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Sample records for lymphocyte cell lines

  1. The Reed-Sternberg cell/lymphocyte rosette. I. Properties of rosettes formed between Hodgkin's cell lines and allogeneic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Flavell, D J; Wright, D H

    1989-02-01

    The properties of rosettes formed between the Hodgkin's cell lines, L428 and L591, and allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations have been investigated. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that the majority of adherent cells were T-cells of both the CD4 and CD8 subsets. Only relatively few B-cells and monocytes were seen to adhere. However, when peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations were fractionated, it was found that monocytes were as good as T-cells at forming rosettes with both L428 and L591, though B-cells were shown to be poor at forming such associations. Treatment of both L428 and L591 with neuraminidase resulted in a significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in the mean number of adherent lymphocytes and in the numbers of Hodgkin's tumour cells which formed rosettes. Smaller, less significant effects were observed for Cytochalasin B and trypsin. EDTA (10(-2) M) at pH 7.2 had no significant effect on rosetting for L428 or L591. Adherence of allogeneic lymphocytes to L428 or L591 was pH dependent but did not appear to correlate with cell surface charge. Treatment of L428 cells with Fab fragments prepared from the IgG fraction of a hyperimmune rabbit anti-L428 antiserum, significantly (P less than 0.05) inhibited the adherence of allogeneic lymphocytes, but only when used at high concentration. The binding requirements of the Hodgkin's cell lines with allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes, as described in this study, appear to be quite different from those described for freshly isolated Hodgkin's tumour cells with autologous intratumoral lymphocytes. This suggests that the two phenomena may be unrelated. There would appear to be an absolute requirement for cell surface sialic acid for allogeneic lymphocyte attachment to the HD cell lines. This might suggest that the receptor-ligand system involved contains sialic acid as an integral part of the cell surface receptor structure involved in recognition of the appropriate ligand.

  2. Expression Profiles of Cloned Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Lymphoid Cell Lines and Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clonal channel catfish lymphoid cell lines and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) have proven extremely useful in examining immune responses at the cellular and molecular levels. To date clonal catfish cell lines and MLC have been biologically and phenotypically characterized using a variety of techniq...

  3. Differential expression of alkaline phosphatase gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Latheef, S A A; Devanabanda, Mallaiah; Sankati, Swetha; Madduri, Ramanadham

    2016-02-01

    Alkaline Phosphatase (APase) activity has been shown to be enhanced specifically in mitogen stimulated B lymphocytes committed to proliferation, but not in T lymphocytes. APase gene expression was analyzed in proliferating murine and human primary lymphocytes and human malignant cell lines using reverse transcriptase and real time PCR. In mitogen stimulated murine splenic lymphocytes, enhancement of APase activity correlated well with an increase in APase gene expression. However, in mitogen stimulated murine T lymphocytes and human PBL despite a vigorous proliferative response, no increase in APase enzyme activity or gene expression was observed. A constitutive expression of APase activity concomitant with APase gene expression was observed inhuman myeloma cell line, U266 B1. However, neither enzyme activity nor gene expression of APase were observed in human T cell lymphoma, SUPT-1. The results suggest a differential expression of APase activity and its gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes of mice and humans. The specific expression of APase activity and its gene only in human myeloma cells, but not in proliferating primary B cells can be exploited as a sensitive disease marker.

  4. Duck lymphocytes. VIII. T-lymphoblastoid cell lines from reticuloendotheliosis virus-induced tumours.

    PubMed

    Chan, S W; Bando, Y; Warr, G W; Middleton, D L; Higgins, D A

    1999-04-01

    The T strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV-T) obtained, along with the helper chicken syncytia virus (CSV), from the CSO4 cell line was highly oncogenic and rapidly fatal in ducks. Tumours were mainly seen in spleen, but neoplastic cells were observed microscopically in many organs. In vitro REV transformation of duck lymphocytes failed to yield stable cell lines, so cells from organs (blood, bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, bursa of Fabricius) of infected birds were used to establish cell lines. Some of these cell lines have been cloned. The success rates of establishment and cloning were increased if cells were cultured in a range of media containing different supplements; however, medium containing 5% foetal calf serum (FCS) and 5% duck serum was generally most efficacious for initial establishment, while spent medium from the parental line supplemented with a further 20% FCS gave best results for cloning. Cloned cell lines had the morphology of lymphoblastoid cells, with irregular nuclei and diffuse chromatin. Analysis of mRNA extracted from these cell lines showed that the uncloned lines were strongly expressing the β chain of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and weakly expressing immunoglobulin (Ig) polypeptides [λ light chain and μ, υ, υ (ΔFc) and α heavy chains in various proportions], suggesting the presence of T and B cells. The cloned cell lines that could be classified were TCR β+ ve T cells. This is the first report of the establishment, cloning and partial characterization of duck lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  5. Immunosuppressive effects of the macrolide antibiotic bafilomycin towards lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Heinle, S; Stünkel, K; Zähner, H; Drautz, H; Bessler, W G

    1988-08-01

    The effects of bafilomycin macrolide antibiotics on primary lymphocytes and on tumor cell lines were investigated. Bafilomycin A markedly suppressed DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in splenocyte cultures of several inbred mouse strains. Bafilomycins were also inhibitory towards cultures of concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated murine spleen cells, and inhibited the mitogen-induced differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Corresponding results were obtained in human cell cultures. A hydrolysis product of the bafilomycin molecule was inactive. Bafilomycin also inhibited the growth of various lymphoid cell lines, the B cell line BCL1, the macrophage cell lines J774 and P338D1, and the T cell line EL4. The sensitivity of the tumor cell lines increased when, simultaneously with bafilomycin, mitogens were applied to the cell cultures. The immunosuppressive action of cyclosporin A could be enhanced by bafilomycin, which could be of importance for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of T cell suppression, and for applied medical research.

  6. Establishment of a cell line from leucocytes of a cow with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Adomaitiene, D; Tamosiunas, V; Mauricas, M; Surovas, V; Markevicius, A

    1983-07-01

    A cell line was established from blood leucocytes of a cow with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The leucocytes were cultured with conditioned medium (culture fluid of mouse cell line L). In vitro cell transformation was demonstrated by adaptation to permanent growth, modification of cell morphology, the alteration of cell surface phenotype, kinetic behaviour and the loss of the euploid stability of the cell karyotype. Ultrastructural studies showed rather a uniform cell pattern in a culture population heterogeneous for degree of cell vacuolization. A wide variation in the expression of surface markers in cells was demonstrated by E-, EA- and EAC-rosetting. In suspension culture the cell population was found to be sIg negative. Expression of leukemia-associated antigens by a fraction of the cultured cells was evidenced by a cytotoxic technique using complement and heterologous antisera against bovine leukemic lymphocytes, absorbed with normal lymphoid cells. Virus-like particles and BLV antigens were not identified. Culture cells failed to show spontaneous or antibody-dependent killer cytotoxicity. Comparison with blood lymphocytes of healthy and leukemic cattle was done. The established culture should be useful as a model for experimental immunology and oncology.

  7. The interaction of normal lymphocytes and cells from lymphoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Steel, C. M.; Hardy, D. A.; Ling, N. R.; Dick, H. M.; Mackintosh, P.; Crichton, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    Activation of fresh blood lymphocytes has been measured by uptake of tritiated thymidine, following exposure to irradiated cells from autochthonous or allogeneic cell lines (LCL cells). Nine autochthonous combinations were studied. In every case activation was observed and in one the rate and peak level of activation were comparable to those found in control allogeneic mixtures. Neither foetal calf serum nor antibiotics appeared to be important factors in the activation process. There was no correlation between the number of identified HL-A histoincompatibilities in a given allogeneic mixture and the rate or peak level of activation achieved. Activation appears to be influenced by the metabolic state of the LCL cells and the rate of the reaction is sensitive to the precise culture conditions under which it proceeds. Some distinction can be drawn between the antigens responsible for activation in autochthonous and in allogeneic mixtures but the former may prove to be modified histocompatibility determinants. PMID:4119542

  8. Stimulators and inhibitors of lymphocyte DNA synthesis in supernatants from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vesole, D H; Goust, J M; Fett, J W; Fudenberg, H H

    1979-09-01

    Some T and B lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were found to secrete into their supernatants a substance able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. This substance produced an increase in [3H]thymidine uptake by mononuclear cells when added to unstimulated cultures (mitogenic effect) or when added to cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (potentiating effect). When complete supernatants were used, the potentiating effect was sometimes masked by an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Fractionation on Sephadex G-100 separated these two activities. The stimulatory substance eluted at a m.w. range of 15,000 to 30,000, and the inhibitor eluted with the albumin peak. B cells with or without monocytes were the most sensitive to the mitogenic effect, whereas T cells were unaffected. Responses to PHA and PWM were potentiated when T cells were present, but the maximum effect was observed when the proportion of T cells was less than 50%. The stimulatory material may be similar to lymphocyte mitogenic factor and may function as a T cell-replacing factor in B cell stimulation.

  9. Establishment and Characterization of PCL12, a Novel CD5+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Scarfò, Lydia; Barbaglio, Federica; Apollonio, Benedetta; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Ranghetti, Pamela; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Leone, Gabriella; De Pascali, Valeria; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Ghia, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Immortalized cell lines representative of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can assist in understanding disease pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic agents. At present, very few representative cell lines are available. We here describe the characterization of a new cell line (PCL12) that grew spontaneously from the peripheral blood (PB) of a CLL patient with progressive disease and EBV infection. The CLL cell origin of PCL12 was confirmed after the alignment of its IGH sequence against the “original” clonotypic sequence. The IGH gene rearrangement was truly unmutated and no CLL-related cytogenetic or genetic lesions were detected. PCL12 cells express CD19, CD20, CD5, CD23, low levels of IgM and IgD and the poor-outcome-associated prognostic markers CD38, ZAP70 and TCL1. In accordance with its aggressive phenotype the cell line is inactive in terms of LYN and HS1 phosphorylation. BcR signalling pathway is constitutively active and anergic in terms of p-ERK and Calcium flux response to α-IgM stimulation. PCL12 cells strongly migrate in vitro in response to SDF-1 and form clusters. Finally, they grow rapidly and localize in all lymphoid organs when xenotrasplanted in Rag2-/-γc-/- mice. PCL12 represents a suitable preclinical model for testing pharmacological agents. PMID:26110819

  10. Positive selection of T-lymphocytes induced by intrathymic injection of a thymic epithelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Vukmanović, Stanislav; Grandea, Andres G.; Faas, Susan J.; Knowles, Barbara B.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Tlymphocytes recognize antigens as peptide fragments associated with molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells1. In the thymus, T cells bearing αβ receptors that react with the MHC molecules expressed by radioresistant stromal elements are positively selected for maturation2–5. In (A × B → A) bone marrow chimaeras, T cells restricted to the MHC-A haplotype are positively selected, whereas MHC-B-reactive thymocytes are not. We investigated whether the introduction of particular thymic stromal elements bearing MHC-B molecules could alter the fate of B-reactive T cells in these (A × B → A) chimaeras. Thymic epithelial cell (TEC) lines expressing H-2b were introduced by intrathymic injection into (H-2b/s → H2S) bone marrow chimaeras and we measured their ability to generate H-2b-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). We report here that one TEC line, 427.1, was able positively to select CTLs specific for influenza and vesicular stomatitis virus antigens in association with class I H–2b molecules. In addition, line 427.1 can process cytoplasmic proteins for presentation to H–2Kb- and H-2Db-restricted CTLs. Thus, a TEC line capable of normal class I MHC antigen processing and presentation in vitro can induce positive selection after intrathymic injection. PMID:1331804

  11. Potentiation of luteolin cytotoxicity by flavonols fisetin and quercetin in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sak, Katrin; Kasemaa, Kristi; Everaus, Hele

    2016-09-14

    Despite numerous studies chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) still remains an incurable disease. Therefore, all new compounds and novel strategies which are able to eradicate CLL cells should be considered as valuable clues for a potential future remedy against this malignancy. In the present study, the cytotoxic profiles of natural flavonoids were described in two human CLL cell lines, HG-3 and EHEB, indicating the flavone luteolin as the most potent flavonoid with half-maximal inhibitory constants (IC50) of 37 μM and 26 μM, respectively. Luteolin significantly increased the apoptotic cell population in both cell lines by increasing the activities of caspases-3 and -9 and triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Two flavonols, fisetin and quercetin, were somewhat less efficient in suppressing cellular viability, whereas baicalein, chrysin, (+)-catechin and hesperetin exerted only a small or no response at doses as high as 100 μM. Both fisetin and quercetin were able to augment the cytotoxic activity of luteolin in both cell lines by reducing the IC50 values up to four fold. As a result of this, luteolin displayed cytotoxicity activity already at low micromolar concentrations that could potentially be physiologically achievable through oral ingestion. No other tested flavonoids were capable of sensitizing CLL cells to luteolin pointing to a specific binding of fisetin and quercetin to the cellular targets which interfere with the signaling pathways induced by luteolin. Although further molecular studies to unravel this potentiating mechanism are certainly needed, this phenomenon could contribute to future remedies for prevention and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  12. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from chickens inoculated with herpesvirus of turkey against a Marek's disease lymphoma cell line (MSB-1).

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, N; Ikuta, K; Kato, S; Yamaguchi, S

    1979-03-01

    Using a new device which increases the sensitivity of detection of specific immune lysis of target cells by labeling them with [35S]-methionine, the in vitro cell-mediated cytotoxic response of spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes from chickens vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), O1 strain, against MSB-1 line cells was clearly demonstrated. The cytotoxic activity was clearly inhibited by pretreatment of effector lymphocytes with anti-T lymphocyte serum and complement. The activity was greater using T cells purified from spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes than with the unfractionated cells, indicating that T lymphocytes play the main role in effector activity. Using sera from HVG-vaccinated chickens, no significant cytotoxic effects were detected in the complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity test against MSB-1 cells. These results suggest that cellular immunity against the surface antigen of Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma cells is mainly related to the preventive mechanism against MD incidence by HVT vaccination.

  13. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) Modulates the Crosstalk of Lymphocytes with Hodgkin Lymphoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jan M.; Henke, Alexander; Sauer, Maike; Bessler, Martina; Reiners, Katrin S.; Engert, Andreas; Hansen, Hinrich P.; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic changes have been implicated in the malignant phenotype of Hodgkin Reed Sternberg (HRS) cells in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), where HRS survival and proliferation depends on the microenvironment. The histone-deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor LBH589 (panobinostat) showed clinical efficacy but its impact on the HRS microenvironment is unclear. Hence, we analysed the effects of LBH589 on lymphocytes and also potential combination therapies. In lymphocyte-target cell killing assays, LBH589-treatment triggered an enhanced lymphocyte-dependent lysis of HL cells despite of mild lymphocytopenic effects. In co-culture experiments of lymphocytes with HL cells, LBH589 suppressed the IFNgamma-release but increased the TNFalpha secretion. Recombinant TNFalpha boosted the lymphocyte-dependent lysis of HL target cells. In HL cell lines, LBH589 induced cell death, autophagy, and an increase of MICA/B that are ligands to natural killer cell receptors. The combination of LBH589 with Brentuximab Vedotin was inefficient due to down-regulation of CD30 as a target. Combination with gemcitabine revealed highly significant effects, suggesting a potential combination for future therapy. Based on these data we suggest that LBH589 favourably modulates the cytokine network and lymphocyte activity in the HL microenvironment. PMID:24278143

  14. DNAM-1 mediates epithelial cell-specific cytotoxicity of aberrant intraepithelial lymphocyte lines from refractory celiac disease type II patients.

    PubMed

    Tjon, Jennifer M-L; Kooy-Winkelaar, Yvonne M C; Tack, Greetje J; Mommaas, A Mieke; Schreurs, Marco W J; Schilham, Marco W; Mulder, Chris J; van Bergen, Jeroen; Koning, Frits

    2011-06-01

    In refractory celiac disease (RCD), intestinal epithelial damage persists despite a gluten-free diet. Characteristic for RCD type II (RCD II) is the presence of aberrant surface TCR-CD3(-) intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that can progressively replace normal IELs and eventually give rise to overt lymphoma. Therefore, RCD II is considered a malignant condition that forms an intermediate stage between celiac disease (CD) and overt lymphoma. We demonstrate in this study that surface TCR-CD3(-) IEL lines isolated from three RCD II patients preferentially lyse epithelial cell lines. FACS analysis revealed that DNAM-1 was strongly expressed on the three RCD cell lines, whereas other activating NK cell receptors were not expressed on all three RCD cell lines. Consistent with this finding, cytotoxicity of the RCD cell lines was mediated mainly by DNAM-1 with only a minor role for other activating NK cell receptors. Furthermore, enterocytes isolated from duodenal biopsies expressed DNAM-1 ligands and were lysed by the RCD cell lines ex vivo. Although DNAM-1 on CD8(+) T cells and NK cells is known to mediate lysis of tumor cells, this study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that (pre)malignant cells themselves can acquire the ability to lyse epithelial cells via DNAM-1. This study confirms previous work on epithelial lysis by RCD cell lines and identifies a novel mechanism that potentially contributes to the gluten-independent tissue damage in RCD II and RCD-associated lymphoma.

  15. Killing of human myelomonocytic leukemia and lymphocytic cell lines by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D L; Berthold, P; Taichman, N S

    1988-01-01

    The purified leukotoxin of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans kills human leukemic cell lines (e.g., HL-60, U937, and KG-1) and human T- and B-cell lines (e.g., JURKAT, MOLT-4, Daudi, and Raji) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 50% effective doses for these cell lines are similar to those established for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. In contrast, other human and nonhuman tumor cell lines are not susceptible to the leukotoxin. These human leukemia and lymphoid cell lines will serve as useful model systems with which to study the molecular specificity and mechanism(s) of action of the actinobacillus leukotoxin. Images PMID:3258584

  16. Characterization of a new chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line for mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to disease.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Erin; Beckwith, Kyle A; Lozanski, Gerard; Chen, Timothy L; Towns, William H; Johnson, Amy J; Lehman, Amy; Ruppert, Amy S; Bolon, Brad; Andritsos, Leslie; Lozanski, Arletta; Rassenti, Laura; Zhao, Weiqiang; Jarvinen, Tiina M; Senter, Leigha; Croce, Carlo M; Symer, David E; de la Chapelle, Albert; Heerema, Nyla A; Byrd, John C

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL) generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patient's CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19). A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB). This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patient's normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease.

  17. Characterization of a New Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Line for Mechanistic In Vitro and In Vivo Studies Relevant to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hertlein, Erin; Beckwith, Kyle A.; Lozanski, Gerard; Chen, Timothy L.; Towns, William H.; Johnson, Amy J.; Lehman, Amy; Ruppert, Amy S.; Bolon, Brad; Andritsos, Leslie; Lozanski, Arletta; Rassenti, Laura; Zhao, Weiqiang; Jarvinen, Tiina M.; Senter, Leigha; Croce, Carlo M.; Symer, David E.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Heerema, Nyla A.; Byrd, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL) generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patient’s CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19). A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB). This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patient’s normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease. PMID:24130782

  18. Manganese-Induced Toxicity in Normal and Human B Lymphocyte Cell Lines Containing a Homozygous Mutation in Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Jerome A.; Ganapathy, Balakrishnan; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the parkin gene are linked to development of juvenile onset of Parkinson’s disease and recent studies have reported that parkin can protect against increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by a variety of oxidative and toxic insults. Overexpression of parkin has also been reported to selectively protect dopaminergic neurons from Mn toxicity. Accordingly, in this paper we compare the effect that mutations in parkin have on Mn toxicity and associated apoptotic signals in normal and human B lymphocyte cell lines containing a homozygous mutation in the gene. Results of these studies reveal that Mn toxicity was similar in both control and mutant parkin lymphocyte cells indicating that cell death caused by Mn was not altered in cells devoid of parkin activity. In contrast, Mn did inhibit mitochondrial function to a greater extent in cells devoid of active parkin as indicated by a decrease in ATP production although mitochondrial membrane potential was essentially unaffected. Consistent with inactive parkin influencing the Mn response is the observation of increased activity in the down-stream apoptotic signal, caspase 3. In summary, results reported in this paper demonstrate that mutations in parkin can lead to functional changes in potential signaling processes known to provoke Mn toxicity. The selectivity and magnitude of this response, however, does not necessarily lead to cell death in lymphocytes which are devoid of dopamine. PMID:22841634

  19. Pulse and Trapezoidal Voltage Clamp Applied To Jurkat Cells: A T- Lymphocyte Cell Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    by the wholp cell patch technique, use a protocol of volLage pulses similar to that of Hodgkin and Huxley in their famous 1952 series of papers on...with the voltage pulses that produced them. We call the above protocol the HH protocol after Hodgkin and Huxley . Upward deflection in the current...T-cell intracellular calcium flux c-myc expression via a potassium channel. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 163-171, 1990. (7) Hodgkin , A. L., and A

  20. Zoledronic acid enhances Vδ2 T-lymphocyte antitumor response to human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cimini, E; Piacentini, P; Sacchi, A; Gioia, C; Leone, S; Lauro, G M; Martini, F; Agrati, C

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans, responds modestly to treatment: most patients survive less than one year after diagnosis, despite both classical and innovative treatment approaches. A recent paper focused on γδ T-cell response in GBM patients, suggesting the application of an immunomodulating strategy based on γδ T-cells which is already in clinical trials for other tumors. Human Vγ2 T-cells recognize changes in the mevalonate metabolic pathway of transformed cells by activating cytotoxic response, and by cytokine and chemokine release. Interestingly, this activation may also be induced in vivo by drugs, such as zoledronic acid, that induce the accumulation of Vγ2 T-cell ligand Isopentenyl-pyrophosphate by blocking the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme. The aim of our work is to confirm whether bisphosphonate treatment would make glioma cell lines more susceptible to lysis by in vitro expanded γδ T-cells, improving their antitumor activity. We expanded in vitro human Vγ2 T-cells by phosphoantigen stimulation and tested their activity against glioma cell lines. Co-culture with glioma cells induced Vγ2 T-cell differentiation in effector/memory cells, killing glioma cells by the release of perforin. Interestingly, glioma cells were directly affected by zoledronic acid; moreover, treatment increased their activating ability on Vγ2 T-cells, inducing an effective antitumor cytotoxic response. Taken together, our results show that aminobisphosphonate drugs may play a dual role against GBM, by directly affecting tumor cells, and by enhancing the antitumor response of Vγ2 T-cells. Our results confirm the practicability of this approach as a new immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.

  1. Lymphocyte culture: induction of colonies by conditioned medium from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R M; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The presence of phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in agar is known to stimulate the formation of lymphoid colonies. We now report that similar colonies can be induced in the absence of plant lectins upon addition of filtered and ultracentrifuged conditioned medium (CM) obtained from certain human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Colony formation required at least 6 X 10(5) mononuclear cells per milliliter, and optimum results were obtained at concentrations of 1 X 10(6) cells/ml in the presence of 20% CM (50-500 colonies per 10(6) cells cultured). Individual cells within colonies displayed uniform morphological characteristics of lymphoid cells, and the majority formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, suggesting that they were of T-cell type.

  2. MEC1 and MEC2: two new cell lines derived from B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in prolymphocytoid transformation.

    PubMed

    Stacchini, A; Aragno, M; Vallario, A; Alfarano, A; Circosta, P; Gottardi, D; Faldella, A; Rege-Cambrin, G; Thunberg, U; Nilsson, K; Caligaris-Cappio, F

    1999-02-01

    We report the establishment and characterization of two cell lines, MEC1 and MEC2, that grew spontaneously on two subsequent occasions from the peripheral blood (PB) of a patient with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) in prolymphocytoid transformation. The patient was EBV-seropositive, his leukemic cells were EBNA negative, but the spontaneously grown cell lines are EBNA-2 positive. In liquid culture MEC1 cells grow adherent to the vessel wall and as tiny clumps; MEC2 cells do not adhere and form large clumps. The doubling time of MEC1 is 40h and of MEC2 is 31h. Both cell lines express the same light (kappa) and heavy chains (mu, delta) as the fresh parental B-CLL cells at the same high intensity, share the expression of mature B cell markers (CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22), differ in the expression of CD23 and FMC7, are CD11a+, CD18+, CD44+, CD49d+, CD54+ and express at high levels both CD80 and CD86. CD5 is negative on MEC1 cells (as on the vast majority of parental cells) and it has been lost by MEC2 cells after several months of culture. The cells have a complex karyotype. The tumour origin of MEC1 and MEC2 has been demonstrated by Southern blot analysis of the IgH loci and by Ig gene DNA sequencing. They use the VH4 Ig family and have not undergone somatic mutations (94.8% homology with germline Ig gene 4-59). Cytofluorographic analysis and RT-PCR reveal that MEC1 and MEC2 overexpress Bcl-2 together with Bax, express large amounts of Bcl-xL and trace amounts of Bcl-xS.

  3. T-cell receptor usage by melanoma-specific clonal and highly oligoclonal tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte lines.

    PubMed Central

    Shilyansky, J; Nishimura, M I; Yannelli, J R; Kawakami, Y; Jacknin, L S; Charmley, P; Rosenberg, S A

    1994-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from human melanomas can specifically lyse autologous tumor in vitro and mediate tumor regression in vivo. To develop more effective therapeutic reagents and to further understand the T-cell response to tumors, the diversity of T-cell receptors (TCRs) involved in melanoma antigen recognition has been studied. The TCR variable (V) genes, joining (J) segments, and N diversity regions used by five clonal lines and one highly oligoclonal, melanoma-specific, CD8+ TIL line were examined utilizing PCR amplification with V gene subfamily-specific primers and anchor PCR. The TIL lysed multiple allogeneic melanomas expressing matched surface major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. TCR analysis confirmed the clonal nature of the TIL lines; however, the TCR repertoire was diverse. Even among the three HLA-A2 restricted TIL (TIL 1200, TIL F2-2, and TIL-5), no common V gene usage was found. Comparison of the third complementarity-determining regions of the TCRs from the HLA-A2 restricted TIL revealed no homology. Results presented here identify T-cell clonotypes that recognize epitopes on highly prevalent, shared melanoma tumor-associated antigens presented in the context of HLA-B55, HLA-A1, and HLA-A2. These T cells and the antigens they recognize represent important components for the design of new immunotherapies for patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:7511820

  4. Gold nanoparticles induce transcriptional activity of NF-κB in a B-lymphocyte cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Monita; Salisbury, Richard L.; Maurer, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M.; Sulentic, Courtney E. W.

    2013-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been designated as superior tools for biological applications owing to their characteristic surface plasmon absorption/scattering and amperometric (electron transfer) properties, in conjunction with low or no immediate toxicity towards biological systems. Many studies have shown the ease of designing application-based tools using Au-NPs but the interaction of this nanosized material with biomolecules in a physiological environment is an area requiring deeper investigation. Immune cells such as lymphocytes circulate through the blood and lymph and therefore are likely cellular components to come in contact with Au-NPs. The main aim of this study was to mechanistically determine the functional impact of Au-NPs on B-lymphocytes. Using a murine B-lymphocyte cell line (CH12.LX), treatment with citrate-stabilized 10 nm Au-NPs induced activation of an NF-κB-regulated luciferase reporter, which correlated with altered B lymphocyte function (i.e. increased antibody expression). TEM imaging demonstrated that Au-NPs can pass through the cellular membrane and therefore could interact with intracellular components of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Based on the inherent property of Au-NPs to bind to -thiol groups and the presence of cysteine residues on the NF-κB signal transduction proteins IκB kinases (IKK), proteins specifically bound to Au-NPs were extracted from CH12.LX cellular lysate exposed to 10 nm Au-NPs. Electrophoresis identified several bands, of which IKKα and IKKβ were immunoreactive. Further evaluation revealed activation of the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway as evidenced by IκBα phosphorylation at serine residues 32 and 36 followed by IκBα degradation and increased nuclear RelA. Additionally, expression of an IκBα super-repressor (resistant to proteasomal degradation) reversed Au-NP-induced NF-κB activation. Altered NF-κB signaling and cellular function in B-lymphocytes suggests a potential for off-target effects

  5. Molecular pathways of adhesion in spontaneous rosetting of T-lymphocytes to the Hodgkin's cell line L428.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M E; Makgoba, M W; Sussman, E H; Luce, G E; Cossman, J; Shaw, S

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous rosetting of T-lymphocytes to Reed-Sternberg cells has been observed both in vitro and in vivo but its molecular mechanism has not been defined. We have investigated such rosetting using the Hodgkin's cell line L428. L428 expresses high levels of LFA-3 and ICAM-1, both of which are ligands for T-cell adhesion. Monoclonal antibody inhibition of spontaneous rosetting indicated that it is not dependent on the T-cell receptor complex but is largely mediated by interaction of T-cell CD2 (T11/E-rosette receptor) with its ligand LFA-3 on L428 cells. Studies using an alternate assay of adhesion (conjugate formation) confirm the roles of CD2/LFA-3 and also implicate a second mode of binding via LFA-1 on T-cells to ICAM-1 on L428. These data explain the previously reported finding of T-cell rosetting with Reed-Sternberg cells as an exaggeration of normal antigen-independent T-cell adhesion.

  6. Trisomy 21 with 47,+18 lymphocyte cell line: double mitotic nondisjunction.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, M B; Kriel, R L; Boyd, L; Barnwell, A

    1978-01-01

    A patient with Down's syndrome was found to have 47,XX,+18/47,XX,+21 mosaicism. Chromosome 18 trisomy was found only in 18% of lymphocytes and not in skin fibroblasts. A likely interpretation is double nondisjunction in a single lymphocyte precursor of a trisomy 21 embryo. A brief review of other cases of mitotic multiple nondisjunction and double aneuploid mosiacism is presented. Images PMID:153975

  7. Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage promotes canonical NF-kappaB activation in lymphocytes and lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Nogai, Hendrik; Pelzer, Christiane; Jaworski, Maike; Cabalzar, Katrin; Charton, Jean-Enno; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Décaillet, Chantal; Grau, Michael; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Peter; Lenz, Georg; Thome, Margot

    2011-08-30

    The protease activity of the paracaspase Malt1 contributes to antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. Malt1 activity is required for optimal NF-κB activation, but little is known about the responsible substrate(s). Here we report that Malt1 cleaved the NF-κB family member RelB after Arg-85. RelB cleavage induced its proteasomal degradation and specifically controlled DNA binding of RelA- or c-Rel-containing NF-κB complexes. Overexpression of RelB inhibited expression of canonical NF-κB target genes and led to impaired survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines characterized by constitutive Malt1 activity. These findings identify a central role for Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage in canonical NF-κB activation and thereby provide a rationale for the targeting of Malt1 in immunomodulation and cancer treatment.

  8. Detection of cell surface and intracellular antigens by human monoclonal antibodies. Hybrid cell lines derived from lymphocytes of patients with malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    This study represents an initial attempt to analyze the humoral immune reactions of patients with malignant melanoma by hybridoma methodology. Using lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes, peripheral blood and tumor infiltrates, 158 fusions were performed with SKO-007 (human myeloma line), LICR-LON-HMy2 (LICR-2), GM 4672 (human lymphoblastoid lines), or NS-1 (mouse myeloma line). Fusion of lymph node lymphocytes with NS-1 resulted in a 3-4 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2, and a 10 times higher frequency than fusion with SKO-007 or GM 4672. In the case of peripheral blood lymphocytes, fusion with NS-1 gave greater than 25 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2 or SKO-007. Production of human mu, gamma, or alpha heavy chains was detected in 50-80% of wells containing growing clones, and the levels of immunoglobulin ranged from 0.3 micrograms to 40 micrograms/ml. NS-1-derived clones could be easily subcultured, while LICR-2 and SKO-007 clones grew more slowly on subculturing. In this study, Ig secretion appeared to be a more stable property of LICR-2- derived clones than NS-1-derived clones. A panel of 20 human cancer cell lines was used to screen 771 Ig-secreting cultures for antibody to cell surface or intracellular antigens. Reactivity with cell surface antigens was found infrequently (6 cultures), whereas reactivity with intracellular antigens was more common (27 cultures). A new cell surface antigen with properties of a glycolipid was defined with an IgM monoclonal antibody secreted by a tetraploid cell derived from a fusion of LICR-2 with lymphocytes from the axillary lymph node of a patient with melanoma. The hybrid cell line has been subcloned four times and secretes 5 micrograms IgM/ml. The antigen detected by this IgM antibody was found on 5 of 23 melanoma cell lines and 12 of 30 epithelial cancer cell lines. No reactions were found with 11 cultures derived from normal cells. Stable cell lines secreting human

  9. Methylprednisolone suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line MEC-1 regulated by LEF-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing-Min; Li, Pei-Pei; Liang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Kang; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Ting; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    High dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) has been an effective salvage therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), while little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated in glucocorticoid-induced cell death. To explore the mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced cell death, we investigated the effect of HDMP on canonical Wnt signaling which emerged as a key pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of CLL. In this study, the human CLL cell line MEC-1 was incubated with various concentrations of methylprednisolone. Cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK8 assay, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Western blot was used to detect active-caspase 3, and the key proteins in Wnt signaling pathway (LEF-1, β-catenin). RT-PCR was performed to assess the mRNA levels of β-catenin, LEF-1, c-myc and cyclin D1. We observed that high concentration of methylprednisolone could suppress the proliferation activity of MEC-1 cells, promote the relative expression of active-caspase 3, and induce apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, methylprednisolone could inhibit LEF-1 protein expression, consequently down-regulate mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1, but could not affect the transcription level of β-catenin and LEF-1 mRNA. The results of this study indicate that methylprednisolone can suppress Wnt signaling pathway by down-regulating LEF-1 protein expression, indicating a novel mechanism for HDMP therapy in CLL.

  10. Methylprednisolone suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line MEC-1 regulated by LEF-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qing-Min; Li, Pei-Pei; Liang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Kang; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Ting; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    High dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) has been an effective salvage therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), while little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated in glucocorticoid-induced cell death. To explore the mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced cell death, we investigated the effect of HDMP on canonical Wnt signaling which emerged as a key pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of CLL. In this study, the human CLL cell line MEC-1 was incubated with various concentrations of methylprednisolone. Cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK8 assay, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Western blot was used to detect active-caspase 3, and the key proteins in Wnt signaling pathway (LEF-1, β-catenin). RT-PCR was performed to assess the mRNA levels of β-catenin, LEF-1, c-myc and cyclin D1. We observed that high concentration of methylprednisolone could suppress the proliferation activity of MEC-1 cells, promote the relative expression of active-caspase 3, and induce apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, methylprednisolone could inhibit LEF-1 protein expression, consequently down-regulate mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1, but could not affect the transcription level of β-catenin and LEF-1 mRNA. The results of this study indicate that methylprednisolone can suppress Wnt signaling pathway by down-regulating LEF-1 protein expression, indicating a novel mechanism for HDMP therapy in CLL. PMID:26339357

  11. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering.

  12. Cytokines and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genes expression in blood chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells and their immortalised CLL cell lines.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Chen, Fu; Castro, Juan; Avila-Carino, Javier; Lewin, Freddi

    2003-01-01

    We have encountered two unique chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients, PG and NN. Some blood CLL cells of these patients have been infected and carry Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in vivo. In spite of their early-activated G0/G1 stage of post germinal center (GC) memory cells, ex vivo EBV-carrying blood CLL cells of PG clone expressed LMPs and used specific QUK splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the EBV-carrying cells of non-B origin. Interestingly, EBV-carrying CLL cells of NN clone expressed LMP2a and used UK-splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the in vivo EBV-carrying high density normal B cells in the blood of healthy individuals. The CLL-derived lines but not normal lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) used QUK- and YUK-splice for their EBNA1 expression. As expected, LCL and their permanent CLL-derived lines used Cp promoter and up-regulated their EBNA2 expression. Blood CLL cells and the CLL-derived cell lines of these patients spontaneously produced cytokines as shown by microarray assay. The types and quantities of cytokines might relate to their CLL origin and viral strain in the given CLL cells. Neither blood CLL nor their CLL-derived cell lines express any detectable apoptosis-inducer ligands, CD95L or Apo 3L. As a consequence of cell cycle progression, CLL-derived cell lines up-regulated their co-stimulator molecules CD80 and apoptosis-related receptor CD95. Since only the rare EBV-carrying CLL cells grew in vitro, the combination of viral genome and cytokines seems to be critical for the outgrowth of EBV-carrying CLL cells over their EBV-negative counterpart in vitro but not in vivo.

  13. Effect of adenosine on the growth of human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Streitová, Denisa; Weiterová, Lenka; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Horváth, Viktor; Kozubík, Alois; Znojil, Vladimír

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine has been observed to suppress the growth of MOLT-4 human leukemia cells in vitro. Changes in the cell cycle, especially increased percentage of cells in S phase, prolonged generation time, and induction of apoptosis at higher adenosine concentrations have been found to be responsible for the growth suppression. Dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, reversed partially but significantly the adenosine-induced growth suppression. It follows from these results that the action of adenosine on the MOLT-4 cells comprises its cellular uptake and intracellular operation. These findings present new data on anticancer efficacy of adenosine.

  14. Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Marcel; Schwaiger, Wolfgang; Bernhard, David; Wrulich, Oliver A; Cosaceanu, Daria; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ueberall, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways. PMID:16138918

  15. [Expression of Septin2 in Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428 and its role in promoting H/RS cells' redifferentiation to B lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Sun, Q C; Zhong, L; Qiu, B; Zhao, T; Zhou, X H

    2017-02-14

    Objective: To explore the role of GTP binding protein 2 (Septin2) in the differentiation of Hodgkin's Lymphoma H/RS cells (Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg) to B lymphocytes. Methods: The expressions of Septin2 mRNA and protein in Hodgkin's Lymphoma cell line L428 which CD99 was overexpressed were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot,confocal laser microscopy and immunocytochemistry (ICC) . RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to assay the expression of Septin2 after Septin2-siRNA transfected into L428 cells, and confocal laser microscopy, CCK8 assay and flow cytometry were used to analyze the changes of F-actin cytoskeleton,cell proliferation ability and immunophenotype. Results: The low expressions of Septin2 mRNA and protein were detected in L428 cell line after overexpresion of CD99 (0.329±0.019 vs 1.000, P=0.001) and Septin2 siRNA transfection (0.276±0.025 vs 1.000, P=0.000) compared to controls. Compared to vector group, Septin2 siRNA transfection could lead to decrease of cell size, decline of proliferation activity (F=204.927, P<0.001) and reconstruction of F-actin cytoskeleton, and the expression of specific antigen markers CD30 and CD15 of H/RS cell decreased, B cell antigen marker CD19 as well as germinal center marker CD10 and early plasma cell marker CD38 were up-regulated. Conclusion: Septin2 interference promotes H/RS cells' redifferentiation to B lymphocytes.

  16. Interleukin-1-independent activation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by anti-CD3 and a Hodgkin's disease cell line with accessory cell activity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, T M; McMannis, J D; Chua, A O; Gubler, U; Fisher, R I

    1988-10-15

    Antibodies directed against the human T cell receptor or the closely associated CD3 molecule stimulate polyclonal T cell proliferation via mechanisms that mimic a primary immune response. We have investigated the requirement for IL-1 production in anti-CD3 (OKT3)-mediated mitogenesis using a Hodgkin's disease cell line (L428) as the accessory cell. L428 cells did not produce detectable IL-1 following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or phorbol ester (PMA), nor did they transcribe detectable levels of mRNA for IL-1 alpha or beta after such treatment. Despite their inability to produce IL-1, as few as 1 X 10(4) L428 cells reconstituted the proliferative response of accessory cell-depleted T cells to anti-CD3. Although larger numbers of non-rosette-forming (E-) cells were required for maximal responsiveness to anti-CD3, the maximal degree of proliferation was higher with E- cells than with L428 cells. L428-mediated T cell proliferation did not result from residual accessory cells in the responding population or an allogeneic effect since L428 cells were also capable of providing accessory cell activity for the anti-CD3-dependent generation of IL-2 by the Jurkat T cell line. Although the mechanism by which L428 cells provide accessory functions remains incompletely characterized, the ability of anti-HLA-DR F(ab')2 fragments to completely abrogate L428 and monocyte-mediated anti-CD3 mitogenesis, despite the addition of exogenous IL-1, provides evidence for the participation HLA-DR molecules in this response. These data indicate that anti-CD3-induced proliferation of unprimed human T lymphocytes can occur independently of IL-1 production by accessory cells and may involve the participation of HLA-DR molecules.

  17. DNA Repair Capacity in Peripheral Lymphocytes Predicts Survival of Patients With Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With First-Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-E; Yin, Ming; Dong, Qiong; Stewart, David J.; Merriman, Kelly W.; Amos, Christopher I.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wei, Qingyi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based regimens are the standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DNA repair capacity (DRC) in tumor cells plays an important role in resistance to platinum-based drugs. We have previously reported that efficient DRC, as assessed by an in vitro lymphocyte-based assay, was a determinant of poor survival in patients with NSCLC in a relatively small data set. In this larger independent study of 591 patients with NSCLC, we further evaluated whether DRC in peripheral lymphocytes predicts survival of patients with NSCLC who receive platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods All patients were recruited at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and donated blood samples before the start of any chemotherapy. We measured DRC in cultured T lymphocytes by using the host-cell reactivation assay, and we assessed associations between DRC in peripheral lymphocytes and survival of patients with NSCLC who were treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Results We found an inverse association between DRC in peripheral lymphocytes and patient survival. Compared with patients in the low tertile of DRC, patients with NSCLC in the high tertile of DRC had significantly worse overall and 3-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.71; P = .023; and HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.76; P = .025, respectively). This trend was more pronounced in patients with early-stage tumors, adenocarcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion We confirmed that DRC in peripheral lymphocytes is an independent predictor of survival for patients with NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:21947825

  18. Small polydispersed circular DNA contains strains of mobile genetic elements and occurs more frequently in permanent cell lines of malignant tumors than in normal lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hannelore; Taubert, Helge; Lange, Heidemarie; Kriese, Karen; Schmitt, Wolfgang Daniel; Hoffmann, Steve; Bartel, Frank; Hauptmann, Steffen

    2009-08-01

    Small polydispersed circular DNA (spcDNA) belongs to the extrachromosomal pool of DNA and is composed of heterogeneous DNA circles. Whether spcDNA has a special function is currently unclear but their occurrence was suggested to be linked to genetic instability. In this study we investigated as to whether human lymphocytes from healthy volunteers also harbour spcDNA and whether spcDNA is present in all permanent cell lines from human normal and malignant tissues. Moreover, we were interested to see whether spcDNA contains sequences of mobile genetic elements. Our results show that spcDNA is present in all samples investigated yet the amount is lower in normal lymphocytes when compared to cancer cell lines (5.4 vs. 17.8%). Alu sequences were present in 12/16 cancer cell lines whereas LINE-1 (L1) sequences were present in 15 of them. Six tumor cell lines also contained telomeric sequences. In contrast to that, spcDNA of normal lymphocytes contains Alu and L1 sequences only in 3/16 cases and no telomeric sequences at all. Our findings suggest a direct dependency of the amount of Alu and L1 sequences on that of spcDNA. Beside these repetitive sequences, sequencing of spcDNA revealed in most cases chromosomal sequences of almost all chromosomes without an increased frequency of single regions. We suggest that the whole spcDNA including retrotranspositional elements and telomeric sequences may play a role for chromosomal rearrangements and genomic instability.

  19. Effect of Tilia x viridis flower extract on the proliferation of a lymphoma cell line and on normal murine lymphocytes: contribution of monoterpenes, especially limonene.

    PubMed

    Manuele, Maria Gabriela; Ferraro, Graciela; Anesini, Claudia

    2008-11-01

    Tilia species are widely used in Europe as medicinal plants. The selective antiproliferative activity of a Tilia cordata flower dichloromethane extract (DME) on a lymphoma cell line has been reported previously and in order to extend this to other unstudied Tilia species, the effect of Tilia x viridis DME on the proliferation of tumor and normal murine lymphocytes was investigated. The bioguided fractionation of DME yielded a fraction rich in limonene (L), alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which presented a selective antiproliferative action on tumor lymphocytes (EC(50) on tumor cells: 3.8 +/- 0.2 microg/mL; EC(50) on normal cells: 205 +/- 1.8 microg/mL). While all monoterpenes exhibited this activity, limonene proved to be the most active (EC(50) on tumor cells: 35 +/- 2.0 microg/mL; EC(50) on normal cells: 72 +/- 5.0 microg/mL) also exerting a stimulatory effect on non-mitogen stimulated lymphocytes proliferation (% of stimulation respect to control) (mean +/- SEM): L 10 microg/mL: 25 +/- 1.0%; 20 microg/mL: 38.5 +/- 2.5%; L 40 microg/mL: 41 +/- 0.9%; L 60 microg/mL: 58.5 +/- 3%. T. x viridis may thus constitute a potential source of monoterpenes with immunomodulatory activity.

  20. miRNA-Mediated Relationships between Cis-SNP Genotypes and Transcript Intensities in Lymphocyte Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Zhu, Dongxiao; Flemington, Erik K.; Deininger, Prescott; Zhang, Kun

    2012-01-01

    In metazoans, miRNAs regulate gene expression primarily through binding to target sites in the 3′ UTRs (untranslated regions) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Cis-acting variants within, or close to, a gene are crucial in explaining the variability of gene expression measures. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′ UTRs of genes can affect the base-pairing between miRNAs and mRNAs, and hence disrupt existing target sites (in the reference sequence) or create novel target sites, suggesting a possible mechanism for cis regulation of gene expression. Moreover, because the alleles of different SNPs within a DNA sequence of limited length tend to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), we hypothesize the variants of miRNA target sites caused by SNPs potentially function as bridges linking the documented cis-SNP markers to the expression of the associated genes. A large-scale analysis was herein performed to test this hypothesis. By systematically integrating multiple latest information sources, we found 21 significant gene-level SNP-involved miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation modules (SNP-MPRMs) in the form of SNP-miRNA-mRNA triplets in lymphocyte cell lines for the CEU and YRI populations. Among the cognate genes, six including ALG8, DGKE, GNA12, KLF11, LRPAP1, and MMAB are related to multiple genetic diseases such as depressive disorder and Type-II diabetes. Furthermore, we found that ∼35% of the documented transcript intensity-related cis-SNPs (∼950) in a recent publication are identical to, or in significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) (p<0.01) with, one or multiple SNPs located in miRNA target sites. Based on these associations (or identities), 69 significant exon-level SNP-MPRMs and 12 disease genes were further determined for two populations. These results provide concrete in silico evidence for the proposed hypothesis. The discovered modules warrant additional follow-up in independent laboratory studies. PMID:22348086

  1. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON): New mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Katika, Madhumohan R.; Hendriksen, Peter J.M.; Shao, Jia; Loveren, Henk van; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2012-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is a commonly encountered type-B trichothecene mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species predominantly found in cereals and grains. DON is known to exert toxic effects on the gastrointestinal, reproductive and neuroendocrine systems, and particularly on the immune system. Depending on dose and exposure time, it can either stimulate or suppress immune function. The main objective of this study was to obtain a deeper insight into DON-induced effects on lymphoid cells. For this, we exposed the human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to various concentrations of DON for various times and examined gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis. Jurkat cells were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 μM DON for 3, 6 and 24 h. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicated that DON affects various processes in these cells: It upregulates genes involved in ribosome structure and function, RNA/protein synthesis and processing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium-mediated signaling, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, the NFAT and NF-κB/TNF-α pathways, T cell activation and apoptosis. The effects of DON on the expression of genes involved in ER stress, NFAT activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Other biochemical experiments confirmed that DON activates calcium-dependent proteins such as calcineurin and M-calpain that are known to be involved in T cell activation and apoptosis. Induction of T cell activation was also confirmed by demonstrating that DON activates NFATC1 and induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. For the gene expression profiling of PBMCs, cells were exposed to 2 and 4 μM DON for 6 and 24 h. Comparison of the Jurkat microarray data with those obtained with PBMCs showed that most of the processes affected by DON in the Jurkat cell line were also affected in the PBMCs. -- Highlights: ► The human T cell line Jurkat and human

  3. Reduced interferon-alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and lectin-stimulated lymphocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S N; Hasan, R; Smythe, J

    1997-08-01

    The concentrations of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in supernatants from cultures of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from seven patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type I were below the 95% confidence limits for those derived from six healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of IFN-alpha in supernatants from cultures of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from four patients with other types of CDA and four patients with hereditary sideroblastic anaemia were normal. Supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen contained less IFN-alpha when the cells were derived from patients with CDA type I than when derived from healthy subjects. Since patients with CDA type I show a substantial haematological response to treatment with IFN-alpha, the data suggest that impaired IFN-alpha production may be an important pathogenetic mechanism in CDA type I.

  4. In vitro priming of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using allogeneic dendritic cells derived from the human MUTZ-3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Santegoets, Saskia J A M; Schreurs, Marco W J; Masterson, Allan J; Liu, Ying Poi; Goletz, Steffen; Baumeister, Hans; Kueter, Esther W M; Lougheed, Sinéad M; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Scheper, Rik J; Hooijberg, Erik; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2006-12-01

    The adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced and expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) presents a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. The in vitro induction of tumor-reactive CTL requires repeated stimulation of CTL precursors with dendritic cells (DC). To circumvent problems like scarcity of blood DC precursors and donor variability, it would be attractive to use DC from a non-autologous, unlimited source. DCs derived from the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line MUTZ-3 are attractive candidates since these DCs closely resemble monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) in terms of phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity. Here we demonstrate that functional CTL clones could be generated against multiple tumor-associated antigens, i.e., human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), ErbB3-binding protein-1 (Ebp1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Her-2/neu, by stimulating CD8beta(+) CTL precursors with peptide-loaded allogeneic, HLA-A2-matched MUTZ-3-derived DC. A consistent induction capacity, as determined by MHC tetramer-binding, was found in multiple donors and comparable to autologous peptide-loaded MoDC. Functional characterization at the clonal level revealed the priming of CTL that recognized endogenously processed epitopes on tumor cell lines in an HLA-A2-restricted fashion. Our data indicate that MUTZ-3-derived DC can be used as stimulator cells for in vitro priming and expansion of functional TAA-specific effector CTL. MUTZ-3-derived DCs thus represent a ready and standardized source of allogeneic DC to generate CTL for therapeutic adoptive transfer strategies.

  5. Alloreactive cloned T cell lines. VI. Multiple lymphokine activities secreted by helper and cytolytic cloned T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, M B; Ely, J M; Beller, D I; Eisenberg, L; Goldman, J; Goldman, M; Goldwasser, E; Ihle, J; Quintans, J; Remold, H; Vogel, S N; Fitch, F W

    1982-12-01

    Culture supernatants generated by alloantigenic or lectin stimulation of a cloned helper T lymphocyte, designated L2, contain interleukin 2 (IL 2), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF), B cell stimulating factor (BCSF), macrophage (Ia+)-recruiting factor (MIRF), (Ia+)-inducing activity, gamma-interferon, Fc receptor-enhancing activity, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), macrophage activation factor (MAF), interleukin 3 (IL 3), and a factor responsible for prolonging the synthesis and secretion of the fourth and second components of complement by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages. Erythropoietin was not detected. A spontaneously arising variant of L2, designated L2V, produces much lower quantities of macrophage-stimulating activities, IL 2, and interferon. However, when compared to L2, L2V produces much higher levels of BCSF, equivalent amounts of IL 3, and slightly smaller amounts of CSF. Unlike L2V, a cytolytic clone, designated L3, secretes lymphokines that primarily affect macrophage function. The time course of lymphokine production by L2 cells indicates that for the six lymphokine activities studied there are three different times at which maximal or near maximal levels are reached, as follows: 1) IL 2, 12 to 24 hr; 2) IL 3 and CSF, 24 to 48 hr; and 3) (Ia+)-inducing activity, MAF, and interferon, 48 hr or later. Only IL 2 activity disappears during the 8-day culture cycle. The time course data and the differential production of activities by the three types of lymphocyte clones suggest that at least four terminal effector lymphokine molecules account for the ten biologic activities tested.

