in the blood samples collected after extract ingestion exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of binucleated cells containing micronuclei as compared to similarly irradiated lymphocytes collected prior to extract ingestion. The maximum decrease in the frequency of micronuclei-containing cells was observed at 1 h after ingestion of Hawthorn extract (on average a 44% decrease). These data suggest that it may be possible to use Hawthorn extracts in personnel exposed to radiation in order to protect lymphocytes from radiation effects.

  2. Modeled Microgravity Inhibits Apoptosis in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity interferes with numerous lymphocyte functions (expression of cell surface molecules, locomotion, polyclonal and antigen-specific activation, and the protein kinase C activity in signal transduction). The latter suggests that gravity may also affect programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocyte populations. To test this hypothesis, we investigated spontaneous, activation- and radiation-induced PCD in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to modeled microgravity using a rotating cell culture system. The results showed significant inhibition of radiation- and activation-induced apoptosis in modeled microgravity and provide insights into the potential mechanisms of this phenomenon.

  3. Modeled microgravity inhibits apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity interferes with numerous lymphocyte functions (expression of cell surface molecules, locomotion, polyclonal and antigen-specific activation, and the protein kinase C activity in signal transduction). The latter suggests that gravity may also affect programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocyte populations. To test this hypothesis, we investigated spontaneous, activation- and radiation-induced PCD in peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to modeled microgravity (MMG) using a rotating cell culture system. The results showed significant inhibition of radiation- and activation-induced apoptosis in MMG and provide insights into the potential mechanisms of this phenomenon.

  4. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  5. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  6. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  7. Damage of chromosoms under irradiation of human blood lymphocytes and development of bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Shemetun, O V

    2016-12-01

    the research the distribution of radiation induced damages among chromosomes and their bands in irra diated in vitro human blood lymphocytes and in unirradiated bystander cells.Material and methods of research: cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by semi micromethod D.A. Hungerford, modeling of radiation induced bystander effect in mixed cultures consisting of irradiated in vitro and non irradiated blood lymphocytes from persons of different gender, GTG staining of metaphase chromosomes and their cytogenetic analysis. Break points in chromosomes under the formation of aberrations were identified in exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in doses 0.25 Gy (95 breaks in 1248 cells) and 1.0 Gy (227 breaks in 726 cells) and in non irradiated bystander cells under their joint cultivation with irradiated in vitro human lymphocytes (51 breaks in 1137 cells at irradiation of adjacent populations of lymphocytes in dose 0.25 Gy and 75 breaks in 1321 cells at irradiation of adjacent population of lymphocytes in a dose 1.0 Gy). The distribution of injuries among the chromo somes and their bands was investigated. in radiation exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as in bystander cells the fre quency of damaged bands and number of breaks which localized in them exceeded the control value (p < 0.01). As under direct radiation exposure, as under formation of breaks due to induction of bystander effect, chromosomes were damaged according to their relative length. Location of bands with increasing number of breaks coincided with the «hot spots» of chromosome damage following irradiation and fragile sites. More sensitive to damage were G negative euchromatin chromosome bands, in which were localized 82 88 % breaks. Damageability of telomeric regions in the irradiated cells had no significant difference from the control, while in bystander cells was lower than control value (p < 0.05). O. V. Shemetun.

  8. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    PubMed

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-12-06

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37°C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes.

  9. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model

    PubMed Central

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R2, Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups. Results Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R2, 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R2, 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups). Conclusion Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice. PMID:28253564

  10. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model.

    PubMed

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R 2 , Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups. Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R 2 , 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R 2 , 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups). Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice.

  11. DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes induced by two-day 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Rief, Matthias; Hartmann, Lisa; Geisel, Dominik; Richter, Felicitas; Brenner, Winfried; Dewey, Marc

    2018-07-01

    To investigate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in blood lymphocytes induced by two-day 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) using y-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy and to correlate the results with 99m Tc activity in blood samples. Eleven patients who underwent two-day MPS were included. DSB blood sampling was performed before and 5min, 1h and 24h after the first and second radiotracer injections. 99m Tc activity was measured in each blood sample. For immunofluorescence microscopy, distinct foci representing DSBs were quantified in lymphocytes after staining for the phosphorylated histone variant y-H2AX. The 99m Tc-MIBI activity measured on days one and two was similar (254±25 and 258±27 MBq; p=0.594). Compared with baseline DSB foci (0.09±0.05/cell), a significant increase was found at 5min (0.19±0.04/cell) and 1h (0.18±0.04/cell) after the first injection and at 5min and 1h after the second injection (0.21±0.03 and 0.19±0.04/cell, respectively; p=0.003 for both). At 24h after the first and second injections, the number of DSB foci had returned to baseline (0.06±0.02 and 0.12±0.05/cell, respectively). 99m Tc activity levels in peripheral blood samples correlated well with DSB counts (r=0.451). DSB counts reflect 99m Tc-MIBI activity after injection for two-day MPS, and might allow individual monitoring of biological effects of cardiac nuclear imaging. • Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using 99m Tc induces time-dependent double-strand breaks (DSBs) • γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy shows DSB as an early response to radiotracer injection • Activity measurements of 99m Tc correlate well with detected DSB • DSB foci induced by 99m Tc return to baseline 24h after radiotracer injection.

  12. The relation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume with the presence and severity of Behçet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alan, Sevil; Tuna, Serpil; Türkoğlu, Elif Betül

    2015-12-01

    Behçet's syndrome (BS) is associated with chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although there have been extensive investigations on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV) in many diseases, their roles in BS is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NLR, PLR, and MPV levels in BS patients and explore their clinical significance. The study included 254 patients with BS and 173 healthy individuals. Age, sex, age of onset, duration of disease, smoking, Behçet activity score, total white blood counts, neutrophil, platelet, and T lymphocyte counts of the patients were recorded. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, platelet, NLR, and PLR were significantly higher in patients with BS when compared with healthy controls (all p < 0.001). Lymphocyte counts and MPVs of the BS group were not statistically different from healthy controls (all p > 0.05). In the BS group, PLR and MPV were significantly different among the three severity groups (p = 0.037 and p = 0.016, respectively). We showed that any laboratory markers were not associated with joint, eye, central nervous system, large vessel, or gastrointestinal involvement in BS. NLR was shown to be an independent factor for BS by multivariate analysis. We suggest that NLR can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion of BS given the support of the findings from larger prospective studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Lymphocyte count as a sign of immunoparalysis and its correlation with nutritional status in pediatric intensive care patients with sepsis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Manzoli, Talita Freitas; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo; Troster, Eduardo Juan; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Antunes, Ana Caroline Barreto; Marques, Desirée Mayara; Zamberlan, Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Developing malnutrition during hospitalization is well recognized worldwide, and children are at a relatively higher risk for malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition can lead to immune dysfunction, which is associated with a higher mortality rate due to sepsis, the most frequent cause of death in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether malnourished patients are more likely to have relative or absolute lymphopenia and, consequently, worse prognoses. We enrolled 14 consecutive patients with sepsis whose legal representatives provided written informed consent. Patients were classified as normal or malnourished based on anthropometric measurements. As an additional evaluation of nutritional status, serum albumin and zinc were measured on the 1st and 7th days of hospitalization. Lymphocyte count was also measured on the 1st and 7th days. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02698683. Malnutrition prevalence rates were 33.3% and 42.8% based on weight and height, respectively. Laboratory analyses revealed a reduction of serum albumin in 100% of patients and reduction of zinc in 93.3% of patients. A total of 35% of patients had fewer than 500 lymphocytes/mm3 on their first day in the PICU. Lymphocyte counts and zinc concentrations significantly increased during hospitalization. Nutritional evaluations, including anthropometric measurements, were not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Lymphocyte counts concomitantly increased with zinc levels, suggesting that micronutrient supplementation benefits patients with sepsis.

  14. Lymphocytosis (High Lymphocyte Count)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be lymphocytosis in adults. In children, the threshold for lymphocytosis varies with age. It may be ... as 9,000 lymphocytes per microliter. The exact thresholds for lymphocytosis may vary slightly from one lab ...

  15. [Effects of HiLo for two weeks on erythrocyte immune adhesion and leukocyte count of swimmers].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Cai; Gao, Bing-Hong; Wu, Ge-Lin; Zhang, Jiu-Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effects of living high-training low (HiLo) on innate immunity in blood of elite swimmers. Six female swimmers undertook HiLo for two weeks, erythrocyte adhesion function and counts of leukocyte were tested in different time of training period. Red blood cell C3b receptor ring rate (RBC-C3bRR) decreased and red blood cell immune complex matter ring rate (RBC-ICR) increased significantly (P < 0.05), the two markers returned to base line 1 week after training. Counts of leukocyte and granulocyte decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and they recovered 1 week after training; Counts of lymphocyte and monocyte decreased without significance during training and did not recovered after training. Immunity of erythrocyte and granulocyte decreased quickly, but lymphocyte and monocyte recovered slowly, swimmers were adaptive to the training.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of a point-of-care method for total and differential white blood cell count in clozapine users.

    PubMed

    Bui, H N; Bogers, J P A M; Cohen, D; Njo, T; Herruer, M H

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the HemoCue WBC DIFF, a point-of-care device for total and differential white cell count, primarily to test its suitability for the mandatory white blood cell monitoring in clozapine use. Leukocyte count and 5-part differentiation was performed by the point-of-care device and by routine laboratory method in venous EDTA-blood samples from 20 clozapine users, 20 neutropenic patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. From the volunteers, also a capillary sample was drawn. Intra-assay reproducibility and drop-to-drop variation were tested. The correlation between both methods in venous samples was r > 0.95 for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The correlation between point-of-care (capillary sample) and routine (venous sample) methods for these cells was 0.772; 0.817 and 0.798, respectively. Only for leukocyte and neutrophil counts, the intra-assay reproducibility was sufficient. The point-of-care device can be used to screen for leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Because of the relatively high measurement uncertainty and poor correlation with venous samples, we recommend to repeat the measurement with a venous sample if cell counts are in the lower reference range. In case of clozapine therapy, neutropenia can probably be excluded if high neutrophil counts are found and patients can continue their therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The hematology of captive Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa): blood counts, light microscopy, cytochemistry, and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Moller, Cheryl A; Gaál, Tibor; Mills, Jennifer N

    2016-12-01

    Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) are native to Australia. The only previous study on the hematology of this species documented just 6 animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the light microscopy, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of blood cells, and evaluate CBCs of captive Bobtail lizards. Over 2 consecutive summers, heparinized venous blood was collected from the ventral coccygeal vein of 46 clinically healthy, captive indoor- or outdoor-housed adult Bobtails. Complete blood cell counts and smear evaluations were performed, and cytochemical stains and transmission electron microscopy were used to further characterize blood cells. The eosinophils of this species were uniformly vacuolated: a unique feature not previously reported in reptiles. Heterophils were the predominant leukocyte, with fewer lymphocytes, azurophilic and nonazurophilic monocytes, occasional eosinophils, and basophils. Thrombocytes were frequently clumped. Slight polychromasia (0-15% of erythrocytes) was typically present. Hemogregarine parasites were seen on some smears. The range of CBC results was often wide. The PCV ranged from 11% to 38%. Total plasma proteins by refractometry were between 3.5 and 7.8 g/dL. Hemoglobin ranged between 2.6 and 12.6 g/dL by the modified hemoglobin-hydroxylamine method. Manual RBC count was 0.35-1.27 × 10 6 /μL, and WBC count was 2.86-22.66 × 10 3 /μL. Bobtail lizards housed outdoors had lower PCVs than indoor-housed animals. Bobtails with hemogregarine infections had lower PCVs than noninfected lizards. Ranges for CBC data were often very wide, influenced by preanalytic and analytic factors. Hemogregarine infection is associated with a decreased PCV, suggesting that some hemogregarine species are pathogenic in this population. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P < .05). We compared the lymphocyte subset panel to pack-years and found that the rate of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells decreased as smoking duration increased. Our study revealed that smoking suppresses the immune system, as measured by lymphocyte subsets, in patients with chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  19. Graded versus Intermittent Exercise Effects on Lymphocytes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne; Coutts, Rosanne

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of immune system dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but little is known of the regular exercise effects on immune cell parameters. This pilot study investigated the effects of graded and intermittent exercise on CD4 lymphocyte subset counts and activation compared with usual care. Twenty-four CFS patients (50.2 ± 10 yr) were randomized to graded exercise (GE), intermittent exercise (IE), or usual care (UC) groups; 18 sedentary non-CFS participants (50.6 ± 10 yr) were controls (CTL) for blood and immunological comparisons. Outcome measures were pre- and postintervention flow cytometric analyses of circulating lymphocyte subset cell counts; expression of CD3, CD4, CD25, and CD134; full blood counts; and V˙O2peak. Preintervention, CD3 cell counts, and expression of CD4, CD25, CD134, and CD4CD25CD134 were significantly lower in GE, IE, and UC compared with CTL (P < 0.05). Total lymphocyte concentration was significantly lower in GE and IE groups compared with CTL. There were significant postintervention increases in i) expression of CD4 and CD4CD25CD134 for GE and IE, but CD25 and CD134 for IE only; ii) circulating counts of CD3 and CD4 for GE, and CD3, CD4, CD8, CD3CD4CD8, CD3CD16CD56, CD19, and CD45 for IE; iii) neutrophil concentration for GE; and iv) V˙O2peak and elapsed test time for IE and GE, V˙Epeak for IE. Twelve weeks of GE and IE training significantly improved CD4 lymphocyte activation and aerobic capacity without exacerbating CFS symptoms. IE may be a more effective exercise modality with regard to enhanced CD4 activation in CFS patients.

  20. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  1. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    PubMed Central

    Alhussien, Mohanned; Kaur, Mandheer; Manjari, Pasumarti; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Dang, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM), and 8 clinically mastitis (CM) groups of Karan Fries (KF) cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05) decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA) of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows. PMID:27047156

  2. Lymphocyte count as a sign of immunoparalysis and its correlation with nutritional status in pediatric intensive care patients with sepsis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Manzoli, Talita Freitas; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo; Troster, Eduardo Juan; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Antunes, Ana Caroline Barreto; Marques, Desirée Mayara; Zamberlan, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Developing malnutrition during hospitalization is well recognized worldwide, and children are at a relatively higher risk for malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition can lead to immune dysfunction, which is associated with a higher mortality rate due to sepsis, the most frequent cause of death in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether malnourished patients are more likely to have relative or absolute lymphopenia and, consequently, worse prognoses. METHODS: We enrolled 14 consecutive patients with sepsis whose legal representatives provided written informed consent. Patients were classified as normal or malnourished based on anthropometric measurements. As an additional evaluation of nutritional status, serum albumin and zinc were measured on the 1st and 7th days of hospitalization. Lymphocyte count was also measured on the 1st and 7th days. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02698683. RESULTS: Malnutrition prevalence rates were 33.3% and 42.8% based on weight and height, respectively. Laboratory analyses revealed a reduction of serum albumin in 100% of patients and reduction of zinc in 93.3% of patients. A total of 35% of patients had fewer than 500 lymphocytes/mm3 on their first day in the PICU. Lymphocyte counts and zinc concentrations significantly increased during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional evaluations, including anthropometric measurements, were not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Lymphocyte counts concomitantly increased with zinc levels, suggesting that micronutrient supplementation benefits patients with sepsis. PMID:27982165

  3. [Relationship between CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count and the prognosis (including the healing of the incision wound) of HIV/AIDS patients who had undergone surgical operation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Zhao, Hongxin; Gao, Guiju; Wei, Kai; Zhang, Li; Han, Ning; Xiao, Jiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Fang; Liang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Liang

    2014-12-01

    To explore the relationship between CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count and prognosis as well as healing of the surgical incision in HIV/AIDS patients who had received operation. Data were collected and analysed retrospectively from 234 HIV/AIDS patients hospitalized at the Beijing Ditan hospital who underwent operation between January 2008 and December 2012. Following factors were taken into consideration that including:age, gender, time and where that anti-HIV(+) was diagnosed, CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell count at the time of operation, part of the body that being operated, typology of incision, different levels of healing on the surgical incision, infection at the incision site, post-operative complications and the prognosis, etc. Wilcoxon rank sum test, χ(2) test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman rank correlation were used for statistical analysis to compare the different levels on healing of the incision in relation to the different CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell counts. Rates of level A healing under different CD4(+)T cell counts were also compared. 1) Among the 234 patients including 125 males and 109 females, the average age was 36.17±11.56 years old. Time after discovery of anti-HIV(+)was between 0 and 204 months. The medium CD4(+)T cell count was 388.5 cell/µl; 23.93% of the patients having CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell counts as <200 cell/µl. 2) 7.26% of the operations were emergent. There were 23 different organs affected at the time of operation, due to 48 different kinds of illness. 21.37% of the operations belonged to class I incision, 49.57% was class II incision and 29.06% was class III incision. 86.32% of the incisions resulted in level A healing, 12.51% resulted in level B and 1.71% in level C. 4.27% of the patients developed post-operative complications. Differences between level A healing and level B or C healing in terms of CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell count were not significant (P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference on the CD4(+) T

  4. Initial analysis of peripheral lymphocytic extracellular signal related kinase activation in autism.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Craig A; Ray, Balmiki; Wink, Logan K; Bayon, Baindu L; Pedapati, Ernest V; Shaffer, Rebecca; Schaefer, Tori L; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activity has been potentially implicated in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder (autism). ERK is part of a central intracellular signaling cascade responsible for a myriad of cellular functions. ERK is expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and measurement of activated (phosphorylated) lymphocytic ERK is commonly executed in many areas of medicine. We sought to conduct the first study of ERK activation in humans with autism by utilizing a lymphocytic ERK activation assay. We hypothesized that ERK activation would be enhanced in peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons with autism compared to those of neurotypical control subjects. We conducted an initial study of peripheral lymphocyte ERK activation in 45 subjects with autism and 26 age- and gender-matched control subjects (total n = 71). ERK activation was measured using a lymphocyte counting method (primary outcome expressed as lymphocytes staining positive for cytosolic phosphorylated ERK divided by total cells counted) and additional Western blot analysis of whole cell phosphorylated ERK adjusted for total ERK present in the lymphocyte lysate sample. Cytosolic/nuclear localization of pERK activated cells were increased by almost two-fold in the autism subject group compared to matched neurotypical control subjects (cell count ratio of 0.064 ± 0.044 versus 0.034 ± 0.031; p = 0.002). Elevated phosphorylated ERK levels in whole cell lysates also showed increased activated ERK in the autism group compared to controls (n = 54 total) in Western blot analysis. The results of this first in human ERK activation study are consistent with enhanced peripheral lymphocytic ERK activation in autism, as well as suggesting that cellular compartmentalization of activated ERK may be altered in this disorder. Future work will be required to explore the impact of concomitant medication use and other subject characteristics such as level of cognitive

  5. Initial analysis of peripheral lymphocytic extracellular signal related kinase activation in autism

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Craig A.; Ray, Balmiki; Wink, Logan K.; Bayon, Baindu L.; Pedapati, Ernest V.; Shaffer, Rebecca; Schaefer, Tori L.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2018-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activity has been potentially implicated in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder (autism). ERK is part of a central intracellular signaling cascade responsible for a myriad of cellular functions. ERK is expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and measurement of activated (phosphorylated) lymphocytic ERK is commonly executed in many areas of medicine. We sought to conduct the first study of ERK activation in humans with autism by utilizing a lymphocytic ERK activation assay. We hypothesized that ERK activation would be enhanced in peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons with autism compared to those of neurotypical control subjects. Method We conducted an initial study of peripheral lymphocyte ERK activation in 45 subjects with autism and 26 age- and gender-matched control subjects (total n = 71). ERK activation was measured using a lymphocyte counting method (primary outcome expressed as lymphocytes staining positive for cytosolic phosphorylated ERK divided by total cells counted) and additional Western blot analysis of whole cell phosphorylated ERK adjusted for total ERK present in the lymphocyte lysate sample. Results Cytosolic/nuclear localization of pERK activated cells were increased by almost two-fold in the autism subject group compared to matched neurotypical control subjects (cell count ratio of 0.064 ± 0.044 versus 0.034 ± 0.031; p = 0.002). Elevated phosphorylated ERK levels in whole cell lysates also showed increased activated ERK in the autism group compared to controls (n = 54 total) in Western blot analysis. Conclusions The results of this first in human ERK activation study are consistent with enhanced peripheral lymphocytic ERK activation in autism, as well as suggesting that cellular compartmentalization of activated ERK may be altered in this disorder. Future work will be required to explore the impact of concomitant medication use and other subject characteristics

  6. Air Pollution and Lymphocyte Phenotype Proportions in Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Herr, Caroline E.W.; Yap, Poh-Sin; Dostál, Miroslav; Shumway, Robert H.; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Šrám, Radim J.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of air pollution on morbidity and mortality may be mediated by alterations in immune competence. In this study we examined short-term associations of air pollution exposures with lymphocyte immunophenotypes in cord blood among 1,397 deliveries in two districts of the Czech Republic. We measured fine particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 24-hr samples collected by versatile air pollution samplers. Cord blood samples were analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine phenotypes of CD3+ T-lymphocytes and their subsets CD4+ and CD8+, CD19+ B-lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. The mothers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and medical records were abstracted for obstetric, labor and delivery characteristics. During the period 1994 to 1998, the mean daily ambient concentration of PM2.5 was 24.8 μg/m3 and that of PAHs was 63.5 ng/m3. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for temperature, season, and other covariates, average PAH or PM2.5 levels during the 14 days before birth were associated with decreases in T-lymphocyte phenotype fractions (i.e., CD3+ CD4+, and CD8+), and a clear increase in the B-lymphocyte (CD19+) fraction. For a 100-ng/m3 increase in PAHs, which represented approximately two standard deviations, the percentage decrease was −3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), −5.6 to −1.0%] for CD3+, −3.1% (95% CI, −4.9 to −1.3%) for CD4+, and −1.0% (95% CI, −1.8 to −0.2%) for CD8+ cells. The corresponding increase in the CD19+ cell proportion was 1.7% (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.0%). Associations were similar but slightly weaker for PM2.5. Ambient air pollution may influence the relative distribution of lymphocyte immunophenotypes of the fetus. PMID:16203253

  7. Nomograms Predicting Platinum Sensitivity, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival Using Pretreatment Complete Blood Cell Counts in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, E Sun; Sohn, Insuk; Baek, Sun-Young; Shim, Minhee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Lee, Yoo-Young; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment complete blood cell count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC) differential, in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 757 patients with EOC whose primary treatment consisted of surgical debulking and chemotherapy at Samsung Medical Center from 2002 to 2012. We subsequently created nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS as prediction models for prognostic variables including age, stage, grade, cancer antigen 125 level, residual disease after PDS, and pre-treatment WBC differential counts. The models were then validated by 10-fold cross-validation (CV). In addition to stage and residual disease after PDS, which are known predictors, lymphocyte and monocyte count were found to be significant prognostic factors for platinum-sensitivity, platelet count for PFS, and neutrophil count for OS on multivariate analysis. The area under the curves of platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS calculated by the 10-fold CV procedure were 0.7405, 0.8159, and 0.815, respectively. Prognostic factors including pre-treatment CBC were used to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS of patients with EOC. These nomograms can be used to better estimate individual outcomes.

  8. Spontaneous apoptosis, oxidative status and immunophenotype markers in blood lymphocytes of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Losa, G A; Graber, R

    2000-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 251 HIV-positive drug abusers of known clinical stage and from 40 healthy donors were tested for conventional immunologic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD14, CD16/CD56, CD45 and HLA-DR). Additional cell parameters and the occurrence of spontaneous apoptosis (programmed cell death) were investigated on freshly isolated PBMC by flow cytometric measurement of either annexin-V bound to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine or propidium iodide uptake. The activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), an ectoenzyme contributing to the synthesis of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and involved in early apoptosis, was also determined in these cells. Immunocompetent T-cell counts were lower in HIV+ patients, with the exception of CD8+ and HLA-DR+ lymphocytes. The external binding of annexin-V was significantly higher in HIV+ PBMC and occurred in both CD8+ and CD4+ T-lymphocyte subsets. The activity of gamma-GT, was significantly lower in the PBMC from HIV+ patients, indicating that the redox status of PBMC may be affected in HIV+ individuals. Finally, the most dominant features characterising patients receiving antiretroviral therapy were greater long-term stability in the distribution of various cell parameters excepted the level of apoptosis.

  9. Spontaneous Apoptosis, Oxidative Status and Immunophenotype Markers in Blood Lymphocytes of AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Losa, Gabriele A.; Graber, Riccardo

    2000-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 251 HIV‐positive drug abusers of known clinical stage and from 40 healthy donors were tested for conventional immunologic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD14, CD16/CD56, CD45 and HLA‐DR). Additional cell parameters and the occurrence of spontaneous apoptosis (programmed cell death) were investigated on freshly isolated PBMC by flow cytometric measurement of either annexin‐V bound to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine or propidium iodide uptake. The activity of γ‐glutamyltransferase (γ‐GT), an ectoenzyme contributing to the synthesis of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and involved in early apoptosis, was also determined in these cells. Immunocompetent T‐cell counts were lower in HIV+ patients, with the exception of CD8+ and HLA‐DR+ lymphocytes. The external binding of annexin‐V was significantly higher in HIV+ PBMC and occurred in both CD8+ and CD4+ T‐lymphocyte subsets. The activity of γ‐GT, was significantly lower in the PBMC from HIV+ patients, indicating that the redox status of PBMC may be affected in HIV+ individuals. Finally, the most dominant features characterising patients receiving antiretroviral therapy were greater long‐term stability in the distribution of various cell parameters excepted the level of apoptosis. PMID:11254221

  10. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  12. Structural features of blood lymphocytes according to data of atomic force microscopy in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbovskaya, Olga V.; Khayrullin, Radik M.; Kostishko, Boris B.; Bakhtiyarov, Rinat I.

    2018-04-01

    Structural changes in blood lymphocytes during the development of alloxan induced diabetes in rats were revealed. The changes were characterized by decreased volume, surface area, flatness coefficient of cells in comparison with normal lymphocytes. A consistent increase in the Young's modulus of rat lymphocytes during the development of diabetes in comparison with the Young's modulus of normal lymphocytes has been established, which indicates a decrease of the elastic-viscous properties of the cell membrane, changes in the molecular structure of its and in the organization of the lymphocyte cytoskeleton. It was found that during the development of induced diabetes the roughness and adhesiveness of the cytoplasmic membrane of blood lymphocytes decrease.

  13. A quartz nanopillar hemocytometer for high-yield separation and counting of CD4+ T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Wu, Yu; Ji, Seungmuk; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yong; Lim, Hyuneui; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-03-01

    We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting.We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting

  14. The Effect of a Mars Mission on Chromosome Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinnotta, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation environment encountered during a manned mission to Mars will lead to significant elevation of biological damage in astronauts. Here we present estimates of the increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of astronauts after a hypothetical Mars mission using radiation dose estimations and lymphocyte biology. Results will incorporate previously published data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of crewmembers after ISS and Mir missions, along with recent findings on the time dependant decay of chromosome aberrations after space flight.

  15. The white blood cell line: changes induced in mice by hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Orna; Ishay, Jacob S.

    The effect of hypergravity on the white blood cell (WBC) line of mice was investigated by use of horizontal centrifuge. Several sets of experiments were performed, in which the parameters measured were the WBC and differential cell count in the peripheral blood. In another experiment, lymphocyte counts from the spleen, lymph nodes, and the thymus were measured. The needed samples were taken from the mice during a stay of 7-40 days under a hypergravity of 1.6G. The test groups that were placed on the arms of the centrifuge (1.6G) were compared with stationary control groups (1G) and a rotating control group located at the center of the centrifuge (1G). Such a comparison revealed the test animals to be deficient on all counts, to wit, showing a decrease in total number of WBC's, a decrease in lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and a decrease in the number of lymphocyte in the spleen and thymus. The decrease of lymphocytes in peripheral blood was characterized by two different slopes - an early and temporary decrease at the first days of the experiment evident in both test and rotating control groups followed by a temporary increase, and a later persistent decrease, evident only in the test group, while in the rotating control lymphocyte counts reverted to normal. There were no significant differences in monocyte or neutrophil counts, except for a temporary increase in the number of neutrophils which peaked on the seventh day. In order to evaluate the effect of hypergravity on restoration of hematopoiesis following hematopoietic suppression, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) was administered i.v. to both the experimental and control mice. Suppression of bone marrow was observed in all groups injected with 5-FU, but while there was later an increase in cell counts in the control groups, there was no such increase in the test group subjected to hypergravity.

  16. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  17. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  18. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, U; Reddy, B; Damhorst, G; Sonoiki, O; Ghonge, T; Yang, C; Bashir, R

    2015-12-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world.

  19. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecaut, M. J.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The major goal of part I of this study was to compare varying doses and dose rates of whole-body gamma-radiation on lymphoid cells and organs. C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy gamma-rays (60Co) at 1 cGy/min (low-dose rate, LDR) and 80 cGy/min (high-dose rate, HDR) and euthanized 4 days later. A significant dose-dependent loss of spleen mass was observed with both LDR and HDR irradiation; for the thymus this was true only with HDR. Decreasing leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers occurred with increasing dose in blood and spleen at both dose rates. The numbers (not percentages) of CD3+ T lymphocytes decreased in the blood in a dose-dependent manner at both HDR and LDR. Splenic T cell counts decreased with dose only in HDR groups; percentages increased with dose at both dose rates. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic cell counts at HDR and LDR. In the blood the percentages of CD4+ cells increased with increasing dose at both dose rates, whereas in the spleen the counts decreased only in the HDR groups. The percentages of the CD8+ population remained stable in both blood and spleen. CD19+ B cell counts and percentages in both compartments declined markedly with increasing HDR and LDR radiation. NK1.1+ natural killer cell numbers and proportions remained relatively stable. Overall, these data indicate that the observed changes were highly dependent on the dose, but not dose rate, and that cells in the spleen are more affected by dose rate than those in blood. The results also suggest that the response of lymphocytes in different body compartments may be variable.

  20. Quantitative profiling of immune repertoires for minor lymphocyte counts using unique molecular identifiers.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Evgeny S; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Shelenkov, Andrew A; Britanova, Olga V; Sharonov, George V; Staroverov, Dmitriy B; Bolotin, Dmitriy A; Davydov, Alexey N; Barsova, Ekaterina; Lebedev, Yuriy B; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2015-06-15

    Emerging high-throughput sequencing methods for the analyses of complex structure of TCR and BCR repertoires give a powerful impulse to adaptive immunity studies. However, there are still essential technical obstacles for performing a truly quantitative analysis. Specifically, it remains challenging to obtain comprehensive information on the clonal composition of small lymphocyte populations, such as Ag-specific, functional, or tissue-resident cell subsets isolated by sorting, microdissection, or fine needle aspirates. In this study, we report a robust approach based on unique molecular identifiers that allows profiling Ag receptors for several hundred to thousand lymphocytes while preserving qualitative and quantitative information on clonal composition of the sample. We also describe several general features regarding the data analysis with unique molecular identifiers that are critical for accurate counting of starting molecules in high-throughput sequencing applications. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Nomograms Predicting Platinum Sensitivity, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival Using Pretreatment Complete Blood Cell Counts in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paik, E Sun; Sohn, Insuk; Baek, Sun-Young; Shim, Minhee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Lee, Yoo-Young; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment complete blood cell count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC) differential, in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 757 patients with EOC whose primary treatment consisted of surgical debulking and chemotherapy at Samsung Medical Center from 2002 to 2012. We subsequently created nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS as prediction models for prognostic variables including age, stage, grade, cancer antigen 125 level, residual disease after PDS, and pre-treatment WBC differential counts. The models were then validated by 10-fold cross-validation (CV). Results In addition to stage and residual disease after PDS, which are known predictors, lymphocyte and monocyte count were found to be significant prognostic factors for platinum-sensitivity, platelet count for PFS, and neutrophil count for OS on multivariate analysis. The area under the curves of platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS calculated by the 10-fold CV procedure were 0.7405, 0.8159, and 0.815, respectively. Conclusion Prognostic factors including pre-treatment CBC were used to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS of patients with EOC. These nomograms can be used to better estimate individual outcomes. PMID:27669704

  3. Human red blood cells have an enhancing effect on the relative expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Porto, B; Fonseca, A M; Godinho, I; Arosa, F A; Porto, G

    2001-12-01

    The present study was designed to analyse the effect of red blood cells on T-cell proliferation and expansion. A comparative study was done in peripheral blood cell cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, with or without red blood cells. The presence of red blood cells had a consistent enhancing effect on T lymphocyte proliferation, as determined by an increase in both the mitotic index and thymidine uptake. Phenotypic characterization of T cell blasts by flow cytometry revealed that, in the presence of red blood cells, expanding cells were preferentially CD8+ cells. Accordingly, proliferation of CD8+ lymphocytes from two patients with CD8+ hyperlymphocytosis was dependent on the presence of red blood cells. In contrast, proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes from two patients with CD4+ hyperlymphocytosis was strongly inhibited by the presence of red blood cells. This is the first reported evidence that human red blood cells have an enhancing effect on the expansion of CD8+ lymphocytes in vitro.

  4. Complete Blood Count: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... your lungs and to the rest of your body Hematocrit , a measurement of how much of your blood is made ... Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Your Guide to Anemia; [cited ... MedlinePlus Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Count ...

  5. Correlation between Lymphocyte CD4 Count, Treatment Duration, Opportunistic Infection and Cognitive Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) Patients.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Fasihah Irfani; Rambe, Aldy Safruddin; Fitri, Aida

    2018-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients. A cross-sectional study involving 85 HIV-AIDS patients was conducted at Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, Indonesia. All subjects were subjected to physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts. Out of the 85 subjects evaluated, the proportion concerning sexes include 52 males (61.2 %) and 33 females (38.8%). The mean age was 38.53 ± 9.77 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r = 0.271, p = 0.012), but there was no significant correlation between duration of ARV treatment and MoCA-INA score. There was also no difference in MoCA-INA score based on the presence of opportunistic infection. Lymphocyte CD4 count was independently correlated with cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  6. Laboratory blood analysis in Strigiformes-Part I: hematologic reference intervals and agreement between manual blood cell counting techniques.

    PubMed

    Ammersbach, Mélanie; Beaufrère, Hugues; Gionet Rollick, Annick; Tully, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    While hematologic reference intervals (RI) are available for multiple raptorial species of the order Accipitriformes and Falconiformes, there is a lack of valuable hematologic information in Strigiformes that can be used for diagnostic and health monitoring purposes. The objective was to report RI in Strigiformes for hematologic variables and to assess agreement between manual cell counting techniques. A multi-center prospective study was designed to assess hematologic RI and blood cell morphology in owl species. Samples were collected from individuals representing 13 Strigiformes species, including Great Horned Owl, Snowy Owl, Eurasian Eagle Owl, Barred Owl, Great Gray Owl, Ural Owl, Northern Saw-Whet Owls, Northern Hawk Owl, Spectacled Owl, Barn Owl, Eastern Screech Owl, Long-Eared Owl, and Short-Eared Owl. Red blood cell count was determined manually using a hemocytometer. White blood cell count was determined using 3 manual counting techniques: (1) phloxine B technique, (2) Natt and Herrick technique, and (3) estimation from the smear. Differential counts and blood cell morphology were determined on smears. Reference intervals were determined and agreement between methods was calculated. Important species-specific differences were observed in blood cell counts and granulocyte morphology. Differences in WBC count between species did not appear to be predictable based on phylogenetic relationships. Overall, most boreal owl species exhibited a lower WBC count than other species. Important disagreements were found between different manual WBC counting techniques. Disagreements observed between manual counting techniques suggest that technique-specific RI should be used in Strigiformes. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Changes in T and B blood lymphocytes after splenectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Millard, R E; Banerjee, D K

    1979-01-01

    The blood lymphocytes of 37 splenectomised patients were analysed by means of T and B lymphocyte surface markers. Sixteen patients had had a splenectomy for non-haematological and 21 for haematological reasons. The results show that 15 had normal numbers of T and B cells; decreased T cells were found in two patients, raised B cells in seven, raised T and B cells in eight, and raised T cells in five patients. Increased numbers of 'null' cells were observed in some patients, especially in those with raised B cells. Follow-up studies indicate that raised levels of T and B cells can be established by one to three months post-splenectomy and may persist, although in some patients the cells fall to normal levels. The lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohaemagglutinin and Concanavalin A in vitro was normal in eight out of nine patients with raised T cells and was depressed in one patient, possibly due to an intrinsic cell defect. PMID:316436

  8. [The influence of melatonin and epithalon on blood leukocyte count and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in rats under different lighting conditions during ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Vinogradova, I A; Golubeva, A G; Niuppieva, M G; Iliukha, V A

    2008-01-01

    The effect of pineal body hormone melatonin and synthetic tetrapeptide epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) under different light conditions on leucocytes differential count in rats were investigated. It has been established that melatonin and epithalon decrease the level of blood leucocytes and relative content of band neutrophils in 12 months rats which was higher in the constant light more than in other photoperiod. The melatonin prevents age-specific decreasing blood lymphocytes level in standard photoperiod (12 h light/12 h darkness). Contrary to melatonin, epithalon significantly reduces the number of lymphocytes and increases the number of neutrophils in some age period. The leucocytes alkaline phosphatase activity was increased during aging. Constant light in compare with other light conditions promotes early increasing of alkaline phosphatase activity (at 12 months), associated with accelerated development of pathological process in organism. The melatonin and epithalon adjacency effect on increasing of alkaline phosphatase activity under the standard as well as natural light condition demonstrate homeostatic character of geroprotectors action furthermore depend on leucocytes functional status.

  9. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, in particular, a low level of neutrophils (neutropenia), a type of white blood cell that fights ... Cancer Institute, 2011 Low white blood cell count Fever higher than 100.5 F (38 C) Chills ...

  10. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generationmore » of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.« less

  11. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Zerrin Defne; Ergin, Mehmet; Koylu, Ramazan; Ozer, Rasit; Cander, Basar; Gunaydin, Yahya Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic to human beings, and pesticide poisoning is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The identification of powerful prognostic markers is important for the management of patients with pesticide poisoning in emergency settings. To investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and hematological parameters measured in patients with pesticide poisoning within the first 24 h after admission to the emergency department (ED). All patients (≥15 years old) admitted to the ED from July 2008 through February 2013 due to pesticide poisoning were enrolled in the study. The written and electronic medical charts of patients were reviewed. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were calculated for each patient using absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were used as the primary endpoints. A total of 189 patients were included in the study. The mechanically ventilated patients had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively), whereas they had significantly lower lymphocyte counts compared to nonventilated patients (p = 0.011). Survivors had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in terms of lymphocyte counts (p = 0.463), compared to nonsurvivors. Leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios measured within the first 24 h after admission to the ED are useful and easy-to-use parameters for estimating prognosis in the follow-up of patients with pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The counting of native blood cells by digital microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbin, S. O.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.; Tsareva, O. E.

    2017-03-01

    An algorithm for photographic images processing of blood samples in its native state was developed to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cells' samples. Special "photo templates" were suggested to use in order to identify red blood cells. The effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was found by authors, was used to increase the accuracy of this type of cells counting. Finally to raise the resolution of platelets from leukocytes the areas of their photo images were used, but not their sizes. It is shown that the accuracy of cells counting for native blood samples may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies for smears. At the same time the proposed native blood analysis simplifies greatly the procedure of sample preparation in comparison to smear, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratio to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  13. The impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples measured by the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2016-09-01

    The comet assay is frequently used in human biomonitoring for the detection of exposure to genotoxic agents. Peripheral blood samples are most frequently used and tested either as whole blood or after isolation of lymphocytes (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC). To investigate a potential impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples, we exposed blood ex vivo to mutagens with different modes of genotoxic action. The comet assay was performed either directly with whole blood at the end of the exposure period or with lymphocytes isolated directly after exposure. In addition to the recommended standard protocol for lymphocyte isolation, a shortened protocol was established to optimise the isolation procedure. The results indicate that the effects of induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites induced by ionising radiation and alkylants, respectively, are significantly reduced in isolated lymphocytes. In contrast, oxidative DNA base damage (induced by potassium bromate) and stable bulky adducts (induced by benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide; BPDE) seem to be less affected. Our findings suggest that in vivo-induced DNA damage might also be reduced in isolated lymphocytes in comparison with the whole blood depending of the types of DNA damage induced. Because only small genotoxic effects can generally be expected in human biomonitoring studies with the comet assay after occupational and environmental exposure to genotoxic agents, any loss might be relevant and should be avoided. The possibility of such effects and their potential impact on variability of comet assay results in human biomonitoring should be considered when performing or evaluating such kind of studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Surface immunoglobulins on blood lymphocytes of normal and immunodeficient persons studied by the mixed antiglobulin method

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, S. D.; Ochs, H.; Pollara, B.