  6. P2Y2 Nucleotide Receptor Activation Up-regulates Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecular-1 Expression and Enhances Lymphocyte Adherence to a Human Submandibular Gland Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.; Camden, Jean M.; Rome, Danny E.; Seye, Cheikh I.; Weisman, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS. PMID:17599409

  7. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [corrected] expression and enhances lymphocyte adherence to a human submandibular gland cell line.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Rome, Danny E; Seye, Cheikh I; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS.

  8. Distinct ion channel classes are expressed on the outer nuclear envelope of T- and B-lymphocyte cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Obregón, A; Wang, H W; Clapham, D E

    2000-01-01

    The outer nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial membrane ion channels are poorly understood, although they are important in the control of compartmental calcium levels, cell division, and apoptosis. Few direct recordings of these ion channels have been made because of the difficulty of accessing these intracellular membranes. Using patch-clamp techniques on isolated nuclei, we measured distinct ion channel classes on the outer nuclear envelope of T-cell (human Jurkat) and BFL5 cell (murine promyelocyte) lines. We first imaged the nuclear envelopes of both Jurkat and FL5 cells with atomic force microscopy to determine the density of pore proteins. The nuclear pore complex was intact at roughly similar densities in both cell types. In patch-clamp recordings of Jurkat nuclear membranes, Cl channels (105 +/- 5 pS) predominated and inactivated with negative pipette potentials. Nucleotides transiently inhibited the anion channel. In contrast, FL5 nuclear channels were cation selective (52 +/- 2 pS), were inactivated with positive membrane potentials, and were insensitive to GTPgammaS applied to the bath. We hypothesize that T- and B-cell nuclear membrane channels are distinct, and that this is perhaps related to their unique roles in the immune system. PMID:10866948

  9. Interaction of Choriocarcinoma Cells and Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    August, Charles S.; Cox, Sheila T.; Naughton, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Cultured choriocarcinoma (Be Wo) cells exist that share many of the morphologic and bio-synthetic properties of normal human trophoblasts. In an attempt to develop a model for the immunologic relationship between a sensitized mother and fetus, we mixed Be Wo cells with mitogen-activated cytotoxic lymphocytes in vitro. Be Wo cells were resistant to the cytolytic effects of the activated lymphocytes despite 24-h exposure and intimate cell-to-cell contact as determined by microscopy. Control target cells, a line of human hepatoma cells, were readily destroyed. Cytotoxicity was measured by determining residual radioactivity of [3H]thymidine-labeled target cells after exposure to activated lymphocytes. Employing the quantitative assay, we confirmed the morphologic results and showed that Be Wo and a number of other choriocarcinoma cell lines were resistant to the cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and allogeneic cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures. Moreover, Be Wo cells were resistant to injury over a wide range of killer to target cell ratios. Significant killing of the Be Wo cells occurred only after prolonged exposure (48 and 72 h) to the activated lymphocytes. We suggest that one mechanism that may assist the fetus (or a choriocarcinoma) in its immunologic survival is the intrinsic resistance of trophoblast cells to lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. Images PMID:570981

  10. T lymphocyte line specific for thyroglobulin produces or vaccinates against autoimmune thyroiditis in mice.

    PubMed

    Maron, R; Zerubavel, R; Friedman, A; Cohen, I R

    1983-11-01

    We investigated Ly-1+ T lymphocyte line cells specifically reactive to thyroglobulin (Tg) that were isolated from mice primed with mouse Tg in adjuvant. Intravenous inoculation of as few as 10(5) line cells was sufficient to cause severe and prolonged thyroiditis in recipient mice that were intact, irradiated, or athymic nudes. Disease was independent of circulating Tg antibodies, suggesting that anti-Tg T lymphocytes could cause thyroiditis unaided by antibodies. Thyroiditogenic T lymphocytes could be isolated as cell lines from apparently healthy mice that had been immunized with non-thyroiditogenic bovine Tg in adjuvant, which indicates that autoimmune effector T lymphocytes may develop covertly in the course of immunization with foreign antigens. Finally, a single i.v. inoculation of anti-Tg T lymphocyte line cells attenuated by irradiation vaccinated mice completely against subsequent development of autoimmune thyroiditis produced either by active immunization to Tg or by passive transfer of intact line cells. Vaccinated mice that were protected from inflammatory lesions of thyroiditis still produced high titers of Tg antibodies in response to active immunization. Thus, vaccination specifically inhibited thyroiditogenic T lymphocytes but not helper T lymphocytes required for the production of Tg autoantibodies.

  11. Class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines against which they were raised.

    PubMed

    Hill, A B; Lee, S P; Haurum, J S; Murray, N; Yao, Q Y; Rowe, M; Signoret, N; Rickinson, A B; McMichael, A J

    1995-06-01

    We have raised CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from three Epstein-Barr virus-seropositive donors by incubating peripheral blood lymphocytes with irradiated autologous B95.8-strain EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells (LCL). However, to detect lysis in a standard 51Cr release assay of the LCL against which these CTL were raised, superinfection with recombinant vaccinia expressing the appropriate EBV protein or incubation with the peptide epitope was necessary. The untreated LCL were not lysed, even though Western blotting demonstrated that they expressed the EBV antigens containing the CTL epitopes. We have found CTL of this phenotype that are restricted by human leukocyte antigen-A2, -A3, -B7, or -B39, and which recognize the EBV latent proteins, EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-3A, EBNA-3C, or terminal protein. During these experiments, we identified a new human leukocyte antigen-A3-restricted EBNA-3A epitope, residues 603-611, RLRAEAGVK. We raised a spontaneous LCL, transformed by endogenous EBV, from one donor, but this was also not lysed. For at least one of the epitopes, CTL from another donor lysed the LCL without superinfection or addition of peptides. We conclude that the CTL were unable to achieve a high enough avidity of interaction with untreated LCL to trigger effector function, although the LCL were able to stimulate them to grow in vitro for up to 4 mo. To assess whether a small percentage of the LCL might possess a higher antigen density, we used an assay of tumor necrosis factor release from a CTL clone, which was able to detect antigen-bearing cells representing only 1% of a stimulating LCL population. Nevertheless, the untreated autologous LCL line failed to stimulate tumor necrosis factor release.

  12. Up-regulation of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex expression in side-population cells derived from a human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Kusunoki, Soshi; Tabu, Kouichi; Okabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Izumi; Taga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akemi; Makino, Shintaro; Takeda, Satoru; Kato, Kiyoko

    2016-01-01

    The continual proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is well known that the tissue stem cells are associated with the development of tissues and pathologies. It has been demonstrated that side-population (SP) cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are enriched with stem cells. The SP cells in HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from human primary trophoblast cells were isolated by FACS. HTR-8/SVneo-SP cell cultures generated both SP and non-SP (NSP) subpopulations. In contrast, NSP cell cultures produced NSP cells and failed to produce SP cells. These SP cells showed self-renewal capability by serial colony-forming assay. Microarray expression analysis using a set of HTR-8/SVneo-SP and -NSP cells revealed that SP cells overexpressed several stemness genes including caudal type homeobox2 (CDX2) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus D (LY6D) gene was the most highly up-regulated in HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. LY6D gene reduced its expression in the course of a 7-day cultivation in differentiation medium. SP cells tended to reduce its fraction by treatment of LY6D siRNA indicating that LY6D had potential to maintain cell proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. On ontology analysis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway was involved in the up-regulated genes on microarray analysis. HTR-SVneo-SP cells showed enhanced migration. This is the first report that LY6D was important for the maintenance of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. EMT was associated with the phenotype of these SP cells.

  13. Schwann cells and myasthenia gravis. Preferential uptake of soluble and membrane-bound AChR by normal and immortalized Schwann cells, and immunogenic presentation to AChR-specific T line lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. P.; Porter, S.; Wekerle, H.

    1990-01-01

    The normal neuromuscular synapse is formed by the intimate association of nerve endings, postsynaptic end-plate foldings in the muscle fiber, and nonmyelinating Schwann cells (SC) sealing the synaptic ramifications. Because SC have been recognized recently to have an immunogenic potential inducible to present protein autoantigens to autoimmune T lymphocytes, and considering their close proximity to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-bearing postsynaptic membranes, presentation of soluble and membrane vesicle-bound AChR to appropriate T cells was investigated. Short-term monolayer cultures of SC isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerves, as well as cells of an immortalized SC line of similar origin, were fully able to present the relevant molecular epitopes to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatible AChR-specific T line lymphocytes immunogenically. Presentation of AChR was restricted by RT1.B (I-A) MHC class II products. Both types of cultured rat SC were inducible to expression of MHC class I and II products, and they were able to phagocytose AChR-enriched membrane vesicles preferentially. In contrast, phagocytosis of latex particles by SC was negligible. These data qualify perisynaptic SC as potential presenter cells of autoimmunogenic AChR in myasthenia gravis. Thus, SC may play a critical and as-yet unpredicted regulatory role in the cellular pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Images Figure 5 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:1688688

  14. Effect of testosterone on growth of P388 leukemia cell line in vivo and in vitro. Distribution of peripheral blood T lymphocytes and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Aboudkhil, S; Henry, L; Zaid, A; Bureau, J P

    2005-01-01

    In transplanted mice, the P388 tumor grew better in castrated than in non castrated (NC) mice. The proportion of CD8+ in the blood was more numerous in NC mice. The T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) were also high in the mice with small tumor tissue (<10 mg). The correlation observed between the tumor weight and T cell subset in PBL and in the mice with small tumors could confirm the important intervention of CD4+ and CD8+ cells to inhibit growth of tumor. Depo-testosterone (DT) injection reduced strongly weight and tumor growth in mice. On top of that, DT administration induced a significant increase in the percentage of blood CD8+ cells in grafted mice. The effect of DT was studied on the cell cycle progression, in tumor tissue of P388 tumor bearing BDF1 mice and in P388 murine leukemia cell line in culture. The cell cycle analysis in tumor tissue showed that DT decreased both the cells in S phase and the proliferating leukemic cells, with accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase. The testosterone can inhibit the proliferation of leukemic cells with a pharmacological dose (10(-7) M). This growth inhibition, dose and time dependent, was associated with cell cycle arrest; P388 cells accumulates in G0/G1 phase. We also observed a correlation between tumor weight and the percentage of cells in G0/G1 and the relative number of cells in proliferative state (S + G2/M). To conclude, our experiments reported that testosterone prevents the growth of tumor: indirectly by modulation of subsets T cells distribution and directly by the alteration of the cell cycle.

  15. T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

  16. Expression of Ley antigen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human T cell lines and in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Ley determinant (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1---- 3]GlcNAc beta 1----R) defined by mAb BM-1 is highly expressed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T cell lines and in CD3+ peripheral mature T cells of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS-related complex (ARC). Ley expression increased greatly in the CD3+ population in the advanced stage of AIDS when the CD4+ population decreased greatly. Six other carbohydrate antigens tested by their respective mAbs were not detected in these same cells. None of the carbohydrate antigens tested by the seven mAbs used in this study were found in noninfected T cell lines and in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:3258005

  17. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  18. Sesquiterpene Lactones Isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. Inhibits Human Lymphocyte Proliferation and the Growth of Tumour Cell Lines and Induces Apoptosis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, B. S.; Nair, Mangalam S.; Latha, P. G.; Remani, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to isolate the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic properties of South Indian Elephantopus scaber L. and further investigate their effects on quiescent and proliferating cells. Bioassay-guided isolation of the whole plant of chloroform extract of South Indian Elephantopus scaber afforded the known sesquiterpene lactone, deoxyelephantopin, and isodeoxyelephantopin whose structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. These compounds caused a dose dependent reduction in the viability of L-929 tumour cells in 72 h culture (IC50 value of 2.7 μg/mL and 3.3 μg/mL) by the cell viability assay. Both the compounds act selectively on quiescent and PHA-stimulated proliferating human lymphocytes and inhibited tritiated thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA of DLA tumour cells. The compound deoxyelephantopin at a concentration of 3 μg/mL caused maximum apoptotic cells. It also exhibited significant in vivo antitumour efficacy against DLA tumour cells. The results, therefore, indicate that the antiproliferative property of deoxyelephantopin and isodeoxyelephantopin could be used in regimens for treating tumors with extensive proliferative potencies. PMID:22500104

  19. ABT-737 resistance in B-cells isolated from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and leukemia cell lines is overcome by the pleiotropic kinase inhibitor quercetin through Mcl-1 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Volpe, Silvestro; Tedesco, Idolo; Bilotto, Stefania; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2013-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent form of leukemia in adult population and despite numerous studies, it is considered an incurable disease. Since CLL is characterized by overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, treatments with their antagonists, such as ABT-737, represent a promising new therapeutic strategy. ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic agent which binds Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bcl-w with high affinity, while weakly interacts with Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. Previous studies demonstrated that quercetin, a flavonoid naturally present in food and beverages, was able to sensitize B-cells isolated from CLL patients to apoptosis when associated with death ligands or fludarabine, through a mechanism involving Mcl-1 down-regulation. Here, we report that the association between ABT-737 and quercetin synergistically induces apoptosis in B-cells and in five leukemic cell lines (Combination Index <1). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell from healthy donors were not affected by quercetin treatment. The molecular pathways triggered by quercetin have been investigated in HPB-ALL cells, characterized by the highest resistance to both ABT-737 and quercetin when applied as single molecules, but highly sensitivity to the co-treatment. In this cell line, quercetin down-regulated Mcl-1 through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, leading to Mcl-1 instability. The same mechanism was confirmed in B-cells. These results may open new clinical perspectives based on a translational approach in CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time analysis of the detailed sequence of cellular events in mAb-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity of B-cell lines and of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, Margaret A; Cook, Erika M; Tupitza, Jillian C; Zent, Clive S; Burack, Richard; de Jong, Rob N; Beurskens, Frank J; Schuurman, Janine; Parren, Paul W H I; Taylor, Ronald P

    2016-02-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity is an important mechanism of action of certain mAbs used in cancer immunotherapy, including ofatumumab and rituximab. However, the detailed sequence of cellular changes that occur in nucleated cells attacked by mAb and complement has not been delineated. Recently developed CD20 mAbs, engineered to form hexamers on binding to cells, react with B-cells in serum, chelate C1q, and then activate complement and promote cell killing considerably more effectively than their wild-type precursors. We used these engineered mAbs as a model to investigate the sequence of events that occur when mAbs bind to B-cell lines and to primary cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and then activate complement. Based on four-color confocal microscopy real-time movies and high resolution digital imaging, we find that after CD20 mAb binding and C1q uptake, C3b deposits on cells, followed by Ca(2+) influx, revealed by bright green signals generated on cells labeled with FLUO-4, a Ca(2+) indicator. The bright FLUO-4/Ca(2+) signal fades, replaced by punctate green signals in mitochondria, indicating Ca(2+) localization. This step leads to mitochondrial poisoning followed by cell death. The entire sequence is completed in <2 min for hexamerization-enhanced CD20 mAb-mediated killing. To our knowledge this is the first time the entire process has been characterized in detail in real time. By identifying multiple discrete steps in the cytotoxic pathway for nucleated cells our findings may inform future development and more effective application of complement-fixing mAbs to cancer treatment.

  1. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  2. Autologous stem cell transplantation as a first-line treatment strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial from the SFGM-TC and GFLLC.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Laurent; Chevret, Sylvie; Tournilhac, Olivier; Diviné, Marine; Leblond, Véronique; Corront, Bernadette; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Eghbali, Houchingue; Van Den Neste, Eric; Michallet, Mauricette; Maloisel, Frédéric; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Decaudin, Didier; Berthou, Christian; Brice, Pauline; Gonzalez, Hugo; Chapiro, Elise; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Leporrier, Nathalie; Maloum, Karim; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Davi, Frédéric; Lejeune, Julie; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Leporrier, Michel

    2011-06-09

    Long-term responses have been reported after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We conducted a prospective, randomized trial of ASCT in previously untreated CLL patients. We enrolled 241 patients < 66 years of age with Binet stage B or C CLL. They received 3 courses of mini-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone/prednisolone) and then 3 courses of fludarabine. Patients in complete response (CR) were then randomized to ASCT or observation, whereas the other patients were randomized to dexamethasone, high-dose aracytin, cisplatin (DHAP) salvage followed by either ASCT or 3 courses of fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (FC). The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS). After up-front treatment, 105 patients entered CR and were randomized between ASCT (n = 52) and observation (n = 53); their respective 3-year EFS rates were 79.8% and 35.5%; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1-0.7; P = .003). Ninety-four patients who did not enter CR were randomized between ASCT (n = 46) and FC (n = 48); their respective 3-year EFS rates were 48.9% and 44.4%, respectively; the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.7 (95% CI: 0.9-3.2; P = .13). No difference in overall survival was found between the 2 response subgroups. In young CLL patients in CR, ASCT consolidation markedly delayed disease progression. No difference was observed between ASCT and FC in patients requiring DHAP salvage.

  3. The clinical implications of mixed lymphocyte reaction with leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Je; Kim, Tai-Gyu; Cho, Hyun Il; Han, Hoon; Min, Woo-Sung; Kim, Chun-Choo

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical implications of a mixed lymphocyte reaction between leukemic cells and lymphocytes from HLA-matched sibling donors, we attempted to generate donor-derived, graft-versus-leukemia-effective cells and to define their characteristics. We studied 8 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), including 5 patients in the chronic phase (CP), 3 patients in the accelerated phase (AP), and 2 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in their first complete remission. Cells from these patients were used as stimulators in a mixed lymphocyte reaction.The effects of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) were separated by observing tests for cytotoxicity to target cells, including K562 cells, the patient's leukemic cells, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blasts. Donor-derived antileukemic CTLs againstthe patient's own leukemic cells are productive in vitro. The efficacy of generating CTLs against leukemic target cells was (in decreasing order) AML, CML-CP, and CML-AP. Cytotoxic activity against leukemic targets was prominent in 4 cases--2 CML-CP and the 2 AML cases. On the contrary, the 3 cases of CML-AP showed low CTL activity. In cases showing 1 positive result among 3 targets (K562 cells, the patient's leukemic cells, and PHA blasts), the relapse rate was significantly lower (P = .022) on follow-up (median, 33 months; 7-40 months) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. By a combined analysis of the cytotoxicity effects for all 3 target cells, we were able to demonstrate a correlation between leukemic relapse and the variable degree of the cytotoxicity test results. Although the total sample numbers for this study were low, we speculate that these results may come from differences in the individual characteristics of the leukemic cells that are in line with their clinical disease status.

  4. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-06-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen.

  5. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-01-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen. PMID:6968260

  6. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-27

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  7. Products from mast cells influence T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production--relevant to allergic asthma?

    PubMed

    de Pater-Huijsen, F L; Pompen, M; Jansen, H M; Out, T A

    1997-06-01

    In IgE allergic diseases both mast cells and T lymphocytes play an important role. Whereas mast cels have been implicated in immediate allergic responses, T lymphocytes mediate subsequent late phase responses and chronic inflammation. Here we review possible links between the early mast cell activation and the later T lymphocyte stimulation. Products from mast cells were found to exert effects on T lymphocytes. Human Mast Cell line-1 (HMC-1) mast cells modulated proliferation and cytokine production of a human CD8+ T-cell clone in vitro. Activated mast cells seemed to drive this CD8+ T-cell clone towards a more pronounced T (helper) 1 type of response, simultaneously decreasing T-cell numbers. It is hypothesized that this might be a negative feed back mechanism operating in allergic subjects, by which the Th2-driven IgE production and eosinophilia are counteracted.

  8. Viscoelastic Properties Measurement of Human Lymphocytes by Atomic Force Microscopy Based on Magnetic Beads Cell Isolation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xiao, Xiubin; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2016-03-28

    Cell mechanics has been proved to be an effective biomarker for indicating cellular states. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides an exciting instrument for measuring the mechanical properties of single cells. However, current AFM single-cell mechanical measurements are commonly performed on cell lines cultured in vitro which are quite different from the primary cells in the human body. Investigating the mechanical properties of primary cells from clinical environments can help us to better understand cell behaviors. Here, by combining AFM with magnetic beads cell isolation, the viscoelastic properties of human primary B lymphocytes were quantitatively measured. B lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers by density gradient centrifugation and CD19 magnetic beads cell isolation. The activity and specificity of the isolated cells were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. AFM imaging revealed the surface topography and geometric parameters of B lymphocytes. The instantaneous modulus and relaxation time of living B lymphocytes were measured by AFM indenting technique, showing that the instantaneous modulus of human normal B lymphocytes was 2~3 kPa and the relaxation times were 0.03~0.06 s and 0.35~0.55 s. The differences in cellular visocoelastic properties between primary B lymphocytes and cell lines cultured in vitro were analyzed. The study proves the capability of AFM in quantifying the viscoelastic properties of individual specific primary cells from the blood sample of clinical patients, which will improve our understanding of the behaviors of cells in the human body.

  9. Autologous mixed lymphocyte culture reactions and generation of cytotoxic T cells

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Autologous mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reactions were studied utilizing autologous purified B cells and autologous established B lymphoid cell lines as stimulating cells. Similar results were obtained although somewhat greater stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation was found with the autologous lymphoid cell lines. Cytotoxic T cells were not generated against the stimulating cells in either case when peripheral blood cells were used as targets. A low cytotoxicity was detected when lymphoid cell lines were used both as stimulators and target cells. However this was nonspecific and was always greater for heterologous lines than for the stimulator line. Third-party cell experiments demonstrated that the autologous reaction could serve as a proliferative stimulus for specific cytotoxic lymphocyte generation. Heat-treated allogeneic lymphocytes that alone do not stimulate proliferation ro cytotoxic T-cell generation in MLC reactions when added to the autologous system produced specific cytotoxic cells. The separation of the proliferative phase from the cytotoxic cell generation was especially striking in these experiments. Possible uses of this system for the generation of specific cytotoxic cells to other nonstimulatory cells are discussed. PMID:144772

  10. Heterogeneity of thymic epithelial cells in promoting T-lymphocyte differentiation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, J C; Palacios, R

    1991-01-01

    To study in vivo the contribution of different thymic epithelial cells to T-lymphocyte differentiation, we have established several nontransformed thymic epithelial cell lines and developed an in vivo assay, not involving exposure to drugs or radiation, that permitted us to study the capacity of these epithelial lines to support T-cell differentiation. We found that cell lines EA2 and ET, which express markers of cortical epithelial cells, produce interleukin 7 mRNA and after being injected into the spleens of young athymic nude mice support in vivo generation of CD4+CD8- T-cell receptor alpha beta+ T lymphocytes (ET line) or both CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ T-cell receptor alpha beta+ T cells (EA2 line). Both cell lines also supported generation of T-cell receptor gamma delta+ T cells but appear not to support development of double-positive (CD4+CD8+) cells. One cell line, EB3, which expresses markers of medullary epithelial cells, produces interleukin 1 alpha RNA transcripts but does not support T-lymphocyte differentiation. The results provide direct evidence for functional heterogeneity of thymic epithelial cells in vivo and show the involvement of different cortical epithelial cells in the differentiation of T-cell progenitors into distinct thymocyte subsets. Images PMID:1988959

  11. Development of an Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay for the Detection of Antibodies against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Based on BHK-21 Cell Line Stably Expressing the Goat Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiye; Li, Cuicui; Xie, Meimei; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations. Compared with Vero cells, the PPR-mediated cytopathic effect occurred earlier in BHK-SLAM cells, and large syncytia appeared after virus infection. Based on this cell line and recombinant PPR virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) (rPPRV-GFP), an IPMA for PPR diagnosis was developed. One hundred and ninety-eight PPR serum samples from goats or sheep were tested by the IPMA and virus neutralization test (VNT). Compared with the VNT, the sensitivity and specificity of the IPMA were 91% and 100%, respectively, and the coincidence rate of the two methods was 95.5%. The IPMA assay could be completed in 4 h, compared with more than 6 d for the VNT using rPPRV-GFP, and it is easily performed, as the staining results can be observed under a microscope. Additionally, unlike the VNT, the IPMA does not require antigen purification, which will reduce its cost. In conclusion, the established IPMA will be an alternative method that replaces the VNT for detecting antibodies against PPRV in the field. PMID:27768770

  12. Enhancement of the antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-inducing ability in the PMDC11 leukemic plasmacytoid dendritic cell line via lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of the caTLR4 gene.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Minami; Narita, Miwako; Uchiyama, Takayoshi; Iwaya, Shunpei; Oiwa, Eri; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Bonehill, Aude; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Takizawa, Jun; Takahashi, Masuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the efficiency of leukemia immunotherapy by increasing the antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-inducing ability of leukemia cells. The leukemic plasmacytoid dendritic cell line PMDC05 containing the HLA-A02/24 antigen, which was previously established in our laboratory (Laboratory of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan), was used in the present study. It exhibited higher expression levels of CD80 following transduction with lentiviruses encoding the CD80 gene. This CD80-expressing PMDC05 was named PMDC11. In order to establish a more potent antigen-presenting cell for cellular immunotherapy of tumors or severe infections, PMDC11 cells were transduced with a constitutively active (ca) toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene using the Tet-On system (caTLR4-PMDC11). CD8(+) T cells from healthy donors with HLA-A02 were co-cultured with mutant WT1 peptide-pulsed PMDC11, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PMDC11 or caTLR4-PMDC11 cells. Interleukin (IL)-2 (50 IU/ml) and IL-7 (10 ng/ml) were added on day three of culture. Priming with mutant WT1 peptide-pulsed PMDC11, LPS-stimulated PMDC11 or caTLR4-PMDC11 cells was conducted once per week and two thirds of the IL-2/IL-7 containing medium was replenished every 3-4 days. Immediately prior to the priming with these various PMDC11 cells, the cultured cells were analyzed for the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ in addition to the percentage and number of CD8(+)/WT1 tetramer(+) T cells using flow cytometry. caTLR4-PMDC11 cells were observed to possess greater antigen-presenting abilities compared with those of PMDC11 or LPS-stimulated PMDC11 cells in a mixed leukocyte culture. CD8 T cells positive for the WT1 tetramer were generated following 3-4 weeks of culture and CD8(+)/WT1 tetramer+ T cells were markedly increased in caTLR4-PMDC11-primed CD8(+) T cell culture compared with PMDC11 or LPS-stimulated PMDC11-primed CD8(+) T

  13. Purified plasminogen activating factor produced by malignant lymphoid cells abrogates lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, S K; Bergeron, J; Menezes, J

    1984-01-01

    Immunosuppression is a generally observed phenomenon in patients with malignancies. Here we report that plasminogen activating factor (PAF) produced by human (P3HR-1) and simian (B95-8) lymphoid cells of malignant origin abrogates lymphocyte cytotoxicity. PAF has been purified from Epstein-Barr (EB) virus genome carrying lymphocyte cytotoxicity. PAF has been purified from Epstein-Barr (EB) virus genome carrying lymphoid lines by affinity chromatography using lysine-Sepharose columns. Purified PAF consistently inhibited Killer cell activity against the following targets: K-562, EB virus superinfected Raji cells and in vitro EB virus transformed autologous B lymphocytes. Furthermore PAF also inhibited the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The results presented also indicate that PAF affects the effector lymphocytes and not the target cells. Taken together, these observations emphasize the importance of factors such as PAF, released by malignant cells, as inhibitors/modulators of immune mechanisms effective against tumour cells. PMID:6430612

  14. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-09

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  15. DTIC xenogenized lines obtained from an L1210 clone: clonal analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, O.; Franco, P.; Canti, G.; Ricci, L.; Prandoni, N.; Nicolin, A.; Festenstein, H.

    1988-01-01

    Antineoplastic compounds can induce on tumour cells new antigens that undetectable on parental cells and which are transmissible as a genetic character. In this study mouse leukaemia L1210 was cloned in vitro by limiting dilution and one cloned line was recloned in vivo. Four subcloned tumour cell lines (A,D,R,S) were xenogenized in vivo by DTIC treatment (A/DTIC, D/DTIC, R/DTIC, S/DTIC) following a schedule previously described. Up to 10(7) cells of these xenogenized subclones, injected i.p., were rejected by syngeneic hosts, although they grew in immunosuppressed hosts. The DTIC treated subclones were lysed by in vivo-primed, in vitro-restimulated (with the relevant subclone) lymphocytes. The cytotoxic lymphocyte activity was not strictly specific since parental, DTIC-untreated cells were also lysed, although less efficiently. CTL directed against the D/DTIC subclone were cloned by limiting dilution. Ninety-four CTL clones were assayed against L1210 subcloned cells, DTIC-treated and untreated, and against different murine tumours (syngeneic or allogenic). Three specific antigens could be identified in the 51Cr release assay. The DTIC subclones expressed one antigen that was specifically recognized by a set of CTL clones. A number of CTL clones were able to lyse the L1210 subcloned cell exclusively, targetting a tumour-associated antigen that did not appear to be modified in the DTIC-treated subclones. A third antigen was demonstrated in the parental and DTIC treated D subclone. On the basis of these results it was postulated that there was at least one common DTIC-inducible antigen specific and reproducible within an identical cell population. Moreover, DTIC treatment did not modify histocompatibility antigens or TAA pre-existing in L1210 cells. The findings discussed here provide new information about permanent xenogenization of tumour cells, which might be exploited for experimental chemo-immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:2458749

  16. Gamma irradiation results in phosphorylation of p53 at serine-392 in human T-lymphocyte leukaemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Szkanderová, S; Vávrová, J; Rézacová, M; Vokurková, D; Pavlová, S; Smardová, J; Stulík, J

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of human leukaemia MOLT-4 cells to ionizing irradiation led to apoptosis, which was detected by flow cytometric analysis and degradation of the nuclear lamina. The multiple signalling pathways triggered by either membrane or DNA damage play a critical role in radiation-induced apoptosis. The response to DNA damage is typically associated with the p53 protein accumulation. In this study, we proved that the transcriptionally active p53 variant occurs in the MOLT-4 cells and its abundance alteration is triggered in the gamma-irradiated cell population concomitantly with phosphorylation at both the serine-392 and serine-15 residues. The p21 upregulation followed the p53 phosphorylation process in irradiated MOLT-4 cells.

  17. Apoptosis in an interleukin-2-dependent cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell line is associated with intracellular acidification. Role of the Na(+)/H(+)-antiport.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Eastman, A

    1995-02-17

    Apoptosis is a form of cell death associated with DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. We recently established that intracellular acidification occurred during apoptosis following cytotoxic insult. The current studies were designed to determine whether intracellular acidification was more generally associated with apoptosis, specifically in a model of growth factor withdrawal. Upon withdrawal of interleukin-2, CTLL-2 cells accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and started to fragment their DNA around 12 h concurrent with both decreased pH and increased Ca2. Chelation of Ca2+ did not inhibit DNA digestion, whereas incubation with a calcium ionophore prevented both acidification and DNA digestion. Hence, acidification rather than increased Ca2+ was associated with apoptosis. The acidified cells represented a discrete population up to 0.7 pH units below normal. The extent of acidification depended upon the extracellular pH; above pH 6.3, intracellular pH was significantly below extracellular pH, whereas below pH 6.3, the cells still regulated their pH. Inhibition of the Na+/H(+)-antiport prevented the apoptotic cells from regulating their intracellular pH under these acidic conditions. These intracellular pH under these acidic conditions. These results demonstrate that apoptotic cells retain a functional antiport but that its set-point has changed. Many survival factors are known to phosphorylate and activate the antiport, hence apoptosis is likely to be associated with dephosphorylation. Although acidification always occurred during apoptosis, maintaining intracellular pH above 7.2 did not prevent apoptosis, suggesting that an acid pH is not essential for apoptosis. We hypothesize that other critical regulators of apoptosis must be subject to dephosphorylation.

  18. Stimulation of human lymphocytes by B-cell mitogens

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi, L.; Lehner, T.

    1974-01-01

    B-cell mitogens stimulate human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the following order of effectiveness: levan, lipopolysaccharide, dextran. The incidence and magnitude of the response was increased in patients with chronic gingival and periodontal disease. Whereas in 45% of healthy subjects levan yielded a stimulation index >3, patients manifested an increased response according to the severity of the disease, reaching 75% in the advanced form of periodontitis. Levan and LPS stimulated spleen lymphocytes to yield higher stimulation indices than peripheral blood lymphocytes. The in vitro responses to these mitogens were abolished by the removal of B lymphocytes or by the depletion of phagocytic cells. It is now evident that a protein component of Veillonella alcalescens stimulates T lymphocytes, whereas lipid A fraction of lipopolysaccharide from the same organism stimulates B lymphocytes. PMID:4549732

  19. THE PRODUCTION OF VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS BY ANTIGEN- OR MITOGEN-STIMULATED LYMPHOCYTES AND CONTINUOUS LYMPHOBLASTOID LINES

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Maja; Feldman, Joseph D.; Kano, Shogo; Bloom, Barry R.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of lymphoid cell populations were examined in terms of their ability to replicate vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a lytic, RNA-containing virus maturing at the cell surface. The number of cells capable of producing VSV was estimated in terms of infectious centers by the virus plaque assay (VPA), and morphologically by electron microscopy (EM). The lymphoid cells examined in this study included: (a) lymph node cells from delayed hypersensitive guinea pigs stimulated by specific antigen, (b) mouse spleen cells activated by selective bone marrow-derived (B) cell and thymus derived (T) cell mitogens, and (c) cells of human and murine continuous lymphoblastoid or lymphoma lines. In unstimulated cultures of guinea pig lymph node cells there is a background of approximately 1 in 1,000 cells which produces VSV; in purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated cultures the number of cells producing virus was 1.6% in the VPA and 1.9% by EM. These cells were large lymphocytes with some morphological features of transformed lymphocytes but were not typical blast cells. A few macrophages were associated with virus in both stimulated and control cultures. These observations indicate that (a) cells responsive to antigens, as detected by a marker virus, were lymphocytes; (b) cells other than lymphocytes (macrophages) were capable of replicating VSV even without antigenic stimulation; and (c) the correlation of results obtained by VPA and morphologic examination was usually quite good. Of the total number of mouse spleen cells stimulated with concanavalin (Con A), a T cell mitogen, 4.5 (EM)–5.7% (VPA) were associated with VSV. These were characteristic transformed lymphocytes, similar to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocytes. In contrast Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse spleen cultures contained lower numbers of virus plaque-forming cells. The majority of such cells associated with virus displayed extensive rough endoplasmic

  20. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  1. Reprogramming T cell Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bared, Kalia

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provided a novel technology for the study of development and pharmacology and complement embryonic stem cells (ES) for cell therapy applications. Though iPSC are derived from adult tissue they are comparable to ES cells in their behavior; multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal. This makes iPSC research appealing because they can be studied in great detail and expanded in culture broadly. Fibroblasts were the first cell type reprogrammed to an iPSC using a retrovirus vector, since then alternative cell types including lymphocytes have been used to generate iPSC. Different types of vectors have also been developed to enhance iPSC formation and quality. However, specific T lymphocyte subsets have not been shown to reprogram to a pluripotent state to date. Here, we proposed to derive iPSC from peripheral blood effector and central memory T cells, reasoning that the resultant iPSC will maintain the epigenetic memory of a T lymphocyte, including the T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement. This epigenetic memory will enable the differentiation and expansion of T cell iPSC into professional T cells containing a specific TCR. These could then be used for cell therapy to target specific antigens, as well as to improve culture techniques to expand T cells in vitro. We studied different gene delivery methods to derive iPSC from different types of T lymphocytes. We assessed the viability of viral transduction using flow cytometry to detect green fluorescent marker contained in the viral construct and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc gene expression. Our results demonstrate that the Sendai virus construct is the most feasible platform to reprogram T lymphocytes. We anticipate that this platform will provide an efficient and safe approach to derive iPSC from different T cell subsets, including memory T cells.

  2. Elutriated lymphocytes for manufacturing chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    PubMed

    Stroncek, David F; Lee, Daniel W; Ren, Jiaqiang; Sabatino, Marianna; Highfill, Steven; Khuu, Hanh; Shah, Nirali N; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Fry, Terry J; Mackall, Crystal L

    2017-03-16

    Clinical trials of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells manufactured from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) concentrates for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have been promising, but CAR T cell yields have been variable. This variability is due in part to the contamination of the PBMC concentrates with monocytes and granulocytes. Counter-flow elutriation allows for the closed system separation of lymphocytes from monocytes and granulocytes. We investigated the use of PBMC concentrates enriched for lymphocytes using elutriation for manufacturing 8 CD19- and 5 GD2-CAR T cell products. When compared to PBMC concentrates, lymphocyte-enriched elutriation fractions contained greater proportions of CD3+ and CD56+ cells and reduced proportions of CD14+ and CD15+ cells. All 13 CAR T cell products manufactured using the elutriated lymphocytes yielded sufficient quantities of transduced CAR T cells to meet clinical dose criteria. The GD2-CAR T cell products contained significantly more T cells and transduced T cells than the CD19-CAR T cell products. A comparison of the yields of CAR T cells produced from elutriated lymphocytes with the yields of CAR T cells previous produced from cells isolated from PBMC concentrates by anti-CD3/CD28 bead selection or by anti-CD3/CD28 bead selection plus plastic adherence found that greater quantities of GD2-CAR T cells were produced from elutriated lymphocytes, but not CD19-CAR T cells. Enrichment of PBMC concentrates for lymphocytes using elutriation increased the quantity of GD2-CAR T cells produced. These results provide further evidence that CAR T cell expansion is inhibited by monocytes and granulocytes.

  3. Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells promote intracellular crawling of lymphocytes during recruitment: A new step in migration.

    PubMed

    Patten, Daniel A; Wilson, Garrick K; Bailey, Dalan; Shaw, Robert K; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko; Rot, Antal; Weston, Chris J; Adams, David H; Shetty, Shishir

    2017-01-01

    The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs), a functionally and phenotypically distinct subpopulation of endothelial cells. Using flow-based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSECs, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSECs, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues. Stimulation by interferon-γ increased intracellular localization of lymphocytes within HSECs. Furthermore, using confocal imaging and time-lapse recordings, we demonstrated "intracellular crawling" of lymphocytes entering into one endothelial cell from another. This required the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and stabilin-1 and was facilitated by the junctional complexes between HSECs.

  4. Effect of prolactin on carcinoembryonic antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Matera, L; Beltramo, E; Martinuzzi, E; Buttiglieri, S

    2004-08-01

    The cytokine hormone prolactin (PRL) has been shown previously to modulate native cellular responses and maturation of antigen-presenting cells. Here we have addressed its effect on the antigen-specific response of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL were generated from HLA-A2 lymphocytes after three rounds of stimulation with autologous dendritic cells loaded with HLA-A2-restricted carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) Cap-1 (YLSGANLNL) peptide. Selected cultures were expanded on cytokine-supplemented feeder-layers, enriched for CD8+ lymphocytes and analysed for PRL-receptor (PRL-R) expression and PRL responsiveness. Resting CD8+ lymphocytes were negative for PRL-R, whereas antigen-activated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from long-term cultures were highly positive. Results of a 51Cr release assay showed CTL killing of CEA-loaded, but not unloaded, T2 cell line and the CEA-positive gastric carcinoma cell line KATO, but not of the CEA-negative T leukaemia cell line Jurkat. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release, evaluated in an ELISPOT assay against CEA-loaded T2, was enhanced (P < 0.05) by concentrations of PRL (12-25 ng/ml) very close to the physiological levels (6-20 ng/ml), but was decreased (P < 0.05) by high concentrations (200 ng/ml). Pre-incubation of the stimulators with the anti-MHC class I MoAb W6.32 induced a 40-60% decrease of the PRL-boosted IFN-gamma release, thus proving the MHC restriction of the lymphocyte response. Cytotoxicity against CEA-loaded T2 and KATO cell lines was also increased by 12-25 ng (P < 0.05) and decreased (P < 0.05) by 200 ng PRL. Pre-incubation of CTL with an antibody specific for the PRL-R almost completely abrogated this effect.

  5. Effect of prolactin on carcinoembryonic antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Matera, L; Beltramo, E; Martinuzzi, E; Buttiglieri, S

    2004-01-01

    The cytokine hormone prolactin (PRL) has been shown previously to modulate native cellular responses and maturation of antigen-presenting cells. Here we have addressed its effect on the antigen-specific response of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL were generated from HLA-A2 lymphocytes after three rounds of stimulation with autologous dendritic cells loaded with HLA-A2-restricted carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) Cap-1 (YLSGANLNL) peptide. Selected cultures were expanded on cytokine-supplemented feeder-layers, enriched for CD8+ lymphocytes and analysed for PRL-receptor (PRL-R) expression and PRL responsiveness. Resting CD8+ lymphocytes were negative for PRL-R, whereas antigen-activated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from long-term cultures were highly positive. Results of a 51Cr release assay showed CTL killing of CEA-loaded, but not unloaded, T2 cell line and the CEA-positive gastric carcinoma cell line KATO, but not of the CEA-negative T leukaemia cell line Jurkat. Interferon (IFN)-γ release, evaluated in an ELISPOT assay against CEA-loaded T2, was enhanced (P < 0·05) by concentrations of PRL (12–25 ng/ml) very close to the physiological levels (6–20 ng/ml), but was decreased (P < 0·05) by high concentrations (200 ng/ml). Pre-incubation of the stimulators with the anti-MHC class I MoAb W6·32 induced a 40–60% decrease of the PRL-boosted IFN-γ release, thus proving the MHC restriction of the lymphocyte response. Cytotoxicity against CEA-loaded T2 and KATO cell lines was also increased by 12–25 ng (P < 0·05) and decreased (P < 0·05) by 200 ng PRL. Pre-incubation of CTL with an antibody specific for the PRL-R almost completely abrogated this effect. PMID:15270849

  6. Interaction of nanosilver particles with human lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhornik, Alena; Baranova, Ludmila; Volotovski, Igor; Chizhik, Sergey; Drozd, Elizaveta; Sudas, Margarita; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Huynh, Thi Ha; Hien Dao, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The damaging effects of nanoparticles were hypothesized to be the oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species and initiation of inflammatory reactions. In this context a study on the effects of nanosilver particles on the formation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocyte culture was carried out. The obtained results showed that fluorescence intensity considerably increased after cells had interacted with nanosilver particles of varying concentrations, indicating the formation of reactive oxygen species and their accumulation in lymphocyte cells. Morphological study of the lymphocyte cells under the effects of nanosilver particles showed that the change in morphology depends on the concentration and size of nanosilver particles: for a size ≤20 nm the lymphocyte cell significantly shrank with pronounced differences in the morphological structure of the cell membrane, but for a size ≥200 nm no change was observed.

  7. Activated adherent large granular lymphocytes/natural killer (LGL/NK) cells change their migratory behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Pirelli, A; Allavena, P; Mantovani, A

    1988-01-01

    Unstimulated large granular lymphocytes/natural killer (LGL/NK) cells, unlike small T lymphocytes, exhibit prompt locomotion into nitrocellulose filters in response to chemo-attactrants, but, unlike monocytes, are unable to migrate as adherent cells across polycarbonate filters. Upon activation with 4-B-phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (PDBU), LGL/NK cells become adherent and change their migratory behaviour, having the ability to migrate as adherent cells across polycarbonate filters. PDBU-treated high-density T lymphocytes did not show, under the same conditions, locomotory activity. The change in migratory behaviour following activation may represent an important determinant of the ability of activated LGL/NK cells to adhere to vascular linings and localize in tissues. PMID:3220508

  8. Electrophoretic cell separation using microspheres. [purification of lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A.; Sachs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of cell separation based on the electrokinetic properties of the cell membrane offer a degree of discrimination among cell populations which is not available with methods based on cell size or density alone. Studies aimed at extending red cell separations using microspheres to purification of lymphocytes.

  9. Interaction between human mature adipocytes and lymphocytes induces T-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Antonella; Maurizi, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Marco; Medici, Martina; Mattiucci, Domenico; Mancini, Stefania; Maurizi, Angela; Falconi, Massimo; Olivieri, Attilio; Leoni, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical organ that plays a major role in energy balance regulation and the immune response through intricate signals. We report on the inter-relation between mature adipocytes and lymphocytes in terms of adipocyte-derived T-cell chemo-attractants and adipocyte metabolic effects on lymphocytes. During the culture time, mature adipocytes changed their structural and functional properties into de-differentiated cells. Isolated mature adipocytes expressed significantly higher levels of CIITA, major histocompatibility complex II (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-DR) and costimulatory signal molecule CD80 compared with adipocytes after the de-differentiation process. Moreover, human leukocyte antigen-G, which may prevent the immune responses of mesenchymal stromal cells, was expressed at lower level in mature adipocytes compared with de-differentiated adipocytes. In line with these molecular data, functional results showed different immunoregulatory properties between adipocytes before and after the de-differentiation process. Mature adipocytes stimulated the proliferation of total lymphocytes and immunoselected cell populations CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ in a direct contact-dependent way that involved the major histocompatibility complex I and II pathways. Moreover, adipocytes secreted potential chemo-attractant factors, but data showed that adipocyte-derived culture medium was not sufficient to activate lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that a direct contact between adipocytes and immune cells was needed. However, specific mature adipocyte cytokines enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In conclusion, cross-talk occurs between adipocytes and lymphocytes within adipose tissue involving T-cell chemo-attraction by mature adipocytes. Our findings, together with current observations in the field, provide a rationale to identify adipocyte-lymphocyte cross-talk that instigates adipose inflammation. Copyright © 2015 International

  10. Asymmetric cell division in T lymphocyte fate diversification

    PubMed Central

    Arsenio, Janilyn; Metz, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological protection against microbial pathogens is dependent on robust generation of functionally diverse T lymphocyte subsets. Upon microbial infection, naïve CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocytes can give rise to effector- and memory-fated progeny that together mediate a potent immune response. Recent advances in single-cell immunological and genomic profiling technologies have helped elucidate early and late diversification mechanisms that enable the generation of heterogeneity from single T lymphocytes. We discuss these findings here and argue that one such mechanism, asymmetric cell division, creates an early divergence in T lymphocyte fates by giving rise to daughter cells with a propensity towards the terminally differentiated effector or self-renewing memory lineages, with cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues from the microenvironment driving the final maturation steps. PMID:26474675

  11. Lymphocyte activation by purified HLA-DR molecules fused into autochthonous "stimulating cells".

    PubMed

    Diu, A; Abikar, K; Rode, H N; Gordon, J

    1985-08-01

    Affinity-purified Ia molecules derived from the Daudi cell line were reconstituted into vesicles with Sendai virus envelope glycoproteins. These vesicles inserted into human peripheral leukocytes could induce stimulation of autologous lymphocytes, as measured by thymidine uptake, 6 days later. It is suggested that this method could provide a means to study allostimulation at the molecular level.

  12. Outcomes of first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Keating, Michael J; O'Brien, Susan M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Faderl, Stefan; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G

    2014-08-01

    Although uncommon in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, deletion 17p is a high-risk disease characteristic. We analyzed and reported outcomes for 63 patients with deletion 17p chronic lymphocytic leukemia who received first-line therapy at our institution; at time of first treatment, 81% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene and 58% had complex karyotype. Forty-nine patients (76%) received first-line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based therapy, 6 (11%) received rituximab-based and 8 (13%) received lenalidomide-based treatment. Overall, the complete plus nodular partial remission rate was 33%; on multivariable model, higher complete plus nodular partial remission rate was observed in patients with less than 50% cells positive for deletion 17p, and a higher probability of achieving at least a partial remission was observed with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based treatment. After a median follow up of 33 months (range 1-89 months), the estimated median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% confidence interval 10-18) and estimated median overall survival was 63 months (95% confidence interval 43-83). In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with longer progression-free survival were response to treatment and absence of complex karyotype. Achievement of complete plus nodular partial remission rate and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene were independently associated with longer overall survival in multivariable model. Complex karyotype was associated with increased risk for Richter's transformation. New first-line strategies and agents must aim at both improving response and maintaining remission in patients with deletion 17p, particularly in the presence of complex karyotype.

  13. Outcomes of first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Paolo; Keating, Michael J.; O’Brien, Susan M.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Faderl, Stefan; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Although uncommon in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, deletion 17p is a high-risk disease characteristic. We analyzed and reported outcomes for 63 patients with deletion 17p chronic lymphocytic leukemia who received first-line therapy at our institution; at time of first treatment, 81% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene and 58% had complex karyotype. Forty-nine patients (76%) received first-line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based therapy, 6 (11%) received rituximab-based and 8 (13%) received lenalidomide-based treatment. Overall, the complete plus nodular partial remission rate was 33%; on multivariable model, higher complete plus nodular partial remission rate was observed in patients with less than 50% cells positive for deletion 17p, and a higher probability of achieving at least a partial remission was observed with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based treatment. After a median follow up of 33 months (range 1–89 months), the estimated median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% confidence interval 10–18) and estimated median overall survival was 63 months (95% confidence interval 43–83). In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with longer progression-free survival were response to treatment and absence of complex karyotype. Achievement of complete plus nodular partial remission rate and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene were independently associated with longer overall survival in multivariable model. Complex karyotype was associated with increased risk for Richter’s transformation. New first-line strategies and agents must aim at both improving response and maintaining remission in patients with deletion 17p, particularly in the presence of complex karyotype. PMID:24859876

  14. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  15. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A.; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments. PMID:27833611

  16. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-05

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  17. Lymphocyte adhesion-dependent calcium signaling in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) can undergo dramatic phenotypic and functional alterations in response to humoral and cellular stimuli. These changes promote endothelial participation in the inflammatory response through active recruitment of immune effector cells, increased vascular permeability, and alteration in vascular tone. In an attempt to define early events in lymphocyte-mediated EC signaling, we investigated cytosolic-free calcium (Ca2+) changes in single, Fluo-3- labeled human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), using an ACAS interactive laser cytometer. Of all lymphocyte subsets tested, allogeneic CD3-, CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells uniquely elicited oscillatory EC Ca2+ signals in cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1- or tumor necrosis factor [TNF])-treated ECs. The induction of these signals required avid intercellular adhesion, consisted of both Ca2+ mobilization and extracellular influx, and was associated with EC inositol phosphate (IP) generation. Simultaneous recording of NK and EC Ca2+ signals using two-color fluorescence detection revealed that, upon adhesion, NK cells flux prior to EC. Lymphocyte Ca2+ buffering with 1,2-bis-5-methyl-amino- phenoxylethane-N,N,N'-tetra-acetoxymethyl acetate (MAPTAM) demonstrated that lymphocyte fluxes are, in fact, prerequisites for the adhesion- dependent EC signals. mAb studies indicate that the beta 2 integrin- intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 adhesion pathway is critically involved. However, ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of IL-1- mediated ICAM-1 hyperinduction had no effect on EC Ca2+ signaling in lymphocyte-EC conjugates, indicating that additional cytokine-induced EC alteration is required. These experiments combine features of lymphocyte-endothelial interactions, intercellular adhesion, EC cytokine activation and transmembrane signaling. The results implicate the IP/Ca2+ second messenger pathway in EC outside-in signaling induced by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and suggest that these signals may play a

  18. Transferrin receptor expression by stimulated cells in mixed lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, M; Bacon, P A; Symmons, D P; Walton, K W

    1985-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TRFr) expression by cells in mixed lymphocyte culture increases steadily for the first 5 days, but then reaches a plateau. By the sixth day in culture, about 20% of viable cells express TRFr in two-way mixed lymphocyte reactions. This subpopulation of TRFr-positive cells represents the proliferating population; it is heterogeneous, containing T-cell blasts and smaller cells which are a mixture of T and non-T cells. A small group of non-T cells have phenotypic similarity to natural killer (NK) cells. T cells appear to divide earlier in the course of the response than non-T cells. The biphasic nature of this response and the slower non-T reactivity may be due to a secondary stimulation of non-T cells by factors released from activated T cells (such as interleukin-2). PMID:2982734

  19. A new four-color flow cytometric assay to detect apoptosis in lymphocyte subsets of cultured peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hasper, H J; Weghorst, R M; Richel, D J; Meerwaldt, J H; Olthuis, F M; Schenkeveld, C E

    2000-06-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes kept in culture after isolation die by an apoptotic process. Detection of apoptosis with labeled Annexin V to demonstrate loss of plasma membrane asymmetry is sensitive, specific, and easy using flow cytometry. This is true in lymphoblastic cell lines when combining Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI). However, measurement of apoptosis by flow cytometry in isolated human lymphocytes using Annexin V-FITC/PI is disturbed by the presence of a variable percentage of erythrocytes in the isolated lymphocyte population. To overcome this problem, we have developed and tested a new four-color flow cytometric assay to detect apoptosis in lymphocyte subsets of cultured peripheral blood cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Nucleus-containing cells are selected using CD45-phycoerythrin (PE). The lymphocyte subset of interest is selected using CD4, CD8, or CD19 energy-coupled dye (ECD) labeling. Apoptosis is detected using Annexin V-FITC with 7-amino-Actinomycin-D (7-AAD) to distinguish early apoptotic from late apoptotic lymphocytes. We have developed a new technique to detect apoptosis in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets with good reproducibility, coefficient of variation < 17%. We now have a validated tool to study apoptosis in subsets of isolated human lymphocytes to increase our knowledge of pathogenesis and therapies in lymphoreticular malignancies. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  1. Repopulation of B-lymphocytes with restricted gene expression using haematopoietic stem cells engineered with lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Taher, T E; Tulone, C; Fatah, R; D'Acquisto, F; Gould, D J; Mageed, R A

    2008-07-01

    B-lymphocytes play a key role in the pathogenesis of many immune-mediated diseases, such as autoimmune and atopic diseases. Therefore, targeting B-lymphocytes provides a rationale for refining strategies to treat such diseases for long-term clinical benefits and minimal side effects. In this study we describe a protocol for repopulating irradiated mice with B-lymphocytes engineered for restricted expression of transgenes using haematopoietic stem cells. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector, which encodes enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) from the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) promoter, was used to generate new vectors that permit restricted EGFP expression in B-lymphocytes. To achieve this, the SFFV promoter was replaced with the B-lymphocyte-restricted CD19 promoter. Further, an immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (Emu) flanked by the associated matrix attachment regions (MARs) was inserted upstream of the CD19 promoter. Incorporation of the Emu-MAR elements upstream of the CD19 promoter resulted in enhanced, stable and selective transgene expression in human and murine B-cell lines. In addition, this modification permitted enhanced selective EGFP expression in B-lymphocytes in vivo in irradiated mice repopulated with transduced bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells (BMHSCs). The study provides evidence for the feasibility of targeting B-lymphocytes for therapeutic restoration of normal B-lymphocyte functions in patients with B-cell-related diseases.

  2. Cell cycle RNA regulons coordinating early lymphocyte development.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Alison; Turner, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they develop from progenitor cells lacking antigen receptors, to mature cells that are prepared to mount immune responses. While transcription factors have established roles in lymphocyte development, they act in concert with post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators to determine the proteome. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of RNA regulons consisting of mRNAs whose protein products act cooperatively allows RNA binding proteins to exert their effects at multiple points in a pathway. Here, we review recent evidence demonstrating the importance of RNA binding proteins that control the cell cycle in lymphocyte development and discuss the implications for tumorigenesis. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1419. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1419 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Teman, Carolin J; Tripp, Sheryl R; Perkins, Sherrie L; Duncavage, Eric J

    2011-05-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a novel polyomavirus that shows a strong association with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Recent studies have demonstrated MCPyV in some cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), a malignancy with a similar demographic as MCC. We tested for the presence of MCPyV by PCR and immunohistochemistry in 18 cases of CLL/SLL. Very low-level MCPyV DNA was detected in 33% of CLL/SLL cases by real-time PCR, but only one case demonstrated immunohistochemical positivity for MCPyV. MCPyV was not identified in 17 cases of follicular lymphoma, suggesting either that MCPyV is involved in CLL/SLL pathogenesis or that the immunodeficiency state of CLL/SLL induces low-level MCPyV reactivation.

  4. Enhancement of fludarabine sensitivity by all-trans-retinoic acid in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Calotti, Paula X.; Lopez-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2012-01-01

    Background A subset of patients with fludarabine-resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia has previously been shown to express elevated intracellular levels of the concentrative high-affinity fludarabine transporter hCNT3, without any detectable related activity. We have recently shown that all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of inducing hCNT3 trafficking to plasma membrane in the MEC1 cell line. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on hCNT3 in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells as a suitable mechanism to improve fludarabine-based therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Design and Methods Cells from 23 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients wild-type for P53 were analyzed for ex vivo sensitivity to fludarabine. hCNT3 activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell samples was evaluated by measuring the uptake of [8-3H]-fludarabine. The amounts of transforming growth factor-β1 and hCNT3 messenger RNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on hCNT3 subcellular localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy and its effect on fludarabine-induced apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis using annexin V staining. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases showing higher ex vivo basal sensitivity to fludarabine also had a greater basal hCNT3-associated fludarabine uptake capacity compared to the subset of patients showing ex vivo resistance to the drug. hCNT3 transporter activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from the latter patients was either negligible or absent. Treatment of the fludarabine-resistant subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with all-trans-retinoic acid induced increased fludarabine transport via hCNT3 which was associated with a significant increase in fludarabine sensitivity. Conclusions Improvement of ex vivo fludarabine sensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is associated with increased hCNT3 activity after all-trans-retinoic acid

  5. Cell Surface Proteomics of N-Linked Glycoproteins for Typing of Human Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Haverland, Nicole A; Waas, Matthew; Ntai, Ioanna; Keppel, Theodore; Gundry, Rebekah L; Kelleher, Neil L

    2017-08-18

    Lymphocytes are immune cells that are critical for the maintenance of adaptive immunity. Differentiation of lymphoid progenitors yields B-, T-, and NK-cell subtypes that individually correlate with specific forms of leukemia or lymphoma. Therefore, it is imperative a precise method of cell categorization is utilized to detect differences in distinct disease states present in patients. One viable means of classification involves evaluation of the cell surface proteome of lymphoid malignancies. Specifically, this manuscript details the use of an antibody independent approach known as Cell Surface Capture Technology, to assess N-glycoproteome of four human lymphocyte cell lines. Altogether, 404 cell surface N-glycoproteins as markers for specific cell types involved in lymphocytic malignancies, including 82 N-glycoproteins that had not been previously been described for B- or T-cells within the Cell Surface Protein Atlas. Comparative analysis, hierarchical clustering techniques, and label free quantitation was used to reveal proteins most informative for each cell type. Undoubtedly, the characterization of the cell surface proteome of lymphoid malignancies is a first step towards improving personalized diagnosis and treatment of leukemia and lymphoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell death of bioenergetically compromised and transcriptionally challenged CLL lymphocytes by chlorinated ATP

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Stellrecht, Christine M.; Genini, Davide; Ayres, Mary; Wierda, William G.; Keating, Michael J.; Leoni, Lorenzo M.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2005-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) acts as a key survival factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In addition, dissipation of cellular bioenergy may impose a lethal effect on these quiescent cells. Previously, in multiple myeloma cell lines we demonstrated that halogenated adenosine (8-Cl-Ado) was phosphorylated to triphosphate (8-Cl–adenosine triphosphate [ATP]), which preferentially incorporated into mRNA and inhibited RNA synthesis by premature transcription termination. Furthermore, 8-Cl-ATP accumulation was associated with a decline in cellular bioenergy. Based on these actions, we hypothesized that 8-Cl-Ado would be ideal to target CLL lymphocytes. In the present study we demonstrate that leukemic lymphocytes incubated with 8-Cl-Ado display time- and dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of 8-Cl-ATP, with a parallel depletion of the endogenous ATP pool. Inhibition of global RNA synthesis resulted in a significant decline in the expression of transcripts with a short half-life such as MCL1. Consistent to this, protein expression of MCL-1 but not B-cell lymphoma–2 (BCL-2) was decreased. Furthermore, 8-Cl-ATP induced programmed cell death, as suggested by caspases activation, cleavage of caspase 3, and PARP (poly–adenosine diphosphate [ADP]–ribose polymerase), and increased DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, 8-Cl-Ado induces apoptosis in CLL lymphocytes by targeting cellular bioenergy as well as RNA transcription and translation of key survival genes such as MCL1. PMID:15718423

  7. Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells promote intracellular crawling of lymphocytes during recruitment- a new step in migration

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Daniel A.; Wilson, Garrick K.; Bailey, Dalan; Shaw, Robert K.; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko; Rot, Antal; Weston, Christopher J.; Adams, David H.; Shetty, Shishir

    2017-01-01

    The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), a functionally and phenotypically distinct sub-population of endothelial cells. Using flow based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSEC, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSEC, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues. Stimulation by interferon gamma increased intracellular localization of lymphocytes within HSECs. Furthermore using confocal imaging and time-lapse recordings we demonstrated ‘intracellular crawling’ of lymphocytes entering into one endothelial cell from another. This required the expression of ICAM-1 and stabilin-1 and was facilitated by the junctional complexes between HSEC. Conclusion: We demonstrate a new step in lymphocyte migration which is facilitated by the unique structure of HSEC. We believe ‘intracellular crawling’ contributes to optimal lymphocyte positioning in liver tissue during chronic hepatitis. PMID:27770554

  8. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and cytostatic acting cells in T. annulata-immune cattle.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, J S; Wiegers, P; Ritz, H; Hartwig, H; Schein, E; Schnittger, L

    2000-01-01

    Cattle immunized against Theileria annulata with schizont containing autologous cell lines are immune to challenge with a homologous parasite strain. Two cell types have been detected in the peripheral blood of the immunized animals: cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and cytostatic acting cells (CAC). Killing the target cells by CTL is infection associated and is MHC class I restricted. Hence, no cytotoxicity was observed against target cells that were treated with the theilericidal drug buparvaquone or autologous Con A-blasts. The growth inhibition of CAC is MHC unrestricted, and not mediated by cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma).

  9. Expression of an accessory cell phenotype by hairy cells during lymphocyte colony formation in agar culture.

    PubMed

    Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Testa, U; Andre, C; Jouault, H; Reyes, F

    1983-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes require the cooperation of accessory cells to generate lymphocyte colonies in agar culture under PHA stimulation. Various hairy cell enriched fractions, as well as normal monocytes, have been found to be able to initiate colony formation by normal lymphocytes. Leukemic monocytes from CMML patients were also effective, but not the leukemic lymphocytes from CLL patients. The phenotype expressed by HC in agar colonies was further studied using cell surface and enzymatic markers. We have concluded that HC in agar culture in the presence of both normal T lymphocytes and PHA lose the B phenotype that they express in vivo and function like an accessory cell in contrast to normal or leukemic B lymphocytes.

  10. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  11. Effect of morphine on cell-mediated immune responses of human lymphocytes against allogeneic malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Fuggetta, M P; Di Francesco, P; Falchetti, R; Cottarelli, A; Rossi, L; Tricarico, M; Lanzilli, G

    2005-06-01

    Opioid drugs, including morphine, are largely used as pain control in cancer patients at different stages of neoplastic growth and progression. Therefore, the possible influence of these drugs on host immunity appears to be of considerable interest. We have examined in vitro the effect of morphine on the generation of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against HTLV-I induced T-cell leukemia cells (MT-2 line). The results show that the drug, at graded concentrations (from 3 pg/ml to 32 microg/ml), that include those detectable in treated patients, enhances CTL activity whereas natural killer cell activity was unaffected. The enhancing effect is particularly evident when morphine was present at the onset of lymphocyte/MT-2 co-culture. On the contrary, the drug was ineffective when added on the last day of co-culture, thus indicating that morphine operates during the generation phase of CTL, but not on mature CTL. Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular cytokine expression showed that morphine increases the percentage of interferon gamma-producing CD8+ T cells in co-culture assay. Collectively, these results suggest that in our experimental model morphine enhances CTL responses by directly affecting the induction phase of T-dependent cell-mediated immunity.

  12. Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility

  13. Immunoglobulin expression and synthesis by human haemic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J; Hough, D; Karpas, A; Smith, J L

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six human cell lines derived from a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies, were investigated for their immunological markers, with special reference to the class of immunoglobulin expressed. Twenty-five of the lines stained positively for surface immunoglobulin and IgD together with IgM proved to be the major immunoglobulin classes on these cells. Six of the lines were chosen for a study of their immunoglobulin synthesis patterns over an 18-h period and the immunoglobulin produced was analysed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Patterns obtained from the cell lines were similar to that from normal lymph node lymphocytes and differed markedly to plasma cells. Two of the cell lines had abnormal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns characterized as free light chains in one case. The cell lines are evaluated for their usefulness as models of immunoglobulin synthesis and analogues of normal and neoplastic states. PMID:608682

  14. Estrogen prevention of lacrimal gland cell death and lymphocytic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Azzarolo, Ana Maria; Eihausen, Heather; Schechter, Joel

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that ovariectomy causes necrosis of lacrimal acinar cells, apoptosis of plasma cells and gland lymphocytic infiltration. Both, lacrimal gland cell death and lymphocytic infiltration were prevented by androgen treatment. Since estrogens are removed by ovariectomy, and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol has been shown to affect some biochemical correlates of lacrimal secretion, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 17-beta-estradiol treatment on ovariectomy-induced cell death and lymphocytic infiltration. Sexually mature female New Zealand white rabbits (4-4.5 kg) were ovariectomized and divided into two groups. One group was treated with 0.5 mg kg(-1) per day 17-beta-estradiol, and the other group with vehicle alone. A third group of sham operated rabbits was used as controls and they also were treated with vehicle alone. Six days after surgery, the animals were euthanized, the lacrimal glands removed and processed for analysis of apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation, and for morphological examination. DNA fragmentation was determined using the TUNEL assay and agarose gel electrophoresis. Sections were also stained for rabbit thymic lymphocyte antigen (RTLA), and rabbit CD18. Labelled nuclei and stained areas were quantified by automated densitometry. Ovariectomized rabbits showed a significant increase in the values for degraded DNA as a percent of total nuclear area (2.90+/-0.40%) compared to sham operated rabbits (0.73+/-0.22%). 17-beta-estradiol treatment in ovariectomized rabbits prevented the increase in DNA degradation. Examination of TUNEL assay at higher magnification (40x) confirmed previous studies showing that ovariectomy caused apoptosis of interstitial cells. Significant numbers of bulging cells of very pale appearance under light microscopy, also confirm previously identified necrotic cells in acinar regions. Treatment with 17-beta-estradiol prevented this necrosis. Increased numbers of RTLA

  15. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in lymphocytic leukemia CD19+ B cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Chun-Xian; Wang, Lan; Li, Yan; Xiao, Wei; Guo, Qin-Lian; Chen, Fei; Tan, Xin-Ti

    2014-10-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) has been demonstrated to be strongly expressed in many fetal tissues, but seldom in healthy adult tissues. While PTN has been reported to be expressed in many types of tumors as well as at high serum concentrations in patients with many types of cancer, to date, there has been no report that PTN is expressed in leukemia, especially in lymphocytic leukemia. We isolated the CD19(+) subset of B cells from peripheral blood from healthy adults, B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) patients, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients and examined these cells for PTN mRNA and protein expression. We used immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to show that PTN protein is highly expressed in CD19(+) B cells from B-ALL and B-CLL patients, but barely expressed in B cells from healthy adults. We also examined PTN expression at the nucleic acid level using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and northern blotting and detected a high levels of PTN transcripts in the CD19(+) B cells from both groups of leukemia patients, but very few in the CD19(+) B cells from the healthy controls. Interestingly, the quantity of the PTN transcripts correlated with the severity of disease. Moreover, suppression of PTN activity with an anti-PTN antibody promoted apoptosis of cells from leukemia patients and cell lines SMS-SB and JVM-2. This effect of the anti-PTN antibody suggests that PTN may be a new target for the treatment of lymphocytic leukemia. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Suiciding of lymphocytic precursor cells by tritiated nucleosides, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, E M; Nishimura, T; Bisel, T U

    1978-02-01

    Differences in suiciding by various tritiated nucleosides were observed between two functional assays for in vitro lymphocytic precursor cell development, the hemolysin plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay and the B lymphocytic colony-forming cell (CFC-L) assay, using BDF1 mouse spleen cells. PFC growth was markedly reduced by an early (days 0-1) pulse of tritiated deoxyadenosine ([3H]dAdo), but relatively unaffected by a pulse of tritiated thymidine ([3H]dThd) during the same interval. In contrast, CFC-L formation significantly dropped after an early (day 0) [3H]dThd pulse, as well as after pulses of [3H]dAdo and the corresponding tritiated ribosides, uridine and adenosine. This implied a cycling state in an early lymphocytic precursor cell, as opposed to the PFC insensitivity to an early [3H]dThd pulse. The response pattern of colonies and clusters to [3H]dThd supported our notion of a delayed suiciding of CFC contributing to the increase in cluster numbers.

  17. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research.

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: another neoplasm related to the B-cell follicle?

    PubMed

    Tandon, Bevan; Swerdlow, Steven H; Hasserjian, Robert P; Surti, Urvashi; Gibson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been increased attention paid to the critical nature of nodal involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), the B-cell compartment it is most closely related to and its relationship to the follicle remain uncertain. A clinicopathologic investigation of 60 extramedullary biopsies of LEF1+ CLL/SLL, including 29 cases with perifollicular/follicular (PF/F) growth, was therefore performed. A subset of PF/F cases demonstrated inner mantle zone preservation or intra-mantle zone growth. All PF/F and 16/31 other cases contained CD21+ follicular dendritic cells. No cytogenetic, IGHV mutational or gene usage differences were seen between PF/F and diffuse cases. PF/F cases were more often kappa positive (p<0.03) and had fewer involved nodal sites (p=0.0004). These findings suggest that at least a subset of bona fide CLL/SLL is related to the follicle, most likely the outer mantle zone, and that at least a subset of the diffuse cases may represent "later" disease.

  19. Polarity and asymmetric cell division in the control of lymphocyte fate decisions and function.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammed; Russell, Sarah M

    2016-04-01

    Polarity is important in several lymphocyte processes including lymphocyte migration, formation of the immunological synapse, and asymmetric cell division (ACD). While lymphocyte migration and immunological synapse formation are relatively well understood, the role of lymphocyte ACD is less clear. Recent advances in measuring polarity enable more robust analyses of asymmetric cell division. Use of these new methods has produced crucial quantification of ACD at precise phases of lymphocyte development and activation. These developments are leading to a better understanding of the drivers of fate choice during lymphocyte activation and provide a context within which to explain the effects of ACD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of null cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with B-cell allo- and hetero-antisera.

    PubMed

    Kirov, S M; Kwant, W O; Fernandez, L A; MacSween, J M; Langley, G R

    1980-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CLL-PBMN) were separated into B, T and Null-enriched lymphocyte sub-populations using sequential mouse and sheep red blood cell rosetting depletions on Hypaque-Ficoll gradients. The procedure produced viable cell populations with mean percentage purities of 90, 87 and 75 for B, T and non-rosetting (Null-enriched) sub-populations, respectively. More than 80% of PBMN cells were generally accounted for by mouse and sheep rosetting. The purified lymphocyte sub-populations were examined with a panel of B-cell specific alloantisera obtained from kidney transplant recipients and a rabbit antiserum to B cell antigen isolated from a human B-lymphoblastoid line. The results illustrated that the antigens detected by these sera also have potential as a marker for characterizing the CLL population. Where conventional markers were weak or absent, B cell antigens were readily detected in both fluorescent and cytotoxic tests. The majority of the non-rosetting cells (less than 90%) in CLL followed similar patterns of reactivity to the purified B cells, suggesting they are a subset of B cells. A small residual population (0--5% of PBMN) did not react with the antisera, the significance of which is unknown.

  1. Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

    2013-03-01

    Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials

  2. Lymphocyte Display: A Novel Antibody Selection Platform Based on T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Sánchez-Martín, David; Compte, Marta; Álvarez-Vallina, Laura Sanz, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Since their onset, display technologies have proven useful for the selection of antibodies against a variety of targets; however, most of the antibodies selected with the currently available platforms need to be further modified for their use in humans, and are restricted to accessible antigens. Furthermore, these platforms are not well suited for in vivo selections. We present here a novel cell based antibody display platform, which takes advantage of the functional capabilities of T lymphocytes. The display of antibodies on the surface of T lymphocytes, as a part of a chimeric-immune receptor (CIR) mediating signaling, may ideally link the antigen-antibody interaction to a demonstrable change in T cell phenotype, due to subsequent expression of the early T cell activation marker CD69. In this proof-of-concept, an in vitro selection was carried out using a human T cell line lentiviral-transduced to express a tumor-specific CIR on the surface, against a human tumor cell line expressing the carcinoembryonic antigen. Based on an effective interaction between the CIR and the tumor antigen, we demonstrated that combining CIR-mediated activation with FACS sorting of CD69+ T cells, it is possible to isolate binders to tumor specific cell surface antigen, with an enrichment factor of at least 103-fold after two rounds, resulting in a homogeneous population of T cells expressing tumor-specific CIRs. PMID:19777065

  3. HTLV-1-infected thymic epithelial cells convey the virus to CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Barros, Luciana Rodrigues; Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Moreira-Ramos, Klaysa; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Machado Motta, Maria Cristina; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Savino, Wilson

    2017-08-14

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). CD4(+)T cells are the main target of HTLV-1, but other cell types are known to be infected, including immature lymphocytes. Developing T cells undergo differentiation in the thymus, through migration and interaction with the thymic microenvironment, in particular with thymic epithelial cells (TEC) the major component of this three dimensional meshwork of non-lymphoid cells. Herein, we show that TEC express the receptors for HTLV-1 and can be infected by this virus through cell-cell contact and by cell-free virus suspensions. The expression of anti-apoptosis, chemokine and adhesion molecules genes are altered in HTLV-1-infected TEC, although gene expression of antigen presentation molecules remained unchanged. Furthermore, HTLV-1-infected TEC transmitted the virus to a CD4(+) T cell line and to CD4(+) T cells from healthy donors, during in vitro cellular co-cultures. Altogether, our data point to the possibility that the human thymic epithelial cells play a role in the establishment and progression of HTLV-1 infection, functioning as a reservoir and transmitting the virus to maturing CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which in turn will cause disease in the periphery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Orchestrating Lymphocyte Polarity in Cognate Immune Cell–Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure established between different immune cells that fulfills several functions, including a role as a communication bridge. This intimate contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell promotes the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes involved in the contact. T-cell activation requires the specific triggering of the T-cell receptor (TCR), which promotes the activation of different signaling pathways inducing the polarization of the T cell. During this process, different adhesion and signaling receptors reorganize at specialized membrane domains, concomitantly to the polarization of the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, forming stable polarization platforms. The centrosome also moves toward the IS, driving the movement of different organelles, such as the biosynthetic, secretory, degrading machinery, and mitochondria, to sustain T-cell activation. A proper orchestration of all these events is essential for T-cell effector functions and the accomplishment of a complete immune response. PMID:27692176

  5. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. III. A marker defining a subpopulation of lymphocytes which cuts across the normal T-B-null classification.

    PubMed

    Zola, H; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Smart, I J; Thomas, M E

    1980-06-01

    A somatic cell hybrid line which secreted antibody reacting selectively with a proportion of the white cells in human blood was prepared. The hybridoma appeared to be monoclonal, and the antibody secreted stained 67% of the lymphocyte population in blood. It reacted less well with granulocytes and monocytes. The lymphocytes stained comprised 80% of the T cells and 50% of the B cells. The antibody showed no recognizable pattern in its reactivity with cell lines and leukaemic cells, although B cells tended to react less well than T cells, null cells, or myeloid leukaemic cells. The expression of the antigenic determinant is discussed in relation to the classification of leucocytes. This determinant and certain other markers exhibited differential expression on closely related cells, and yet were shared by more distantly related cells.

  6. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. III. A marker defining a subpopulation of lymphocytes which cuts across the normal T-B-null classification.

    PubMed Central

    Zola, H; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Smart, I J; Thomas, M E

    1980-01-01

    A somatic cell hybrid line which secreted antibody reacting selectively with a proportion of the white cells in human blood was prepared. The hybridoma appeared to be monoclonal, and the antibody secreted stained 67% of the lymphocyte population in blood. It reacted less well with granulocytes and monocytes. The lymphocytes stained comprised 80% of the T cells and 50% of the B cells. The antibody showed no recognizable pattern in its reactivity with cell lines and leukaemic cells, although B cells tended to react less well than T cells, null cells, or myeloid leukaemic cells. The expression of the antigenic determinant is discussed in relation to the classification of leucocytes. This determinant and certain other markers exhibited differential expression on closely related cells, and yet were shared by more distantly related cells. Images Figure 2 PMID:6157639

  7. Bovine lymphocytes: recognition of cells forming spontaneous (E) rosettes.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, D A; Stack, M J

    1977-01-01

    About 20% of thymus lymphocytes from neonatal calves formed spontaneous (E) rosettes with SRBCs in medium consisting of 50-100% foetal calf serum (FCS); other media were less satisfactory. FCS was necessary both to allow rosette formation to occur and to maintain stability of the rosettes once formed. Rosettes were stable at 0 degrees C but unstable at 18 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Dead thymus cell (sodium azide treated) did not form rosettes. Treatment of thymus cells with antiserum to bovine Ig-inhibited rosette formation, but this inhibition was considered non-specific since it also occurred with normal rabbit serum. Treatment of SRBCs with neuraminidase slightly enhanced rosette formation by thymus cells, but did not induce peripheral blood lymphocytes to form rosettes. Rosette formation did not occur under a variety of conditions with normal or neuraminidase-treated human, horse, pig, rabbit, guinea-pig, chicken or autologous RBCs. SRBC rosette forming cells were also found in lymph nodes (2-14%) and spleen (less than 5%), but rarely or never in peripheral blood and bone marrow of calves and adults. In foetuses at 80 days of gestation, 49% of thymus cells formed E rosettes. Foetal lymph node cells formed E rosettes at 160 days and spleen at 180 days. Cells with membrane-bound Ig were observed by IFT; their distribution did not coincide with the occurrence of E rosettes. E-rosette formation might be a marker for a subpopulation of bovine T cells. PMID:321167

  8. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate-activated CD56+ {gamma}{delta} T lymphocytes display potent antitumor activity toward human squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Alan A Z; Maniar, Amudhan; Cummings, Jean-Saville; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Schulze, Dan H; Gastman, Brian R; Pauza, C David; Strome, Scott E; Chapoval, Andrei I

    2008-07-01

    The expression of CD56, a natural killer cell-associated molecule, on alphabeta T lymphocytes correlates with their increased antitumor effector function. CD56 is also expressed on a subset of gammadelta T cells. However, antitumor effector functions of CD56(+) gammadelta T cells are poorly characterized. To investigate the potential effector role of CD56(+) gammadelta T cells in tumor killing, we used isopentenyl pyrophosphate and interleukin-2-expanded gammadelta T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors. Thirty to 70% of expanded gammadelta T cells express CD56 on their surface. Interestingly, although both CD56(+) and CD56(-) gammadelta T cells express comparable levels of receptors involved in the regulation of gammadelta T-cell cytotoxicity (e.g., NKG2D and CD94), only CD56(+) gammadelta T lymphocytes are capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma and other solid tumor cell lines. This effect is likely mediated by the enhanced release of cytolytic granules because CD56(+) gammadelta T lymphocytes expressed higher levels of CD107a compared with CD56(-) controls following exposure to tumor cell lines. Lysis of tumor cell lines is blocked by concanamycin A and a combination of anti-gammadelta T-cell receptor + anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody, suggesting that the lytic activity of CD56(+) gammadelta T cells involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly gammadelta T-cell receptor/NKG2D dependent. Importantly, CD56-expressing gammadelta T lymphocytes are resistant to Fas ligand and chemically induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that CD56(+) gammadelta T cells are potent antitumor effectors capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma and may play an important therapeutic role in patients with head and neck cancer and other malignancies.

  9. Morphologic studies of lymphocyte nuclei in follicular and diffuse mixed small- and large-cell (lymphocytic-histiocytic) lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dardick, I; Caldwell, D R; Moher, D; Jabi, M

    1988-08-01

    Twelve examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma (eight follicular, one follicular and diffuse, and three diffuse) were investigated morphometrically using plastic-embedded tissue in order to study nuclear characteristics of lymphocyte populations in this form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to test morphologic bases for current NHL classification systems. This study illustrates that there are many inaccuracies, illusions, and misconceptions in the morphologic criteria currently used to classify mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma. A principal finding was that lymphocyte nuclear profiles in mixed-cell lymphomas tend to be smaller in size (P less than .005) and more irregular in shape (P = .0001) than the morphologically similar counterparts in germinal centers of lymph nodes with reactive hyperplasia. Intercase comparison of mixed small- and large-cell lymphomas revealed a considerable range of mean nuclear area values, some of which were within the size range of normal, small lymphocytes. At the magnifications used for morphometric assessment, a high proportion of lymphocyte nuclear profiles had shallow invaginations, but only a limited number of profiles (4% to 14%) had deep (cleaved) indentations. Contrary to current definitions for this subtype of NHL, lymphocytes with "small" nuclei had the same proportion of the nuclear diameter occupied by nuclear invaginations as lymphocytes with "large" nuclei and, in fact, mean nuclear invagination depth was shallower in "small" nuclei than in "large" nuclei. Furthermore, regardless of whether it is nuclear area or shape that is evaluated, lymphocytes in mixed-cell lymphoma do not separate into two populations of small-cleaved and large noncleaved cells. Morphometry reveals that only four of the 12 examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma had a proportion of the lymphocytes in the size range of fully transformed germinal center lymphocytes that exceeded 25%, and none of the cases approached 50% even

  10. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W.

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Neoplastic cells obtained from Hodgkin's disease are potent stimulators of human primary mixed lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R I; Bostick-Bruton, F; Sauder, D N; Scala, G; Diehl, V

    1983-06-01

    Neoplastic cells obtained from the pleural effusion of a patient with Hodgkin's disease have been maintained in culture since 1978. These tumor cells have been shown to have the cytologic features, cytochemical staining, and cell surface markers of Reed-Sternberg cells. In this study we demonstrate that the cell line termed L428 is a potent stimulator of the primary human mixed lymphocyte reaction. Significant proliferation occurred when mononuclear leukocytes obtained from normal donors were stimulated with radiated L428 cells at responder:stimulator ratios varying from 200:1 to 20:1. Proliferative responses occurred between days 3 and 6 of the cultures with maximal proliferation on day 5. Under optimal culture conditions, mean net proliferative response of 14 normal donors was 51,000 +/- 10,600 dpm. The mixed lymphocyte response was totally blocked by concentrations of monoclonal anti-Ia antibody that had no effect on concanavalin A-induced proliferation. However, the mixed lymphocyte response was not blocked by an anti-K562 cell monoclonal antibody of the same immunoglobulin subclass that binds to the L428 cells. Antigen processing by responder monocytes or Ia-positive cells was not required for the MLC. When responder T cells from two normals were depleted of Ia-bearing cells and monocytes, the mixed lymphocyte reaction between the two normals was eliminated, yet the stimulation of each normal by the L428 cells was not reduced. The cells that proliferated in response to stimulation by the L428 cells were T cells, primarily of the helper subset. No IL 1 activity could be detected in concentrated supernatants of L428 cultures after stimulation of L428 cells by mitogens, phorbol esters, or muramyl dipeptide, or in the MLC. All of these cultures contain fetal calf serum. However, the L428 cells are capable of producing IL 1, because IL 1 was detected when the L428 cells were stimulated with LPS in the absence of fetal calf serum. These neoplastic cells, obtained

  12. Suppressor cell activity in a proliferative disorder of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kupa, A; Thomas, M E; Moore, H; Bradley, J; Zola, H; Hooper, M; Harding, P

    1981-06-01

    We report details of the immunological profile of a patient with the candidiasis endocrinopathy syndrome who has developed T-type chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The patient is anergic to a panel of delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, and has poor in vitro mitogenic responses, but B cell function in vivo is not impaired. Subsequent functional studies have revealed that cells from the patient have a significant suppressive effect in coculture (P less than 0.05) on the responses of healthy donor lymphocytes (NR) to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). A degree of selectivity for the suppressive effect is suggested by the lack of similar effects on coculture responses to the mitogens concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Mitomycin C treatment of the patient's cells reduced their suppressive activity but significant suppression was still observed in the majority of PHA cocultures. The suppressor activity required the presence of the patient's cells in cocultures, as no suppression was observed when the patient's serum or cell culture supernatant were included instead of the patient's cells in NR cultures.

  13. Synchronous metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma in a cervical lymph node: Case report of an unusual event.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Harim-Tavares; Benevenuto, Bruno-Augusto; Filho, Edson-Robles-Castilla; Altemani, Albina

    2015-12-01

    The synchronous occurrence of two different neoplasias is an uncommon event, which may arise between tumors originating in the same organ or in cancer-to-cancer metastasis. We report a rare case of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma associated with a cutaneous metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cervical lymph node. In the affected lymph node, it was observed an effacement of the normal architecture by neoplastic lymphocytes and it was noted the presence of neoplastic invasive epithelial islands. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that lymphocytic proliferation was positive for CD20, CD5, CD23 and Kappa, and negative for CD3, CD10, Cyclin D1 and Lambda. The morphological and immunohistochemical profile lead to a phenotype of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma. The epithelial cells were positive for CK5, thus rendering the diagnosis of synchronous metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Literature supports the poor prognosis in cases that present coexistence of squamous cell carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma. Thus, it is necessary to be aware about this unusual finding in order to provide specific treatment. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, small lymphocytic lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, metastasis.

  14. Reduced killer cell activity of lymphocytes from patients with asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, M; Kagamimori, S; Yokoyama, K; Okada, A

    1985-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities in 30 patients with asbestosis were investigated by examining the cytoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity by killer (K) cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes; the effects of interferon on NK activity was also examined. Fifteen men and 15 women (mean age 58; range 40-72) with asbestosis but who were free of complications such as tuberculosis, carcinoma, or steroid treatment were the subjects for study. There were nine cases of type 1, 19 cases of type 2, and two cases of type 3 disease as described in the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. They were all textile workers with a mean duration of 18 years (3-40 years) since first exposure to chrysotile. Controls matched for age and sex were selected from a population without occupational exposure to asbestos. The activity of the NK and K cells in patients with asbestosis was significantly lower than in the control group, but the populations of NK and K cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes were not significantly different in the two groups. An in vitro experiment showed that the increase in the cytotoxicity of the NK cell after treatment with interferon-alpha was significantly lower in the subjects than in the controls. These results indicate that one of the defence mechanisms in relation to cancer is deficient in patients with asbestosis. PMID:3978049

  15. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  16. Mitogenic stimulation of human lymphocytes mediated by a cell surface elastase.

    PubMed

    Packard, B Z; Mostowski, H S; Komoriya, A

    1995-10-19

    A ca. 45-kDa protein which was recently identified and purified to homogeneity from a solid tumor cell line as a T-cell mitogen was found to have significant sequence similarities with human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (EI) [1]. Since EI is a known substrate for elastase, a determination of whether a cell surface expressed elastase-like molecule might be the binding protein for this 45-kDa factor and mediate mitogenic signal transduction was undertaken. First, the surface of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, TIL 660, the indicator cell line used for the purification of this mitogen, was shown to stain positively with an anti-elastase antibody using flow cytofluorometry for quantitation. Then, after observing an inverse correlation between cell surface staining and the proliferative status of the TILs, behavior which might be expected of a growth factor receptor upon activation, mitogenic signal transduction was attempted through the elastase-like molecules of the lymphocytes' plasma membrane with the anti-elastase antibody in the role of mitogen. A greater than 4-fold mitogenic stimulation was observed when this antibody was covalently linked to latex beads; in contrast, addition of the soluble form of the same antibody did not result in any increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation into the cells' DNA. Hence, these data support induced clustering of an elastase-like molecule on the lymphocyte surface as a mediator of mitogenesis and suggest that the binding protein for mitogenic signal transduction induced by the 45-kDa protein, a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily of proteins, is a molecule with structure similar to a serine protease.

  17. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process. PMID:26265439

  18. TAP2-defective RMA-S cells present Sendai virus antigen to cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Glas, R; Momburg, F; Hämmerling, G J; Jondal, M; Ljunggren, H G

    1993-08-01

    The murine antigen-processing-defective mutant cell line RMA-S is leaky in the presentation of certain endogenously synthesized minor histocompatibility and viral antigens to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The viral antigens include influenza virus nucleoprotein, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) nucleocapsid and Rauscher murine leukemia virus (MuLV) antigen. Here we demonstrate Sendai virus antigen presentation by the HAM2 (murine TAP2, transporter associated with antigen presentation type 2)-defective RMA-S cell line and compare antigen presentation after restoration of the defect by murine TAP1/2 gene transfection. Kinetic studies revealed that RMA-S cells required 2-3 h longer incubation and approximately 10 times higher doses of Sendai virus to reach the same level of killing as the RMA parental line. After transfection of RMA-S cells with the murine TAP1/2 gene, Sendai virus antigen presentation was restored to levels of the RMA wild-type line with regard to time of virus infection and dose of virus needed for sensitizing target cells. The presentation of Sendai virus antigen in RMA-S cells was sensitive to brefeldin A (BFA), suggesting that the presentation was mediated via the endogenous pathway. Our findings confirmed leakiness of antigen presentation in RMA-S cells and extended it to Sendai virus. The results underscored the role for intact expression of the TAP 1/2 molecules for efficient MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation.

  19. Donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Luca; Sarina, Barbara; Bramanti, Stefania; Perseghin, Paolo; Mariotti, Jacopo; Morabito, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is considered the cornerstone in the treatment of several malignant and not malignant hematological diseases. However, relapse of hematological disease after allo-SCT is considered the most challenging point in the field. The risk can be reduced through optimal patients, donor and disease selection before allo-SCT, but harnessing donor immune system is an appealing way to treat or avoid disease relapse. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is a simple and effective therapy after allo-SCT. In this paper, the efficacy of DLI will be analyzed in different hematological diseases, focusing also on their therapeutic or pre-emptive use.

  20. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, Andy C; Bennett, Fiona L; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Kwok, Marwan; Fenton, James A L; Plummer, Marieth; de Tute, Ruth; Owen, Roger G; Richards, Stephen J; Jack, Andrew S; Hillmen, Peter

    2008-08-07

    A diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requires a count of over 5000 circulating CLL-phenotype cells per cubic millimeter. Asymptomatic persons with fewer CLL-phenotype cells have monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). The goal of this study was to investigate the relation between MBL and CLL. We investigated 1520 subjects who were 62 to 80 years of age with a normal blood count and 2228 subjects with lymphocytosis (>4000 lymphocytes per cubic millimeter) for the presence of MBL, using flow cytometry. Monoclonal B cells were further characterized by means of cytogenetic and molecular analyses. A representative cohort of 185 subjects with CLL-phenotype MBL and lymphocytosis were monitored for a median of 6.7 years (range, 0.2 to 11.8). Monoclonal CLL-phenotype B cells were detected in 5.1% of subjects (78 of 1520) with a normal blood count and 13.9% (309 of 2228) with lymphocytosis. CLL-phenotype MBL had a frequency of 13q14 deletion and trisomy 12 similar to that of CLL and showed a skewed repertoire of the immunoglobulin heavy variable group (IGHV) genes. Among 185 subjects presenting with lymphocytosis, progressive lymphocytosis occurred in 51 (28%), progressive CLL developed in 28 (15%), and chemotherapy was required in 13 (7%). The absolute B-cell count was the only independent prognostic factor associated with progressive lymphocytosis. During follow-up over a median of 6.7 years, 34% of subjects (62 of 185) died, but only 4 of these deaths were due to CLL. Age above 68 years and hemoglobin level below 12.5 g per deciliter were the only independent prognostic factors for death. The CLL-phenotype cells found in the general population and in subjects with lymphocytosis have features in common with CLL cells. CLL requiring treatment develops in subjects with CLL-phenotype MBL and with lymphocytosis at the rate of 1.1% per year. 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  1. Functional invariant natural killer T-cell and CD1d axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Weinkove, Robert; Brooks, Collin R; Carter, John M; Hermans, Ian F; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-03-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipid antigens such as α-galactosylceramide presented by CD1d. In preclinical models of B-cell malignancies, α-galactosylceramide is an adjuvant to tumor vaccination, enhancing tumor-specific T-cell responses and prolonging survival. However, numerical and functional invariant natural killer T-cell defects exist in patients with some cancers. Our aim was to assess this axis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The numbers of circulating invariant natural killer T cells and the expression of CD1d on antigen-presenting cells were evaluated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and age-matched controls. Cytokine profile and in vitro proliferative capacity were determined. Patient- and control-derived invariant natural killer T-cell lines were generated and characterized, and allogeneic and autologous responses to α-galactosylce-ramide-treated leukemia cells were assessed. Absolute numbers and phenotype of invariant natural killer T cells were normal in patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and cytokine profile and proliferative capacity were intact. Chemotherapy-treated patients had reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T cells and myeloid dendritic cells, but α-galactosylceramide-induced proliferation was preserved. Invariant natural killer T-cell lines from patients lysed CD1d-expressing targets. Irradiated α-galactosylceramide-treated leukemic cells elicited allogeneic and autologous invariant natural killer T-cell proliferation, and α-galactosylceramide treatment led to increased proliferation of conventional T cells in response to tumor. In conclusion, the invariant natural killer T-cell and CD1d axis is fundamentally intact in patients with early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia and, despite reduced circulating numbers, function is retained in fludarabine-treated patients. Immunotherapies exploiting the adjuvant effect of α-galactosylceramide may be feasible.

  2. Gravity effect on lymphocyte deformation through cell shape change.

    PubMed

    Hung, R J; Tsao, Y D; Spauling, G F

    1995-01-01

    The effects on human cells (lymphocyte) immersed in a culture liquid under microgravity environment has been investigated. The study was based on the numerical simulation of the Morphology of human cells affected by the time dependent variation of gravity acceleration ranging from 10(-3) to 2 g(o) (g(o) = 9.81 m/s2) in 15 s. Both the free floating cells and the cells which came into contact with the upper and lower inclined walls imposed by the time-dependent reduced gravity acceleration were considered in this study. The results show that, when the gravity acceleration increased, the cell morphology changed from spherical to horizontally elongated ellipsoid for both the free floating cells and the stationary cells on the lower inclined wall while the cell morphology varied from spherical to vertically-elongated ellipsoid for the cells hanging on the upper inclined wall. A test of the deformation of human cells exposed to the variation of gravity levels, carried out in the KC-135 free fall aircraft, show that the results of experimental observations agree exactly with the theoretical model computation described in this paper. These results will be useful for study of the behavior and morphology of cells in space.

  3. Capacity of tumor necrosis factor to augment lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis of malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.V.; Manning, L.S.; Davis, M.R.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) was evaluated both for direct anti-tumor action against human malignant mesothelioma and for its capacity to augment the generation and lytic phases of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against this tumor. rHuTNF was directly toxic by MTT assay to one of two mesothelioma cell lines evaluated, but had no effect on susceptibility to subsequent lymphocyte-mediated lysis of either line. TNF alone was incapable of generating anti-mesothelioma lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity. Furthermore, it did not augment the degree or LAK activity produced by submaximal interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations nor did it augment lysis of mesothelioma cells by natural killer (NK) or LAK effector cells during the 4-hr 51chromium release cytolytic reaction. The studies also suggest that mesothelioma targets are less responsive to TNF plus submaximal IL-2 concentrations than the standard LAK sensitive target Daudi, raising the possibility that intermediate LAK sensitive tumors such as mesothelioma may require separate and specific evaluation in immunomodulation studies. This in vitro study indicates that use of low-dose rHuTNF and IL-2 is unlikely to be an effective substitute for high-dose IL-2 in generation and maintenance of LAK activity in adoptive immunotherapy for mesothelioma.

  4. Small B cell lymphocytic lymphoma presenting as obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Yung-An; Cheng, Yuan-Kai; Lin, Chia-Der; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui

    2004-07-29

    Most lymphomas that involve the tonsil are large B cell lymphomas. Large B-cell lymphoma is a high grade malignancy which progresses rapidly. Tonsillar lymphoma usually presents as either a unilaterally enlarged palatine tonsil or as an ulcerative and fungating lesion over the tonsillar area. Small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLL) of the Waldeyer's ring are uncommon. We report a 41-year-old male who presented with a ten-year history of snoring. Physical examination revealed smooth bilateral symmetrically enlarged tonsils without abnormal surface change or cervical lymphadenopathy. Palatal redundancy and a narrowed oropharyngeal airway were also noted. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 66 per hour, and severe obstruction sleep apnea (OSA) was suspected. No B symptoms, sore throat, odynophagia or dysphagia was found. We performed uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and pathological examination revealed incidental small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). It is uncommon for lymphoma to initially present as OSA. SLL is an indolent malignancy and is not easy to detect in the early stage. We conclude that SLL may be a contributing factor of OSA in the present case.

  5. Small B cell lymphocytic lymphoma presenting as obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yung-An; Cheng, Yuan-Kai; Lin, Chia-Der; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui

    2004-01-01

    Background Most lymphomas that involve the tonsil are large B cell lymphomas. Large B-cell lymphoma is a high grade malignancy which progresses rapidly. Tonsillar lymphoma usually presents as either a unilaterally enlarged palatine tonsil or as an ulcerative and fungating lesion over the tonsillar area. Small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLL) of the Waldeyer's ring are uncommon. Case presentation We report a 41-year-old male who presented with a ten-year history of snoring. Physical examination revealed smooth bilateral symmetrically enlarged tonsils without abnormal surface change or cervical lymphadenopathy. Palatal redundancy and a narrowed oropharyngeal airway were also noted. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 66 per hour, and severe obstruction sleep apnea (OSA) was suspected. No B symptoms, sore throat, odynophagia or dysphagia was found. We performed uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and pathological examination revealed incidental small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Conclusion It is uncommon for lymphoma to initially present as OSA. SLL is an indolent malignancy and is not easy to detect in the early stage. We conclude that SLL may be a contributing factor of OSA in the present case. PMID:15282026

  6. Apoptotic lymphocytes induce progenitor cell mobilization after exercise.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    There is evidence that apoptotic cells and their components have immunmodulatory properties and signaling function. The present study investigated first whether exercise-induced apoptosis and exercise-induced mobilization of progenitor cells are similarly affected by subjects' training status and, second, whether the appearance of dying cells in the circulation might mobilize progenitor cells. CD1 SWISS mice were subjected to a 10-wk endurance training using free wheel running or served as untrained controls. Mice of both groups performed an intensive exercise test after the training period at a velocity corresponding to 80% maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min. Cells from blood and bone marrow were analyzed, and apoptosis and number of progenitor cells determined via flow cytometry. In a second experiment, apoptotic cells were transferred into recipient mice, and mobilization of progenitor cells was analyzed while vital cells served as controls. In untrained animals, the exhaustive exercise was followed by an enhanced rate of annexin V positive CD3(+) cells in blood and bone marrow (P < 0.05), whereas no increase was found in trained mice. Similarly, exercise mobilized Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) and Sca-1(+)/Flk(+) cells in untrained (P < 0.05) but not trained mice. Furthermore, application of apoptotic cells and their supernatant mobilized Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) cells into the blood (P < 0.05), whereas Sca-1(+)/Flk(+) cells were not affected. The present study demonstrated that both lymphocyte apoptosis, as well as mobilization of progenitor cells are similarly related to training status. Furthermore, apoptotic cells seem to induce signals that effectively mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells. The relevance of this effect for the adaptation to exercise stimuli remains to be shown. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Hodgkin's disease cell lines: a model for interleukin-1-independent accessory cell function.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, J L; Egner, W; Calder, V L; Hart, D N

    1992-11-01

    The haemopoietic origins of the Hodgkin's disease (HD)-derived cell lines L428, KM-H2 and HDLM-2 remain controversial. Analysis of T-cell receptor (TcR) and Ig rearrangements cannot resolve this, and lineage promiscuity limits the interpretation of isolated surface antigen expression. Nonetheless the cell marker profile of L428 has similarities with human dendritic cells (DC), and L428 strongly stimulates in the mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR). We therefore undertook an extended immunophenotypic comparison of the HD lines with that recently defined for DC, prior to examining their ability to stimulate allogenic T lymphocytes, and comparing the molecular interactions involved with those of primary MLR stimulatory cells. The immunophenotype of the HD lines failed to establish either a lymphoid or monocytoid derivation. The profile of L428 appeared similar to the human DC. All three lines were potent stimulators in the primary MLR, and each expressed relevant adhesion and signal-transducing molecules important for co-stimulating T lymphocytes. Inhibition studies using monoclonal antibodies indicated similar contributions within HD line-T cell MLR to that documented in human tonsil DC-T cell MLR. The HD lines produced no detectable interleukin-1 (IL-1) by biological or immunological analysis. Moreover they stimulated allogeneic T lymphocytes in the presence of anti-IL-1 antibodies. Thus although IL-1 mRNA can be detected in both HDLM-2 and KM-H2 by polymerase chain reaction, these lines, and L428, share with DC the ability to stimulate allogeneic T lymphocytes in an IL-1-independent manner [corrected]. HD lines, particularly L428, may provide a standardized, reproducible, IL-1-independent model for dissection of the co-stimulatory requirements of the human primary MLR.