    1973-01-01

    Surface immunoglobulins on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated by the mixed antiglobulin technique—using the single layer mixed antiglobulin method as originally described (SLMA), and a modification employing a double layer of antibody (DLMA). Lymphocytes isolated from the blood of normal individuals had a mean of 7.8 and 18.4 per cent Ig + cells by the SLMA and DLMA techniques respectively. The DLMA data are similar to results obtained by other methods of detecting membrane Igs indicating that the mixed antiglobulin method is comparable in sensitivity. When the total numbers of Ig + cells, obtained by separate κ and λ testing, were compared with results obtained using single anti-light chain antisera, there was no significant difference, suggesting that most positive lymphocytes carry a single variety of light chain. Lymphocytes from the blood of seventeen patients with primary immunodeficiency were analysed. Four patients with variable immunodeficiency and four others with absent serum IgA all had normal surface Igs including α chains. All members of a family having an X-linked immunodeficiency had normal surface Igs including the affected members and a presumed carrier. Four cases of immunodeficiency associated with thymoma proved to have disparate findings. One patient exhibited a selective absence of μ antigens on the membranes of blood lymphocytes of over 2800 tested cells. Two other cases had normal surface Igs while a fourth patient, previously reported, lacked all surface Igs. PMID:4796276

  15. Lymphocyte apheresis for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell manufacturing in children and young adults with leukemia and neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, Francesco; Rivers, Julie; Annesley, Colleen; Pinto, Navin; Park, Julie R; Lindgren, Catherine; Mgebroff, Stephanie; Linn, Naomi; Delaney, Meghan; Gardner, Rebecca A

    2018-06-01

    The first step in the production of chimeric antigen receptor T cells is the collection of autologous T cells using apheresis technology. The procedure is technically challenging, because patients often have low leukocyte counts and are heavily pretreated with multiple lines of chemotherapy, marrow transplantation, and/or radiotherapy. Here, we report our experience of collecting T lymphocytes for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell manufacturing in pediatric and young adult patients with leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or neuroblastoma. Apheresis procedures were performed on a COBE Spectra machine using the mononuclear cell program, with a collection target of 1 × 10 9 total mononuclear cells per kilogram. Data were collected regarding preapheresis and postapheresis blood counts, apheresis parameters, products, and adverse events. Ninety-nine patients (ages 1.3-25.7 years) and 102 apheresis events were available for analysis. Patients underwent apheresis at a variety of absolute lymphocyte cell counts, with a median absolute lymphocyte count of 944 cells/μL (range, 142-6944 cells/μL). Twenty-two patients (21.6%) had absolute lymphocyte counts less than 500 cells/μL. The mononuclear cell target was obtained in 100% of all apheresis harvests, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell production was possible from the majority of collections (94%). Mononuclear cell collection efficiency was 65.4%, and T-lymphocyte collection efficiency was 83.4%. Ten patients (9.8%) presented with minor adverse events during the 102 apheresis procedures, with one exception of a severe allergy. Mononuclear cell apheresis for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy is well tolerated and safe, and it is possible to obtain an adequate quantity of CD3+ lymphocytes for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell manufacturing in heavily pretreated patients who have low lymphocyte counts. © 2018 AABB.

  16. Role of neutrophil to lymphocyte and monocyte to lymphocyte ratios in the diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with fever.

    PubMed

    Naess, Are; Nilssen, Siri Saervold; Mo, Reidun; Eide, Geir Egil; Sjursen, Haakon

    2017-06-01

    To study the role of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte:lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in discriminating between different patient groups hospitalized for fever due to infection and those without infection. For 299 patients admitted to hospital for fever with unknown cause, a number of characteristics including NLR and MLR were recorded. These characteristics were used in a multiple multinomial regression analysis to estimate the probability of a final diagnostic group of bacterial, viral, clinically confirmed, or no infection. Both NLR and MLR significantly predicted final diagnostic group. Being highly correlated, however, both variables could not be retained in the same model. Both variables also interacted significantly with duration of fever. Generally, higher values of NLR and MLR indicated larger probabilities for bacterial infection and low probabilities for viral infection. Patients with septicemia had significantly higher NLR compared to patients with other bacterial infections with fever for less than one week. White blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and C-reactive proteins did not differ significantly between septicemia and the other bacterial infection groups. NLR is a more useful diagnostic tool to identify patients with septicemia than other more commonly used diagnostic blood tests. NLR and MLR may be useful in the diagnosis of bacterial infection among patients hospitalized for fever.

  17. Persistence of Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage in astronaut's peripheral blood lymphocytes is a useful in vivo marker of space radiation induced damage. Moreover, if radiation induced chromosome translocations persist in peripheral blood lymphocytes for many years, as has been assumed, they could potentially be used to measure retrospective doses or prolonged low dose rate exposures. However, as more data becomes available, evidence suggests that the yield of translocations may decline with time after exposure, at least in the case of space radiation exposures. We present our latest follow-up measurements of chromosome aberrations in astronauts blood lymphocytes assessed by FISH painting and collected a various times beginning directly after return from space to several years after flight. For most individuals the analysis of individual time-courses for translocations revealed a temporal decline of yields with different half-lives. Since the level of stable aberrations depends on the interplay between natural loss of circulating T-lymphocytes and replenishment from the stem or progenitor cells, the differences in the rates of decay could be explained by inter-individual variation in lymphocyte turn over. Biodosimetry estimates derived from cytogenetic analysis of samples collected a few days after return to earth lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, a temporal decline in yields may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction, and the differences in the decay time may reflect individual variability in risk from space radiation exposure. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from one crewmember who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions and has been followed up for over 10 years provides limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  18. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  19. White blood cell subsets are associated with carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity in an older Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A C; Jiang, C Q; Thomas, G N; Lin, J M; Yue, X J; Cheng, K K; Jin, Y L; Zhang, W S; Lam, T H

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sectional associations between white blood cell (WBC) count, lymphocyte and granulocyte numbers, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) were examined in a novel older Chinese community sample. A total of 817 men and 760 women from a sub-study of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study had a full blood count measured by an automated hematology analyzer, carotid IMT by B-mode ultrasonography and brachial-ankle PWV by a non-invasive automatic waveform analyzer. Following adjustment for confounders, WBC count (β=0.07, P<0.001) and granulocyte (β=0.07, P<0.001) number were significantly positively related to PWV, but not lymphocyte number. Similarly, WBC count (β=0.08, P=0.03), lymphocyte (β=0.08, P=0.002) and granulocyte (β=0.03, P=0.04) number were significantly positively associated with carotid IMT, but only the association with lymphocyte count survived correction for other cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, higher WBC, particularly lymphocyte and granulocyte, count could be used, respectively, as markers of cardiovascular disease risk, measured through indicators of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. The associations for WBC count previously observed by others were likely driven by higher granulocytes; an index of systemic inflammation.

  20. In vivo effect of staphylococcal enterotoxin A on peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zehavi-Willner, T; Shenberg, E; Barnea, A

    1984-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) administration to monkeys produced an initial lymphocytic leukopenia lasting approximately 24 h. Lymphocytes isolated from blood circulation (PBL) during this stage had normal or decreased [3H]thymidine incorporating activity. After 48 h, however, a significant increase (five- to sixfold) in [3H]thymidine incorporating activity into PBL was apparent. The peak of incorporating activity (seven- to eightfold) was reached 3 to 4 days after SEA administration, followed by a gradual decline, reaching the baseline after 2 weeks. The increased levels of [3H] thymidine incorporation in PBL were concomitant with the conversion of lymphopenia into lymphocytosis, accompanied by the release of many immature cells into the circulation. Lymphocytes isolated 24 h after SEA administration in vivo did not respond to the mitogenic action of SEA in vitro. Lymphocytes isolated at later stages after SEA challenge were fully activated by toxin. From a series of studies, it was concluded that SEA administered to monkeys caused, during the initial 24 h, the removal of a great proportion of lymphocytes from the circulation, followed by the release of new immature cells with augmented DNA synthesis activity. The lymphocytic leukocytosis state declined gradually and reached normal levels between 3 and 4 weeks after the SEA challenge. The biological implications of the hematological changes occurring after SEA challenge in vivo are discussed. PMID:6715041

  1. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-09-01

    Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

  2. The effect of iron balance on platelet counts in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Eder, Anne F; Yau, Yu Ying; West, Kamille

    2017-02-01

    Thrombocytosis (or, less commonly, thrombocytopenia) is associated with iron-deficiency anemia and resolves with iron therapy. Many volunteer blood donors have low iron stores, with or without anemia. Iron balance could affect platelet counts in blood donors. Whole blood donors deferred for finger-stick hemoglobin levels less than 12.5 g/dL were evaluated by complete blood count and serum iron panel before and after oral iron treatment. Group assignment for iron depletion was based on serum ferritin cutoffs of less than 20 µg/L for women and less than 30 µg/L for men or was based on changes in serum ferritin levels after iron replacement. Among 1273 Hb-deferred whole blood donors, 55% (619 of 1128) of the women and 70% (102 of 145) of the men were iron depleted. Iron-depleted donors had higher platelet counts compared with donors who had normal ferritin levels (women: 286 vs. 268 × 10 3 /µL; p < 0.0001; men: 246 vs. 222 × 10 3 /µL; p = 0.0454). Only 4.4% of iron-depleted donors had thrombocytosis (> 400 × 10 3 /µL) compared with 2.0% of donors who had normal ferritin levels (p = 0.017). Iron replacement decreased platelet counts in iron-depleted female donors (mean, -19,800/µL; interquartile range, 8000 to -45,000/μL), but not in donors who had normal or stable ferritin levels. The same trends were observed in male donors. Iron-depleted donors had higher platelet counts than donors who had adequate iron stores. Oral iron replacement decreased platelet counts on average by about 20,000/µL in iron-depleted donors but had no effect on platelet counts in donors who had normal or stable ferritin levels. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. ROC-king onwards: intraepithelial lymphocyte counts, distribution & role in coeliac disease mucosal interpretation.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Marsh, Michael N; Johnson, Matt W; Mohaghegh, Hamid; Heal, Calvin; Holmes, Geoffrey; Ensari, Arzu; Aldulaimi, David; Bancel, Brigitte; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bateman, Adrian; Becheanu, Gabriel; Bozzola, Anna; Carroccio, Antonio; Catassi, Carlo; Ciacci, Carolina; Ciobanu, Alexandra; Danciu, Mihai; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Elli, Luca; Ferrero, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Fiorino, Marilena; Ganji, Azita; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Going, James J; Ishaq, Sauid; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Mathews, Sherly; Maxim, Roxana; Mulder, Chris J; Neefjes-Borst, Andra; Robert, Marie; Russo, Ilaria; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Sidoni, Angelo; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Volta, Umberto; Zali, Mohammad R; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2017-12-01

    Counting intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is central to the histological diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), but no definitive 'normal' IEL range has ever been published. In this multicentre study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off between normal and CD (Marsh III lesion) duodenal mucosa, based on IEL counts on >400 mucosal biopsy specimens. The study was designed at the International Meeting on Digestive Pathology, Bucharest 2015. Investigators from 19 centres, eight countries of three continents, recruited 198 patients with Marsh III histology and 203 controls and used one agreed protocol to count IEL/100 enterocytes in well-oriented duodenal biopsies. Demographic and serological data were also collected. The mean ages of CD and control groups were 45.5 (neonate to 82) and 38.3 (2-88) years. Mean IEL count was 54±18/100 enterocytes in CD and 13±8 in normal controls (p=0.0001). ROC analysis indicated an optimal cut-off point of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes, with 99% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 99.5% area under the curve. Other cut-offs between 20 and 40 IEL were less discriminatory. Additionally, there was a sufficiently high number of biopsies to explore IEL counts across the subclassification of the Marsh III lesion. Our ROC curve analyses demonstrate that for Marsh III lesions, a cut-off of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes optimises discrimination between normal control and CD biopsies. No differences in IEL counts were found between Marsh III a, b and c lesions. There was an indication of a continuously graded dose-response by IEL to environmental (gluten) antigenic influence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. ROC-king onwards: intraepithelial lymphocyte counts, distribution & role in coeliac disease mucosal interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Marsh, Michael N; Johnson, Matt W; Mohaghegh, Hamid; Heal, Calvin; Holmes, Geoffrey; Ensari, Arzu; Aldulaimi, David; Bancel, Brigitte; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bateman, Adrian; Becheanu, Gabriel; Bozzola, Anna; Carroccio, Antonio; Catassi, Carlo; Ciacci, Carolina; Ciobanu, Alexandra; Danciu, Mihai; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Elli, Luca; Ferrero, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Fiorino, Marilena; Ganji, Azita; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Going, James J; Ishaq, Sauid; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Mathews, Sherly; Maxim, Roxana; Mulder, Chris J; Neefjes-Borst, Andra; Robert, Marie; Russo, Ilaria; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Sidoni, Angelo; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Volta, Umberto; Zali, Mohammad R; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Counting intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is central to the histological diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), but no definitive ‘normal’ IEL range has ever been published. In this multicentre study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off between normal and CD (Marsh III lesion) duodenal mucosa, based on IEL counts on >400 mucosal biopsy specimens. Design The study was designed at the International Meeting on Digestive Pathology, Bucharest 2015. Investigators from 19 centres, eight countries of three continents, recruited 198 patients with Marsh III histology and 203 controls and used one agreed protocol to count IEL/100 enterocytes in well-oriented duodenal biopsies. Demographic and serological data were also collected. Results The mean ages of CD and control groups were 45.5 (neonate to 82) and 38.3 (2–88) years. Mean IEL count was 54±18/100 enterocytes in CD and 13±8 in normal controls (p=0.0001). ROC analysis indicated an optimal cut-off point of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes, with 99% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 99.5% area under the curve. Other cut-offs between 20 and 40 IEL were less discriminatory. Additionally, there was a sufficiently high number of biopsies to explore IEL counts across the subclassification of the Marsh III lesion. Conclusion Our ROC curve analyses demonstrate that for Marsh III lesions, a cut-off of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes optimises discrimination between normal control and CD biopsies. No differences in IEL counts were found between Marsh III a, b and c lesions. There was an indication of a continuously graded dose–response by IEL to environmental (gluten) antigenic influence. PMID:28893865

  5. Can Serum Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Be a Predictive Biomarker to Help Differentiate Active Chronic Otitis Media From Inactive Chronic Otitis Media?

    PubMed

    Tansuker, Hasan Deniz; Eroğlu, Sinan; Yenigün, Alper; Taşkin, Ümit; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk

    2017-05-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate whether serum neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might be used as a predictive biomarker to help differentiate active from inactive chronic otitis media (COM). Two hundred fifty-nine patients having inactive COM received tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy and were identified as Group 1. On the other hand, 254 patients having active COM received tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy and were identified as Group 2. Routine hemogram tests were performed preoperatively for both the groups. By performing a chart review, white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, and mean platelet volume values were compared between the groups in an age-matched and sex-matched manner. A total of 513 COM patients with age range of 7 to 65 years were included in the study. Two hundred seventy-five patients (53.6%) were male, 238 were (46.4%) female. Preoperatively both serum neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in Group 2 (P = 0.015 and P = 0.004, respectively). However, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios between the groups were not significantly different (P = 0.511). No statistically significant differences were identified from preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios between patients having active COM and inactive COM. Level NA.

  6. Peripheral blood lymphocytes: a model for monitoring physiological adaptation to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Mariggiò, Maria A; Falone, Stefano; Morabito, Caterina; Guarnieri, Simone; Mirabilio, Alessandro; Pilla, Raffaele; Bucciarelli, Tonino; Verratti, Vittore; Amicarelli, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the absolute altitude and the duration of exposure, a high altitude environment induces various cellular effects that are strictly related to changes in oxidative balance. In this study, we used in vitro isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes as biosensors to test the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on seven climbers by measuring the functional activity of these cells. Our data revealed that a 21-day exposure to high altitude (5000 m) (1) increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, (2) caused a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) despite possible transient increases in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, did not significantly change the antioxidant and/or oxidative damage-related status in lymphocytes and serum, assessed by measuring Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase activity, vitamin levels, and oxidatively modified proteins and lipids. Overall, these results suggest that high altitude might cause an impairment in adaptive antioxidant responses. This, in turn, could increase the risk of oxidative-stress-induced cellular damage. In addition, this study corroborates the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes as an easily handled model for monitoring adaptive response to environmental challenge.

  7. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-05-20

    Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6 approximately 1.1 (microm/hr) and 3.8 (microm(3)/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important

  8. External quality assessment for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count test

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Pâmela Cristina; Wohlke, Bruna Lovizutto Protti; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Pires, Ana Flávia; Kohiyama, Igor Massaki; Salomão, Reinaldo; Alonso Neto, José Boullosa; Júnior, Orlando da Costa Ferreira; Franchini, Miriam; Bazzo, Maria Luiza; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The National Network for CD4+ T-lymphocyte counting of Brazil comprises 93 laboratories. This study reports the laboratory performances achieved in external quality assessment (EQA) rounds provides by Ministry of Health to evaluate the quality of the kits used and the performance of test by the technicians. Ten EQA rounds were analyzed according the EQA criteria aimed to evaluate individual laboratory performance on the basis of the accuracy of their results compared to the general mean obtained by all participating laboratories and the reproducibility of the results obtained between 2 samples from the same donor. The percentage of approved and failed laboratories in the EQAs tends to follow a uniform pattern. Since 2011, approval has remained above 80% and the failure rate has never exceeded 15%. EQA is very important to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, to identify monitor, and to resolve errors as quickly as possible. PMID:29794603

  9. Classical scrapie prions are associated with peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes from naturally infected sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. As detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, previous studies suggested scrapie prions in the blood of sheep might be associated with B lymphocytes but not with monocytes or T lymphocytes. The association of sc...

  10. Stability of Radiation Induced Chromosome Damage in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Willingham, V.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome damage in an individual's peripheral blood lymphocytes can be an indicator of radiation exposure and this data can be used to evaluate dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Evidence suggests that the yield of chromosome damage in lymphocytes is also a relevant biomarker of cancer risk in humans that reflects individual cancer susceptibility. It follows that biomonitoring studies can be used to uncover subjects who are particularly susceptible to radiation damage and therefore at higher risk of cancer. Translocations and other stable aberrations are commonly believed to persist in peripheral blood cells for many years after exposure, and it has been suggested that translocations can be used for assessing retrospective radiation doses or chronic exposures. However, recent investigations suggest that translocations might not always persist indefinitely. We measured chromosome aberrations in the blood lymphocytes of six astronauts before their respective missions of approximately 3 to 6 months onboard the international space station, and again at various intervals up to 5 years after flight. In samples collected a few days after return to earth, the yield of chromosome translocations had significantly increased compared with preflight values, and results indicate that biodosimetry estimates lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, for five of the astronauts, follow up analysis revealed a temporal decline in translocations with half-lives ranging from 10 to 58 months. The yield of exchanges remained unchanged for the sixth astronaut during an observation period of 5 months post-flight. These results may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction and could affect cancer risk predictions that are estimated from yields of chromosome damage obtained shortly after exposure.

  11. [Morphometric analysis of lymphocyte nuclei in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ostapenko, V A; Kruchinskiĭ, N G; Smirnova, L A; Cherednik, A B; Nesterov, V N; Tepliakov, A I

    1994-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of use of quantitative analysis of cell nucleus structure for the analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The structure of lymphocytic nuclei of healthy donors was evaluated by means of staining by toluidine blue purified cell suspensions smears. The preparations were analysed on the television measuring system "omnicon" with measurements of the following parameters: square of the nucleus, euchromatin, heterochromatin, and the ratio of heterochromatin and euchromatin squares. Actuarial analysis and nuclei classification of the previously mentioned parameters showed, that in peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia a large amount of atypical lymphocytes is present with reduced nucleus sizes. Atypical cells retain the ratio of structural components of chromatine, characteristic to normal cells, which show their low proliferative activity.

  12. [Immunologic indexes, enzyme status of lymphocytes and functional activity of blood neutrophils in children with infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus].

    PubMed

    Kurtasova, L M; Tolstikova, A E; Savchenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    Explore the immunological parameters, levels of activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases lymphocytes, interferon status parameters, phagocytic activity and chemiluminescence response of neutrophils in the blood of children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 65 children at the age of 4-6 years old with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV in acute phase were observed. Such indexes as cell-mediated, humoral and interferon immunity, NAD(P)-depended dehydrogenases activity in blood lymphocyte, phagocytes activity, levels of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence ofperipheral blood neutrophils were studied. Children with EVB-infection have immunophenotype spectrum changes and changes of enzymes status of blood lymphocytes against the increasing in leucocytes and the useful increasing in lymphocytes. The useful increasing in IgA, IgM, IgG contenting in serum blood were found. The decreasing of spontaneous production of IFN alpha and the decreasing of induced production of IFNalpha, IFNgamma were determined. The breach of phagocytes activity and chemiluminescent response of blood neutrophils were found. The children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, there are changes in the immune status, changes the activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in blood lymphocytes, marked changes in functional and metabolic state of peripheral blood neutrophils.

  13. Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Denys, A; Allain, F; Foxwell, B; Spik, G

    1997-08-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein, mainly associated with the secretory pathway and released in biological fluids. We have recently demonstrated that both free CyPB and CyPB-CsA complex specifically bind to peripheral blood T lymphocytes and are internalized. These results suggest that CyPB might promote the targeting of the drug into sensitive cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are subdivided in several populations according to their biological functions and sensitivity to CsA. We have investigated the binding of CyPB to these different subsets using a CyPB derivatized by fluorescein through its single cysteine which retains its binding properties. We have confirmed that only T cells were involved in the interaction with CyPB. The ligand binding was found to be heterogeneously distributed on the different T-cell subsets and surface-bound CyPB was mainly associated with the CD4-positive cells. No significant difference was noted between the CD45RA and CD45RO subsets, demonstrating that CyPB-binding sites were equally distributed between native and memory T cells. CD3 stimulation of T lymphocytes led to a decrease in the CyPB-binding capacity, that may be explained by a down-regulation of the CyPB-receptor expression upon T-cell activation. Finally, we demonstrated that CyPB-receptor-positive cells, isolated on CyPB sulphydryl-coupled affinity matrices, are more sensitive to CyPB-complexed CsA than mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that CyPB potentiates CsA activity through the binding of the complex. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CyPB-binding sites are mainly associated with resting cells of the helper T lymphocyte, and that CyPB might modulate the distribution of CsA through the drug targeting to sensitive cells.

  14. Percentage of Memory B Lymphocytes and Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood are Low but Not Predictive of Therapy outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Adult Patients with Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ayhan, Semiha

    2017-12-01

    Although changes in the number and function of regulatory T lymphocytes have been reported in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), no study has investigated whether quantification of these cell types in peripheral blood could be used as early predictive marker of treatment outcome. And, it is not clear whether any change occurs in peripheral blood memory B lymphocyte levels in ITP. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the percentage of regulatory T lymphocytes and memory B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of ITP patients compared to controls, and also examine whether these levels have any significant predictive value for therapy outcome. A total of 20 newly diagnosed, untreated patients with ITP and 20 healthy controls were included. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphocyte subtypes in the peripheral blood were performed in specimens obtained from patients at the time of diagnosis and one month after the therapy initiation. First line corticosteroid (1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone) therapy or splenectomy as second line treatment was performed, and patients were followed up for 3 years. Percentage of regulatory T lymphocytes (0.25 ± 0.17% vs. 1.14 ± 0.77%, P  < 0.0001, n = 20) and percentage of memory B lymphocytes (1.57 ± 1.24% vs. 4.38 ± 2.41%, P  < 0.001, n = 20) was significantly lower in ITP patients than healthy controls, at baseline. After one month therapy, the percentage of memory B lymphocytes of ITP patients significantly increased (from 1.66 ± 1.31% to 3.0 ± 1.7%, P  < 0.009, n = 17). The initial value of regulatory T (0.33 ± 0.30%, n = 10 vs. 0.16 ± 0.05%, n = 7, P  > 0.05) and memory B lymphocytes percentages (2.1 ± 1.8%, n = 10 vs. 1.1 ± 0.75%, n = 7, P  > 0.05) were not significantly different for those who had complete response to first line therapy than those required splenectomy. These results indicate that regulatory T lymphocytes and memory B lymphocytes percentages are not

  15. Blood lymphocyte ultrastructure and deoxyribonucleic acid content in children with systemic lupus erythematosis.

    PubMed

    Ptasekas, R; Matulis, A; Urmonas, V; Graziene, V; Zukiene, G

    1980-01-01

    Two varieties of peripheral blood lymphocytes have been disclosed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases: one showing signs of degradation and nuclear chromatine elimination and the other one manifesting a state of biological activation, possibly of an immunologic nature. This karyostructural lymphocyte heterogeneity in SLE may cause a great scattering of these cells on histograms in respect to their nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content determined by cytophotometry. On the other hand, the expressiveness of the scattering and the degree of predominance of negative tendency towards proliferation (with a shift to the left from 2 n) may thereby serve as a very objective quantitative indication of nuclear structure degradation and of loss by lymphocytes of chromatine with deoxyribonucleic acid during SLE.

  16. Moderately virulent African swine fever virus infection: blood cell changes and infective virus distribution among blood components.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, E V; Knudsen, R C; Whyard, T C; Mebus, C A

    1988-03-01

    Blood samples of pigs infected with a moderately virulent African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolate, obtained from the Dominican Republic (DR-II), were monitored temporally for viremia, infective ASFV association with major blood components, differential changes in blood cell composition, and plasma antibodies to ASFV. After intranasal/oral virus inoculation, pigs underwent acute infection and illness that resolved. Acute illness began on postinoculation day (PID) 4 and continued to PID 11, and pigs were febrile, with maximal infective ASFV titers detected in blood. By PID 11, initial antibody titers to ASFV antigens were detected in plasma. The WBC numbers were maintained near preinoculation counts; however, lymphocyte counts decreased slightly with a compensatory increment in neutrophil and monocyte numbers. From PID 11 to PID 25, rectal temperatures gradually returned to preinoculation values, titers of viremia began to decrease, plasma antibody to ASFV antigens increased to peak titers, and WBC numbers increased slightly. Percentages of lymphocytes returned to preinoculation values, neutrophil percentages decreased to slightly below preinoculation values, monocyte percentages were mildly increased, and eosinophil percentages were unaffected. From PID 25 to PID 46, titers of viremia further decreased, and plasma titers of antibodies to ASFV antigens remained high. In pigs with DR-II viremia (PID 4 to PID 46), most viral infectivity (greater than 95%) was RBC associated. Plasma contained less than 1% infectivity, and less than 0.1% of virus was in the WBC fraction (monocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes). After PID 46, viremia was no longer detectable.

  17. Circulating lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with daclizumab beta.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Wiendl, Heinz; Turner, Benjamin; Umans, Kimberly; Mokliatchouk, Oksana; Castro-Borrero, Wanda; Greenberg, Steven J; McCroskery, Peter; Giannattasio, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    Reversible lymphocyte count reductions have occurred following daclizumab beta treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To analyse total and differential lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status. In DECIDE, blood samples were collected at 12-week intervals from daclizumab beta- ( n = 919) or intramuscular interferon beta-1a-treated ( n = 922) patients. Infections/serious infections were assessed proximate to grade 2/3 lymphopenia or low CD4 + /CD8 + T-cell counts. Total safety population (TSP) data were additionally analysed from the entire clinical development programme ( n = 2236). Over 96 weeks in DECIDE, mean absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell counts decreased <10% (7.1% vs 1.6%, 9.7% vs 2.0%, 9.3% vs 5.9%: daclizumab beta vs interferon beta-1a, respectively); shifts to ALC below lower limit of normal occurred in 13% versus 15%, respectively. Grade 3 lymphopenia was uncommon (TSP: <1%) and transient. Lymphocyte changes generally occurred within 24 weeks after treatment initiation and were reversible within 12 weeks of discontinuation. In DECIDE, mean CD4 + /CD8 + T-cell counts were similar regardless of infection status. TSP data were consistent with DECIDE. When observed, ALC and CD4 + /CD8 + T-cell count decreases in daclizumab beta-treated patients were generally mild-to-modest, reversible upon treatment discontinuation and not associated with increased risk of infections, including opportunistic infections.

  18. [Dopamine neurotransmission of peripheral blood lymphocytes is a potential biomarker of psychiatric and neurological disorders].

    PubMed

    Taraskina, A E; Nasyrova, R F; Grunina, M N; Zabotina, A M; Ivashchenko, D V; Ershov, E E; Sosin, D N; Kirnichnaya, K A; Ivanov, M V; Krupitsky, E M

    2015-01-01

    Current literature on a role of dopamine in the development of mental and neurological disorders suggests that the discovery of endogenous dopamine in peripheral blood lymphocytes gave rise to a new line of research. Dopamine receptors are not only found on cells of the innate immune response (nonspecific), but also on cells of adaptive immune response (specific): T and B lymphocytes. These facts bring a new evidence of interrelationships between the peripheral immune system, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration and suggest new ways for investigation of the pathogenesis of different mental and neurological disorders, in particular Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. There is strong evidence that ligands of dopamine receptors can change the expression of coding genes both in central neurons and in peripheral cells. Thus, peripheral blood lymphocytes may prove a cellular tool to identify dopamine transmission disturbances in neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as to monitor the effects of pharmacological treatment.

  19. Ontogeny of con A and PHA responses of chicken blood cells in MHC-compatible lines 6(3) and 7(2).

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, T L; Gilmour, D G

    1983-06-01

    The development of T cell responsiveness to Con A and PHA was examined in two MHC-compatible inbred chicken lines, RPRL 6(3) and 7(2), at ages 2 to 118 days posthatching. These lines are respectively resistant or susceptible to Marek's disease, a naturally occurring, virally induced T cell lymphoma. Between-line comparisons were made of optimal in vitro responses of diluted serum-free blood cells to each mitogen in two groups of chicks tested over ages 2 to 63 and 41 to 118 days. Over 2 to 63 days, Con A responses increased with age at the same rate in each line, but 7(2) responses averaged 2.3 times higher than 6(3). The increase with age was dependent on blood lymphocyte counts, which also increased with age in parallel in both lines. In contrast, the between-line difference in responsiveness was dependent on intrinsic reactivity of cells as well as lymphocyte counts. Covariance analysis was used to estimate that line 7(2) was 1.4 times higher than 6(3) in intrinsic cell reactivity, after accounting for the effect of the twofold higher blood lymphocyte counts in 7(2), and that this intrinsic difference contributed almost one-half the total difference. Over 41 to 118 days Con A responses no longer increased with age, although lymphocyte counts were still increasing, and the line difference (2.6 times) was now almost entirely contributed by a 2.3-fold superiority of 7(2) blood cells in intrinsic reactivity. The line difference in PHA responses was the reverse of the above in young chicks, with 6(3) responses greater than 7(2) in spite of lower lymphocyte counts. In additional chicks tested over 5 to 26 days, intrinsic reactivity of 6(3) cells to PHA averaged 4.5 times higher than 7(2). There was an abrupt decline in intrinsic reactivity of line 6(3) blood cells between 26 and 41 days to a level equal with 7(2). After this age, line 7(2) responses were 1.8 times greater than those of 6(3), and this difference was dependent solely on lymphocyte count differences. The

  20. Study of commonly used organophosphate pesticides that induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Ojha, A; Gupta, Y K

    2017-11-01

    In a previous study, we have found that organophosphate (OP) pesticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), methyl parathion (MPT), and malathion (MLT) significantly induced genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats. To explore the mechanism of OP-induced genotoxicity, we measured the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links (DICs) and apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats were treated with CPF, MPT, and MLT individually and in combination at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.25 LC 50 for 2, 4, 8, and 12 h at 37°C. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress. Apoptosis induced by CPF, MPT, and MLT individually and in combination was determined by measuring the intracellular level of active caspase-3 and caspase-9 by spectrofluorimetry. We found significant dose- and time-dependent increases in LPO, DICs formation and increase of intracellular active caspase-3 and caspase-9 in exposed peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats. These findings suggest that the studied pesticides have potential to induce oxidative stress, cause DNA adduct formation, and cause failure of adduct repair, which leads to apoptosis that is partially mediated by activation of intracellular caspase-3 and caspase-9.

  1. In vitro assessment of the effects of vedolizumab binding on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wyant, Tim; Yang, Lili; Fedyk, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Vedolizumab (VDZ) is a humanized monoclonal antibody in development for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. VDZ binds to the α4β7 integrin complex and inhibits its binding to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), thus preventing lymphocyte extravasation to gut mucosal tissues. To understand whether VDZ has additional effects that may affect its overall safety as a therapeutic molecule, we examined other potential actions of VDZ. In vitro assays with human peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated that VDZ fails to elicit cytotoxicity, lymphocyte activation, and cytokine production from memory T lymphocytes and does not interfere with the suppressive ability of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that VDZ induces internalization of α4β7 and that the integrin is rapidly re-expressed and fully functional after VDZ withdrawal. These studies provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the observed safety profile of VDZ in clinical trials. PMID:24492340

  2. Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  3. Detection of CD4+ and CD8 + T-lymphocytes with the optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohring, John T.; Fan, Xudong

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Opto-Fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) to achieve the label-free detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes. The OFRR sensing technology combines microfluidics and optical sensing in a small platform that achieves rapid detection. In this work, white blood cells were obtained from healthy blood and the concentration altered to reflect CD4 and CD8 concentrations of HIV infected individuals. The OFRR was modified to effectively capture these receptors located on T-Lymphocytes and obtain a sensing signal through interaction with an evanescent field. Results show isolation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes at medically significant levels. This work will lead to a device that can provide a CD4 and CD8 count to measure HIV progression in a low cost sensing setup.

  4. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  5. Blood eosinophil count thresholds and exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong H; Lamb, Andrew; Chase, Robert; Singh, Dave; Parker, Margaret M; Saferali, Aabida; Vestbo, Jørgen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Castaldi, Peter J; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2018-06-01

    Eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exacerbations and responsivity to steroids, suggesting potential shared mechanisms with eosinophilic asthma. However, there is no consistent blood eosinophil count that has been used to define the increased exacerbation risk. We sought to investigate blood eosinophil counts associated with exacerbation risk in patients with COPD. Blood eosinophil counts and exacerbation risk were analyzed in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD by using 2 independent studies of former and current smokers with longitudinal data. The Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) study was analyzed for discovery (n = 1,553), and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study was analyzed for validation (n = 1,895). A subset of the ECLIPSE study subjects were used to assess the stability of blood eosinophil counts over time. COPD exacerbation risk increased with higher eosinophil counts. An eosinophil count threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater showed adjusted incidence rate ratios for exacerbations of 1.32 in the COPDGene study (95% CI, 1.10-1.63). The cutoff of 300 cells/μL or greater was validated for prospective risk of exacerbation in the ECLIPSE study, with adjusted incidence rate ratios of 1.22 (95% CI, 1.06-1.41) using 3-year follow-up data. Stratified analysis confirmed that the increased exacerbation risk associated with an eosinophil count of 300 cells/μL or greater was driven by subjects with a history of frequent exacerbations in both the COPDGene and ECLIPSE studies. Patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and blood eosinophil counts of 300 cells/μL or greater had an increased risk exacerbations in the COPDGene study, which was prospectively validated in the ECLIPSE study. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality specification in haematology: the automated blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Buttarello, Mauro

    2004-08-02

    Quality specifications for automated blood cell counts include topics that go beyond the traditional analytic stage (imprecision, inaccuracy, quality control) and extend to pre- and post-analytic phases. In this review pre-analytic aspects concerning the choice of anticoagulants, maximum conservation times and differences between storage at room temperature or at 4 degrees C are considered. For the analytic phase, goals for imprecision and bias obtained with various approaches (ratio to biologic variation, state of the art, specific clinical situations) are evaluated. For the post-analytic phase, medical review criteria (algorithm, decision limit and delta check) and the structure of the report (general part and comments), which constitutes the formal act through which a laboratory communicates with clinicians, are considered. K2EDTA is considered the anticoagulant of choice for automated cell counts. Regarding storage, specimens should be analyzed as soon as possible. Storage at 4 degrees C may stabilize specimens from 24 to 72 h when complete blood count (CBC) and differential leucocyte count (DLC) is performed. For precision, analytical goals based on the state of the art are acceptable while for bias this is satisfactory only for some parameters. In haematology quality specifications for pre- and analytical phases are important, but the review criteria and the quality of the report play a central role in assuring a definite clinical value.

  7. Possible role of CD22, CD79b and CD20 expression in distinguishing small lymphocytic lymphoma from chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Danijela; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Andjelkovic, Nebojsa; Zivic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry has an important role in diagnosis and classification of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (BCLPDs). However, in distinguishing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) from small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) only clinical criteria are available so far. Aim of the study was to determine differences in the expression of common B cell markers (CD22, CD79b and CD20) on the malignant lymphocytes in the peripheral blood samples of CLL and SLL patients. Peripheral blood samples of 56 CLL and 11 SLL patients were analyzed by 5-color flow cytometry on the CD45/CD19/CD5 gate for CD22, CD79b and CD20. In the samples collected from the CLL patients, CD22 expression was detected in only 20% of patients in the low pattern, while in SLL patients the expression was medium and present in 90.9% of patients (p < 0.0001). For CD79b expression, statistical significance is reached both in the expression pattern, which was low/medium for CLL and high for SLL, and expression level (p = 0.006). The expression of CD20 was counted as the CD20/CD19 ratio. The average ratio was 0.512 in the CLL patients vs. 0.931 in the SLL patients (p = 0.0001). The pattern of expression and expression level of CD22, CD79b and CD20 in peripheral blood could be used for distinguishing SLL from CLL patients.

  8. A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luis Carlos; Bessa, Artur; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Luzes, Rafael; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro Saar; Bassini, Adriana; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2012-06-26

    Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39) volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1) or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student's t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson's test. In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively). Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels. These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism.

  9. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement.

  10. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Mentis, A-F A; Kyprianou, M A; Xirogianni, A; Kesanopoulos, K; Tzanakaki, G

    2016-03-01

    The differential diagnosis of acute community-acquired meningitis is of paramount importance in both therapeutic and healthcare-related economic terms. Despite the routinely used markers, novel, easily calculated, and rapidly available biomarkers are needed particularly in resource-poor settings. A promising, exponentially studied inflammatory marker is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), albeit not assessed in meningitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the NLR in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. Data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood leukocyte parameters from more than 4,000 patients diagnosed with either bacterial or viral meningitis in Greece during the period 2006-2013 were retrospectively examined. The diagnostic accuracy of the NLR and neutrophil counts in CSF and blood were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. The discrimination ability of both the NLR and neutrophil counts was significantly higher in CSF than in blood. The optimal cutoff values of the NLR and neutrophil counts were 2 in CSF vs 8 in blood, and 287 cells in CSF vs 12,100 cells in blood, respectively. For these values, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and odds ratio were statistically significantly higher in CSF than blood for both markers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the CSF NLR carries independent and additive information to neutrophil counts in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. This study is the first one to assess NLR in acute meningitis, providing promising results for its differential diagnosis.

  11. Total knee replacement induces peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis and it is not prevented by regional anesthesia - a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Juliusz; Rusak, Małgorzata; Gołembiewski, Łukasz; Dąbrowska, Milena; Siemiątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Among the many changes caused by a surgical insult one of the least studied is postoperative immunosuppression. This phenomenon is an important cause of infectious complications of surgery such as surgical site infection or hospital acquired pneumonia. One of the mechanisms leading to postoperative immunosuppression is the apoptosis of immunological cells. Anesthesia during surgery is intended to minimize harmful changes and maintain perioperative homeostasis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of the anesthetic technique used for total knee replacement on postoperative peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis. 34 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to two regional anesthetic protocols: spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 11 patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia served as control group. Before surgery, immediately after surgery, during first postoperative day and seven days after the surgery venous blood samples were taken and the immunological status of the patient was assessed with the use of flow cytometry, along with lymphocyte apoptosis using fluorescent microscopy. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis was seen immediately in the postoperative period and was accompanied by a decrease of the number of T cells and B cells. There were no significant differences in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes according to the anesthetic protocol. Changes in the number of T CD3/8 cells and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were seen on the seventh day after surgery. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis is an early event in the postoperative period that lasts up to seven days and is not affected by the choice of the anesthetic technique. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiwei; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Xu, Hang; Han, Zhi; Rong, Hailong; Yang, Haiping; Yan, Mei; Yu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR) and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR). Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications. PMID:27827837

  13. Ex vivo expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived T-lymphocytes with homologous cord blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Man; Jung, Min-Hyung; Song, Ha-Young; Yang, Hyun Ok; Lee, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Tak; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Mok, Jung-Eun

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to establish a more effective and safe culture system for adoptive immunotherapy by investigating the use of homologous cord blood plasma (HCBP) instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which has various limitations including ethical problems for the ex vivo expansion of human umbilical T lymphocytes. Fresh human umbilical mononuclear cell fractions were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation. Nonadherent mononuclear cell fractions were cultured with anti-CD3 antibody (5 microg/ml), IL-2 (175 U/ml), and either 10% FBS or 10% HCBP. On day 8, the cellular proliferation rate and cell surface markers were assessed. There was no significant difference in proliferation when human umbilical cord blood T lymphocytes were grown in medium supplemented with FBS or HCBP (p > 0.05). In medium containing FBS, the proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+) (markers for helper T cell), CD3(+)CD8(+) (cytotoxic T cell), CD3(+)CD25(+) (activated T cell), CD3(+)CD38(+) (immature T cell), and CD3(+)CD45RO(+) (memory T cell) cells was significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas proportion of CD3(+)CD45RA(+) (naive T cell) and CD16(+)CD56(+) (NK cell) cells was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In HCBP supplemented medium, the proportion of CD3(+)CD8(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), CD3(+)CD45RA(+), and CD3(+)CD45RO(+) cells was significantly increased (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD45RO(+) and CD3(+)CD38(+) cells was significantly higher, but proportion of CD3(+)CD45RA(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) cells was significantly lower in FBS compared with HCBP supplemented medium (p < 0.05). Our results support the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of human umbilical cord blood T lymphocytes in medium supplemented with HCBP for future adoptive cellular immunotherapy.

  14. The complete blood count and reticulocyte count--are they necessary in the evaluation of acute vasoocclusive sickle-cell crisis?