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Primary Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Emmanuel; Tournilhac, Olivier; Halty, Christelle; Veyrat-Masson, Richard; Akil, Saïda; Berger, Marc; Hérault, Olivier; Callanan, Mary; Bay, Jacques-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disorder with an increased infectious risk remaining one of the main causes of death. Development of therapies with higher safety profile is thus a challenging issue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) is an omega-3 fatty acid, a natural compound of normal cells, and has been shown to display antitumor potency in cancer. We evaluated the potential in vitro effect of DHA in primary CLL cells. DHA induces high level of in vitro apoptosis compared to oleic acid in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Estimation of IC50 was only of 4.813 µM, which appears lower than those reported in solid cancers. DHA is highly active on CLL cells in vitro. This observation provides a rationale for further studies aiming to understand its mechanisms of action and its potent in vivo activity. PMID:26734128

  9. Small lymphocytic lymphoma with Reed Sternberg cells: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pervez, S; Abro, B; Shahbaz, H

    2017-02-14

    Reed Sternberg (RS) cells in the setting of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) can complicate the histopathological diagnosis. We report a case of a man aged 54 years who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Resection of the lymph node was performed and sent for histopathological evaluation to a local laboratory. A diagnosis of SLL with Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) was made. The medical oncologist who encountered this diagnosis for the first time sent the biopsy blocks to our laboratory for a second opinion. On review of the biopsy and immunohistochemical stains, it showed typical SLL morphology and immunophenotype. Focally, it showed large mononuclear RS type cells; however, no typical background of CHL was seen. The diagnosis was revised to 'SLL with RS like cells with no convincing evidence of CHL'. The patient was subsequently treated as a case of SLL and no progression was observed on a follow-up of 5 years. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. The role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature auto-reactive B cells. Genetic and functional studies implicate B-cell receptor signaling as a pivotal pathway in its pathogenesis. Full B-cell receptor activation requires tumor-microenvironment interactions in lymphoid tissues. Spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) δ isoform are essential for B-cell receptor signal transduction but also mediate the effect of other pathways engaged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tissue-microenvironment. Orally bioavailable inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, or PI3Kδ, induce high rates of durable responses. Ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, have obtained regulatory approval in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are active in patients with high-risk features, achieving superior disease control in difficult-to-treat patients than prior best therapy, making them the preferred agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with TP53 aberrations and for patients resistant to chemoimmunotherapy. In randomized trials, both ibrutinib, versus ofatumumab, and idelalisib in combination with rituximab, versus placebo with rituximab improved survival in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Responses to B-cell receptor inhibitors are mostly partial, and within clinical trials treatment is continued until progression or occurrence of intolerable side effects. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are, overall, well tolerated; notable adverse events include increased bruising and incidence of atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib and colitis, pneumonitis and transaminase elevations on idelalisib. Randomized trials investigate the role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in first-line therapy and the benefit of combinations. This review discusses the biological basis for targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic

  11. The role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature auto-reactive B cells. Genetic and functional studies implicate B-cell receptor signaling as a pivotal pathway in its pathogenesis. Full B-cell receptor activation requires tumor-microenvironment interactions in lymphoid tissues. Spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) δ isoform are essential for B-cell receptor signal transduction but also mediate the effect of other pathways engaged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tissue-microenvironment. Orally bioavailable inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, or PI3Kδ, induce high rates of durable responses. Ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, have obtained regulatory approval in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are active in patients with high-risk features, achieving superior disease control in difficult-to-treat patients than prior best therapy, making them the preferred agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with TP53 aberrations and for patients resistant to chemoimmunotherapy. In randomized trials, both ibrutinib, versus ofatumumab, and idelalisib in combination with rituximab, versus placebo with rituximab improved survival in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Responses to B-cell receptor inhibitors are mostly partial, and within clinical trials treatment is continued until progression or occurrence of intolerable side effects. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are, overall, well tolerated; notable adverse events include increased bruising and incidence of atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib and colitis, pneumonitis and transaminase elevations on idelalisib. Randomized trials investigate the role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in first-line therapy and the benefit of combinations. This review discusses the biological basis for targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic

  12. Expression of transcripts for two interleukin 8 receptors in human phagocytes, lymphocytes and melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, B; Barella, L; Mattei, S; Schumacher, C; Boulay, F; Colombo, M P; Baggiolini, M

    1993-01-01

    Two cDNAs coding for distinct interleukin 8 (IL-8) receptors, IL-8R1 [Murphy and Tiffany (1991) Science 253, 1280-1283] and IL-8R2 [Holmes, Lee, Kuang, Rice and Wood (1991) Science 253, 1278-1280] have been reported, and biochemical studies on human neutrophils have revealed two proteins (p70 and p44) that bind IL-8 with high affinity [Moser, Schumacher, von Tscharner, Clark-Lewis and Baggiolini (1991), J. Biol. Chem. 266, 10666-10671]. We have cloned the cDNA coding for IL-8R1 from a library of differentiated HL-60 cells. Transfection of this cDNA into Jurkat cells resulted in the expression of high-affinity binding for IL-8 and two related cytokines, GRO alpha and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 (Kd 0.5-1.0 nM). Northern-blot analysis with the IL-8R1 cDNA as probe revealed abundant expression of transcripts of different size in human neutrophils and low-level expression of a single RNA species in HL-60 cells differentiated with dimethyl sulphoxide and retinoic acid. Because of the extensive nucleotide sequence similarity of the cDNAs for IL-8R1 and IL-8R2, the reverse-transcription PCR method was used for analysis of RNA expression in myeloid and lymphoid cells, 19 cell lines established from human primary melanomas or metastases, two melanocyte and one fibroblast cell lines. IL-8R1 mRNA transcripts were expressed at high levels in neutrophils, and to a lesser extent in blood monocytes and the myeloid cell lines, HL-60 and AML 193, but were not found in THP-1 cells, lymphocytes and Jurkat cells. IL-8R2 mRNA transcripts, by contrast, were found in all blood cells and related cell lines, as well as in all melanoma, melanocyte and fibroblast cell lines tested. As for IL-8R1, IL-8R2 mRNA expression was highest in neutrophils. These results suggest that IL-8R1 and IL-8R2 may both be involved in neutrophil activation by IL-8 and related cytokines, and presumably correspond to p70 and p44, the receptors that were identified biochemically. Possible IL-8 functions on

  13. Modulation of MUC1 mucin as an escape mechanism of breast cancer cells from autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kontani, K; Taguchi, O; Narita, T; Izawa, M; Hiraiwa, N; Zenita, K; Takeuchi, T; Murai, H; Miura, S; Kannagi, R

    2001-01-01

    MUC1 mucin is known to serve as a target molecule in the killing of breast cancer cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). We searched for a possible mechanism allowing tumour cells to escape from autologous CTLs. When the killing of breast cancer cells by autologous lymphocytes was examined in 26 patients with breast cancer, significant tumour cell lysis was observed in 8 patients, whereas virtually no autologous tumour cell lysis was detected in as many as 18 patients. In the patients who showed negligible tumour cell lysis, the autologous tumour cells expressed MUC1-related antigenic epitopes much more weakly than the tumour cells in the patients who exhibited strong cytotoxicity (significant statistically at P< 0.0005–0.0045), suggesting that the unresponsiveness of cancer cells to CTLs observed in these patients was mainly due to loss of MUC1 expression or modulation of its antigenicity. A breast cancer cell line, NZK-1, established from one of the cytotoxicity-negative patients, did not express MUC1 and was resistant to killing by CTLs, while control breast cancer cell lines expressing MUC-1 were readily killed by CTLs. Transfection of NZK-1 cells with MUC1 cDNA induced significant lysis by autologous T-lymphocytes. These results supported the importance of MUC1 mucin in autologous anti-tumour immunity, but suggested that the major escape mechanism of tumour cells from autologous T-lymphocytes is the loss and/or modulation of MUC1 antigenicity on tumour cells, which would limit the effectiveness of possible immunotherapy designed to target the MUC1 mucin. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11336479

  14. Induction of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by T-cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Rozenszajn, L A; Muellenberg-Coulombre, C; Gery, I; el-Saied, M; Kuwabara, T; Mochizuki, M; Lando, Z; Nussenblatt, R B

    1986-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis was induced in genetically susceptible Lewis rats by passive transfer of T-lymphocyte cell lines from long-term cultures primed against soluble retinal antigen (S-Ag). A continuous T-cell line was established from non-adherent lymph node cells of S-Ag-immunized Lewis rats. The lymphoid cells were propagated in vitro by serially restimulating them with S-Ag in the presence of irradiated syngeneic spleen cells and expanding them in IL-2-containing media. The cell lines exhibited markers specific for T lymphocytes and the majority had the helper phenotype. When naïve rats were inoculated intravenously with anti S-Ag T-cell lines re-exposed to the antigen prior to injection, they developed uveoretinitis with both clinical and histological characteristics in half the time required by S-Ag to induce the disease by active immunization. The rats exhibited a delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction towards S-Ag. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3485569

  15. T lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against autologous EBV-genome-bearing B cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, C D; Fox, R I; Slovin, S F; Carson, D A; Pellegrino, M; Fong, S; Pasquali, J L; Ferrone, S; Kung, P; Vaughan, J H

    1981-05-01

    We have stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro with autologous EBV-infected or noninfected B cells. A cytotoxic response was obtained only when virally infected cells were used. The activity of the effector cells was restricted by the major histocompatibility complex and was directed against EBV-genome-bearing targets. The highest cytolytic response was obtained when lymphocytes of individuals previously exposed to the virus (EBV-VCA positive) were used. Lymphocytes of noninfected donors (EBV-VCA negative) gave a low response; the relative frequency of their effector cells was at least 4-fold lower. Lymphocytes of newborns did not respond. The cytotoxic activity was mediated by T lymphocytes of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset, as determined by cytofluorographic analysis and antibody plus complement-mediated lysis, using monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte surface antigen.

  16. The kinematics of cytotoxic lymphocytes influence their ability to kill target cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Purnima; Leggatt, Graham; Matthaei, Klaus I; Frazer, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) have been reported to show a range of motility patterns from rapid long-range tracking to complete arrest, but how and whether these kinematics affect their ability to kill target cells is not known. Many in vitro killing assays utilize cell lines and tumour-derived cells as targets, which may be of limited relevance to the kinetics of CTL-mediated killing of somatic cells. Here, live-cell microscopy is used to examine the interactions of CTL and primary murine skin cells presenting antigens. We developed a qualitative and quantitative killing assay using extended-duration fluorescence time-lapse microscopy coupled with large-volume objective software-based data analysis to obtain population data of cell-to-cell interactions, motility and apoptosis. In vivo and ex vivo activated antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes were added to primary keratinocyte targets in culture with fluorometric detection of caspase-3 activation in targets as an objective determinant of apoptosis. We found that activated CTL achieved contact-dependent apoptosis of non-tumour targets after a period of prolonged attachment - on average 21 hours - which was determined by target cell type, amount of antigen, and activation status of CTL. Activation of CTL even without engagement of the T cell receptor was sufficient to mobilise cells significantly above baseline, while the addition of cognate antigen further enhanced their motility. Highly activated CTL showed markedly increased vector displacement, and velocity, and lead to increased antigen-specific target cell death. These data show that the inherent kinematics of CTL correlate directly with their ability to kill non-tumour cells presenting cognate antigen.

  17. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  18. The planar cell polarity pathway drives pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by the regulation of B-lymphocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Kaucká, Markéta; Plevová, Karla; Pavlová, Sárka; Janovská, Pavlína; Mishra, Archana; Verner, Jan; Procházková, Jirina; Krejcí, Pavel; Kotasková, Jana; Ovesná, Petra; Tichy, Boris; Brychtová, Yvona; Doubek, Michael; Kozubík, Alois; Mayer, Jirí; Pospísilová, Sárka; Bryja, Vítezslav

    2013-03-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a conserved pathway that regulates cell migration and polarity in various contexts. Here we show that key PCP pathway components such as Vangl2, Celsr1, Prickle1, FZD3, FZD7, Dvl2, Dvl3, and casein kinase 1 (CK1)-ε are upregulated in B lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Elevated levels of PCP proteins accumulate in advanced stages of the disease. Here, we show that PCP pathway is required for the migration and transendothelial invasion of CLL cells and that patients with high expression of PCP genes, FZD3, FZD7, and PRICKLE1, have a less favorable clinical prognosis. Our findings establish that the PCP pathway acts as an important regulator of CLL cell migration and invasion. PCP proteins represent an important class of molecules regulating pathogenic interaction of CLL cells with their microenvironment.

  19. Cell Entry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Is Restricted In Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Urata, Shuzo; Cho, Yoshitake; Ngo, Nhi; de la Torre, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    In mice persistently infected since birth with the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis viurs, viral antigen and RNA are readily detected in most organs and cell types but remarkably absent in skeletal muscle. Here we report that mouse C2C12 myoblasts that are readily infected by LCMV, become highly refractory to LCMV infection upon their differentiation into myotubes. Myotube’s resistance to LCMV was not due to an intracellular restriction of virus replication but rather an impaired cell entry mediated by the LCMV surface glycoprotein. Our findings provide an explanation for the observation that in LCMV carrier mice myotubes, which are constantly exposed to blood-containing virus, remain free of viral antigen and RNA despite myotubes express high levels of the LCMV receptor alpha dystroglycan and do not pose an intracellular blockade to LCMV multiplication. PMID:24928036

  20. Proliferative response of lymphocyte subpopulations differing in avidity for sheep red blood cells after stimulation with normal allogeneic and tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Matera, L; Potter, M R; Moore, M

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytes from normal donors were cultured with cell lines of erythroid (K562) and lymphoid (Bri8) origin, fresh cells derived from chronic myeloid leukaemia patients (FLC), T-depleted normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and normal bone marrow cells (NBMC). The proliferative response to these stimulator cells was evaluated in both the total lymphocyte population and in subpopulations with different affinity receptors for sheep red blood cells (SRBC), on the second, fourth and sixth days of culture. No DNA synthesis was induced by the K562 cell line, while Bri8 cells induced a proliferative response greater than that observed against PBL. No differences in the DNA synthesis pattern were observed when NBMC and FLC were used as stimulators which was comparable with that for PBL. There was a correlation between the degree of activation of the culture and the changes in size of the responding SRBC binding cell population (ET+). A progressive increase with duration of the cultures in the number of SRBC high avidity cells (EH+) and a parallel contraction of the SRBC low avidity (EL+) and E- cell populations was generally observed, so that EH+ and ET+ fractions gave similar values at the later time points. The analysis of [3H]-thymidine uptake of E+ and E- fractions on days 3 and 6, in FLC and NBMC-stimulated lymphocytes showed a prevalent involvement of E- cells on day 3, while on day 6 the majority of dividing cells belonged to the E+ compartment. A higher recruitment of E- cells in the early phase of the response was observed in FLC-stimulated lymphocytes. The participation of non-T cell populations in the proliferative response against allogeneic normal and tumour antigens is discussed. PMID:6947964

  1. Idelalisib given front-line for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia causes frequent immune-mediated hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lampson, Benjamin L; Kasar, Siddha N; Matos, Tiago R; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Rassenti, Laura; Davids, Matthew S; Fisher, David C; Freedman, Arnold S; Jacobson, Caron A; Armand, Philippe; Abramson, Jeremy S; Arnason, Jon E; Kipps, Thomas J; Fein, Joshua; Fernandes, Stacey; Hanna, John; Ritz, Jerome; Kim, Haesook T; Brown, Jennifer R

    2016-07-14

    Idelalisib is a small-molecule inhibitor of PI3Kδ with demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate idelalisib as front-line therapy, we enrolled 24 subjects in a phase 2 study consisting of 2 months of idelalisib monotherapy followed by 6 months of combination therapy with idelalisib and the anti-CD20 antibody ofatumumab. After a median follow-up period of 14.7 months, hepatotoxicity was found to be a frequent and often severe adverse event. A total of 19 subjects (79%) experienced either grade ≥1 ALT or AST elevation during the study, and 13 subjects (54%) experienced grade ≥3 transaminitis. The median time to development of transaminitis was 28 days, occurring before ofatumumab introduction. Younger age and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain status were significant risk factors for the development of hepatotoxicity. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that this hepatotoxicity was immune mediated. A lymphocytic infiltrate was seen on liver biopsy specimens taken from 2 subjects with transaminitis, and levels of the proinflammatory cytokines CCL-3 and CCL-4 were higher in subjects experiencing hepatotoxicity. All cases of transaminitis resolved either by holding the drug, initiating immunosuppressants, or both, and rates of recurrent toxicity were lower in patients taking steroids when idelalisib was reinitiated. A decrease in peripheral blood regulatory T cells was seen in patients experiencing toxicity on therapy, which is consistent with an immune-mediated mechanism. These results suggest that caution should be taken as drugs within this class are developed for CLL, particularly in younger patients who have not received prior disease-specific therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02135133.

  2. Production of monoclonal antibody recognizing a subpopulation of human B lymphocytes producing B cell growth factor (BCGF)

    SciTech Connect

    Witzel, N.; Ambrus, J.L. Jr.; Jurgensen, C.H.; Mostowski, H.; Fauci, A.S.

    1986-03-05

    Several laboratories have recently reported production of B cell growth factors (BCGF) by a variety of human B cell lines. The authors have described production of BCGF by clones of B cell lymphoma lines and by normal Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I-activated B cells. To further evaluate whether BCGF production was the function of particular subpopulations of B cells, they immunized mice with the BCGF producing line Namalva and then developed a panel of hybridomas. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for binding to Namalva and the absence of binding to a non-BCGF producing B cell line. One monoclonal antibody, NN4, which met these criteria was also noted by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to stain clones from a B cell lymphoma line producing BCGF but not clones from the same line which do not produce BCGF. The monoclonal antibody did not stain T cells or monocytes but stained 1-5% of normal human B lymphocytes from peripheral blood or tonsils. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled NN4 to NN4/sup +/ B cells was not affected by the presence of BCGF. Therefore, NN4 recognizes a unique antigen present on B cell lines which produces BCGF; studies are in progress to determine the significance of this antigen on normal B cells.

  3. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  4. Studies on the cytotoxicity of diamond nanoparticles against human cancer cells and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Adach, Kinga; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Gajek, Gabriela; Skolimowski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Blaszczyk, Alina

    2016-07-25

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DND) are a widely studied group of carbon nanomaterials. They have the ability to adsorb a variety of biomolecules and drugs onto their surfaces, and additionally their surfaces may be subjected to chemical functionalization by covalent bonds. We present a procedure for the purification and surface oxidation of diamond nanoparticles, which were then tested by spectroscopic analysis such as ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. We also examined the zeta potential of the tested material. Analysis of the cytotoxic effect of nanodiamonds against normal lymphocytes derived from human peripheral blood, the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) was performed using MTT colorimetric assay. Evaluation of cell viability was performed after 1-h and 24-h treatment with the tested nanoparticles applied at concentrations ranging from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. We found that the survival of the examined cells was strongly associated with the presence of serum proteins in the growth medium. The incubation of cells with nanodiamonds in the presence of serum did not exert a significant effect on cell survival, while the cell treatment in a serum-free medium resulted in a decrease in cell survival compared to the negative control. The role of purification and functionalization of nanodiamonds on their cytotoxicity was also demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Idelalisib therapy of indolent B-cell malignancies: chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic or follicular lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Madanat, Yazan F; Smith, Mitchell R; Almasan, Alexandru; Hill, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma are indolent B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that mainly affect an older population. Although the majority of patients in need of treatment derive significant benefit from conventional chemotherapeutic agents as well as monoclonal antibodies, less toxic and more effective treatments are needed. Novel agents that inhibit the B-cell receptor signaling pathway have shown promising outcomes in these disorders. Idelalisib is a potent selective oral inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta and has shown significant clinical activity in B-cell malignancies. In this review, we summarize the clinical trial data using idelalisib as monotherapy or in combination with rituximab for the treatment of relapsed/refractory disease. The adverse effect profile includes autoimmune disorders such as transaminitis, colitis, and pneumonitis. Given the efficacy and manageable toxicity profile of idelalisib, it is being increasingly incorporated into the management of indolent B-cell malignancies. PMID:27375364

  6. Surveillance of human mitral valve cells by autochthonous lymphocytes, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Algard, F T; Van Netten, J P; Montessori, G A; Tan, W C

    1980-12-01

    Analysis of a time-lapse film of cultured human mitral valve endothelium containing autochthonous lymphocytes reveals details of a pattern of interaction suggesting a previously undescribed type of cellular surveillance. Highly mobile lymphocytes rapidly approach individual endothelial cells, slowly circumnavigate the nuclear region, and rapidly move away to repeat this behavior on adjacent cells during the 1-month culture period.

  7. [Molecular mechanisms underlying cell adhesion--molecules mediating lymphocyte migration].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, M

    2000-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play crucial roles in a variety of in vivo responses such as development of various tissues in embryos and also in the body defence mechanism in the postnatal period. Defects in adhesion molecules thus result in various pathological disorders. Recent investigation has identified a large number of novel adhesion molecules, particularly those involved in the extravasation of leukocytes including lymphocytes. However, there still appears to be a substantial number of unidentified adhesion molecules. In addition, signal transduction as well as regulatory mechanisms of adhesion molecules remain not fully explored. I will herein describe general characteristics of adhesion molecules and also discuss issues that need to be urgently resolved in the field of cell adhesion.

  8. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Modeling cancer immunotherapy: Assessing the effects of lymphocytes on cancer cell growth and motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, R. A.; Zapata, Jair; Condat, C. A.; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2013-05-01

    A mesoscopic model is used to describe the effects of lymphocyte activity on a growing tumor. The model yields novel insights into the tumor-immune system interaction. In particular, we found that the presence of a putative chemotactic messenger that helps guide the lymphocytes towards the tumor is not critical to elicit the anti-tumor effects of the immune system, while lymphocytes that block tumor cell migration contribute to limit cancer expansion and thus have a more significant therapeutic impact.

  10. Quantitating lymphocyte programmed cell death in vitro using simple kill assays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death is essential to maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis during the contraction phase of the immune response. Activated lymphocytes become susceptible to a variety of programmed cell death (PCD) stimuli over the course of a typical immune response. This chapter outlines two simple approaches for measuring programmed cell death of lymphocytes cultured in vitro, regardless of the stimulus provided. These techniques exploit changes in plasma membrane integrity and/or mitochondrial membrane potential that are characteristic of cells undergoing PCD. The detection methods discussed are generally applicable for assessing cell death in several contexts, expanded upon in further detail in subsequent chapters.

  11. Effect of adrenalectomy on recipients of allogeneic lymphocytes on inactivation of endogenous colony-forming cells in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Semenkov, V.F.

    1985-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the killer functions of lymph node cells directed against endogenous colony-forming cells in adrenalectomized recipients in a genetic system with one-way incompatibility: parental line - F/sub 1/ hybrid. Mice were irradiated with Co 60 gamma rays on the EGO-2 apparatus with dose rate from 200 to 250 R/min. The results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test. It can be tentatively suggested that the killer action of T lymphocytes on endogenous colonies was intensified in adrenal-ectomized recipients with endogenous hypocorticism, as a result of cooperation with the cortisol-sensitive subpopulation of T helper cells, of a change in the properties of the antigen-recognizing receptors, or an increase in the sensitivity of target cells to the killer action of T lymphocytes.

  12. B Lymphocyte Chemotaxis Regulated in Association with Microanatomic Localization, Differentiation State, and B Cell Receptor Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Bleul, Conrad C.; Schultze, Joachim L.; Springer, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    Migration of mature B lymphocytes within secondary lymphoid organs and recirculation between these sites are thought to allow B cells to obtain T cell help, to undergo somatic hypermutation, to differentiate into effector cells, and to home to sites of antibody production. The mechanisms that direct migration of B lymphocytes are unknown, but there is evidence that G protein–coupled receptors, and possibly chemokine receptors, may be involved. Stromal cell– derived factor (SDF)-1α is a CXC chemokine previously characterized as an efficacious chemoattractant for T lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood. Here we show with purified tonsillar B cells that SDF-1α also attracts naive and memory, but not germinal center (GC) B lymphocytes. Furthermore, GC B cells could be converted to respond to SDF-1α by in vitro differentiation into memory B lymphocytes. Conversely, the migratory response in naive and memory B cells was significantly reduced after B cell receptor engagement and CD40 signaling. The receptor for SDF-1, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), was found to be expressed on responsive as well as unresponsive B cell subsets, but was more rapidly downregulated on responsive cells by ligand. Finally, messenger RNA for SDF-1 was detected by in situ hybridization in a layer of cells surrounding the GC. These findings show that responsiveness to the chemoattractant SDF-1α is regulated during B lymphocyte activation, and correlates with positioning of B lymphocytes within a secondary lymphoid organ. PMID:9480985

  13. Possible role for cell-surface carbohydrate-binding molecules in lymphocyte recirculation

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We are investigating the hypothesis that carbohydrate-binding molecules on the cell surface are involved in the recirculation of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into lymphoid organs. This phenomenon requires the specific attachment of circulating lymphocytes to the endothelial cells of postcapillary venules. Using an in vitro assay to measure the adhesive interaction between lymphocytes and postcapillary venules, we have found that L-fucose, D mannose, and the L-fucose-rich, sulfated polysaccharide fucoidin specifically inhibit this binding interaction. L-fucose shows stereo-selective inhibitory activity at concentrations greater than 18 mM while fucoidin produces 50% inhibition at approximately 1-5 X 10(-8) M. Fucoidin appears to interact with the lymphocyte, and not the postcapillary venule, to inhibit binding. These data suggest that cell surface carbohydrates (fucoselike) and carbohydrate-binding molecules (cell surface lectins) may contribute to the specific attachment of lymphocytes to postcapillary venules. PMID:6833380

  14. Human gamma interferon increases the binding of T lymphocytes to endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C L; Haskard, D O; Cavender, D; Johnson, A R; Ziff, M

    1985-01-01

    Binding of lymphocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) was quantitated by measuring adhesion of 51Cr labelled lymphocytes to endothelial cell monolayers and rosette formation between lymphocytes and EC in suspension. Mitogen stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants and mixed lymphocyte reaction supernatants enhanced the binding of T lymphocytes to EC monolayers or suspensions preincubated with such supernatants. The active component of these supernatants appeared to be gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) since culture supernatants lost activity after heating at 56 degrees C for 60 min, exposure to pH 2.0 or treatment with anti-IFN-gamma. In addition, purified IFN-gamma increased the binding of T lymphocytes to EC (T-EC). This occurred in a concentration dependent manner when IFN-gamma was preincubated with EC but not with lymphocytes. While the optimum concentration of IFN-gamma was 250 u/ml, a significant enhancement was seen with as little as 10 u/ml. These findings suggest that IFN-gamma may play a part in the emigration of lymphocytes to perivascular chronic inflammatory sites by augmenting the adhesion of lymphocytes to the endothelium of small blood vessels. PMID:2935340

  15. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14+ mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14+ monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  16. Natural Killer Cells for Immunotherapy - Advantages of the NK-92 Cell Line over Blood NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Toneguzzo, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells from a patient's blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes and are often dysfunctional. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T cells to prevent graft-versus-host reactions. Cytotoxic cell lines have been established from patients with clonal NK-cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. Except for the NK-92 cell line, though, none of the other six known NK cell lines has consistently and reproducibly shown high antitumor cytotoxicity. Only NK-92 cells can easily be genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been infused into patients with advanced cancer with clinical benefit and minimal side effects.

  17. Two rare diagnoses during chronic lymphocytic leukaemia follow-up: Kaposi's sarcoma and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dogu, Mehmet H; Sari, Ismail; Hacioglu, Sibel; Degirmencioglu, Serkan; Şen, Nilay; Keskin, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia often has a clinical presentation characterised by increased neoplastic lymphocytes which are mostly mature looking due to B lymphocytes. Increased secondary cancer prevalence has been detected among patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia diagnosis. In this report, we present three chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients who developed secondary rare cancers during their follow-up at our clinic. Case 1: A 54-year-old female patient was diagnosed with stage I chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 2003 and was diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma in February 2013. Case 2: A 66-year-old male patient was diagnosed with stage II chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 2009 and was diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma in March 2013. Case 3: A 77-year-old male patient was diagnosed with stage I chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 2006 and was diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma in 2011. In conclusion, secondary cancers are observed in patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Therefore, follow-up of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia requires additional attention in this context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Early B-lymphocyte precursor cells in mouse bone marrow: Subosteal localization of B220+ cells during postirradiation regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, K.; Tepper, J.; Osmond, D.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The localization of early B-lymphocyte precursor cells in the bone marrow of young mice has been studied during recovery from sublethal whole body gamma-irradiation (150 rad). Initial studies by double immunofluorescence labeling of the B-lineage-associated cell surface glycoprotein, B220, and of mu heavy chains in bone marrow cell suspensions, demonstrated a sequential wave of regeneration of early B precursor cells, pre-B cells, and B cells. Early B precursor cells expressing B220 but not mu chains were enriched at 1-3 days following irradiation. After in vivo administration of 125I-labeled monoclonal antibody 14.8 to detect B220+ cells in situ, light and electron microscope radioautography of femoral bone marrow sections revealed concentrations of labeled B220+ cells located peripherally near the cortical bone at 1-3 days following irradiation, increasing in numbers in more central areas by 5-7 days. Proliferative B220+ precursor cells were found within layers of bone-lining cells and in a subosteal area characterized by a prominent electron-dense extracellular matrix, often associated with stromal reticular cells. The results demonstrate that the precursor cells that are active in the bone marrow early in the recovery of B lymphopoiesis after gamma-irradiation are located both within and near the endosteum of the surrounding bone. The distinctive extracellular matrix and stromal cell associations noted in this region may contribute to a supportive local microenvironment for early hemopoietic progenitor cells.

  19. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Katia; Baydoun, Elias; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. Purpose: The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Methods: Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Results: The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 μg/μL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines. Conclusion: In conclusion, kefir is

  20. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Katia; Baydoun, Elias; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-02-14

    Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry. The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 μg/μL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG(1) phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines. In conclusion, kefir is effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing

  1. Involvement of Sialic Acid on Endothelial Cells in Organ-Specific Lymphocyte Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven D.; Singer, Mark S.; Yednock, Ted A.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.

    1985-05-01

    Mouse lymphocytes incubated on cryostat-cut sections of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) specifically adhere to the endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV), the specialized blood vessels to which recirculating lymphocytes attach as they migrate from the blood into the parenchyma of the lymphoid organs. Treatment of sections with sialidase eliminated the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node HEV, had no effect on binding to Peyer's patch HEV, and had an intermediate effect on mesenteric lymph node HEV. These results suggest that sialic acid on endothelial cells may be an organ-specific recognition determinant for lymphocyte attachment.

  2. Regulation of natural killer activity of lymphocytes from normal subjects and patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia by interaction between T and non-T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khonina, N.A.; Shubinskii, G.Z.; Lozovoi, V.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the effect of culture of human cells on functional activity of natural killer cells and investigate the possible mechanisms of regulation of natural killer activity by acting on cytodifferentiation of lymphocytes in normal subjects and in patients with the B-cell variant of chromic lymphatic leukemia. To estimate natural killer cell function, a membranotoxic test was carried out, using cells of the transplantable line K-562, labeled with /sup 3/H-uridine as the targets.

  3. A structural basis for antigen recognition by the T cell-like lymphocytes of sea lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Lu; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Xu, Gang; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Tasumi, Satoshi; Kerzic, Melissa C.; Flajnik, Martin F.; Aravind, L.; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2010-10-28

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates is mediated by leucine-rich repeat proteins called 'variable lymphocyte receptors' (VLRs). Two types of VLR (A and B) are expressed by mutually exclusive lymphocyte populations in lamprey. VLRB lymphocytes resemble the B cells of jawed vertebrates; VLRA lymphocytes are similar to T cells. We determined the structure of a high-affinity VLRA isolated from lamprey immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) in unbound and antigen-bound forms. The VLRA-HEL complex demonstrates that certain VLRAs, like {gamma}{delta} T-cell receptors (TCRs) but unlike {alpha}{beta} TCRs, can recognize antigens directly, without a requirement for processing or antigen-presenting molecules. Thus, these VLRAs feature the nanomolar affinities of antibodies, the direct recognition of unprocessed antigens of both antibodies and {gamma}{delta} TCRs, and the exclusive expression on the lymphocyte surface that is unique to {alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta} TCRs.

  4. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space: Role of cell-substratum interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gmuender, Felix K.; Kiess, M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Lee, J.; Cogoli, Augusto

    1990-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA (poly (2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate)) in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  5. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space - Role of cell-substratum interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gmuender, F. K.; Kiess, M.; Lee, J.; Cogoli, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  6. Epithelial: lamina propria lymphocyte interactions promote epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Stephanie; Roda, Giulia; Pinn, David; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Kamalu, Okebugwu; Martin, Andrea P.; Mayer, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Lymphoepithelial interactions in the gut can occur in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial space. We asked whether Normal, Crohn’s Disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis (UC) lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) could promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and differentiation. Methods T84 cells were co-cultured with freshly isolated LPL for varying periods. After removal of LPL, IECs were lysed and subjected to i) measurement of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity; ii) Western blot analysis for MAPK and Akt activation; and iii) Real Time-PCR to assess CDX2 mRNA levels. Tissue sections were immunostained for evidence of MAPK and PI3K activation, CDX2 and IAP; and CDX2 mRNA expression was assessed on human colonic biopsies. Results IAP activity was increased in T84 cells co-cultured for 8 days with Normal LPL (p<0.05), and even greater with CD LPL (p<0.001). Crypt IECs in active CD mucosa expressed IAP ex vivo. Phospho-MAPK (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and phospho-Akt were seen as early as 30 min after co-culture. MAPK activation was greatest in T84 cells co-cultured with CD LPL. There was a specific increase in P-p38 MAPK and P-Akt staining in the nuclei of crypt IECs in active vs inactive CD, normal mucosa and UC mucosa. CDX2 mRNA expression was increased in CD LPL co-cultured T84 cells which not correlated with the CDX2 protein localization ex vivo. Conclusion Our observations indicate that there is crosstalk between LPL and IECs, which leads to IEC differentiation. Moreover, in CD mucosa, the differentiation of IEC is accelerated. PMID:18045591

  7. Identification of an IL-4-Inducible Gene Expressed in Differentiating Lymphocytes and Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Nasrin; Grusby, Michael J.; Finn, Patricia W.; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that is involved in the differentiation of B and T lymphocytes. In this report, we describe the identification of a novel gene, N.52, which was cloned from the murine pre-B cell line R8205 grown in the presence of IL-4 for 48 hr. Although N.52 expression is detectable at low levels in unstimulated R8205 cells, the level of N.52 dramatically increases after only .4 hr exposure to IL-4 and remains at a high .level up to 48 hr. Although N.52 expression is low or absent in normal spleen B and T cells, its expression can be induced by the differentiation signals delivered by LPS in B cells and by Con A in T-cell hybrids. While N.52 mRNA is absent in all highly differentiated organs, it is detectable in stem cell harboring lymphoid tissues such as bone marrow, fetal liver, and thymus. Furthermore, N.52 mRNA is expressed at strikingly high levels in the testis, specifically in differentiating male germ cells. It is induced by differentiation signals triggered by the combination of cyclic AMP and retinoic acid in teratocarcinoma F9 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that N.52 is a developmentally regulated gene whose expression in cells of the immune and reproductive systems may be controlled by stimuli that induce differentiation. PMID:2136202

  8. Chapter 6. available lepidopteran insect cell lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter lists the known cell lines from Lepidoptera, largely based on previous compilations of insect cell lines published by W. Fred Hink. More than 320 lines from 65 species are listed. The official designation is given for each cell line as well as the species, tissue source, and, when kno...

  9. Memory B lymphocytes determine repertoire oligoclonality early after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    OMAZIC, B; LUNDKVIST, I; MATTSSON, J; PERMERT, J; NÄSMAN-BJÖRK, I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if oligoclonality of the Ig repertoire post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is restricted to memory B lymphocytes or if it is a general property among B lymphocytes. As a measure of B lymphocyte repertoire diversity, we have analysed size distribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Ig H complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) in naive and memory B lymphocytes isolated from patients before HSCT and at 3, 6 and 12 months after HSCT as well as from healthy controls. We demonstrate a limited variation of the IgH CDR3 repertoire in the memory B lymphocyte population compared to the naive B cell population. This difference was significant at 3 and 6 months post-HSCT. Compared to healthy controls there is a significant restriction of the memory B lymphocyte repertoire at 3 months after HSCT, but not of the naive B lymphocyte repertoire. Twelve months after HSCT, the IgH CDR3 repertoire in both memory and naive B lymphocytes are as diverse as in healthy controls. Thus, our findings suggest a role for memory B cells in the restriction of the oligoclonal B cell repertoire observed early after HSCT, which may be of importance when considering reimmunization of transplanted patients. PMID:12974769

  10. Diagnosis and management of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Tebb, A J; Cave, T; Barron, R; Brown, A L; Martineau, H M; Willett, B J; Hosie, M J

    2004-04-03

    A four-year-old, female neutered domestic shorthair cat had a history of chronic intermittent vomiting and lymphocytosis. B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was diagnosed by flow cytometry, which revealed abnormally large numbers of mature B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The cat was treated conservatively with antiemetic drugs and remained stable without chemotherapy for over a year.

  11. Comparative In Vitro Immune Stimulation Analysis of Primary Human B Cells and B Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Kristien; Herman, Jean; Boon, Louis; Waer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    B cell specific immunomodulatory drugs still remain an unmet medical need. Utilisation of validated simplified in vitro models would allow readily obtaining new insights in the complexity of B cell regulation. For this purpose we investigated which human B lymphocyte stimulation assays may be ideally suited to investigate new B lymphocyte immunosuppressants. Primary polyclonal human B cells underwent in vitro stimulation and their proliferation, production of immunoglobulins (Igs) and of cytokines, and expression of cell surface molecules were analysed using various stimuli. ODN2006, a toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, was the most potent general B cell stimulus. Subsequently, we investigated on which human B cell lines ODN2006 evoked the broadest immunostimulatory effects. The Namalwa cell line proved to be the most responsive upon TLR9 stimulation and hence may serve as a relevant, homogeneous, and stable B cell model in an in vitro phenotypic assay for the discovery of new targets and inhibitors of the B cell activation processes. As for the read-out for such screening assay, it is proposed that the expression of activation and costimulatory surface markers reliably reflects B lymphocyte activation. PMID:28116319

  12. Treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, E; Bosch, F; Rozman, C

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, important advances have been made in the biology, natural history, and prognosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In addition, treatment possibilities for patients with CLL have changed as a result of the identification of prognostic factors for survival and the availability of new drugs and treatment strategies. Patients in the early clinical stages (Binet A, Rai 0) with stable disease have a probability of long survival and should not be treated unless the disease progresses. In contrast, most patients with poor prognostic features, such as an advanced clinical stage (Binet B, C; Rai III, IV), diffuse bone-marrow infiltration or rapidly increasing blood lymphocyte levels, have a median survival probability of < 5 years and require therapy. Purine analogues are highly effective. Among these, fludarabine has become the treatment of choice for patients failing standard therapies. The role of purine analogues either alone or in combination with other drugs as front-line therapy is being investigated. Certain situations (e.g. autoimmune cytopenias, hypersplenism) require special treatment approaches (e.g. corticosteroids, splenectomy). Transplants of progenitor haematopoietic cells are also increasingly performed and deserve further investigation in younger patients with poor prognostic features. As a result of these advances, symptoms palliation is no longer the only possible goal in CLL therapy; sustained remissions and even cures are likely to be obtained in the near future.

  13. Growth dynamics and cyclin expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Biskup, Edyta; Manfé, Valentina; Kamstrup, Maria R.; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated cell growth dynamics and cyclins B1 and E expression in cell lines derived from mycosis fungoides (MyLa), Sézary syndrome (SeAx), and CD30+ lympho-proliferative diseases (Mac1, Mac2a, JK). Mac1 and Mac2a had the highest growth rate (doubling time 18–28 h, >90% cycling cells) whereas SeAx was proliferating slowly (doubling time 55 h, approximately 35% cycling cells). Expression of cyclin B1 correlated positively with doubling time whereas expression of cyclin E was unscheduled and constant across the investigated cell lines. All cell lines exhibited high expression of PCNA. Thus, we concluded that cyclin B1 could be used for rapid screening of cell proliferation in malignant lymphocytes derived from cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PMID:25386244

  14. Autonomous Stimulation of Cancer Cell Plasticity by the Human NKG2D Lymphocyte Receptor Coexpressed with Its Ligands on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xin; Dai, Zhenpeng; Reeves, Rebecca S.; Caballero-Benitez, Andrea; Duran, Kate L.; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Porter, Peggy L.

    2014-01-01

    The stimulatory NKG2D receptor on lymphocytes promotes tumor immune surveillance by targeting ligands selectively induced on cancer cells. Progressing tumors counteract by employing tactics to disable lymphocyte NKG2D. This negative dynamic is escalated as some human cancer cells co-opt expression of NKG2D, thereby complementing the presence of its ligands for autonomous stimulation of oncogenic signaling. Clinical association data imply relationships between cancer cell NKG2D and metastatic disease. Here we show that NKG2D promotes cancer cell plasticity by induction of phenotypic, molecular, and functional signatures diagnostic of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and of stem-like traits via induction of Sox9, a key transcriptional regulator of breast stem cell maintenance. These findings obtained with model breast tumor lines and xenotransplants were recapitulated by ex vivo cancer cells from primary invasive breast carcinomas. Thus, NKG2D may have the capacity to drive high malignancy traits underlying metastatic disease. PMID:25291178

  15. FCR front-line therapy and quality of life in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, Nadine; Busch, Raymonde; Bahlo, Jasmin; Mayer, Jiri; Hensel, Manfred; Hopfinger, Georg; Hess, Georg; von Grünhagen, Ulrich; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Maria Fink, Anna; Fischer, Kirsten; Hallek, Michael; Eichhorst, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The chemoimmunotherapy FCR (fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with rituximab) is the standard first-line treatment for physically fit chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. To assess the risks and benefits, we investigated health-related quality of life (HRQOL). 817 untreated CLL patients received either FC or FCR within the GCLLSG CLL8 trial. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire C30 was sent to all patients at baseline, after 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly as follow-up. A total of 769 (94%) of 817 patients completed at least one questionnaire. Comparing HRQOL of CLL patients with the general German population, CLL patients' health declined in most scales except for global health and pain. No major differences in HRQOL were found during treatment or follow-up between both treatment arms. Females were more likely to have treatment-related symptoms than males. Although FCR was associated with more side effects, this did not influence HRQOL. During follow-up after FCR only minor improvement of HRQOL compared with FC was assessed.

  16. Germ line mutations in shelterin complex genes are associated with familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Speedy, Helen E.; Kinnersley, Ben; Chubb, Daniel; Broderick, Peter; Law, Philip J.; Litchfield, Kevin; Jayne, Sandrine; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Dearden, Claire; Follows, George A.; Catovsky, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be familial; however, thus far no rare germ line disruptive alleles for CLL have been identified. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 66 CLL families, identifying 4 families where loss-of-function mutations in protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) co-segregated with CLL. The p.Tyr36Cys mutation is predicted to disrupt the interaction between POT1 and the telomeric overhang. The c.1164-1G>A splice-site, p.Gln358SerfsTer13 frameshift, and p.Gln376Arg missense mutations are likely to impact the interaction between POT1 and adrenocortical dysplasia homolog (ACD), which is a part of the telomere-capping shelterin complex. We also identified mutations in ACD (c.752-2A>C) and another shelterin component, telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein (p.Ala104Pro and p.Arg133Gln), in 3 CLL families. In a complementary analysis of 1083 cases and 5854 controls, the POT1 p.Gln376Arg variant, which has a global minor allele frequency of 0.0005, conferred a 3.61-fold increased risk of CLL (P = .009). This study further highlights telomere dysregulation as a key process in CLL development. PMID:27528712

  17. Sca-1(+) mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit splenic marginal zone B lymphocytes commitment through Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaozhen; Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Hong; An, Ning; Xin, Jiajia; Li, Na; Xu, Jinmei; Yin, Wen; Wu, Zhongliang; Hu, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been characterized as an important component of hematopoietic niche, which are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Marginal zone B cells, one main type of mature B lymphocytes, play a central role in eliciting antibody response against pathogens. However, how MSCs and its subpopulations regulate marginal zone B cells commitment is unknown yet. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Sca-1(+) MSCs on marginal zone B cells commitment. Our results showed that Sca-1(+) MSCs inhibit the commitment of marginal zone B lymphocytes. The inhibition was exerted through lowered Caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, we found marginal zone B lymphocytes in spleen of Caspase-3 knockout mice decreased and Caspase-3 knockout Sca-1(+) MSCs accounted for the MZB lymphocytes decrease. In conclusion, our investigation provided clues about Sca-1(+) MSCs regulation on the commitment of marginal zone B cells through Caspase-3 gene.

  18. Primary B Lymphocytes Infected with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Can Be Expanded In Vitro and Are Recognized by LANA-Specific CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Samantha M.; Sabbah, Shereen; Brulois, Kevin F.; Jung, Jae U.; Bell, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has tropism for B lymphocytes, in which it establishes latency, and can also cause lymphoproliferative disorders of these cells manifesting as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). T cell immunity is vital for the control of KSHV infection and disease; however, few models of B lymphocyte infection exist to study immune recognition of such cells. Here, we developed a model of B lymphocyte infection with KSHV in which infected tonsillar B lymphocytes were expanded by providing mitogenic stimuli and then challenged with KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells. The infected cells expressed viral proteins found in PELs, namely, LANA and viral IRF3 (vIRF3), albeit at lower levels, with similar patterns of gene expression for the major latency, viral interleukin 6 (vIL-6), and vIRF3 transcripts. Despite low-level expression of open reading frame 50 (ORF50), transcripts for the immune evasion genes K3 and K5 were detected, with some downregulation of cell surface-expressed CD86 and ICAM. The vast majority of infected lymphocytes expressed IgM heavy chains with Igλ light chains, recapitulating the features seen in infected cells in MCD. We assessed the ability of the infected lymphocytes to be targeted by a panel of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-matched CD4+ T cells and found that LANA-specific T cells restricted to different epitopes recognized these infected cells. Given that at least some KSHV latent antigens are thought to be poor targets for CD8+ T cells, we suggest that CD4+ T cells are potentially important effectors for the in vivo control of KSHV-infected B lymphocytes. IMPORTANCE KSHV establishes a latent reservoir within B lymphocytes, but few models exist to study KSHV-infected B cells other than the transformed PEL cell lines, which have likely accrued mutations during the transformation process. We developed a model of KSHV-infected primary B lymphocytes that

  19. Serotonin Uptake Is Largely Mediated by Platelets versus Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), a primary target for many antidepressants, is expressed in the brain and also in peripheral blood cells. Although platelet SERT function is well accepted, lymphocyte SERT function has not been definitively characterized. Due to their small size, platelets often are found in peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations aimed at isolating lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. The presence of different cells makes it difficult to assign SERT expression and function to specific cell types. Here, we use flow cytometry and IDT307, a monoamine transporter substrate that fluoresces after uptake into cells, to investigate SERT function in lymphocyte and platelet populations independently, as well as simultaneously without prior isolation. We find that murine lymphocytes exhibit temperature-dependent IDT307 transport but uptake is independent of SERT. Lack of measurable SERT function in lymphocytes was corroborated by chronoamperometry using serotonin as a substrate. When we examined rhesus and human mixed blood cell populations, we found that platelets, and not lymphocytes, were primary contributors to SERT function. Overall, these findings indicate that lymphocyte SERT function is minimal. Moreover, flow cytometry, in conjunction with the fluorescent transporter substrate IDT307, can be widely applied to investigate SERT in platelets from populations of clinical significance. PMID:23336055

  20. Allogeneic hemopietic stem cell transplants for the treatment of B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei-Min; Cao, Xiang-Shan; Wang, Biao; Lin, Yun; Hua, Xiao-Ying; Qiu, Guo-Qiang; Gu, Wei-Ying; Xie, Xiao-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Explore the feasibility of allo- hemopietic stem cell transplants in treating patients with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. Between september 2006 and February 2011, fifteen patients with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were treated by allo-hemopietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). Stem cell sources were peripheral blood. Six patients were conditioned by busulfan (BU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) and nine patients were conditioned with TBI and cyclophosphamide (CY). Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen consisted of cyclosporine A (CSA), methotrex ate (MTX) and mycophenolatemofetil (MMF). Patients received a median of 7.98×10⁸·kg⁻¹ (5.36-12.30×10⁸·kg⁻¹) mononuclear cells (MNC). The median time of ANC>0.5×10⁹/L was day 12 (10-15), and PLT>20.0×10⁹/L was day 13 (11-16). Extensive acute GVHD occurred in 6 (40.0%) patients, and extensive chronic GVHD was recorded in 6 (40.0%) patients. Nine patients were alive after 2.5-65 months follow-up. Allogeneic stem cell transplant could be effective in treating patients with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  1. Effect of Fibroblast-Like Cells of Mesenchymal Origin of Cytotoxic Activity of Lymphocytes against NK-Sensitive Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Lupatov, A Yu; Kim, Ya S; Bystrykh, O A; Vakhrushev, I V; Pavlovich, S V; Yarygin, K N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    We studied immunosuppressive properties of skin fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells against NK cells. In vitro experiments showed that mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from human umbilical cord and human skin fibroblasts can considerably attenuate cytotoxic activity of NK cells against Jurkat cells sensitive to NK-mediated lysis. NK cells cultured in lymphocyte population exhibited higher cytotoxic activity than isolated NK cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells or fibroblasts added 1:1 to lymphocyte culture almost completely suppressed NK cell cytotoxicity. This suggests that fibroblast-like cells can suppress not only isolated NK cells, but also NK cells in natural cell microenvironment.

  2. Antibodies Against Membrane Interleukin 1α Activate Accessory Cells to Stimulate Proliferation of T Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugui, Elsie M.; Almquist, Susan J.

    1990-02-01

    Some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against interleukin (IL) 1α have been found to activate antigen-presenting cells (APC, human peripheral blood monocytes and B lymphocytes), so that unstimulated T lymphocytes cultured with them are induced to proliferate and secrete IL-2. Control mAbs of the same isotypes and mAbs against IL-11β do not activate APC. In the absence of APC, mAbs against IL-1α do not induce proliferation of T lymphocytes. Mitomycin C-treated activated APC still induce T-cell proliferation. Proliferation of T lymphocytes cannot be induced by culture supernatants and requires contact with APC activated by mAbs against IL-1α. The observations imply that surface membrane IL-1α can function as a triggering molecule on APC, which could play an important role in the initiation of immune responses by T lymphocytes.

  3. T-cell receptor gamma--delta lymphocytes and Eimeria vermiformis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M E; Hesketh, P; Rothwell, L; Gramzinski, R A

    1996-01-01

    The role of T-cell receptor gamma--delta T lymphocytes in coccidiosis was examined by determining the course of infection with Eimeria vermiformis in BALB/c mice depleted of gamma--delta lymphocytes by treatment with GL3 monoclonal antibody. The replication of the parasite in primary infections was not greatly, or consistently, affected by this treatment, and there was no correlation between the extent of depletion of small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and the number of oocysts produced. The resistance of immunized mice to challenge was not compromised by depletion of intraintestinal epithelial lymphocytes when their depletion was effected at the time of primary infection and/or administration of the challenge inoculum. Thus, T-cell receptor gamma--delta T lymphocytes do not appear to be crucial to the establishment, or the control, of primary infection with E. vermiformis and are not principal mediators of the solid immunity to challenge that this infection induces. PMID:8890252

  4. Clonally related Histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: A study of 7 cases

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Haipeng; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Feldman, Andrew L.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Knudson, Ryan; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hanson, Jeffrey; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2011-01-01

    Histiocytic and interdigitating dendritic cell sarcomas are rare tumors originating from bone marrow derived myeloid stem cells. Recent studies have shown evidence of cross-lineage transdifferentiation of B-cells in follicular lymphoma to histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcomas. In this study, we report the morphologic, molecular and cytogenetic analysis of 7 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma associated with histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcomas. All seven patients were elderly males (median age, 71 years). The B-cell neoplasms preceded the development of the histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcomas in 6 of 7 patients, and one patient had both tumors diagnosed at the same time. The tumors included 4 interdigitating dendritic cell sarcomas; 1 Langerhans cell sarcoma, 1 histiocytic sarcoma, and 1 immature neoplasm with evidence of histiocytic origin. Laser-capture microdissection and PCR analysis showed identical clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in the two phenotypically distinct components in all cases. There was a preferential usage of IGHV4-39 by the V-D-J gene rearrangement. By FISH analysis two cases showed deletion 17p in both components, while 4 cases had normal cytogenetic findings by FISH in the CLL/SLL cells, but acquired cytogenetic abnormalities in the corresponding histiocytic and dendritic tumors. Chromosome 17p abnormalities were the most common cytogenetic abnormality detected in the sarcomas, seen in 5 of 6 cases studied. Compared with the CLL/SLL cells, the histiocytic/dendritic cells were largely negative for PAX5, but showed strong expression of PU.1 and variable and weak expression of CEBPβ. Our study provides evidence for transdifferentiation of CLL/SLL B-cells to tumors of dendritic and less often histiocytic lineage, and suggests that secondary genetic events may play a role in this phenomenon. PMID:21666687

  5. Interaction of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes for the therapeutic effect of Dangguiliuhuang decoction to autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Cao, Hui; Ji, Yachun; Pei, Yufeng; Yu, Zhihong; Quan, Yihong; Xiang, Ming

    2015-09-11

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD) is an effective treatment of autoimmune diabetes. Here, we studied potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of DGLHD in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. In vitro, DGLHD and individual active ingredients enhanced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells, inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation, and suppressed dendritic cells (DCs) function. In vivo, DGLHD significantly inhibited insulitis, delayed the onset and development of diabetes, promoted insulin secretion and sensitivity, and balanced partially normalized Th1 and Th2 cytokines in NOD mice. In addition, DGLHD increased α1-antitrypsin (AAT-1), Bcl-2, and CyclinD1, and decreased Bax levels in pancreas, spleen, thymus, DCs, and a NIT-1 cell line, all consistent with protecting and repairing islet β cell. More detailed studies indicated that DGLHD regulated the maturation and function of DCs, decreased the percentage of merocytic dendritic cells (mcDCs) subset, and increased programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in DCs. DGLHD also impeded T lymphocyte proliferation and promoted regulatory T cells (T(regs)) differentiation in vivo. A JAK2-STAT3-dependent pathway was involved in the suppression by DGLHD of interactions between DCs and T lymphocyte. The experiments implicated five active ingredients in specific anti-diabetic actions of DGLHD. The results demonstrated the reasonable composition of the formula.

  6. Interaction of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes for the therapeutic effect of Dangguiliuhuang decoction to autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Cao, Hui; Ji, Yachun; Pei, Yufeng; Yu, Zhihong; Quan, Yihong; Xiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD) is an effective treatment of autoimmune diabetes. Here, we studied potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of DGLHD in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. In vitro, DGLHD and individual active ingredients enhanced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells, inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation, and suppressed dendritic cells (DCs) function. In vivo, DGLHD significantly inhibited insulitis, delayed the onset and development of diabetes, promoted insulin secretion and sensitivity, and balanced partially normalized Th1 and Th2 cytokines in NOD mice. In addition, DGLHD increased α1-antitrypsin (AAT-1), Bcl-2, and CyclinD1, and decreased Bax levels in pancreas, spleen, thymus, DCs, and a NIT-1 cell line, all consistent with protecting and repairing islet β cell. More detailed studies indicated that DGLHD regulated the maturation and function of DCs, decreased the percentage of merocytic dendritic cells (mcDCs) subset, and increased programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in DCs. DGLHD also impeded T lymphocyte proliferation and promoted regulatory T cells (Tregs) differentiation in vivo. A JAK2-STAT3-dependent pathway was involved in the suppression by DGLHD of interactions between DCs and T lymphocyte. The experiments implicated five active ingredients in specific anti-diabetic actions of DGLHD. The results demonstrated the reasonable composition of the formula. PMID:26358493

  7. Altered Cell Viability and Proliferation Activity of Peripheral Lymphocytes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se Chang; Kwon, Young-Ah; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Seonwoo; Ahn Jo, Sangmee

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated cell viability and proliferation activity of peripheral lymphocytes as potential models of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We analyzed the cell viability and proliferation activity of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated lymphocytes from 68 AD patients and 33 normal controls. The cellular measures were made at baseline (0 hr), 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, and 96 hrs after PHA stimulation. Results Cell viability in the AD patients was significantly decreased at 72 hrs and 96 hrs, compared with the normal controls. The declining ramp of the proliferation activity from 48 hrs to 72 hrs after PHA stimulation was significantly related to cell viability at 72 hrs and at 96 hrs in the AD patients. Conclusion Lymphocytes from patients with AD have altered viability and proliferation characteristics in culture following PHA stimulation. These findings suggest that lymphocytes may be used as a peripheral tissue model of cell cycle dysregulation in AD. PMID:20396436

  8. Frequency of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in relatives of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Franco Alzate, Catalina; Rendón Henao, Javier; Torres Hernández, José Domingo; Jaramillo Arbelaez, Patricia Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is a symptom free condition characterized by the circulation of small clonal population of B lymphocytes in peripheral blood (less than 5x109/L) expressing an immunophenotype similar to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Different studies based on big hospital series have manifested a higher risk in subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis to progress to a chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The behavior of this hematologic entity is unknown therefore its frequency in sporadic chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient relatives was determined. Methods: Transversal descriptive study, 8 color flow cytometry was performed using two of the tubes of the Euro Flow recommended panel, with modifications, for the diagnose of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of B lymphocytes; besides, a fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed. univariate and bivariate analyses of the information were performed. Results: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis frequency found in 51 analyzed relatives was 2%, it was a female participant, 59 years old, with a total leukocyte count of 7.7x109/L and a B lymphocyte count of 0.124x109/L; from these, 0.04x109/L were clonal cells with restrictions of the kappa light chain. Rearrangements of the IGH gene (14q32) were found. Conclusion: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis was detected in one relative of a patient with sporadic chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a frequency similar to the one reported in general population. PMID:27546929

  9. The correlation of lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cell, and Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sen; Gao, Hua; Luo, Qin; Wang, Pengfei; Yang, Xinling

    2017-08-01

    The correlation between immunity and Parkinson's disease was presented in many papers, which also discussed lymphocyte and natural killer cell. But these studies have yielded inconsistent results. To systematically review the relationship between the lymphocyte subsets/natural killer cell and the risk of Parkinson's disease, we electronically searched the SpringerLink, Web of Science, Ebsco-medline with full text, Pubmed, Elsevier-ScienceDirect, Ovid-lww-oup, Wanfang Data for case-control trials on comparing the number of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cell in Parkinson's patients and healthy controls. According to the Cochrane methods, the reviewers selected literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2. Finally, 21 case-control trials including 943 cases of Parkinson's disease were fit into our data analysis. Meta-analysis showed that the decreased numbers of CD3+, CD4+ lymphocyte subsets and the increased number of natural killer cell were found in Parkinson's disease patients. In the intermediate and late stage of PD, CD8+ lymphocyte subsets had a significant decrement. However, the number of B lymphocyte subsets had no significant association with Parkinson's disease. The lymphocyte subsets and NK cell may be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Random migration contributes to cytotoxicity of activated CD8+ T-lymphocytes but not NK cells.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideya; Kiyota, Akifumi; Koya, Norihiro; Tanaka, Hiroto; Umebayashi, Masayo; Katano, Mitsuo; Morisaki, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    Activated lymphocytes have the ability to undergo non-directional cell movement known as random migration, although the biological role for this remains unclear. Herein, we investigated how random migration affects cytotoxicity of activated lymphocytes using time-lapse imaging analysis. The kinetics of random migration paralleled cytotoxicity in activated lymphocytes. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptor-1 (S1PR1) play an important role in lymphocyte migration. Phosphorylated FTY720 (FTYP), a structural analog of S1P, significantly inhibited random migration and cytotoxicity of activated CD3(+)NKG2D(+)CD8(+) T-lymphocytes but not CD3(-)NKG2D(+)CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells. In a mouse xenograft model, FTYP-treated activated lymphocytes exhibited lower cytotoxicity and less tumor infiltration for activated CD3(+)NKG2D(+) T-lymphocytes but not CD3(-)NKG2D(+) NK cells. These results suggest that random migration contributes to the cytotoxicity of activated CD8(+) T-cells but not of NK cells.

  11. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha-induced lymphocyte polarization and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Manzanares, M; Rey, M; Jones, D R; Sancho, D; Mellado, M; Rodriguez-Frade, J M; del Pozo, M A; Yáñez-Mó, M; de Ana, A M; Martínez-A, C; Mérida, I; Sánchez-Madrid, F

    1999-10-01

    The role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), an important enzyme involved in signal transduction events, has been studied in the polarization and chemotaxis of lymphocytes induced by the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha). This chemokine was able to directly activate p85/p110 PI3-kinase in whole human PBL and to induce the association of PI3-kinase to the SDF-1 alpha receptor, CXCR4, in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Two unrelated chemical inhibitors of PI3-kinase, wortmannin and Ly294002, prevented ICAM-3 and ERM protein moesin polarization as well as the chemotaxis of PBL in response to SDF-1 alpha. However, they did not interfere with the reorganization of either tubulin or the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the transient expression of a dominant negative form of the PI3-kinase 85-kDa regulatory subunit in the constitutively polarized Peer T cell line inhibited ICAM-3 polarization and markedly reduced SDF-1 alpha-induced chemotaxis. Conversely, overexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of the PI3-kinase 110-kDa catalytic subunit in the round-shaped PM-1 T cell line induced ICAM-3 polarization. These results underline the role of PI3-kinase in the regulation of lymphocyte polarization and motility and indicate that PI3-kinase plays a selective role in the regulation of adhesion and ERM proteins redistribution in the plasma membrane of lymphocytes.

  12. The Association of LINE-1 Hypomethylation with Age and Centromere Positive Micronuclei in Human Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Woo, Hae Dong; Jang, Yoonhee; Porter, Virginia; Christensen, Sonja; Hamilton, Raymond F; Chung, Hai Won

    2015-01-01

    Global hypomethylation in white blood cell (WBC) DNA has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for determining cancer risk through genomic instability. However, the amplitude of the changes associated with age and the impacts of environmental factors on DNA methylation are unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of genomic hypomethylation with age, cigarette use, drinking status and the presence of centromere positive micronuclei (MNC+)-a biomarker for age-dependent genomic instability. Genomic hypomethylation of the repetitive element LINE-1 was measured in WBC DNA from 32 healthy male volunteers using the pyrosequencing assay. We also measured MNC+ with the micronucleus-centromere assay using a pan-centromeric probe. Possibly due to the small sample size and resulting low statistical power, smoking and drinking status had no significant effect on LINE-1 hypomethylation or the occurrence of MNC+. Consequently, we did not include them in further analyses. In contrast, LINE-1 hypomethylation and age significantly predicted MNC+; therefore, we examined whether LINE-1 hypomethylation plays a role in MNC+ formation by age, since genomic hypomethylation is associated with genomic instability. However, LINE-1 hypomethylation did not significantly mediate the effect of age on MNC+. Our data indicate that the repetitive element LINE-1 is demethylated with age and increasing MNC+ frequency, but additional studies are needed to fully understand the relation between genomic DNA hypomethylation, age and genomic instability.

  13. The Association of LINE-1 Hypomethylation with Age and Centromere Positive Micronuclei in Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Woo, Hae Dong; Jang, Yoonhee; Porter, Virginia; Christensen, Sonja; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Chung, Hai Won

    2015-01-01

    Global hypomethylation in white blood cell (WBC) DNA has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for determining cancer risk through genomic instability. However, the amplitude of the changes associated with age and the impacts of environmental factors on DNA methylation are unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of genomic hypomethylation with age, cigarette use, drinking status and the presence of centromere positive micronuclei (MNC+)—a biomarker for age-dependent genomic instability. Genomic hypomethylation of the repetitive element LINE-1 was measured in WBC DNA from 32 healthy male volunteers using the pyrosequencing assay. We also measured MNC+ with the micronucleus-centromere assay using a pan-centromeric probe. Possibly due to the small sample size and resulting low statistical power, smoking and drinking status had no significant effect on LINE-1 hypomethylation or the occurrence of MNC+. Consequently, we did not include them in further analyses. In contrast, LINE-1 hypomethylation and age significantly predicted MNC+; therefore, we examined whether LINE-1 hypomethylation plays a role in MNC+ formation by age, since genomic hypomethylation is associated with genomic instability. However, LINE-1 hypomethylation did not significantly mediate the effect of age on MNC+. Our data indicate that the repetitive element LINE-1 is demethylated with age and increasing MNC+ frequency, but additional studies are needed to fully understand the relation between genomic DNA hypomethylation, age and genomic instability. PMID:26196382

  14. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-08

    CD19-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  15. Identification of a novel inducible cell-surface ligand of CD5 on activated lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CD5 is a 67-kD glycoprotein that is expressed on most T lymphocytes and on a subset of mature B cells. Although its physiologic function is unknown, several lines of evidence suggest that CD5 may play a role in the regulation of T cell activation and in T cell-antigen presenting cell interactions. Using a CD5-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CD5Rg, for receptorglobulin) we have uncovered a new CD5 ligand (CD5L) expressed on the surface of activated splenocytes. Stimulation of murine splenocytes with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies induce transient expression of CD5L on B lymphocytes that lasts for approximately 72 h. Binding of CD5Rg to activated splenocytes is trypsin resistant and independent of divalent cations. However, it is pronase sensitive and dependent on N-linked glycosylation of CD5, since treatment of CD5Rg with PNGaseF on N-glycanase completely abrogates its ability to bind activated splenocytes. It addition to splenocytes, CD5L is expressed on activated murine T cell clones. Immunoprecipitation, antibody, and recombinant protein blocking studies indicate that CD5L is distinct from CD72, which has been proposed to be a CD5 ligand. To determine whether CD5-CD5L interaction might play a role in vivo, we tested the effect of CD5Rg in a murine model of antibody-mediated membranous glomerulonephritis. Injection of CD5Rg was found to abrogate development of the disease. Taken together, our results help identify a novel ligand of CD5 and propose a role for CD5 in the regulation of immune responses. PMID:9064341

  16. Two distinct antigen systems in human B lymphocytes: identification of cell surface and intracellular antigens using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Takami, T; Yuasa, H; Takei, T; Kikuchi, K

    1984-01-01

    Two distinct antigen systems (L26 and L27) specifically expressed in human B lymphocytes were identified using TB2-2B3 (2B3) and T3-5B3 (5B3) monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Whereas L26 antigen defined by 2B3 were rarely expressed on the surface of B cells but abundant in the cytoplasm, 127 antigens detected by 5B3 was clearly expressed on the cell surface. These two antigens appeared to be restricted in their expression to B cells, as they were found in most B cells but not other cell types including thymocytes, T cells, monocytes and granulocytes. Functional studies demonstrated that L27 was more easily lost from B cells after activation with pokeweed mitogen than was L26. Likewise, plasma cell myeloma, as well as normal plasma cells, was devoid of both L26 and L27, whereas immunoblastic sarcoma of B cell type expressed L26 but not L27. These two antigens co-existed in the same B cell lines including Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cell lines, B cell type acute lymphatic leukaemia (B-ALL) cell line, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and myeloma cell lines, but pre-B and common ALL cell lines were entirely negative for both L26 and L27. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that L26 consisted of at least two polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 30K and 33K daltons, which were clearly distinct from HLA-DR antigens. The antigen L27 is presently under study. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6332692

  17. Radiation-induced delayed cell death in a hypomorphic Artemis cell line.

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul M; Woodbine, Lisa; Riballo, Enriquetta; Gennery, Andrew R; Hubank, Michael; Jeggo, Penny A

    2006-04-15

    Null mutations in Artemis confer a condition described as RS-SCID, in which patients display radiosensitivity combined with severe combined immunodeficiency. Here, we characterize the defect in Artemis in a patient who displayed progressive combined immunodeficiency (CID) and elevated lymphocyte apoptosis. The patient is a compound heterozygote with novel mutations in both alleles, resulting in Artemis proteins with either L70 deletion or G126D substitution. Both mutational changes impact upon Artemis function and a fibroblast cell line derived from the patient (F96-224) has greatly reduced Artemis protein. In contrast to Artemis null cell lines, which fail to repair a subset of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation, F96-224 cells show slow but residual DSB rejoining. Despite showing intermediate cellular and clinical features, F96-224 cells are as radiosensitive as Artemis null cell lines. We developed a FACS-based assay to examine cell division and cellular characteristics for 10 days following exposure to ionizing radiation (2 and 4 Gy). This analysis demonstrated that F96-224 cells show delayed cell death when compared with rapid growth arrest of an Artemis null cell line, and the emergence of a cycling population shown by a control line. F96-224 cells also display elevated chromosome aberrations when compared with control cells. F96-224 therefore represents a novel phenotype for a hypomorphic cell line. We suggest that delayed cell death contributes to the progressive CID phenotype of the Artemis patient.

  18. Genetically Engineered Lymphocytes, Cyclophosphamide, and Aldesleukin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma or Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  19. CD3 zeta dependence of the CD2 pathway of activation in T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, P; Lucich, J L; McConkey, D J; Letourneur, F; Malissen, B; Kochan, J; Chang, H C; Rodewald, H R; Reinherz, E L

    1992-02-15

    In T lymphocytes, signal transduction through the CD2 adhesion molecule requires surface expression of the CD3-Ti T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. In contrast, in natural killer (NK) cells, CD2 functions in the absence of a TCR. Because the TCR on T lymphocytes and the CD16 low-affinity IgG Fc receptor (Fc gamma receptor type III) complex on NK cells share a common CD3 zeta subunit, we reasoned that CD3 zeta may be critical for CD2 signaling in T lymphocytes and NK cells. Here we show that transfection of a cDNA encoding a transmembrane form of CD16 into TCR- variants of the Jurkat T-cell line results in CD16 expression in association with endogenous CD3 zeta homodimers and restores CD2 signaling function. To test directly the role of CD3 zeta in CD2 triggering, we then transfected human CD2 into each of two murine T-T hybridomas that express TCRs containing either a full-length CD3 zeta subunit or a truncated CD3 zeta subunit incapable of transducing signals. Despite expression of equivalent surface levels of TCR, CD2-mediated signaling is seen only in the T cells containing wild-type CD3 zeta. These findings show that (i) CD16 on NK cells is functionally equivalent to the TCR on T lymphocytes for coupling CD2 to signaling pathways and (ii) CD2 signal transduction depends upon the CD3 zeta subunit of the TCR complex and, by inference, the CD3 zeta subunit of the CD16 complex.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of Ofatumumab Plus Chlorambucil in First-Line Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia in Canada.

    PubMed

    Herring, William; Pearson, Isobel; Purser, Molly; Nakhaipour, Hamid Reza; Haiderali, Amin; Wolowacz, Sorrel; Jayasundara, Kavisha

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the cost effectiveness of ofatumumab plus chlorambucil (OChl) versus chlorambucil in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia for whom fludarabine-based therapies are considered inappropriate from the perspective of the publicly funded healthcare system in Canada. A semi-Markov model (3-month cycle length) used survival curves to govern progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Efficacy and safety data and health-state utility values were estimated from the COMPLEMENT-1 trial. Post-progression treatment patterns were based on clinical guidelines, Canadian treatment practices and published literature. Total and incremental expected lifetime costs (in Canadian dollars [$Can], year 2013 values), life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were computed. Uncertainty was assessed via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The discounted lifetime health and economic outcomes estimated by the model showed that, compared with chlorambucil, first-line treatment with OChl led to an increase in QALYs (0.41) and total costs ($Can27,866) and to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $Can68,647 per QALY gained. In deterministic sensitivity analyses, the ICER was most sensitive to the modelling time horizon and to the extrapolation of OS treatment effects beyond the trial duration. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability of cost effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $Can100,000 per QALY gained was 59 %. Base-case results indicated that improved overall response and PFS for OChl compared with chlorambucil translated to improved quality-adjusted life expectancy. Sensitivity analysis suggested that OChl is likely to be cost effective subject to uncertainty associated with the presence of any long-term OS benefit and the model time horizon.

  1. Interaction of the hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, with cultured human leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sallay, I; Moriwaki, S; Nakamura, O; Yasuda, S; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N; Itoh, K; Ohba, H

    2000-12-01

    We studied interaction of CEL-III with cultured human leukemic cell lines and lymphocytes from normal adults by evaluating the extent of cytotoxicity and cytoagglutination. Among acute T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines, CEL-III displayed increased toxicity against different acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines as a function of increasing differentiation stage. In the case of acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines, CEL-III showed strong cytotoxicity against relatively immature cell lines. We found that CEL-III was more toxic for ALL cell lines than leukocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy adults. Strong influence of the additional amount of calcium ion on the extent of cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, we describe a new way to evaluate the extent of cytoagglutination in "% of agglutinated cells". These findings make CEL-III a promising candidate in research for lectins which bind to and destroy only the targeted leukemic cells.

  2. NADPH-dependent reductases and polyol formation in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sanai; Secchi, E Filippo; Sakurai, Shinichi; Ohta, Nobuo; Fukase, Shigeru; Lizak, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    Because of the limited availability of human tissues, leukemia cell lines are often utilized as the models for human leukocytes. In this study, we investigated the NADPH-dependent reductases and polyol pathway in commonly utilized human leukemia cell lines. The relative amounts of aldose and aldehyde reductases were estimated by separating two enzymes with chromatofocusing. The flux of glucose through the polyol pathway was examined by 19F-NMR using 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as substrate. Sugar alcohol analysis was conducted by gas chromatography. In myelocytic leukemia cells, the major reductase was aldehyde reductase, and levels of aldose reductase were extremely low. Although lymphocytic cells also contained both aldose and aldehyde reductases, the levels of aldose reductase appeared to be higher in lymphocytic cells than myeolcytic cells. In two lymphocytic cells MOLT-4 and SKW6.4, aldose reductase is clearly dominant. When incubated in medium containing D-galactose, all cell lines quickly accumulated galactitol. There was correlation between galactitol levels and aldose reductase levels. The aldose reductase inhibitor FK 366 significantly reduced the formation of galactitol. 19F-NMR of the cells cultured with 3FG as substrate demonstrated the formation of 3-fluoro-3-dexoy-sorbitol in all the cell lines examined in this study. The relative amounts of sorbitol and fructose varied significantly among the cells. The data confirm that the polyol pathway is present in both myelocytic and lymphocytic leukemia cell lines. However, there is a large variation among the cell lines in the levels of enzymes and flux of glucose through the polyol pathway.

  3. Selective binding of CD4 and CD8 T-cells to antigen presenting cells for enrichment of CMV and HIV specific T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li Pira, Giuseppina; Ivaldi, Federico; Manca, Fabrizio

    2012-02-28

    Adherent antigen presenting cells (APC) pulsed with protein or peptide antigens were used to capture specific CD4 or CD8 T-cells derived from established T-cell lines or from PBMC of immune subjects based on physiological interaction between TCR and MHC-peptide complex. This method could be applied independently of epitope specificity, HLA restriction alleles, activation markers and secreted cytokines, parameters required by other methods for selection of specific T cells. Non specific T-cells were removed by applying a 1g force that did not affect binding of specific T-lymphocytes. Lymphocyte selection was specific and the average recovery was 36% for CD4 T-cells. CD8 T-cells proved trickier to purify, since solid phase APC were recognized as targets for cytotoxicity. Specificity was comparable to CD4 cells, but the average recovery for CD8 cells was 26%. No residual alloreactivity was detected in expanded T-cells. Frequency and recovery of specific T-cells were comparable to other current technologies, such as generation of T-cell lines and cytokine capture method. Since antigen and IL2 are the only reagents added to the cultures, this physiological procedure can be proposed for selection and expansion of pathogen specific T-cells not only for research purposes, but also for adoptive reconstitution of immunocompromised subjects if performed under GMP conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space: Role of cell-substratum interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmünder, F. K.; Kiess, M.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Lee, J.; Cogoli, A.

    We investigated the effect of substratum adhesiveness on stimulated lymphocyte blastogenesis by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA) in a simple onground system. Cells grown on medium-thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68% of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon-γ production was near zero when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. On uncoated plastic, activated lymphocytes subjected to high gravity (20g) exhibited an increased proliferation rate (40%) compared with 1g. By contrast, on poly-HEMA, high gravity did not improve lymphocyte responsiveness. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. We conclude that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  5. Lymphocyte T subsets and natural killer cells in Italian and Philippino blood donors.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, D; Ghirardini, A; Cafolla, A; Biffoni, M; Coluzzi, S; Vaglio, S; Girelli, G

    2003-01-01

    The characterization of lymphocyte subsets in blood donors has been utilized to determine the normal ranges that can be related to race. A study was performed in blood donors from two racial groups - Caucasian (Italians) and Asian (Philippinos) - to define respective T-lymphocyte subsets and levels of cytokines. Ninety-two blood donors (46 Italians and 46 Philippinos) were enrolled. Blood count and immunophenotyping of lymphocytes by flow cytometry were carried out, and cytokine production was tested in six blood donors of each group. Philippino blood donors showed a significantly higher mean value of leucocytes (P = 0.01) and lymphocytes (P < 0.001) than Italians. The mean absolute count of lymphocyte subsets CD3- CD16+ CD56+ and CD3+ CD8+ were both significantly higher in Philippino than in Italian subjects, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001. Philippinos showed a statistically significant higher frequency of lymphocytes producing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) compared to Italians (P = 0.02). T-lymphocyte subsets in Italian and Philippino blood donors seem to be correlated to ethnic background. The higher levels of CD3+ CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and IFN-gamma-producing cells found in Philippinos suggest leucoreduction in Asian blood donors.

  6. Expansion of activated lymphocytes obtained from renal cell carcinoma in an automated hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hillman, G G; Wolf, M L; Montecillo, E; Younes, E; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P

    1994-01-01

    Immunotherapy using IL-2 alone or combined with activated lymphocytes has been promising for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be isolated from tumors, expanded in vitro with IL-2, and adoptively transferred back into the tumor-bearing host. These cells can also be transduced with the genes coding for cytokines for local delivery to tumor sites. A major drawback in adoptive immunotherapy is the cumbersome and expensive culture technology associated with the growth of large numbers of cells required for their therapeutic effect. To reduce the cost, resources, and manpower, we have developed the methodology for lymphocyte activation and expansion in the automated hollow fiber bioreactor IMMUNO*STAR Cell Expander (ACT BIOMEDICAL, INC). Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from human renal cell carcinoma tumor specimens were inoculated at a number of 10(8) cells in a small bioreactor of 30 ml extracapillary space volume. We have determined the medium flow rates and culture conditions to obtain a significant and repeated expansion of TIL at weekly intervals. The lymphocytes cultured in the bioreactor demonstrated the same phenotype and cytotoxic activity as those expanded in parallel in tissue culture plates. Lymphocyte expansion in the hollow fiber bioreactor required lower volumes of medium, human serum, IL-2 and minimal labor. This technology may facilitate the use of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of refractory malignancies.

  7. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: Implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Clayton W.; Foster, Scott C.; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Sherman, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular endothelial cells and delays the onset of EAE. These effects could be due to the elimination of hyaluronan or the generation of hyaluronan digestion products that influence lymphocytes or endothelial cells. Here, we found that hyaluronan dodecasaccharides impaired activated lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells when applied to lymphocytes but not to the endothelial cells. The effects of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides on lymphocyte rolling were independent of CD44 and a receptor for degraded hyaluronan, toll-like receptor-4. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides or tetrasaccharides delayed the onset of EAE in a manner similar to subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides can therefore act directly on lymphocytes to modulate the onset of inflammatory demyelinating disease. PMID:23333375

  8. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Clayton W; Foster, Scott C; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J T; Sherman, Larry S

    2013-04-24

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular endothelial cells and delays the onset of EAE. These effects could be due to the elimination of hyaluronan or the generation of hyaluronan digestion products that influence lymphocytes or endothelial cells. Here, we found that hyaluronan dodecasaccharides impaired activated lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells when applied to lymphocytes but not to the endothelial cells. The effects of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides on lymphocyte rolling were independent of CD44 and a receptor for degraded hyaluronan, Toll-like receptor-4. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides or tetrasaccharides delayed the onset of EAE in a manner similar to subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides can therefore act directly on lymphocytes to modulate the onset of inflammatory demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Healthy CD4+ T lymphocytes are not affected by targeted therapies against the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Alberto M.; Zauli, Giorgio; Ultimo, Simona; McCubrey, James A.; Gonelli, Arianna; Marisi, Giorgia; Ulivi, Paola; Capitani, Silvano; Neri, Luca M.

    2016-01-01

    An attractive molecular target for novel anti-cancer therapies is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway which is commonly deregulated in many types of cancer. Nevertheless, the effects of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors on T lymphocytes, a key component of immune responses, have been seldom explored. In this study we investigated the effects on human CD4+ T-cells of a panel of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors: BGT226, Torin-2, MK-2206, and ZSTK474. We also assessed their efficacy against two acute leukemia T cell lines. T lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Inhibitor effects on cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, while cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assays. In addition, the activation status of the pathway as well as induction of autophagy were analyzed by Western blotting. Quiescent healthy T lymphocytes were unaffected by the drugs whereas mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes as well as leukemic cell lines displayed a cell cycle block, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and dephosphorylation of key components of the signaling pathway. Autophagy was also induced in proliferating lymphocytes and in JURKAT and MOLT-4 cell lines. When autophagy was inhibited by 3-methyladenine or Bafilomycin A1, drug cytotoxicity was increased, indicating that autophagy is a protective mechanism. Therefore, our findings suggest that PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors preserve lymphocyte viability. This is a valuable result to be taken into account when selecting drugs for targeted cancer therapy in order to minimize detrimental effects on immune function. PMID:27494886

  10. Inhibition of mesenchymal stromal cells by pre-activated lymphocytes and their culture media.

    PubMed

    Valencic, Erica; Loganes, Claudia; Cesana, Stefania; Piscianz, Elisa; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Biagi, Ettore; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-09

    Despite having a proven immunosuppressive potential in vitro, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are reported to display variable efficacy in vivo and, in fact, their proven benefit in the clinical practice is still limited and controversial. The interplay between clinical grade MSCs and pre-activated donor lymphocytes or selected lymphocyte subsets was studied in vitro. The kinetics of MSC growth and viability was evaluated by adhesion-dependent changes of culture plate impedance and biochemically by a colorimetric assay. Activation of natural killer (NK) cells was assessed as well, using a flow cytometry assay. A strong inhibition of MSC growth was rapidly induced by the addition of pre-activated lymphocytes but not of resting lymphocytes. Inhibition seems not to be attributable to a single cell population, as similar results can be obtained by depleting NK cells or by using either selected CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes. In addition, conditioned medium (CM) from activated lymphocytes was able to inhibit MSC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, licensing with IFN-γ partially protected MSCs from pre-activated lymphocytes but not from their CM. These results suggest an inhibitory role of lymphocyte-activation-derived substances. However, the identification of a single molecule responsible for MSC inhibition remained elusive, even if preliminary experiments showed that ATP and, to a lesser extent, TNF-α might play a role. These results suggest that survival of MSCs can be affected by soluble mediators released by activated lymphocytes. Thus it can be hypothesized that MSC immunosuppressive action in vivo could be impaired by ongoing immune activation through the release of inflammatory mediators.

  11. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ulleras, Erik; Dastych, JarosIaw . E-mail: jdastych@cbm.pan.pl

    2005-09-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals.

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells contain anomalous Lyn tyrosine kinase, a putative contribution to defective apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Contri, Antonella; Brunati, Anna Maria; Trentin, Livio; Cabrelle, Anna; Miorin, Marta; Cesaro, Luca; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Zambello, Renato; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Donella-Deana, Arianna

    2005-01-01

    B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a neoplastic disorder characterized by accumulation of B lymphocytes due to uncontrolled growth and resistance to apoptosis. Analysis of B cells freshly isolated from 40 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia demonstrated that the Src kinase Lyn, the switch molecule that couples the B cell receptor to downstream signaling, displays anomalous properties. Lyn is remarkably overexpressed at the protein level in leukemic cells as compared with normal B lymphocytes, with a substantial aliquot of the kinase anomalously present in the cytosol. Whereas in normal B lymphocytes Lyn activation is dependent on B cell–receptor stimulation, in resting malignant cells, the constitutive activity of the kinase accounts for high basal protein tyrosine phosphorylation and low responsiveness to IgM ligation. Addition of the Lyn inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 to leukemic cell cultures restores cell apoptosis, and treatment of malignant cells with drugs that induce cell apoptosis decreases both activity and amount of the tyrosine kinase. These findings suggest a direct correlation between high basal Lyn activity and defects in the induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells. They also support a critical role for Lyn in B-CLL pathogenesis and identify this tyrosine kinase as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:15650771

  13. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  14. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways.

  15. Interaction between human lung fibroblasts and T-lymphocytes prevents activation of CD4+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Vancheri, Carlo; Mastruzzo, Claudio; Trovato-Salinaro, Elisa; Gili, Elisa; Lo Furno, Debora; Pistorio, Maria P; Caruso, Massimo; La Rosa, Cristina; Crimi, Claudia; Failla, Marco; Crimi, Nunzio

    2005-01-01

    Background T lymphocytes are demonstrated to play an important role in several chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In this study we provide evidence that human lung fibroblasts are capable of mutually interacting with T-lymphocytes leading to functionally significant responses by T-cells and fibroblasts. Methods Human lung fibroblast were co-cultured with PMA-ionomycin activated T-CD4 lymphocytes for 36 hours. Surface as well as intracellular proteins expression, relevant to fibroblasts and lymphocytes activation, were evaluated by means of flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Proliferative responses of T lymphocytes to concanavalin A were evaluated by the MTT assay. Results In lung fibroblasts, activated lymphocytes promote an increase of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and ICAM-1, expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), from 5.4 ± 0.9 and 0.7 ± 0.15 to 9.1 ± 1.5 and 38.6 ± 7.8, respectively. Fibroblasts, in turn, induce a significant reduction of transcription and protein expression of CD69, LFA-1 and CD28 in activated lymphocytes and CD3 in resting lymphocytes. In activated T lymphocytes, LFA-1, CD28 and CD69 expression was 16.6 ± 0.7, 18.9 ± 1.9 and 6.6 ± 1.3, respectively, and was significantly reduced by fibroblasts to 9.4 ± 0.7, 9.4 ± 1.4 and 3.5 ± 1.0. CD3 expression in resting lymphocytes was 11.9 ± 1.4 and was significantly reduced by fibroblasts to 6.4 ± 1.1. Intracellular cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-10, were evaluated in T lymphocytes. Co-incubation with fibroblasts reduced the number of TNF-alpha positive lymphocytes from 54,4% ± 6.12 to 30.8 ± 2.8, while IL-10 positive cells were unaffected. Finally, co-culture with fibroblasts significantly reduced Con A proliferative response of T lymphocytes, measured as MTT absorbance, from 0.24 ± 0.02 nm to 0.16 ± 0.02 nm. Interestingly, while the activation of fibroblasts is mediated by a soluble factor, a cognate interaction ICAM-1 mediated was demonstrated to be responsible for the modulation

  16. Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Trinidad, A B; Herrera-Moreno, J F; Vázquez-Estrada, G; Verdín-Betancourt, F A; Sordo, M; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Salazar, A M; Rojas-García, A E

    2015-06-01

    Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 μM) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cell-Surface Integrins and CAR Are Both Essential for Adenovirus Type 5 Transduction of Canine Cells of Lymphocytic Origin.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Payal; Gammon, Elizabeth A; Sajib, Abdul Mohin; Sandey, Maninder; Smith, Bruce F

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in cancer gene therapy. Adenoviruses vectors are well characterized and are easily manipulated. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most commonly used human serotype. Ad5 internalization into host cells is a combined effect of binding of Ad5 fiber knob with the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and binding of RGD motifs in viral penton to cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5). Ad5's wide range of host-cell transduction and lack of integration into the host genome have made it an excellent choice for cancer therapeutics. However, Ad5 has limited ability to transduce cells of hematopoietic origin. It has been previously reported that low or no expression of CAR is a potential obstacle to Ad5 infection in hematopoietic origin cells. In addition, we have previously reported that low levels of cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5) may inhibit Ad5 infection in canine lymphoma cell lines. In the current report we have examined the ability of an Ad5 vector to infect human (HEK293) and canine non-cancerous (NCF and PBMC), canine non-hematopoietic origin cancer (CMT28, CML7, and CML10), and canine hematopoietic origin cancer (DH82, 17-71, OSW, MPT-1, and BR) cells. In addition, we have quantified CAR, αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin transcript expression in these cells by using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (q-RT-PCR). Low levels of integrins were present in MPT1, 17-71, OSW, and PBMC cells in comparison to CMT28, DH82, and BR cells. CAR mRNA levels were comparatively higher in MPT1, 17-71, OSW, and PBMC cells. This report confirms and expands the finding that low or absent expression of cell surface integrins may be the primary reason for the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce cells of lymphocytic origin and some myeloid cells but this is not true for all hematopoietic origin cells. For efficient use of Ad5-based therapeutic vectors in cancers of lymphocytic origin, it is important to address the

  18. Cell-Surface Integrins and CAR Are Both Essential for Adenovirus Type 5 Transduction of Canine Cells of Lymphocytic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Elizabeth A.; Sajib, Abdul Mohin; Sandey, Maninder; Smith, Bruce F.

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in cancer gene therapy. Adenoviruses vectors are well characterized and are easily manipulated. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most commonly used human serotype. Ad5 internalization into host cells is a combined effect of binding of Ad5 fiber knob with the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and binding of RGD motifs in viral penton to cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5). Ad5’s wide range of host-cell transduction and lack of integration into the host genome have made it an excellent choice for cancer therapeutics. However, Ad5 has limited ability to transduce cells of hematopoietic origin. It has been previously reported that low or no expression of CAR is a potential obstacle to Ad5 infection in hematopoietic origin cells. In addition, we have previously reported that low levels of cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5) may inhibit Ad5 infection in canine lymphoma cell lines. In the current report we have examined the ability of an Ad5 vector to infect human (HEK293) and canine non-cancerous (NCF and PBMC), canine non-hematopoietic origin cancer (CMT28, CML7, and CML10), and canine hematopoietic origin cancer (DH82, 17–71, OSW, MPT-1, and BR) cells. In addition, we have quantified CAR, αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin transcript expression in these cells by using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (q-RT-PCR). Low levels of integrins were present in MPT1, 17–71, OSW, and PBMC cells in comparison to CMT28, DH82, and BR cells. CAR mRNA levels were comparatively higher in MPT1, 17–71, OSW, and PBMC cells. This report confirms and expands the finding that low or absent expression of cell surface integrins may be the primary reason for the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce cells of lymphocytic origin and some myeloid cells but this is not true for all hematopoietic origin cells. For efficient use of Ad5-based therapeutic vectors in cancers of lymphocytic origin, it is important to address

  19. Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in metastatic melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Radvanyi, Laszlo G.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Zhang, Minying; Fox, Patricia S.; Miller, Priscilla; Chacon, Jessica; Wu, Richard; Lizee, Gregory; Mahoney, Sandy; Alvarado, Gladys; Glass, Michelle; Johnson, Valen E.; McMannis, John D.; Shpall, Elizabeth; Prieto, Victor; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Kim, Kevin; Homsi, Jade; Bedikian, Agop; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Patel, Sapna; Ross, Merrick I.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Lucci, Anthony; Royal, Richard; Cormier, Janice N.; Davies, Michael A.; Mansaray, Rahmatu; Fulbright, Orenthial J.; Toth, Christopher; Ramachandran, Renjith; Wardell, Seth; Gonzalez, Audrey; Hwu, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma unresponsive to conventional therapies. We report here on the results of an ongoing Phase II clinical trial testing the efficacy of ACT using TIL in metastatic melanoma patients and the association of specific patient clinical characteristics and the phenotypic attributes of the infused TIL with clinical response. Experimental Design Altogether, 31 transiently lymphodepleted patients were treated with their expanded TIL followed by two cycles of high-dose (HD) IL-2 therapy. The effects of patient clinical features and the phenotypes of the T-cells infused on clinical response were determined. Results Overall, 15/31 (48.4%) patients had an objective clinical response using immune-related response criteria (irRC), with two patients (6.5%) having a complete response. Progression-free survival of >12 months was observed for 9/15 (60%) of the responding patients. Factors significantly associated with objective tumor regression included a higher number of TIL infused, a higher proportion of CD8+ T-cells in the infusion product, a more differentiated effector phenotype of the CD8+ population and a higher frequency of CD8+ T-cells co-expressing the negative costimulation molecule “B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator” (BTLA). No significant difference in telomere lengths of TIL between responders and non-responders was identified. Conclusion These results indicate that immunotherapy with expanded autologous TIL is capable of achieving durable clinical responses in metastatic melanoma patients and that CD8+ T-cells in the infused TIL, particularly differentiated effectors cells and cells expressing BTLA, are associated with tumor regression. PMID:23032743

  20. LINE-1 Cultured Cell Retrotransposition Assay.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Huira C; Larson, Peter A; Moldovan, John B; Richardson, Sandra R; Liu, Ying; Moran, John V

    2016-01-01

    The Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition assay has facilitated the discovery and characterization of active (i.e., retrotransposition-competent) LINE-1 sequences from mammalian genomes. In this assay, an engineered LINE-1 containing a retrotransposition reporter cassette is transiently transfected into a cultured cell line. Expression of the reporter cassette, which occurs only after a successful round of retrotransposition, allows the detection and quantification of the LINE-1 retrotransposition efficiency. This assay has yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition. It also has provided a greater understanding of how the cell regulates LINE-1 retrotransposition and how LINE-1 retrotransposition impacts the structure of mammalian genomes. Below, we provide a brief introduction to LINE-1 biology and then detail how the LINE-1 retrotransposition assay is performed in cultured mammalian cells.

  1. A serpin from human tumor cells with direct lymphoid immunomodulatory activity: mitogenic stimulation of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Packard, B Z; Lee, S S; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Komoriya, A

    1995-10-19

    A serum-free supernatant from an epidermal carcinoma cell line has previously been shown to contain mitogenic activity for human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in culture [1]. From this conditioned medium we have now purified to homogeneity, as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis, a ca. 45 kDa protein which stimulates [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of these human T-lymphocytes. Amino acid composition data and immunoreactivity of the purified protein as well as sequence analyses of 7 tryptic fragments obtained therefrom suggest a strong similarity with human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor, which is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. We have previously identified and purified from the same conditioned medium a 36 kDa protein with myeloid immunomodulatory activity [2]. Taken together, these two reports support the role of tumor-derived soluble factors in tumor immunosurveillance.

  2. Myo1g is an active player in maintaining cell stiffness in B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, O; Ovalle-García, E; Ortega-Blake, I; Antillón, A; Chávez-Munguía, B; Patiño-López, G; Fragoso-Soriano, R; Santos-Argumedo, L

    2016-05-01

    B-lymphocytes are migrating cells that specialize in antigen presentation, antibody secretion, and endocytosis; these processes implicate the modulation of plasma membrane elasticity. Cell stiffness is a force generated by the interaction between the actin-cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, which requires the participation of several proteins. These proteins include class I myosins, which are now considered to play a role in controlling membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In this study, we identified the motor protein Myosin 1g (Myo1g) as a mediator of this phenomenon. The absence of Myo1g decreased the cell stiffness, affecting cell adhesion, cell spreading, phagocytosis, and endocytosis in B-lymphocytes. The results described here reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which Myo1g mediates and regulates cell stiffness in B-lymphocytes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocytes proliferation and programmed cell death in demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    Saresella, Marina; Marventano, Ivana; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Zanzottera, Milena; Delbue, Serena; Marchioni, Enrico; Maserati, Renato; Longhi, Renato; Ferrante, Pasquale; Clerici, Mario

    2008-12-01

    A dynamic equilibrium between proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD) of auto-reactive T lymphocytes plays a pivotal role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. We analyzed T lymphocytes myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific PCD and proliferation in demyelinating diseases. Results showed that MBP-specific PCD was significantly decreased in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), not determined leukoencephalopathy (NDLE), and acute MS (AMS) patients compared to patients with stable MS (SMS) and healthy controls. MBP-specific proliferation/PCD rates were high in CD4+ T lymphocytes of PML, NDLE, and AMS patients, and in CD8+ T cells of PML and AMS individuals alone. Alterations of the balance between MBP-specific proliferation and PCD are present in demyelinating diseases and could play a major role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  4. Costimulatory signal provided by a B-lymphoblastoid cell line and its Ia-negative variant.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, H; Benacerraf, B

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the requirements of highly purified, resting murine CD4+ T lymphocytes for activation mediated by the lectin Con A and by monoclonal antibodies against the CD3 and Thy-1 molecules. Our results indicate that both the Ia-positive B-lymphoblastoid cell line M12 and its Ia-negative variant M12.C3 can provide the costimulatory activity necessary for these activation pathways. The costimulatory function is preserved upon fixation with paraformaldehyde, indicating that the costimulatory molecule(s) is (are) constitutively expressed on the cell surface. Our experiments also point to interesting differences between the M12 cell line and syngeneic Ia-positive antigen-presenting cells in generating a syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Finally, we show that the CD4+ T cell-M12.C3 cell interaction can be used to screen for interesting monoclonal antibodies that affect cell function. Images PMID:2532358

  5. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate activated CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes display potent anti-tumor activity towards human squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Alan A.Z.; Maniar, Amudhan; Cummings, Jean-Saville; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Schulze, Dan H.; Gastman, Brian R.; Pauza, C. David; Strome, Scott E.; Chapoval, Andrei I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The expression of CD56, a natural killer (NK) cell-associated molecule, on αβ T lymphocytes correlates with their increased anti-tumor effector function. CD56 is also expressed on a subset of γδ T cells. However, anti-tumor effector functions of CD56+ γδ T cells are poorly characterized. Experimental design To investigate the potential effector role of CD56+ γδ T cells in tumor killing, we employed isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and IL-2 expanded γδ T cells from PBMC of healthy donors. Results Thirty to 70% of IPP+IL-2 expanded γδ T cells express CD56 on their surface. Interestingly, while both CD56+ and CD56− γδ T cells express comparable levels of receptors involved in the regulation of γδ T cell cytotoxicity (e.g. NKG2D and CD94) only CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes are capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and other solid tumor cell lines. This effect is likely mediated by the enhanced release of cytolytic granules, since CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes expressed higher levels of CD107a compared to CD56− controls, following exposure to tumor cell lines. Lysis of tumor cell lines is blocked by concanomycin A and a combination of anti-γδTCR + anti-NKG2D mAb, suggesting that the lytic activity of CD56+ γδ T cells involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly γδTCR/NKGD2 dependent. Importantly, CD56 expressing γδ T lymphocytes are resistant to Fas ligand and chemically induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our data indicate that CD56+ γδ T cells are potent anti-tumor effectors capable of killing SCC and may play an important therapeutic role in patients with head and neck cancer and other malignancies. PMID:18594005

  6. Targeting Stereotyped B Cell Receptors from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients with Synthetic Antigen Surrogates*

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Qi, Junpeng; Peng, Haiyong; Morimoto, Jumpei; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease in which a single B-cell clone proliferates relentlessly in peripheral lymphoid organs, bone marrow, and blood. DNA sequencing experiments have shown that about 30% of CLL patients have stereotyped antigen-specific B-cell receptors (BCRs) with a high level of sequence homology in the variable domains of the heavy and light chains. These include many of the most aggressive cases that have IGHV-unmutated BCRs whose sequences have not diverged significantly from the germ line. This suggests a personalized therapy strategy in which a toxin or immune effector function is delivered selectively to the pathogenic B-cells but not to healthy B-cells. To execute this strategy, serum-stable, drug-like compounds able to target the antigen-binding sites of most or all patients in a stereotyped subset are required. We demonstrate here the feasibility of this approach with the discovery of selective, high affinity ligands for CLL BCRs of the aggressive, stereotyped subset 7P that cross-react with the BCRs of several CLL patients in subset 7p, but not with BCRs from patients outside this subset. PMID:26851280

  7. Investigation into the role of phosphatidylserine in modifying the susceptibility of human lymphocytes to secretory phospholipase A(2) using cells deficient in the expression of scramblase.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer; Francom, Lyndee L; Anderson, Lynn; Damm, Kelly; Baker, Ryan; Chen, Joseph; Franklin, Sarah; Hamaker, Amy; Izidoro, Izadora; Moss, Eric; Orton, Mikayla; Stevens, Evan; Yeung, Celestine; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2012-05-01

    Normal human lymphocytes resisted the hydrolytic action of secretory phospholipase A(2) but became susceptible to the enzyme following treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin. To test the hypothesis that this susceptibility requires exposure of the anionic lipid phosphatidylserine on the external face of the cell membrane, experiments were repeated with a human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (Raji cells). In contrast to normal lymphocytes or S49 mouse lymphoma cells, most of the Raji cells (83%) did not translocate phosphatidylserine to the cell surface upon treatment with ionomycin. Those few that did display exposed phosphatidylserine were hydrolyzed immediately upon addition of phospholipase A(2). Interestingly, the remaining cells were also completely susceptible to the enzyme but were hydrolyzed at a slower rate and after a latency of about 100s. In contradistinction to the defect in phosphatidylserine translocation, Raji cells did display other physical membrane changes upon ionomycin treatment that may be relevant to hydrolysis by phospholipase A(2). These changes were detected by merocyanine 540 and trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene fluorescence and were common among normal lymphocytes, S49 cells, and Raji cells. The levels of these latter effects corresponded well with the relative rates of hydrolysis among the three cell lines. These results suggested that while phosphatidylserine enhances the rate of cell membrane hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2), it is not an absolute requirement. Other physical properties such as membrane order contribute to the level of membrane susceptibility to the enzyme independent of phosphatidylserine.

  8. Nuclear overexpression of lymphoid-enhancer-binding factor 1 identifies chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma in small B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Bevan; Peterson, Loann; Gao, Juehua; Nelson, Beverly; Ma, Shuo; Rosen, Steven; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Lymphoid-enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), coupling with β-catenin, functions as a key nuclear mediator of WNT/β-catenin signaling, which regulates cell proliferation and survival. LEF1 has an important role in lymphopoiesis, and is normally expressed in T and pro-B cells but not mature B cells. However, gene expression profiling demonstrates overexpression of LEF1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and knockdown of LEF1 decreases the survival of the leukemic cells. So far, the data on LEF1 expression in B-cell lymphomas are limited. This study represents the first attempt to assess LEF1 by immunohistochemistry in a large series (290 cases) of B-cell lymphomas. Strong nuclear staining of LEF1 was observed in virtually all neoplastic cells in 92 of 92 (100%) chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas including two CD5- cases, with strongest staining in cells with Richter's transformation. LEF1 also highlighted the morphologically inconspicuous small lymphocytic lymphoma component in three composite lymphomas. All 53 mantle cell lymphomas, 31 low-grade follicular lymphomas and 31 marginal zone lymphomas, including 3 CD5+ cases, were negative. In 12 grade 3 follicular lymphomas, LEF1 was positive in a small subset (5-15%) of cells. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, however, demonstrated significant variability in LEF1 expression with overall positivity in 27 of 71 (38%) cases. Our results demonstrate that nuclear overexpression of LEF1 is highly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and may serve as a convenient marker for differential diagnosis of small B-cell lymphomas. The expression of β-catenin, the coactivator of LEF1 in WNT signaling, was examined in 50 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas, of which 44 (88%) showed negative nuclear staining. The findings of universal nuclear overexpression of LEF1 but lack of nuclear β-catenin in the majority of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic

  9. MHC class I molecules are an essential cell surface component involved in Theileria parva sporozoite binding to bovine lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M K; Tilney, L G; Musoke, A J; Teale, A J

    1995-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are ubiquitous cell surface molecules involved in the cell-mediated immune response. We show here, using a number of different, independent approaches, that these proteins are an essential component of the host cell surface receptor involved in Theileria parva sporozoite invasion. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with common determinants on MHC class I molecules and with beta-2 microglobulin inhibited sporozoite entry by specifically preventing the initial binding event. However, in experiments using lymphocytes from heterozygous cattle in which at least four MHC class I gene products are expressed, mAbs which reacted with only one of these products did not inhibit entry. Using a series of bovine deletion mutant cell lines from which one or both MHC class I haplotypes had been lost, sporozoite binding and entry clearly correlated with the level of class I surface expression. While the level of sporozoite entry into cells in which one of the MHC class I haplotypes was lost was only slightly lower than into the parent cells, in a double deletion cell line having less than 5% of the class I expression of the parent cells the level of infection was only 4.3% of that into the parent cells. Furthermore, sporozoite entry into cells from a spontaneously arising mutant cell line exhibiting low levels of class I expression was correspondingly low. Treatment of lymphocytes with IL-2 produced a significant increase in host cell susceptibility and sporozoite entry and this increase correlated with either an increase in the number of target molecules per host cell, or in the binding of bovine MHC class I molecules to the mAbs. In particular, a significant increase in the level of reactivity with mAb W6/32 was observed. Lastly, we show that parasite entry can be competitively inhibited with an isolated sporozoite surface protein, p67. However, p67 binds weakly to lymphocyte surface molecules and initial attempts to

  10. Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (P<0.01) between individual pairs from the inbred lines having different B alleles compared to pairs within the inbred line, while lower stimulation was observed between pairs of the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible.

  11. Experimental African swine fever: apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in other cells.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Hervás, J; Méndez, A; Carrasco, L; Martín de las Mulas, J; Villeda, C J; Wilkinson, P J; Sierra, M A

    1995-09-01

    In order to determine the cause of cellular death of lymphocytes in pigs with acute African swine fever and the relationships between African swine fever virus (ASFV) and interstitial cells, ten pigs were inoculated with a highly virulent strain of ASFV (Malawi '83) and samples taken for ultrastructural study of hepatic and renal interstitial tissues. We demonstrated death by apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in the interstitial tissues of pigs inoculated with ASFV. From day 5 onwards, apoptotic lymphocyte and intense virus replication in hepatic interstitial macrophages and fibroblasts were observed. By day 7, apoptotic lymphocytes and virus replication in macrophages, interstitial capillary endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the kidney were observed. Virus replication was also seen in smooth muscle cells of hepatic and renal arterioles and venules. Our results suggest that mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cell activation, and the resulting release of cytokines, could induce apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in non-MPS cells.