    PubMed

    Lopez, B L; Griswold, S K; Navek, A; Urbanski, L

    1996-08-01

    To assess the usefulness of the complete blood count (CBC) and the reticulocyte count in the evaluation of adult patients with acute vasoocclusive sickle-cell crisis (SCC) presenting to the ED. A 2-part study was performed. Part 1 was retrospective chart review of patients with a sole ED diagnosis of acute SCC. Part 2 was a prospective evaluation of consecutive patients presenting in SCC. In both parts of the study, patients with coexisting acute disease were excluded. The remaining patients were divided into 2 groups: admitted and released. The mean values for white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, and reticulocyte count were compared. In Part 2, the change (delta) from the patient's baseline in WBC count, Hb level, and reticulocyte count also was determined. Data were analyzed by 2-tailed Student's t-test. Part 1: There was no difference between the admitted (n = 33) and the released (n = 86) groups in mean WBC count (p = 0.10), Hb level (p = 0.25), or reticulocyte count (p = 0.08). Part 2: There was no difference between the admitted (n = 44) and the released (n = 160) groups in mean Hb level (p = 0.88), reticulocyte count (p = 0.47), delta Hb level (p = 0.88), and delta reticulocyte count (p = 0.76). There was a difference in mean WBC counts (15.8 +/- 4.9 x 10(9)/L admitted vs 12.8 +/- 4.9 x 10(9)/L released, p = 0.003) and delta WBC counts (5.1 +/- 4.6 x 10(9)/L admitted vs 1.8 +/- 4.6 x 10(9)/L released, p < 0.002). Determination of the Hb level and the reticulocyte count do not appear useful in the evaluation of acute SCC in the ED. Admission decisions appear associated with elevations in the WBC count. Further study is required to determine the true value of the WBC count in such decisions.

  15. The influence of dual infection with herpes and influenza viruses on the differential blood cell count of mice.

    PubMed

    Ančicová, L; Dugovičová, V; Briestenská, K; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E; Mistríková, J

    Based on our previous results, which confirmed the role of latent gammaherpesvirus infection in alteration of immune homeostasis, we studied the influence of simultaneous infection with gammaherpes and influenza viruses on selected parameters of innate immunity, particularly on the subpopulations of peripheral blood cell leukocytes. The aim was to analyze changes of differential blood cell count of BALB/c mice persistently infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and subsequently co-infected with influenza A virus (IAV), in comparison to mice infected with MHV-68 or with IAV only. Our results showed that ongoing gammaherpesvirus latency in mice caused a decreased number of leukocytes after acute infection with IAV in comparison to a single acute IAV infection. However, increased proportion of neutrophils was measured in peripheral blood of IAV- infected and co-infected mice. Dual infection had no effect on the proportion of monocytes or basophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes. The number of atypical lymphocytes, usually accompanying the persistent infection with MHV-68, decreased in co-infected mice as a consequence of the acute infection with IAV. Persistent infection with gammaherpesvirus may thus modulate the host immune response to influenza A virus and the acute IAV infection can influence the immune homeostasis established by latent MHV-68 infection.

  16. Response to phytohaemagglutinin of lymphocytes from mice treated with anti-lymphocyte globulin

    PubMed Central

    Tursi, A.; Greaves, M. F.; Torrigiani, G.; Playfair, J. H. L.; Roitt, I. M.

    1969-01-01

    Thymus, spleen, lymph node and peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from mice treated with anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) showed a greatly diminished response to PHA in vitro. Recovery of circulating lymphocyte levels preceded recovery of responsiveness to PHA. The latter could be prevented by reinjection of ALG or by thymectomy. Grafts were rejected within a period equal to the normal rejection time after PHA responsiveness had recovered to a value of approximately 20 per cent of the normal. Thus the effect of ALG on thymus dependent lymphocytes in mice can be monitored by assessing the PHA sensitivity of peripheral white blood cells. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4900922

  17. Host virus and pneumococcus-specific immune responses in high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: implications for disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Ignacio; Muñoz-Criado, Santiago; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Nieto, Wendy G.; Romero, Alfonso; Fernández-Navarro, Paulino; Alcoceba, Miguel; Contreras, Teresa; González, Marcos; Orfao, Alberto; Almeida, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) display a high incidence of infections due to an associated immunodeficiency that includes hypogammaglobulinemia. A higher risk of infections has also been recently reported for high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, while no information is available in low-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Here, we evaluated the status of the humoral immune system in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=58), as well as in low- (n=71) and high- (n=29) count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis versus healthy donors (n=91). Total free plasma immunoglobulin titers and specific levels of antibodies against cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza and S.pneumoniae were measured by nephelometry and ELISA-based techniques, respectively. Overall, our results show that both CLL and high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis patients, but not low-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis subjects, present with relatively high levels of antibodies specific for the latent viruses investigated, associated with progressively lower levels of S.pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulins. These findings probably reflect asymptomatic chronic reactivation of humoral immune responses against host viruses associated with expanded virus-specific antibody levels and progressively decreased protection against other micro-organisms, denoting a severe humoral immunodeficiency state not reflected by the overall plasma immunoglobulin levels. Alternatively, these results could reflect a potential role of ubiquitous viruses in the pathogenesis of the disease. Further analyses are necessary to establish the relevance of such asymptomatic humoral immune responses against host viruses in the expansion of the tumor B-cell clone and progression from monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis to CLL. PMID:28385786

  18. Relationship of Blood Mercury Levels to Health Parameters in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Rusty D.; Segars, Al L.; Arendt, Michael D.; Lee, A. Michelle; Peden-Adams, Margie M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Mercury is a pervasive environmental pollutant whose toxic effects have not been studied in sea turtles in spite of their threatened status and evidence of immunosuppression in diseased populations. Objectives In the present study we investigate mercury toxicity in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) by examining trends between blood mercury concentrations and various health parameters. Methods Blood was collected from free-ranging turtles, and correlations between blood mercury concentrations and plasma chemistries, complete blood counts, lysozyme, and lymphocyte proliferation were examined. Lymphocytes were also harvested from free-ranging turtles and exposed in vitro to methylmercury to assess proliferative responses. Results Blood mercury concentrations were positively correlated with hematocrit and creatine phosphokinase activity, and negatively correlated with lymphocyte cell counts and aspartate amino-transferase. Ex vivo negative correlations between blood mercury concentrations and B-cell proliferation were observed in 2001 and 2003 under optimal assay conditions. In vitro exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes to methylmercury resulted in suppression of proliferative responses for B cells (0.1 μg/g and 0.35 μg/g) and T cells (0.7 μg/g). Conclusions The positive correlation between blood mercury concentration and hematocrit reflects the higher affinity of mercury species for erythrocytes than plasma, and demonstrates the importance of measuring hematocrit when analyzing whole blood for mercury. In vitro immunosuppression occurred at methylmercury concentrations that correspond to approximately 5% of the individuals captured in the wild. This observation and the negative correlation found ex vivo between mercury and lymphocyte numbers and mercury and B-cell proliferative responses suggests that subtle negative impacts of mercury on sea turtle immune function are possible at concentrations observed in the wild. PMID:17938730

  19. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count; White blood cell differential; WBC differential; Infection - WBC count; Cancer - WBC count ... called leukopenia. A count less than 4,500 cells per microliter (4.5 × 10 9 /L) is ...

  20. Comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Mitchell, Mark A; Gaunt, Stephen D; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) and lithium heparin. Complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. The level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. Plasma protein and PCV values were significantly lower in samples with lithium heparin than in those with K2EDTA, whereas lymphocyte numbers were significantly higher in lithium heparin samples than in K2EDTA samples. The level of agreement was good for the other cell types (heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) when comparing the different anticoagulants. The poor level of agreement between anticoagulants with the increase in thrombocyte clumping in lithium heparin samples indicates that the use of lithium heparin as anticoagulant may affect thrombocyte count. No negative effects on morphology and staining of blood cells were apparent in smears from heparin samples compared with K2EDTA samples. Within the different values compared, the limits of agreement are small enough to be confident that lithium heparin can be used for routine CBC counts in a clinical setting. The use of the same anticoagulant should be recommended to follow trends within the same patient, especially when considering plasma protein concentration, PCV, and lymphocyte count.

  1. The extended leukocyte differential count using the Cytodiff flow cytometric system reveals that higher CD16+ cytotoxic NK+T lymphocyte levels predict superior survival outcomes in patients with metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Borae G; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Yoon, Chan-Hee; Jang, Seongsoo; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Sang-We

    2013-05-01

    The recently developed Cytodiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) enables leukocyte analysis using a single immunophenotyping panel tube composed of six markers and five colors and that can detect 16 leukocyte subpopulations. We performed a preliminary investigation of whether changes in any of 16 leukocyte differentials were associated with survival and treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic carcinoma or not. We measured 16 leukocyte differential counts using the Cytodiff flow cytometric system in peripheral blood samples from 40 patients with metastatic malignancy (27 stomach cancer and 13 lung cancer) before chemotherapy and at 15 day intervals after chemotherapy for 2 months. A higher percentage of CD16+ cytotoxic NK+T lymphocytes was found to be the only significant prognostic factor among by Cox regression analysis and a higher percentage of CD16+ cytotoxic NK+T lymphocytes (>5.0%) showed significantly longer survival outcomes by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.003). The Cytodiff system enables 16 leukocyte subpopulations in a one tube assay and also can operate with only small amounts of sample, although it cannot differentiate NK cells from T lymphocytes. Hence, the monitoring of all leukocyte subpopulations using Cytodiff flow cytometry may be a helpful prognostic tool for patients with metastatic carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Influences of red blood cell and platelet counts on the distribution and elimination of crystalloid fluid.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    A high number of blood cells increases the viscosity of the blood. The present study explored whether variations in blood cell counts are relevant to the distribution and elimination of infused crystalloid fluid. On three different occasions, 10 healthy male volunteers received an intravenous infusion of 25mL/kg of Ringer's acetate, Ringer's lactate, and isotonic saline over 30min. Blood hemoglobin and urinary excretion were monitored for 4h and used as input in a two-volume kinetic model, using nonlinear mixed effects software. The covariates used in the kinetic model were red blood cell and platelet counts, the total leukocyte count, the use of isotonic saline, and the arterial pressure. Red blood cell and platelet counts in the upper end of the normal range were associated with a decreased rate of distribution and redistribution of crystalloid fluid. Simulations showed that high counts were correlated with volume expansion of the peripheral (interstitial) fluid space, while the plasma volume was less affected. In contrast, the total leukocyte count had no influence on the distribution, redistribution, or elimination. The use of isotonic saline caused a transient reduction in the systolic arterial pressure (P<0.05) and doubled the half-life of infused fluid in the body when compared to the two Ringer solutions. Isotonic saline did not decrease the serum potassium concentration, despite the fact that saline is potassium-free. High red blood cell and platelet counts are associated with peripheral accumulation of infused crystalloid fluid. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased circulating blood cell counts in combat-related PTSD: Associations with inflammation and PTSD severity.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Mellon, Synthia H; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Yehuda, Rachel; Grenon, S Marlene; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Abu-Amara, Duna; Coy, Michelle; Makotkine, Iouri; Reus, Victor I; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Bersani, F Saverio; Marmar, Charles R; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation is reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated circulating blood cells that may contribute to inflammation. We assessed circulating platelets, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) in PTSD and assessed their relationship to inflammation and symptom severity. One-hundred and sixty-three male combat-exposed veterans (82 PTSD, 81 non-PTSD) had blood assessed for platelets, WBC, and RBC. Data were correlated with symptom severity and inflammation. All cell counts were significantly elevated in PTSD. There were small mediation effects of BMI and smoking on these relationships. After adjusting for these, the differences in WBC and RBC remained significant, while platelet count was at trend level. In all subjects, all of the cell counts correlated significantly with inflammation. Platelet count correlated with inflammation only in the PTSD subjects. Platelet count, but none of the other cell counts, was directly correlated with PTSD severity ratings in the PTSD group. Combat PTSD is associated with elevations in RBC, WBC, and platelets. Dysregulation of all three major lineages of hematopoietic cells in PTSD, as well as their significant correlation with inflammation, suggest clinical significance of these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant CD4, CD8, and CD19 lymphopenia in peripheral blood of sarcoidosis patients correlates with severe disease manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sweiss, Nadera J; Salloum, Rafah; Gandhi, Seema; Ghandi, Seema; Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Sawaqed, Ray; Badaracco, Maria; Pursell, Kenneth; Pitrak, David; Baughman, Robert P; Moller, David R; Garcia, Joe G N; Niewold, Timothy B

    2010-02-05

    Sarcoidosis is a poorly understood chronic inflammatory condition. Infiltration of affected organs by lymphocytes is characteristic of sarcoidosis, however previous reports suggest that circulating lymphocyte counts are low in some patients with the disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood in a cohort of sarcoidosis patients to determine the prevalence, severity, and clinical features associated with lymphopenia in major lymphocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subsets in 28 sarcoid patients were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine the percentage of CD4, CD8, and CD19 positive cells. Greater than 50% of patients had abnormally low CD4, CD8, or CD19 counts (p<4x10(-10)). Lymphopenia was profound in some cases, and five of the patients had absolute CD4 counts below 200. CD4, CD8, and CD19 lymphocyte subset counts were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho 0.57, p = 0.0017), and 10 patients had low counts in all three subsets. Patients with severe organ system involvement including neurologic, cardiac, ocular, and advanced pulmonary disease had lower lymphocyte subset counts as a group than those patients with less severe manifestations (CD4 p = 0.0043, CD8 p = 0.026, CD19 p = 0.033). No significant relationships were observed between various medical therapies and lymphocyte counts, and lymphopenia was present in patients who were not receiving any medical therapy. Significant lymphopenia involving CD4, CD8, and CD19 positive cells was common in sarcoidosis patients and correlated with disease severity. Our findings suggest that lymphopenia relates more to disease pathology than medical treatment.

  5. Significant CD4, CD8, and CD19 Lymphopenia in Peripheral Blood of Sarcoidosis Patients Correlates with Severe Disease Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Nadera J.; Salloum, Rafah; Ghandi, Seema; Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Sawaqed, Ray; Badaracco, Maria; Pursell, Kenneth; Pitrak, David; Baughman, Robert P.; Moller, David R.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Niewold, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a poorly understood chronic inflammatory condition. Infiltration of affected organs by lymphocytes is characteristic of sarcoidosis, however previous reports suggest that circulating lymphocyte counts are low in some patients with the disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood in a cohort of sarcoidosis patients to determine the prevalence, severity, and clinical features associated with lymphopenia in major lymphocyte subsets. Methodology/Principal Findings Lymphocyte subsets in 28 sarcoid patients were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine the percentage of CD4, CD8, and CD19 positive cells. Greater than 50% of patients had abnormally low CD4, CD8, or CD19 counts (p<4×10−10). Lymphopenia was profound in some cases, and five of the patients had absolute CD4 counts below 200. CD4, CD8, and CD19 lymphocyte subset counts were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho 0.57, p = 0.0017), and 10 patients had low counts in all three subsets. Patients with severe organ system involvement including neurologic, cardiac, ocular, and advanced pulmonary disease had lower lymphocyte subset counts as a group than those patients with less severe manifestations (CD4 p = 0.0043, CD8 p = 0.026, CD19 p = 0.033). No significant relationships were observed between various medical therapies and lymphocyte counts, and lymphopenia was present in patients who were not receiving any medical therapy. Conclusions/Significance Significant lymphopenia involving CD4, CD8, and CD19 positive cells was common in sarcoidosis patients and correlated with disease severity. Our findings suggest that lymphopenia relates more to disease pathology than medical treatment. PMID:20140091

  6. A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood. Methods Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39) volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1) or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student’s t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson’s test. Results In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively). Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels. Conclusions These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism. PMID:22734448

  7. A study of peripheral blood in hedgehogs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozparlak, Haluk; Celik, Ilhami; Sur, Emrah; Ozaydin, Tuğba; Arslan, Atilla

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine diameters of blood cells, differential counts of peripheral blood leukocytes, alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), acid phosphatase (ACP-ase) activity of some leukocyte types, and enzymatic positivity percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes in two hedgehogs species, Hemiechinus auritus, the long-eared hedgehog, and Erinaceus concolor, the southern white-breasted hedgehog. Air-dried peripheral blood smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain. ANAE and ACP-ase were stained in glutaraldehyde-acetone-fixed smears. ANAE-positive lymphocytes displayed a dot-like positivity pattern characterized with 1-5 reddish brown cytoplasmic granules, whereas ACP-ase positive lymphocytes displayed a dot-like positivity pattern characterized with 1-3 pinkish cytoplasmic granules. Monocytes gave a diffuse and strong reaction while neutrophils displayed a weak positive reaction for ANAE and ACP-ase. No difference was observed in mean diameters of peripheral blood cells of these species. It was found that lymphocytes made up the majority (64.3% and 65.5%) of leukocytes, followed by neutrophils (23.9% and 23.3%), eosinophils (9.0% and 7.6%), monocytes (1.8% and 2.3%), and basophils (1.0% and 1.3%) in H. auritus and E. concolor, respectively. Mean ANAE positivity oflymphocytes was 36.6% and 51.3% and ACP-ase positivity was 32.1% and 37.5% for H. auritus and E. concolor, respectively. The ANAE positivity of lymphocytes in E. concolor was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of H. auritus.

  8. Blood eosinophil count and pneumonia risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a patient-level meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pavord, Ian D; Lettis, Sally; Anzueto, Antonio; Barnes, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are important in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but can slightly increase the risk of pneumonia in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients with circulating eosinophil counts of 2% or more of blood leucocytes respond better to inhaled corticosteroids than do those with counts of less than 2% and it was therefore postulated that blood eosinophil count might also have an effect on the risk of pneumonia in patients with COPD. In this post-hoc meta-analysis, we investigate whether a 2% threshold can identify patients who differ in their risk of pneumonia, irrespective of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. From the GlaxoSmithKline trial registry, we selected randomised, double-blind, clinical trials of patients with COPD that had: inhaled corticosteroid arms (fluticasone propionate and salmeterol or fluticasone furoate and vilanterol); a control arm (not given inhaled fluticasone); and pre-randomisation measurements of blood eosinophil counts and were of at least 24 weeks in duration. With use of specified terms from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities we identified pneumonia adverse events in patient-level data. We calculated number of patients with pneumonia events, stratified by baseline blood eosinophil count (<2% vs ≥2% of blood leucocytes) and whether or not patients had received inhaled corticosteroids. We identified ten trials (conducted between 1998 and 2011), with eosinophil count data available for 10 861 patients with COPD. 4043 patients had baseline blood eosinophil counts of less than 2% and 6818 patients had baseline blood eosinophil counts of 2% or more. 149 (3·7%) patients with counts less than 2% had one or more pneumonia adverse events compared with 215 (3·2%) with counts of 2% or more (hazard ratio [HR] 1·31; 95% CI 1·06-1·62). In patients not treated with inhaled corticosteroids, 40 (3·8%) patients with less than 2% blood eosinophil counts had a pneumonia event

  9. Sulforaphane mitigates cadmium-induced toxicity pattern in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Alkharashi, Nouf Abdulkareem Omer; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2017-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic and widely distributed heavy metal that induces various diseases in humans through environmental exposure. Therefore, alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity in living organisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the protective role of sulforaphane on Cd-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Sulforaphane did not show any major reduction in the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. However, Cd treatment at a concentration of 50μM induced around 69% cell death. Treatment of IC 10 -Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination for 24 and 48h increased viability by 2 and 9% in cells subjected to Cd toxicity, respectively. In addition, IC 25 of Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination recovered 17-20% of cell viability. Cd induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Sulforaphane treatment reduced Cd-induced cell death in lymphocytes and monocytes. Our results clearly indicate that when the cells were treated with Cd+sulforaphane combination, sulforaphane decreased the Cd-induced cytotoxic effect in lymphocytes and monocytes. In addition, sulforaphane concentration plays a major role in the alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of cord blood fatty acids with lymphocyte proliferation, IL-13, and IFN-γ

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Diane R.; Willwerth, Ben M.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Finn, Patricia W.; Schaub, Bianca; Perkins, David L.; Tzianabos, Arthur; Ly, Ngoc P.; Schroeter, Christian; Gibbons, Fiona; Campos, Hannia; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Ryan, Louise M.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    Background. N-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been hypothesized to have opposing influences on neonatal immune responses that might influence the risk of allergy or asthma. However, both n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) are required for normal fetal development. Objective. We evaluated whether cord blood fatty acid levels were related to neonatal immune responses and whether n-3 and n-6 PUFA responses differed. Methods. We examined the relation of cord blood plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFAs (n = 192) to antigen- and mitogen-stimulated cord blood lymphocyte proliferation (n = 191) and cytokine (IL-13 and IFN-γ; n = 167) secretion in a US birth cohort. Results. Higher levels of n-6 linoleic acid were correlated with higher IL-13 levels in response to Bla g 2 (cockroach, P = .009) and Der f 1 (dust mite, P = .02). Higher n-3 EPA and n-6 AA levels were each correlated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in response to Bla g 2 and Der f 1 stimulation. Controlling for potential confounders, EPA and AA had similar independent effects on reduced allergen-stimulated IFN-γ levels. If neonates had either EPA or AA levels in the highest quartile, their Der f 1 IFN-γ levels were 90% lower (P = .0001) than those with both EPA and AA levels in the lowest 3 quartiles. Reduced AA/EPA ratio was associated with reduced allergen-stimulated IFN-γ level. Conclusion. Increased levels of fetal n-3 EPA and n-6 AA might have similar effects on attenuation of cord blood lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Clinical implications. The implications of these findings for PMID:16630954

  11. Length of hospitalization is associated with selected biomarkers (albumin and lymphocytes) and with co-morbidities: study on 4000 patients.

    PubMed

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Loreggian, Lara; Rovati, Marco P L; De Patto, Elena; Folini, Laura; Raveglia, Federico; De Simone, Matilde; Baisi, Alessandro; Cioffi, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    Low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts are intra hospital conditions that exert a negative influence on prognosis, healing and length of hospitalization. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between low blood levels of albumin, low lymphocytes, and length of stay. The secondary aim was to identify other co-morbidities associated with prolonged hospital stay. Retrospective pilot study was conducted by analyzing anamnestic and biochemical data, related to 4038 patients admitted to ten wards of Hospital San Paolo (Milan), collected from July 1 st 2012 to December 31 st 2012. A statistical analysis was carried out using the Correlation method, Multivariate Analysis and Regression. Lymphocyte count and co-morbidities were evaluated in the whole cohort, albumin levels in 1437 patients. In the whole sample, low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts were directly correlated to longer hospitalizations. The stratification of the results by department and diagnosis suggests that there is a higher correlation in certain subpopulations, and albumin shows a greater correlation with length of stay than lymphocytes. Also advanced age, high platelets, type of diagnosis, male gender and emergency admission led to longer hospitalizations. A routine check of albumin, lymphocytes and a spectrum of significant variables can provide precious information which can eventually lead to a shorter hospital stay. Knowledge of the general health status of a patient and the possibility to estimate his/her length of hospital stay are essential information for Clinical Governance, and for the improvement of internal services of hospitals on a large scale.

  12. Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Minior, V K; Divon, M Y

    1997-11-01

    The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile) who were delivered between October 1988 and June 1995 were reviewed for antepartum testing, delivery conditions, and neonatal outcome. We studied fetuses who had an umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio within 3 days of delivery and a complete blood cell count on the first day of life. Multiple gestations, anomalous fetuses, and infants of diabetic mothers were excluded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi 2 analysis, analysis of variance, and simple and stepwise regression. Fifty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. Those with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (n = 19) had significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts than did those with end-diastolic velocity present (n = 33) (nucleated red blood cells/100 nucleated cells +/- SD: 135.5 +/- 138 vs 17.4 +/- 23.7, p < 0.0001). These infants exhibited significantly longer time intervals for clearance of nucleated red blood cells from their circulation (p < 0.0001). They also had lower birth weights (p < 0.05), lower initial platelet count (p = 0.0006), lower arterial cord blood pH (p < 0.05), higher cord blood base deficit (p < 0.05), and an increased likelihood of cesarean section for "fetal distress" (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (p < 0.0001) and low birth weight (p < 0.0001) contributed to the elevation of the nucleated red blood cell count, whereas gestational age at delivery was not a significant contributor. We observed significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts and lower platelet counts in small

  13. Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of astronauts blood lymphocytes provides a direct in vivo measurement of space radiation damage, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity and considers the influence of microgravity and other stress conditions. We present our latest analyses of chromosome damage in astronauts blood lymphocytes assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting and collected at various times beginning directly after return from space to several years after flight. Dose was derived from frequencies of chromosome exchanges using preflight calibration curves, and the Relative Biological Effect (RBE) was estimated by comparison with individually measured physically absorbed doses. Values for average RBE were compared to the average quality factor (Q), from direct measurements of the lineal energy spectra using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and radiation transport codes. Results prove that cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses on blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk after protracted exposure to space radiation of a few months or more. However, data collected several months or years after flight suggests that the yield of chromosome translocations may decline with time after the mission, indicating that retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from one crewmember, who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions and has been followed up for over 10 years, provide limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis).

    PubMed

    Nevitt, Benjamin N; Langan, Jennifer N; Adkesson, Michael J; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Wilson, Rand

    2014-12-15

    Severe lymphocytosis and leukocytosis were detected during examination of a 10-year-old sexually intact male bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) with regionally extensive alopecia. A CBC revealed severe leukocytosis (39,100 leukocytes/μL) and marked lymphocytosis (90%). A blood smear consisted predominantly of intermediate-sized lymphocytes and few large lymphocytes, with mild to moderate nuclear atypia. These findings were highly suggestive of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates revealed no evidence of overt malignancy, with 10% of all cells identified as small to intermediate-sized mature lymphocytes. Treatment with chlorambucil and prednisone administered orally over a 1.8-year period decreased the leukocyte and lymphocyte counts to within reference intervals with no adverse effects. Although repeated flow cytometry revealed evidence of residual disease, the fox remained free of clinical disease, and WBC counts were within reference intervals for this species. At 22 months after initial evaluation, the fox was euthanized because of debilitating arthritis. No evidence of CLL was detected grossly or histologically during necropsy. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of CLL in a bat-eared fox and first successful treatment in a nondomestic carnivore. Treatment in accordance with a chemotherapeutic protocol successfully resolved the leukocytosis and lymphocytosis with no serious adverse effects. Description of this fox and the treatment protocol should provide a valuable reference for future cases in this and other nondomestic canine species.

  15. Density of CD8+ lymphocytes in biopsy samples combined with the circulating lymphocyte ratio predicts pathologic complete response to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Binyi; Peng, Jianhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yongchun; Fang, Yujing; Lin, Junzhong; Pan, Zhizhong; Wu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    The systemic status and local immune status, as determined by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or the lymphocyte ratio (LYMR) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) count, respectively, have been suggested as predictors of the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in rectal cancer, although the utility of these measures remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the values of the LYMR, NLR and TIL count and their combinations (TIL-LYMR/TIL-NLR) in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) after nCRT. Pretreatment biopsy samples and data from the blood tests of 92 patients with rectal cancer who underwent curative resection after nCRT were retrospectively obtained. CD8+ TILs were immunostained using an antibody against CD8. The density of CD8+ TILs was recorded as the number of CD8+ T cells per square millimeter, and the results were classified as either "high" or "low". The LYMR and NLR were calculated using pretreatment blood test data and categorized into either "high" or "low" groups. TIL-LYMR was graded as "low," "mid" or "high" when neither, one or both the CD8+ TIL count and LYMR were "high," respectively. TIL-NLR was graded similarly. The associations between TILs and LYMR, NLR and their combinations (TIL-LYMR/TIL-NLR) were evaluated. pCR was significantly associated with a high LYMR, a low NLR and increased chemotherapy cycles ( P =0.039, P =0.043 and P =0.015, respectively), but not with the CD8+ TIL count or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level ( P =0.100 and P =0.590, respectively). Additionally, 40% of patients with high LYMR and 40.7% with low NLR achieved pCR, whereas only 19.7% with low LYMR and 20.3% with high NLR did so. When the combinations were assessed, TIL-LYMR showed a positive correlation with pCR ( P =0.038), while no association between TIL-NLR and pCR was found ( P =0.916). In multivariate analysis, TIL-LYMR remained an independent predictor of pCR (odds ratio [OR]=1.833, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1

  16. Lymphocyte changes in beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, S; Schiliro, G; Romeo, M A; Sciotto, A; Rosalba, A; Pizzarelli, G

    1979-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 20 hypertransfused patients with beta-thalassaemia major, some of whom had been splenectomised. B-lymphocytes were normal but T-lymphocytes were decreased in all patients. The T-cell count was lower in the splenectomised patients than in the nonsplenectomised ones. In the former, the active rosette-forming lymphocytes were also diminished, but the difference was not significant. In all patients the percentage of null cells was greater and the activity of K-cells increased compared with controls. PMID:316991

  17. Blood eosinophil counts for the prediction of the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Y I; Choi, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that airway eosinophilic inflammation is associated with the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Blood eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study is to investigate that a simple and easy blood test for blood eosinphil counts may predict the severity of EIB in asthma. Seventy-seven men with perennial asthma (age range 18-23 years) were included. Lung function test, skin prick test, and blood tests for eosinophils counts and total IgE levels were performed. Methacholine bronchial provocation test and, 24 h later, free running test were carried out. EIB was defined as a 15% reduction or more in post-exercise FEV1 compared with pre-exercise FEV1 value. Atopy score was defined as a sum of mean wheal diameters to allergens. EIB was observed in 60 (78%) of 77 subjects. Asthmatics with EIB showed significantly increased percentages of eosinophils (P<0.01), log eosinophil counts (P<0.001), and atopy scores (P<0.05) and decreased log PC20 values (P < 0.05) compared with asthmatics without EIB. Asthmatics with eosinophils of > 700 microl(-1) (36.9 +/- 12.7%) had significantly greater maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise than asthmatics with eosinophils of < 350 microl(-1) (24.7 +/- 16.6%, P <0.05). Blood eosinophil counts > 350 microl(-1) yielded the specificity of 88% and positive predictive value of 93% for the presence of EIB. When a multiple regression analysis of maximal % fall in FEV1 according to log eosinophil counts, log PC20, log IgE and atopy score was performed, only blood eosinophil counts were significant factor contributing to the maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise. These findings not only suggest that a simple blood test for eosinophils may be useful in the prediction of the severity of EIB, but also reinforce the view that airway eosinophilic inflammation may play a major role in EIB in asthma.

  18. Genoprotective properties of astaxanthin revealed by ionizing radiation exposure in vitro on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pilinska, M A; Кurinnyi, D A; Rushkovsky, S R; Dybska, O B

    2016-12-01

    to identify possible radioprotective properties of astaxanthin by means of cytogenetic criteria. Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from five apparently healthy volunteers; treatment of lym phocytes' cultures by astaxanthin in final concentrations 20 μg/ml in Go phase of mitotic cycle, prior to ? irradia tion in vitro in a dose 1 Gy; cytogenetic analysis the uniformly stained slides of metaphase chromosomes. The elec trophoresis of individual cells (Comet assay); visualization of results under fluorescent microscope; accounting the number of nucleoid the fourth grade that correspond to apoptosis of the cells. Established that astaxanthin in final concentration 20.0 μg/ml exposed to the culture of human peripher al blood lymphocytes in the early G0 phase of mitotic cycle leads to significant reduction of cytogenetic effects induced by gamma irradiation in vitro in dose 1.0 Gy (from 26.05 ± 1.81 to 9.08 ± 0.78 per 100 cells, respectively) and to significant increase the frequency of apoptotic cells at the 48 hour of cultivation (from (3.78 ± 0.24) to (8.26 ± 0.91) %, respectively). The results obtained show the ability of astaxanthin to considerable weakening of radioinduced muta genic effect in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, which testify its powerful radioprotective potential. M. А. Pilinska, D. А. Кurinnyi, S. R. Rushkovsky, О. B. Dybska.

  19. Edaravone protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Liu, Yinghui; Dong, Liangliang; Chu, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-01

    Radiation-induced cellular injury is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, which play a key role in irradiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective efficacy of edaravone, a licensed clinical drug and a powerful free radical scavenger that has been tested against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in studies of various diseases. Edaravone was pre-incubated with lymphocytes for 2 h prior to γ-irradiation. It was found that pretreatment with edaravone increased cell viability and inhibited generation of γ-radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lymphocytes exposed to 3 Gy γ-radiation. In addition, γ-radiation decreased antioxidant enzymatic activity, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of reduced glutathione. Conversely, treatment with 100 μM edaravone prior to irradiation improved antioxidant enzyme activity and increased reduced glutathione levels in irradiated lymphocytes. Importantly, we also report that edaravone reduced γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis through downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and consequent reduction of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The current study shows edaravone to be an effective radioprotector against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in lymphocytes in vitro. Finally, edaravone pretreatment significantly reduced DNA damage in γ-irradiated lymphocytes, as measured by comet assay (% tail DNA, tail length, tail moment, and olive tail moment) (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study indicates that edaravone offers protection from radiation-induced cytogenetic alterations.

  20. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  1. Laboratory-based performance evaluation of PIMA CD4+ T-lymphocyte count point-of-care by lay-counselors in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Clement; Rose, Charles E; Inzaule, Seth; Desai, Mitesh A; Otieno, Fredrick; Humwa, Felix; Akoth, Benta; Omolo, Paul; Chen, Robert T; Kebede, Yenew; Samandari, Taraz

    2017-09-01

    CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians. In Phase II we compared POC performance by lay-counselors versus laboratory technicians using 147 paired capillary and venous specimens, and compared these to FACSCalibur™. Statistical analyses included Bland-Altman analyses, concordance correlation coefficient, sensitivity, and specificity at treatment eligibility thresholds of 200, 350, and 500cells/μl. Phase I: POC sensitivity and specificity were 93.0% and 84.1% at 500cells/μl, respectively. Phase II: Good agreement was observed for venous POC results from both lay-counselors (concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.873, bias -86.4cells/μl) and laboratory technicians (CCC=0.920, bias -65.7cells/μl). Capillary POC had good correlation: lay-counselors (CCC=0.902, bias -71.2cells/μl), laboratory technicians (CCC=0.918, bias -63.0cells/μl). Misclassification at the 500 cells/μl threshold for venous blood was 13.6% and 10.2% for lay-counselors and laboratory technicians and 12.2% for capillary blood in both groups. POC tended to under-classify the CD4 values with increasingly negative bias at higher CD4 values. Pima™ results were comparable to FACSCalibur™ for both venous and capillary specimens when operated by lay-counselors. POC CD4 testing has the potential to improve linkage to HIV care without burdening laboratory technicians in resource-limited settings. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Recommendation for standardization of haematology reporting units used in the extended blood count.

    PubMed

    Brereton, M; McCafferty, R; Marsden, K; Kawai, Y; Etzell, J; Ermens, A

    2016-10-01

    It is desirable in the interest of patient safety that the reporting of laboratory results should be standardized where no valid reason for diversity exists. This study considers the reporting units used for the extended blood cell count and makes a new ICSH recommendation to encourage standardization worldwide. This work is based on a literature review that included the original ICSH recommendations and on data gathered from an international survey of current practice completed by 18 countries worldwide. The survey results show that significant diversity in the use of reporting units for the blood count exists worldwide. The use of either non-SI or other units not recommended by the ICSH in the early 1980s has persisted despite the guidance from that time. The diversity in use of reporting units occurs in three areas: the persistence in use of non-SI units for RBC, WBC and platelet counts, the use of three different units for haemoglobin concentration and the manual reporting of WBC differential, reticulocytes and nucleated RBCs when the latter are available from automated analysis or can be expressed as absolute numbers by calculation. A new recommendation with a rationale for each parameter is made for standardization of the reporting units used for the extended blood count. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Platelets, lymphocytes and erythrocytes from Alzheimer's disease patients: the quest for blood cell-based biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Ryszard; Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Januszewski, Sławomir; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2018-01-01

    In elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and accounts for about 70% of all cases of dementia. The neurodegenerative processes of this disease start presumably 20 years ahead of the clinical beginning of the disorder. The postmortem histopathological examination, brains from Alzheimer's disease patients with characteristic features like amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic disintegration confirm the final diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaques are composed of -amyloid peptide, deriving from the amyloid protein precursor, which is present not only in the brain tissue, but also in other non-neuronal tissues. Some investigations reported that platelets possess amyloid protein precursor and all the enzymatic activities required for the metabolism of this protein throughout the same pathways present in the brain. Thus, platelets may be a good peripheral blood cell-based biomarker to study the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Another line of research indicated molecular and cellular aberrations in blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes from Alzheimer's disease patients and emphasizes the systemic nature of the disease. In this review, we will summarize the recent knowledge on the involvement and/or response of platelets, lymphocytes and red blood cells in the circulation during Alzheimer's disease development. The facts will be reviewed with the special possibility for applying the above blood cells as Alzheimer's disease preclinical and antemortem blood cell-based biomarkers.

  4. Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data.

    PubMed

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Goshen, Ran; Choman, Eran; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Kinar, Yaron; Liles, Elizabeth G; Rust, Kristal C

    2017-10-01

    Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. ColonFlag ® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.

  5. Total lymphocyte count as a predictor of absolute CD4+ count and CD4+ percentage in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Blatt, S P; Lucey, C R; Butzin, C A; Hendrix, C W; Lucey, D R

    1993-02-03

    To determine whether the total lymphocyte count (TLC) accurately predicts a low absolute CD4+ T-cell count and CD4+ percentage in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Retrospective analysis of data collected in the US Air Force HIV Natural History Study. Military medical center that performs annual medical evaluation of all HIV-infected US Air Force personnel. A total of 828 consecutive patients with no prior history of zidovudine use, evaluated from January 1985 through July 1991. For patients with multiple observations over time, a single data point within each 6-month interval was included in the analysis (N = 2866). The sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) of the TLC, in the range of 1.00 x 10(9)/L to 2.00 x 10(9)/L, in predicting an absolute CD4+ T-cell count less than 0.20 x 10(9)/L or a CD4+ percentage less than 20% were calculated. In addition, the LR and pretest probability of significant immunosuppression were used to calculate posttest probabilities of a low CD4+ count for a given TLC value. The LR of the TLC in predicting an absolute CD4+ count < 0.20 x 10(9)/L increased from 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 2.5) for all TLCs less than 2.00 x 10(9)/L, to 33.2 (95% confidence interval, 24.1 to 45.7) for all TLCs less than 1.00 x 10(9)/L. The specificity for this prediction increased from 57% to 97% over this range. The LR also increased from 1.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for all TLCs less than 2.00 x 10(9)/L to 9.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.1 to 13.1) for all TLCs less than 1.00 x 10(9)/L in predicting a CD4+ percentage less than 20%. The TLC, between 1.00 x 10(9)/L and 2.00 x 10(9)/L, appears to be a useful predictor of significant immunosuppression as measured by a CD4+ T-cell count less than 0.20 x 10(9)/L in HIV-infected persons. The LR for a given TLC value and the pretest probability of immunosuppression can be used to determine the posttest probability of significant immunosuppression in

  6. Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna; Zeni, Olga; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Gialanella, Giancarlo; Grossi, Gianfranco; Manti, Lorenzo; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes which have been pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields exhibit an adaptive response (AR) by resisting the induction of genetic damage from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four healthy donors were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h and then exposed for 20 h to 1950 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, adaptive dose, AD) at an average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. At 48 h, the cells were subjected to a challenge dose (CD) of 1.0 or 1.5 Gy X-irradiation (XR, challenge dose, CD). After a 72 h total culture period, cells were collected to examine the incidence of micronuclei (MN). There was a significant decrease in the number of MN in lymphocytes exposed to RF + XR (AD + CD) as compared with those subjected to XR alone (CD). These observations thus suggested a RF-induced AR and induction of resistance to subsequent damage from XR. There was variability between the donors in RF-induced AR. The data reported in our earlier investigations also indicated a similar induction of AR in human blood lymphocytes that had been pre-exposed to RF (AD) and subsequently treated with a chemical mutagen, mitomycin C (CD). Since XR and mitomycin-C induce different kinds of lesions in cellular DNA, further studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the RF-induced adaptive response.

  7. Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage

    PubMed Central

    Sannino, Anna; Zeni, Olga; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Gialanella, Giancarlo; Grossi, Gianfranco; Manti, Lorenzo; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes which have been pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields exhibit an adaptive response (AR) by resisting the induction of genetic damage from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four healthy donors were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h and then exposed for 20 h to 1950 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, adaptive dose, AD) at an average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. At 48 h, the cells were subjected to a challenge dose (CD) of 1.0 or 1.5 Gy X-irradiation (XR, challenge dose, CD). After a 72 h total culture period, cells were collected to examine the incidence of micronuclei (MN). There was a significant decrease in the number of MN in lymphocytes exposed to RF + XR (AD + CD) as compared with those subjected to XR alone (CD). These observations thus suggested a RF-induced AR and induction of resistance to subsequent damage from XR. There was variability between the donors in RF-induced AR. The data reported in our earlier investigations also indicated a similar induction of AR in human blood lymphocytes that had been pre-exposed to RF (AD) and subsequently treated with a chemical mutagen, mitomycin C (CD). Since XR and mitomycin-C induce different kinds of lesions in cellular DNA, further studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the RF-induced adaptive response. PMID:23979077

  8. The Effect of In Vivo Hydrocortisone on Subpopulations of Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, Anthony S.; Dale, David C.