  12. Formalin-treated bacteria as selective B cell mitogens in the study of lymphocytes from patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Banck, G; Forsgren, A

    1980-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan I, Haemophilus influenzae, and Branhamella catarrhalis that stimulate human B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes, were used to study the B lymphocyte function in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Lymphocytes from two patients with no circulating B cells were not stimulated to increased DNA synthesis by these bacterial mitogens. The lymphocytes of six patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia and normal numbers of circulating B cells responded to the bacterial mitogens but in five patients the response was decreased in comparison with healthy controls. PMID:6971196

  13. Generation of tumor-targeted human T lymphocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Themeli, Maria; Kloss, Christopher C; Ciriello, Giovanni; Fedorov, Victor D; Perna, Fabiana; Gonen, Mithat; Sadelain, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Progress in adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer and infectious diseases is hampered by the lack of readily available, antigen-specific, human T lymphocytes. Pluripotent stem cells could provide an unlimited source of T lymphocytes, but the therapeutic potential of human pluripotent stem cell-derived lymphoid cells generated to date remains uncertain. Here we combine induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technologies to generate human T cells targeted to CD19, an antigen expressed by malignant B cells, in tissue culture. These iPSC-derived, CAR-expressing T cells display a phenotype resembling that of innate γδ T cells. Similar to CAR-transduced, peripheral blood γδ T cells, the iPSC-derived T cells potently inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model. This approach of generating therapeutic human T cells 'in the dish' may be useful for cancer immunotherapy and other medical applications.

  14. Natural killer T cells: innate lymphocytes positioned as a bridge between acute and chronic inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lisa; Hegde, Subramanya

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer T cells are an innate population of T lymphocytes that recognize antigens derived from host lipids and glycolipids. In this review, we focus on how these unique T cells are positioned to influence both acute and chronic inflammatory processes through their early recruitment to sites of inflammation, interactions with myeloid antigen presenting cells, and recognition of lipids associated with inflammation. PMID:20850561

  15. Spinal fluid lymphocytes responsive to autologous and allogeneic cells in multiple sclerosis and control individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, G; Kotilinek, L; Schwartz, M; Sternad, M

    1984-01-01

    Spinal fluid lymphocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls were stimulated with either autologous non-T cells or with allogeneic non-T cells followed by stimulation with autologous non-T lymphocytes. Cells responding to these stimuli were cloned and their proliferative responses to autologous and allogeneic MS and normal non-T cells were measured. Large numbers of clones with specific patterns of reaction to both autologous and allogeneic cells were obtained from lymphocytes in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but only occasionally from cells in control CSF. Patterns of responses among clones from a particular CSF were similar and often identical, which suggested that cells in MS CSF were relatively restricted in their specificities. Surface antigen phenotyping of the clones showed them to be predominantly OKT4+, with 13% OKT8+ and 11% OKT4+8+. Peripheral T cells that were stimulated and cultured in parallel with CSF cells were different in that they usually did not give rise to as many clones nor were their patterns of response similar. Many CSF clones were heteroclitic, that is they responded to particular allogeneic cells but not autologous cells. Lymphocytes in MS CSF thus appear to represent a selected population of cells with a high frequency of responsiveness to autologous and allogeneic antigens. Such responses may be evidence for immune regulation within the central nervous system or could represent responses to altered-self antigens. PMID:6237121

  16. Cell size variations of large granular lymphocyte leukemia: Implication of a small cell subtype of granular lymphocyte leukemia with STAT3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takezawa, Yuka; Ito, Toshiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Nishina, Sayaka; Senoo, Noriko; Sakai, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-06-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGL-L) has been morphologically defined as a group of lymphoproliferative disorders, including T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL-L), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK) and aggressive NK cell leukemia. We investigated the morphological features of LGL leukemic cells in 26 LGL-L patients in order to elucidate relationships with current classifications and molecular backgrounds. LGL-L cells were mostly indistinguishable from normal LGL. Patients with STAT3 SH2 domain mutations showed significantly smaller cells compared with patients without STAT3 mutations. Four patients with T-LGL-L showed smaller granular lymphocytes with a median diameter of less than 13μm, which were rarely seen in normal subjects. This small subtype of T-LGL-L was recognized among rather young patients and was associated with D661Y mutations in the STAT3 gene SH2 domain. In addition, all of them showed anemia including two cases with pure red cell aplasia. These results suggest the heterogeneity of T-LGL-L and a specific subtype with small variants of T-LGL-L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous expression of CD2 on a B-cell, small lymphocytic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Viciana, A L; Lancet, F C; Chamizo, W; Voigt, W; Ruiz, P

    1994-03-15

    An unusual neoplasm, best classified as a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia on the basis of cytofluorographic, immunohistologic, and gene rearrangement analysis also co-expressed the T-cell associated marker CD2 (sheep erythrocyte receptor), but without other cell markers restricted to T cells. This case was associated with a more aggressive course than typically seen with B-CLL or malignant lymphoma, small lymphocytic type, implying along with previous reports that CD2 expression may serve as a marker of small lymphocytic tumor cell behavior and the ultimate clinical course. Thus, surface phenotypic analysis of these particular hematopoietic neoplasms may serve not only for identification of the malignancy, but could also render prognostic information.

  18. Composite Mantle Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoeller, Sylvia; Zhou, Yi; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Hoehn, Daniela; Bihl, Michel; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Said, Jonathan; Dunphy, Cherie H.; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Lin, Pei; Miranda, Roberto N.; Tzankov, Alexander; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2013-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) share many features and both arise from CD5+ B-cells, their distinction is critical as MCL is a much more aggressive neoplasm. Rarely, composite MCL and CLL/SLL have been reported. Little is known, about the nature of these cases and in particular the clonal relationship of the two lymphomas. Eleven composite MCL and CLL/SLL cases were identified. The clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic features of the MCL and CLL/SLL were characterized. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene analysis was performed on microdissected MCL and CLL/SLL components to assess their clonal relationship. Ten patients had lymphadenopathy, and 7 patients had bone marrow involvement. The MCL component had the following growth patterns: in situ (n=1), mantle zone (n=3), nodular and diffuse (n=3), diffuse (n=3), and interstitial in the bone marrow (the only patient without lymphadenopathy) (n=1); 6 MCL had blastoid or pleomorphic and 5 classical cytologic features. The CLL/SLL component was internodular (n=9) or diffuse (n=2). All MCL were CD5+ and cyclin D1+ with t(11;14) translocation. All CLL/SLL were CD5+, CD23+ and negative for cyclin D1 or t(11;14). IGH gene analysis showed that the MCL and CLL/SLL components displayed different sized fragments, indicating that the MCL and CLL/SLL are likely derived from different neoplastic B-cell clones. The lack of a clonal relationship between the MCL and CLL/SLL components suggests that the MCL and CLL/SLL represent distinct disease processes and do not share a common progenitor B-cell. PMID:22944294

  19. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable.

  20. A specific immune tolerance toward offspring cells is to exist after the mother lymphocyte infusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Haizhou; Liu, Shiqin; Chen, Xue; Fang, Fang; Wu, Xueqiang; Zhu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    To examine immune tolerance between maternal lymphocytes and offspring tissue after a donor lymphocyte infusion. Mouse models were established by mating female BALB/c mice with male C57BL mice. Splenic lymphocytes from donors of different genetic backgrounds were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and 1×10(7) of the labeled cells were intravenously injected into a recipient. At 6h, 24h, 72h and 120h after the infusion, mononuclear cells in recipient spleen, liver, thymus, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood were collected. CFSE+, CFSE-, CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, CD19+, NK1.1+, CD25+, and CD127+ lymphocytes in those samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. The distribution of donor T cells, B cells, NK cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and recipient regulatory T cells in the tissues were then analyzed. Maternal lymphocytes were more likely to survive in offspring. At 120h after infusion, the percentages of maternal cells in the offspring were 0.52±0.11% in lymph nodes, 0.97±0.04% in peripheral blood, and 0.97±0.11% in the spleen. Few donor cells, if any, were detected in these tissues at 120h after aunt to child, father to child, and unrelated allogeneic infusions were performed. The subtype proportion of donor lymphocytes changed significantly in the recipient tissues. Recipient Treg cells increased in the mother to child group, but not in the aunt to child, father to child, and unrelated allogeneic groups, suggesting a decreased cellular immune response to allogeneic cells in the mother to child group. At 120h after the infusion, no donor cells were detected in the recipient livers and thymuses of all groups, implying that donor cells were barely able to colonize in the liver and thymus. Specific immune tolerance to maternal lymphocytes exists in offspring. An infusion of maternal donor lymphocytes may produce a relatively persistent effect of adoptive immunotherapy with reduced side-effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  1. Naturally processed viral peptides recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes on cells chronically infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have established long-term cultures of several cell lines stably and uniformly expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in order to (a) identify naturally processed HIV-1 peptides recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from HIV-1-seropositive individuals and (b) consider the hypothesis that naturally occurring epitope densities on HIV-infected cells may limit their lysis by CTL. Each of two A2- restricted CD8+ CTL specific for HIV-1 gag or reverse transcriptase (RT) recognized a single naturally processed HIV-1 peptide in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) extracts of infected cells: gag 77-85 (SLYNTVATL) or RT 476-484 (ILKEPVHGV). Both processed peptides match the synthetic peptides that are optimally active in cytotoxicity assays and have the consensus motif described for A2-associated peptides. Their abundances were approximately 400 and approximately 12 molecules per infected Jurkat-A2 cell, respectively. Other synthetic HIV-1 peptides active at subnanomolar concentrations were not present in infected cells. Except for the antigen processing mutant line T2, HIV- infected HLA-A2+ cell lines were specifically lysed by both A2- restricted CTL, although infected Jurkat-A2 cells were lysed more poorly by RT-specific CTL than by gag-specific CTL, suggesting that low cell surface density of a natural peptide may limit the effectiveness of some HIV-specific CTL despite their vigorous activity against synthetic peptide-treated target cells. PMID:7523570

  2. Increased NK activity is responsible for higher cytotoxicity to HEF cells by lymphocytes of women with threatened preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Hadnagy, J; Csernus, V; Balázs, L; Magyarlaki, T; Pacsa, A S

    1985-01-01

    Recently we have shown that lymphocytes of pregnant women with threatened preterm delivery (risk group) exerted significantly higher cytotoxic activity to human embryonic fibroblast (HEF) cells than those of healthy pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to get information on the mechanism of this cytotoxicity. The possibility of prior sensitization to embryonic antigen was excluded, since no difference could be demonstrated between cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes obtained from women with two or more previous pregnancies and that of lymphocytes from never-pregnant women. For determining the effector cell type responsible for cytotoxicity, lymphocytes of 50 healthy pregnant women and those of 50 risk patients were tested in different cytotoxicity tests using HEF and K-562 target cells. The proportion of NK cells among lymphocytes was determined by counting large granular lymphocytes (LGL), IgG Fc receptor bearing cells, and cells positively stained by NK specific monoclonal antibody. Though no difference in the proportion of NK cells between the two groups was found, risk patients' lymphocytes were significantly more cytotoxic to K-562 target cells than those of healthy pregnant women. Investigations at the single-cell level made it obvious that this higher cytotoxic activity originated from increased target cell lysing ability of their lymphocytes, while their conjugating capacity did not differ significantly from that of lymphocytes obtained from healthy pregnant women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio, Mean Platelet Volume and Red Cell Distribution Width Measures in Bells Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Caner; Varım, Ceyhun

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Bells Palsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with Bells Palsy and 28 control patients were included in the study. Serum samples were analysed retrospectively on the initial presentation and the seventh day of admission. RESULTS: On admission, the NLR was 1.7±1.2. The mean absolute neutrophil count was 6100 ± 900/mm^3 in Bells Palsy Group. NLR was 0.9 ± 0.2. The mean absolute neutrophil count was 4400 ± 1100/mm^3 in control group. Statistically, significant changes were not observed in NLR, PLR, MPV and RDW measurements in Bells Palsy group between House-Brackman Staging. CONCLUSION: Statistically significant changes in the neutrophil count and NLR were determined in the measurements between Bells Palsy and control group (p = 0.013, p = 0.016 respectively) on admission. A grade of the disease and NLR measurements had no statistically significant connection. RDW value was investigated for the first time in the literature for Bells Palsy patients. PMID:28293309

  4. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio, Mean Platelet Volume and Red Cell Distribution Width Measures in Bells Palsy.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Caner; Varım, Ceyhun

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Bells Palsy. Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with Bells Palsy and 28 control patients were included in the study. Serum samples were analysed retrospectively on the initial presentation and the seventh day of admission. On admission, the NLR was 1.7±1.2. The mean absolute neutrophil count was 6100 ± 900/mm^3 in Bells Palsy Group. NLR was 0.9 ± 0.2. The mean absolute neutrophil count was 4400 ± 1100/mm^3 in control group. Statistically, significant changes were not observed in NLR, PLR, MPV and RDW measurements in Bells Palsy group between House-Brackman Staging. Statistically significant changes in the neutrophil count and NLR were determined in the measurements between Bells Palsy and control group (p = 0.013, p = 0.016 respectively) on admission. A grade of the disease and NLR measurements had no statistically significant connection. RDW value was investigated for the first time in the literature for Bells Palsy patients.

  5. The Spectrum of Kidney Pathology in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: A 25-Year Multicenter Experience

    PubMed Central

    Poitou-Verkinder, Anne-Laure; Francois, Arnaud; Drieux, Fanny; Lepretre, Stéphane; Legallicier, Bruno; Moulin, Bruno; Godin, Michel; Guerrot, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma are 2 different presentations of the most common B-cell neoplasm in western countries (CLL/SLL). In this disease, kidney involvement is usually silent, and is rarely reported in the literature. This study provides a clinicopathological analysis of all-cause kidney disease in CLL/SLL patients. Methods Fifteen CLL/SLL patients with kidney biopsy were identified retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, pathological and laboratory data were assessed at biopsy, and during follow-up. Results At biopsy 11 patients presented impaired renal function, 7 patients nephrotic syndrome, 6 patients dysproteinemia, and 3 patients cryoglobulinemia. Kidney pathology revealed CLL/SLL-specific monoclonal infiltrate in 10 biopsies, glomerulopathy in 9 biopsies (5 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 2 minimal change disease, 1 glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits, 1 AHL amyloidosis). Five patients presented interstitial granulomas attributed to CLL/SLL. After treatment of the hematological disease, improvement of renal function was observed in 7/11 patients, and remission of nephrotic syndrome in 5/7 patients. During follow-up, aggravation of the kidney disease systematically occurred in the absence of favorable response to hematological treatment. Conclusions A broad spectrum of kidney diseases is associated with CLL/SLL. In this setting, kidney biopsy can provide important information for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. PMID:25811382

  6. Cytogenetic analyses of Azadirachtin reveal absence of genotoxicity but marked antiproliferative effects in human lymphocytes and CHO cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mosesso, Pasquale; Bohm, Lothar; Pepe, Gaetano; Fiore, Mario; Carpinelli, Alice; Gäde, Gerd; Nagini, Siddavaram; Ottavianelli, Alessandro; Degrassi, Francesca

    2012-09-18

    In this work we have examined the genotoxic potential of the bioinsecticide Azadirachtin A (AZA) and its influence on cell proliferation on human lymphocytes and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells. AZA genotoxicity was assessed by the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the absence and presence of rat liver S9 metabolism. Primary DNA damage was also investigated by means of the comet assay. The results obtained clearly indicate that AZA is not genotoxic in mammalian cells. On the other hand, AZA proved to interfere with cell cycle progression as shown by modulation of frequencies of first (M1) and second division (M2) metaphases detected by 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. Accumulation of M1 metaphases were more pronounced in human lymphocytes. In the transformed CHO cell line, however, significant increases of multinucleated interphases and polyploid cells were observed at long treatment time. At higher dose-levels, the incidence of polyploidy was close to 100%. Identification of spindle structure and number of centrosomes by fluorescent immunostaining with α- and γ-tubulin antibodies revealed aberrant mitoses exhibiting multipolar spindles with several centrosomal signals. These findings suggest that AZA can act either through a stabilizing activity of microtubules or by inhibition of Aurora A, since both mechanisms are able to generate genetically unstable polyploid cells with multipolar spindles and multinucleated interphases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  8. Supportive Care for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Supportive Care for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Supportive care for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is ... Treating Hairy Cell Leukemia More In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  9. Diagnostic performance of the variant lymphocyte flag of the Abbott Cell-Dyn 4000 haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, J J M L; Hoedemakers, R M J

    2004-02-01

    In addition to differential cell counts, modern haematology analysers generate suspect flags if abnormal cells are detected. Reports on validation of suspect flags are scarce. We have routine experience with the Abbott Cell-Dyn 4000 analyser for over 5 years and have previously demonstrated the utility of the blast flag. Here we report a similar study on the performance of the analyser's Variant Lymphocyte (VL) flag. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of the Cell-Dyn 4000 VL flag, as compared with lymphocyte morphology in blood smears. In addition, we investigated the usefulness of the numerical VL flag confidence index as provided by the analyser. All samples generating a VL flag were reviewed over a 5-month period. We also reviewed smears from patients with known lymphoid disorders, even if the analyser did not flag the sample. Two experienced investigators assessed lymphocyte morphology independently. In total, 187 samples were included in the study, of which 183 had a VL flag and four had not. Of the 183 flagged samples, 83 appeared to have abnormal lymphocyte morphology and 100, normal lymphocyte morphology. The sensitivity of the VL flag for detecting abnormal lymphocytes was 0.95 and the positive predictive value was 0.44. Using ROC analysis of the VL flag confidence index, the area under the ROC curve was 0.58 (95% confidence interval 0.50-0.65). The Cell-Dyn VL flag has reasonable sensitivity but a high false-positive rate. In addition, its performance is insufficient for detecting clinically relevant abnormal lymphocytes. As the VL flag appeared to rely mainly on numerical criteria, it has no added value over numerical criteria defined by the laboratory.

  10. Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia using CIGB-300, a clinical-stage CK2-specifc cell-permeable peptide inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Leila R.; Perera, Yasser; Lúcio, Paulo; Silva, Maria G.; Perea, Silvio E.; Barata, João T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable malignancy, urging for the identifcation of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. CLL cells rely on overexpression and hyperactivation of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 for their viability in vitro. CIGB-300 is a cell-permeable selective CK2 inhibitor peptide undergoing clinical trials for several cancers. Here, we show that CIGB-300 promotes activation of the tumor suppressor PTEN and abrogates PI3K-mediated downstream signaling in CLL cells. In accordance, CIGB-300 decreases the viability and proliferation of CLL cell lines, promotes apoptosis of primary leukemia cells and displays antitumor efcacy in a xenograft mouse model of human CLL. Our studies provide pre-clinical support for the testing and possible inclusion of CK2 inhibitors in the clinical arsenal against CLL. PMID:24473900

  11. Actinic granuloma occurring in an unusual association with cutaneous B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Julia A; Ivan, Doina; Cutlan, Jonathan E; Hymes, Sharon R

    2012-02-01

    Granulomatous cutaneous reactions are well described in association with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, but are rarely seen in association with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma or leukemia. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who presented with multiple, tender, firm pink papules on the face, upper trunk and upper extremities 6 years after diagnosis of CLL. Biopsy revealed both palisading granulomatous dermatitis consistent with actinic granuloma and a dense perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate consistent with the patient's known history of leukemia. This is an unusual manifestation of cutaneous B-cell CLL that is rarely seen. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. An experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, D. W.; Humphreys, R. C.; Emmons, S. P.; Zimmermann, U.; Gessner, P.; Klinman, N. R.; Neil, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of microgravity on lymphocyte activation is central to the understanding of immunological function in space. Moreover, the adaptation of ground-based technologies to microgravity conditions presents opportunities for biotechnological applications including high efficiency production of antibody forming hybridomas. Because the emerging technology of microgravity hybridoma generation is dependent upon activation and cultivation of B lymphocytes during flight, mitogen-driven B lymphocyte stimulation and culture were adapted that allow for the in vitro generation of large numbers of antibody forming cells suitable for cell fusion over a period of 1-2 weeks. It is believed that this activation and cultivation system can be flown on near-term space flights to test fundamental hypotheses about mammalian cell activation, cell fusion, metabolism, secretion, growth, and bioseparation.

  13. Persistent use of false myeloma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Hans G; Matsuo, Yoshinobu; MacLeod, Roderick A E

    2003-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplasm of a terminally differentiated B-cell. Human myeloma cell lines were shown to be suitable model systems for use in various fields of the biological sciences. Within the last 20 years more than 100 cell lines have been established. So-called 'myeloma cell lines' have been previously reported and are still widely used which are in reality Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. The presence of the EBV-genome in residual normal B-cells provides them with a selective growth advantage after explantation. Cell lines represent an extremely important resource for research in a variety of fields and disciplines. As the cell lines are used as in vitro model systems in lieu of primary material, it is crucial that the cells in the culture flasks faithfully correspond to the purported objects of study. On closer examination, the use of false cell lines may be seen to invalidate a significant percentage of scientific work, or at least cast doubts on the relevance of these in vitro results to the cell type or tumor in vivo. Ultimately, use of cross-contaminated cell lines is a waste of human and material resources. Henceforth, it should be mandatory to prove the proper derivation of each new cell line by comparing DNA fingerprints or karyotypes of the patient's primary cells and the cultured cells. The availability of well characterized and authenticated bona fide MM cell lines is of great importance for the study of the biology, etiology and treatment of the disease.

  14. Prechemotherapy neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio is superior to the platelet : lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic indicator for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ji, W H; Jiang, Y H; Ji, Y L; Li, B; Mao, W M

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of prechemotherapy neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio, and preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer. We analyzed retrospectively locally advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before undergoing a radical esophagectomy between 2009 and 2012. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio before chemotherapy and before the surgery were calculated. Univariate analyses showed that prechemotherapy neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio >5 (P = 0.048, hazard ratio = 2.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-8.12) and prechemotherapy platelet to lymphocyte ratio >130 (P = 0.025, hazard ratio = 5.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-24.55) were associated significantly with overall survival (OS), and prechemotherapy platelet to lymphocyte ratio >130 (P = 0.026, hazard ratio = 3.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-8.85) was associated significantly with progression-free survival. However, only prechemotherapy neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio >5 (P = 0.024, hazard ratio = 3.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.18-10.40) remained significantly associated with OS in multivariate analyses. Neither preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio nor platelet to lymphocyte ratio was associated with OS or progression-free survival. The prechemotherapy neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio >5 to preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≤5 group showed significantly worse OS than the prechemotherapy neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≤5 to preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≤5 group (P = 0.050). The prechemotherapy platelet to lymphocyte ratio >130 to preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio ≤130 group (P = 0.016) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio >130 to preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio >130 group (P = 0.042) showed significantly worse OS than the

  15. Engineered T Cells for the Adoptive Therapy of B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Philipp; Schmidt, Patrick; Hombach, Andreas A.; Hallek, Michael; Abken, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) remains an incurable disease due to the high risk of relapse, even after complete remission, raising the need to control and eliminate residual tumor cells in long term. Adoptive T cell therapy with genetically engineered specificity is thought to fulfil expectations, and clinical trials for the treatment of CLL are initiated. Cytolytic T cells from patients are redirected towards CLL cells by ex vivo engineering with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) which binds to CD19 on CLL cells through an antibody-derived domain and triggers T cell activation through CD3ζ upon tumor cell engagement. Redirected T cells thereby target CLL cells in an MHC-unrestricted fashion, secret proinflammatory cytokines, and eliminate CD19+ leukaemia cells with high efficiency. Cytolysis of autologous CLL cells by patient's engineered T cells is effective, however, accompanied by lasting elimination of healthy CD19+ B-cells. In this paper we discuss the potential of the strategy in the treatment of CLL, the currently ongoing trials, and the future challenges in the adoptive therapy with CAR-engineered T cells. PMID:21837241

  16. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  17. Antigenic, functional, and molecular genetic studies of human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Lanier, L L; Le, A M; Cwirla, S; Federspiel, N; Phillips, J H

    1986-11-01

    Cytotoxicity not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is mediated by two distinct types of lymphocyte: natural killer (NK) cells and non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). These two types of cytotoxic lymphocytes can be distinguished by antigenic phenotype, function, and molecular genetic studies. In human peripheral blood, NK cells are identified by expression of the Leu-19 and/or CD16 cell surface antigens, and lack of CD3/T cell antigen receptor (Ti) complex expression (i.e., CD3-,Leu-19+). Peripheral blood non-MHC-restricted CTL express both CD3 and Leu-19 (i.e., CD3+, Leu-19+, referred to as Leu-19+ T cells). Both Leu-19+ T cells and NK cells lyse "NK-sensitive" hematopoietic tumor cell targets, such as K562, without deliberate immunization of the host. However, most "NK activity" in peripheral blood is mediated by NK cells, because they are usually more abundant and more efficient cytotoxic effectors than Leu-19+ T cells. The cytolytic activity of both NK cells and Leu-19+ T cells against hematopoietic targets was enhanced by recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL 2). NK cells, but not peripheral blood Leu-19+ T cells, were also capable of lysing solid tumor cell targets after short-term culture in rIL 2. Southern blot analysis of NK cells revealed that both the T cell antigen receptor beta-chain genes and the T cell-associated gamma genes were not rearranged, but were in germ-line configuration. These findings indicate that NK cells are distinct in lineage from T lymphocytes and do not use the T cell antigen receptor genes for target recognition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The Cell Wall and Membrane of Cryptococcus neoformans Possess a Mitogen for Human T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Christopher H.; Wood, Cynthia J.; Syme, Rachel M.; Spurrell, Jason C. L.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of human T-lymphocyte activation by the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans has not been established. Previous investigations have suggested that C. neoformans contains a mitogen for T lymphocytes, while other investigators have attributed lymphocyte proliferation in vitro to a recall antigen. Because of the potential importance of the mechanism of T-cell activation for our understanding of the immune response to C. neoformans, the present studies were performed to determine whether C. neoformans contains a mitogen for T lymphocytes. C. neoformans stimulates fetal blood lymphocytes to proliferate and stimulates proliferation of CD45RA+ cells from adults, indicating that it stimulates naive T cells. The T-cell response to C. neoformans was dependent upon the presence of accessory cells. However, allogeneic cells were sufficient for accessory cell function, indicating that the response was not major histocompatibility complex restricted. The percentage of T cells in the cell cycle was higher than that with the recall antigen tetanus toxoid but lower than that with the mitogenic lectin phytohemagglutinin A or the superantigen Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. Precursor frequency analysis established that 1 in 7,750 ± 2,270 T cells proliferated in response to the cryptococcal cell wall and membrane. Compared to the case for most mitogens or superantigens, the proliferative response is late and the number of T cells that enter the cell cycle and the precursor frequency are low, indicating that the mitogenic effect is modest. However, the mitogenic effect of C. neoformans should be considered when interpreting the immune response to C. neoformans, since even weak mitogens can have profound effects on host defense. PMID:9916111

  19. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3+ cells and the CD8+ subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients (P=0.0003 and P=0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67+) and activated (CD69+) CD4+ and CD8+ cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls (P<0.05), albeit decreasing to low levels in pre-treated patients. In conclusion, chronic lymphocytic leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. PMID:27927767

  20. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3(+) cells and the CD8(+) subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients (P=0.0003 and P=0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67(+)) and activated (CD69(+)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls (P<0.05), albeit decreasing to low levels in pre-treated patients. In conclusion, chronic lymphocytic leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Induces Osteoblast Inhibition by B Lymphocytes and Osteoclast Activation by T Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sidan; Li, Tianshou; Chen, Yongbing; Nie, Yinchao; Li, Changhong; Liu, Lanting; Li, Qiaochuan; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-08-01

    In the bone marrow (BM), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in specialized niches near osteoblast cells at the endosteum. HSPCs that egress to peripheral blood are widely used for transplant, and mobilization is most commonly performed with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, the cellular targets of G-CSF that initiate the mobilization cascade and bone remodeling are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether T and B lymphocytes modulate the bone niche and influence HSPC mobilization. We used T and B defective mice to show that G-CSF-induced mobilization of HSPCs correlated with B lymphocytes but poorly with T lymphocytes. In addition, we found that defective B lymphocytes prevent G-CSF-mediated osteoblast disruption, and further study showed BM osteoblasts were reduced coincident with mobilization, induced by elevated expression of dickkopf1 of BM B lymphocytes. BM T cells were also involved in G-CSF-induced osteoclast activation by regulating the Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κ B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) axis. These data provide evidence that BM B and T lymphocytes play a role in G-CSF-induced HSPC mobilization by regulating bone remodeling.

  2. T3 glycoprotein is functional although structurally distinct on human T-cell receptor. gamma. T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Krangel, M.S.; Bierer, B.E.; Devlin, P.; Clabby, M.; Strominger, J.L.; McLean, J.; Brenner, M.B.

    1987-06-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) ..gamma.. gene product occurs in association with T3 (CD3) polypeptides on the surface of human T lymphocytes. TCR ..gamma.. lymphocytes express arrays of T3 polypeptides distinct from those typically observed on TCR ..cap alpha beta.. lymphocytes. This report demonstrates that identical T3 ..gamma.., delta, and element of polypeptides are synthesized by TCR ..gamma.. lymphocytes and TCR ..cap alpha beta.. lymphocytes. However, the processing of T3 delta oligosaccharides is distinct in the two cell types. This observation may suggest distinct quaternary structures of these receptor complexes. Despite these structural differences, the T3 molecule on TCR ..gamma.. lymphocytes is functional. It is associated with and comodulates with TCR ..gamma.. and it serves as a substrate from protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. Anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies induce a rapid increase in cytoplasmic free calcium, indicating that the receptor complex is involved in signal transduction and triggering of TCR ..gamma.. lymphocytes.

  3. Improving Therapy of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) with Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fraietta, Joseph A.; Schwab, Robert D.; Maus, Marcela V.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell immunotherapy for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heralded a new era of synthetic biology. The infusion of genetically-engineered, autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 expressed by normal and malignant B cells represents a novel approach to cancer therapy. The results of recent clinical trials of CAR T cells in relapsed and refractory CLL have demonstrated long-term disease-free remissions, underscoring the power of harnessing and re-directing the immune system against cancer. This review will briefly summarize T cell therapies in development for CLL disease. We discuss the role of T cell function and phenotype, T cell culture optimization, CAR design, and approaches to potentiate the survival and anti-tumor effects of infused lymphocytes. Future efforts will focus on improving the efficacy of CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL and incorporating adoptive cell immunotherapy into standard medical management of CLL. PMID:27040708

  4. Nicotine-mediated signals modulate cell death and survival of T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oloris, Silvia C.S.; Frazer-Abel, Ashley A.; Jubala, Cristan M.; Fosmire, Susan P.; Helm, Karen M.; Robinson, Sally R.; Korpela, Derek M.; Duckett, Megan M.; Baksh, Shairaz; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2010-02-01

    The capacity of nicotine to affect the behavior of non-neuronal cells through neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been the subject of considerable recent attention. Previously, we showed that exposure to nicotine activates the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor in lymphocytes and endothelial cells, leading to alterations in cellular growth and vascular endothelial growth factor production. Here, we extend these studies to document effects of nicotine on lymphocyte survival. The data show that nicotine induces paradoxical effects that might alternatively enforce survival or trigger apoptosis, suggesting that depending on timing and context, nicotine might act both as a survival factor or as an inducer of apoptosis in normal or transformed lymphocytes, and possibly other non-neuronal cells. In addition, our results show that, while having overlapping functions, low and high affinity nAChRs also transmit signals that promote distinct outcomes in lymphocytes. The sum of our data suggests that selective modulation of nAChRs might be useful to regulate lymphocyte activation and survival in health and disease.

  5. Prognostic and predictive significance of smudge cell percentage on routine blood smear in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Ajay; Raina, Vinod; Gupta, Ritu; Gajendra, Smeeta; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Atul; Kumar, Rajive; Vishnubhatla, Sreeniwas

    2014-12-01

    Smudge cells are ruptured lymphocytes present on routine blood smears of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. We evaluated prognostic and predictive significance of smudge cell percentage on a blood smear in CLL patients. We calculated smudge cell percentages (ratio of smudged to intact cells plus smudged lymphocytes) on archived blood smears of 222 untreated CLL patients registered at Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi over the past 12 years. The male:female ratio was 3:1, and median age 60 (range, 28-90) years. Median absolute lymphocyte count was 42 × 10(9)/L. The median smudge cell percentage was 29.6% (range, 4%-79%). We found no correlation of proportion of smudge cells with age, sex, lymphocyte count, organomegaly, or response to therapy, although there was a significant correlation with the Rai stage at diagnosis. Median smudge cell percentage in stage 0 and I was 33% (range, 12%-79%), in stage II 31% (range, 12%-61%), and stage III and IV 21% (range, 4%-51%) (P < .001). Patients with ≤ 30% smudge cells had a shorter median progression-free period (PFP) of 30 months compared with patients who had more than 30% smudge cells (PFP, 45 months; P = .01). The 5-year survival rate was 51% for patients with 30% or fewer smudge cells, and it was 81% for patients with more than 30% smudge cells (P < .001) at a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Simple and inexpensive detection of smudge cells on routine blood smears seems useful in predicting progression-free and overall survival in CLL patients and might be beneficial in countries with limited resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis (TH-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis (TVS-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test.

  7. Overexpression of Cell Cycle Proteins of Peripheral Lymphocytes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeran; Kwon, Young-Ah; Ahn, Inn Sook; Kim, Sangha; Kim, Seonwoo; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Biological markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will help clinicians make objective diagnoses early during the course of dementia. Previous studies have suggested that cell cycle dysregulation begins earlier than the onset of clinical manifestations in AD. Methods We examined the lymphocyte expression of cell cycle proteins in AD patients, dementia controls (DC), and normal controls (NC). One-hundred seventeen subjects (36 AD, 31 DC, and 50 NC) were recruited. The cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were measured in peripheral lymphocytes. Cell cycle protein expression in the three groups was compared after adjusting for age and sex. Results The levels of cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were significantly higher in AD patients than in the NC subjects. The DC group manifested intermediate levels of cell cycle proteins compared with the AD patients and the NC subjects. The present study indicates that cell cycle proteins are upregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients. Conclusion Cell cycle dysregulation in peripheral lymphocytes may present a promising starting point for identifying peripheral biomarkers of AD. PMID:26766955

  8. High-potentiality preliminary selection criteria and transformation time-dependent factors analysis for establishing Epstein-Barr virus transformed human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-C; Wu, J-Y; Lu, H-I; Ko, H-W; Kuo, J-L; Wang, C-Y; Shen, P-S; Hwang, S-M

    2006-12-01

    Infection of freshly isolated and cryopreserved lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) leads to the establishment of human B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Techniques for optimal infection of the lymphocytes are vital for the establishment of a human biobank. The present study found that more than half (58-86%) of such established LCLs had transport times of less than 48 h, cell densities exceeding 10(6) cells/ml and cell viabilities greater than 90%. After EBV infection, 3306 freshly isolated lymphocytes required 30.0 +/- 0.1 days to become LCLs. Conversely, 1210 cryopreserved lymphocytes required 36.2 +/- 0.4 days. Cell density and viability of the culture affected transformation time in freshly isolated lymphocytes. On the other hand, blood transport time, cryopreservation time and initial cell viability were major factors in cryopreserved specimens. These results contribute to general information concerning the establishment of a human biobank for EBV infected cells.

  9. Potential Anti-proliferative and Immunomodulatory Effects of Marine Microalgal Exopolysaccharide on Various Human Cancer Cells and Lymphocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, Geon-Tae; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2017-02-04

    Marine microalgal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have drawn great attention due to their biotechnological potentials such as anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-lipidemic, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory activities, etc. In the present study, the EPS derived from microalgae Thraustochytriidae sp.-derived mutant GA was investigated for its anti-proliferation and immunomodulation. Anti-cancer efficacy of the microalgal EPS was examined for the alterations in cell proliferation and cell cycle-related gene expression that occur in three types of human cancer cell lines, BG-1 ovarian, MCF-7 breast, and SW-620 colon cancer cell lines, by its treatment. Alterations in immunoreactivity by the microalgal EPS were examined by measuring its influence on the growth of T and B lymphocytes and cytokine production of T cells. In cell viability assay, the microalgal EPS inhibited cancer cell growth at the lowest concentration of 10(-11) dilution and in a dose-responsive manner within the range of dilution of 10(-11)~10(-3). In addition, the protein expression of cell cycle progression genes such as cyclin D1 and E in these cancer cell lines was significantly reduced by the microalgal EPS in a dose- and a time-dependant manner. In cell proliferation assay using T and B cells, the microalgal EPS induced B cell proliferation even at the lowest dilution of 10(-11), but not T cells. In cytokine assay, the microalgal EPS decreased the formation of IL-6 and INF-γ at 10(-3) dilution compared to the control and had no significant effects on TNF-α. Collectively, these findings suggest that the EPS derived from microalgae Thraustochytriidae sp. GA has an anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells and an immunomodulatory effect by having an influence on B cell proliferation and cytokine secretion of T cells.

  10. Beauveria attenuates asthma by inhibiting inflammatory response and inducing lymphocytic cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingying; Zhou, Xianmei; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of beauveria (BEA) in asthma. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of BEA on the proliferation of inflammatory cells and secretion of inflammatory mediators both in-vitro and in-vivo. In in-vitro studies, BEA inhibited lymphocytic cell proliferation and the proliferation of lymphocytic cells induced by Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We used ELISA to test the effects of BEA on the secretion of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the influence of BEA on cell apoptosis. The effect of BEA on the cell numbers of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and other cells in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also evaluated. The expression of apoptosis related molecules Bax, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 was examined by Western blotting analysis. Our results indicated that BEA played a protective role in asthma. BEA inhibited lymphocytic cell proliferation and secretion of inflammatory mediators. BEA promoted cell apoptosis, stimulated the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. In in-vivo experiments, BEA reduced the cell number of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and other cells in mouse BALF. BEA inhibited secretion of inflammatory mediators, stimulated expression of Bax and Caspase-3, and inhibited expression of Bcl-2 in mouse lung tissue dose-dependently. All together, our results indicated that BEA could attenuate asthma by inhibiting inflammatory response and induce apoptosis of inflammatory cells. PMID:27801673

  11. Targeting DNA repair with aphidicolin sensitizes primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to purine analogs

    PubMed Central

    Starczewska, Eliza; Beyaert, Maxime; Michaux, Lucienne; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Saussoy, Pascale; Bol, Vanesa; Echarri, Ainhoa Arana; Smal, Caroline; Van Den Neste, Eric; Bontemps, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Purine analogs are among the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, chemoresistance and toxicity limit their clinical use. Here, we report that the DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin, which displayed negligible cytotoxicity as a single agent in primary CLL cells, markedly synergizes with fludarabine and cladribine via enhanced apoptosis. Importantly, synergy was recorded regardless of CLL prognostic markers. At the molecular level, aphidicolin enhanced purine analog-induced phosphorylation of p53 and accumulation of γH2AX, consistent with increase in DNA damage. In addition, aphidicolin delayed γH2AX disappearance that arises after removal of purine analogs, suggesting that aphidicolin causes an increase in DNA damage by impeding DNA damage repair. Similarly, aphidicolin inhibited UV-induced DNA repair known to occur primarily through the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Finally, we showed that fludarabine induced nuclear import of XPA, an indispensable factor for NER, and that XPA silencing sensitized cell lines to undergo apoptosis in response to fludarabine. Together, our data indicate that aphidicolin potentiates the cytotoxicity of purine analogs by inhibiting a DNA repair pathway that involves DNA polymerases, most likely NER, and provide a rationale for manipulating it to therapeutic advantage. PMID:27223263

  12. Abnormal development of Purkinje cells and lymphocytes in Atm mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Borghesani, Paul R.; Alt, Frederick W.; Bottaro, Andrea; Davidson, Laurie; Aksoy, Saime; Rathbun, Gary A.; Roberts, Thomas M.; Swat, Wojciech; Segal, Rosalind A.; Gu, Yansong

    2000-01-01

    Motor incoordination, immune deficiencies, and an increased risk of cancer are the characteristic features of the hereditary disease ataxia–telangiectasia (A-T), which is caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Through gene targeting, we have generated a line of Atm mutant mice, Atmy/y mice. In contrast to other Atm mutant mice, Atmy/y mice show a lower incidence of thymic lymphoma and survive beyond a few months of age. Atmy/y mice exhibit deficits in motor learning indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Even though we found no gross cerebellar degeneration in older Atmy/y animals, ectopic and abnormally differentiated Purkinje cells were apparent in mutant mice of all ages. These findings establish that some neuropathological abnormalities seen in A-T patients also are present in Atm mutant mice. In addition, we report a previously unrecognized effect of Atm deficiency on development or maintenance of CD4+8+ thymocytes. We discuss these findings in the context of the hypothesis that abnormal development of Purkinje cells and lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of A-T. PMID:10716718

  13. Antiproliferative, Cytotoxic, and Apoptotic Activity of Steroidal Oximes in Cervicouterine Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Luis; Hernández-Linares, María Guadalupe; Escobar, María L; López-Muñoz, Hugo; Zenteno, Edgar; Fernández-Herrera, María A; Guerrero-Luna, Gabriel; Carrasco-Carballo, Alan; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jesús

    2016-11-14

    Steroidal sapogenins have shown antiproliferative effects against several tumor cell lines; and their effects on human cancer cells are currently under study. Changes in the functionality on the steroidal structure make it possible to modify the biological activity of compounds. Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of two steroidal oxime compounds on cervical cancer cells. These derivatives were synthesized from the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin in good yields. The in vitro assays show that the steroidal oximes show significant antiproliferative activity compared to the one observed for diosgenin. Cell proliferation, cell death, and the cytotoxic effects were determined in both cervical cancer cells and human lymphocytes. The cancer cells showed apoptotic morphology and an increased presence of active caspase-3, providing the notion of a death pathway in the cell. Significantly, the steroidal oximes did not exert a cytotoxic effect on lymphocytes.

  14. Natural species-restricted attachment of human and murine T lymphocytes to various cells.

    PubMed Central

    Galili, U; Galili, N; Vánky, F; Klein, E

    1978-01-01

    Murine and human T lymphocytes bear on their surface a receptor that confers on them the ability to attach to a variety of target cells from the same species, derived in vivo and in vitro. Thymocytes and activated T cells attached readily to target cells, while blood T lymphocytes were able to do so only after the removal of sialic acid from either their cell membrane or that of the target cell. The natural attachment (NA) receptor and the corresponding site on the target cells are trypsin sensitive and the conjugation between them is temperature dependent. The phenomenon may be a manifestation of self recognition in a broader sense--recognizing the species--which is also reflected in the reactivity of mitogen-activated T cells and specific immune responses against allo- or other antigens expressed on target cell surfaces. Images PMID:307762

  15. Menstrual Cycle Hormones Induce Changes in Functional Interactions Between Lymphocytes and Decidual Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    VAN DEN HEUVEL, MARIANNE J.; HORROCKS, JULIE; BASHAR, SIAMAK; TAYLOR, SUZANNE; BURKE, SUZANNE; HATTA, KOTA; LEWIS, JENNIFER E.; CROY, B. ANNE

    2010-01-01

    During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, a Natural Killer (NK) cell subset expressing CD56bright, appears in the decidualizing uterus, and remains until onset of menses. If pregnancy occurs, decidual (d)NK cells increase to become the predominant uterine lymphocytes of early pregnancy. To elucidate mechanisms of CD56bright cell recruitment to the uterus, an in vitro adhesion assay was used to assess the effect of the menstrual cycle, as well as cycle-associated hormones on adhesive properties of human lymphocytes. Adhesion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to pregnant mouse lymph nodes and Peyer’s Patches tissue sections was constant throughout the cycle. When uterine tissue was used as the substrate, adhesive CD56+ cells were found only in decidua basalis. Adhesion increased at the luteinizing hormone surge. Adhesion was mediated through both L-selectin and α4 integrin-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, we observed increased adhesive function in CD56+ cells from male donors which had been cultured with estradiol or LH as compared to cell aliquots cultured without additives. Lymphocytes adherent to mouse uterine tissue were predominantly CD56bright, suggesting that peripheral NK cells may be actively recruited to the uterus in an important, brief endocrine-regulated fashion at the time of ovulation to establish the dNK population of early pregnancy. PMID:15687334

  16. B lymphocytes as direct antigen-presenting cells for anti-tumor DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Colluru, Viswa Teja; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of remarkable preclinical efficacy, DNA vaccination has demonstrated low immunogenicity in humans. While efforts have focused on increasing cross-presentation of DNA-encoded antigens, efforts to increase DNA vaccine immunogenicity by targeting direct presentation have remained mostly unexplored. In these studies, we compared the ability of different APCs to present antigen to T cells after simple co-culture with plasmid DNA. We found that human primary peripheral B lymphocytes, and not monocytes or in vitro derived dendritic cells (DCs), were able to efficiently encode antigen mRNA and expand cognate tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells ex vivo. Similarly, murine B lymphocytes co-cultured with plasmid DNA, and not DCs, were able to prime antigen-specific T cells in vivo. Moreover, B lymphocyte-mediated presentation of plasmid antigen led to greater Th1-biased immunity and was sufficient to elicit an anti-tumor effect in vivo. Surprisingly, increasing plasmid presentation by B cells, and not cross presentation of peptides by DCs, further augmented traditional plasmid vaccination. Together, these data suggest that targeting plasmid DNA to B lymphocytes, for example through transfer of ex vivo plasmidloaded B cells, may be novel means to achieve greater T cell immunity from DNA vaccines. PMID:27661128

  17. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed.

  18. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed. PMID:26136685

  19. Cell line fingerprinting using retroelement insertion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ustyugova, Svetlana V; Amosova, Anna L; Lebedev, Yuri B; Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2005-04-01

    Human cell lines are an indispensable tool for functional studies of living entities in their numerous manifestations starting with integral complex systems such as signal pathways and networks, regulation of gene ensembles, epigenetic factors, and finishing with pathological changes and impact of artificially introduced elements, such as various transgenes, on the behavior of the cell. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have reliable cell line identification techniques to make sure that the cell lines to be used in experiments are exactly what is expected. To this end, we developed a set of informative markers based on insertion polymorphism of human retroelements (REs). The set includes 47 pairs of PCR primers corresponding to introns of the human genes with dimorphic LINE1 (L1) and Alu insertions. Using locus-specific PCR assays, we have genotyped 10 human cell lines of various origins. For each of these cell lines, characteristic fingerprints were obtained. An estimated probability that two different cell lines possess the same marker genotype is about 10-18. Therefore, the proposed set of markers provides a reliable tool for cell line identification.

  20. Z-138 cell line was derived from a patient with blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Estrov, Zeev; Rassidakis, George Z

    2006-04-01

    The Z-138 cell line, reported in the journal in 1998, was derived from a patient who developed a leukemia initially classified as chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 1987. Splenectomy for massive involvement was required in 1998 and the neoplasm subsequently transformed to an aggressive, mature B-cell leukemia 2 years later. At time of transformation, the neoplasm had a complex karyotype, including the t(11;14)(q13;q32). In light of the extensive updates in lymphoma classification that have occurred since that time, we reviewed the slides of the patient's neoplasm. The initial peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate smears and the spleen were involved by numerous small lymphocytes with mature chromatin. The last bone marrow specimen was involved by slightly larger, irregular lymphocytes with immature chromatin and a high mitotic rate. Immunohistochemical analysis performed on the spleen and last bone marrow for this report showed that the neoplastic cells over-expressed cyclin D1. According to the criteria of the current World Health Organization lymphoma classification, this neoplasm is best classified as mantle cell lymphoma, with blastoid transformation present in the terminal phase of disease.

  1. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Malignant Neoplasm; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  2. Autologous rosette-forming T cells as the responding cells in human autologous mixed-lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, R; Llorente, L; Alarcón-Segovia, D; Ruíz-Arguelles, A; Díaz-Jouanen, E

    1980-01-01

    Autologous rosette-forming cells (Tar cells) have surface and functional characteristics of post-thymic precursors and among these characteristics there are some that have been identified in the responsive cell of the autologous mixed-lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). We therefore did AMLR with circulating mononuclear cells from normal subjects using as responding cells either total T cells, T cells depleted of Tar cells, or purified Tar cells. The response of Tar cells in AMLR was significantly greater than that of total T cells and these responded significantly more than Tar-depleted T cells. Conversely, Tar cells responded less than total T cells or T cells depleted of Tar cells in allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions. Increasing numbers of Tar cells gave significantly greater AMLR responses both alone and when added to diminishing proportions of Tar-depleted T cells to keep the number of T cells constant in the system. Tar cells are the responding cells in AMLR but not in allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions. PMID:6447710

  3. Effect of interleukins on the proliferation and survival of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mainou-Fowler, T; Copplestone, J A; Prentice, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 1, 2, 4, and 5 on the proliferation and survival of peripheral blood B cells from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and compare them with the effects on normal peripheral blood B cells. METHODS--The proliferation and survival of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated B cells from B-CLL (n = 12) and normal peripheral blood (n = 5) were studied in vitro in response to IL-1, IL-2 IL-4, and IL-5. Survival of cells in cultures with or without added interleukins was studied by microscopic examination of cells and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--Proliferation was observed in both B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells on culture with IL-2 alone and also in some, but not all, B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells with IL-1 and IL-4. However, there was greater variability in B-CLL cell responses than in normal peripheral blood cells. Il-5 did not affect normal peripheral blood cell proliferation but it increased proliferation in two B-CLL cases. Synergistic effects of these cytokines were not detected. IL-4 inhibited normal peripheral blood and B-CLL cell proliferation after the addition of IL-2. Inhibition of B-CLL cell responses to IL-2 was also observed with IL-5 and Il-1. Survival of B-CLL cells in cultures was enhanced with IL-4 not by an increase in proliferation but by reduced apoptosis. No such effect was seen in normal peripheral blood cells. IL-2 had a less noticeable antiapoptotic effect; IL-5 enhanced apoptosis in B-CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS--B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells proliferated equally well in response to IL-2. IL-4 had a much lower effect on B-CLL cell proliferation, but had noticeable antiapoptotic activity. IL-5 enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7629299

  4. Dendritic Cell-Lymphocyte Cross Talk Downregulates Host Restriction Factor SAMHD1 and Stimulates HIV-1 Replication in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biedma, Marina Elizabeth; Lederle, Alexandre; Peressin, Maryse; Lambotin, Mélanie; Proust, Alizé; Decoville, Thomas; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in dendritic cells (DCs) is restricted by SAMHD1. This factor is counteracted by the viral protein Vpx; Vpx is found in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) or from macaques (SIVmac) but is absent from HIV-1. We previously observed that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs is stimulated by cocultivation with primary T and B lymphocytes, suggesting that HIV-1 restriction in DCs may be overcome under coculture conditions. Here, we aimed to decipher the mechanism of SAMHD1-mediated restriction in DC-lymphocyte coculture. We found that coculture with lymphocytes downregulated SAMHD1 expression and was associated with increased HIV-1 replication in DCs. Moreover, in infected DC-T lymphocyte cocultures, DCs acquired maturation status and secreted type 1 interferon (alpha interferon [IFN-α]). The blockade of DC-lymphocyte cross talk by anti-ICAM-1 antibody markedly inhibited the stimulation of HIV-1 replication and prevented the downregulation of SAMHD1 expression in cocultured DCs. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to purified DCs, cross talk with lymphocytes downregulates SAMHD1 expression in DCs, triggering HIV-1 replication and an antiviral immune response. Therefore, HIV-1 replication and immune sensing by DCs should be investigated in more physiologically relevant models of DC/lymphocyte coculture. IMPORTANCE SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we demonstrate that, in a coculture model of DCs and lymphocytes mimicking early mucosal HIV-1 infection, stimulation of HIV-1 replication in DCs is associated with downregulation of SAMHD1 expression and activation of innate immune sensing by DCs. We propose that DC-lymphocyte cross talk occurring in vivo modulates host restriction factor SAMHD1, promoting HIV-1 replication in cellular reservoirs and stimulating immune sensing. PMID:24574390

  5. Design Parameters for Granzyme-Mediated Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Target-Cell Killing and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Woodsworth, Daniel J.; Dunsing, Valentin; Coombs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key elements of the immune system that are primarily responsible for targeting cells infected with intracellular pathogens, or cells that have become malignantly transformed. Target cells are killed mainly via lymphocyte exocytosis of specialized lysosomes containing perforin, a pore-forming protein, and granzymes, which are proteases that induce apoptosis. Due to its central role in lymphocyte biology, as well as its implication in a host of pathologies from cancer to autoimmunity, the granzyme-perforin pathway has been the subject of extensive investigation. Nevertheless, the details of exactly how granzyme and perforin cooperate to induce target-cell death remain controversial. To further investigate this system, we developed a biophysical model of the immunological synapse between a cytotoxic lymphocyte and a target cell using a spatial stochastic simulation algorithm. We used this model to calculate the spatiotemporal evolution of granzyme B and perforin from the time of their exocytosis to granzyme internalization by the target cell. We used a metric of granzyme internalization to delineate which biological processes were critical for successful target-cell lysis. We found that the high aspect ratio of the immunological synapse was insufficient in this regard, and that molecular crowding within the synapse is critical to preserve sufficient concentrations of perforin and granzyme for consistent pore formation and granzyme transfer to target cells. However, even when pore formation occurs in our model, a large amount of both granzyme and perforin still escape from the synapse. We argue that a tight seal between the cytotoxic lymphocyte and its target cell is not required to avoid bystander killing. Instead, we propose that the requirement for spatiotemporal colocalization of granzyme and perforin acts as an effective bimolecular filter to ensure target specificity. PMID:26244730

  6. Engineered human embryonic stem cell-derived lymphocytes to study in vivo trafficking and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knorr, David A; Bock, Allison; Brentjens, Renier J; Kaufman, Dan S

    2013-07-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived natural killer (NK) cells are a promising source of antitumor lymphocytes for immunotherapeutics. They also provide a genetically tractable platform well suited for the study of antitumor immunotherapies in preclinical models. We have previously demonstrated the potency of hESC-derived NK cells in vivo. Here we use both bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging to demonstrate trafficking of hESC-derived NK cells to tumors in vivo. Our dual-imaging approach allowed us to more specifically define the kinetics of NK cell trafficking to tumor sites. NK cell persistence and trafficking were further evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. This integrated approach provides a unique system to apply the use of human pluripotent stem cells to study the kinetics and biodistribution of adoptively transferred lymphocytes, advances broadly applicable to the field of immunotherapy.