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of in vivo hydrocortisone on subpopulations of lymphoid cells in normal humans. Subjects received a single intravenous dose of either 100 mg or 400 mg of hydrocortisone, and blood was drawn at hourly intervals for 6 h, and then again at 10 and 24 h after injection. Profound decreases in absolute numbers of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes occurred at 4-6 h after both 100 mg and 400 mg of hydrocortisone. Counts returned to normal by 24 h. The relative proportion of circulating thymus-derived lymphocytes as measured by the sheep red blood cell rosette assay decreased maximally by 4 h and returned to base line 24 h after hydrocortisone. There was a selective depletion of functional subpopulations of lymphocytes as represented by differential effects on in vitro stimulation with various mitogens and antigens. Phytohaemagglutinin response was relatively unaffected, while responses to concanavalin A were significantly diminished. Responses to pokeweed mitogen were unaffected by 100 mg of hydrocortisone, but greatly diminished by 400 mg of hydrocortisone. In vitro responses to the antigens streptokinase-streptodornase and tetanus toxoid were markedly diminished by in vivo hydrocortisone. Reconstitution of monocyte-depleted cultures with autologous monocytes partially corrected the diminished response to antigens. This transient selective depletion of monocytes and subsets of human lymphocytes by a single dose of hydrocortisone is most compatible with a redistribution of these cells out of the circulation into other body compartments. Images PMID:4808638

  9. Cytotoxic lymphocytes in Hashimoto thyroiditis: an in vitro assay system using 51Cr-labelled chicken red blood cells coated with thyroglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Elizabeth A.; Penhale, W. J.; Barnes, E. W.; Irvine, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    An in vitro method is described to detect lymphocytes in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis that are cytotoxic to thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells. Using this technique, the cytotoxic index of lymphocytes from patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis was 25·46±3·81 (SEM), which is significantly different from that obtained with lymphocytes from control subjects, 6·28±0·80. PMID:4740396

  10. Ceruloplasmin expression by human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a new link between immunity and iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Banha, João; Marques, Liliana; Oliveira, Rita; Martins, Maria de Fátima; Paixão, Eleonora; Pereira, Dina; Malhó, Rui; Penque, Deborah; Costa, Luciana

    2008-02-01

    Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a multicopper oxidase involved in the acute phase reaction to stress. Although the physiological role of CP is uncertain, its role in iron (Fe) homeostasis and protection against free radical-initiated cell injury has been widely documented. Previous studies showed the existence of two molecular isoforms of CP: secreted CP (sCP) and a membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form of CP (GPI-CP). sCP is produced mainly by the liver and is abundant in human serum whereas GPI-CP is expressed in mammalian astrocytes, rat leptomeningeal cells, and Sertolli cells. Herein, we show using RT-PCR that human peripheral blood lymphocytes (huPBL) constitutively express the transcripts for both CP molecular isoforms previously reported. Also, expression of CP in huPBL is demonstrated by immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis using cells isolated from healthy blood donors with normal Fe status. Importantly, the results obtained show that natural killer cells have a significantly higher CP expression compared to all other major lymphocyte subsets. In this context, the involvement of lymphocyte-derived CP on host defense processes via its anti/prooxidant properties is proposed, giving further support for a close functional interaction between the immune system and the Fe metabolism.

  11. Historical data decrease complete blood count reflex blood smear review rates without missing patients with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rabizadeh, Esther; Pickholtz, Itay; Barak, Mira; Froom, Paul

    2013-08-01

    The availability of historical data decreases the rate of blood smear review rates in outpatients, but we are unaware of studies done at referral centres. In the following study, we determined the effect of historical data on the rates of peripheral blood smears over a 3-month period and then the detection rate of patients with acute leukaemia. All results of complete blood counts (CBCs) tested on three ADVIA 120 analyzers at the regional Rabin Medical Centre, Beilinson Campus over a 3-month period were accessed on a computerised laboratory information system. Over a 3-month period, we determined the proportion of total CBC and patients with criteria for a manual differential count and the actual number of peripheral blood smears done. Finally, we determined the proportion of 100 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia detected using our criteria that included limiting reflex testing according to historical data. Over the 3-month period, there were 34,827 tests done in 12,785 patients. Without historical data, our smear rate would have been 24.5%, but with the availability of historical data, the blood smear review rate was 5.6%. The detection rate for cases of acute leukaemia was 100%. We conclude that the availability of previous test results significantly reduces the need for blood smear review without missing any patients with acute leukaemia.

  12. Reticulocyte count in red-blood-cell units stored in AS-1.

    PubMed

    Urbina, A; Palomino, F

    2013-05-01

    Previous data that showed maintenance of reticulocyte percentage in whole blood stored in CPDA-1 have led to the assumption that reticulocyte maturation becomes arrested during refrigerated storage. However, reticulocyte behaviour in red-blood-cell units stored in additive solutions has not yet been studied. This study was thus aimed at determining reticulocyte count and reticulocyte subtypes in red-blood-cells units stored in AS-1. Reticulocyte percentage and subtypes were determined by flow cytometry with thiazole orange in six red-blood-cells units stored in AS-1. Reticulocyte count was 26.8 ± 4.6 × 10(9) /l at week 0.5 and 8.2 ± 2.9 × 10(9) /l at week 6. Total haemolysis during storage was 0.19 ± 0.08%. High-fluorescence reticulocytes were 2.0 ± 3.2 × 10(9) /l at week 0.5 and decreased by weeks 2, 4 and 6. Low-fluorescence reticulocytes were 22.1 ± 3.1 × 10(9) /l at week 0.5 and decreased by weeks 4 and 6. A significant decrease in reticulocytes occurred during red-blood-cells units' storage in AS-1. Even if it were assumed that all of haemolysed cells during storage were reticulocytes, there are a number of them whose disappearance cannot be explained by this mechanism. Changes observed in reticulocyte subtypes suggest that they mature during storage. © 2013 The Author(s) Vox Sanguinis © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Enhancing the Accuracy of Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio after Adjustment for Large Platelet Count: A Pilot Study in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seretis, Charalampos; Seretis, Fotios; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Politou, Marianna; Gemenetzis, George; Salemis, Nikolaos S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The objective of our study is to investigate the potential effect of adjusting preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio, an emerging biomarker of survival in cancer patients, for the fraction of large platelets. Methods. A total of 79 patients with breast neoplasias, 44 with fibroadenomas, and 35 with invasive ductal carcinoma were included in the study. Both conventional platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the adjusted marker, large platelet to lymphocyte ratio (LPLR), were correlated with laboratory and histopathological parameters of the study sample. Results. LPLR elevation was significantly correlated with the presence of malignancy, advanced tumor stage, metastatic spread in the axillary nodes and HER2/neu overexpression, while PLR was only correlated with the number of infiltrated lymph nodes. Conclusions. This is the first study evaluating the effect of adjustment for large platelet count on improving PLR accuracy, when correlated with the basic independent markers of survival in a sample of breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed in order to assess the possibility of applying our adjustment as standard in terms of predicting survival rates in cancer. PMID:23304480

  14. Enhancing the accuracy of platelet to lymphocyte ratio after adjustment for large platelet count: a pilot study in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seretis, Charalampos; Seretis, Fotios; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Politou, Marianna; Gemenetzis, George; Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2012-01-01

    Background. The objective of our study is to investigate the potential effect of adjusting preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio, an emerging biomarker of survival in cancer patients, for the fraction of large platelets. Methods. A total of 79 patients with breast neoplasias, 44 with fibroadenomas, and 35 with invasive ductal carcinoma were included in the study. Both conventional platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the adjusted marker, large platelet to lymphocyte ratio (LPLR), were correlated with laboratory and histopathological parameters of the study sample. Results. LPLR elevation was significantly correlated with the presence of malignancy, advanced tumor stage, metastatic spread in the axillary nodes and HER2/neu overexpression, while PLR was only correlated with the number of infiltrated lymph nodes. Conclusions. This is the first study evaluating the effect of adjustment for large platelet count on improving PLR accuracy, when correlated with the basic independent markers of survival in a sample of breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed in order to assess the possibility of applying our adjustment as standard in terms of predicting survival rates in cancer.

  15. Reconstitution of lymphocyte subpopulations after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison of hematologic malignancies and donor types in event-free patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Borae G; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Jang, Seongsoo; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung

    2015-12-01

    The reconstitution of different immunocyte subsets after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), follows different timelines. We prospectively investigated changes in lymphocyte subsets after HSCT and their associations with primary diagnosis, conditioning regimen, and HSCT type in event-free patients. A total of 95 patients (48 with acute myeloid leukemia, 22 with acute lymphoid leukemia, and 25 with myelodysplastic syndrome) who underwent allogeneic HSCT (34 sibling matched, 37 unrelated matched, and 24 haploidentical HSCT) but did not experience any events such as relapse or death were enrolled in this study. Lymphocyte subpopulations (T cells, helper/inducer T cells, cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, memory T cells, regulatory T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NK-T cells, and B cells) were quantified by flow cytometry of peripheral blood from recipients 7 days before and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after HSCT. Leukocyte counts recovered within 1 month after HSCT. However, the number of T and B lymphocytes recovered at 2 months after HSCT. NK cell counts recovered shortly after haploidentical HSCT. However, T lymphocytes and their subpopulations showed delayed recovery after haploidentical HSCT. Lymphocyte subsets showed different sequential patterns according to HSCT type but no differences were seen according to primary diagnosis or conditioning regimen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care

    PubMed Central

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2015-01-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange. PMID:26601006

  17. Evaluation of Complete Blood Count Indices (NLR, PLR, MPV/PLT, and PLCRi) in Healthy Dogs, Dogs With Periodontitis, and Dogs With Oropharyngeal Tumors as Potential Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Rejec, Ana; Butinar, Janos; Gawor, Jerzy; Petelin, Milan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess complete blood count (CBC) indices of dogs with periodontitis (PD; n = 73) and dogs with oropharyngeal tumors (OT; n = 92) in comparison to CBC indices of healthy dogs (HD; n = 71). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume to platelet ratio, and platelet large cell ratio index (PLCRi) were evaluated as biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response provoked by PD and OT. Results of multivariable polytomous logistic regression analysis indicated no significant associations between CBC indices and PD. Both NLR and PLCRi were significantly higher in dogs with OT when compared to HD and dogs with PD and could, therefore, indicate a tumor-associated systemic inflammatory response. Additional studies of CBC indices, along with other biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response, are recommended to validate them as reliable indicators of clinical disease activity.

  18. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with severe tinnitus: prospective, controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, I; Kahraman, C; Balikci, H H; Kucur, C; Kahraman, N K; Ozkaya, D P; Oghan, F

    2015-06-01

    To determine the relationship between severe tinnitus and inflammation using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of stress. A total of 107 patients who had been suffering with severe tinnitus (tinnitus handicap inventory scale grades of 3-5) for at least 2 weeks were recruited. Patients underwent detailed ENT examinations and audiometric tests to exclude a relevant pathological cause of the tinnitus. Patients with systemic diseases, malignancy or inflammatory diseases that could alter neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were excluded. A total of 107 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants were also recruited. Routine laboratory test results and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were compared between the patients and controls. Lipid profile, liver function, white blood cell count, haemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels were similar among the patients and controls. However, mean neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the patients than the controls (p < 0.05). The findings of this novel study suggest that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio should be considered during the evaluation of tinnitus patients as a potential clinical marker of tinnitus. Further studies are required to verify the findings.

  19. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  20. Detection of adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV) bearing lymphocytes in concentrated red blood cells derived from ATL associated antibody (ATLA-Ab) positive donors.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Y; Ohya, K; Ueda, R; Fukuda, T

    1986-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia associated antibody (ATLA-Ab) positive persons were screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) testing. Their lymphocytes were collected from concentrated red blood cells (CRC), and cultured in vitro with and without phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 10 days. The expression of ATL virus (ATLV) positive lymphocytes during the in vitro culture was then analyzed by IF assay using mouse monoclonal antibody ATL-19 reactive to p19 core protein of ATLV. 97% of ATLA-Ab positive CRC (36 cases) demonstrated ATLV positive lymphocytes after being cultured for more than 10 days with PHA, whereas, none of ATLA-Ab negative CRC (22 cases) demonstrated ATLV positive lymphocytes. All of the 10 ATLA-Ab positive CRC that were stored for 2, 4, and 7 days contained lymphocytes which expressed ATLV after in vitro culture, while 7 of 10 CRC stored for 14 days and only 1 of 10 CRCs stored for 20 days, expressed ATLV positive lymphocytes. This data indicates that almost all of the ATLA-Ab positive blood contained ATLV positive lymphocytes, and that the in vitro appearance of these ATLV positive lymphocytes was reduced by storing the CRC for more than 14 days.

  1. Increased naive CD4+ and B lymphocyte subsets are associated with body mass loss and drive relative lymphocytosis in anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Elegido, Ana; Graell, Montserrat; Andrés, Patricia; Gheorghe, Alina; Marcos, Ascensión; Nova, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an atypical form of malnutrition with peculiar changes in the immune system. We hypothesized that different lymphocyte subsets are differentially affected by malnutrition in AN, and thus, our aim was to investigate the influence of body mass loss on the variability of lymphocyte subsets in AN patients. A group of 66 adolescent female patients, aged 12-17 years, referred for their first episode of either AN or feeding or eating disorders not elsewhere classified were studied upon admission (46 AN-restricting subtype, 11 AN-binge/purging subtype, and 9 feeding or eating disorders not elsewhere classified). Ninety healthy adolescents served as controls. White blood cells and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Relationships with the body mass index (BMI) z score were assessed in linear models adjusted by diagnostic subtype and age. Leukocyte numbers were lower in AN patients than in controls, and relative lymphocytosis was observed in AN-restricting subtype. Lower CD8 + , NK, and memory CD8 + counts were found in eating disorder patients compared with controls. No differences were found for CD4 + counts or naive and memory CD4 + subsets between the groups. Negative associations between lymphocyte percentage and the BMI z score, as well as between the B cell counts, naive CD4 + percentage and counts, and the BMI z score, were found. In conclusion, increased naive CD4 + and B lymphocyte subsets associated with body mass loss drive the relative lymphocytosis observed in AN patients, which reflects an adaptive mechanism to preserve the adaptive immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  3. Prognostic significance of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-09-14

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who received palliative chemotherapy. A total of 104 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who underwent palliative chemotherapy were enrolled. The LMR was calculated from blood samples by dividing the absolute lymphocyte count by the absolute monocyte count. Pre-treatment LMR values were measured within one week before the initiation of chemotherapy, while post-treatment LMR values were measured eight weeks after the initiation of chemotherapy. The median pre-treatment LMR was 4.16 (range: 0.58-14.06). We set 3.38 as the cut-off level based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Based on the cut-off level of 3.38, 66 patients were classified into the high pre-treatment LMR group and 38 patients were classified into the low pre-treatment LMR group. The low pre-treatment LMR group had a significantly worse overall survival rate (P = 0.0011). Moreover, patients who demonstrated low pre-treatment LMR and normalization after treatment exhibited a better overall survival rate than the patients with low pre-treatment and post-treatment LMR values. The lymphocyte to monocyte ratio is a useful prognostic marker in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who receive palliative chemotherapy.

  4. Specific high-affinity binding sites for a synthetic gliadin heptapeptide of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Payan, D.G.; Horvath, K.; Graf, L.

    1987-03-23

    The synthetic peptide containing residues 43-49 of ..cap alpha..-gliadin, the major protein component of gluten, has previously been shown to inhibit the production of lymphokine activities by mononuclear leukocytes. The authors demonstrate using radiolabeled ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) that human peripheral blood lymphocytes express approximately 20,000-25,000 surface receptors for this peptide, with a dissociation constant (K/sub D/) of 20 nM. In addition, binding is inhibited by naloxone and an enkephalin analog, thus confirming the functional correlate which demonstrates inhibition by these agents of ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) functional effects. Furthermore, B-lymphocytes bind specifically a greater amount of (/sup 125/I)..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) than T-lymphocytes. The lymphocytemore » ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) receptor may play an important role in mediating the immunological response to ..cap alpha..-gliadin. 16 references, 4 figures.« less

  5. Prediction of New-Onset and Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation by Complete Blood Count Tests: A Comprehensive Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Alexander; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Liu, Tong; Lotfaliani, Mohammadreza; de Oliveira Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros; Baker, William L.; Yavuz, Senol; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Jang, Jae-Sik; Dehghan, Hamidreza; Meng, Lei; Testa, Luca; D’Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Benedetto, Umberto; Tse, Gary; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Deshmukh, Abhishek J.; Linde, Cecilia; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Stone, Gregg W.; Calkins, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most critical and frequent arrhythmias precipitating morbidities and mortalities. The complete blood count (CBC) test is an important blood test in clinical practice and is routinely used in the workup of cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of hematological parameters in the CBC test with new-onset and recurrent AF. Material/Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating hematologic parameters in patients with new-onset AF and recurrent AF. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Results The literature search of all major databases retrieved 2150 studies. After screening, 70 studies were analyzed in the meta-analysis on new-onset AF and 23 studies on recurrent AF. Pooled analysis on new-onset AF showed platelet count (PC) (weighted mean difference (WMD)=WMD of −26.39×109/L and p<0.001), mean platelet volume (MPV) (WMD=0.42 FL and p<0.001), white blood cell (WBC) (WMD=−0.005×109/L and p=0.83), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (WMD=0.89 and p<0.001), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (WMD=0.61% and p<0.001) as associated factors. Pooled analysis on recurrent AF revealed PC (WMD=−2.71×109/L and p=0.59), WBC (WMD=0.20×109/L (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.32; p=0.002), NLR (WMD=0.37 and p<0.001), and RDW (WMD=0.28% and p<0.001). Conclusions Hematological parameters have significant ability to predict occurrence and recurrence of AF. Therefore, emphasizing the potential predictive role of hematological parameters for new-onset and recurrent AF, we recommend adding the CBC test to the diagnostic modalities of AF in clinical practice. PMID:28496093

  6. Prediction of New-Onset and Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation by Complete Blood Count Tests: A Comprehensive Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Liu, Tong; Lotfaliani, Mohammadreza; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Baker, William L L; Yavuz, Senol; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Jang, Jae-Sik; Dehghan, Hamidreza; Meng, Lei; Testa, Luca; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Benedetto, Umberto; Tse, Gary; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Dohmen, Pascal M; Deshmukh, Abhishek J; Linde, Cecilia; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Stone, Gregg W; Calkins, Hugh; Surgery And Cardiology-Group Imcsc-Group, Integrated Meta-Analysis Of Cardiac

    2017-05-12

    BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most critical and frequent arrhythmias precipitating morbidities and mortalities. The complete blood count (CBC) test is an important blood test in clinical practice and is routinely used in the workup of cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of hematological parameters in the CBC test with new-onset and recurrent AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating hematologic parameters in patients with new-onset AF and recurrent AF. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS The literature search of all major databases retrieved 2150 studies. After screening, 70 studies were analyzed in the meta-analysis on new-onset AF and 23 studies on recurrent AF. Pooled analysis on new-onset AF showed platelet count (PC) (weighted mean difference (WMD)=WMD of -26.39×10^9/L and p<0.001), mean platelet volume (MPV) (WMD=0.42 FL and p<0.001), white blood cell (WBC) (WMD=-0.005×10^9/L and p=0.83), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (WMD=0.89 and p<0.001), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (WMD=0.61% and p<0.001) as associated factors. Pooled analysis on recurrent AF revealed PC (WMD=-2.71×109/L and p=0.59), WBC (WMD=0.20×10^9/L (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.32; p=0.002), NLR (WMD=0.37 and p<0.001), and RDW (WMD=0.28% and p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Hematological parameters have significant ability to predict occurrence and recurrence of AF. Therefore, emphasizing the potential predictive role of hematological parameters for new-onset and recurrent AF, we recommend adding the CBC test to the diagnostic modalities of AF in clinical practice.

  7. Adaptive and automatic red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Zhou, Mei; Qiu, Song; Sun, Li; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cell counting, as a routine examination, plays an important role in medical diagnoses. Although automated hematology analyzers are widely used, manual microscopic examination by a hematologist or pathologist is still unavoidable, which is time-consuming and error-prone. This paper proposes a full-automatic red blood cell counting method which is based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging of blood smears and combines spatial and spectral information to achieve high precision. The acquired hyperspectral image data of the blood smear in the visible and near-infrared spectral range are firstly preprocessed, and then a quadratic blind linear unmixing algorithm is used to get endmember abundance images. Based on mathematical morphological operation and an adaptive Otsu’s method, a binaryzation process is performed on the abundance images. Finally, the connected component labeling algorithm with magnification-based parameter setting is applied to automatically select the binary images of red blood cell cytoplasm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can perform well and has potential for clinical applications.

  8. A comparative immunohistochemical and immunophenotypical study on lymphocytes expression in patients affected by oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Guido; Viviano, Massimo; Chisci, Elettra; Chisci, Glauco; Picciotti, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology. OLP has many manifestations: reticular, erosive, atrophic, plaque like, papular, bullous, with unique etiopathogenetic working. The purpose of this study is to find a link between different clinical types of lichen and the alterations of lymphocytes on peripheral blood and oral mucosa. A total of 21 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 53.82 years, between 31 and 78 years. OLP Diagnosis was afterwards confirmed by histopathology. Selected patients underwent to clinical evaluation, lesion characterization, incisional biopsy, samples histological analysis, peripheral blood collection. Blood specimens were submitted to cell count determination with differential, characterization of populations and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometry. Referring to the clinical presentation of lesions, patients were divided in two groups: red lesions (RL) and white lesions (WL) and compared with an age-matched control group. The results of the immunophenotypic study showed correlation between WL and the expression of CD19 lymphocytes (r = 0.693, P = 0.0005). The results of immunohistochemical study performed on histological specimens showed a significant correlation between RL group and expression of all lymphocyte tested (CD3 r = 0.722 P = 0.0002, CD4 r = 0.579 P = 0.0060, CD56 r = 0.513 P = 0.0173, CD8 r = 0.548 P = 0.0102). We assume there is the responsibility of the expression of lymphocytes, not only type but also as quantity, in determining RL or WL manifestation of OLP. Circulating lymphocytes may have a role, too. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Using the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry; Rhone, J.; Chappell, L. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes remains the most sensitive and reliable method available for in vivo assessment of the biological effects of exposure to radiation and provides the most informative measurement of radiation induced health risks. To date chromosome damage has been assessed in lymphocytes from more than 30 astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of three months or more on board the International Space Station. For all individuals, the frequency of chromosome damage measured within a month of return from space was higher than their prefight yield and biodosimetry estimates lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. Biodosimetry data provides a direct measurement of space radiation damage, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity in the presence of confounding factors such as microgravity and other stress conditions. In contrast to physical measurements, which are external to body and require multiple devices to detect all radiation types all of which have poor sensitivity to neutrons, biodosimetry is internal and includes the effects of shielding provided by the body itself plus chromosome damage shows excellent sensitivity to protons, heavy ions, and neutrons. In addition, chromosome damage is reflective of cancer risk and biodosimetry values can therefore be used to validate and develop risk assessment models that can be used to characterize excess health risk incurred by crewmembers. A review of astronaut biodosimetry data will be presented along with recent findings on the persistence of space radiation induced chromosome damage and the cytogenetic effects of repeat long duration missions

  10. [Lower lymphocyte response in severe cases of acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Antúnez-Fernández, Cristina; Milano-Manso, Guillermo; Cordón-Martínez, Ana María; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015. Those with a full blood count in the first 48hours of respiratory distress were included. Infants with underlying disease, bacterial superinfection, and premature infants <32 weeks of gestation were excluded. The main dichotomous variable was PICU admission. Other variables were: gender, age, post-menstrual age, gestational and post-natal tobacco exposure, admission month, type of lactation, and days of onset of respiratory distress. Lymphocyte counts were categorised by quartiles. Bivariate analysis was performed with the main variable and then by logistic regression to analyse confounding factors. The study included 252 infants, of whom 6.6% (17) required PICU admission. The difference in mean±SD of lymphocytes for patients admitted to and not admitted to PICU was 4,044±1755 and 5,035±1786, respectively (Student-t test, P<.05). An association was found between PICU admission and lymphocyte count <3700/ml (Chi-squared, P=.019; OR: 3.2) and it was found to be maintained in the logistic regression, regardless of age and all other studied factors (Wald 4.191 P=.041, OR: 3.8). A relationship was found between lymphocytosis <3700/ml in the first days of respiratory distress and a worse outcome in previously healthy infants <12 months and gestational age greater than 32 weeks with RSV-AB. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Colony formation by normal and malignant human B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre, C. A.; Minden, M. D.; Howatson, A. F.; McCulloch, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described that permits colony formation in culture by B lymphocytes from normal blood and from blood, marrow or lymph nodes of patients with myeloma or lymphoma. The method depends on: (1) exhaustively depleting cell suspensions of T lymphocytes, (2) a medium conditioned by T lymphocytes in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-TCM), and (3) irradiated autologous or homologous T lymphocytes. Under these conditions the assay is linear. Cellular development of B lymphocytes can be followed; differentiation to plasma cells is seen in cultures of cells from normal individuals and myeloma patients, but not lymphoma patients. Malignant B lymphocytes in culture produced immunoglobulin of the class identified in the patient's blood, or in freshly obtained cells. We conclude that the assay is suitable for studying the growth, differentiation and regulation of normal and malignant B lymphocytes in culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6968572

  12. Marked reduction of radiation-induced micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes pretreated with melatonin

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayalaxmi; Reiter, R.J.; Leal, B.Z.

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes which were pretreated in vitro with melatonin, and endogenously synthesized pineal hormone, for 20 min at 37 {plus_minus} 1{degrees}C exhibited a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the frequency of {gamma}radiation-induced micronuclei compared with irradiated cells which did not receive the pretreatment. The extent of the reduction observed with 2.0 mM melatonin was similar to that found in lymphocytes pretreated for 20 min with 1.0 M dimethylsulfoxide, a known free radical scavenger. These observations indicate that melatonin may have an active role in protection of humans against genetic damage due to endogenously produced free radicals, and alsomore » may be of use in reducing damage due to exposure to physical and chemical mutagens and carcinogens which generate free radicals. 25 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of blood leukocyte counts as an indicator of mortality in horses after colic surgery.

    PubMed

    Salciccia, A; Sandersen, C; Grulke, S; de la Rebière de Pouyade, G; Caudron, I; Serteyn, D; Detilleux, J

    2013-09-21

    The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative period to obtain an indicator of the outcome, and compare the obtained value to a validation population of horses. Fifty-three horses undergoing colic surgery were included in the descriptive part of the study. Total leukocyte counts were performed before, during and serially after surgery. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on the leukocyte counts of 45 of these horses to determine a cut-off value for the outcome. The results obtained were validated on a second set of 50 horses that underwent colic surgery in similar conditions. The kinetics of blood leukocytes in survivors was higher than in non-survivors during the first days. Non-survivor horses were more likely to have at least one blood leukocyte count ≤ 3.9 × 10(3)/mm(3) between 28 and 60 hours after surgery than survivor horses. This cut-off value was confirmed in the validation population. These results suggest that routine values of blood leukocyte counts can be used as an additional prognostic indicator after colic surgery alongside other predictors previously associated with the outcome.

  14. Neonatal nucleated red blood cells in infants of overweight and obese mothers.

    PubMed

    Sheffer-Mimouni, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul; Mandel, Dror; Deutsch, Varda; Littner, Yoav

    2007-06-01

    The perinatal outcome of the infant of obese mother is adversely affected and in theory, may involve fetal hypoxia. We hypothesized that an index of fetal hypoxia, the neonatal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count, is elevated in infants of overweight and obese mothers. Absolute NRBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in 41 infants of overweight and obese mothers were compared to 28 controls. Maternal body mass index and infant birthweight were significantly higher in the overweight and obese group (P < 0.01). Hematocrit, corrected white blood cell and lymphocyte counts did not differ between groups. The absolute NRBC count was higher (P = 0.01), and the platelet count lower (P = 0.05) in infants of overweight and obese mothers than in controls. In stepwise regression analysis, the absolute NRBC count in infants of overweight and obese mothers remained significantly higher even after taking into account birthweight or gestational age and Apgar scores (P < 0.02). Infants of overweight and obese mothers have increased nucleated red blood cells at birth compared with controls. We speculate that even apparently healthy fetuses of overweight and obese mothers are exposed to a subtle hypoxemic environment.

  15. Association between red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbanraja, S. N.; Siregar, D. I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell indices, hemoglobin, and hematocrit reflect rapidity of HIV disease progression. This study aims to determine red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women. This study was a cross sectional study conducted at AIDS outpatient clinic at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan Indonesia. All seropositive reproductive women within antiretroviral therapy consented for blood count and CD4 examination. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. In subjects with CD4≤350 mm3, mean hemoglobin was 10.95 ± 2.01, hematocrit was 31.83 ± 5.04%, MCV was 84.17 ± 11.41, MCH was 25.98 ± 2.65, and MCHC was 32.18 ± 2.17. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCH value was significantly lower in subjects with CD4 ≤350 mm3 (p=0.014; p=0.001; p=0.01; respectively). Lower Hb, Ht, and MCH associated with thelower CD4 count.

  16. Old beagle dogs have lower faecal concentrations of some fermentation products and lower peripheral lymphocyte counts than young adult beagles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Márcia de Oliveira Sampaio; Beraldo, Mariana Casteleti; Putarov, Thaila Cristina; Brunetto, Márcio Antônio; Zaine, Leandro; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2011-10-01

    The effects of age on microbiota composition, gut fermentation end-product formation and peripheral lymphocyte numbers were compared between old and young adult Beagle dogs fed four kibble diets differing in yeast cell wall contents. The experiment had a double 4 × 4 Latin square design, one with four mature dogs (4 years old) and the other with four old dogs (10 years old), with four replicates (diets) per dog. In each period a 15 d adaptation period preceded a 5 d total collection of faeces for the digestibility trial. On day 21, fresh faecal samples were collected for the determination of bacterial enumeration, pH, biogenic amine and short-chain fatty acid. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotypic evaluation. Dogs were fed four kibble diets with similar composition with 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 % of yeast cell wall (as-fed), respectively. Data were evaluated using general linear models of Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software (P < 0.05). No evidence of a difference in faecal bacteria counts between ages was found (total aerobes, total anaerobes, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Clostridium and Escherichia coli: P>0.15). Faecal concentrations of butyrate, histamine, agmatine and spermine were lower (P ≤ 0.05) and faecal pH was higher (P = 0.03) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs, suggesting an alteration in bacterial metabolic activity, or in the rate of intestinal absorption of these compounds. Concentrations of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes were also lower (P ≤ 0.01) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs. The study confirmed alterations in peripheral lymphocytes and revealed a reduced concentration of some fermentation end products in the colon of old dogs.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 lymphocyte counts in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Vo, Diem Qh; Teoh, Stephen C; Tam, Nguyen T; Liem, Nguyen T; Lu, Doanh; Nguyen, Thi T; Cosimi, Lisa; Pollack, Todd; Libman, Howard

    2014-06-01

    We describe the results of a study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis among HIV-infected patients in Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study of patients with CD4 lymphocyte count ≤100 cells/mm(3)recruited from public HIV clinics. The diagnosis was made by a trained ophthalmologist using slit lamp biomicroscopy and corroborated on fundus photography. A total of 201 patients were screened. The median age was 32 years, 77% were men, median CD4 count was 47 cells/mm(3), and 62% were on antiretroviral treatment. Prevalence of CMV retinitis was 7% (14/201, 95% CI 4-11%). CMV retinitis was not associated with age, gender, injection drug use, CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, or antiretroviral treatment status. Blurring of vision and reduced visual acuity <20/40 were associated with CMV retinitis, but only 29% of patients with the diagnosis reported blurry vision and only 64% had abnormal vision. On multivariate analysis, the sole predictor for CMV retinitis was decreased visual acuity (OR 22.8,p < 0.001). In Ho Chi Minh City, CMV retinitis was found in 7% of HIV-infected patients with low CD4. HIV-infected patients with a CD4 count <100/mm(3)or who develop blurring of vision in Vietnam should be screened for CMV retinitis. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Assessment of bone marrow lymphocytic status during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and its relation to therapy response in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    El Missiry, Mohamed; Adnan Awad, Shady; Rajala, Hanna L; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Ekblom, Marja; Markevän, Berit; Åstrand-Grundström, Ingbritt; Wold, Maren; Svedahl, Ellen Rabben; Juhl, Birgitte Ravn; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Haulin, Inger; Porkka, Kimmo; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Mustjoki, Satu

    2016-05-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia have been reported to induce immunomodulatory effects. We aimed to assess peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) lymphocyte status at the diagnosis and during different TKI therapies and correlate it with treatment responses. BM and PB samples were acquired from 105 first-line TKI-treated patients. Relative number of BM lymphocytes was evaluated from MGG-stained BM aspirates, and immunophenotypic analyses were performed with multicolour flow cytometry. Early 3-month expansion of BM lymphocytes was found during all different TKIs (imatinib n = 71, 20 %; dasatinib n = 25, 21 %; nilotinib n = 9, 22 %; healthy controls n = 14, 12 %, p < 0.0001). Increased PB lymphocyte count was only observed during dasatinib therapy. The BM lymphocyte expansion was associated with early molecular response; patients with 3-month BCR-ABL1 <10 % showed higher lymphocyte counts than patients with BCR-ABL1 >10 % (23 vs. 17 %, p < 0.05). Detailed phenotypic analysis showed that BM lymphocyte expansion consisted of various lymphocyte subclasses, but especially the proportion of CD19+ B cells and CD3negCD16/56+ NK cells increased from diagnostic values. During dasatinib treatment, the lymphocyte balance in both BM and PB was shifted more to cytotoxic direction (increased CD8+CD57+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells, and low T regulatory cells), whereas no major immunophenotypic differences were observed between imatinib and nilotinib patients. Early BM lymphocytosis occurs with all current first-line TKIs and is associated with better treatment responses. PB and BM immunoprofile during dasatinib treatment markedly differs from both imatinib- and nilotinib-treated patients.

  19. Assessment of Blood Collection from the Lateral Saphenous Vein for Microfilaria Counts in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Infected with Brugia pahangi

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Berghaus, Roy D; Kelly, Lisa M; Supakorndej, Prasit; Burkman, Erica J; Savadelis, Molly D; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Gregory W; Harvey, Stephen B; Moorhead, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The NIH guidelines for survival bleeding of mice and rats note that using the retroorbital plexus has a greater potential for complications than do other methods of blood collection and that this procedure should be performed on anesthetized animals. Lateral saphenous vein puncture has a low potential for complications and can be performed without anesthesia. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are the preferred rodent model for filarial parasite research. To monitor microfilaria counts in the blood, blood sampling from the orbital plexus has been the standard. Our goal was to refine the blood collection technique. To determine whether blood collection from the lateral saphenous vein was a feasible alternative to retroorbital sampling, we compared microfilaria counts in blood samples collected by both methods from 21 gerbils infected with the filarial parasitic worm Brugia pahangi. Lateral saphenous vein counts were equivalent to retroorbital counts at relatively high counts (greater than 50 microfilariae per 20 µL) but were significantly lower than retroorbital counts when microfilarial concentrations were lower. Our results indicate that although retroorbital collection may be preferable when low concentrations of microfilariae need to be enumerated, the lateral saphenous vein is a suitable alternative site for blood sampling to determine microfilaremia and is a feasible refinement that can benefit the wellbeing of gerbils. PMID:26678366

  20. Short term effects of reduced exposure to cigarette smoke on white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells in adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Roethig, Hans J; Koval, Tamara; Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Jin, Yan; Mendes, Paul; Unverdorben, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that cigarette smokers have a 5-30% higher white blood cell counts (WBC) compared to non-smokers and higher red blood cell counts. This study was to pool hematology data from three similar studies and analyze the data for effects on WBC, its subpopulations, platelets, red blood cell count (RBC) and hematocrit in adult cigarette smokers three days after using an electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) as a potential reduced exposure product (PREP) or no-smoking compared to smoking a conventional cigarette. Lower exposure to cigarette smoke in adult, long term smokers, by using an EHCSS or stopping smoking, leads to statistically significant decreases of up to 9% in WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC and hematocrit within three days. Switching from CC-smoking to EHCSS-smoking or no-smoking resulted in lower WBC and vice versa within 3 days. This clinical model may be used as a screening tool to find new technologies that could provide insights on changes in inflammation resulting from the change in cigarette smoke. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J.

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profilemore » was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.« less

  2. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm 3 . Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  3. Prognostic significance of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance of the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who received palliative chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 104 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who underwent palliative chemotherapy were enrolled. The LMR was calculated from blood samples by dividing the absolute lymphocyte count by the absolute monocyte count. Pre-treatment LMR values were measured within one week before the initiation of chemotherapy, while post-treatment LMR values were measured eight weeks after the initiation of chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median pre-treatment LMR was 4.16 (range: 0.58-14.06). We set 3.38 as the cut-off level based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Based on the cut-off level of 3.38, 66 patients were classified into the high pre-treatment LMR group and 38 patients were classified into the low pre-treatment LMR group. The low pre-treatment LMR group had a significantly worse overall survival rate (P = 0.0011). Moreover, patients who demonstrated low pre-treatment LMR and normalization after treatment exhibited a better overall survival rate than the patients with low pre-treatment and post-treatment LMR values. CONCLUSION: The lymphocyte to monocyte ratio is a useful prognostic marker in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who receive palliative chemotherapy. PMID:26379401

  4. Nuclear AgNOR protein enhancement in nucleoplasms of peripheral blood lymphocytes of babies/children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Nalan; Eroz, Recep; Canatan, Halit; Demirtas, Halil; Saatci, Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common chromosomal disorders. The factors contributing to the mental retardation together with other defects in this syndrome have not been fully explained. Individuals with DS have extra rRNA gene family since they carry an extra chromosome 21. The few reports available are on the relationship between the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) and DS phenotype. The in vivo regulation of NORs expression on the extra chromosome 21 is not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that nucleoli of lymphocytes from infants (mostly neonates) with DS contain more in vivo and in vitro nucleolar AgNOR proteins when compared with healthy infants. The objective of this study is to compare the in vivo nuclear AgNOR protein level in nucleoplasms (also called as karyoplasm) of nonstimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes from babies/children with DS and healthy controls. Peripheral blood samples obtained from 20 babies/children with DS and 20 matched healthy controls were smeared on clean glass slides and then AgNOR staining was performed. The AgNOR protein level in nucleoplasms of lymphocytes from both groups was calculated using a computer program. Nearly 100 interphase nuclei per individual were analysed. Average nuclear AgNOR protein levels in nucleoplasms of lymphocytes from babies/children with DS were found to be significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.001). On the basis of our present results, we propose that the increase of nuclear AgNOR protein in in vivo conditions may contribute to the formation of DS phenotypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Vitamin D and inflammation: evaluation with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Emin Murat; Gungor, Adem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Akbas, Nergis; Askin, Seda; Polat, Murat

    2016-08-01

    Association of vitamin D, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, beside the classic bone metabolism disorders, may explain the pathogenesis of numerous diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency. While large numbers of reports support the relationship of vitamin D with inflammation, several reports fail to confirm this relationship. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are novel and inexpensive markers of inflammation that can be studied in all centers. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and inflammation with the novel inflammatory markers NLR and PLR. This study was performed retrospectively. Results of the simultaneously performed 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine level measurements and complete blood count were recorded. The data of 4120 patients were included in the study. Between vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups there were significant differences in PLR (p < 0.001) and NLR (p = 0.001). Vitamin D had a significant negative correlation with PLR (p < 0.001) and NLR (p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that 25(OH)D was independently and negatively correlated with PLR (OR = 0.994, 95% CI 0.991-0.998, p = 0.02). Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and NLR were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels, and PLR was found to be an independent predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Our study revealed an inverse association of vitamin D levels and inflammation with these inexpensive and universally available markers.

  6. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  7. Role of IL-17-producing lymphocytes in severity of multiple sclerosis upon natalizumab treatment.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Ulrike; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Luessi, Felix; Rezk, Ayman; Belikan, Patrick; Graetz, Christiane; Gollan, René; Wolf, Christina; Lutz, Jens; Bar-Or, Amit; Siffrin, Volker; Zipp, Frauke

    2017-04-01

    Natalizumab is known to prevent T-helper cells entering the central nervous system (CNS). We hypothesize that more pathogenic T-helper cells are present outside the CNS and a possible relationship to disease severity. Characterization and enrichment of human CD4+IL-17+ cells were performed ex vivo using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from natalizumab-treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients ( n = 33), untreated RRMS patients ( n = 13), and healthy controls ( n = 33). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed routinely for patients. Lymphocytes were elevated in peripheral blood of natalizumab-treated patients compared to untreated patients and healthy controls. Whereas group comparison for CD4+IL-17+ numbers also differed, CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-22+ counts were not increased. CD4+IL-17+ cells not only expressed but also secreted IL-17. In natalizumab-treated patients, IL-17+ cell frequency was found to correlate with T1-hypointense lesions, but was not an indicator for rebound activity after treatment discontinuation, except in one patient who experienced a fulminant rebound, and interestingly, in whom the highest IL-17+ cell levels were observed. Increased lymphocytes and CD4+IL-17+ cells in the blood of RRMS patients receiving natalizumab corroborate the drug's mechanism of action, that is, blocking transmigration to CNS. Correlation between IL-17-expressing lymphocytes and T1-hypointense lesions underlines the important role of these cells in the disease pathology.

  8. [Acquirement of autologous murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes via cryopreservation of lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Peng, Na; Hu, Xiaoyan; Liang, Wentao; Liang, Kai; Peng, Guizhu

    2016-11-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of cryopreservation on the proliferation and killing activity of lymphocytes, and explore a novel protocol of preparing autologous mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Methods Mononuclear cells derived from spleen (5.0×10 6 /mL) were cryopreserved in CELLBANKER2 for 6 days and recovered in water bath at 39DegreesCelsius. The fresh lymphocytes and post-cryopreservation lymphocytes were induced by CD3 mAb (100 ng/mL) and recombinant mouse interleukin 2 (rmIL-2, 100 ng/mL) to obtain cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs). Dendritic cells (DCs) were co-cultured with fresh allogenic lymphocytes and post-cryopreservation autologous lymphocytes to obtain CTLs. The viable cells were counted by trypan blue staining; the percentages of CD3 + T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were determined by flow cytometry; the levels of supernatant IFN-γ were detected through ELISA and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The rate of viable lymphocytes declined to 78% after cryopreservation, and there were no significant differences in the percentages of CD3 + T cells and Tregs between pre-cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation. There were no significant differences in the proliferation of Tregs, the level of IFN-γ and the cytotoxicity between the fresh CIKs and cryopreservation CIKs, and the similar results were get between the autologous CTLs and allogenic CTLs. Conclusion The autologous CTLs acquired via cryopreservation of lymphocytes is equivalent to the allogenic CTLs with the similar proliferation and killing activity in vitro.

  9. Evaluation of white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, and elevated temperature as predictors of bloodstream infection in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Hoffmaster, Roselle M; Schmit, David R; Hospenthal, Duane R; Ward, John A; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Wolf, Steven E

    2007-07-01

    To investigate whether specific values of or changes in temperature, white blood cell count, or neutrophil percentage were predictive of bloodstream infection in burn patients. Retrospective review of electronic records. Intensive care center at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center. Burn patients with blood cultures obtained from 2001 to 2004. Temperature recorded at the time blood cultures were obtained; highest temperature in each 6-hour interval during the 24 hours prior to this; white blood cell count and neutrophil percentage at the time of obtaining the blood culture and during the 24 hours preceding the blood culture; demographic data; and total body surface area burned. A total of 1063 blood cultures were obtained from 223 patients. Seventy-three people had 140 blood cultures from which microorganisms were recovered. Organisms that were recovered from blood cultures included 80 that were gram negative, 54 that were gram positive, 3 that were mixed gram positive/gram negative, and 3 yeasts. Although white blood cell count and neutrophil percentage at the time of the culture were statistically different between patients with and patients without bloodstream infection, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed these values to be poor discriminators (receiver operating characteristic curve area = 0.624). Temperature or alterations in temperature in the preceding 24-hour period did not predict presence, absence, or type of bloodstream infection. Temperature, white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, or changes in these values were not clinically reliable in predicting bloodstream infection. Further work is needed to identify alternative clinical parameters, which should prompt blood culture evaluations in this population.

  10. Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Lee, Kristine E.; Hampton, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may lower lung cancer risk. The association of physical activity with reduced chronic inflammation provides a potential mechanism, yet few studies have directly related inflammatory markers to cancer incidence. The relation between physical activity, inflammation, and lung cancer risk was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4,831 subjects, 43–86 years of age, in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. A total physical activity index was created by summing kilocalories per week from sweat-inducing physical activities, city blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed. Two inflammatory markers, white blood cell count and serum albumin, were measured at the baseline examination. During an average of 12.8 years of follow-up, 134 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of total physical activity index had a 45% reduction in lung cancer risk compared to those in the lowest tertile (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.35–0.86). Participants with white blood cell counts in the upper tertile (≥8×103/μL) were 2.81 (95% CI: 1.58–5.01) times as likely to develop lung cancer as those with counts in the lowest tertile (<6.4×103/μL). Serum albumin was not related to lung cancer risk. There was no evidence that inflammation mediated the association between physical activity and lung cancer risk, as the physical activity risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjustment for white blood cell count. While the potential for residual confounding by smoking could not be eliminated, these data suggest that physical activity and white blood cell count are independent risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:18843014

  11. [Characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocyte immune subsets in patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Song, Hong-mei; Li, Tai-sheng; Qiu, Zhi-feng; Wu, Xiao-yan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Min

    2009-06-01

    To study the characteristics of the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in pediatric patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection. Flow cytometry was used to detect the peripheral blood NK, B, T lymphocyte subsets and the functional, regulatory, naïve, memory and activatory subsets of T lymphocytes in 10 pediatric patients with CAEBV infection, 13 pediatric patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection (AEBV) and 12 healthy children in our hospital between March 2004 and April 2008. Compared with AEBV group, the number of white blood cells [3325 x 10(6)/L (median, just the same as the following)], lymphocytes (1078 x 10(6)/L), NK cells (68 x 10(6)/L), B cells (84 x 10(6)/L), total T cells (684 x 10(6)/L), CD4+ T cells (406 x 10(6)/L) and CD8+ T cells (295 x 10(6)/L) in CAEBV patients were lower (P<0.05). The functional subset of the CD4+ T cells in CAEBV group (94.5%) was lower than those of the healthy control group (98.7%) (P<0.05), but was still higher than those of AEBV group (74.0%) (P<0.05). While the functional subset of the CD8+ T cells in CAEBV (40.7%) was not dramatically different from the healthy control group (48.3%), but was still higher than that of AEBV group (21.0%) (P<0.05). Although the regulatory subset in CAEBV group (5.0%) was higher than the health control group (4.6%) (P<0.05), but lower than AEBV group (5.8%) (P<0.05). In CAEBV, the proportion of CD4+/CD8+ naïve T cells (32.3%/37.5%) was lower than that of normal group (58.3%/56.6%) (P<0.05), but the proportion of CD4+/CD8+ effective memory T cells in CAEBV group (23.9%/15.1%) was lower than that in AEBV group (36.5%/69.8%) (P<0.05), while the proportion of CD8+ fake naïve T cells in CAEBV (17.5%) was higher than the other 2 groups (P<0.05). The CD8+ activatory subset in CAEBV group (84.4%/34.0%) was higher than that of the healthy control group (44.1%/16.7%) (P<0.05), but still lower than AEBV group (96%/95%) (P<0.05). There is an imbalance in lymphocyte subsets and disturbance

  12. Higher leukocyte subpopulation counts in healthy smoker industrial workers than in nonsmoker industrial workers: possible health consequences.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, M Azam; Stakkestad, Jacob A; Drabløs, Per Arne

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains free radicals, which cause injury to endothelial cells and oxidize bioactive components in the blood. Neutrophils, a subpopulation of leukocytes, contain the enzyme myeloperoxidase that mediates production of hypochlorous acid during oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. We collected blood samples from 183 apparently healthy male and 30 female industrial workers. We obtained blood cell counts, measured the concentration of plasma aminothiols and determined the concentration of serum and erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 in the samples. Smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in smoker industrial workers were higher than in nonsmoker industrial workers (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that smoker industrial workers have higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. Therefore, our observations suggest that smokers may become more easily prone to chronic inflammation than nonsmokers. About 84% of the study participants were male subjects; therefore, our findings may be more representative for men than women. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effects of acute cigarette smoking on total blood count and markers of oxidative stress in active and passive smokers.

    PubMed

    Lymperaki, E; Makedou, K; Iliadis, S; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals, as a product of cigarette smoke, are considered to have deleterious effects causing oxidative stress. Acute active smoking seems to be followed by transient leukocytosis and delayed increase in neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of smokers and passive non-smokers, as well as the impact that acute cigarette smoking has on hematological parameters. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, 16 active smokers (Group A) aged 20-23 years and 16 age-matched, non-smokers (Group B), 18 women and 14 men in total, participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects did not have any food, drink, or cigarette smoking for eight hours before the study. Each time, two active smokers and two non-smokers were exposed simultaneously for half an hour to the smoke of two cigarettes smoked consecutively by the smokers. Blood was drawn before and after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Whole blood was analyzed immediately for total blood count parameters and serum was stored in -70(◦)C until serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E (VitE), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. No statistical significant difference was observed in the values of white blood cells and their subpopulations between the two groups and within the same group before and after exposure to cigarette smoke. In the group of smokers, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly, MDA levels showed significant elevation and protective VitE serum levels decreased significantly, whereas TAC was reduced, but not significantly, after the exposure. In the group of passive, non-smokers the results of the blood count parameters, MDA and VitE were similar to Group A, and there was a significant decrease in TAC, as well. Between the two groups, only hematocrit values and MDA levels differed significantly before the exposure to smoke, and no other significant difference was detected before or after the exposure, between active and

  14. Effect of met-enkephalin on chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rakanović-Todić, Maida; Burnazović-Ristić, Lejla; Ibrulj, Slavka; Mulbegović, Nedžad

    2014-05-01

    Endogenious opiod met-enkephalin throughout previous research manifested cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Previous research suggests that met-enkephalin has cytogenetic effects. Reducement in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations as well as a suppressive effect on lymphocyte cell cycle is found. It also reduces apoptosis in the blood samples of the patients with immune-mediated diseases. Met-enkephalin exerts immunomodulatory properties and induces stabilization of the clinical condition in patients with multiple Sclerosis (MS). The goal of the present research was to evaluate met-enkephalin in vitro effects on the number and type of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with MS. Our research detected disappearance of ring chromosomes and chromosome fragmentations in the cultures of the peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with met-enkephalin (1.2 μg/mL). However, this research did not detect any significant effects of met-enkephalin on the reduction of structural chromosome aberrations and disappearance of dicentric chromosomes. Chromosomes with the greatest percent of inclusion in chromosome aberrations were noted as: chromosome 1, chromosome 2 and chromosome 9. Additionally, we confirmed chromosome 14 as the most frequently included in translocations. Furthermore, met-enkephalin effects on the increase of the numerical aberrations in both concentrations applied were detected. Those findings should be interpreted cautiously and more research in this field should be conducted.

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Various Age- and Sex-Specific Groups of Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Nehete, Pramod N; Nehete, Bharti P; Chitta, Sriram; Williams, Lawrence E; Abee, Christian R

    2017-02-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys. We noted age- and sex-dependent changes in CD28+ (an essential T cell costimulatory molecule) and CD95+ (an apoptotic surface marker) T cells and various levels of cytokines in the plasma. In immune assays of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IFNγ and perforin responses were significantly higher in female than in male monkeys and in young adults than in juvenile and geriatric groups, despite similar lymphocyte (particularly T cell) populations in these groups. Our current findings may be useful in exploring Aotus monkeys as a model system for the study of aging, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and age-associated differences in vaccine efficacy, and other challenges particular to pediatric and geriatric patients.

  16. Use of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measure DNA binding capacity of chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Earley, K.; Sharma, S.

    1988-05-01

    Although animal models have been used successfully to study metabolic activation and binding of carcinogens to DNA, only limited studies have been done in human systems. To circumvent the problems associated with the inaccessibility of human tissues and a lack of sensitive methods to detect DNA damage, the authors have investigated the capability of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro to metabolize carcinogens to their DNA binding species by a {sup 32}P-labeled adduct assay. Freshly isolated lymphocytes were exposed at 37{degree}C for 18 hr to 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-aminofluorene, 2-anthramine, 2-acetylaminophenanthrene, benzidine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,2-benzanthracene, triphenylene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, or benzo(a)pyrene at 30 {mu}M each,more » compounds that are shown or suspected to be carcinogenic in experimental animals. The data indicate that all test carcinogens formed readily measurable levels of DNA adducts. Analysis of exposed DNAs by {sup 32}P-labeling after digestion and adduct enrichment showed exclusively or predominantly one major adduct for all test carcinogens, except for 2-anthramine, triphenylene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, which showed two or three adducts. From 12 lymphocyte specimens studied thus far, significant interindividual variations were observed. The lymphocyte system in combination with the {sup 32}P-adduct assay may prove to be an ultrasensitive means to determine interindividual variations in the ability to biotransform carcinogens.« less

  17. Donor lymphocyte apheresis for adoptive immunotherapy compared with blood stem cell apheresis.

    PubMed

    Körbling, M; Giralt, S; Khouri, I; Mirza, N; Donato, M; Anderlini, P; Fischer, H; Andreeff, M; McMannis, J; Champlin, R

    2001-01-01

    Donor lymphocyte transfusion has gained considerable interest as adoptive cellular immunotherapy for prevention or treatment of relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This study was designed to compare the yield of CD3(+), CD3(+)4(+), CD3(+)8(+), CD19(+), CD3(-)56(+)16(+), and CD34(+) cells contained in apheresis products from 61 consecutive non-cytokine treated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors for lymphocyte collection with the corresponding apheresis-derived cell yield from 112 consecutive, HLA-matched donors for blood stem cell collection who received recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, filgrastim) 6 microg/kg every 12 hours until cell collection was completed. Apheresis was started on day 4 or 5 of rhG-CSF treatment. The yield of lymphoid subsets was significantly different in the two sample groups, rhG-CSF treated product yields exceeding untreated product yields by a median of 2.1-fold (range: 1.3-2.6). However, the CD34(+) cell yield in rhG-CSF-treated apheresis products exceeded untreated products by 26-fold. A single untreated apheresis procedure was usually sufficient to collect a target dose of 1 x 10(8)/kg CD3(+) cells. Untreated apheresis products contained a median of 0.2 x 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells. A potential engraftment dose of > or =0.5 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells per kg of recipient body weight was contained in 16% of 57 untreated apheresis products. One single apheresis performed in a normal, untreated donor provides a sufficient amount of CD3(+) cells for adoptive immunotherapy. Compared with that of an rhG-CSF stimulated apheresis product, the CD34(+) cell count is usually, but not always, below the engraftment dose range. RhG-CSF treatment has little effect on the yield of lymphoid subsets collected by apheresis but is highly selective of the release of CD34(+) cells. This report provides baseline data for studies that will show whether other cytokines such as granulocyte macrophage colony

  18. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinesemore » hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis (TH-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis (TVS-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test.« less

  19. Correlation of platelet to lymphocyte and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Trakakis, Eftihios; Parthenis, Christos; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Chrelias, Charalampos; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Papantoniou, Nikolaos

    2018-04-25

    Background The purpose of our study is to evaluate the association of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with hormonal and metabolic parameters in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in order to assess whether these ratios may become useful tools during the evaluation of the severity of low grade inflammation. Methods The present study is based in secondary outcomes from a prospectively collected patient database. A total of 266 women with PCOS participated in this study and blood a complete blood count examination (CBC) that was used for the calculation of PLR and NLR was available in 182 patients. Results Association statistics revealed that PLR had a significant correlation to 17-OH progesterone (r = -0.177, p = 0.024) and Matsuda index values (r = 0.234, p = 0.009), whereas NLR was correlated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (r = -0.204, p = 0.007), free testosterone (r = 320, p < 0.001), Δ4-androstendione (r = 0.234, p = 0.003), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (r = -0.350, p < 0.002) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = -0.171, p = 0.039). Conclusion According to the findings of our study, both PLR and NLR seem to be correlated with some hormonal and metabolic indices. This association is clearer in the case of NLR and serum androgens as it seems to be positively affected by their levels. PLR and NLR were not affected by the presence of obesity.

  20. Effects of alcohols and ciclopirox alamine, an anti-fungal agent, on the peripheral blood lymphocyte functions in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhala, R.H.; Maxey, V.; Hicks, M.J.

    1986-03-01

    Effects of ethanol (1%), propanol (1%) and ciclopirox alamine, an anti-fungal agent, (4 ..mu..g/well), on the peripheral blood lymphocyte functions, including response to T- (Concanavalin A, ConA) and B-cell (Lipopolysaccharide, LPS) mitogens, and presence of functional T-lymphocyte subsets were determined in vitro. Purified human lymphocytes were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 48 hours with or without test compounds in presence or absence of ConA and LPS. All three compounds suppress the response to T- or B-cell mitogens. The percentage of T-lymphocytes with T-helper characteristics in the presence of ethanol and ciclopirox alamine was increased. All three compounds suppressed the percentagemore » of T-lymphocytes with E-resetting characteristics. Alcohols enhanced the number of natural killer cells, whereas, ciclopirox alamine exhibited the reverse action. Although the alcohols and the anti-fungal agent enhanced the T-helper subpopulation, their response to mitogens was suppressed. This may be due to the suppression of T-cell activating lymphokines. Alcohol metabolite such as acetaldehyde also suppress the number of T-cells and their functions at 0.01% so may also be part of the explanation for immunoalteration.« less

  1. [The Influence of UV-Light on the Sub-Populational Composition and Expression of Membrane Markers of Lymphocytes of Donor Blood].

    PubMed

    Artyukhov, V G; Basharina, O V; Zemchenkova, O V; Ryazantsev, S V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of UV-light (240-390 nm) at dozes of 151 and 755 J/m2 on the content of membrane markers of lymphocytes using the method of flow cytometry was investigated. It was demonstrated that during incubation of UV-irradiated lymphocytes the change of their populational and sub-populational composition occurs. Expression of complexes of CD3, CD 19,.CD8, CD 16, CD25 and CD95 increased. This increase was caused mainly by de novo synthesis. UV-light had immunostimulating effect on CD8+ T-lymphocyte population. Together with the increase of cytotoxic cells and NK-cells, activation of lymphocytes (increased amount of CD25+ and CD95+ cells) took place. Amount of cells undergone apoptosis or necrosis increased proportionally to the dosage. These changes were more expressed during incubation of lymphocytes in nutrition medium without autological blood serum, e.g. under deficiency of growth factors and antioxidants.

  2. Evaluation of mouse red blood cell and platelet counting with an automated hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Teruko; Asou, Eri; Nogi, Kimiko; Goto, Kazuo

    2017-10-07

    An evaluation of mouse red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) counting with an automated hematology analyzer was performed with three strains of mice, C57BL/6 (B6), BALB/c (BALB) and DBA/2 (D2). There were no significant differences in RBC and PLT counts between manual and automated optical methods in any of the samples, except for D2 mice. For D2, RBC counts obtained using the manual method were significantly lower than those obtained using the automated optical method (P<0.05), and PLT counts obtained using the manual method were higher than those obtained using the automated optical method (P<0.05). An automated hematology analyzer can be used for RBC and PLT counting; however, an appropriate method should be selected when D2 mice samples are used.

  3. [Individual variability of immunological markers, radiosensitivity and oxidative status in blood lymphocytes of Moscow residents].

    PubMed

    Pelevina, I I; Aleshchenko, A V; Antoshchina, M M; Kudriashova, O M; Nikonova, M F; Riabchenko, N I; Serebrianyĭ, A M; Iarilin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Expression of activation (CD69) and proliferation (Ki67) markers, their connection with each other, with the oxidative status (reactive oxygen species--ROS) and with radiosensitivity (determined by micronucleus test) have been studied on stimulated blood lymphocytes from Moscow inhabitants. It was shown that the content of T-lymphocytes with the expressed CD69 and the content of T-lymphocytes with the expressed Ki67 markers correlate (r = 0.571; p = 0.0004). We can suppose that expression of the CD69 marker (24 h after PHA stimulation) is needed for the cell cycle progression, but it is not enough for the high expression of Ki67 markers 48 h after stimulation (DNA synthesis phase). It was discovered that T-lymphocytes with the CD69 marker or T-lymphocytes with the Ki67 marker are connected by the negative correlation with the frequency of irradiated cell with micronucleus (MN) r = -0.487; p = 0.010; r = -0.440; p = 0.008, respectively. So we can suppose that lymphocyte radiosensitivity decreased with the increase of expression activation and proliferation markers. It was shown that radiosensitivity determined by MN test is not connected with the oxidative status determined by the reactive oxygen species content including superoxide anion radicals. It is possible to explain by the fact that the ROS concentration has been determined in non-stimulated lymphocytes, but frequencies of cells with MN - in the stimulated cells 48 h after stimulation. Using separate analysis of individual differences by the studied parameters that were determined in the same people, it was shown that individual differences are high enough in the same cases. For example, the radiosensitivity when cells were irradiated 48 h after stimulation, ROS concentration, cell content with activation and proliferation markers. In conclusion, we can say that we failed to find important correlation between the parameters studied. However, the presence of individual differences in the marker expression

  4. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  5. Prognostic meaning of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ration (LMR) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated upfront with a PET-2 based strategy.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alessandra; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Vetro, Calogero; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Cerchione, Claudio; Ippolito, Massimo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Recent reports identify NLR (the ratio between absolute neutrophils counts, ANC, and absolute lymphocyte count, ALC), as predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in cancer patients. We retrospectively tested NLR and LMR (the ratio between absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated upfront with a PET-2 risk-adapted strategy. NLR and LMR were calculated using records obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) from 180 newly diagnosed HL patients. PFS was evaluated accordingly to Kaplan-Meier method. Higher NLR was associated to advanced stage, increased absolute counts of neutrophils and reduced count of lymphocytes, and markers of systemic inflammation. After a median follow-up of 68 months, PFS at 60 months was 86.6% versus 70.1%, respectively, in patients with NLR ≥ 6 or NLR < 6. Predictors of PFS at 60 months were PET-2 scan (p < 0.0001), NLR ≥ 6.0 (p = 0.02), LMR < 2 (p = 0.048), and ANC (p = 0.0059) in univariate analysis, but only PET-2 was an independent predictor of PFS in multivariate analysis. Advanced-stage patients (N = 119) were treated according to a PET-2 risk-adapted protocol, with an early switch to BEACOPP regimen in case of PET-2 positivity. Despite this strategy, patients with positive PET-2 still had an inferior outcome, with PFS at 60 months of 84.7% versus 40.1% (negative and positive PET-2 patients, respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of PFS by multivariate analysis were PET-2 status and to a lesser extend NLR in advanced stage, while LMR maintained its significance in early stage. By focusing on PET-2 negative patients, we found that patients with NLR ≥ 6.0 or LMR < 2 had an inferior outcome compared to patients with both ratios above the cutoff (78.7 versus 91.9 months, p = 0.01). We confirm NLR as predictor of PFS in HL patients independently from stage at diagnosis

  6. [The study on the changes of serum IL- 6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in the pregnant women during perinatal period].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan

    2011-03-01

    To study the change law of serum IL-6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in the pregnant women during perinatal period. 100 pregnant women in our hospital from November 2009 to October 2010 were selected as research object, and the serum IL-6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets be-fore and at labor onset occurring, after delivery at the first and third day were analyzed and compared. According the study, the serum IL-6 and TNF-aat labor onset occurring were higher than those before labor onset and af-ter delivery at the first and third day , the CD3(+), CD4 (+), CD8(+) and CD4/CD8 decreased first and then increased, all P < 0. 05, there were significant differences. The changes of serum IL-6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in the pregnant women during perinatal period has a regular pattern, and it is worthy of.

  7. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  8. Changes in gravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, N. R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Risin, D.; McIntyre, B. W.; Pizzini, R. P.; Cooper, D.; Baker, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunity relies on the circulation of lymphocytes through many different tissues including blood vessels, lymphatic channels, and lymphoid organs. The ability of lymphocytes to traverse the interstitium in both nonlymphoid and lymphoid tissues can be determined in vitro by assaying their capacity to locomote through Type I collagen. In an attempt to characterize potential causes of microgravity-induced immunosuppression, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on human lymphocyte function in vitro using a specialized rotating-wall vessel culture system developed at the Johnson Space Center. This very low shear culture system randomizes gravitational vectors and provides an in vitro approximation of microgravity. In the randomized gravity of the rotating-wall vessel culture system, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not locomote through Type I collagen, whereas static cultures supported normal movement. Although cells remained viable during the entire culture period, peripheral blood lymphocytes transferred to unit gravity (static culture) after 6 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system were slow to recover and locomote into collagen matrix. After 72 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system and an additional 72 h in static culture, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not recover their ability to locomote. Loss of locomotory activity in rotating-wall vessel cultures appears to be related to changes in the activation state of the lymphocytes and the expression of adhesion molecules. Culture in the rotating-wall vessel system blunted the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to polyclonal activation with phytohemagglutinin. Locomotory response remained intact when peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by anti-CD3 antibody and interleukin-2 prior to introduction into the rotating-wall vessel culture system. Thus, in addition to the systemic stress factors that may affect immunity, isolated lymphocytes respond to gravitational changes

  9. Limited clinical relevance of imaging techniques in the follow-up of patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eichhorst, Barbara F; Fischer, Kirsten; Fink, Anna-Maria; Elter, Thomas; Wendtner, Clemens M; Goede, Valentin; Bergmann, Manuela; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Hopfinger, Georg; Ritgen, Matthias; Bahlo, Jasmin; Busch, Raymonde; Hallek, Michael

    2011-02-10

    The clinical value of imaging is well established for the follow-up of many lymphoid malignancies but not for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A meta-analysis was performed with the dataset of 3 German CLL Study Group phase 3 trials (CLL4, CLL5, and CLL8) that included 1372 patients receiving first-line therapy for CLL. Response as well as progression during follow-up was reassessed according to the National Cancer Institute Working Group1996 criteria. A total of 481 events were counted as progressive disease during treatment or follow-up. Of these, 372 progressions (77%) were detected by clinical symptoms or blood counts. Computed tomography (CT) scans or ultrasound were relevant in 44 and 29 cases (9% and 6%), respectively. The decision for relapse treatment was determined by CT scan or ultrasound results in only 2 of 176 patients (1%). CT scan results had an impact on the prognosis of patients in complete remission only after the administration of conventional chemotherapy but not after chemoimmunotherapy. In conclusion, physical examination and blood count remain the methods of choice for staging and clinical follow-up of patients with CLL as recommended by the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 2008 guidelines. These trials are registered at http://www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN 75653261 and ISRCTN 36294212 and at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00281918.

  10. Dose response and repair kinetics of gamma-H2AX foci induced by in vitro irradiation of whole blood and T-lymphocytes with X- and gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Beels, Laurence; Werbrouck, Joke; Thierens, Hubert

    2010-09-01

    Dose response and repair kinetics of phosphorylated histone H2A isoform X (gamma-H2AX) foci in T-lymphocytes were investigated in the low-dose range after in vitro irradiation of whole blood and T-lymphocytes with 100 kVp X-rays and (60)Co gamma-rays. Whole blood or isolated T-lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro and gamma-H2AX foci were scored. Dose response was determined in the 0-500 mGy dose range. Foci kinetics were studied at doses of 5 and 200 mGy up to 24 h post-irradiation. After X-irradiation, the dose response for whole blood shows a biphasic behaviour with a low-dose hypersensitivity, which is less pronounced for isolated T-lymphocytes. In contrast, gamma-radiation shows a linear dose response for both irradiation conditions. Concerning repair kinetics, delayed repair was found after X-ray whole blood irradiation (5 and 200 mGy) with 40% of the foci persisting 24 h post-irradiation. This number of foci is reduced to 10% after irradiation of isolated T-lymphocytes with 200 mGy X-rays. On the contrary, gamma-H2AX foci are reduced to background levels 24 h post-irradiation with 200 mGy (60)Co gamma-rays. gamma-H2AX foci response and repair kinetics depend on irradiation conditions and radiation quality, possibly linked to Bystander response.

  11. Decreased intra-lymphocyte cytokines measurement in septic shock patients: A proof of concept study in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Letessier, Wilfried; Demaret, Julie; Gossez, Morgane; Allam, Camille; Venet, Fabienne; Rimmelé, Thomas; Monneret, Guillaume

    2018-04-01

    Functional testing protocols are thought to be the gold standard for the exploration of the immune system. However, in terms of routine analysis, they present numerous drawbacks and consequently their use is mainly limited to research applications. In the clinical context of septic shock, characterized by marked lymphocyte alterations, a new approach for lymphocyte intracellular cytokine measurement in whole blood upon was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study. Following lymphocyte activation, simultaneous intracellular labeling of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was performed in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells (identified by surface marking). The analysis was carried out by flow cytometry (6 colors). Results obtained in septic patients (n=22) were compared to those of healthy volunteers (n=8). Independently of lymphopenia, there were significant differences between groups. In particular there was significant decrease in the production of IL-2 and TNF-α in septic patients, while the production of IFN-γ was not significantly altered. Polyfunctional results showed that patients presented with increased percentages of triple negative lymphocytes. In contrast, volunteers had higher proportions of triple positive cells. The approach could be performed in a robust and consistent way, taking 4.5h to complete. Moreover, clear differences could be observed between clinical groups with this modified method. These characteristics illustrate the potential of this novel whole blood protocol for clinical applications. However, further research is required to determine the applicability compared to alternative test and to evaluate clinical performances in larger cohorts of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Identification of canine T lymphocytes by membrane receptor to peanut agglutinin: T-lymphocyte identification in dogs with lupus-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigal, D; Bendali-Ahcène, S; Monier, J C; Mohana, K; Fournel, C

    1983-09-01

    Canine T lymphocytes were detected, using fluorescent peanut agglutinin (PNA) as a marker. Using a fluorescent technique and cytofluorometry, 70 +/- 11% and 72.4%, respectively, of peripheral blood lymphocytes were bound to PNA. Of thymocytes, 97 +/- 4.5% were detected by fluorescent PNA, but less than 1% were detected for lymphocytes from bone marrow. The T-lymphocyte depletion and enrichment indicated that PNA was bound to lymphocytes recognized by anti-T-lymphocyte heterologous serum. A T-lymphocyte deficiency was detected among 8 dogs with a lupus-like syndrome.

  14. CD4 Lymphocyte Count: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinics Authority; c2017. CD4+ Count Results [updated 2017 Mar 3; cited 2017 Nov 29]; [about 7 screens]. ... Authority; c2017. CD4+ Count Test Overview [updated 2017 Mar 3; cited 2017 Nov 29]; [about 2 screens]. ...

  15. Decreased membrane potassium permeability and transport in human chronic leukemic and tonsillar lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Segel, G.B.; Lichtman, M.A.

    Human blood T-lymphocytes increase their potassium (K/sup +/) permeability and active K/sup +/ transport following lectin or antigen stimulation. We have studied the permeability and active transport of K/sup +/ by lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to determine if their membrane K/sup +/ transport was similar to resting or lectin-stimulated normal blood lymphocytes. K/sup +/ transport was assessed both by the rate of isotopic /sup 42/K/sup +/ uptake and by the rate of change in cell K/sup +/ concentration after inhibition of the K/sup +/ transport system with ouabain. CLL lymphocytes had a marked decrease in membrane K/sup +/more » permeability and active transport of K/sup +/ when compared to blood T lymphocytes. K/sup +/ transport in five subjects with CLL (10 mmol . 1 cell water/sup -1/ . h/sup -1/) was half that in normal blood T-lymphocytes (20 mmol . 1 cell water/sup -1/ h/sup -1/). Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) treatment of CLL lymphocytes did not increase significantly their active K/sup +/ transport, whereas K/sup +/ transport by normal T-lymphocytes increased by 100%. Since there were 73% T-lymphocytes in normal blood and 14% in CLL blood, the difference in membrane K/sup +/ turnover could be related either to neoplasia or to the proposed B-lymphocyte origin of CLL. We studied human tonsillar lymphocytes which contained a mean of 34% T-cells. In five studies of tonsils, K/sup +/ transport was 14 mmol . 1 cell water/sup -1/ . h/sup -1/ and treatment with PHA increased K/sup +/ transport only 30%. The intermediate values for basal K/sup +/ transport and K/sup +/ transport in response to PHA in tonsillar lymphocytes were consistent with the proportion of T-lymphocytes present. These data sugges t that B-lymphocytes have reduced membrane permeability and active transport of K/sup +/. Thus the marked decrease in CLL lymphocyte membrane K/sup +/ permeability and transport may be a reflection of its presumed B-cell origin, rather than a membrane

  16. Differential influence of vemurafenib and dabrafenib on patients’ lymphocytes despite similar clinical efficacy in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, B.; Sondermann, W.; Zhao, F.; Griewank, K. G.; Livingstone, E.; Sucker, A.; Zelba, H.; Weide, B.; Trefzer, U.; Wilhelm, T.; Loquai, C.; Berking, C.; Hassel, J.; Kähler, K. C.; Utikal, J.; Al Ghazal, P.; Gutzmer, R.; Goldinger, S. M.; Zimmer, L.; Paschen, A.; Hillen, U.; Schadendorf, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the majority of melanomas eventually become resistant and progress, combining selective BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) with immunotherapies has been proposed to achieve more durable treatment responses. Here, we explored the impact of selective BRAFi on the hosts' immune system. Patients and methods Clinical data, whole blood counts (WBC) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of 277 vemurafenib- and 65 dabrafenib-treated melanoma patients were evaluated. The frequency and phenotype of lymphocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometry while T cell cytokine secretion was measured by multiplex assays. Results Progression-free survival (PFS) as well as overall survival (OS) were similar in patients treated with either BRAFi. High pretreatment LDH was associated with shorter PFS and OS in both groups. During therapy, peripheral lymphocytes decreased by 24.3% (median, P < 0.0001) in vemurafenib-treated patients but remained unchanged in dabrafenib-treated patients (+1.2%, P = 0.717). Differentiation of peripheral lymphocytes of vemurafenib-treated patients showed a significant decrease in CD4+ T cells (P < 0.05). Within CD4+ T cells obtained during treatment, an increase in CCR7+CD45RA+ (naïve) and a decrease in CCR7+CD45RA− (central memory) populations were found (P < 0.01 for both). Furthermore, secretion of interferon-γ and interleukin-9 by CD4+ T cells was significantly lower in samples obtained during vemurafenib treatment compared with baseline samples. Conclusion While both compounds have comparable clinical efficacy, vemurafenib but not dabrafenib decreases patients peripheral lymphocyte counts and alters CD4+ T cell phenotype and function. Thus, selective BRAFi can significantly affect patients' peripheral lymphocyte populations. Fully understanding these effects could be critical for successfully implementing combinatorial therapies of BRAFi with immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24504444

  17. Modified combination of platelet count and neutrophil "to" lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masahiro; Gosho, Masahiko; Hirose, Yuki; Nishimura, Bungo; Tanaka, Shuho; Tabuchi, Keiji; Okubo, Hideki; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the prognostic potential of the combination of platelet count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. We proposed a modified COP-NLR scoring system defined as follows: score 0 (platelet count level <300 × 10 9 /L and NLR <3); score 1 (platelet count level ≥300 × 10 9 /L and NLR <3); and score 2 (NLR ≥3). We assessed whether the modified scoring system had better performance as an indicator of prognosis than the existing COP-NLR scoring system (original and 4-group scores). A total of 248 patients were enrolled. The Akaike Information Criterion value with the modified COP-NLR score was the smallest among the 3 models. The 3-year survival rates according to the modified COP-NLR scores of 0, 1, and 2 were 80.6%, 59.9%, and 23.8%, respectively. The modified COP-NLR score is a useful prognostic marker in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of γ-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Elena; Boreyko, Alla; Ravnachka, Ivanka; Saveleva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Several experiments have been performed to study regularities in the induction of apoptotic cells in human lymphocytes by 60Co γ-rays at different times after irradiation. Apoptosis induction by 60Co γ-rays in human lymphocytes in different cell cycle phases (G0, S, G1, and G2) has been studied. The maximal apoptosis output in lymphocyte cells was observed in the S phase. Modifying effect of replicative and reparative DNA synthesis inhibitors—1- β -D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) and hydroxyurea (Hu)—on the kinetics of 60Co γ-rays induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes has been studied.

  19. Cytokine Production in Mixed Cultures of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Wharton's Jelly and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Poltavtsev, A M; Poltavtseva, R A; Yushina, M N; Volgina, N E; Svirshchevskaya, E V

    2017-05-01

    We compared the production of 19 humoral factors in mixed cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly and allogenic peripheral blood lymphocytes. For evaluation of the specificity of immunosuppressive activity of mesenchymal stromal cells, comparative analysis of the production of these humoral factors in mixed cultures of lymphocytes and epithelial BxPC-3 cells was conducted. The production of soluble factors in both mono- and mixed cultures significantly correlated (p<0.05). The maximum production was found for proinflammatory chemokine IP-10 and IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The major difference of mesenchymal stromal cells from epithelial BxPC-3 cells was 7-fold higher production of IL-10, which can explain the immunosuppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal cells.

  20. Clinical and Laboratory Differences between Lymphocyte- and Neutrophil-Predominant Pleural Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang; Kim, Sukyeon; Oh, Ki-Jong; Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Jung, Woo Jin; Shin, Beomsu; Jhun, Byung Woo; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Pleural tuberculosis (TB), a form of extrapulmonary TB, can be difficult to diagnose. High numbers of lymphocytes in pleural fluid have been considered part of the diagnostic criteria for pleural TB; however, in many cases, neutrophils rather than lymphocytes are the predominant cell type in pleural effusions, making diagnosis more complicated. Additionally, there is limited information on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of neutrophil-predominant pleural effusions caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To investigate clinical and laboratory differences between lymphocyte- and neutrophil-predominant pleural TB, we retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with the two types of pleural TB. Of these patients, 9.5% had neutrophil-predominant pleural TB. Patients with lymphocyte-predominant and neutrophil-predominant pleural TB showed similar clinical signs and symptoms. However, neutrophil-predominant pleural TB was associated with significantly higher inflammatory serum markers, such as white blood cell count (P = 0.001) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.001). Moreover, MTB was more frequently detected in the pleural fluid from patients in the neutrophil-predominant group than the lymphocyte-predominant group, with the former group exhibiting significantly higher rates of positive results for acid-fast bacilli in sputum (36.8 versus 9.4%, P = 0.003), diagnostic yield of MTB culture (78.9% versus 22.7%, P < 0.001) and MTB detected by polymerase chain reaction (31.6% versus 5.0%, P = 0.001). Four of seven patients with repeated pleural fluid analyses revealed persistent neutrophil-predominant features, which does not support the traditional viewpoint that neutrophil-predominant pleural TB is a temporary form that rapidly develops into lymphocyte-predominant pleural TB. In conclusion, neutrophil-predominant pleural TB showed a more intense inflammatory response and a higher positive rate in microbiological testing compared to lymphocyte-predominant pleural TB

  1. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that produced by PHA (MI < 0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  2. Changes in lymphocyte subsets during pregnancy and post-partum in cases of beginning eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kühnert, M; Schmidt, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present retrospective study was to examine the peripheral blood lymphocytes for expression of phenotypic and activation markers concerning the development of hypertension in pregnancy. 16 women (aged 25-43 years; mean 35.1) developing hypertension in the third trimester (week 25-34) have had blood samples taken in the first (< 14 weeks), the second (week 14-23), the third trimester (week 24-35), in late pregnancy (week 36-termination of pregnancy) and within 1 week post-partum, The control group consisted of 16 age-matched pregnant healthy women, who underwent the same regime. All blood samples were taken in the morning, stored at room temperature and stained within 6 hours and measured within 24 hours. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance between both groups was done with multiple comparison according to Dunn. Comparing both groups, the total white cell count was significantly increased in all pregnancies and post-partum. In case of hypertension in pregnancy the cell numbers of suppressor/cytotoxic (CD 8+) and CD 56(+)-activated T cells showed a significant increase in the first trimester (< 14 weeks) [p < 0.05] and decreased thereafter to normal values. In the second trimester (week 14-23) helper/inducer lymphocytes and CD 56+/CD 3+ lymphocytes decreased in case of pre-ecclampsia and cytotoxic lymphocytes elevated [p < 0.05]. In the third trimester (week 24-35) there was no difference in both study groups and in late pregnancy (week 36-termination) there were only small differences without statistical significance. Within 1 week postnatal the value of Il-2 receptor T lymphocytes decreased in the group of pre-eclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancies [p < 0.05]. Regarding the major changes in activated T cells in both study groups no specific pattern of lymphocyte subsets in case of pre-eclampsia could be found in comparison to healthy pregnant women. Further investigations should focus on functional activation and/or suppression of the cellular

  3. The clinical significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Ying, Zhaojian; Quan, Weiwei; Xiang, Weiwei; Xie, Dewei; Weng, Yiyun; Li, Xiang; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xu

    2018-08-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study: Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is a severe peripheral nervous disease that leads to muscle weakness and areflexia. We now commonly accept a synthesis that inflammation and immunity play key role in GBS pathogenesis. Many studies pointed out that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are novel promising markers of inflammation or immunity. Our study aimed to evaluate whether the NLR and the MLR were associated to GBS or not. We measured blood cell count in 334 individuals including 117 GBS and 217 healthy controls. Our findings demonstrated that the GBS patients had higher levels of NLR and MLR than the healthy controls. The severe group also had higher levels of NLR and MLR compared to the mild group. We took the method of receiver-operating characteristic curve to find out the cut-off value of NLR for GBS occurrence and severity; it was 2.295 and 3.05, respectively. The cut-off values of MLR for GBS incidence and severity were the same, it was 0.235. In the setting of GBS, the NLR and MLR were significantly increased and they may be pathophysiologically and clinically relevant in GBS. The NLR and MLR would be new biomarkers of medical application.

  4. Cytogenetic damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts: effects of repeat long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    George, K; Rhone, J; Beitman, A; Cucinotta, F A

    2013-08-30

    Human missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are increasing in duration and several astronauts have now participated in second ISS increments. The radiation environment in space is very different from terrestrial radiation exposure and it is still unclear if space flight effects and radiation from repeat missions are simply additive, which potentially confounds the assessment of the cumulative risk of radiation exposure. It has been shown that single space missions of a few months or more on the ISS can induce measureable increases in the yield of chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts, and it appears that cytogenetic biodosimetry can be used reliably to estimate equivalent dose and radiation risk. We have now obtained direct in vivo measurements of chromosome damage in blood lymphocytes of five astronauts before and after their first and second long duration space flights. Chromosome damage was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique using three different chromosome painting probes. All astronauts showed an increase in total exchanges and translocations after both the first and second flight. Biological dose measured using either individual assessment or a population assessment supports an additive risk model. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-11-26

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlatedmore » with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases.« less

  6. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (p<0.05). All biomarkers had AUC<0.70 and sensitivity and specificity <70% at the optimal cut-off. Initial lactate was the best biomarker for predicting severe sepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA double-strand break repair of blood lymphocytes and normal tissues analysed in a preclinical mouse model: implications for radiosensitivity testing.