  7. Engineered Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Lymphocytes to Study In Vivo Trafficking and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Knorr, David A.; Bock, Allison; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived natural killer (NK) cells are a promising source of antitumor lymphocytes for immunotherapeutics. They also provide a genetically tractable platform well suited for the study of antitumor immunotherapies in preclinical models. We have previously demonstrated the potency of hESC-derived NK cells in vivo. Here we use both bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging to demonstrate trafficking of hESC-derived NK cells to tumors in vivo. Our dual-imaging approach allowed us to more specifically define the kinetics of NK cell trafficking to tumor sites. NK cell persistence and trafficking were further evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. This integrated approach provides a unique system to apply the use of human pluripotent stem cells to study the kinetics and biodistribution of adoptively transferred lymphocytes, advances broadly applicable to the field of immunotherapy. PMID:23421330

  8. Possible prognostic value of nucleolar morphology in pathologic cells of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Klobusicka, M; Kusenda, J; Stevulova, L; Kovarikova, A; Babusikova, O

    2010-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) represents a heterogeneous disease with a very variable outcome. The reliable prognosis of this disease at the time of initial diagnosis is difficult to predict. The purpose of this preliminary study was to utilize the nucleolar morphology and to investigate the incidence of main nucleolar types in leukemic lymphocytes in B-CLL patients to assess their possible predictive value for the disease outcome, in correlation with immunophenotype parameters. The evaluation of nucleolar morphology of pathologic lymphocytes was performed at diagnosis and during the course of disease. Median follow up period of patients was 16.4 months (range from 2 to 32 months) from diagnosis. The nucleoli were visualized by a simple cytochemical demonstration of RNA and the proportion of main nucleolar types in pathologic lymphocyte population infiltrating bone marrow of 84 patients suffering from B-CLL was analyzed. The presence of ring shaped and compact nucleoli in leukemic lymphocytes divided patients into two subgroups with different outcome of the disease. Malignant lymphocytes of the majority of patients (Group 1, 71 patients, 84.5%) mostly contained ring shaped nucleoli. These patients were in stable phase and did not require any treatment during the follow up. The population of leukemic cells of a small group of B-CLL patients (Group 2, 13 patients, 15.4%) was characterized by the presence of various proportions of pathologic lymphocytes with one large compact nucleolus.Different response to the therapy discriminated the B-CLL patients whose leukemic lymphocytes revealed evident compact nucleoli at presentation, to next two subsets. Four of these patients (Group 2, 4/13, 31%) appeared to be resistant to chemotherapy, others (9/13, 69%) showed response to therapy, though the response time was variable. Leukemic cells with compact nucleolus morphologically resembled prolymphocytes, but hematologically and immunophenotypically did not

  9. Establishment a CHO Cell Line Expressing Human CD52 Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Kadijeh, Tati; Mahsa, Yazdanpanah-Samani; Amin, Ramezani; Elham, Mahmoudi Maymand; Abbas, Ghaderi

    2016-01-01

    Background: CD52 is a small glycoprotein with a GPI anchor at its C-terminus. CD52 is expressed by Normal and malignant T and B lymphocytes and monocytes. There are detectable amounts of soluble CD52 in plasma of patients with CLL and could be used as a tumor marker. Although the biological function of CD52 is unknown but it seems that CD52 may be involved in migration and activation of T-cells .The aim of this study was to clone and express human CD52 gene in CHO cell line and studying its function in more details Methods: Based on GenBank databases two specific primers were designed for amplification of cd52 gene. Total RNA was extracted from Raji cell line and cDNA synthesized. Amplified fragment was cloned in pBudCE4.1 vector. The new construct was transfected to CHO-K1 cell line using electroporation method. Expression of recombinant CD52 protein was evaluated by Real time PCR and flow cytometry methods. Results: Amplification of CD52 gene using specific primers on Raji cDNA showed a 209 bp band. New construct was confirmed by PCR and restriction pattern and sequence analysis. The new construct was designated as pBudKT1. RT-PCR analysis detected cd52 mRNAs in transfected cells and Flow cytometry Results showed that 78.4 % of cells represented CD52 in their surfaces. Conclusion: In conclusion, we established a human CD52 positive cell line, CHO-CD52, and the protein was expressed on the membrane. Cloning of the CD52 gene could be the first step for the production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and detection systems for soluble CD52 in biological fluids PMID:28070536

  10. Outcomes of first line chemotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Adil; Fawad; Ali, Sheeraz; Badar, Farhana; Siddique, Neelam; Hameed, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease in terms of survival with and without treatment. Many chemo and immunotherapeutic agents are available to treat this indolent disease. Aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with different available chemotherapeutic regimens. Methods: All patients with diagnosis of CLL from 2008 to 2013 were included. Data were collected from hospital information system. Objective response rate (ORR) in terms of complete or partial response (CR, PR), stable or progressive disease (SD, PD), overall survival (OS), and progression free survival (PFS) were calculated. Results: Fifty seven patients were included; 42 (74%) male and 15 (26%) were female. Patients with Binet stage A 10 (18%); B 20 (35%) and C were 27(47%). Median age was 50.9 years. Forty six (80%) were treated and 11(20%) remained on watch and wait. Treatment indications were B symptoms 14 (30%), symptomatic nodal disease 18(39%), thrombocytopenia 4(9%), anemia 7(15%) and doubling of lymphocyte count 3 (7%). Chemotherapy regimens used were FC in 38 (83%), FCR 5(11%), chlorambucil 2(4%) and CVP in 1(2%) patient. Twenty two (56%) patients had CR, 13(33%) PR, 3(7.6 %) SD, and 1(2.5%) had PD. ORR was 89%. Median PFS was 23.1 months and median 3 years OS was 55%. Conclusion: Majority of patients was in a relatively younger age group and presented with advanced stage disease requiring treatment. Small number of patients received rituximab due to cost. PFS and OS are comparable with published literature. PMID:27882024

  11. Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) is in T but not B lymphocytes from a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, R C; Mann, D; Broder, S; Ruscetti, F W; Maeda, M; Kalyanaraman, V S; Robert-Guroff, M; Reitz, M S

    1982-09-01

    A human type C retrovirus, designated HTLV, previously was isolated from or identified in some patients with leukemias and lymphomas of mature T lymphocytes. HTLV is genetically and serologically distinct from any known animal retroviruses. The absence of HTLV proviral sequences in DNA from normal humans showed that HTLV is not a ubiquitous endogenous (germ-line transmitted) virus of humans. Antibodies to HTLV core proteins have been identified in some people with T-cell neoplasias and are particularly prevalent in Japanese with adult T-cell leukemia, suggesting that HTLV is acquired horizontally. However, it was possible that HTLV is transmitted through the germ line of some (possibly rare) families and is then expressed in the HTLV- positive malignancies. An opportunity to study this question was provided by the development of several T-cell lines and a B-cell provided by the development of several T-cell lines and a B-cell line from one HTLV-positive patient with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Here we report that HTLV proteins or nucleic acids (or both) are found in three independently derived T-cell lines, all shown by HLA typing to have originated from the patient. In contrast, the B-cell line, the identity of which was also ascertained by HLA typing, contained no detectable HTLV protein, RNA, or proviral DNA. Because the sensitivity of the latter assay is more than sufficient to detect one proviral equivalent per haploid genome, the results indicate that HTLV was not transmitted to this patient through the germ line but rather was acquired by infection.

  12. Predominant Infection of CD150+ Lymphocytes and Dendritic Cells during Measles Virus Infection of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    de Swart, Rik L; Yanagi, Yusuke; van Amerongen, Geert; McQuaid, Stephen; Yüksel, Selma; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H; Duprex, W. Paul; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E

    2007-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is hypothesized to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, followed by viremia mediated by infected monocytes. However, neither of these cell types express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150), which has been identified as the receptor for wild-type MV. We have infected rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with a recombinant MV strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP); thus bringing together the optimal animal model for measles and a virus that can be detected with unprecedented sensitivity. Blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavages were collected every 3 d, and necropsies were performed upon euthanasia 9 or 15 d after infection. EGFP production by MV-infected cells was visualized macroscopically, in both living and sacrificed animals, and microscopically by confocal microscopy and FACS analysis. At the peak of viremia, EGFP fluorescence was detected in skin, respiratory and digestive tract, but most intensely in all lymphoid tissues. B- and T-lymphocytes expressing CD150 were the major target cells for MV infection. Highest percentages (up to 30%) of infected lymphocytes were detected in lymphoid tissues, and the virus preferentially targeted cells with a memory phenotype. Unexpectedly, circulating monocytes did not sustain productive MV infection. In peripheral tissues, large numbers of MV-infected CD11c+ MHC class-II+ myeloid dendritic cells were detected in conjunction with infected T-lymphocytes, suggesting transmission of MV between these cell types. Fluorescent imaging of MV infection in non-human primates demonstrated a crucial role for lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of measles and measles-associated immunosuppression. PMID:18020706

  13. Cell cycle kinesis in lymphocytes in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Combrinck, Marc; Budge, Marc; McShane, Rupert

    2002-01-11

    The currently available clinical diagnostic tools do not allow an accurate and reliable diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in other than demented patients. Furthermore, they do not allow the identification of subjects with pre-clinical AD. Cell cycle regulatory failure in neurones appears to be a very early event in the pathogenesis of AD. Our earlier findings indicate that there is a specific failure of the G1/S transition checkpoint that may not be restricted to neurones alone. We tested the possibility that lymphocytes of AD sufferers may also show signs of G1 regulatory failure. We found that the in vitro responsiveness of lymphocytes to G1 inhibitor treatment was significantly less effective in AD patients than in control subjects. Additionally, in subjects showing neuropsychological signs of pre-clinical AD, the lymphocyte response was similar to that seen in AD patients. We present direct evidence to support the hypothesis that the failure of the G1/S transition control is not restricted to neurones in AD patients, but occurs in peripheral cells, such as lymphocytes, as well. Our findings could provide the basis for new clinical tests that rely on eliciting the activation of the G1/S transition checkpoint in lymphocyte cultures. We propose that the introduction of the test could be useful in identifying people who do not yet fulfil the requirements of the NINCDS criteria for dementia, but who would benefit from the use of preventive measures for AD.

  14. Mixed lymphocyte reactivity against normal cells by splenic lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice : ii. Studies of autoimmune-like activity in completely syngeneic and semisyngeneic systems.

    PubMed

    Devlin, R G; McCurdy, J D; Baronowsky, P E

    1974-01-01

    A possible consequence of an antilymphocytic autoimmune process would be serious impairment of an animal's ability to destroy tumor cells. One measure of autoimmune reactivity of this type would be the demonstration of cellular immune responsiveness by cells from tumor-bearing mice against syngeneic normal cells. These experiments demonstrate that spleen cells from mice bearing a lymphocytic leukemia of identical histocompatability type as the host mounted a vigorous immune response against normal syngeneic cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Moreover, ascitic cells from leukemic mice responded significantly to normal syngeneic spleen cells in MLR's. The former reactions are usually much more vigorous than the responses of normal to malignant cells. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between autoimmunity and neoplasia. Alternative explanations necessitated by the dangers involved in the interpretation of the immunology of transplantable tumors are considered.

  15. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Meacham, Amy M.; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R.; McFadden, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  16. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nancy Y; Wasserfall, Clive H; Meacham, Amy M; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-06-11

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens.

  17. A human serum immunoglobulin with specificity for certain homologous target cells, which induces target cell damage by normal human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, I. C. M.; Loewi, G.; Howard, A.

    1969-01-01

    A factor has been found in a number of human sera which renders a polyploid strain of human liver cells, Chang cells, susceptible to damage by non-immune human lymphocytes. Sera possessing this factor are referred to as Factor Containing Sera (FCS). Such damage is assessed quantitatively by release of radioactive chromium from target cells. This factor has the chemical properties of IgG and can be absorbed out on Chang cells. Its specificity has been shown to be for Chang cells and not for human lymphocytes. Other homologous and heterologous target cells tested were not affected by this factor. The factor has not been shown to have any effect on Chang cell viability by itself, even in the presence of complement. Factors which inhibit target cell damage are shown to coexist with the factor which induces non-immune lymphocyte damage of Chang cells. The possible origin of this factor is discussed as is the role in immune reactions of target cell specific antibody which renders such cells susceptible to damage by non-immune lymphocytes. PMID:5394186

  18. Idelalisib and caffeine reduce suppression of T cell responses mediated by activated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hock, Barry D; MacPherson, Sean A; McKenzie, Judith L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is associated with T cell dysfunction. Activated CLL cells are found within the lymphoid tumor micro-environment and overcoming immuno-suppression induced by these cells may improve anti-CLL immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which activated CLL cells inhibit T cell responses, and reagents targeting such mechanisms have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that the ability of in vitro activated CLL cells to suppress T cell proliferation is not reversed by the presence of ecto-nuclease inhibitors or blockade of IL-10, PD-1 and CTLA-4 pathways. Caffeine is both an adenosine receptor antagonist and a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, p110δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitor and, at physiologically relevant levels, significantly reversed suppression. Significant reversal of suppression was also observed with the PI3Kδ specific inhibitor Idelalisib but not with adenosine receptor specific antagonists. Furthermore, addition of caffeine or Idelalisib to activated CLL cells significantly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream kinase of PI3K, but did not affect CLL viability. These results suggest that caffeine, in common with Idelalisib, reduces the immuno-suppressive activity of activated CLL cells by inhibiting PI3Kδ. These findings raise the possibility that these compounds may provide a useful therapeutic adjunct by reducing immuno-suppression within the tumor micro-environment of CLL.

  19. Idelalisib and caffeine reduce suppression of T cell responses mediated by activated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Barry D.; MacPherson, Sean A.; McKenzie, Judith L.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is associated with T cell dysfunction. Activated CLL cells are found within the lymphoid tumor micro-environment and overcoming immuno-suppression induced by these cells may improve anti-CLL immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which activated CLL cells inhibit T cell responses, and reagents targeting such mechanisms have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that the ability of in vitro activated CLL cells to suppress T cell proliferation is not reversed by the presence of ecto-nuclease inhibitors or blockade of IL-10, PD-1 and CTLA-4 pathways. Caffeine is both an adenosine receptor antagonist and a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, p110δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitor and, at physiologically relevant levels, significantly reversed suppression. Significant reversal of suppression was also observed with the PI3Kδ specific inhibitor Idelalisib but not with adenosine receptor specific antagonists. Furthermore, addition of caffeine or Idelalisib to activated CLL cells significantly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream kinase of PI3K, but did not affect CLL viability. These results suggest that caffeine, in common with Idelalisib, reduces the immuno-suppressive activity of activated CLL cells by inhibiting PI3Kδ. These findings raise the possibility that these compounds may provide a useful therapeutic adjunct by reducing immuno-suppression within the tumor micro-environment of CLL. PMID:28257435

  20. Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation. Methods We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures. Results WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001). By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible function of WNT7A as a tumor

  1. Developing an in vitro model of T cell type of large granular lymphocyte leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tong; Yang, Jun; Broeg, Katie; Liu, Xin; Loughran, Thomas P; Cheng, Hua

    2013-12-01

    We developed a strategy that can prolong in vitro growth of T cell type of large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia cells. Primary CD8+ lymphocytes from T-LGL leukemia patients were stably transduced with the retroviral tax gene derived from human T cell leukemia virus type 2. Expression of Tax overrode replicative senescence and promoted clonal expansion of the leukemic CD8+ T cells. These cells exhibit features characteristic of leukemic LGL, including resistance to FasL-mediated apoptosis, sensitivity to the inhibitors of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor and IκB kinases as well as expression of cytotoxic gene products such as granzyme B, perforin and IFNγ. Collectively, these results indicate that this leukemia cell model can duplicate the main phenotype and pathophysiological characteristics of the clinical isolates of T-LGL leukemia. This model should be useful for investigating molecular pathogenesis of the disease and for developing new therapeutics targeting T-LGL leukemia.

  2. Clinical scale rapid expansion of lymphocytes for adoptive cell transfer therapy in the WAVE® bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To simplify clinical scale lymphocyte expansions, we investigated the use of the WAVE®, a closed system bioreactor that utilizes active perfusion to generate high cell numbers in minimal volumes. Methods We have developed an optimized rapid expansion protocol for the WAVE bioreactor that produces clinically relevant numbers of cells for our adoptive cell transfer clinical protocols. Results TIL and genetically modified PBL were rapidly expanded to clinically relevant scales in both static bags and the WAVE bioreactor. Both bioreactors produced comparable numbers of cells; however the cultures generated in the WAVE bioreactor had a higher percentage of CD4+ cells and had a less activated phenotype. Conclusions The WAVE bioreactor simplifies the process of rapidly expanding tumor reactive lymphocytes under GMP conditions, and provides an alternate approach to cell generation for ACT protocols. PMID:22475724

  3. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  4. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody VRC01 Prevents HIV-1 Transmission from Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to CD4 T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lederle, Alexandre; Laumond, Géraldine; Ducloy, Camille; Schmidt, Sylvie; Decoville, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) poorly replicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but efficiently transfer HIV-1 to adjacent CD4 T lymphocytes. We found that coculture with T lymphocytes downregulates SAMHD1 expression, enhances HIV-1 replication, and increases pDC maturation and alpha interferon (IFN-α) secretion. HIV-1 transfer to T lymphocytes is inhibited by broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 with efficiency similar to that of cell-free infection of T lymphocytes. Interestingly, prevention of HIV-1 transmission by VRC01 retains IFN-α secretion. These results emphasize the multiple functions of VRC01 in protection against HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:24965460

  5. NFAT1 transcription factor regulates cell cycle progression and cyclin E expression in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leonardo K; Carrossini, Nina; Sécca, Cristiane; Kroll, José E; DaCunha, Déborah C; Faget, Douglas V; Carvalho, Lilian D S; de Souza, Sandro J; Viola, João P B

    2016-09-01

    The NFAT family of transcription factors has been primarily related to T cell development, activation, and differentiation. Further studies have shown that these ubiquitous proteins are observed in many cell types inside and outside the immune system, and are involved in several biological processes, including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and invasiveness. However, the specific role of the NFAT1 family member in naive B cell proliferation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NFAT1 transcription factor controls Cyclin E expression, cell proliferation, and tumor growth in vivo. Specifically, we show that inducible expression of NFAT1 inhibits cell cycle progression, reduces colony formation, and controls tumor growth in nude mice. We also demonstrate that NFAT1-deficient naive B lymphocytes show a hyperproliferative phenotype and high levels of Cyclin E1 and E2 upon BCR stimulation when compared to wild-type B lymphocytes. NFAT1 transcription factor directly regulates Cyclin E expression in B cells, inhibiting the G1/S cell cycle phase transition. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that low levels of NFAT1 correlate with high expression of Cyclin E1 in different human cancers, including Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas (DLBCL). Together, our results demonstrate a repressor role for NFAT1 in cell cycle progression and Cyclin E expression in B lymphocytes, and suggest a potential function for NFAT1 protein in B cell malignancies.

  6. Emperipolesis-like invasion of neoplastic lymphocytes into hepatocytes in feline T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Kanae, Y; Kagawa, Y; Ano, N; Nomura, K; Ozaki, K; Narama, I

    2011-05-01

    Twelve cases of feline malignant lymphoma with emperipolesis-like invasion of neoplastic lymphocytes were examined microscopically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Intracytoplasmic invasion of neoplastic cells varied in severity between the cases, between hepatic lobules and between areas within the lobules. The number of infiltrating neoplastic cells ranged from one to several per hepatocyte. Neoplastic cells exhibited widely varying morphology from case-to-case and cell-to-cell within each case, and contained eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in four cases. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that neoplastic cells in 11 of the 12 cases expressed one or both T-cell markers (CD3 and TIA-1). Diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma was also confirmed by assessment of clonality by polymerase chain reaction. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the neoplastic lymphocytes were contained within an invagination of the cell membrane of the hepatocyte, rather than directly infiltrating into the cytoplasm of the cell. There was no evidence that the invasive neoplastic lymphocytes had a cytotoxic effect.

  7. Tumor cell recognition by γδ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Daniel V.; Lopes, António; Silva-Santos, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor-cell recognition by γδ T-cells is crucial to improve their performance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we discuss the controversy around the relative contributions of the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) and natural killer receptors (NKRs) to tumor-cell targeting by γδ T cells. PMID:23483102

  8. Brucella fractions behave as nonspecific mitogens and polyclonal B-cell activators for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, J P; Rabesandratana, H; Huguet, M F; Cannat, A; Serre, A

    1985-01-01

    Two lipid-A-free fractions which were extracted from Brucella melitensis and were designated PI and SF stimulated human unsensitized mononuclear cells to proliferate and to secrete immunoglobulins. Both of these effects were observed in cultures of peripheral blood, tonsils, and cord blood lymphocytes. Neither B cells nor T cells alone proliferated in the presence of these fractions, whereas the proliferative response of T cells plus B cells was largely independent of accessory cells. Polyclonal activation was estimated by counting the cells which secreted immunoglobulins of different isotypes into culture supernatants. This phenomenon was strongly T dependent. PMID:3876286

  9. Fludarabine in resistant or relapsing B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the Spanish Group experience.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, E; Lopez-Lorenzo, J L; Manso, F; Martin, A; Prieto, E; Arias-Sampedro, J; Fernandez, M N; Oyarzabal, F J; Odriozola, J; Alcala, A; Garcia-Conde, J; Guardia, R; Bosch, F

    1996-05-01

    Fludarabine produces high response rates in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Nevertheless, response to fludarabine of patients with previously treated CLL varies from 17% to 74% (0% to 38% CR). In 68 patients with heavily pretreated and advanced CLL, an overall response rate to fludarabine of 28% (4% CR) was observed. Response correlated with sensitivity of the disease to previous treatments (relapsing vs. refractory disease) (62% vs. 20%; p = 0.005) and, albeit not significantly, with the number of cycles of fludarabine (>3 vs. < or = 3) that patients could receive (36% vs. 15%; p = NS). Responding patients had a longer survival (median, not reached) than those not responding (median, 11 months) (p = 0.03). Severe toxicity was observed in some cases. It is concluded that fludarabine is a highly useful agent in CLL. However, in order to improve its effectiveness and decrease its toxicity, fludarabine should be given as soon as a lack of response to front-line therapy is observed and before the disease becomes completely resistant to therapy.

  10. Role of gamma/delta T cell receptor-expressing lymphocytes in cutaneous infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    MÖLNE, L; CORTHAY, A; HOLMDAHL, R; TARKOWSKI, A

    2003-01-01

    The high number of γ/δ-expressing T cells found in the epithelial lining layer suggests that they form a first line of defence against invading pathogens. To evaluate the role of γ/δ T cell-receptor (TCR)-expressing cells in cutaneous infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, mice lacking γ/δ-expressing T cells (TCRδ−/−) were inoculated intradermally with S. aureus, and compared with S. aureus-infected congeneic TCRδ+/− control mice. The number of bacteria recovered from the skin of TCRδ−/− mice was significantly higher (P = 0·0071) at early time-points after inoculation compared to the number of bacteria isolated from infected TCRδ+/− congeneic controls. Nevertheless, inflammatory responses measured as serum IL-6 levels, were significantly lower in TCRδ−/− mice than in the control group. A possible explanation for this discrepancy was the observation of significantly decreased overall numbers of infiltrating cutaneous T lymphocytes, which are important producers of IL-6. These results support the notion that the γ/δ-expressing T cells that reside at the epithelial lining layer of the skin is of importance for early containment of the bacteria, thereby limiting their replication and spread. PMID:12699407

  11. Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induce T-Lymphocyte Dysfunction and Contact-Dependent Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuang; Marches, Florentina; Borvak, Jozef; Zou, Weiping; Channon, Jacqueline; White, Michael; Radke, Jay; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Curiel, Tyler J.

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells ignite adaptive immunity by priming naïve T lymphocytes. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) infected with Toxoplasma gondii induce T-lymphocyte gamma interferon production and may thus activate T. gondii-specific immunity. However, we now demonstrate that T. gondii-infected MDDCs are poor at activating T lymphocytes and are unable to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. On the other hand, MDDCs acquiring nonviable T. gondii antigens directly, or indirectly through captured apoptotic or necrotic cell bodies, induce potent T-lymphocyte activation. T lymphocytes exposed to infected MDDCs are significantly impaired in upregulation of CD69 and CD28, are refractory to activation, and die through contact-dependent apoptosis mediated by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism not requiring Fas, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, leukocyte function antigen 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 10, alpha interferon, gamma interferon, prostaglandins, or reactive nitrogen intermediates. Bystander T lymphocytes that were neither infected nor apoptotic were refractory to activation, suggesting global dysfunction. Immunosuppression and T-lymphocyte unresponsiveness and apoptosis are typical of acute T. gondii infection. Our data suggest that infected dendritic cells contribute to these processes. On the other hand, host cells infected with T. gondii are resistant to multiple inducers of apoptosis. Thus, regulation of host cell and bystander cell apoptosis by viable T. gondii may be significant components of a strategy to evade immunity and enhance intracellular parasite survival. PMID:11895936

  12. Lymphocyte imprinting with melanoma antigens acquired by trogocytosis facilitates identification of tumor-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Galit; Uzana, Ronny; Pato, Aviad; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Merims, Sharon; Yefenof, Eitan; Ferrone, Soldano; Peretz, Tamar; Machlenkin, Arthur; Lotem, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent inter-cellular transfer of membrane fragments and associated molecules from antigen presenting cells to effector lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that trogocytosis also occurs between tumor target and cognate melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Here we show that, following trogocytosis, immune effector cells acquire molecular components of the tumor, including surface antigens, which are detectable by specific monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from melanoma patients’ PBMC and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) capture melanoma antigens, enabling identification of trogocytosing lymphocytes by staining with antigen-specific antibodies. This finding circumvents the necessity of tumor pre-labeling, which in the past was mandatory to detect membrane-capturing T cells. Through the detection of melanoma antigens on TIL, we sorted trogocytosing T cells and verified their preferential reactivity and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, tumor-antigen imprinted T cells were detected at low frequency in fresh TIL cultures shortly after extraction from the tumor. Thus, T cell imprinting by tumor antigens may allow the enrichment of melanoma antigen-specific T cells for research and potentially even for the adoptive immunotherapy of patients with cancer. PMID:23626012

  13. T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia in the Lower Eyelid.

    PubMed

    Sia, Paul Ikgan; Figueira, Edwin; Kuss, Bryone; Craig, James; Selva, Dinesh

    The authors describe a case of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia nodular lesion of the eyelid. To their knowledge, this has not been reported previously to occur in the eyelids. They have also reviewed previous literature reports on similar skin lesions in areas elsewhere.

  14. The novel plant-derived agent silvestrol has B-cell selective activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lucas, David M; Edwards, Ryan B; Lozanski, Gerard; West, Derek A; Shin, Jungook D; Vargo, Melissa A; Davis, Melanie E; Rozewski, Darlene M; Johnson, Amy J; Su, Bao-Ning; Goettl, Virginia M; Heerema, Nyla A; Lin, Thomas S; Lehman, Amy; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jarjoura, David; Newman, David J; Byrd, John C; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Grever, Michael R

    2009-05-07

    Therapeutic options for advanced B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are limited. Available treatments can also deplete T lymphocytes, leaving patients at risk of life-threatening infections. In the National Cancer Institute cell line screen, the structurally unique natural product silvestrol produces an unusual pattern of cytotoxicity that suggests activity in leukemia and selectivity for B cells. We investigated silvestrol efficacy using primary human B-leukemia cells, established B-leukemia cell lines, and animal models. In CLL cells, silvestrol LC(50) (concentration lethal to 50%) is 6.9 nM at 72 hours. At this concentration, there is no difference in sensitivity of cells from patients with or without the del(17p13.1) abnormality. In isolated cells and whole blood, silvestrol is more cytotoxic toward B cells than T cells. Silvestrol causes early reduction in Mcl-1 expression due to translational inhibition with subsequent mitochondrial damage, as evidenced by reactive oxygen species generation and membrane depolarization. In vivo, silvestrol causes significant B-cell reduction in Emu-Tcl-1 transgenic mice and significantly extends survival of 697 xenograft severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice without discernible toxicity. These data indicate silvestrol has efficacy against B cells in vitro and in vivo and identify translational inhibition as a potential therapeutic target in B-cell leukemias.

  15. Human natural killer (NK) cells present staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) to T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    D'ORAZIO, J A; STEIN-STREILEIN, J

    1996-01-01

    Superantigen-mediated T cell activation requires the participation of antigen-presenting cells (APC). Once superantigen has bound class II MHC molecules on the surface of APC, it then can interact with the T cell receptor to induce T cell activation. Superantigen-mediated T lymphocyte activation, along with its consequent cytokine production is thought to be the basis for the pathophysiology of conditions such as toxic shock syndrome, Kawasaki's disease and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. We examined the role of CD56+ NK lymphocytes in the interaction between superantigens and T lymphocytes. First, we found that a subpopulation of CD56+ cells freshly isolated from human peripheral blood expressed class II MHC molecules. The amount of HLA-DR expression varied between individuals, ranging from 9.3% to 37.7%. CD56+ (NK) cells were purified from the peripheral blood by cell sorting and were tested for their ability to support SEB-mediated T cell activation as assessed by surface expression of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) on CD3+ lymphocytes. We observed that when enriched T cells were incubated with SEB in the presence of NK cells, there was a significant up-regulation of CD25 expression on the T cells. When HLA-DR+ cells were removed from sorted CD56+ populations, the remaining HLA-DR− NK cells were unable to support SEB-mediated T cell activation. Also, SEB up-regulated the expression of HLA-DR on CD56+ cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations after 24 h of incubation, implying that the ability of NK cells to function as superantigen-presenting cells is up-regulated by superantigens themselves. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that human CD56+HLA-DR+ NK cells can function as superantigen-presenting cells, and imply that NK cells may be involved in the activation of non-specific T cell reactivity during early host defences against superantigen-elaborating microorganisms in vivo. Furthermore, the physical linkage of NK cells

  16. Subclones in B-lymphoma cell lines: isogenic models for the study of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quentmeier, Hilmar; Pommerenke, Claudia; Ammerpohl, Ole; Geffers, Robert; Hauer, Vivien; MacLeod, Roderick AF; Nagel, Stefan; Romani, Julia; Rosati, Emanuela; Rosén, Anders; Uphoff, Cord C; Zaborski, Margarete; Drexler, Hans G

    2016-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity though common in tumors has been rarely documented in cell lines. To examine how often B-lymphoma cell lines are comprised of subclones, we performed immunoglobulin (IG) heavy chain hypermutation analysis. Revealing that subclones are not rare in B-cell lymphoma cell lines, 6/49 IG hypermutated cell lines (12%) consisted of subclones with individual IG mutations. Subclones were also identified in 2/284 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines exhibiting bimodal CD marker expression. We successfully isolated 10 subclones from four cell lines (HG3, SU-DHL-5, TMD-8, U-2932). Whole exome sequencing was performed to molecularly characterize these subclones. We describe in detail the clonal structure of cell line HG3, derived from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. HG3 consists of three subclones each bearing clone-specific aberrations, gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. While donor patient leukemic cells were CD5+, two of three HG3 subclones had independently lost this marker. CD5 on HG3 cells was regulated by epigenetic/transcriptional mechanisms rather than by alternative splicing as reported hitherto. In conclusion, we show that the presence of subclones in cell lines carrying individual mutations and characterized by sets of differentially expressed genes is not uncommon. We show also that these subclones can be useful isogenic models for regulatory and functional studies. PMID:27566572

  17. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  18. Dexamethasone induces apoptosis in mouse natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Migliorati, G; Nicoletti, I; D'Adamio, F; Spreca, A; Pagliacci, C; Riccardi, C

    1994-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCH) induce apoptotic cell death in immature thymocytes through an active mechanism, characterized by extensive DNA fragmentation into oligonucleosomal subunits. This requires macromolecular synthesis and is inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and heat shock (hs). We performed experiments to analyse the possible effect of GCH on more differentiated lymphocytes, i.e. mouse natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The results show that dexamethasone (DEX) induces DNA fragmentation and cell death in NK cells and CTL in vitro. In both NK cells and CTL, DEX-induced apoptosis is inhibited by IL-2 and IL-4 but, unlike that induced in thymocytes, is augmented by mRNA and protein synthesis inhibitors, PKC inhibitors and HS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8132215

  19. The effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Steger, G. G.; Kaboo, R.; deKernion, J. B.; Figlin, R.; Belldegrun, A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can induce specific and non-specific anti-tumour cytotoxicity and also stimulates the proliferation and function of peripheral lymphocytes and thymocytes. GM-CSF and interleukin 2 (IL-2) act synergistically on peripheral lymphocytes for the induction of a highly effective cytotoxic cell population. Thus, the goal of our investigation was to study the effects of GM-CSF upon expansion, proliferation and in vitro killing activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). TILs from seven consecutive tumours were cultured with GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1) without IL-2 supplementation, with suboptimal doses of IL-2 (8 and 40 U ml-1) plus GM-CSF (1000 nmol ml-1), and with a dose of IL-2 (400 U ml-1) which sufficed alone to induce TIL development plus GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1). GM-CSF alone or together with suboptimal doses of IL-2 was not able to induce or facilitate TIL development in these cultures. When GM-CSF at both concentrations studied was added to optimal doses of IL-2 the resulting TIL populations proliferated significantly better and faster (+66%), resulting in a higher cell yield (+24%) at the time of maximal expansion of the TIL cultures. The length of the culture periods of TILs was not affected by GM-CSF when compared with the control cultures supplemented with IL-2 alone. In vitro killing activity of TIL populations stimulated with IL-2 and GM-CSF remained unspecific, but lysis of the autologous tumour targets as well as the allogeneic renal tumour targets was significantly enhanced (+138%) as compared with the corresponding control TILs stimulated with IL-2 alone. Lysis of the natural killer (NK)-sensitive control cell line K562 and the NK-resistant Daudi cell line remained unchanged even though FACS analysis of TILs cultured with IL-2 and 1000 nmol of GM-CSF demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of cells expressing the CD56

  20. Tiam1/Rac1 signals contribute to the proliferation and chemoresistance, but not motility, of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Sebastian W; Krenn, Peter W; Ganghammer, Sylvia; Asslaber, Daniela; Pichler, Ulrike; Oberascher, Karin; Henschler, Reinhard; Wallner, Michael; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Greil, Richard; Hartmann, Tanja N

    2014-04-03

    Signals from the tumor microenvironment promote the migration, survival, and proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Rho GTPases control various signaling pathways downstream of microenvironmental cues. Here, we analyze the function of Rac1 in the motility and proliferation of CLL cells. We found decreased transcription of the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors Tiam1 and Vav1 in unstimulated peripheral blood CLL cells with almost complete loss of Tiam1 but increased transcription of the potential Rac antagonist RhoH. Consistently, stimulation of CLL cells with the chemokine CXCL12 induced RhoA but not Rac1 activation, whereas chemokine-induced CLL cell motility was Rac1-independent. Coculture of CLL cells with activated T cells induced their activation and subsequent proliferation. Here, Tiam1 expression was induced in the malignant cells in line with increased Ki-67 and c-Myc expression. Rac1 or Tiam1 knockdown using siRNA or treatment with the Tiam1/Rac inhibitor NSC-23766 attenuated c-Myc transcription. Furthermore, treatment of CLL cells with NSC-23766 reduced their proliferation. Rac inhibition also antagonized the chemoresistance of activated CLL cells toward fludarabine. Collectively, our data suggest a dynamic regulation of Rac1 function in the CLL microenvironment. Rac inhibition could be of clinical use by selectively interfering with CLL cell proliferation and chemoresistance.

  1. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of patients undergoing therapy for small cell lung cancer and ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Padjas, Anna; Lesisz, Dominika; Lankoff, Anna; Banasik, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Bakalarz, Robert; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Andrzej . E-mail: awojcik@pu.kielce.pl

    2005-12-01

    The level of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing chemotherapy has been analyzed incisively 20 years ago. The results showed that the highest level of cytogenetic damage was observed at the end of therapy. In recent years, the doses of anticancer drugs were intensified thanks to the discovery of colony stimulating factors. Therefore, it was interesting to analyze the kinetics of micronuclei formation in lymphocytes of patients undergoing modern chemotherapy. The frequencies of micronuclei were measured in lymphocytes of 6 patients with small cell lung cancer treated with a combination of cisplatin and etoposide and 7 patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with a combination of taxol and cisplatin. 3 patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy. Micronuclei were analyzed in lymphocytes collected before the start of therapy and 1 day before each following cycle of chemotherapy. The micronucleus frequencies were compared with the kinetics of leukocyte counts. The micronucleus frequencies showed an interindividual variability. On average, the frequencies of micronuclei increased during the first half of therapy and declined thereafter, reaching, in some patients with ovarian carcinoma, values below the pre-treatment level. Leukocyte counts decreased strongly at the beginning of therapy with an upward trend at the end. We suggest that the decline of micronuclei was due to repopulation of lymphocytes and acquired drug resistance.

  2. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of patients undergoing therapy for small cell lung cancer and ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Padjas, Anna; Lesisz, Dominika; Lankoff, Anna; Banasik, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Bakalarz, Robert; Góźdź, Stanisław; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2005-12-01

    The level of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing chemotherapy has been analyzed incisively 20 years ago. The results showed that the highest level of cytogenetic damage was observed at the end of therapy. In recent years, the doses of anticancer drugs were intensified thanks to the discovery of colony stimulating factors. Therefore, it was interesting to analyze the kinetics of micronuclei formation in lymphocytes of patients undergoing modern chemotherapy. The frequencies of micronuclei were measured in lymphocytes of 6 patients with small cell lung cancer treated with a combination of cisplatin and etoposide and 7 patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with a combination of taxol and cisplatin. 3 patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy. Micronuclei were analyzed in lymphocytes collected before the start of therapy and 1 day before each following cycle of chemotherapy. The micronucleus frequencies were compared with the kinetics of leukocyte counts. The micronucleus frequencies showed an interindividual variability. On average, the frequencies of micronuclei increased during the first half of therapy and declined thereafter, reaching, in some patients with ovarian carcinoma, values below the pre-treatment level. Leukocyte counts decreased strongly at the beginning of therapy with an upward trend at the end. We suggest that the decline of micronuclei was due to repopulation of lymphocytes and acquired drug resistance.

  3. Protective effects of curcumin against genotoxicity induced by 131-iodine in human cultured lymphocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Shafaghati, Nayereh; Hedayati, Monireh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Background: 131-radioiodine has been widely used as an effective radionuclide for treatment of patients with thyroid diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the radioprotective effects of curcumin as a natural product that protects against the genotoxic effects of 131I in human cultured lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Whole blood samples from human volunteers were incubated with curcumin at doses of 5, 10, and 50 μg/mL. After 1-hour incubation, the lymphocytes were incubated with 131I (100 μCi/1.5 ml) for 2 hours. The lymphocyte cultures were then mitogenically stimulated to allow for evaluation of the number of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: Incubation of lymphocytes with 131I at dose 100 μCi/1.5 mL induced genotoxicity shown by increase in micronuclei frequency in human lymphocytes. Curcumin at 5, 10, and 50 μg/mL doses significantly reduced the micronuclei frequency. Maximal protective effects and greatest decrease in micronuclei frequency were observed when whole blood was incubated with 50 μg/mL dose of curcumin with 52%. Conclusion: This study has important implications for patients undergoing 131I therapy. Our results indicate a protective role for curcumin against the genetic damage and side effects induced by 131I administration. PMID:24914274

  4. Peripheral lymphocyte response to PHA and T cell population among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, M.; Yamakido, M.; Kobuke, K.; Dock, D.S.; Hamilton, H.B.; Awa, A.A.; Kato, H.

    1983-03-01

    The percentage of T lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors showed no change as a function of age or exposure dose. The percentage of T cells was slightly lower in malignant-tumor patients than in the control group, but was significantly higher in the group with chromosomal aberrations than in the control group. The percentages of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of peripheral lymphocytes decreased significantly with age in the 0 rad control group and the 200+ rad exposure group, particularly so in the latter. The malignant-tumor group also showed lower percentages of PHA-induced transformation than the control group. The percentages of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes of the chromosomal-aberration group were significantly depressed as compared with that of the control group.

  5. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cossarizza, A.; Monti, D.; Bersani, F.; Cantini, M.; Cadossi, R.; Sacchi, A.; Franceschi, C.

    1989-04-28

    The effect of the in vitro exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation of human lymphocytes from 24 young and 24 old subjects was studied. The exposure to PEMFs during a 3-days culture period or during the first 24 hours was able to increase phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. Such effect was greater in lymphocytes from old people which showed a markedly reduced proliferative capability and, after PEMF exposure, reached values of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation similar to those of young subjects. The relevance of these data for the understanding and the reversibility of the proliferative defects in cells from aged subjects and for the assessment of risk related to the environmental exposure to PEMFs has to be considered.

  6. Restoration of WNT4 inhibits cell growth in leukemia-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background WNT signaling pathways are significantly altered during cancer development. Vertebrates possess two classes of WNT signaling pathways: the “canonical” WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and the “non-canonical” pathways including WNT/Ca2+ and WNT/Planar cell polarity [PCP] signaling. WNT4 influences hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion and survival; however, WNT4 function in cancer development and the resulting implications for oncogenesis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to determine the expression of WNT4 in mature peripheral blood cells and diverse leukemia-derived cells including cell lines from hematopoietic neoplasms and cells from patients with leukemia; second, to identify the effect of this ligand on the proliferation and apoptosis of the blast-derived cell lines BJAB, Jurkat, CEM, K562, and HL60. Methods We determined WNT4 expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T- and B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals, as well as from five leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. To analyze the effect of WNT4 on cell proliferation, PBMCs and cell lines were exposed to a commercially available WNT4 recombinant human protein. Furthermore, WNT4 expression was restored in BJAB cells using an inducible lentiviral expression system. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by the addition of WST-1 to cell cultures and counting cells; in addition, the progression of the cell cycle and the amount of apoptosis were analyzed in the absence or presence of WNT4. Finally, the expression of WNT-pathway target genes was measured by qRT-PCR. Results WNT4 expression was severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. The exposure of cell lines to WNT4 recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell proliferation; inducing WNT4 expression in BJAB

  7. OSU-T315: a novel targeted therapeutic that antagonizes AKT membrane localization and activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ta-Ming; Ling, Yonghua; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Beckwith, Kyle; Yeh, Yuh-Ying; Hertlein, Erin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lehman, Amy; Awan, Farrukh; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Maddocks, Kami; MacMurray, Jessica; Salunke, Santosh B.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Phelps, Mitch A.; Byrd, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of endogenous survival pathways plays a major role in progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Signaling via conjugation of surface receptors within the tumor environmental niche activates survival and proliferation pathways in CLL. Of these, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway appears to be pivotal to support CLL pathogenesis, and pharmacologic inhibitors targeting this axis have shown clinical activity. Here we investigate OSU-T315, a compound that disrupts the PI3K/AKT pathway in a novel manner. Dose-dependent selective cytotoxicity by OSU-T315 is noted in both CLL-derived cell lines and primary CLL cells relative to normal lymphocytes. In contrast to the highly successful Bruton's tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors that inhibit B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway at proximal kinases, OSU-T315 directly abrogates AKT activation by preventing translocation of AKT into lipid rafts without altering the activation of receptor-associated kinases. Through this mechanism, the agent triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in CLL by suppressing BCR, CD49d, CD40, and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated AKT activation in an integrin-linked kinase-independent manner. In vivo, OSU-T315 attains pharmacologically active drug levels and significantly prolongs survival in the TCL1 mouse model. Together, our findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of OSU-T315 with potential therapeutic application in CLL. PMID:25293770

  8. OSU-T315: a novel targeted therapeutic that antagonizes AKT membrane localization and activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Ming; Ling, Yonghua; Woyach, Jennifer A; Beckwith, Kyle; Yeh, Yuh-Ying; Hertlein, Erin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lehman, Amy; Awan, Farrukh; Jones, Jeffrey A; Andritsos, Leslie A; Maddocks, Kami; MacMurray, Jessica; Salunke, Santosh B; Chen, Ching-Shih; Phelps, Mitch A; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J

    2015-01-08

    Aberrant regulation of endogenous survival pathways plays a major role in progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Signaling via conjugation of surface receptors within the tumor environmental niche activates survival and proliferation pathways in CLL. Of these, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway appears to be pivotal to support CLL pathogenesis, and pharmacologic inhibitors targeting this axis have shown clinical activity. Here we investigate OSU-T315, a compound that disrupts the PI3K/AKT pathway in a novel manner. Dose-dependent selective cytotoxicity by OSU-T315 is noted in both CLL-derived cell lines and primary CLL cells relative to normal lymphocytes. In contrast to the highly successful Bruton's tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors that inhibit B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway at proximal kinases, OSU-T315 directly abrogates AKT activation by preventing translocation of AKT into lipid rafts without altering the activation of receptor-associated kinases. Through this mechanism, the agent triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in CLL by suppressing BCR, CD49d, CD40, and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated AKT activation in an integrin-linked kinase-independent manner. In vivo, OSU-T315 attains pharmacologically active drug levels and significantly prolongs survival in the TCL1 mouse model. Together, our findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of OSU-T315 with potential therapeutic application in CLL.

  9. The B lineage transcription factor E2A regulates apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    PubMed

    Kardava, Lela; Yang, Qi; St Leger, Anthony; Foon, Kenneth A; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Vallejo, Abbe N; Milcarek, Christine; Borghesi, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common malignancy characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes with an antigen-experienced activated CD19(+)CD5(+) clonal phenotype. Clinically, ∼50% of cases will behave more aggressively. Here, we investigate the role of the major B-cell transcription factor E2A, a known regulator of B-cell survival and proliferation, to CLL persistence. We show that E2A is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels relative to normal B-cell subsets. E2A silencing in primary CLL cells leads to a significant increase in spontaneous apoptosis in both CD38(+) (aggressive) and CD38(-) (indolent) cases. Moreover, E2A knockdown synergizes with the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide to reduce CLL viability. E2A is known to restrain the proliferation of primary B and T lymphocytes at multiple stages of maturation and we report that targeted E2A disruption increases the frequency of Ki-67(+) CLL cells in the absence of effects on de novo proliferation. At the molecular level, E2A siRNA-treated CLL cells display reduced expression of key genes associated with survival and cell cycling including p27, p21 and mcl-1, of which the former two are known E2A target genes. Thus, E2A, a key transcription factor associated with the B-cell activation profile, regulates apoptosis in CLL and may contribute to disease pathology.

  10. Reduced cell turnover in lymphocytic monkeys infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Debacq, Christophe; Héraud, Jean-Michel; Asquith, Becca; Bangham, Charles; Merien, Fabrice; Moules, Vincent; Mortreux, Franck; Wattel, Eric; Burny, Arsène; Kettmann, Richard; Kazanji, Mirdad; Willems, Luc

    2005-11-17

    Understanding cell dynamics in animal models have implications for therapeutic strategies elaborated against leukemia in human. Quantification of the cell turnover in closely related primate systems is particularly important for rare and aggressive forms of human cancers, such as adult T-cell leukemia. For this purpose, we have measured the death and proliferation rates of the CD4+ T lymphocyte population in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The kinetics of in vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed no modulation of the cell turnover in HTLV-1-infected monkeys with normal CD4 cell counts. In contrast, a substantial decrease in the proliferation rate of the CD4+ T population was observed in lymphocytic monkeys (e.g. characterized by excessive proportions of CD4+ T lymphocytes and by the presence of abnormal flower-like cells). Unexpectedly, onset of HTLV-associated leukemia thus occurs in the absence of increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation. This dynamics significantly differs from the generalized activation of the T-cell turnover induced by other primate lymphotropic viruses like HIV and SIV.