    PubMed

    Rübe, Claudia E; Grudzenski, Saskia; Kühne, Martin; Dong, Xiaorong; Rief, Nicole; Löbrich, Markus; Rübe, Christian

    2008-10-15

    Radiotherapy is an effective cancer treatment, but a few patients suffer severe radiation toxicities in neighboring normal tissues. There is increasing evidence that the variable susceptibility to radiation toxicities is caused by the individual genetic predisposition, by subtle mutations, or polymorphisms in genes involved in cellular responses to ionizing radiation. Double-strand breaks (DSB) are the most deleterious form of radiation-induced DNA damage, and DSB repair deficiencies lead to pronounced radiosensitivity. Using a preclinical mouse model, the highly sensitive gammaH2AX-foci approach was tested to verify even subtle, genetically determined DSB repair deficiencies known to be associated with increased normal tissue radiosensitivity. By enumerating gammaH2AX-foci in blood lymphocytes and normal tissues (brain, lung, heart, and intestine), the induction and repair of DSBs after irradiation with therapeutic doses (0.1-2 Gy) was investigated in repair-proficient and repair-deficient mouse strains in vivo and blood samples irradiated ex vivo. gammaH2AX-foci analysis allowed to verify the different DSB repair deficiencies; even slight impairments caused by single polymorphisms were detected similarly in both blood lymphocytes and solid tissues, indicating that DSB repair measured in lymphocytes is valid for different and complex organs. Moreover, gammaH2AX-foci analysis of blood samples irradiated ex vivo was found to reflect repair kinetics measured in vivo and, thus, give reliable information about the individual DSB repair capacity. gammaH2AX analysis of blood and tissue samples allows to detect even minor genetically defined DSB repair deficiencies, affecting normal tissue radiosensitivity. Future studies will have to evaluate the clinical potential to identify patients more susceptible to radiation toxicities before radiotherapy.

  8. Modeled Microgravity Inhibits Apoptosis in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of the immunity in astronauts and cosmonauts even in short term flights is a recognized risk. Long term orbital space missions and anticipated interplanetary flights increase the concern for more pronounced effects on the immune system with potential clinical consequences. Impairment of the immunity in space may be due tonumerous physiological changes caused by space-related factors, which in turn affect the immune system, or alternatively, it may be due to direct effects of different factors encountered in space on lymphoid cells and their interactions. Indeed, in modeled microgravity (MMG) experiments on Earth we and others showed that microgravity directly affects multiple lymphocyte functions. It interferes with expression of cell surface molecules, causes inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion, suppresses polyclopal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation, selectively inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. Some of these effects were also confirmed in cell culture experiments in real space conditions during Spacelab, Biokosmos and Shuttle Missions. The results of these studies, taken together, strongly indicated that microgravity interferes with fundamental biological processes associated with functional and structural changes in cell surface membranes, cell surface molecules and in their interaction. Based on the data and on their interpretation, we hypothesized that microgravity in addition to observed functional changes affects programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocyte populations and that this mechanism could contribute to the impairment of the immunity.

  9. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Borné, Yan; Smith, J Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and mixed cells) were analyzed in 26,667 men and women, 45-73 years old, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Information about the R262W polymorphism (rs3184504) in SH2B3 was genotyped in 24,489 subjects. Incidence of diabetes was studied during a mean follow-up of 14 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine incidence of diabetes by total and differential leukocyte counts. Mendelian randomization analysis using R262W as an instrumental variable was performed with two-stage least squares regression. A total of 2,946 subjects developed diabetes during the follow-up period. After taking several possible confounders into account, concentrations of total leukocyte count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were all significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; quartile 4 vs quartile 1) were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) for total leukocytes, 1.33 (1.19-1.49) for neutrophils and 1.29 (1.15-1.44) for lymphocytes. The R262W polymorphism was strongly associated with leukocytes (0.11x109 cells/l per T allele, p = 1.14 x10-12), lymphocytes (p = 4.3 x10-16), neutrophils (p = 8.0 x10-6) and mixed cells (p = 3.0 x10-6). However, there was no significant association between R262W and fasting glucose, HbA1c or incidence of diabetes. Concentrations of total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes are associated with incidence of diabetes. However, the lack of association with the R262W polymorphism suggests that the associations

  10. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. Genotoxic potential of bee venom (Apis Mellifera) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro using single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2008-09-01

    Bee venom (BV) has been known to have therapeutic applications in traditional medicine to treat variety of diseases. It is also known that bee venom possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects and that it can inhibit proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but there is lack of information regarding genotoxicity of whole bee venom on normal human cells. In the present study, peripheral blood human lymphocytes from healthy donor were exposed in vitro to different concentration (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 micro g/mL) of whole bee venom at different time periods (1, 6 and 24 hours). The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity towards human cells. Results showed statistically significant increase in DNA damage caused in BV treated human lymphocytes compared to corresponding control cells for the tail length and tail moment. These results show that the extent of DNA damage, determined by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis is time and dose dependent. Based on the results it is clear that whole bee venom induces DNA damage and has genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

  12. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry in polymyalgia rheumatica, RS3PE and early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Y; Matsuda, M; Ishii, W; Gono, T; Ikeda, S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pictures of poly-myalgia rheumatica (PMR) and remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) are often indistinguishable from those of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To investigate whether there is a difference in immunological aspects among these 3 disorders, we performed a phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Eleven patients with early RA, 14 with PMR and 11 with RS3PE were enrolled in this study. After separation of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood using the Ficoll-Hypaque method, surface markers and intracellular cytokines of lymphocytes were analyzed by 2- or 3-color flow cytometry. Both PMR and RS3PE showed a significant decrease in CD8+CD25+ cells (p<0.05), and significant increases in CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-4- (p<0.05), CD8+IFN-gamma+IL-4- (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and CD4+TNF-alpha+ cells (p<0.05) compared with early RA. CD3+CD4+ cells were higher in PMR than in RS3PE (p<0.01), but there were no significant differences in any other phenotypes between these disorders. A decrease in activated cytotoxic/suppressor T cells and increases in circulating Th1 and Tc1 cells may be common characteristics of PMR and RS3PE in comparison with early RA. Both disorders are clearly different from early RA, and probably belong to the same disease entity with regard to phenotypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  13. Prevalence of ZAP-70 and CD 38 in Indian chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Gogia, A; Sharma, A; Raina, V; Kumar, L; Gupta, R; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common chronic lympho-proliferative disorder. This study was undertaken to know the prevalence of ZAP-70 and CD 38 in the treatment naive patients of CLL seen at a tertiary care centre of north India. ZAP-70 and CD 38 were tested by flow cytometry on peripheral blood samples. ZAP-70 positive and CD 38 positivity was defined as positive expression on 20% and 30% of CLL cells, respectively. Clinico-hematological profile and its correlation with ZAP-70 and CD 38 were assessed in consecutive 80 CLL patients. There were 64 males and median age of the group was 58 years. Sixteen patients (20%) were asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. Median total lymphocyte count (TLC) at presentation was 62 × 10 9 /L. Rai stage distribution was: Stage 0-6, stage I-20, stage II-36, stage III-5, and stage IV-13. ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity were detected in 20 patients (25%) and 29 patients (36%), respectively. Eleven patients were positive and 34 were negative for both ZAP-70 and CD 38 yielding a concordance rate of 56%. There was no statistically significant difference between ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity and negativity with regard to age, sex, Lymphocyte count, lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, and Rai staging. ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity were detected 25% and 36%, respectively, with concordance rate of 56%, which is higher than Western literature. There was no correlation of ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity with age, sex, lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, and Rai staging.

  14. Evaluation of nucleated red blood cell count by Sysmex XE-2100 in patients with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia and in neonates.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Vavassori, Mauro; Pipitone, Silvia; Benegiamo, Anna; Lochis, Eleonora; Fumagalli, Sabina; Falanga, Anna; Marchetti, Marina; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Current haematology analysers have variable sensitivity and accuracy for counting nucleated red blood cells in samples with low values and in all those conditions characterised by altered sensitivity of red blood cells to the lysing process, such as in beta-thalassaemia or sickle-cell diseases and in neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the automated analyser XE-2100 at counting nucleated red blood cells in the above-mentioned three categories of subjects with potentially altered red blood cell lysis sensitivity and yet a need for accurate nucleated red blood cell counts. We measured nucleated red blood cell count by XE-2100 in peripheral blood samples of 187 subjects comprising 55 patients with beta-thalassaemia (40 major and 15 traits), 26 sickle-cell patients, 56 neonates and 50 normal subject. Results were compared with those obtained by optical microscopy. Agreement between average values of the two methods was estimated by means of Pearson's correlation and bias analysis, whereas diagnostic accuracy was estimated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. The comparison between the two methods showed a Pearson's correlation of 0.99 (95% CI; 0.98-0.99; p<0.001) and bias of -0.61 (95% CI, -1.5-0.3). The area under the curve of the nucleated red blood cell count in all samples was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00; p<0.001). Sub-analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00; p<0.001) for patients with thalassaemia, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85-1.00; p<0.001) for patients with sickle cell anaemia, and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0-1.0) for neonates. XE-2100 has excellent performance for nucleated red blood cell counting, especially in critical populations such as patients with haemoglobinopathies and neonates.

  15. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count <200*10 3 /µl and fibrinogen <350 mg/dl was associated with a sensitivity of 95.5% (89.7-98.5%) and a specificity of 18.3% (15.6-21.2%). In patients at low probability, white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count <200*10 3 /µl were found as independent predictors of AAS beyond established clinical risk markers. Within patients at low probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count <200*10 3 /µl was 2.7% (1.2-5.7%) with zero alterations, 11.3% (8.8-14.3%) with one alteration and 31.9% (24

  16. Effect of infection with bovine leukosis virus on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Ronald J; Corl, Christine M; Gandy, Jeffery C; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2011-08-01

    To determine effects of infection with bovine leukosis virus (BLV) on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in dairy cattle. 27 adult Holstein cows. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood from lactating Holstein cows seronegative for BLV (n = 9 cows), seropositive for BLV and aleukemic (aleukemic; 9), and seropositive for BLV and persistently lymphocytotic (PL; 9). Isolated PBMCs were assayed for mitogen-induced proliferation and were analyzed by means of flow cytometry. The PBMCs from a subset of each group were assayed for apoptosis, caspase-9 activity, and expression of selected genes related to apoptosis. PL cows had significantly higher total lymphocyte counts and significantly lower proportions of T-lymphocyte populations than did BLV-negative and aleukemic cows. Both groups of BLV-infected cows had significantly higher proportions of B cells and major histocompatibility complex II-expressing cells than did BLV-negative cows. Proliferation with concanavalin A was significantly lower for PL cows, compared with proliferation for BLV-negative cows. Pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation was significantly higher for aleukemic and PL cows than for BLV-negative cows. Gene expression of apoptosis-inhibitory proteins BCL2 and BCL2L1 was significantly higher for aleukemic cows and expression of BCL2 was significantly higher for PL cows than for BLV-negative cows. Cattle infected with BLV had marked changes in PBMC populations accompanied by alterations in proliferation and apoptosis mechanisms. Because the relative distribution and function of lymphocyte populations are critical for immune competence, additional studies are needed to investigate the ability of BLV-infected cattle to respond to infectious challenge.

  17. Cytochemical and functional characterization of blood and inflammatory cells from the lizard Ameiva ameiva.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Sanny O; Diniz, Jose A; Silva, Edilene O; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato A

    2005-06-01

    The fine structure and differential cell count of blood and coelomic exudate leukocytes were studied with the aim to identify granulocytes from Ameiva ameiva, a lizard distributed in the tropical regions of the Americas. Blood leukocytes were separated with a Percoll cushion and coelomic exudate cells were obtained 24 h after intracoelomic thioglycollate injection. In the blood, erythrocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and four types of granulocytes were identified based on their morphology and cytochemistry. Types I and III granulocytes had round intracytoplasmic granules with the same basic morphology; however, type III granulocyte had a bilobued nucleus and higher amounts of heterochromatin suggesting an advance stage of maturation. Type II granulocytes had fusiformic granules and more mitochondria. Type IV granulocytes were classified as the basophil mammalian counterpart based on their morphology and relative number. Macrophages and granulocytes type III were found in the normal coelomic cavity. However, after the thioglycollate injection the number of type III granulocyte increased. Granulocytes found in the coelomic cavity were related to type III blood granulocyte based on the morphology and cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase and basic proteins in their intracytoplasmic granules. Differential blood leukocyte counts showed a predominance of type III granulocyte followed by lymphocyte, type I granulocyte, type II granulocyte, monocyte and type IV granulocyte. Taken together, these results indicate that types I and III granulocytes correspond to the mammalian neutrophils/heterophils and type II to the eosinophil granulocytes.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts after space flight.

    PubMed

    George, K; Durante, M; Wu, H; Willingham, V; Badhwar, G; Cucinotta, F A

    2001-12-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the lymphocytes of astronauts provides a direct measurement of space radiation damage in vivo, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity and considers the influence of microgravity and other stress conditions. Chromosome exchanges were measured in the blood lymphocytes of eight crew members after their respective space missions, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome painting probes. Significant increases in aberrations were observed after the long-duration missions. The in vivo dose was derived from the frequencies of translocations and total exchanges using calibration curves determined before flight, and the RBE was estimated by comparison with individually measured physical absorbed doses. The values for average RBE were compared to the average quality factor (Q) from direct measurements of the lineal energy spectra using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and radiation transport codes. The ratio of aberrations identified as complex was slightly higher after flight, which is thought to be an indication of exposure to high-LET radiation. To determine whether the frequency of complex aberrations measured in metaphase spreads after exposure to high-LET radiation was influenced by a cell cycle delay, chromosome damage was analyzed in prematurely condensed chromosome samples collected from two crew members before and after a short-duration mission. The frequency of complex exchanges after flight was higher in prematurely condensed chromosomes than in metaphase cells for one crew member.

  19. Chromosome aberrations in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Durante, M.; Wu, H.; Willingham, V.; Badhwar, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the lymphocytes of astronauts provides a direct measurement of space radiation damage in vivo, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity and considers the influence of microgravity and other stress conditions. Chromosome exchanges were measured in the blood lymphocytes of eight crew members after their respective space missions, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome painting probes. Significant increases in aberrations were observed after the long-duration missions. The in vivo dose was derived from the frequencies of translocations and total exchanges using calibration curves determined before flight, and the RBE was estimated by comparison with individually measured physical absorbed doses. The values for average RBE were compared to the average quality factor (Q) from direct measurements of the lineal energy spectra using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and radiation transport codes. The ratio of aberrations identified as complex was slightly higher after flight, which is thought to be an indication of exposure to high-LET radiation. To determine whether the frequency of complex aberrations measured in metaphase spreads after exposure to high-LET radiation was influenced by a cell cycle delay, chromosome damage was analyzed in prematurely condensed chromosome samples collected from two crew members before and after a short-duration mission. The frequency of complex exchanges after flight was higher in prematurely condensed chromosomes than in metaphase cells for one crew member.

  20. Baicalin Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Polymicrobial Sepsis via Suppressing Inflammatory Response and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yun; Bo, Lulong; Wang, Fei; Lou, Jingsheng; Fan, Xiaohua; Bao, Rui; Wu, Youping; Chen, Feng; Deng, Xiaoming; Li, Jinbao

    2012-01-01

    Background An imbalance between overwhelming inflammation and lymphocyte apoptosis is the main cause of high mortality in patients with sepsis. Baicalin, the main active ingredient of the Scutellaria root, exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and even antibacterial properties in inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of baicalin on polymicrobial sepsis remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were infused with baicalin intraperitoneally at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after CLP. Survival rates were assessed over the subsequent 8 days. Bacterial burdens in blood and peritoneal cavity were calculated to assess the bacterial clearance. Neutrophil count in peritoneal lavage fluid was also calculated. Injuries to the lung and liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and IL-17, in blood and peritoneum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adaptive immune function was assessed by apoptosis of lymphocytes in the thymus and counts of different cell types in the spleen. Baicalin significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and improved survival of septic mice. The number of neutrophils in peritoneal lavage fluid was reduced by baicalin. Less neutrophil infiltration of the lung and liver in baicalin-treated mice was associated with attenuated injuries to these organs. Baicalin significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines but increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine in blood and peritoneum. Apoptosis of CD3+ T cell was inhibited in the thymus. The numbers of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) were higher, while the number of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells was lower in the baicalin group compared with the CLP group. Conclusions/Significance Baicalin improves survival of mice with polymicrobial

  1. Radio-protective effect of cinnamic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, on genomic instability induced by X-rays in human blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cinkilic, Nilufer; Tüzün, Ece; Çetintaş, Sibel Kahraman; Vatan, Özgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Çavaş, Tolga; Tunç, Sema; Özkan, Lütfi; Bilaloğlu, Rahmi

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the protective activity of cinnamic acid against induction by X-rays of genomic instability in normal human blood lymphocytes. This radio-protective activity was assessed by use of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and the alkaline comet assay, with human blood lymphocytes isolated from two healthy donors. A Siemens Mevatron MD2 (Siemens AG, USA, 1994) linear accelerator was used for the irradiation with 1 or 2 Gy. Treatment of the lymphocytes with cinnamic acid prior to irradiation reduced the number of micronuclei when compared with that in control samples. Treatment with cinnamic acid without irradiation did not increase the number of micronuclei and did not show a cytostatic effect in the lymphocytes. The results of the alkaline comet assay revealed that cinnamic acid reduces the DNA damage induced by X-rays, showing a significant radio-protective effect. Cinnamic acid decreased the frequency of irradiation-induced micronuclei by 16-55% and reduced DNA breakage by 17-50%, as determined by the alkaline comet assay. Cinnamic acid may thus act as a radio-protective compound, and future studies may focus on elucidating the mechanism by which cinnamic acid offers radioprotection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) on peripheral blood leucocytes from individuals with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Barrena, M J; Echaniz, P; Garcia-Serrano, C; Zubillaga, P; Cuadrado, E

    1992-01-01

    We analysed the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen LFA-1 on the cell surface of peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes from 20 children with Down's syndrome. No differences in LFA-1 expression was found within monocytes or granulocytes from either normal or Down's syndrome children; however, a clear-cut difference was observed on lymphoid cells. Both normal and Down's syndrome lymphocytes displayed a bimodal pattern of LFA-1 staining by flow cytometry, with a predominance of cells with low expression in normal population, and an increased proportion of lymphocytes with high level of LFA-1 expression in Down's syndrome children. This difference correlates well with the abnormal proportion of T cell subsets and inversion of CD4/CD8 observed in a majority of our cases, and therefore, it could merely reflect the increase of certain T cell subsets normally expressing higher number of LFA-1 molecules. Taken together, our results do not support an abnormally increased expression of leucocytes integrins in trisomy 21 cells, and raise some doubt about the suggested role of the abnormal cellular expression of LFA-1 in the pathogensis of secondary immunodeficiency associated to Down's syndrome. PMID:1348667

  3. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  4. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  5. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  6. THE EFFECT OF PILOCARPINE ON THE NUMBER OF SMALL LYMPHOCYTES IN THE CIRCULATING BLOOD FOLLOWING LIGATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT.

    PubMed

    Lee, F C

    1924-02-29

    In a series of animals in which the thoracic duct had been tied it was found that the relative increase in the number of small lymphocytes in the circulating blood following the intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine nitrate was the same as for the control animals. While support is brought for Harvey's view that pilocarpine causes a lymphocytosis through the contraction of plain muscle, on the other hand evidence is presented which indicates that the spleen is no more specialized in the production of small lymphocytes than any other portion of the lymphopoietic system.

  7. Differences in TCR-Vβ Repertoire and Effector Phenotype between Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Increase with Age

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Teng; Shen, Han; Wu, Fenglin; Zhang, Wenfeng; Tao, Changli; Yuan, Yin; Bo, Huaben; Wang, Hui; Huang, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) reflect the host's anti-tumor immune response, and can be a valuable predictor of prognosis. However, many properties of TIL are not fully understood. In the present study, TCR-Vβ repertoires of cancer patients were primarily analyzed by flow cytometry. Abnormally expressed TCR-Vβ subfamilies were generally found in both TIL and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of each patient. Of note, increased patient age was associated with increasingly biased TCR-Vβ repertoire in TIL but not in PBL, and the dispersion degree of the differences of TCR-Vβ subfamilies between TIL and PBL correlated positively with age (P = 0.007). Utilizing immunoscope analysis, we identified the age-related reduction in TCR-Vβ diversity, but polyclonal pattern was predominant in significantly expanded TCR-Vβ subfamilies. In addition, we found that older patients possessed a decreased ratio of CD8+CD62L+ non-effector cells in TIL compared to PBL, implying age-related increase of CD8+CD62L− effector cells in TIL. The colocalization analysis of CD8 and CD3, however, suggested the suppressed activity of these effector cells in tumor microenvironment. These findings further elucidate the properties of TIL, showing an increasing difference between TIL and PBL with age, which may provide insight for the development of effective immunotherapies for cancer patients of different ages. PMID:25019226

  8. Laboratory productivity and the rate of manual peripheral blood smear review: a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 95,141 complete blood count determinations performed in 263 institutions.

    PubMed

    Novis, David A; Walsh, Molly; Wilkinson, David; St Louis, Mary; Ben-Ezra, Jonathon

    2006-05-01

    Automated laboratory hematology analyzers are capable of performing differential counts on peripheral blood smears with greater precision and more accurate detection of distributional and morphologic abnormalities than those performed by manual examinations of blood smears. Manual determinations of blood morphology and leukocyte differential counts are time-consuming, expensive, and may not always be necessary. The frequency with which hematology laboratory workers perform manual screens despite the availability of labor-saving features of automated analyzers is unknown. To determine the normative rates with which manual peripheral blood smears were performed in clinical laboratories, to examine laboratory practices associated with higher or lower manual review rates, and to measure the effects of manual smear review on the efficiency of generating complete blood count (CBC) determinations. From each of 3 traditional shifts per day, participants were asked to select serially, 10 automated CBC specimens, and to indicate whether manual scans and/or reviews with complete differential counts were performed on blood smears prepared from those specimens. Sampling continued until a total of 60 peripheral smears were reviewed manually. For each specimen on which a manual review was performed, participants indicated the patient's age, hemoglobin value, white blood cell count, platelet count, and the primary reason why the manual review was performed. Participants also submitted data concerning their institutions' demographic profiles and their laboratories' staffing, work volume, and practices regarding CBC determinations. The rates of manual reviews and estimations of efficiency in performing CBC determinations were obtained from the data. A total of 263 hospitals and independent laboratories, predominantly located in the United States, participating in the College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Program. There were 95,141 CBC determinations examined in this study

  9. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is a predictive factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-10-01

    The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (< 35 g/l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 10(9)/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001). The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  10. Hypergravity-Induced Changes in Hematological and Lymphocyte Function Parameters in a Mouse Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Miller, Glen M.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify hypergravity-induced changes in hematological and lymphocyte characteristics. Mice were subjected to 1, 2, and 3G and euthanized on days 1 , 4, 7, 10, and 21. The data show that increased gravitational force resulted in persistent hypothermia. Red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were reduced by day 21, whereas hemoglobin and RBC volume were low at most times of measurement. A transient increase was noted in platelet numbers in the 3G group. Fluctuations in spontaneous blastogenesis of lymphocytes were dependent upon centrifugation time and not gravity. Changes in splenocyte responses to T and B cell mitogens due to gravity were also noted. Cytokine production was primarily affected during the first week; IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-alpha were increased, whereas IFN-gamma was decreased. These findings indicate that altered gravity can influence both hematological and functional variables that may translate into serious health consequences.

  11. Effect of a 21-day balneotherapy program on blood cell counts, ponogen levels, and blood biochemical indexes in servicemen in sub-health condition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased significantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program significantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition.

  12. Effect of a 21-day balneotherapy program on blood cell counts, ponogen levels, and blood biochemical indexes in servicemen in sub-health condition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased significantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program significantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition. PMID:28931990

  13. Activation of NK Cells in Mixed Cultures of Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Svirshchevskaya, E V; Poltavtsev, A M; Os'mak, G Zh; Poltavtseva, R A

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells possess immunosuppressive properties that might be used for the therapy of inflammatory diseases of various geneses. The effects of mesenchymal stromal cells depend on their lifetime in the recipient tissues. During heterologous transplantation, mesenchymal stromal cells are eliminated by NK cells. We studied NK cell formation in mixed cultures of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from an autologous donor. Lymphocytes were activated by a mitogen or IL-2. The lifetime of mesenchymal stromal cells was estimated by MTT test. Cytotoxic activity and phenotype of NK cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. It was found that activation of NK cells depended on IL-2 and was registered on day 2 of incubation with IL-2. In cultures with mitogen-activated lymphocytes, cytotoxicity was observed after 5-6 days. Cytotoxicity of NK correlated with significant decrease in CD16+ and increase in CD56+ NK and with reduction of mesenchymal stromal cell viability. Thus, the main mechanism of elimination of mesenchymal stromal cells is cytotoxicity of NK cells that depended on IL-2 production.

  14. Prognostic roles of absolute monocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts in patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era: an analysis from the FOLL05 trial of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi.

    PubMed

    Marcheselli, Luigi; Bari, Alessia; Anastasia, Antonella; Botto, Barbara; Puccini, Benedetta; Dondi, Alessandra; Carella, Angelo M; Alvarez, Isabel; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Arcari, Annalisa; Salvi, Flavia; Federico, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Recently, in an attempt to improve the discrimination power of the international prognostic index (IPI), patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were evaluated to determine the prognostic roles of peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Here, we analysed data of 428 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial (FOLL05 study) conducted by Fondazione Italiana Linfomi, to assess the impact of AMC and ALC on progression-free survival (PFS). All patients had been treated with one of three treatment combinations: (i) rituximab (R) plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone; (ii) R plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone or (iii) R plus mitoxantrone and fludarabine. We showed that only AMC was a powerful predictor of PFS, and possibly overall survival, in patients with FL treated with combination chemotherapy regimens that contained R. The AMC can be used alone as a novel, simple factor that can predict survival outcome in patients with FL, independent of the immunochemotherapy regimen. It may therefore be widely used by clinicians, due to its simplicity and broad applicability. Additionally, it can be combined with other factors that determine the IPI or FLIPI, to increase the discriminating ability of these indices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Monoclonal antibody fluorescence for routine lymphocyte subpopulation analysis with the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Molero, T; Lemes, A; DE LA Iglesia, S; Scott, C S

    2007-12-01

    Using previously described procedures, this study quantified T-cell, T-cell subset, B-cell and NK-cell populations with the CD-Sapphire haematology analyser in a series of patients with mild to moderate lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte counts ranged from 6.0 to 14.9 x 10(9)/l, with 86/97 being <10.0 x 10(9)/l. Immunophenotyping (CD3/CD19/HLA-DR, CD4/CD8 and CD16/CD56 combinations) was performed using EDTA-anticoagulated blood, automated CD-Sapphire analysis and subsequent software processing. Of 35 samples from younger (<12 years) patients, 22 (63%) had nonspecific lymphocyte changes, 4 (11%) showed specific increases in nonreactive T-Helper or T-Suppressor cells, and five showed a reactive T-cell lymphocytosis. The remaining four were classified as 'Transient/Persistent NK-associated (NKa) Expansion' (n = 3) and specific B-cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). For older patients (n = 59), 15 (25%) had an increase (>1.5 x 10(9)/l) in B-cells, and seven investigated for surface immunoglobulin expression were all found to be clonal. The remaining samples were categorized as 'Transient/Persistent NK-associated (NKa) Expansion' (13/59), Reactive Lymphocytosis (5/59), 'Reactive Lymphocytosis or Transient/Persistent NKa Expansion' (8/59), specific T-Helper cell (n = 8) or T-Suppressor cell (n = 3) lymphocytosis, and 'Lymphocytosis of Undetermined Significance' (n = 7). This study has demonstrated the feasibility of applying limited immunophenotyping protocols to the investigation of patients with abnormal lymphocyte counts in routine haematology. By using commercially purchased liquid monoclonal reagents to determine lymphocyte subpopulation profiles, haematology laboratories can provide more definitive information of potential clinical importance.

  16. Anti-intercellular substance antibody log titres are correlated with serum concentrations of interleukin-6, interleukin-15 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with Pemphigus vulgaris relationships with peripheral blood neutrophil counts, disease severity and duration and patients' age.

    PubMed

    Ameglio, F; D'Auria, L; Cordiali-Fei, P; Trento, E; D'Agosto, G; Mastroianni, A; Giannetti, A; Giacalone, B

    1999-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare dermatosis of autoimmune origin, characterized by autoantibodies directed against intercellular substance (AICS) and presenting with intra-epidermal blisters and/or erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships between serum AICS titers (after log transformation) and: patients' age, disease duration and disease activity; serum cytokine (IL-6, IL-7, IL-15 and TNF-alpha) concentrations and peripheral blood cell counts (namely neutrophils, lymphocytes and natural killer cells). Fifteen consecutive subjects affected with PV were enrolled. Diagnosis was supported by histological examination as well as by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Cytokine determinations were made by means of commercially available ELISA kits. This study shows for the first time that AICS titers have a significant correlation with age of PV patients (R=0.57, p=0.031) and with the disease duration (R=0.73, p=0.002). A correlation between blood neutrophils count and log (AICS) titres was observed (R=0.6, p=0.021). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between log (AICS) titres and serum IL-15 (R=0.54, p=0.048), serum IL-6 (R=0.53, p=0.05) or serum TNF-alpha concentrations (R=0.53, p=0.05). These data, taken together, show that there are several connections between the log (AICS) titres, some proinflammatory cytokines, peripheral blood neutrophil counts and the numbers of individuals' lesions, suggesting a relationship between AICS production and lesion development.

  17. Cytogenetic studies in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radiofrequency radiation at a cellular telephone frequency (835.62 MHz, FDMA).

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Leal, B Z; Meltz, M L; Pickard, W F; Bisht, K S; Roti Roti JL; Straube, W L; Moros, E G

    2001-01-01

    Freshly collected peripheral blood samples from four healthy human volunteers were diluted with RPMI 1640 tissue culture medium and exposed in sterile T-75 tissue culture flasks in vitro for 24 h to 835.62 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation, a frequency employed for customer-to-base station transmission of cellular telephone communications. An analog signal was used, and the access technology was frequency division multiple access (FDMA, continuous wave). A nominal net forward power of 68 W was used, and the nominal power density at the center of the exposure flask was 860 W/m(2). The mean specific absorption rate in the exposure flask was 4.4 or 5.0 W/kg. Aliquots of diluted blood that were sham-exposed or exposed in vitro to an acute dose of 1.50 Gy of gamma radiation were used as negative or positive controls. Immediately after the exposures, the lymphocytes were stimulated with a mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and cultured for 48 or 72 h to determine the extent of genetic damage, as assessed from the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. The extent of alteration in the kinetics of cell proliferation was determined from the mitotic indices in 48-h cultures and from the incidence of binucleate cells in 72-h cultures. The data indicated no significant differences between RF-radiation- and sham-exposed lymphocytes with respect to mitotic indices, incidence of exchange aberrations, excess fragments, binucleate cells, and micronuclei. In contrast, the response of the lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation was significantly different from both RF-radiation- and sham-exposed cells for all of these indices. Thus, under the experimental conditions tested, there is no evidence for the induction of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro for 24 h to 835.62 MHz RF radiation at SARs of 4.4 or 5.0 W/kg.

  18. In vitro assessment of the cytotoxic, DNA damaging, and cytogenetic effects of hydroquinone in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Karačonji, Irena Brčić; Benković, Vesna; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2017-12-20

    This study investigated the mechanisms of hydroquinone toxicity and assessed the relationships between its cytotoxic, genotoxic, and cytogenetic effects tested at 8, 140, and 280 μg mL-1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed for 24 h. The outcomes of the treatments were evaluated using the apoptosis/necrosis assay, the alkaline comet assay, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay. The tested hydroquinone concentrations produced relatively weak cytotoxicity in resting lymphocytes, which mostly died via apoptosis. Hydroquinone's marked genotoxic effects were detected using the alkaline comet assay. Significantly decreased values of all comet parameters compared to controls indicated specific mechanisms of hydroquinone-DNA interactions. Our results suggest that the two higher hydroquinone concentrations possibly led to cross-linking and adduct formation. Increased levels of DNA breakage measured following exposure to the lowest concentration suggested mechanisms related to oxidative stress and inhibition of topoisomerase II. At 8 μg mL-1, hydroquinone did not significantly affect MN formation. At 140 and 280 μg mL-1, it completely blocked lymphocyte division. The two latter concentrations also led to erythrocyte stabilization and prevented their lysis. At least two facts contribute to this study's relevance: (I) this is the first study that quantifies the degree of reduction in total comet area measured in lymphocyte DNA after hydroquinone treatment, (II) it is also the first one on a lymphocyte model that adopted the "cytome" protocol in an MN assay and found that lymphocytes exposure even to low hydroquinone concentration resulted in a significant increase of nuclear bud frequency. Considering the limitations of the lymphocyte model, which does not possess intrinsic metabolic activation, in order to unequivocally prove the obtained results further studies using other appropriate cell lines are advised.

  19. Concanavalin A-induced and spontaneous suppressor cell activities in peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen cells from gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Toge, T; Hamamoto, S; Itagaki, E; Yajima, K; Tanada, M; Nakane, H; Kohno, H; Nakanishi, K; Hattori, T

    1983-11-01

    In 173 gastric cancer patients, activities of Concanavalin-A-induced suppressor cells (Con-AS) and spontaneous suppressor cells (SpS) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), splenic vein lymphocytes (SVL), and spleen cells (SCs) were investigated. Suppressions by Con-AS in PBL were significantly effective in patients of Stages III and IV, while suppressions by SpS were effective in patients with recurrent tumors. Thus, in PBLs of cancer patients, suppressor precursors, which are considered to be activated in vitro by Concanavalin-A, seemed to appear with the advances of the disease, and SpS activities, which could be already activated in vivo, seemed to increase in the terminal stage. In SCs, increased activities of Con-AS, but normal activities of SpS, were observed, and these suppressor-cell populations consisted of glass nonadherent cells. Suppressor activities of SCs would be due to suppressor T-cells, not to other types of cells. Furthermore, Con-AS existed in the medium-sized lymphocytes, which were fractionated on the basis of cell size, while SpS in the large-sized lymphocytes. A higher proportion of T-cells, bearing Fc receptors for IgG, was observed in the larger-sized lymphocyte fractions. Cell numbers in the large-sized lymphocyte fraction tended to increase with the advances of tumors. From these results, it is suggested that higher presence of suppressor precursors and the increase of SpS activities may occur in cancer patients, depending on the tumor advancing.

  20. Cytokine secretion induced by superantigens in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, K; Silverstein, L; Brusco, C; Yoon, C; Mullin, G E; Mayer, L

    1995-01-01

    Superantigens are potent inducers of T-cell proliferation and induce a broad range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), gamma interferon, and interleukin 2 (IL-2). In the present study, we compared the abilities of different staphylococcal superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxin B [SEB], staphylococcal enterotoxin E [SEE], and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 [TSST-1]) to stimulate distinct cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). One million PBMC, LPL, and IEL were stimulated with various concentrations of superantigen (10 to 0.001 ng/ml) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Maximum cytokine production by PBMC, LPL, and IEL was observed for all three superantigens at 48 h at a concentration of 1 ng/ml. In PBMC, SEE and TSST-1 stimulated more IL-2 and gamma interferon than SEB. SEE and TSST-1 also stimulated more TNF and IL-4 production than SEB. In contrast, SEB stimulated more IL-6 than either SEE or TSST-1. In LPL, there was no SEE-induced IL-2 or IL-4 production, but IL-6, TNF, and gamma interferon were induced. SEB similarly induced no IL-2 or gamma interferon from the LPL, but IL-4, IL-6, and TNF were detected. TSST-1 stimulation of LPL resulted in IL-2 and TNF production but no IL-4, IL-6, or gamma interferon. In IEL, SEE induced no IL-2, IL-4, or gamma interferon but produced IL-6 and TNF, while SEB stimulation resulted in no IL-2 or gamma interferon but did result in detectable IL-4, IL-6, and TNF. Taken together, these data indicate that there are significant differences in the cytokine profiles induced by superantigens in LPL and IEL compared with those in PBMC, and these differences may relate to differences in activation requirements. PMID:7583927

  1. Stability of Blood Eosinophil Count in Patients with COPD in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Landis, Sarah H; Suruki, Robert; Hilton, Emma; Compton, Chris; Galwey, Nicholas W

    2017-08-01

    Blood eosinophil counts may be predictive of corticosteroid response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, little is known about measurement stability, which is important for understanding the utility of blood eosinophil counts as a potential biomarker. We evaluated the stability of blood eosinophil counts over 1 year in a population-based cohort of patients with COPD in primary care. Patients were aged ≥ 40 years with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity < 0.7 and ≥ 1 blood eosinophil measurement taken during a period of stable disease within 6 months of a COPD diagnosis code recorded between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to log-transformed data to estimate the between-(s 2 between ) and within-patient (s 2 within ) variance in eosinophil count; an intra-class correlation coefficient R i was calculated (s 2 between /[s 2 between + s 2 within ]). A sensitivity analysis was performed from which patients who were prescribed systemic corticosteroids or antibiotics at any time during follow-up were excluded. All models were adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and asthma history. Overall, 27,557 patients were included in the full cohort (51.5% male, mean age [standard deviation] 71.1 [10.6] years) and 54% of patients had ≥ 2 eosinophil measurements (median 2 [interquartile range 1]) during follow-up. For the full cohort, R i = 0.64, and in the sensitivity analysis subgroup, R i = 0.70, mainly due to a decrease in s 2 within . For patients with COPD in primary care, eosinophil measurements demonstrated reasonable repeatability over 1 year, which increased after exclusion of patients who were prescribed systemic corticosteroids or antibiotics.

  2. Oligoclonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements in blood lymphocytes of patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, J G; Movahed, L A; Gajl-Peczalska, K J; Horwitz, C A; Brunning, R D; Weiss, L M

    1990-01-01

    Gene rearrangement studies were performed on blood lymphocytes from eight patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis in each case was based on characteristic clinical, hematologic, and serologic findings. The blood lymphocytes in each patient consisted predominantly of CD8+ T cells. EBV DNA was detected in seven patients by Southern blot analysis (EBV Bam HI W probe, Bam HI). A germline configuration was found for the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes (JH probe, Bam HI and Eco RI; C kappa probe, Bam HI; and C lambda probe, Eco RI). T cell receptor gene rearrangements were detected with J gamma and J beta 1 + 2 probes. Using a J gamma probe with two different restriction enzymes (Bgl II and Eco RI), the blood from each patient showed several bands corresponding to the polyclonal pattern previously described in the blood of normal individuals. Using J beta 1 + 2 probes with two different restriction enzymes (Bgl II and Bam HI), each case showed from 3 to about 12 extragermline bands of varying intensity and in different locations from case to case. In addition, each case showed relative deletion of the J beta 1 germline band. This oligoclonal pattern of T cell receptor gene rearrangements has not been previously reported in benign or malignant T cell populations. Images PMID:2170451

  3. VERITAS?: A time for VERIQAS™ and a new approach to training, education, and the quality assessment of CD4+ T lymphocyte counting (I).

    PubMed

    Barnett, David; Whitby, Liam; Wong, John; Louzao, Raul; Reilly, John T; Denny, Thomas N

    2012-03-01

    The aim of clinical laboratories is to produce accurate and reproducible results to enable effective and reliable clinical practice and patient management. The standard approach is to use both internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA). IQC serves, in many instances, as a "go, no go" tool to provide real time assurance that instruments and reagent or test systems are performing within defined specifications. EQA however, takes a snapshot at a specific point in time of the full testing process, results are compared to other laboratories performing similar testing but inevitably has some built in delay from sample issue to performance data review. In addition, if IQC or EQA identify areas of concern it can be difficult to determine the exact nature of the problem. In an attempt to address this problem, we have developed an instant QA panel that we have termed VERIQAS™, specifically for CD4(+) T lymphocyte counting, and have undertaken a "proof of principle" pilot study to examine how the use of VERIQAS™ could result in improvement of laboratory performance. In addition, we have examined how this approach could be used as a training and education tool (in a domestic/international setting) and potentially be of value in instrument validation/switch studies (a switch study being defined as a laboratory changing from one method/instrument to a new method/instrument with the VERIQAS™ panel being used as an adjunct to their standard switch study protocol). The basic panel consists of 20 stabilized samples, with predefined CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts, that span low clinically relevant to normal counts, including some blinded replicates (singlet up to quadruplicate combinations). The CD4(+) T lymphocyte target values for each specimen is defined as the trimmed mean ± 2 trimmed standard deviations, where the trimmed values are derived from the CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts reported by the participating centers (~780 laboratories) that receive each

  4. Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna; Sarti, Maurizio; Reddy, Siddharth B; Prihoda, Thomas J; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of micronuclei was evaluated to assess the induction of an adaptive response to non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from five different human volunteers. After stimulation with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h, the cells were exposed to an adaptive dose of 900 MHz RF radiation used for mobile communications (at a peak specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg) for 20 h and then challenged with a single genotoxic dose of mitomycin C (100 ng/ml) at 48 h. Lymphocytes were collected at 72 h to examine the frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Cells collected from four donors exhibited the induction of adaptive response (i.e., responders). Lymphocytes that were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation had a significantly decreased incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of mitomycin C compared to those that were not pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. These preliminary results suggested that the adaptive response can be induced in cells exposed to non-ionizing radiation. A similar phenomenon has been reported in cells as well as in animals exposed to ionizing radiation in several earlier studies. However, induction of adaptive response was not observed in the remaining donor (i.e., non-responder). The incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of mitomycin C was not significantly different between the cells that were pre-exposed and unexposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. Thus the overall data indicated the existence of heterogeneity in the induction of an adaptive response between individuals exposed to RF radiation and showed that the less time-consuming micronucleus assay can be used to determine whether an individual is a responder or non-responder.

  5. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  6. Effects of iridoid-anthocyanin extract of Cornus mas L. on hematological parameters, population and proliferation of lymphocytes during experimental infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Szczypka, Marianna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Gorczykowski, Michał

    2018-05-01

    The influence of iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of cornelian cherry fruits (CM) on hematological parameters, lymphocyte subsets and proliferation during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice was investigated. CM (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to T. spiralis-infected mice six times within a period encompassing three days prior to the infection and three days after the infection (dai). CM increased the percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + cells and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio and decreased total count of CD8 + and CD19 + splenocytes (5 th dai). An increase in total count of CD4 + , CD3 + , CD19 + splenocytes was observed (21 st dai). CM elevated the percentage of CD4 + cells (7 th dai) and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio (21 st dai) in MLN. CM increased (14 th dai) and then reduced (21 st dai) the percentage of CD8 + MLN lymphocytes and decreased total count of MLN CD8 + cells (21 st dai) and B cells (14 th dai). An activation of lymphocyte proliferation in spleen and simultaneous decrease in MLN on 5 th dai was observed. An increase in red blood cells parameters (5 th dai) and in leukocyte count (7 th dai) was found. A rise in platelet count was noticed both on 5 th and 7 th dai. Moreover, the number of adult T. spiralis on 5 th dai in mice receiving CM extract was lower than in the control mice. These results suggested that iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of CM stimulated murine immune response during T. spiralis infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/µL. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Decreases Cell Proliferation and TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 Cytokines Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    de Abreu Costa, Lucas; Henrique Fernandes Ottoni, Marcelo; Dos Santos, Michaelle Geralda; Meireles, Agnes Batista; Gomes de Almeida, Valéria; de Fátima Pereira, Wagner; Alves de Avelar-Freitas, Bethânia; Eustáquio Alvim Brito-Melo, Gustavo

    2017-11-10

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule composed of a polar domain characterized by the sulfinyl and two nonpolar methyl groups, for this reason it is able to solubilize polar and nonpolar substances and transpose hydrophobic barriers. DMSO is widely used to solubilize drugs of therapeutic applications and studies indicated that 10% v/v concentration did not modify culture viability when used to treat human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, some DMSO concentrations could influence lymphocyte activation and present anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of DMSO on lymphocyte activation parameters. Cell viability analysis, proliferation, and cytokine production were performed on PBMC from six healthy subjects by flow cytometry. The results indicated that 2.5% v/v DMSO concentrations did not modify lymphocytes viability. DMSO at 1% and 2% v/v concentrations reduced the relative proliferation index of lymphocytes and at 5% and 10% v/v concentrations reduced the percentage of total lymphocytes, cluster of differentiation 4⁺ (CD4⁺) T lymphocytes and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) producers. Thus, it was concluded that DMSO has an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect by reducing lymphocyte activation demonstrated with proliferation reduction and the decrease of cytokine production.

  9. Effect of Gender on the Radiation Sensitivity of Murine Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Paul C; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-01-01

    Space travel beyond the Earth’s protective magnetosphere risks exposing astronauts to ionizing radiation, such as that generated during a solar particle event (SPE). Ionizing radiation has well documented effects on blood cells and it is generally assumed that these effects contribute to the hematopoietic syndrome (HS), observed in animals and humans, following exposure to total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of gender on the effects of gamma radiation on blood cells. C3H/HeN mice were irradiated with a 137Cs gamma source. Radiation had similar effects on white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, and granulocytes in male and female C3H/HeN mice, while red blood cell (RBC) counts and hematocrit values remained stable following radiation exposure. Non-irradiated male mice had 13% higher platelet counts, compared with their female counterparts, and showed enhanced recovery of platelets on day 16 following radiation exposure. Hence, gender differences influence the response of platelets to TBI exposure. PMID:25221782

  10. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  11. Intracellular iron overload leading to DNA damage of lymphocytes and immune dysfunction in thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jyoti; Chakraborty, Ayan; Nag, Arijit; Chattopadyay, Arnab; Dasgupta, Anjan K; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the cause and effects of intracellular iron overload in lymphocytes of thalassemia major patients. Sixty-six thalassemia major patients having iron overload and 10 age-matched controls were chosen for the study. Blood sample was collected, and serum ferritin, oxidative stress; lymphocyte DNA damage were examined, and infective episodes were also counted. Case-control analysis revealed significant oxidative stress, iron overload, DNA damage, and rate of infections in thalassemia cases as compared to controls. For cases, oxidative stress (ROS) and iron overload (serum ferritin) showed good correlation with R 2  = 0.934 and correlation between DNA damage and ROS gave R 2  = 0.961. We also demonstrated that intracellular iron overload in thalassemia caused oxidative damage of lymphocyte DNA as exhibited by DNA damage assay. The inference is further confirmed by partial inhibition of such damage by chelation of iron and the concurrent lowering of the ROS level in the presence of chelator deferasirox. Therefore, intracellular iron overload caused DNA fragmentation, which may ultimately hamper lymphocyte function, and this may contribute to immune dysfunction and increased susceptibility to infections in thalassemia patients as indicated by the good correlation (R 2  = 0.91) between lymphocyte DNA damage and rate of infection found in this study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. White blood cells and subtypes in HFE p.C282Y and wild-type homozygotes in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Acton, Ronald T

    2017-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex is linked to white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts in subjects unselected for HFE genotypes. We compared age, sex, body mass index, total WBC and subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils) (Beckman Coulter® Gen-S), transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin of HFE p.C282Y and wild-type (p.C282Y, p.H63D negative) homozygotes without acquired conditions that influence WBC counts. We performed regressions on WBC and subtypes. There were 161 p.C282Y homozygotes (45.3% men) and 221 wild-type homozygotes (40.3% men). Mean WBC of men and women and between HFE genotypes were similar. Mean lymphocytes were higher in male p.C282Y homozygotes: 1.6×10 9 /L [95% confidence interval: 1.5,1.7] vs. 1.4 [1.3,1.5], p=0.0002. Mean lymphocytes and basophils were higher in female p.C282Y homozygotes: 1.6 [1.5,1.7] vs. 1.4 [1.3,1.5], p=0.0002; and 0.065 [0.059,0.071] vs. 0.052 [0.051,0.054], p=0.0001, respectively. Transferrin saturation was associated with neutrophils (negative; p=0.0163). Age was associated with lymphocytes (negative; p=0.0003) and monocytes (positive; p<0.0001). Regressions on lymphocytes and basophils revealed positive associations with p.C282Y homozygosity (p=0.0043 and 0.0003, respectively). There were significant positive associations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. We conclude that HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is significantly associated with lymphocyte and basophil counts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

  14. Evaluation of a Multicolor, Single-Tube Technique To Enumerate Lymphocyte Subpopulations▿

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, F.; Cattaneo, A.; Lopa, R.; Portararo, P.; Rebulla, P.; Porretti, L.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the fully automated FACSCanto software, we compared lymphocyte subpopulation counts obtained using three-color FACSCalibur-CELLQuest and six-color FACSCanto-FACSCanto software techniques. High correlations were observed between data obtained with these techniques. Our study indicated that FACSCanto clinical software is accurate and sensitive in single-platform lymphocyte immunophenotyping. PMID:18448621

  15. Decreased lymphocyte responses in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are associated with increased concentrations of PCBs and DDT in peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Lahvis, G P; Wells, R S; Kuehl, D W; Stewart, J L; Rhinehart, H L; Via, C S

    1995-01-01

    Since 1987, large-scale mortalities of dolphins have been reported along the Atlantic coast of North America, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Mediterranean Sea. Autopsied bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, which were collected from the large-scale mortality along the Atlantic coast in 1987 to 1988, exhibited opportunistic infections indicative of immune dysfunction. Further, these animals had high levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as PCBs and DDT, that can suppress immune functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between chemical contaminant exposure and immune response in free-ranging dolphins. In June of 1991, peripheral blood was obtained from members of a bottlenose dolphin population that resides along the west coast of Florida. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses to Concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were determined in vitro and compared by regression analysis with contaminant concentrations in whole blood from a small subset of these animals (n = 5). These data indicate that a reduced immune response in these bottlenose dolphins was correlated with increasing whole blood concentrations of several contaminants. Specifically, inverse correlations were found between Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and tetrachlorinated to octachlorinated biphenyls (r2 values ranged from 0.70 to 0.87). Con A-induced lymphocyte responses also correlated inversely with p,p'DDT (r2 values of 0.73 and 0.79); o.p'-DDE (r2 values of 0.93 and 0.96); and p,p'-DDE (r2 values of 0.73 and 0.81). PMID:7556026

  16. Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Adenoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Serhan; Sahan, Murat; Topal, Hatice; Sozen, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea syndrome (OSA) is the most serious consequence of adenoid hypertrophy (AH) and it is one of the most common reasons of nocturnal hypoxia in children. There is some information about the relationship between childhood OSA and atherosclerosis or cardiac diseases. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and AH which is the most frequent cause leading OSA in children. Aim Thus we aimed to contribute about subject of preoperative and postoperative NLR values in patients undergoing adenoidectomy that there is limited information. Materials and Methods The study group comprised 76 children undergoing adenoidectomy. A preoperative and 3rd-month postoperative complete blood cell count was performed to calculate the NLR values in all patients. The NLR values were calculated as the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 15. Results The mean NLR (min - max) was 1.0 (0.16-3.57) preoperatively and 1.06 (0.35-4.95) 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.052> 0.05). Haemoglobin 12.9 ± 0.95 (preop) 12.94 ± 0.91 (postop) (p= 0.522), WBC (min-max) 7.75 (3.90-14.99) 7.8 (4-15.64) (p= 0.297 <0.005), platelet 344.5 ± 98.7 328.4 ± 68.9 (p<0,005). Conclusion There is limited information in the English literature. This study has investigated the association between the NLR and adenoidectomy. The results of the present study demonstrate that the NLR is not a statistically significant inflammatory factor. So, NLR values do not appear related to stage of upper airway obstruction. PMID:27134905

  17. A critical prognostic analysis of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio for patients undergoing nephroureterectomy due to upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Altan, Mesut; Haberal, Hakan Bahadır; Akdoğan, Bülent; Özen, Haluk

    2017-10-01

    To determine preoperative serum complete blood count parameters that affects survival of patients who underwent surgery for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UUT-UC). Since 1990, 150 patients underwent nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision for UUT-UC at Hacettepe University. Patients with a history of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy or metastasis at the time of diagnosis were excluded. One hundred and thirteen patients without infective symptoms and with a full set of serum data were evaluated retrospectively. Effects of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and leukocyte count on disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were investigated. Threshold values for each parameter to predict PFS were calculated. The mean age and median follow-up were 63.7 ± 11.1 years and 34 (3-186) months, respectively. Male to female ratio was 86/27. The 5-years PFS (bladder recurrence was excluded) and DFS were 59.6 and 38.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, NLR was independent prognostic factor for PFS and DFS (p = 0.006 and p = 0.021, respectively) while LMR was prognostic only for PFS (p = 0.037). For UUT-UC, NLR is a prognostic factor for PFS and DFS, while LMR is a prognostic indicator for PFS in present series.

  18. DHT and IGF-1 in peripheral blood lymphocytes: new markers for the biological passport of athletes.

    PubMed

    Mancini, A; Imperlini, E; Alfieri, A; Spaziani, S; Martone, D; Parisi, A; Orru, S; Buono, P

    2013-01-01

    We performed a pilot study using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as a novel system to identify new biomarkers of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) abuse in sport. First, to obtain a gene signature, we treated cultures of lymphocytes from sedentary males with three doses of 0.237 microg/ml DHT, each of which is 80-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum, at days 0, 2 and 4, or with a single dose of 1.25 microg/ml IGF-1, which is 5-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum. We then used the Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarray to identify a gene signature related to DHT or IGF-1 administration. Gene expression was evaluated after 7 and 21 days of DHT treatment, and after 24 h, 72 h and 7 days of IGF-1 treatment. Microarray analysis yielded a list of genes whose expression was altered after DHT or IGF-1 treatment. Among these we selected the genes that are most representative of the pathways associated with skeletal and muscular disorders using the IPA bioinformatics tool. We identified six (IDO1, CXCL13, CCL1, GZMB, VDR and IL2RA) and two (FN1 and RAB31) genes that were up-regulated in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects after 7 days of DHT and IGF-1 treatment, respectively. The expression of these genes in lymphocytes from differently trained athletes was either down-regulated or similar to that in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects. This finding suggests that up-regulation was due to the drug and not to physical exercise. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PBL can be useful in anti-doping checks, and we describe new biomarkers of DHT and IGF-1 abuse which can be included in the Athlete's Biological Passport.

  19. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  20. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  1. Acute lymphocytic leukemia in a six-month-old western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Barrie, M T; Backues, K A; Grunow, J; Nitschke, R

    1999-06-01

    A 6-mo-old hand-raised male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia based on complete blood count and bone marrow cytology. Clinical signs of the disease were pyrexia, abdominal distention, splenomegaly, and lethargy. Acute lymphocytic leukemia has rarely been reported in this species, and therapy was based on human oncologic protocols. Remission induction chemotherapy resulted in complete clearing of leukemia cells from the bone marrow. Consolidation and maintenance chemotherapy followed. Therapy was facilitated by the use of an infusion port for i.v. treatments and an indwelling lumbar catheter for intrathecal therapy. Side effects associated with chemotherapy were inappetence, moderate alopecia, pancytopenia resulting in sepsis, and bleeding tendency. In spite of initial success, the leukemia reappeared 120 days into treatment. The gorilla was euthanized 7 days later when respiratory distress developed. Intensive care by the animal staff was a key factor in the treatment of this gorilla.

  2. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  3. Simultaneous evaluation of lymphocyte subpopulations in the liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HCV-infected patients: relationship with histological lesions

    PubMed Central

    PERNOLLET, M; JOUVIN-MARCHE, E; LEROY, V; VIGAN, I; ZARSKI, J -P; MARCHE, P N

    2002-01-01

    Intrahepatic lymphocytes are believed to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the evolution of HCV-induced hepatitis. In the present study, we examined the three main intrahepatic lymphocyte subsets, namely CD3+CD56− conventional T lymphocytes, CD3+CD56+ natural T (NT) lymphocytes and CD3−CD56+ natural killer (NK) lymphocytes in HCV-infected patients. The proportion of each lymphocyte subset was evaluated both in liver biopsies and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by flow cytometry in 21 patients with histologically proven chronic hepatitis C. Simultaneously, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, viral load and histological lesions were assessed. Neither NT nor NK populations correlated with any biochemical, viral or histological parameters. Furthermore, Vα24+ NT lymphocytes showed no preferential enrichment in the liver of HCV-infected patients. Regarding conventional T lymphocytes, a highly significant linear correlation was found between intrahepatic CD3+CD56− T lymphocytes and the Knodell score, a numerical score for assessing histological activity and fibrosis (r = 0·715, P < 0·0001) and more specifically with the periportal necrosis parameter, which is the main lesion of chronic hepatitis C. In addition, analysis of the peripheral compartment revealed a high correlation between values of CD3+CD56− lymphocytes and both Knodell score (r = 0·624, P = 0·003) and serum ALT levels and again with periportal necrosis. The strong correlation between the proportion of peripheral CD3+CD56− conventional T lymphocytes and the severity of hepatic lesions leads us to propose that evaluation of this accessible peripheral population could be used as an indicator test for the severity of histological lesions in chronic hepatitis C. Abbreviations: PMID:12452844

  4. Chromosome Aberration in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Energetic Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to a space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/micrometer. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction produces such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are LET dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  5. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  6. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  7. Intercellular communication in the immune system: differential expression of connexin40 and 43, and perturbation of gap junction channel functions in peripheral blood and tonsil human lymphocyte subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo‐orta, E; Hoy, T; Evans, W H

    2000-01-01

    The distribution and function of connexins (integral membrane proteins assembled into gap junction intercellular communication channels) were studied in human lymphocyte subpopulations. The expression of mRNA encoding connexins in peripheral blood and tonsil‐derived T, B and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes was examined. Connexin43 (Cx43) mRNA was expressed in peripheral blood and tonsil lymphocytes, but Cx40 mRNA expression was confined to tonsil‐derived T and B lymphocytes; Cx26, Cx32, Cx37 and Cx45 were not detected by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Western blot analysis also demonstrated the presence of Cx40 and Cx43 proteins in T and B lymphocytes in a manner coincidental to the mRNA detection. Stimulation in vitro of T and B lymphocytes with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, increased Cx40 and Cx43 protein expression. Flow cytometric analysis, using antibodies to extracellular loop amino acid sequences of connexins, confirmed the surface expression of connexins in all lymphocyte subpopulations. Assembly of connexins into gap junctions providing direct intercellular channels linking attached lymphocytes was demonstrated by using a dye transfer technique. The exchange of dye between lymphocytes was inhibited by a connexin extracellular loop mimetic peptide and α‐glycyrrhetinic acid, two reagents that restrict intercellular communication across gap junctions. Dye coupling occurred between homologous and heterologous co‐cultures of T and B lymphocytes, and was not influenced by their stimulation with PHA and LPS. The connexin mimetic peptide caused a significant decrease in the in vitro synthesis of immunoglobulin M (IgM) by T‐ and B‐lymphocyte co‐cultured populations in the presence or absence of stimulation by PHA. The results identify connexins as important cell surface components that modulate immune processes. PMID:10792506

  8. Kinetics of CLL cells in tissues and blood during therapy with the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, Dominik; Garg, Naveen; Komarova, Natalia L; Benjamini, Ohad; Keating, Michael J; Wierda, William G; Kantarjian, Hagop; James, Danelle; O'Brien, Susan; Burger, Jan A

    2014-06-26

    The Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has excellent clinical activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Characteristically, ibrutinib causes CLL cell redistribution from tissue sites into the peripheral blood during the initial weeks of therapy. To better characterize the dynamics of this redistribution phenomenon, we correlated serial lymphocyte counts with volumetric changes in lymph node and spleen sizes during ibrutinib therapy. Kinetic parameters were estimated by applying a mathematical model to the data. We found that during ibrutinib therapy, 1.7% ± 1.1% of blood CLL cells and 2.7% ± 0.99% of tissue CLL cells die per day. The fraction of the tissue CLL cells that was redistributed into the blood during therapy was estimated to be 23.3% ± 17% of the total tissue disease burden. These data indicate that the reduction of tissue disease burden by ibrutinib is due more to CLL cell death and less to egress from nodal compartments. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Proliferation of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Wharton's Jelly in Mixed and Membrane-Separated Cultures.

    PubMed

    Poltavtsev, A M; Poltavtseva, R A; Yushina, M N; Pavlovich, S V; Svirshchevskaya, E V

    2017-08-01

    We studied the effect of mesenchymal stromal cells on proliferation of CFSE-stained T cells in mixed and membrane-separated (Transwell) cultures and in 3D culture of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly. The interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells with mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from an allogeneic donor was followed by suppression of T-cell proliferation in a wide range of cell proportions. Culturing in the Transwell system showed the absence of suppression assessed by the fraction of proliferating cells and by the cell cycle analysis. In 3D cultures, contact interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells and lymphocytes was demonstrated that led to accumulation of G2/M phase lymphocytes and G0/G1 phase mesenchymal stromal cells. The suppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly is mediated by two mechanisms. The effects are realized within 6 days, which suggests that the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells persist until their complete elimination from the body.

  10. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-07-24

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys.

  11. Inhibition of interferon-gamma expression by osmotic shrinkage of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lang, K S; Weigert, C; Braedel, S; Fillon, S; Palmada, M; Schleicher, E; Rammensee, H-G; Lang, F

    2003-01-01

    A hypertonic environment, as it prevails in renal medulla or in hyperosmolar states such as hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus, has been shown to impair the immune response, thus facilitating the development of infection. The present experiments were performed to test whether hypertonicity influences activation of T lymphocytes. To this end, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive donors were stimulated by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted CMV epitope NLVPMVATV to produce interferon (IFN)-gamma at varying extracellular osmolarity. As a result, increasing extracellular osmolarity during exposure to the CMV antigen indeed decreased IFN-gamma formation. Addition of NaCl was more effective than urea. A 50% inhibition was observed at 350 mosM by addition of NaCl. The combined application of the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 microg/ml) and the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 5 microg/ml) stimulated IFN-gamma production, an effect again reversed by hyperosmolarity. Moreover, hyperosmolarity abrogated the stimulating effect of ionomycin (1 microg/ml) and PMA (5 microg/ml) on the transcription factors activator protein (AP)-1, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and NF-kappaB but not Sp1. In conclusion, osmotic cell shrinkage blunts the stimulatory action of antigen exposure on IFN-gamma production, an effect explained at least partially by suppression of transcription factor activation.

  12. Integration of semiconductor quantum dots into nano-bio-chip systems for enumeration of CD4+ T cell counts at the point-of-need†‡

    PubMed Central

    Jokerst, Jesse V.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Simmons, Glennon W.; McDevitt, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Recent humanitarian efforts have led to the widespread release of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of the more than 33 million HIV afflicted people living in resource-scarce settings. Here, the enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes is required to establish the level at which the immune system has been compromised. The gold standard method used in developed countries, based on flow cytometry, though widely accepted and accurate, is precluded from widespread use in resource-scarce settings due to its high expense, high technical requirements, difficulty in operation-maintenance and the lack of portability for these sophisticated laboratory-confined systems. As part of continuing efforts to develop practical diagnostic instrumentation, the integration of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) into a portable microfluidic-based lymphocyte capture and detection device is completed. This integrated system is capable of isolating and counting selected lymphocyte sub-populations (CD3+CD4+) from whole blood samples. By combining the unique optical properties of the QDs with the sample handling capabilities and cost effectiveness of novel microfluidic systems, a practical, portable lymphocyte measurement modality that correlates nicely with flow cytometry (R2 = 0.97) has been developed. This QD-based system reduces the optical requirements significantly relative to molecular fluorophores and the mini-CD4 counting device is projected to be suitable for use in both point-of-need and resource-scarce settings. PMID:19023471

  13. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D.

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, andmore » Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.« less

  14. Prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia from infrared spectra of lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Christian P.; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Johnston, James B.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1997-06-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from blood of normal individuals and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Not only are the spectra of CLL cells different from those of normal cells, but hierarchical clustering also separated the CLL cells into a number of subclusters, based on their different DNA content, a fact which may provide a useful diagnostic tool for staging (progression of the disease) and multiple clone detection. Moreover, there is evidence for a correlation between the increased amount of DNA in the CLL cells and the in-vivo doubling time of the lymphocytes in a given patient.

  15. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Hao, Zhenyue; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hua, Ming; Ji, Zhiying; Li, Senhua; Xiong, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Liu, Songwang; Xin, Kerry X.; Azuma, Mariko; Xie, Yuxuan; Freeman, Laura Beane; Ruan, Xiaolin; Guo, Weihong; Galvan, Noe; Blair, Aaron; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is used in many occupational settings, most notably in manufacturing, health care, and embalming. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen, but its mechanism of action remains uncertain. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde exposed-workers and 51 unexposed age and sex-matched controls in Guangdong, China to study formaldehyde’s early biologic effects. To follow-up our previous report that the total lymphocyte count was decreased in formaldehyde-exposed workers compared to controls, we evaluated each major lymphocyte subset (i.e., CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and B cells) and T cell lymphocyte subset (CD4+ naïve and memory T cells, CD8+ naïve and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells). Linear regression of each subset was used to test for differences between exposed workers and controls, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Total NK cell and T cell counts were about 24% (p=0.037) and 16% (p=0.0042) lower, respectively, among exposed workers. Among certain T cell subsets, decreased counts among exposed workers were observed for CD8+ T cells (p=0.026), CD8+ effector memory T cells (p=0.018), and regulatory T cells (CD4+FoxP3+: p=0.04; CD25+FoxP3+: p=0.008). Conclusions Formaldehyde exposed-workers experienced decreased counts of NK cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8+ effector memory T cells; however, due to the small sample size these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:22767408

  16. Effect of parity on lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colostrum of healthy Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Terasawa, Sakiko; Watanabe, Chika; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Mukai, Machiko; Ando, Takaaki; Petrovski, Kiro R.; Morris, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the bovine systemic and mammary gland immune cells at calving might provide crucial information about the susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. This study investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving. Fifty dairy cows that did not show clinical diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of parity: heifer (group 1, n = 10), 2nd calving (group 2, n = 11), 3rd calving (group 3, n = 14), and more than 3rd calving (group 4, n = 15). In the peripheral blood the numbers of CD3+TcR1-N12+, CD3+, CD4+, and major histocompatibility complex class II+CD14− lymphocytes were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 4, whereas in the colostrum the percentages of CD4+ and CD4+CD26+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 4. There were no significant differences in the cytokine mRNA levels of PBMCs among the 4 groups; however, in the CCs the ratio of interferon gamma to interleukin 4 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3. These results suggest that the cellular immune function of PBMCs is lower, whereas mammary gland immune cells are more active, in cows with higher parity compared with heifers at calving. PMID:20592843

  17. [Changes and significance of peripheral blood platelet count in tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-lin; Jia, Yu-jie; Jiang, Miao-na; Shu, Xiao-hong; Li, Chuan-gang

    2008-06-01

    To establish a mouse model for BTT739 tumor-bearing mice cured by a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX). And then to observe the dynamic changes and significance of peripheral blood counts especially blood platelet count during tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice. Mouse bladder carcinoma tissues were inoculated subcutaneously into T739 mice. Seven days later, different doses of CTX or the same volume of NS were administered intraperitoneally to treat these tumor-bearing T739 mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of CTX that could cure most of these tumor-bearing mice. Then another 12 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 15 mg/kg CTX treatment group and control group. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different times after CTX treatment. Complete blood counts were performed and the relationship between peripheral blood platelet counts and tumor shrinkage was analyzed. Within 2 weeks after CTX treatment, the speed of tumor shrinkage had a positive relationship with the dose of CTX used; but the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice had a negative relationship with the dose of CTX used in 2 months after CTX treatment. 15 mg/kg CTX could cure most of the tumor bearing mice, while it had no remarkably inhibitive effects on peripheral blood cells. The perpherial platelet count increased to (1483.4+/-184.4)x10(9)/L in mice 6 h after CTX treatment. There was significant difference compared with that in mice of control group (1086.6+/-81.0)x10(9)/L (P<0.01). During the 2nd to 14th day after CTX treatment, there was no obvious difference in the platelet count between treatment group and control group (P>0.05). CTX 15 mg/kg could cure most of bladder tumor-bearing T739 mice. The transient increase of the peripheral platelet count in 6 h after CTX treatment may relate to the antitumor effects of CTX.

  18. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and its relationship with thyroid function tests in adolescents with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Grywalska, Ewelina; Surdacka, Agata; Tarach, Jerzy; Klatka, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Failures in apoptotic pathways can contribute to various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease (GD). The aim of the present research was to assess changes in the degree of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocyte apoptosis during methimazole (MMI) treatment in the group of teenage children, and to describe its relationship with thyroid function tests. Material and methods The percentage of PB apoptotic lymphocytes, assessed by the decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (CMXRos staining), was measured in 30 adolescents at the time of diagnosis and after obtaining normalization of the thyroid hormone levels. Results The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes in previously untreated patients with GD (5.16 ±2.81%) was significantly lower (p = 0.000001) than the percentage of apoptotic cells in the same group of patients after obtaining methimazole-induced euthyroidism (10.72 ±4.66%). There was a correlation between the increase of the mean percentages of apoptotic lymphocytes and the reduction of FT4 levels (R = 0.63, p < 0.0001), as well as the reduction of TT3 levels (R = 0.95, p < 0.0001). The more signs and symptoms accompanying the diagnosis of GD, the higher was the increment of the degree of lymphocyte apoptosis observed during the MMI-treatment (R = 0.74, p < 0.0000001). The methimazole dosage correlated (R = 0.85, p < 0.0001) with the percentage of apoptotic cells. Conclusions The use of methimazole in treatment of hyperthyroidism due to GD leads to an increment of apoptotic cells in PB. Higher doses of methimazole cause a higher increase of apoptotic lymphocytes. Apoptosis induction of human PB lymphocytes seems to be one of the indicators of proper hyperthyroidism treatment. PMID:23185197

  19. Blood Count of Eosinophil Polymorphonuclear Leucocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear eosinophil leucocytes (eosinophils) are found in increased numbers in the circulation and sputum in asthma patients, usually in relation to the severity of asthma but it is the question whether they have a significant role in the development and level of bronchial hyperreactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: to show the role of the eosinophils in the development and level of BHR in patients with COPD and so in the severity of illness. Material and methods: We observed 240 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB «Podhrastovi» Sarajevo during five years: from 2012 to 2016. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood eosinophils was measured at the onset of exacerbation of the disease before switching on any therapy, at the beginning and at the end of the research. Results: we did not find any significant difference in the eosinophil blood count between the COPD patients with and without BHR, nor according to the time of the first registration of BHR in the course of illness nor according to the number of exacerbations of illness per one year. There was not statistically significant difference in eosinophil count (increase-drop) within any of the groups or subgroups, or between the groups and subgroups between the first and last test. Conclusion: There is not significant correlation between the eosinophil blood count and the level of BHR, number of exacerbations and the severity of COPD. PMID:29284904

  20. Effect of nanosilver on blood parameters in chickens having aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2014-03-01

    This experiment is designed to investigate the positive effects of commercial nanosilver compound on blood parameters in experimental aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. For this, 270 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into six treatment groups with three replicates. The experimental groups were group A: chickens fed with basal diet; group B: chickens fed with 3 ppm productive aflatoxin in basal diet; groups of C, D, E and F received Mycoad (2.5 g/kg diet), Mycoad (2.5 g/kg diet) + productive aflatoxin (3 ppm), Nanocid (2500 ppm), and Nanocid (2500 ppm) + productive aflatoxin (3 ppm) in basal diet, respectively. Results revealed that some of the blood parameters such as mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils percentage were not affected in this experiment; whereas, hemoglobin percentage and white blood cell (WBC) count in all the groups fed with 3 ppm aflatoxin except nanocid + aflatoxin decreased significantly (p < 0.05). There are no significant differences between the groups that received nanocid + aflatoxin and mycoad + aflatoxin in hemoglobin percentage and WBC count parameters. The red blood cell count and hematocrit in chickens received aflatoxin were significantly lower than other groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that nanocid similar as mycoad can be useful in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin on blood parameters in chickens affected with aflatoxicosis.

  1. Chromosome aberrations of clonal origin are present in astronauts' blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    George, K; Durante, M; Willingham, V; Cucinotta, F A

    2004-01-01

    Radiation-induced chromosome translocations remain in peripheral blood cells over many years, and can potentially be used to measure retrospective doses or prolonged low-dose rate exposures. However, several recent studies have indicated that some individuals possess clones of cells with balanced chromosome abnormalities, which can result in an overestimation of damage and, therefore, influence the accuracy of dose calculations. We carefully examined the patterns of chromosome damage found in the blood lymphocytes of twelve astronauts, and also applied statistical methods to screen for the presence of potential clones. Cells with clonal aberrations were identified in three of the twelve individuals. These clonal cells were present in samples collected both before and after space flight, and yields are higher than previously reported for healthy individuals in this age range (40-52 years of age). The frequency of clonal damage appears to be even greater in chromosomes prematurely condensed in interphase, when compared with equivalent analysis in metaphase cells. The individuals with clonal aberrations were followed-up over several months and the yields of all clones decreased during this period. Since clonal aberrations may be associated with increased risk of tumorigenesis, it is important to accurately identify cells containing clonal rearrangements for risk assessment as well as biodosimetry. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Chromosome aberrations of clonal origin are present in astronauts' blood lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Durante, M.; Willingham, V.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation-induced chromosome translocations remain in peripheral blood cells over many years, and can potentially be used to measure retrospective doses or prolonged low-dose rate exposures. However, several recent studies have indicated that some individuals possess clones of cells with balanced chromosome abnormalities, which can result in an overestimation of damage and, therefore, influence the accuracy of dose calculations. We carefully examined the patterns of chromosome damage found in the blood lymphocytes of twelve astronauts, and also applied statistical methods to screen for the presence of potential clones. Cells with clonal aberrations were identified in three of the twelve individuals. These clonal cells were present in samples collected both before and after space flight, and yields are higher than previously reported for healthy individuals in this age range (40-52 years of age). The frequency of clonal damage appears to be even greater in chromosomes prematurely condensed in interphase, when compared with equivalent analysis in metaphase cells. The individuals with clonal aberrations were followed-up over several months and the yields of all clones decreased during this period. Since clonal aberrations may be associated with increased risk of tumorigenesis, it is important to accurately identify cells containing clonal rearrangements for risk assessment as well as biodosimetry. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. External quality assessment for CD4 + T-lymphocyte count test: Performance of the Brazilian public health laboratories network.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Pâmela Cristina; Wohlke, Bruna Lovizutto Protti; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Pires, Ana Flávia; Kohiyama, Igor Massaki; Salomão, Reinaldo; Alonso Neto, José Boullosa; Júnior, Orlando da Costa Ferreira; Franchini, Miriam; Bazzo, Maria Luiza; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2018-05-01

    The National Network for CD4+ T-lymphocyte counting of Brazil comprises 93 laboratories. This study reports the laboratory performances achieved in external quality assessment (EQA) rounds provides by Ministry of Health to evaluate the quality of the kits used and the performance of test by the technicians.Ten EQA rounds were analyzed according the EQA criteria aimed to evaluate individual laboratory performance on the basis of the accuracy of their results compared to the general mean obtained by all participating laboratories and the reproducibility of the results obtained between 2 samples from the same donor.The percentage of approved and failed laboratories in the EQAs tends to follow a uniform pattern. Since 2011, approval has remained above 80% and the failure rate has never exceeded 15%.EQA is very important to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, to identify monitor, and to resolve errors as quickly as possible.

  4. Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70 years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P < 0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was higher in nonsmokers for both sexes between 25 to 54 years (t test, P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance showed a multiple variable effect of age, sex, smoking status, body mass index on WBC count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke. PMID:22613769

  5. NEUTROPHIL/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AND PLATELET/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO IN PATIENTS WITH NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to compare neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with NSCLC (Non- Small- Cell Lung Cancer): with and without metastases at the time of diagnosis to find out if there is the importance of these cell ratios in the assessment of severity NSCLC. Material and Methods: this is the retrospective analysis of NRL and PRL in patients with NSCLC at the time of the diagnosis of disease before any anti tumor treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery). 57 of patients with NSCLC treated in the first three months of 2016. year were chosen at random regardless of sex and age. We examined full blood count cells (FBC), calculated NLR and PLR in every patient and compared obtained values in patients with and patients without metastases. Results: In 57 patients with NSCLC there were 15 males with metastases, 28 without metastases, and 8 females with metastases, 6 without metastases. Since there was no regularity in the distribution of obtained values of NLR and PLR we made the Mann-Whitney U test. Mean values are presented with a median and interquartile percentiles. There was no significant difference in NLR between patients without and with metastases (p = 0.614; p = NS) as well as in PLR (p=0,068; p=NS). Conclusion: There must be a link between the immune status of the organism and lung cancer development. Immune cells have become of interest in recent years and much work has been done to study their role in the genesis of cancer but it did not give satisfactory results. Further clinical studies on large number of patients and further laboratory examination of the role of immune cells in cancer development and suppression are required. PMID:27999489

  6. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in assessment of the white blood cell count differential in pediatric specimens.

    PubMed

    Becker, P-H; Fenneteau, O; Da Costa, L

    2016-02-01

    The automated XN-1000 hematology analyzer enables to perform a blood cell count and a leukocyte differential. When abnormal cells were detected, a flag was generated by the analyzer and a manual microscopic examination of the corresponding blood film was performed. We compared the white blood cell differentials provided by the automated hematology analyzer XN-1000 in a pediatric population (n = 765) with those obtained through microscopic examination by cytologists and those obtained using a previous version of this analyzer, the XE-2100. Leukocytes count as well as flags sensitivity and specificity was analyzed. The leukocytes count provided by the analyzer is in good accordance with the differential obtained by manual count in children older than 3 months. The sensitivity for blast detection is 99% and the detection of reactive cells is 63%. The flag specificity remains low (<35%) for blood samples collected from infants between 8 days and 2 years of age, but increases up to 67% thereafter. The results obtained with the XN-1000 analyzer show an improvement in comparison with those obtained with the XE-2100 analyzer. The automated WBC differential provided by the XN-1000 analyzer in the pediatric setting is accurate, but a meticulous microscopic examination of blood smears remains necessary for infants up to 3 months of age to validate the analyzer flags. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values.

  9. Chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes exposed to energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and are therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/µm. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy range the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction products such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are energy dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  10. Microcystin-LR induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zegura, B; Gajski, G; Straser, A; Garaj-Vrhovac, V; Filipič, M

    2011-12-24

    Human exposure to microcystins, which are produced by freshwater cyanobacterial species, is of growing concern due to increasing appearance of cyanobacterial blooms as a consequence of global warming and increasing water eutrophication. Although microcystins are considered to be liver-specific, there is evidence that they may also affect other tissues. These substances have been shown to induce DNA damage in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanisms of their genotoxic activity remain unclear. In human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1 and 10μg/ml) of microcystin-LR (MCLR) induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in DNA damage, as measured with the comet assay. Digestion of DNA from MCLR-treated HPBLs with purified formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) displayed a greater number of DNA strand-breaks than non-digested DNA, confirming the evidence that MCLR induces oxidative DNA damage. With the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay no statistically significant induction of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds was observed after a 24-h exposure to MCLR. At the molecular level, no changes in the expression of selected genes involved in the cellular response to DNA damage and oxidative stress were observed after a 4-h exposure to MCLR (1μg/ml). After 24h, DNA damage-responsive genes (p53, mdm2, gadd45a, cdkn1a), a gene involved in apoptosis (bax) and oxidative stress-responsive genes (cat, gpx1, sod1, gsr, gclc) were up-regulated. These results provide strong support that MCLR is an indirectly genotoxic agent, acting via induction of oxidative stress, and that lymphocytes are also the target of microcystin-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between shift work and peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts in Chinese steel workers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Tsai, I-Ting; Hung, Wei-Chin; Yu, Teng-Hung; Wu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Chia-Chang; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Chung, Fu-Mei; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen

    2016-01-01

    Even though shift work has been suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, little research has been done to determine the logical underlying inflammation mechanisms. This study investigated the association between shift work and circulating total and differential leukocyte counts among Chinese steel workers. The subjects were 1,654 line workers in a steel plant, who responded to a cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire on basic attributes, life style, and sleep. All workers in the plant received a periodic health checkup. Total and differential leukocytes counts were also examined in the checkup. Shift workers had higher rates of alcohol use, smoking, poor sleep, poor physical exercise, and obesity than daytime workers. In further analysis, we found that the peripheral total WBC, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were also greater in shift workers than in daytime workers. When subjects were divided into quartiles according to total WBC, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts, increased leukocyte count was associated with shift work. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, smoking, obesity, and shift work were independently associated with total WBC, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. This study indicates that peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts are significantly higher in shift workers, which suggests that shift work may be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of cardiovascular disease for shift workers.

  12. Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis--a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Nierhaus, Axel; Klatte, Stefanie; Linssen, Jo; Eismann, Nina M; Wichmann, Dominic; Hedke, Jörg; Braune, Stephan A; Kluge, Stefan

    2013-02-12

    Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21 days and ended with the patients' discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P < 0.0001) with a sensitivity of 89.2% and a specificity of 76.4%, particularly within the first 48 hours after SIRS onset. Regarding the discriminative power for infection, the IG count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48 hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good

  13. A Case of Complete and Durable Molecular Remission of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Following Treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, an Extract of Green Tea

    PubMed Central

    Block, Keith I; Kressel, Bruce R; Sukhatme, Vikas P; White, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old man who achieved a complete molecular remission 20 years after a diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia while using epigallicatechin-3-gallate, an extract of green tea. The patient presented at age 28 with lymphocytosis, mild anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and massive splenomegaly, for which a splenectomy was performed. He was then followed expectantly. Over the next two decades, he suffered two symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukemia-related events. The first occurred twelve years after diagnosis (at age 40) when the patient developed fevers, night sweats, and moderate anemia. He was diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient declined conventional therapy in favor of a diet, exercise, and supplement regimen, and recovered from the autoimmune hemolytic anemia though the underlying chronic lymphocytic leukemia remained evident. This is the first published case report of "spontaneous" recovery from secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia in an adult.  Over the second decade following chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosis, serial bone marrow biopsies demonstrated increasing lymphocytosis, with minimal peripheral lymphocytosis. However, twenty years after diagnosis, peripheral lymphocytosis accelerated, with white blood cell counts rising to 55,000/µL. Because the patient continued to refuse conventional therapy, he was treated instead with a supplement regimen that included high doses of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea extract. Peripheral lymphocytosis resolved. More remarkably, a bone marrow examination, including flow cytometry, showed no evidence of a malignant clone. Two years later (at age 51), the peripheral blood and bone marrow were without molecular evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or any malignancy. The patient remains well at age 52.  PMID:26858922

  14. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  15. Field performance of a low-cost and fully-automated blood counting system operated by trained and untrained users (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dengling; Xie, Yanjun; Liu, Peng; Tong, Lieshu; Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J.

    2017-02-01

    Current flow-based blood counting devices require expensive and centralized medical infrastructure and are not appropriate for field use. In this paper we report a method to count red blood cells, white blood cells as well as platelets through a low-cost and fully-automated blood counting system. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope with large field-of-view to record bright-field and fluorescence images of samples that are diluted with a single, stable reagent mixture and counted using automatic algorithms. Sample collection is performed manually using a spring loaded lancet, and volume-metering capillary tubes. The capillaries are then dropped into a tube of pre-measured reagents and gently shaken for 10-30 seconds. The sample is loaded into a measurement chamber and placed on a custom 3D printed platform. Sample translation and focusing is fully automated, and a user has only to press a button for the measurement and analysis to commence. Cost of the system is minimized through the use of custom-designed motorized components. We performed a series of comparative experiments by trained and untrained users on blood from adults and children. We compare the performance of our system, as operated by trained and untrained users, to the clinical gold standard using a Bland-Altman analysis, demonstrating good agreement of our system to the clinical standard. The system's low cost, complete automation, and good field performance indicate that it can be successfully translated for use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible.

  16. The profiles of gamma-H2AX along with ATM/DNA-PKcs activation in the lymphocytes and granulocytes of rat and human blood exposed to gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Xuxia; Ding, Defang; Gao, Yun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-08-01

    Establishing a rat model suitable for γ-H2AX biodosimeter studies has important implications for dose assessment of internal radionuclide contamination in humans. In this study, γ-H2AX, p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci were enumerated using immunocytofluorescence method, and their protein levels were measured by Western blot in rat blood lymphocytes and granulocytes exposed to γ-rays compared with human blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. It was found that DNA double-strand break repair kinetics and linear dose responses in rat lymphocytes were similar to those observed in the human counterparts. Moreover, radiation induced clear p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci formation and an increase in ratio of co-localization of p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs with γ-H2AX foci in rat lymphocytes similar to those of human lymphocytes. The level of γ-H2AX protein in irradiated rat and human lymphocytes was significantly reduced by inhibitors of ATM and DNA-PKcs. Surprisingly, unlike human granulocytes, rat granulocytes with DNA-PKcs deficiency displayed a rapid accumulation, but delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci with essentially no change from 10 h to 48 h post-irradiation. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM activity in rat granulocytes also decreased radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. In comparison, human granulocytes showed no response to irradiation regarding γ-H2AX, p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs foci. Importantly, incidence of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes after total-body radiation of rats was consistent with that of in vitro irradiation of rat lymphocytes. These findings show that rats are a useful in vivo model for validation of γ-H2AX biodosimetry for dose assessment in humans. ATM and DNA-PKcs participate together in DSB repair in rat lymphocytes similar to that of human lymphocytes. Further, rat granulocytes, which have the characteristic of delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci in response to radiation, may be a useful experimental system for biodosimetry studies.

  17. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-05

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  18. [Chromosome banding analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with IL2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Stěpanovská, K; Vaňková, G; Némethová, V; Tomášiková, L; Smuhařová, P; Divíšková, E; Vallová, V; Kuglík, P; Plevová, K; Oltová, A; Doubek, M; Pospíšilová, S; Mayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations play an important role as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These aberrations are mostly detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as chromosomal banding analysis has been scarce due to low proliferative activity of malignant B-lymphocytes in vitro. In 2006, a new method using stimulation with IL-2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 for metaphase generation in CLL was published [1]. The objective of our study was to verify the efficacy of stimulation and to evaluate if the method is suitable for routine diagnostics. In total, peripheral blood samples of 369 CLL patients were analyzed in parallel by chromosomal banding analysis and by FISH probes for 13q14, 11q22-23, CEP12 and 17p13. Out of 369 patients, 307 (83%) were successfully stimulated for metaphase generation. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 243 (79%) out of 307 patients evaluated by chromosomal banding analysis. Other aberrations that are not included into standard FISH panel were detected in patients karyotypes, e.g. del(6q), del(14q), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(11;14)(q13;q32) and t(18;22)(q21;q11). One hundred and three (42%) patients showed complex aberrant karyotype not detected by FISH analysis. Stimulation with IL-2 and oligonucleotide DSP30 is an efficient method how to induce proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes and allows detection of a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations in addition to those detected by standard FISH panel. Using this method in routine diagnostics is helpful particularly in identification of patients with complex aberrant karyotype.

  19. T cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with suppressor phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, F M; Smith, D; Hocking, W

    1982-01-01

    The peripheral blood cells from a patient with T cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were examined for surface marker and functional characteristics. Eighty-91% of the peripheral blood cells formed SRBC rosettes and 22-49% possessed Fc receptors; 73% of the peripheral blood cells were reactive with the OKT8 antiserum and 61% expressed DR antigens. Response to PHA stimulation was markedly reduced, whereas allogeneic responsiveness in mixed leucocyte culture was intact. The ability of Con A-stimulated peripheral blood cells to generate suppressor activity in a mixed leucocyte reaction was deficient, whereas suppression of in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis was greater than normal. The leukaemic peripheral blood cell population expressed a T suppressor phenotype. Functional studies suggest that these cells were derived from the subset of T lymphocytes with regulatory activity for immunoglobulin synthesis as opposed to mitogenic responsiveness. PMID:6215199

  20. The effects of lipid A on gamma-irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubničková, M.; Kuzmina, E. A.; Chausov, V. N.; Ravnachka, I.; Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    The modulatory effects of lipid A (diphosphoryl lipid A (DLA) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA)) on apoptosis induction and DNA structure damage (single and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs, respectively)) in peripheral human blood lymphocytes are studied for 60Co gamma-irradiation. It is shown that in the presence of these agents the amount of apoptotic cells increases compared with the irradiated control samples. The effect is most strongly pronounced for DLA. In its presence, a significant increase is observed in the number of radiation-induced DNA SSBs and DSBs. Possible mechanisms are discussed of the modifying influence of the used agents on radiation-induced cell reactions

  1. Postoperative Elevation of the Neutrophil: Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Complications Following Esophageal Resection.

    PubMed

    Vulliamy, Paul; McCluney, Simon; Mukherjee, Samrat; Ashby, Luke; Amalesh, Thangadorai

    2016-06-01

    Complications following esophagectomy are a significant source of morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the early identification of complications following esophagectomy, as compared to other routinely available parameters. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at a single centre. Baseline characteristics and complications occurring within the first 30 days of surgery were recorded. White blood cell counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels immediately following surgery (day 0) and over the subsequent three postoperative days were analysed. Sixty-five patients were included, of whom 29 (45 %) developed complications. The median NLR was similar among patients with and without a complicated recovery on day 0 (12.7 vs 13.6, p = 0.70) and day 1 (10.0 vs 9.3, p = 0.29). Patients who subsequently developed complications had a higher NLR on day 2 (11.8 vs 7.5, p < 0.001) and day 3 (9.0 vs 6.5, p = 0.001) compared to those whose recovery was uncomplicated. Receiver-operating-characteristic plots for the diagnostic performance of the NLR, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and CRP level at each time point demonstrated that the NLR on day 2 had the greatest discriminatory ability in predicting complications, with an area under the curve of 0.83 (95 % CI 0.73-0.94). An NLR of >8.3 on day 2 had a sensitivity of 93 % and a specificity of 72 % for predicting complications. The NLR is a simple and routinely available parameter which has a high sensitivity in the early detection of complications following esophagectomy.

  2. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78–1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  3. rhG-CSF in healthy donors: mobilization of peripheral hemopoietic progenitors and effect on peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sica, S; Rutella, S; Di Mario, A; Salutari, P; Rumi, C; Ortu la Barbera, E; Etuk, B; Menichella, G; D'Onofrio, G; Leone, G

    1996-08-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) 16 micrograms/kg/day was given to 9 healthy donors to recruit hemopoietic progenitors (HP) for allogeneic transplantation or donor leukocyte infusion. rhG-CSF was administered s.c. for 5 days. No side effects were encountered except for moderate bone pain and lumbago. Mobilization was effective, reaching a peak median value of 187 x 10(3) CD34+ cells/ml (range 51.2-1127) and 2170 x 10(3) colony-forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM)/ml (range 1138-4190). Peak values were obtained at a median of 4 days of rhG-CSF and represented, respectively, a 13-fold and a 37-fold increase from baseline values (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.006). White blood cell (WBC) counts increased 6-fold from baseline values (p < 0.0007) and reached a median peak of 34 x 10(6)/ml (23.5-59). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), and mononuclear (MNC) cells increased 10-fold and 2-fold, respectively (p = 0.0039 and p = 0.0026) and reached a median peak of 32.1 x 10(6)/ml (18.2-52) and 4.42 x 10(6)/ml (3.14-12.42). Absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased at peak day in all donors 1.5-fold and 5.7-fold from baseline values (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0018). In 7 of 9 donors, lymphocyte subsets were analyzed in detail. CD3+ and CD19+ lymphocytes increased 1.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively (p = 0.032 for both). NK and activated T lymphocytes doubled at a median of 4 days of rhG-CSF (p = 0.032 and p = NS, respectively). Similar changes were observed in lymphocytes collected in leukapheresis product. T helper and T suppressor subsets displayed a similar increase. Thus, besides the anticipated priming effect on HP and PMN, rhG-CSF in healthy donors produced an unexpected and still unexplained modification of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood.

  4. Correlations between Lymphocytes, Mid-Cell Fractions and Granulocytes with Human Blood Characteristics Using Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssein, Hend A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ramli, R. M.; Ismail, N. E.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the subpopulations of human blood parameters including lymphocytes, the mid-cell fractions (eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes), and granulocytes were determined by electronic sizing in the Health Centre of Universiti Sains Malaysia. These parameters have been correlated with human blood characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, and blood types; before and after irradiation with 0.95 mW He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm). The correlations were obtained by finding patterns, paired non-parametric tests, and an independent non-parametric tests using the SPSS version 11.5, centroid and peak positions, and flux variations. The findings show that the centroid and peak positions, flux peak and total flux, were very much correlated and can become a significant indicator for blood analyses. Furthermore, the encircled flux analysis demonstrated a good future prospect in blood research, thus leading the way as a vibrant diagnosis tool to clarify diseases associated with blood.

  5. Red blood cells inhibit activation-induced cell death and oxidative stress in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A M; Porto, G; Uchida, K; Arosa, F A

    2001-05-15

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to perform one prominent function: to carry and deliver oxygen to the tissues. Earlier studies, however, suggested a role for RBCs in potentiating T-cell proliferation in vitro. Here it is shown that the presence of RBCs in cultures of stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes strengthens T-cell proliferation and survival. Analysis of phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation showed that RBCs inhibit T-cell apoptosis. This inhibition correlated with a reduction in CD71 but not CD95 expression. RBCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and survival upon activation with phytohemagglutinin and with OKT3 antibodies. Studies aimed at characterizing the cellular and molecular basis of the protection afforded to T cells by RBCs showed that (1) optimal protection required intact RBCs and red cell/T-cell contact but not monocytes; (2) RBCs markedly reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species; and (3) RBCs inhibited the formation of protein-bound acrolein, a peroxidation adduct in biologic systems. Overall, these data indicate that human RBCs protect T cells from activation-induced cell death, at least in part by reducing the pro-oxidant state, and suggest a role for RBCs as conceivable modulators of T-cell homeostasis.

  6. Post-Transplantation Natural Killer Cell Count: A Predictor of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival Outcomes After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hyewon; Han, Mi-Soon; Shim, Hyoeun; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Boram; Kong, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Reconstitution of the immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) plays an important role in post-transplant outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of the lymphocyte subset (LST) counts to transplant-related complications and survival outcomes after allo-HSCT has not been fully elucidated. A total of 70 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2013, with LST results both 7 days before conditioning and 30 or 90 days after allo-HSCT were included. The LST counts in the peripheral blood were determined using 6-color flow cytometry. Clinical information, including transplant-related events during the first 100 days after allo-HSCT, was reviewed, and any association between these events and LST was analyzed. At 30 days after allo-HSCT, the CD4 + T-cell (P = .009) and B-cell (P = .035) counts were lower and the natural killer (NK) cell count was greater (P < .001) than before conditioning. The CD8 + T-cell (P = .001) and NK cell (P < .001) counts were high 90 days after transplantation. The hazard ratios for a low NK cell count on days 30 and 90 for acute graft-versus-host disease were 6.22 and 14.67, respectively. Patients with low NK cell counts at 30 and 90 days after allo-HSCT had poorer overall survival (P = .043 and P = .028, respectively) and greater nonrelapse mortality (P = .036 and P = .033, respectively). A low NK cell count on day 30 was still prognostic for overall survival (P = .039) on multivariable analysis. NK cell counts after allo-HSCT, especially on day 30, were predictive of acute graft-versus-host disease, nonrelapse mortality, and survival. Serial lymphocyte subset analysis can be used to identify and treat patients at risk during the early period after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    PubMed

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  8. Parameters of blood count and tumor markers in patients with borderline ovarian tumors: a retrospective analysis and relation to staging.

    PubMed

    Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões; da Silva, Taísa Morete; Tavares Murta, Beatriz Martins; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the parameters of blood count and tumor markers in borderline ovarian tumors. We evaluated 21 patients who had confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumor. We recorded age, parity, tumor type, stage of cancer, serum levels of tumor markers (CA-125, CA-15.3, CA-19.9, CEA, AFP), and the parameters of blood count, fasting glucose, disease-free survival and overall. The patients were divided into two groups, stage IA (n = 13) and stage IB-IIIC (n = 8). The unpaired t-test and Fisher's exact test were used, with P values of less than 0.05 being considered to indicate statistical significance. Levels of red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were significantly higher in stage IA when compared with stage IB-IIIC (P < 0.05). The levels of tumor marker CEA had a tendency to be higher in the group stage IB-IIIC (0.08). Abnormal levels of CEA and CA-19.9 were found more frequently in stages IB-IIIC. Therefore, parameters of blood count, CEA, and CA-19.9 should be targeted for further research in identifying prognostic factors in borderline tumors.

  9. Cyclophilin B mediates cyclosporin A incorporation in human blood T-lymphocytes through the specific binding of complexed drug to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Allain, F; Denys, A; Spik, G

    1996-07-15

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein located within intracellular vesicles and released in biological fluids. We recently reported the specific binding of this protein to T-cell surface receptor which is internalized even in the presence of CsA. These results suggest that CyPB might target the drug to lymphocytes and consequently modify its activity. To verify this hypothesis, we have first investigated the binding capacity and internalization of the CsA-CyPB complex in human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes and secondly compared the inhibitory effect of both free and CyPB-complexed CsA on the CD3-induced activation and proliferation of T-cells. Here, we present evidence that both the CsA-CyPB complex and free CyPB bind to the T-lymphocyte surface, with similar values of Kd and number of sites. At 37 degrees C, the complex is internalized but, in contrast to the protein, the drug is accumulated within the cell. Moreover, CyPB receptors are internalized together with the ligand and rapidly recycled to the cell surface. Finally, we demonstrate that CyPB-complexed CsA remains as efficient as uncomplexed CsA and that CyPB enhances the immunosuppressive activity of the drug. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that surface CyPB receptors may be related to the selective and variable action of CsA, through specific binding and targeting of the CyPB-CsA complex to peripheral blood T-lymphocytes.

  10. Performance evaluation of the automated nucleated red blood cell count of five commercial hematological analyzers.

    PubMed

    Da Rin, G; Vidali, M; Balboni, F; Benegiamo, A; Borin, M; Ciardelli, M L; Dima, F; Di Fabio, A; Fanelli, A; Fiorini, F; Francione, S; Germagnoli, L; Gioia, M; Lari, T; Lorubbio, M; Marini, A; Papa, A; Seghezzi, M; Solarino, L; Pipitone, S; Tilocca, E; Buoro, S

    2017-12-01

    Recent automated hematology analyzers (HAs) can identify and report nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) count as a separate population out of white blood cells (WBC). The aim of this study was to investigate the analytical performances of NRBC enumeration on five top of the range HAs. We evaluated the within-run and between-day precision, limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), and limit of quantitation (LoQ) of XE-2100 and XN-module (Sysmex), ADVIA 2120i (Siemens), BC-6800 (Mindray), and UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter). Automated NRBC counts were also compared with optical microscopy (OM). The limits of detection for NRBC of the BC-6800, XN-module, XE-2100, UniCel DxH 800, and ADVIA 2120i are 0.035×10 9 /L, 0.019×10 9 /L, 0.067×10 9 /L, 0.038×10 9 /L, and 0.167×10 9 /L, respectively. Our data indicated excellent performance in terms of precision. The agreement with OM was excellent for BC-6800, XN-module, and XE-2100 (Bias 0.023, 0.019, and 0.033×10 9 /L, respectively). ADVIA 2120i displayed a significant constant error and UniCel DxH 800 both proportional and small constant error. Regards to NRBC counting, the performances shown by BC-6800, XN-module, and XE-2100 are excellent also a low count, ADVIA 2120i and UniCel DxH 800 need to be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was <2 SD below the normal means for young adults. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index [(insulin (IU/mL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/18)/22.5]. Data of white blood cell counts and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels were collected in the second and third year (2008-2009) of Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). The results showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  12. Nucleated red blood cells count as a prognostic biomarker in predicting the complications of asphyxia in neonates.

    PubMed

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Avan, Amir; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-11-01

    Nucleated-red-blood-cells (NRBC) count in umbilical cord of newborns is been suggested as a sign of birth asphyxia. The present study was conducted to explore the value of NRBC count in prognosis of asphyxiated neonates. Sixty-three neonates with asphyxia were followed up for two years. Maternal and neonatal information was recorded follow by clinical and laboratory evaluation. NRBC-level was determined per 100 white-blood-cells (WBC). After discharge, follow-up of asphyxiated infants was performed using Denver II test at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Neonates were divided into two groups, with favorable and unfavorable outcome based on developmental delay or death. We observed that NRBC count with more than 11 per 100 WBC, had sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 90% in predicting complications of asphyxia, while in absolute NRBC count with more than 1554, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and of 87%, respectively. Combination of NRBC + HIE (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy) grade had a high-predictive power for determining the prognosis of asphyxia in neonates. We demonstrate that NRBC/100 WBC and absolute NRCB count can be used as prognostic marker for neonatal asphyxia, which in combination with the severity of asphyxia could indicate high infant mortality, and complications of asphyxia. Further studies in a larger and multi center setting trail are warranted to investigate the value of NRBC and HIE in asphyxiate term infants.

  13. Analytical variability of estimated platelet counts on canine blood smears.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Paciletti, Veronica; Zambarbieri, Jari

    2018-06-04

    The analytical variability of estimated platelet counts in dogs has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of analytical imprecision of platelet estimates and the possible impact of this imprecision on clinical decisions. Three independent observers counted the number of platelets in 3 different areas (LE = lateral edge; CM = central monolayer; FE = feathered edge) of 30 canine blood smears with different instrumental platelet counts. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each observer was calculated in different areas of each smear (intra-observer variability), among different regions of each smear (inter-area variability), and among different observers in each area (inter-observer variability). The influence of these variabilities on the classification of platelet estimates as adequate, increased, or decreased was also assessed. The CVs recorded in the different areas by each observer ranged from 8% to 88% and were negatively correlated (P < .001, r = -.65) with the mean number of platelets per field. The mean platelet number was significantly lower in the FE and significantly higher in the CM compared with the LE, but the magnitude of this difference varied with the operators. The concordance among operators regarding platelet estimates was fair (k = 0.36) to substantial (k = 0.71) depending on the area. The overall inter-area concordance was moderate (k = 0.59). Platelet estimates suffer from high variability that could lead to patient misclassification. Therefore, guidelines to standardize the platelet estimate are needed. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Detection of newly produced T and B lymphocytes by digital PCR in blood stored dry on nylon flocked swabs.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Marion Vaglio; Sottini, Alessandra; Roccaro, Aldo M; Ghidini, Claudia; Bernardi, Simona; Martellosio, Giovanni; Serana, Federico; Imberti, Luisa

    2017-04-05

    A normal number of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and K-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) is considered a biomarker for adequate new T- and B-cell production. In newborns, detection of TRECs and KRECs by real time PCR from dried blood spotted on filter paper is used for the screening of severe immunodeficiency. In adults, elderly and during diseases, where the number of TRECs is lower than in newborns and children, a large amount of DNA and a sensitive method of amplification are necessary to identify newly produced lymphocytes. DNA was prepared from blood of 203 healthy adults (range: 18-91 years old) absorbed for 10 s on flocked swabs and let to dry, or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. DNA was subjected to digital PCR and to well established conventional real time PCR-based method using TREC- and KREC-specific primers and probes. The number of TRECs and KRECs was expressed per mL of blood. Statistical analysis was performed by nested ANOVA, Pearson coefficient of determination, and by linear regression tests. The novel method for the storage of dried blood on nylon flocked swabs and the use of digital PCR allow quantification of TRECs and KRECs with high degree of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision. TRECs and KRECs were amplified by digital PCR in all tested blood samples, including those obtained from elderly individuals (>70 years old) and that were negative by real time PCR. Furthermore, values of TRECs and KRECs obtained by digital PCR were in the range of those acquired by real time PCR. Our findings demonstrate that DNA isolation from dried blood on flocked swabs followed by digital PCR-based analysis represents a useful tool for studying new lymphocyte production in adults and elderly individuals. This suggests the potential use of the methodology when monitoring of clinical variables is limited by the number of molecules that can be amplified and detected, such as in patients with immunodeficiency or under

  15. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: A small randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, J. David; Myers, Hector F.; Cole, Steven W.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1 infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to post-intervention (time × treatment condition interaction, p = .02). This effect was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. PMID:18678242

  16. [A densitometric analysis of the chromatin structural characteristics of the nuclei in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of breast cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Nalieskina, L A

    1995-01-01

    Alterations in optical structural characteristics of nuclear chromatin, in comparison with healthy individuals (10) and patients with fibroadenoma (29), were detected in 57 patients with a breast cancer by densitometric investigation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The degree of these alterations are closely associated with the level of malignancy in the initial neoplasia and the aggregation of oncopathology in pedigrees.

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can develop a low WBC count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may be in ...

  18. Silicone-specific blood lymphocyte response in women with silicone breast implants.

    PubMed Central

    Ojo-Amaize, E A; Conte, V; Lin, H C; Brucker, R F; Agopian, M S; Peter, J B

    1994-01-01

    A blinded cross-sectional study was carried out with 99 women, 44 of whom had silicone breast implants. Group I consisted of 55 healthy volunteer women without breast implants; group II comprised 13 volunteer women with breast implants or explants who felt healthy; group III comprised 21 volunteer women with breast implants who had chronic fatigue, musculoskeletal symptoms, and skin disorders; and group IV comprised 10 women who had their prostheses explanted but still presented with clinical symptoms similar to those of the women in group III. Proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all 99 women were measured by [3H]thymidine uptake after exposure to SiO2 silicon, or silicone gel. The levels of proliferative responses were expressed as stimulation indices, which were obtained by dividing the counts per minute of stimulated cells by the counts per minute of unstimulated cells. Abnormal responses to SiO2, silicon, or silicone gel were defined as a stimulation index of > 2.8, > 2.1, or > 2.4, respectively. Abnormal responses were observed in 0% of group I, 15% of group II, 29% of group III, and 30% of group IV (P < 0.0005 for group I versus groups II and IV). Thirty-one percent of symptomatic women with silicone gel breast implants had elevated serum silicon levels ( > 0.18 mg/liter); however, there was no significant correlation between abnormal cellular responses and silicon levels in blood serum, type of implant, time since first implantation, prosthesis explantation, number of implants, or report of implant leakage or rupture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8556522

  19. Real-Time Microfluidic Blood-Counting System for PET and SPECT Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Convert, Laurence; Lebel, Réjean; Gascon, Suzanne; Fontaine, Réjean; Pratte, Jean-François; Charette, Paul; Aimez, Vincent; Lecomte, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Small-animal nuclear imaging modalities have become essential tools in the development process of new drugs, diagnostic procedures, and therapies. Quantification of metabolic or physiologic parameters is based on pharmacokinetic modeling of radiotracer biodistribution, which requires the blood input function in addition to tissue images. Such measurements are challenging in small animals because of their small blood volume. In this work, we propose a microfluidic counting system to monitor rodent blood radioactivity in real time, with high efficiency and small detection volume (∼1 μL). A microfluidic channel is built directly above unpackaged p-i-n photodiodes to detect β-particles with maximum efficiency. The device is embedded in a compact system comprising dedicated electronics, shielding, and pumping unit controlled by custom firmware to enable measurements next to small-animal scanners. Data corrections required to use the input function in pharmacokinetic models were established using calibrated solutions of the most common PET and SPECT radiotracers. Sensitivity, dead time, propagation delay, dispersion, background sensitivity, and the effect of sample temperature were characterized. The system was tested for pharmacokinetic studies in mice by quantifying myocardial perfusion and oxygen consumption with (11)C-acetate (PET) and by measuring the arterial input function using (99m)TcO4 (-) (SPECT). Sensitivity for PET isotopes reached 20%-47%, a 2- to 10-fold improvement relative to conventional catheter-based geometries. Furthermore, the system detected (99m)Tc-based SPECT tracers with an efficiency of 4%, an outcome not possible through a catheter. Correction for dead time was found to be unnecessary for small-animal experiments, whereas propagation delay and dispersion within the microfluidic channel were accurately corrected. Background activity and sample temperature were shown to have no influence on measurements. Finally, the system was successfully

  20. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  1. Reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets balanced for age and gender from a population of healthy adults in Chongqing District of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejun; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Mingxu; Cao, Xinglu; Yang, Shaojun; Jia, Shuangrong; Wang, Lixin; Luo, Jie; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2016-11-01

    The enumeration of lymphocyte subsets plays an essential role in the monitoring of immunological disorders. Immunophenotyping values have been found to be influenced by race, age, gender, and environmental conditions. Therefore, it is important to establish reference ranges for healthy adults from the local population for clinical decision-making. The current study aimed to establish a normal reference range for peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults from the Chongqing District of China by using single-platform flow cytometry. Age- and gender-specific reference ranges were established in 268 healthy adult males and females between 21 and 60 years of age. The CD8+ cell counts decreased with age, CD4+ cell percentages and counts increased with age, and total T cell percentages were higher in the female population. Our results are similar to those reported from other parts of China but different from some results reported from other countries; this further stresses the need to establish local reference ranges by region. Our results will help in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus and other immunological disorders in Chongqing District. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte extravasation. II. Studies of in vitro lymphocyte adherence to high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    Braaten, B A; Spangrude, G J; Daynes, R A

    1984-07-01

    Lymphocyte migration from the blood into the lymph nodes in most species occurs across post-capillary high endothelial venules (HEV). In a previous study, we proposed that lymphocyte extravasation involves receptor-mediated binding followed by adenylate cyclase-dependent activation of lymphocyte motility. This hypothesis was, in part, based on observations of in vitro lymphocyte adherence to HEV by employing pertussigen, which is a known inhibitor of lymphocyte recirculation. In vitro lymphocyte-HEV binding requires a cold (6 degrees C) incubation step and binding is poor to nil if the assay is attempted at room (23 degrees C) or physiologic temperature. We decided to investigate why this assay is temperature restricted, because of the possibility that pertussigen or fucoidin -treated lymphocytes might interact with HEV differently at higher temperatures. We now report that O.C.T. compound (OCT), the embedding matrix generally used to cut frozen lymph node sections, is toxic to lymphocytes at temperatures above 6 degrees C. Exclusion of OCT from the assay system will allow lymphocyte-HEV binding to occur at 23 degrees C and to a lesser extent at 37 degrees C. With this modified protocol, lymphocytes treated with either pertussigen, fucoidin , or neuraminidase were tested for adherence to HEV at 23 degrees C. No essential difference in binding properties was observed from what had been reported at 6 degrees C. In contrast, trypsin-treated lymphocytes that did not bind to HEV with the standard technique at 6 degrees C did adhere to a minimal extent to HEV at 23 degrees C using the modified procedure. We also report some preliminary work, using the modified assay, on in vitro lymphocyte-HEV binding of rat, rabbit, and guinea pig lymphocytes to sections of lymph nodes from the respective species.

  3. Protein phosphorylation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Phosphorylation of endogenous plasma membrane and cytoplasmic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, David D.; Wedner, H. James; Parker, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Phosphorylation of endogenous proteins in subcellular fractions of human peripheral-blood lymphocytes was studied by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Studies using extensively purified subcellular fractions indicated that the endogenous phosphorylating activity in the particulate fractions was derived primarily from the plasma membrane. Electrophoresis of 32P-labelled subcellular fractions in two dimensions [O'Farrell (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4007–4021] provided much greater resolution of the endogenous phosphoproteins than electrophoresis in one dimension, facilitating their excision from gels for quantification of 32P content. More than 100 cytoplasmic and 20 plasma-membrane phosphorylated species were observed. Phosphorylation of more than 10 cytoplasmic proteins was absolutely dependent on cyclic AMP. In the plasma membrane, cyclic AMP-dependent phosphoproteins were observed with mol.wts. of 42000, 42000, 80000 and 90000 and pI values of 6.1, 6.3, 6.25 and 6.5 respectively. Phosphorylation of endogenous cytoplasmic and plasma-membrane proteins was rapid with t½=5–12s at 25°C. Between 40 and 70% of the 32P was recovered as phosphoserine and phosphothreonine when acid hydrolysates of isolated plasma-membrane phosphoproteins were analysed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The presence of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and endogenous phosphate-acceptor proteins in the plasma membranes of lymphocytes provides a mechanism by which these cells might respond to plasma-membrane pools of cyclic AMP generated in response to stimulation by mitogens or physiological modulators of lymphocyte function. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:228657

  4. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  5. A visual study of chemotaxis of human lymphocytes using a collagen-gel assay.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P C

    1985-01-21

    Time-lapse cinematography was used to study the chemotactic responsiveness of human blood lymphocytes as defined by morphological orientation and directional locomotion in gradients. At present, evidence for lymphocyte chemotaxis is indirect since neither of these essential features can be demonstrated with Boyden filter assays. Few lymphocytes direct from blood were motile, but culture in vitro for 1-3 days increased the proportion of locomotor forms to 30-40%. These cells were placed on 3-D collagen gels, and a chemotactic source was presented nearby on a small filter placed on the surface of, or within, the gel. The minority of lymphocytes that were capable of locomotion showed chemotactic responses to filters soaked in lipopolysaccharide if fresh human serum (20%), but not heat-inactivated serum, was present. Lymphocytes responded by protrusion of a lamella in the direction of the gradient source: 76% of locomotor lymphocytes showed their first orientation into the 180 degrees sector facing the source. They then moved directionally towards the source. The response to purified C5 peptides was equivocal. The locomotor lymphocytes showed a chemotactic response to supernatant fluids derived from cultures of the adherent mononuclear cell fraction from human blood (greater than 80% monocytes), judged by the same criteria. No particular lymphocyte type constituted the locomotor population. After exposure to LPS-activated serum, both T and B lymphocytes showed locomotor forms. There were slightly more T4+ cells among the locomotor population than among the population as a whole.

  6. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dogru, M; Citli, R

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is a novel marker for the evaluation of inflammation and has not been evaluated previously in patients with AD. To investigate the relationship between NLR and the clinical findings of AD. Sixty-six children with AD were included in the study.The control group was included 66 children who have no allergic and chronic diseases.The immunoglobulin(Ig)E levels and complete blood count were measured. Skin prick tests were performed using the same antigens for all patients. NLR was not significant between the patient and control groups (p>0.05).The patients with AD were divided into 3 groups according to their SCORAD score as mild, moderate and severe AD.No statistically significant difference was present between groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics,eosinohil-lymphocyte ratio,eosinophil-neutrophil ratio,the percentage of eosinophil, IgE,the sensitivity of skin tests(p>0.05). However,NLR and sensitivity to house dust mite were significantly different among groups(respectively,p=0.037,p:0.043).SCORAD scores were weak positively correlated with NLR levels,eosinophil-lymphocyte ratio and the sensitivity of house dust mite (respectively,r:0.329;p:0.007,r:0.264;p:00035,r:0.325;p:0.008). We didn't found significant difference in term of mean NLR betweeen patients with AD and control group. NLR was found significantly higher in severe AD patients than mild AD patients.The house dust mite sensitivity, eosinohil-lymphocyte ratio and NLR were correlated with AD severity.

  7. Pharmacology of Thiopurine Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Complete Blood Cell Count Outcomes: A 5-Year Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Abraham J.; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Bouma, Gerd; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; de Boer, Nanne K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Thiopurines are the prerequisite for immunomodulation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. When administered in high (oncological) dose, thiopurine metabolites act as purine antagonists, causing DNA-strand breakage and myelotoxicity. In lower IBD dosages, the mode of action is primarily restricted to anti-inflammatory effects. Then, myelosuppression and hepatotoxicity are the most common adverse events of thiopurines. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thiopurine metabolites on hematologic and hepatic parameters and to determine which patient characteristics are related to generation of thiopurine metabolites. Methods: The authors scrutinized the therapeutic drug monitoring database of the VU University medical center and subsequently merged this database with the Clinical Laboratory database of our hospital covering the same time period (2010–2015). Results: The authors included 940 laboratory findings of 424 unique patients in this study. Concentrations of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) correlated negatively with red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and neutrophil count in both azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine users. There was a positive correlation with mean corpuscular volume. In patients using 6-thioguanine, 6-TGN concentrations correlated positively with white blood cell count. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between patient's age and 6-TGN concentrations in patients using AZA or 6-thioguanine, and we observed an inverse correlation between body mass index and 6-TGN concentrations in patients using AZA or mercaptopurine. No relations were observed with liver test abnormalities. Conclusions: Thiopurine derivative therapy influenced bone marrow production and the size of red blood cells. Age and body mass index were important pharmacokinetic factors in the generation of 6-TGN. PMID:28489727

  8. Adrenal and white cell count responses to chronic stress in gestating and postpartum females of the viviparous skink Egernia whitii (Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Gartrell, Brett; Jones, Susan M

    2005-05-01

    This study investigates the relationships between plasma corticosterone concentrations and white cell counts in captive females of the viviparous lizard Egernia whitii during two phases of the reproductive cycle. Gestating and postpartum females were captured in the field and held in the laboratory for 4 weeks. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone concentrations and white blood cell counts were examined in blood samples taken at capture and after 24 h, 1 week, and 4 weeks in captivity. At 24 h after capture, plasma corticosterone concentrations in both groups had increased significantly compared with initial values but then returned to initial concentrations after 1 week in captivity and remained low in the 4 week samples. Plasma progesterone concentrations remained elevated in the gestating females until the week 4 sample, just prior to parturition. The hormone data suggest that capture and captivity did not represent a significant long-term stressor to these animals. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration was associated with heterophilia in the differential leucocyte count in both groups of females. Lymphocyte numbers decreased only in gestating females, suggesting that reproductive status may influence the interaction between adrenal activity and immune function.

  9. A new prognostic score for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP: the prognostic role of blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts is absent.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Sálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trněný, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ≥ 60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ≥ 1, age ≥ 70, bulk ≥ 7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants.

  10. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Tchaijunusova, N J; Takatsuji, T; Gusev, B I; Sakerbaev, A K; Hoshi, M; Kamada, N

    2000-03-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238,239,400Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay, PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to gamma-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years.

  11. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Induced Overexpression of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) Facilitates Trafficking of Infected Lymphocytes through the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Curis, Céline; Percher, Florent; Jeannin, Patricia; Montange, Thomas; Chevalier, Sébastien A.; Seilhean, Danielle; Cartier, Luis; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease develops upon infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system, mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The central nervous system is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. In this study, we investigated the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in the crossing of the BBB by HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We demonstrated that ALCAM is overexpressed on the surface of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes, both in chronically infected cell lines and in primary infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. ALCAM overexpression results from the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by the viral transactivator Tax. In contrast, staining of spinal cord sections of HAM/TSP patients showed that ALCAM expression is not altered on the BBB endothelium in the context of HTLV-1 infection. ALCAM blockade or downregulation of ALCAM levels significantly reduced the migration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes across a monolayer of human BBB endothelial cells. This study suggests a potential role for ALCAM in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease is the consequence of the infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The CNS is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. The mechanism of migration of lymphocytes into

  12. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Induced Overexpression of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) Facilitates Trafficking of Infected Lymphocytes through the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Curis, Céline; Percher, Florent; Jeannin, Patricia; Montange, Thomas; Chevalier, Sébastien A; Seilhean, Danielle; Cartier, Luis; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Afonso, Philippe V

    2016-08-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease develops upon infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system, mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The central nervous system is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. In this study, we investigated the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in the crossing of the BBB by HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We demonstrated that ALCAM is overexpressed on the surface of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes, both in chronically infected cell lines and in primary infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes. ALCAM overexpression results from the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by the viral transactivator Tax. In contrast, staining of spinal cord sections of HAM/TSP patients showed that ALCAM expression is not altered on the BBB endothelium in the context of HTLV-1 infection. ALCAM blockade or downregulation of ALCAM levels significantly reduced the migration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes across a monolayer of human BBB endothelial cells. This study suggests a potential role for ALCAM in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease is the consequence of the infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The CNS is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. The mechanism of migration of lymphocytes into the CNS is unclear

  13. An alkaline comet assay study on the antimalarial drug atovaquone in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a study based on clinically relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dinter, Domagoj; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Atovaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone, is an anti-parasite drug, selectively targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of malaria parasite. It is used for both the treatment and prevention of malaria, usually in a fixed combination with proguanil. Although atovaquone has not often been associated with severe adverse reactions in the recommended dosages and has a relatively favorable side effect profile, the present study was undertaken to evaluate its cytogenotoxic potential towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Two different concentrations of atovaquone found in plasma when used in fixed-dose combination with proguanile hydrochloride were used with and without S9 metabolic activation: 2950 ng ml(-1) used for prophylactic treatment and 11 800 ng ml(-1) used in treatment of malaria. The results showed that lymphocyte viability was not affected after the treatment, suggesting that atovaquone was not cytotoxic in the given concentrations. With the alkaline comet assay we demonstrated that in human peripheral blood lymphocytes no significant changes in comet parameters occurred after the treatment. There were no differences in tested parameters with the addition of S9 metabolic activation, indicating that atovaquone either has no metabolite or it is not toxic in the given concentrations. Since no effects were observed after the treatment, it is to be concluded that atovaquone is safe from the aspect of genototoxicity in the recommended dosages. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Hematology and blood biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris).

    PubMed

    Stacy, B A; Whitaker, N

    2000-09-01

    Comprehensive hematologic and biochemical analyses were conducted on blood from 23 male and 31 female clinically stable captive mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris). Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV), potassium, cholesterol, and calcium concentrations were significantly greater in juvenile males than in juvenile females, but no significant differences were determined between parameters of subadult males and subadult females. The mean WBC count and mean heterophil count were significantly higher in adult males than in adult females. Mean uric acid concentration was significantly greater in adult females than in males. Mean erythrocyte count was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Adult mean WBC and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower than those of both juveniles and subadults. Subadults had significantly lower mean eosinophil counts than both adults and juveniles. Subadults had significantly lower mean alkaline phosphatase activities than juveniles, whereas the adults had significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities than other groups. Lactate dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower for subadults than for juveniles and adults. Cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher for subadults and juveniles compared with adults. Triglyceride concentration was significantly lower for subadults and highest for juveniles. Glucose concentrations were significantly higher for adults. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly lower for subadults than for both adults and juveniles. Uric acid concentrations were significantly higher for juveniles than for the subadults and adults. The subadult animals also had a significantly lower potassium concentration. The results obtained were then compared with known values for other crocodilian species.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors on lymphocyte subsets in patients with a major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria Eugenia; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Perez-Tapia, Mayra; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin

    2010-02-01

    To date, only the effect of a short-term antidepressant treatment (<12 weeks) on neuroendocrinoimmune alterations in patients with a major depressive disorder has been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the effect of a 52-week long treatment with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors on lymphocyte subsets. The participants were thirty-one patients and twenty-two healthy volunteers. The final number of patients (10) resulted from selection and course, as detailed in the enrollment scheme. Methods used to psychiatrically analyze the participants included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Hamilton Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. The peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. Before treatment, increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells in patients were statistically significant when compared with those of healthy volunteers (312+/-29 versus 158+/-30; cells/mL), but no differences in the populations of T and B cells were found. The patients showed remission of depressive episodes after 20 weeks of treatment along with an increase in NK cell and B cell populations, which remained increased until the end of the study. At the 52nd week of treatment, patients showed an increase in the counts of NK cells (396+/-101 cells/mL) and B cells (268+/-64 cells/mL) compared to healthy volunteers (NK, 159+/-30 cells/mL; B cells, 179+/-37 cells/mL). We conclude that long-term treatment with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors not only causes remission of depressive symptoms, but also affects lymphocyte subset populations. The physiopathological consequence of these changes remains to be determined.

  16. [Integral indices of peripheral blood leukogram in the estimation of non-specific immunological reactivity in patients with ischemic heart disease]