  11. Embryonic stem cell lines of nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2002-06-26

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines have opened great potential and expectation for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Monkey and human ES cell lines, which are very similar to each other, have been established from monkey blastocysts and surplus human blastocysts from fertility clinics. Nonhuman primate ES cell lines provide important research tools for basic and applicative research. Firstly, they provide wider aspects of investigation of the regulative mechanisms of stem cells and cell differentiation among primate species. Secondly, their usage does not need clearance or permission from the regulative rules in many countries that are associated with the ethical aspects of human ES cells, although human and nonhuman embryos and fetuses are very similar to each other. Lastly and most importantly, they are indispensable for animal models of cell therapy to test effectiveness, safety, and immunological reaction of the allogenic transplantation in a setting similar to the treatment of human diseases. So far, ES cell lines have been established from rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), using blastocysts produced naturally or by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These cell lines seem to have very similar characteristics. They express alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 and, in most cases, SSEA-3. Their pluripotency was confirmed by the formation of embryoid bodies and differentiation into various cell types in culture and also by the formation of teratomas that contained many types of differentiated tissues including derivatives of three germ layers after transplantation into the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. The noneffectiveness of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signal makes culture of primate and human ES cell lines prone to undergo spontaneous differentiation and thus it is

  12. Antigen heterogeneity of human B and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rabellino, E M; Grey, H M; LaForge, S; Pirofsky, B; Kashiwagi, N; Malley, A

    1976-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were immunized with normal human lymphoid cells, cultured lymphoid cells, and chronic leukemic lymphocytes. Antisera were analyzed by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques to study the antigenic characteristics of human lymphocytes. In an attempt to obtain a reagent specifically reactive with T (thymus-derived) lymphocytes, an antispleen antiserum was absorbed with cellf from five B- (bone marrow-derived) cell lines. After absorption, the antiserum killed 60-75% of peripheral blood lymphocytes and 40-50% of tonsil cells, so that there was a relationship between the percentage of killed cells and the proportion of T lymphocytes. However, when cells after cytotoxic treatment were assayed for rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes (a T-cell marker) 5-20% of viable rosette-forming lymphocytes were found. Therefore, this antiserum was cytotoxic for only 75-90% of T cells. From studies performed with antisera prepared against spleen and B-cell lines, we conclude that lymphoblastoid cells are antigenically different and deficient in comparison to normal B lymphocytes. In addition, cultured B-cell lines appear to be antigenically heterogenous, as shown by the cytotoxic activity remaining in antispleen and anti-B-cell lines sera after absorption with various numbers and types of lymphoid cell lines. After absorption with normal lymphocytes, an antiserum produced against chronic lymphatic leukemia cells had specific activity associated with 12 chronic lymphatic leukemia cells tested. Absorption of the same antiserum with leukemic cells from two patients showed that a certain degree of antigenic heterogeneity also exists among chronic leukemic lymphocytes. PMID:815274

  13. Thyroid cancer cell lines: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Saiselet, Manuel; Floor, Sébastien; Tarabichi, Maxime; Dom, Geneviève; Hébrant, Aline; van Staveren, Wilma C. G.; Maenhaut, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Human thyroid cancer cell lines are the most used models for thyroid cancer studies. They must be used with detailed knowledge of their characteristics. These in vitro cell lines originate from differentiated and dedifferentiated in vivo human thyroid tumors. However, it has been shown that mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines were closer to dedifferentiated in vivo thyroid tumors (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, ATC) than to differentiated ones. Here an overview of the knowledge of these models was made. The mutational status of six human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, BCPAP, TPC1, K1, and 8505C) was in line with previously reported findings for 10 genes frequently mutated in thyroid cancer. However, the presence of a BRAF mutation (T1799A: V600E) in WRO questions the use of this cell line as a model for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Next, to investigate the biological meaning of the modulated mRNAs in these cells, a pathway analysis on previously obtained mRNA profiles was performed on five cell lines. In five cell lines, the MHC class II pathway was down-regulated and in four of them, ribosome biosynthesis and translation pathways were up-regulated. mRNA expression profiles of the cell lines were also compared to those of the different types of thyroid cancers. Three datasets originating from different microarray platforms and derived from distinct laboratories were used. This meta-analysis showed a significant higher correlation between the profiles of the thyroid cancer cell lines and ATC, than to differentiated thyroid tumors (i.e., PTC or FTC) specifically for DNA replication. This already observed higher correlation was obtained here with an increased number of in vivo tumors and using different platforms. In summary, this would suggest that some papillary thyroid carcinoma or follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC or FTC) cell lines (i.e., TPC-1) might have partially lost their original DNA synthesis/replication regulation mechanisms during

  14. Cell activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes ingesting exosomes from cells expressing defective HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Manfredi, Francesco; Federico, Maurizio

    2014-06-12

    A relevant burden of defective HIV-1 genomes populates PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients, especially during HAART treatment. These viral genomes, although unable to codify for infectious viral particles, can express viral proteins which may affect functions of host cells as well as bystander ones. Cells expressing defective HIV-1 have a lifespan longer than that of cells producing infectious particles. Hence, their interaction with other cell types, including resting lymphocytes, is expected to occur frequently in tissues where HIV actively replicates. We investigated the effects of the expression of a prototype of functionally defective HIV-1 on bystander, unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. We observed that unstimulated human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes were activated and became permissive for HIV-1 replication when co-cultivated with cells expressing a functionally defective HIV-1 (F12/Hut-78 cells). This effect depended on the presence in F12/Hut-78 supernatants of nanovesicles we identified as exosomes. By inspecting the underlying mechanism, we found that ADAM17, i.e., a disintegrin and metalloprotease converting pro-TNF-α in its mature form, associated with exosomes from F12/Hut-78 cells, and played a key role in the HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. In fact, the treatment with an inhibitor of ADAM17 abolished both activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. TNF-α appeared to be the downstream effector of ADAM17 since the treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with antibodies against TNF-α or its receptors blocked the HIV-1 replication. Finally, we found that the expression of NefF12 in exosome-producing cells was sufficient to induce the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Exosomes from cells expressing a functionally defective mutant can induce cell activation and HIV-1 susceptibility in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. This evidence highlights the relevance for AIDS pathogenesis

  15. Endothelial cells use dynamic actin to facilitate lymphocyte transendothelial migration and maintain the monolayer barrier.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Olivia L; Li, Jinmei; Nawas, Julie; Cooper, John A

    2014-12-15

    The vascular endothelium is a highly dynamic structure, and the integrity of its barrier function is tightly regulated. Normally impenetrable to cells, the endothelium actively assists lymphocytes to exit the bloodstream during inflammation. The actin cytoskeleton of the endothelial cell (EC) is known to facilitate transmigration, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report that actin assembly in the EC, induced by Arp2/3 complex under control of WAVE2, is important for several steps in the process of transmigration. To begin transmigration, ECs deploy actin-based membrane protrusions that create a cup-shaped docking structure for the lymphocyte. We found that docking structure formation involves the localization and activation of Arp2/3 complex by WAVE2. The next step in transmigration is creation of a migratory pore, and we found that endothelial WAVE2 is needed for lymphocytes to follow a transcellular route through an EC. Later, ECs use actin-based protrusions to close the gap behind the lymphocyte, which we discovered is also driven by WAVE2. Finally, we found that ECs in resting endothelial monolayers use lamellipodial protrusions dependent on WAVE2 to form and maintain contacts and junctions between cells.

  16. Cytotoxic effect of natural trans-resveratrol obtained from elicited Vitis vinifera cell cultures on three cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Almagro, Lorena; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, Maria A; Gómez-Ros, Laura V

    2012-12-01

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-R) has been reported to be a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. Although its cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines has been tested, its effect on human acute leukemia cell lines has scarcely been investigated, and only a few in vitro studies were performed using human breast epithelial cell lines. Due to its potential value for human health, demand for trans-R has rapidly increased, and new biotechnological strategies to obtain it from natural edible sources have been developed. Thus, grapevine cell cultures represent a reliable system of trans-R production since they biosynthesize trans-R constitutively or in response to elicitation. In addition, there are no studies deepen on the inhibitory effect of trans-R, produced by elicited grapevine cell cultures, on growth of human tumor cell lines. In this work, the effect of trans-R extracted from the culture medium, after elicitation of grapevine cell cultures, was tested on two human acute lymphocytic and monocytic leukemia cell lines, and one human breast cancer cell line. The effect of trans-R on cell proliferation was not only dose- and time-dependent but also cell type-dependent, as seen from the different degrees of susceptibility of cancer cell lines tested. As regards the effect of trans-R on cell cycle distribution, low trans-R concentrations increased cells in the S phase whereas a high trans-R concentration increased G₀/G₁ phase in all cell lines. Perturbation of the cell cycle at low trans-R concentrations did not correlate with the induction of cell death, whereas a high trans-R concentration, cell proliferation decreased as a result of increasing apoptosis in the three cell lines. In leukemia cells, trans-R up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 while trans-R-induced apoptosis in breast cells occur through a caspase-3-independent mechanism mediated by a down-regulation of Bcl-2.

  17. Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloendoprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Gregor; Mengele, Karin; Yfanti, Christina; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Hellmann, Daniela; Welk, Anita; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Rosner, Marsha Rich; Tang, Wei-Jen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cells is presented. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a multi-organ tissue microarray (pancreas, lung, kidney, central/peripheral nervous system, liver, breast, placenta, myocardium, striated muscle, bone marrow, thymus, spleen) and on a cell microarray encompassing 31 tumor cell lines of different origin plus trophoblast cells, and normal blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. IDE protein is expressed by all of the tissues assessed and in all of the tumor cell lines except Raji and HL-60; trophoblast cells and granulocytes but not normal lymphocytes are also IDE-positive. PMID:18783335

  18. Adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measles-virus infected cells: modulation by solubilized rhesus erythrocyte membranes and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Bankhurst, A D; Maki, D; Sanchez, M; McLaren, L

    1979-01-01

    The adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to HeLa cells persistently infected with measles virus (HeLa-K11) was studied. The following data were observed. (i) The proportion of HeLa-K11 cells with adherent human peripheral blood lymphocytes of rhesus monkey erythrocytes was similar over a wide range of ratios of HeLa-K11 cells to lymphocytes or erythrocytes. (ii) The great majority of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes reacted with the same HeLa-K11 cell (iii). The adherence of lymphocytes or erythrocytes to HeLa-K11 cells was blocked by rabbit anti-measles virus antibody or solubilized monkey erythrocyte membranes. The pretreatment of erythrocytes or lymphocytes with receptor-destroying enzyme did not alter their adherence properties. (iv) The pattern of inhibition observed with several carbohydrates was similar in both the erythrocyte and the lymphocyte adherence assays. These data are consistent with the possibility that the receptor present on both rhesus monkey erythrocytes and human lymphocytes has similar specificities and biochemical composition. PMID:572346

  19. L-arginine metabolism in myeloid cells controls T-lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Serafini, Paolo; Mazzoni, Alessandra; Segal, David M; Zanovello, Paola

    2003-06-01

    Although current attention has focused on regulatory T lymphocytes as suppressors of autoimmune responses, powerful immunosuppression is also mediated by a subset of myeloid cells that enter the lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues during times of immune stress. If these myeloid suppressor cells (MSCs) receive signals from activated T lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs, they block T-cell proliferation. MSCs use two enzymes involved in arginine metabolism to control T-cell responses: inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), which generates nitric oxide (NO) and arginase 1 (Arg1), which depletes the milieu of arginine. Th1 cytokines induce NOS2, whereas Th2 cytokines upregulate Arg1. Induction of either enzyme alone results in a reversible block in T-cell proliferation. When both enzymes are induced together, peroxynitrites, generated by NOS2 under conditions of limiting arginine, cause activated T lymphocytes to undergo apoptosis. Thus, NOS2 and Arg1 might act separately or synergistically in vivo to control specific types of T-cell responses, and selective antagonists of these enzymes might prove beneficial in fighting diseases in which T-cell responses are inappropriately suppressed. This Opinion is the second in a series on the regulation of the immune system by metabolic pathways.

  20. Human lymph node lymphocytes fail to effect lysis of antibody-coated target cells.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, C; Saxon, A; Bohrer, R

    1977-01-01

    Human lymphocytes prepared from peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus were titrated for ability to mediate lysis of human target cells coated with rabbit anti target antibody. Lymphocytes from blood and spleen produced efficient lysis of targets in the presence of antibody. Lymph node cells and thymocytes were essentially non-reactive in this system. Lymph node preparations from non-cancer patients contained approximately 25% of non-T cells with receptors for Fc,C3 and/or Ig. Regional lymph nodes from patients with primary tumours contained 37-50% non-T cells by the same criteria. Failure of lymph node lymphocytes to effect lysis of antibody-coated targets did not therefore correlate with content of Fc or C3 bearing cells per se. The effector cell in antibody-dependent cytotoxicity in other systems has been shown to carry Fc and C3 receptors, but not surface Ig. This cell type appears to be absent or non-functional in human lymph nodes. PMID:300304

  1. Biological effects of asbestos fibers on human cells in vitro--especially on lymphocytes and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ueki, A

    2001-04-01

    Biological effects of asbestos fibers were reviewed in relation to the polyclonal activation of human lymphocytes and to the release of free radicals from human neutrophils in vitro. Chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite asbestos activate CD4+ T lymphocytes polyclonally, followed by activation-induced cell death (a type of apoptosis). The activation is HLA class II dependent, and certain Vbeta repertoire, e.g. Vbeta 5.3, are detected among the fractionated T cells with a high Ca++ level that had been stimulated by asbestos fibers. These observations support the possibility that asbestos acts as a superantigen, and that asbestos stimulate lymphocytes repeatedly in vivo. It has been reported that asbestos-induced cytotoxicity can be suppressed by the scavengers of superoxide or hydroxyl radical. Some of these scavengers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or retinoic acid are known as inducers of cell differentiation. The biological functions of DMSO for cell differentiation of HL-60 cells to neutrophils are suppressed by co-culturing of crocidolite asbestos, because DMSO reacts with the hydroxyl radical released after the stimulation with crocidolite and spent itself. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited the effects of crocidolite, reacting rapidly with *O2- before the secondary release of *OH. It seems to be probable that asbestos fibers, especially crocidolite, suppress the tissue cell differentiation by releasing free radicals and by wasting inducers of cell differentiation as radical scavengers.

  2. Oligonucleotide IMT504 induces an immunogenic phenotype and apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Juan M; Elias, Fernanda; Montaner, Alejandro; Flo, Juan; Lopez, Ricardo A; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Franco, Raul J; Lenial, Silvina P; Lopez Salón, Mariella; Pirpignani, Maria L; Solimano, Jorge; Garay, Guy; Riveros, Dardo; Fernandez, Jose; Cacchione, Roberto; Dupont, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Oligonucleotides (ODNs) of the PyNTTTTGT class directly stimulate B lymphocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells of the immune system of primates. Here we investigated the ability of the PyNTTTTGT ODN prototype IMT504 to regulate the expression of surface molecules and apoptosis in human B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The surface molecules CD25, CD40, CD80 and CD86 were up-regulated upon incubation of the B-CLL cells with IMT504. Co-stimulation with IL-2 resulted in further up-regulation. IMT504-activated B-CLL cells were also good stimulators of T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions and co-stimulation with IL-2 improved this stimulation capacity. Apoptosis of the B-CLL cells in vitro was also stimulated by incubation with IMT504. In this case, co-stimulation with IL-2 was not significant. Furthermore, B-CLL cells of all the patients studied developed an immunogenic phenotype and entered stimulated apoptosis upon in vitro incubation with IMT504 independently of the mutational status of their IgV(H) genes, becoming a good marker for tumor progression.

  3. The sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide induces selective apoptosis of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Steele, A J; Jones, D T; Ganeshaguru, K; Duke, V M; Yogashangary, B C; North, J M; Lowdell, M W; Kottaridis, P D; Mehta, A B; Prentice, A G; Hoffbrand, A V; Wickremasinghe, R G

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the in vitro actions of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide (PTL) on cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Dye reduction viability assays showed that the median LD(50) for PTL was 6.2 muM (n=78). Fifteen of these isolates were relatively resistant to the conventional agent chlorambucil but retained sensitivity to PTL. Brief exposures to PTL (1-3 h) were sufficient to induce caspase activation and commitment to cell death. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells were more sensitive towards PTL than were normal T lymphocytes or CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitor cells. The mechanism of cell killing was via PTL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in turn in a proapoptotic Bax conformational change, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase activation. Parthenolide also decreased nuclear levels of the antiapoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and diminished phosphorylation of its negative regulator IkappaB. Killing of CLL cells by PTL was apparently independent of p53 induction. This is the first report showing the relative selectivity of PTL towards CLL cells. The data here warrant further investigation of this class of natural product as potential therapeutic agents for CLL.

  4. [Clinical Significance of Monitoring T Lymphocyte Subsets after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Tong, Chun; Guo, Zhi; Lou, Jing-Xing; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Kai; He, Xue-Peng; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Hui-Rren

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between T lymphocyte subsets and the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and its clinical significance of monitoring the changes of T lymphocyte subsets dynamicly on 1, 3, 6, 12 month after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Twenty cases received allo-HSCT in Department of Hematology of General Hospital of Beijing Military Command from January 2013 to January 2014, including 10 males and 10 females with average age of 20.3 years (3-46 years old), among them 4 cases rectived HLA matched transplantation and 16 cases rectived HLA mismatched transplantation. The levels of T lymphocyte subsets including CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+), CD4(+)CD25(high) FOXP3(+) in the peripheral blood were manitored with flow cytometry (FCM) on +1, +3, +6, +12 month after transplantation dynamicly. (1) Follow up to March 2015, the levers of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+), CD4(+) CD25(high) FOXP3(+) showed a different degree of recovery after transplantation for all cases and returned to the lever of pre-transplantation on 12 month basically, and CD8(+) T cells recovered earlier than CD4(+) T cells, while the decrease of CD4(+) T cells lasted more than 1 year; The proportion inversion of CD4(+)/CD8(+) also lasted for more than 1 year;(2) The level of CD4(+) CD25(high) FOXP3(+) in patients with acute GVHD was lower than that in patients without acute GVHD. The dynamic monitoring of the T lymphocyte subsets, especially CD4(+) CD25(high) FOXP3(+) after transplantation has importent clinical significance, it can forecast the incidence of acute GVHD before symptoms appeared; the dynamic monitoring of the T-lymphocyte subsets also can be used as reference indicator for prediction of GVHD, theraby it can reduce mortality of patients after transplantation.

  5. Lymphocyte fractionation using immunomagnetic colloid and a dipole magnet flow cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Moore, L R; Zborowski, M; Sun, L; Chalmers, J J

    1998-09-24

    The relationship between cell function and surface marker expression is a subject of active investigation in biology and medicine. These investigations require separating cells of a homogeneous subset into multiple fractions of varying marker expression. We have developed a novel cell sorter, the dipole magnet flow sorter (DMFS), which separates selected T lymphocyte subpopulations, targeted by immunomagnetic colloid, into multiple fractions according to cell surface marker expression, as determined by flow cytometry. A narrow stream of cells is introduced into a sheath of carrier fluid in a rectangular channel while subjected to a perpendicular magnetic force. The special design of the pole pieces ensures a constant magnetic force acting on the magnetically labeled cells in the separation area. Cells are spread across the flow in relation to their magnetophoretic mobility. Separation is achieved by control of the positions of the effluent stream boundaries, which separate fluid volumes with cells of different magnetophoretic mobility. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes labeled with primary antibody-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate and anti-FITC-magnetic colloid are the chosen cell systems. Flow cytometry analysis shows that, for CD4 cells, a three-fold increase in total marker number per cell is observed when comparing the highest to the lowest fluorescence fractions. Similarly, a four-fold increase in total marker number is observed for CD8 cells. We also observed the separation of two dissimilar cell types that differed in expression of the CD4 marker, monocytes and T helper lymphocytes. We believe that this type of separation is applicable to any cells in suspension for which a suitable antibody exists and, due to the comparatively gentle nature of the process, is particularly suitable for the sorting of fragile cells.

  6. Hodgkin and sternberg-reed cell antigen(s) detected by an antiserum to a cell line (L428) derived from Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Stein, H; Gerdes, J; Kirchner, H; Schaadt, M; Diehl, V

    1981-10-15

    Antisera to the cell line L428, derived from Hodgkin's disease, were raised in rabbits by injecting L428 cells intravenously and subcutaneously. The anti-L428 cell serum that did not react with HLA-DR was absorbed with tonsil cell plus acute myeloid leukemia cells or tonsil cells plus neutrophils, monocytes, and blood lymphocytes. Then it was tested for its ability to discriminate between L428 cells, Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells, and various other cells. It was found that the anti L428 cell serum absorbed with tonsil cells plus acute myeloid leukemia cells stained only L428 cells, Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells, and neutrophils. The anti L428 cell serum absorbed with tonsil cell plus neutrophils, monocytes, and blood lymphocytes reacted with L428 cells and Hodgkin and sternberg-Reed cells from 13 cases of Hodgkin's disease. It did not react with any other cell type present in the blood or in lymphoid tissue or with cells from five cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The absorbed anti-L428 cell serum also failed to stain Daudi and HRIK cell line cells. We conclude that the anti-L428 cell serum defines an antigen that is apparently restricted in expression to L428 cells and Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells. This is a strong indication that the L428 cell line cells are derived from Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells.

  7. B Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Presenting as a Bile Duct Stricture Diagnosed With Cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Michael J.; Jiang, Liuyan; Lukens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Indeterminate biliary strictures represent a diagnostic challenge requiring further work-up, which encompasses a variety of diagnostic modalities. We report a very rare case of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia presenting as a biliary stricture following remission of acute myeloid leukemia, which was initially treated with allogenic stem cell transplant. After multiple diagnostic modalities were implemented with no success, the use of cholangioscopy-guided biopsies was the key for the final diagnosis. PMID:27807569

  8. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  9. CCL25/CCR9 Signal Promotes Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziqi; Sun, Tong; Chen, Yuxi; Gong, Shu; Sun, Xiye; Zou, Fangdong; Peng, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases worldwide, and metastasis is the most common cause of patients' deaths. Identification and inhibition of markers involved in metastasis process in cancer cells are promising works to block metastasis and improve prognoses of patients. Chemokines are a superfamily of small, chemotactic cytokines, whose functions are based on interaction with corresponding receptors. It has been found that one of the functions of chemokines is to regulate migration and invasion abilities of lymphocytes, as well as cancer cells. Chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) regulates trafficking of lymphocytes and cancer cell lines when interacting with its exclusive ligand chemokine 25 (CCL25). However, the mechanisms of CCL25/CCR9 signal that regulates metastasis of cancer cells are not completely known yet. In this study, we stimulated or inhibited CCL25/CCR9 signal in breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and hepatocellular cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HUH7), and found that CCL25/CCR9 signal resulted in different promotion of migration and invasion in different cell lines. These phenomena could be explained by selective regulation of several markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our findings suggested that CCL25/CCR9 signal may provide cancer cells with chemotactic abilities through influencing several EMT markers.

  10. LEF1: a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic B cell leukaemia/small lymphocytic B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Menter, Thomas; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Tzankov, Alexandar

    2015-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic B cell leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic B cell lymphoma (SLL) has proven to be not a uniform entity but to consist of various disease subtypes. CLL might also pose diagnostic challenges by demonstrating an uncommon immunohistochemical profile. Recently, the role of lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) in CLL was elucidated being highly expressed and seeming to have a prognostic value. Our aim was to test the applicability of LEF1 as marker for CLL in a diagnostic setting. We investigated LEF1 expression in lymphomas by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing several lymphoma entities (altogether 720 cases, including 61 CLL cases). We also separated CLL cases by zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and CD38 stainings and fluorescence in situ hybridisation analyses for TP53 deletions and trisomy 12 into respective groups and correlated data with LEF1 expression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LEF1 as a diagnostic marker for CLL was 0.815 (95% CI 0.742 to 0.888). The relevant diagnostic cut-off value for LEF1 positivity determined by the Youden's index was 10% (specificity 92%, sensitivity 70%). The majority of CLL cases (70%) expressed LEF1. Eighteen per cent of (transformed) diffuse large B cell lymphoma cases also expressed LEF1. In most other lymphoma entities, LEF1 was negative. There was a positive correlation of LEF1 staining with ZAP70 expression (Spearman's rho: 0.438, p<0.001), but not with CD38 expression, TP53 deletions or trisomy 12. LEF1 is a useful marker in the differential diagnosis of CLL in difficult cases. It shows a high specificity (92%) and a reasonable sensitivity (70%) for this entity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. B lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, in tonsils and adenoid structures that make up Waldeyer’s Ring. Upon secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes that drain the upper and lower airways and further B cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  12. Autoimmune B-cell lymphopenia after successful adoptive therapy with telomerase-specific T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ugel, Stefano; Scarselli, Elisa; Iezzi, Manuela; Mennuni, Carmela; Pannellini, Tania; Calvaruso, Francesco; Cipriani, Barbara; De Palma, Raffaele; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Peranzoni, Elisa; Musiani, Piero; Zanovello, Paola; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-02-18

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is a good candidate for cancer immunotherapy because it is overexpressed in 85% of all human tumors and implicated in maintenance of the transformed phenotype. TERT-based cancer vaccines have been shown to be safe, not inducing any immune-related pathology, but their impact on tumor progression is modest. Here we show that adoptive cell therapy with the use of high-avidity T lymphocytes reactive against telomerase can control the growth of different established tumors. Moreover, in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice, which develop prostate cancer, TERT-based adoptive cell therapy halted the progression to more aggressive and poorly differentiated tumors, significantly prolonging mouse survival. We also demonstrated that human tumors, including Burkitt lymphoma, and human cancer stem cells, are targeted in vivo by TERT-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Effective therapy with T cells against telomerase, different from active vaccination, however, led to autoimmunity marked by a consistent, although transient, B-cell depletion in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, associated with alteration of the spleen cytoarchitecture. These results indicate B cells as an in vivo target of TERT-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes during successful immunotherapy.

  13. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte therapy for ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rikke; Donia, Marco; Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff; Pedersen, Magnus; Hansen, Morten; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Personalized cancer immunotherapy based on infusion of T cells holds the promise to specifically target a patient’s individual tumor. Accumulating evidence indicates that the T cells mediating these tumor regressions after cancer immunotherapies may primarily target patient-specific mutations expressed by the patients’ tumors and that the presence of these “neo-antigen” specific T-cells may be related to a high number of mutations in the tumor. In melanoma, treatment with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate durable complete responses. Previous trials investigating TIL therapy in solid tumors other than melanoma have shown limited success, however none of these early trials used current preparative chemotherapy regimens, and the methods for in vitro lymphocyte expansion have changed considerably. New advances and understandings in T cell based immunotherapies have stimulated the interest in developing this approach for other indications. Here, we summarize the early clinical data in the field of adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT) using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and ovarian cancer (OC). In addition we describe the major advances in the characterization and application of TIL therapy for patients with RCC and OC. PMID:26308285

  14. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  15. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138+ MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8+ activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4+ T cell and naive CD8+ T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ–interferon secretion to HLA-A2+/CD138+ myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2−/CD138+ or HLA-A2+/CD138− cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2+/CD138+ cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  16. Interaction of immune lymphocytes with the mixtures of target cells possessing selected specificities of the H-2 immunizing allele

    PubMed Central

    Brondz, B. D.; Snegiröva, Antonina E.

    1971-01-01

    Optimum conditions have been found for a specific quantitative absorption of mouse lymphocytes on to allogeneic target cells. Using this technique, it has been established that C3H anti-A lymphocytes immune to the specificities of a single H-2 sub-locus (D) were absorbed neither on cells bearing only some of the components of the immunizing complex (DBA/1 and I/St targets) nor on their mixture. Conversely, C57BL anti-A lymphocytes immune to the specificities of two H-2 sub-loci (D and K) reacted separately with each of the components on corresponding third-party targets (B10.D2(H-2d) and C3H (H-2k) as shown both by the direct cytotoxic effect and by the quantitative absorption technique. The results of absorption of these lymphocytes on mixtures of B10.D2 and C3H target cells used in various proportions indicate that C57BL anti-A lymphocytes represent a mixture of two `polyvalent' populations in ratio of 1:3. This, together with the previous data indicates that `committed' lymphocytes may be `polyvalent' and that the initial recognition step of H-2 antigens may result from a direct contact between membranes of grafted cells and `unprimed' host lymphocytes. Structural matching of the membrane antigenic complex and of normal and immune lymphocytes is suggested as a decisive factor of immunological recognition initiation in a transplantation context. PMID:5553067

  17. Interleukin-7 Links T Lymphocyte and Intestinal Epithelial Cell Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shalapour, Shabnam; Deiser, Katrin; Kühl, Anja A.; Glauben, Rainer; Krug, Susanne M.; Fischer, André; Sercan, Özen; Chappaz, Stephane; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Fromm, Michael; Finke, Daniela; Hämmerling, Günter J.; Arnold, Bernd; Siegmund, Britta; Schüler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a major survival factor for mature T cells. Therefore, the degree of IL-7 availability determines the size of the peripheral T cell pool and regulates T cell homeostasis. Here we provide evidence that IL-7 also regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), colon function and the composition of the commensal microflora. In the colon of T cell-deficient, lymphopenic mice, IL-7-producing IEC accumulate. IEC hyperplasia can be blocked by IL-7-consuming T cells or the inactivation of the IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway. However, the blockade of the IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway renders T cell-deficient mice more sensitive to chemically-induced IEC damage and subsequent colitis. In summary, our data demonstrate that IL-7 promotes IEC hyperplasia under lymphopenic conditions. Under non-lymphopenic conditions, however, T cells consume IL-7 thereby limiting IEC expansion and survival. Hence, the degree of IL-7 availability regulates both, T cell and IEC homeostasis. PMID:22384106

  18. Persistent infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus enhances expression of MHC class I glycoprotein on cultured mouse brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gairin, J E; Joly, E; Oldstone, M B

    1991-06-01

    Brain endothelial cells (EC) represent a major component of the blood/brain barrier, which activated CTL cross to enter the central nervous system. Several viruses also penetrate the central nervous system through the blood stream via the brain EC. The studies reported here focus on understanding the principles and consequences of interactions among viruses, lymphocytes, and EC in the brain. As shown persistent but not acute infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus enhances the expression of MHC class I glycoproteins on the brain EC of mice. This increase in MHC expression during viral infection does not seem to result from the release of cytokines. However, replicative virus is required, because UV inactivated virus fails to enhance MHC expression. Viral determinants appear on EC surfaces after infection and serve as targets for CTL directed lysis. In contrast, neurons (OBL 21 neuronal cell line), which express negligible amounts of MHC class I glycoproteins, show no gain in MHC markers during persistent viral infection and are not targets for virus-specific CTL killing.

  19. Effect of cell-derived growth factors and cytokines on the clonal outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells and established lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, P; Zhang, X M; Ohlin, M; Zeuthen, J; Borrebaeck, C A

    1993-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a potent inducer of polyclonal B lymphocyte proliferation and is widely used as a tool for the establishment of B cell lines producing human monoclonal antibodies. However, because of low transformability, low clonability, and the inherent instability of EBV-infected B cells, valuable antibody-producing B cells are often lost during this procedure. We have here examined various cell-derived cytokines for their ability to enhance both the cellular outgrowth of newly infected B cells and the clonability of infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our results show that the murine thymoma cell line EL-4 is superior to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in both cellular outgrowth and cloning experiments, whereas monocyte-derived factors and monocyte cell lines were less capable than peripheral blood mononuclear cells in enhancing cellular outgrowth and cloning. Furthermore, the human T cell hybridoma cell line MP6 that secretes a B cell growth and differentiation factor, recently identified as an isoform of thioredoxin, is also capable of stimulating EBV-infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Co-cultivation of EBV-infected B cells with MP6 cells significantly enhanced the cloning efficiency at the 1 cell/well level. The present results also suggest that one potential role of the MP6-derived thioredoxin could be the up regulation of IL-6 receptor expression in EBV-infected B cells.

  20. Impaired removal of Vβ8(+) lymphocytes aggravates colitis in mice deficient for B cell lymphoma-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim).

    PubMed

    Leucht, K; Caj, M; Fried, M; Rogler, G; Hausmann, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the role of B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) for lymphocyte homeostasis in intestinal mucosa. Lymphocytes lacking Bim are refractory to apoptosis. Chronic colitis was induced in Bim-deficient mice (Bim(-/-) ) with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Weight loss and colonoscopic score were increased significantly in Bim(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. As Bim is induced for the killing of autoreactive cells we determined the role of Bim in the regulation of lymphocyte survival at mucosal sites. Upon chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, Bim(-/-) animals exhibited an increased infiltrate of lymphocytes into the mucosa compared to wild-type mice. The number of autoreactive T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ8(+) lymphocytes was significantly higher in Bim(-/-) mice compared to wild-type controls. Impaired removal of autoreactive lymphocytes in Bim(-/-) mice upon chronic DSS-induced colitis may therefore contribute to aggravated mucosal inflammation.

  1. Allorestricted T lymphocytes with a high avidity T-cell receptor towards NY-ESO-1 have potent anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Krönig, Holger; Hofer, Kathrin; Conrad, Heinke; Guilaume, Philippe; Müller, Julia; Schiemann, Matthias; Lennerz, Volker; Cosma, Antonio; Peschel, Christian; Busch, Dirk H; Romero, Pedro; Bernhard, Helga

    2009-08-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has been targeted as a tumor-associated antigen by immunotherapeutical strategies, such as cancer vaccines. The prerequisite for a T-cell-based therapy is the induction of T cells capable of recognizing the NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. In this study, we generated human T lymphocytes directed against the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) epitope known to be naturally presented with HLA-A*0201. We succeeded to isolate autorestricted and allorestricted T lymphocytes with low, intermediate or high avidity TCRs against the NY-ESO-1 peptide. The avidity of the established CTL populations correlated with their capacity of lysing HLA-A2-positive, NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lines derived from different origins, e.g. melanoma and myeloma. The allorestricted NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes displayed TCRs with the highest avidity and best anti-tumor recognition activity. TCRs derived from allorestricted, NY-ESO-1-specific T cells may be useful reagents for redirecting primary T cells by TCR gene transfer and, therefore, may facilitate the development of adoptive transfer regimens based on TCR-transduced T cells for the treatment of NY-ESO-1-expressing hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

  2. Effect of T lymphocytes on proliferation of rat and mouse salivary gland cells induced by isoproterenol

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsov, V.I.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes a study of the ability of lymphocytes to take part in the regulation of isoproterenol-induced proliferation of submaxillary salivary gland cells of rats and mice. Experiments were carried out on female August rats and female mice. To judge activation of the lymphocytes in the course of induction of salivary gland proliferation by isoproterenol, incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into spleen cells of the experimental animals was used. An increase in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into fragments of rat or mouse salivary glands in culture was observed 16 h after injection of isoproterenol into the animals. An increase in incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into the spleen cells was also observed.

  3. Massive oral bleeding after full-mouth extraction in a patient with B-cell lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma reversed with recombinant activated factor VII.

    PubMed

    Sprenker, Collin; Omar, Hesham R; Powless, R Andrew; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Full-mouth extraction can be associated with intraoral bleeding, which usually is controlled with local hemostatic measures. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) occasionally is used to stop bleeding in a variety of off-label indications, with the main argument curtailing its use being thrombotic events. The authors describe the use of rFVIIa for bleeding after full-mouth extraction in a patient with undiagnosed B-cell lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. A 72-year-old man underwent full-mouth extraction (18 teeth). The next day, the patient experienced massive oral bleeding. The authors administered tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, and a total of 12 units of packed red blood cells in addition to local hemostatic measures without control of bleeding. On postoperative day 10, the authors administered 5,000 micrograms of rFVIIa, and within 2 hours oral the bleeding ceased. The authors performed flow cytometry and diagnosed B-cell lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Unexplained massive oral bleeding despite adequate local hemostatic measures should prompt further investigations for underlying bleeding or coagulation disorders. The authors describe the successful use of rFVIIa in massive oral bleeding. Further studies are mandatory to study the effectiveness of this drug for this off-label indication. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human peripheral blood granulocytes and myeloid leukemic cell lines express both transcripts encoding for stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Ramenghi, U; Ruggieri, L; Dianzani, I; Rosso, C; Brizzi, M F; Camaschella, C; Pietsch, T; Saglio, G

    1994-09-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for the c-kit proto-oncogene, has been shown to play a critical role in the migration of melanocytes and germ cells during embryogenesis as well as in the proliferative control of the hematopoietic compartment. In this study we investigated the expression of both the soluble and transmembrane SCF forms in purified peripheral blood populations and in several hematopoietic cell lines. Expression of both transcripts, though in different ratios, was identified in whole bone marrow, in bone marrow stromal cells and in human peripheral blood. In peripheral blood, SCF expression could be ascribable to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), whereas no SCF expression was detected in isolated lymphocytes, monocytes and in some T lymphoid cell lines. Conversely, some hematopoietic myeloid cell lines, such as HL-60, KG1 and K562, express SCF with similar patterns.

  5. Entrance and survival of Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica within human B- and T-cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Verjans, G M; Ringrose, J H; van Alphen, L; Feltkamp, T E; Kusters, J G

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocytes, located within the Peyer's patches, might be involved in the dissemination of enteropathogenic Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the susceptibility of human B- and T-cell lines to bacterial adhesion and invasion. The two S. typhimurium strains analyzed were highly invasive, while the two Y. enterocolitica (O:8) strains adhered to the B- and T-cell lines but did not enter the cell lines in significant amounts. We hypothesize that the incapability of the Y. enterocolitica (O:8) strains to enter the human B- and T-cell lines is most probably due to the bacterial inability to induce the internalization process upon adhesion to both cell lines. Although immortalized B- and T-cell lines were used in this study, the results presented suggest the possibility that both cell types could play a role in the dissemination of intracellularly residing S. typhimurium in vivo. PMID:7514574

  6. Chromosome aberrations and rogue cells in lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Lazutka, J R

    1996-03-09

    A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 183 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 27 control individuals. Increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were associated with exposure to radiation at Chernobyl, alcohol abuse and a history of recent influenza infection. However, only approximately 20% of Chernobyl clean-up workers had an increased frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes. At the same time, an increased frequency of acentric fragments in lymphocytes of clean-up workers was characteristic. The use of multivitamins as dietary supplement significantly decreased the frequency of chromosome aberrations, especially of chromatid breaks. Rogue cells were found in lymphocytes of 28 clean-up workers and 3 control individuals. The appearance of rogue cells was associated with a recent history of acute respiratory disease (presumably caused by adenoviral infection) and, probably, alcohol abuse. Dicentric chromosomes in rogue cells were distributed according to a negative binomial distribution. Occurrence of rogue cells due to a perturbation of cell cycle control and abnormal apoptosis is suggested.

  7. Expression and regulation of COP1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for promotion of cell proliferation and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunling; Gong, Yanqing; Shi, Xuanxuan; Shi, Hengliang; Wan, Yan; Wu, Qingyun; Xu, Kailin

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in Western countries, and mainly originates from an accumulation of abnormal B cells caused by the dysregulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The aberration of proliferation-related gene in CLL cells induces cell arrest at G0/G1 phase, or a small section shows rapid cell growth, which further complicates the pathogenesis of CLL. The constitutively photomorphogenic 1 (COP1), as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in many biological processes in mammalian cells, but its role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progression remains unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of COP1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 23 CLL patients and 3 healthy donors. The observed upregulated expression of COP1 in CLL patients was positively correlated with CLL clinical stage and ZAP-70 expression, but not del(13q14) and del(17q-). Overexpression of COP1 significantly promoted cell colony formation and proliferation, especially contributing to the accumulation of cells in S-phase by inhibition of FoxO1 and p21. Moreover, overexpression of COP1 accelerated tumorigenicity of HG3 cells and promoted xenograft growth. Therefore, the present study revealed that COP1 plays an important role in CLL cell proliferation and tumorigenicity, and may be a useful indicator of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia processes.

  8. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R.; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  9. Monoclonal origin of B lymphocyte colony-forming cells in spleen colonies formed by multipotential hemopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lala, PK; Johnson, GR

    1978-01-01

    Spleen colonies produced by transplanting lethally irradiated mice with either 12 day fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells were found to contain B- lymphocyte colony-forming cells (BL-CFC) . The proportion of BL-CFC positive spleen colonies did not increase substantially between 8 and 14 days after transplantation, the range being 18-45 percent. However, the absolute number of BL-CFC per spleen colony varied considerably (between 1 and 10,318), although the majority of colonies contained less than 200 BL-CFC. Irrespective of the time after transplantation, smaller spleen colonies were found to have a higher frequency of BL-CFC than larger spleen colonies. To determine the possible clonal origin of BL-CFC from spleen colony- forming unit (CFU-S), CBA mice were injected with equal numbers of CBA and CBA T(6)/T(6) fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells. Analysis of 7-15-day spleen colonies demonstrated that 90 percent were either exclusively T(6) positive or T(6) negative and approximately equal numbers ofboth colony types were observed. B-lymphocyte colonies were grown and successfully karyotyped from 19 spleen colonies. When compared with the original spleen colony karyotype the B-lymphocyte colony cells karyotype was identical in all 19 cases. In 3 of the 19 colonies analyzed a mixture of T(6) positive and T(6) negative karyotypes was present and identical proportions of the karyotypes were present in the pooled B-lymphocyte colony cells and spleen colony cells. The data indicate that the B-lymphocyte colony-forming cells detected in spleen colonies are genuine members of the hemopoietic clone derived from the initiating hemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S). PMID:309918

  10. Prostaglandin Actions in Established Insect Cell Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids that serve as biochemical signals that mediate a wide range of physiological functions in animal cells. For example, PGs influence protein expression in establish insect cell lines ...

  11. Cells that express viral antigens but lack H-2 determinants are not lysed by immune thymus-derived lymphocytes but are lysed by other antiviral immune attack mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Zinkernagel, R M; Oldstone, M B

    1976-01-01

    Murine F9 teratoma cells do not express major transplantation antigens detectable by either serologic or alloreactive assays of thymus-dependent lymphocytes (T cells). Such cells can be infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or vaccinia virus, do express viral antigens on the cell surface, and can release infectious virus in amounts equivalent to those of other H-2 bearing murine cell lines. Immunologic injury of virus-infected F9 cells occurs after the addition of specific antiviral antibody and complement or of specific antiviral antibody and unsensitized lymphoid cells (antibody-mediated cell-dependent killing). In contrast, injury does not follow the addition of immune cytotoxic T cells. These results indicate that possession of H-2 antigens is not a requirement for a cell's infection by or production of virus. Further, expression of viral antigens on the cell's surface, although adequate for antibody-mediated immune injury, is by itself insufficient for direct T cell-mediated lysis. The major transplantation antigens thus probably represent the cell surface structures that are crucial for T-mediated cell wall damage that results in chromium release. PMID:1086476

  12. Recirculation of lymphocyte subsets (CD5+, CD4+, CD8+, T19+ and B cells) through fetal lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Kimpton, W G; Washington, E A; Cahill, R N

    1989-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper examine the cell-surface phenotype (CD5, CD4, CD8, T19, MHC class II and sIg) and cell output of lymphocyte subsets circulating through a subcutaneous lymph node in the sheep fetus, in an environment unaffected by foreign antigen and circulating immunoglobulins. CD4+ lymphocytes were the major T-cell subset in fetal lymph and were clearly enriched in lymph compared with blood, whereas T19+, CD8+ and B lymphocytes were not. It seems likely that in the fetus CD4+ lymphocytes are extracted from the blood at a faster rate than are other T-cell subsets and B cells. There was a much higher percentage of CD8+ and T null cells and a lower percentage of MHC class II+ and B cells circulating in the fetal lymph than in adult lymph, while the percentage of T19+ lymphocytes in fetal blood was twice that in the adult. Although the hourly cell output from an adult prescapular lymph node was far higher than that from a fetal lymph node, the circulation of lymphocytes through fetal lymph nodes was much greater per gram lymph node weight than that through adult lymph nodes. The wholesale recirculation in the fetus of all the major T-cell subsets found in the adult is paradoxical because it is not known what function they serve in the fetus in the absence of antigen and ongoing immune responses, although clearly they are not memory cells. PMID:2481644

  13. Efficacy of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors with diverse isoform selectivity profiles for inhibiting the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Göckeritz, Elisa; Kerwien, Susan; Baumann, Michael; Wigger, Marion; Vondey, Verena; Neumann, Lars; Landwehr, Thomas; Wendtner, Clemens M; Klein, Christian; Liu, Ningshu; Hallek, Michael; Frenzel, Lukas P; Krause, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatiylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated signaling holds great promise for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Therefore we assessed three structurally related PI3K inhibitors targeting the PI3K-δ isoform for their ability to inhibit the survival of freshly isolated CLL cells. The purely PI3K-δ-selective inhibitor idelalisib was compared to copanlisib (BAY 80-6946) and duvelisib (IPI-145), with isoform target profiles that additionally include PI3K-α or PI3K-γ, respectively. The concentrations leading to half-maximal reduction of the survival of CLL cells were more than ten-fold lower for copanlisib than for idelalisib and duvelisib. At concentrations reflecting the biological availability of the different inhibitors, high levels of apoptotic response among CLL samples were attained more consistently with copanlisib than with idelalisib. Copanlisib selectively reduced the survival of CLL cells compared to T cells and to B cells from healthy donors. In addition copanlisib and duvelisib impaired the migration of CLL cells towards CXCL12 to a greater extent than equimolar idelalisib. Similarly copanlisib and duvelisib reduced the survival of CLL cells in co-cultures with the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5 more strongly than idelalisib. Survival inhibition by copanlisib and idelalisib was enhanced by the monoclonal CD20 antibodies rituximab and obinutuzumab (GA101), while antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by alemtuzumab and peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not substantially impaired by both PI3K inhibitors for the CLL-derived JVM-3 cell line as target cells. Taken together, targeting the α- and δ- p110 isoforms with copanlisib may be a useful strategy for the treatment of CLL and warrants further clinical investigation.

  14. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Induced Overexpression of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) Facilitates Trafficking of Infected Lymphocytes through the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Curis, Céline; Percher, Florent; Jeannin, Patricia; Montange, Thomas; Chevalier, Sébastien A.; Seilhean, Danielle; Cartier, Luis; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease develops upon infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system, mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The central nervous system is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. In this study, we investigated the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, in the crossing of the BBB by HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We demonstrated that ALCAM is overexpressed on the surface of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes, both in chronically infected cell lines and in primary infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. ALCAM overexpression results from the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by the viral transactivator Tax. In contrast, staining of spinal cord sections of HAM/TSP patients showed that ALCAM expression is not altered on the BBB endothelium in the context of HTLV-1 infection. ALCAM blockade or downregulation of ALCAM levels significantly reduced the migration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes across a monolayer of human BBB endothelial cells. This study suggests a potential role for ALCAM in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This disease is the consequence of the infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), mostly the thoracic spinal cord. The CNS is normally protected by a physiological structure called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists primarily of a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. The mechanism of migration of lymphocytes into

  15. Metabolic reprogramming in the tumour microenvironment: a hallmark shared by cancer cells and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Allison, Katrina E; Coomber, Brenda L; Bridle, Byram W

    2017-10-01

    Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancers, including shifting oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and up-regulating glutaminolysis to divert carbon sources into biosynthetic pathways that promote proliferation and survival. Therefore, metabolic inhibitors represent promising anti-cancer drugs. However, T cells must rapidly divide and survive in harsh microenvironments to mediate anti-cancer effects. Metabolic profiles of cancer cells and activated T lymphocytes are similar, raising the risk of metabolic inhibitors impairing the immune system. Immune checkpoint blockade provides an example of how metabolism can be differentially impacted to impair cancer cells but support T cells. Implications for research with metabolic inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  17. Dendritic cells are accessory cells for the development of anti- trinitrophenyl cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    This study establishes that dendritic cells (DC) are the critical accessory cells for the development of anti-trinitrophenol (TNP) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro. We developed a model in which nylon wool-nonadherent spleen cells were used both as the responding and stimulating cells, the latter having been TNP-modified and x- irradiated. Thy-1-bearing CTL developed in C57BL/6, B6D2F1, and CBA mice only when small numbers of DC were added. Maximal responses in 5-d cultures were achieved with 0.5-1 DC/100 responding T cells. The DC did not have to be TNP modified directly. Anti-Ia and complement inactivated accessory cells, whereas similar treatment of the responders had no effect. DC exposed to ultraviolet radiation were ineffective, but x-irradiated DC were fully active. Culture media from DC, or from DC-nylon wool-passed spleen T cell cocultures that contained abundant CTL, would not substitute for viable DC. Enriched preparations of macrophages (M phi) were obtained from blood, peritoneal cavity, and spleens of BCG-immune and unprimed mice. M phi added at doses of 0.2-4% were weak or inactive as accessory cells. The level of Ia antigens on test M phi populations was quantitated and visualized by binding of a radioiodinated monoclonal anti-I-Ab,d antibody, clone B-21. M phi that bore substantial amounts of Ia from all organs were weak accessory cells. Addition of M phi to DC-T cell cocultures produced inhibitory effects, usually at a dose of 2% M phi. In contrast, 0.5% Ia-bearing M phi from BCG-immune boosted mice inhibited > 80% of the DC-mediated CTL response. Addition of indomethacin reversed M phi inhibition, and 10(-9) M prostaglandin E2 in turn blocked the indomethacin effect. Indomethacin also restored a low level of accessory cell function in immune-boosted adherent peritoneal cells, but not in preparations of monocytes and spleen M phi. Small numbers of DC were identified in preparations of immune- boosted peritoneal cells and may have accounted

  18. The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia requiring first-line therapy.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Rodrigo; Villamor, Neus; Aymerich, Marta; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; López, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Rozman, María; Beà, Sílvia; Royo, Cristina; Cazorla, Maite; Colomer, Dolors; Giné, Eva; Pinyol, Magda; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Delgado, Julio

    2014-05-01

    A proportion of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia achieve a minimal residual disease negative status after therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of minimal residual disease on the outcome of 255 consecutive patients receiving any front-line therapy in the context of a detailed prognostic evaluation, including assessment of IGHV, TP53, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. The median follow-up was 73 months (range, 2-202) from disease evaluation. The median treatment-free survival durations for patients achieving a complete response without or with minimal residual disease, a partial response and no response were 76, 40, 11 and 11 months, respectively (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that three variables had a significant impact on treatment-free survival: minimal residual disease (P<0.001), IGHV status (P<0.001) and β2-microglobulin levels (P=0.012). With regards to overall survival, factors predictive of an unfavorable outcome were minimal residual disease positivity (P=0.014), together with advanced age (P<0.001), unmutated IGHV status (P=0.001), TP53 mutations (P<0.001) and elevated levels of β2-microglobulin (P=0.003). In conclusion, for patients requiring front-line therapy, achievement of minimal residual disease negativity is associated with significantly prolonged treatment-free and overall survival irrespective of other prognostic markers or treatment administered.

  19. Characterization and Purification of Neoplastic Cells of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma from Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry and Flow Cytometric Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Jonathan R; Thomas, Anju; Wood, Brent L

    2017-02-01

    We report the flow cytometric (FC) identification and characterization of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells from tissues involved by nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). First, we immunophenotyped the NLPHL cell line (DEV) confirming a germinal center immunophenotype, lack of expression of CD32 and CD58, and expression of CD54. Nineteen of 26 lymph nodes involved by NLPHL demonstrated a population with an LP immunophenotype (73%), which included expression of germinal center markers (CD75/Bcl-6-positive, CD32-weak/negative without CD10), a B-cell immunophenotype (CD19/CD20/CD40(+)), IgD and/or IgM expression (67%), and lack of programmed death-ligand 1/ligand 2. The LP cells demonstrated an adhesion macromolecule expression pattern distinct from Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) (uniform CD50 and variable CD58 for NLPHL; minimal CD50, bright CD58 expression for CHL). A two-tube consensus assay identified LP cells in all seven NLPHL cases examined and only one non-NLPHL case (94 cases evaluated). Finally, FC cell sorting studies confirm that FC-defined populations have an LP cytomorphology. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a two-tube consensus assay can be used to immunophenotype NLHPL with high specificity and sensitivity and rapidly purify LP cells for genetic studies. This study also confirms aneuploidy in LP cells, provides antigens that may be helpful in distinguishing NLPHL from CHL, and suggests that T cells interact less avidly with LP cells than with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Relationship between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolite and cell cycle of lymphocyte in coke oven workers].

    PubMed

    Pan, B L; Zhang, H T; Zhang, H J; Chen, W T; Yang, J

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolite and cell cycle of lymphocyte in coke oven workers. Methods: 437 coke oven workers and 163 work-ers in water treatment department were recruited in this study. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle of lymphocyte. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, urine samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Results: The concentrations of urinary 2-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 9-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene l in coke oven workers were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01) . The distributions of cell cycle were analyzed in high exposure group (the content of urinary metabolites high than P75) and low exposure group (the content of urinary metabolites low than P25) . According to the content of 1-hydroxypyrene, the proportions of S phase in high exposure group were significant-ly higher than those of low exposure group (Z=-2.496, P=0.013) , but the proportions of G0/G1 phase were sig-nificantly lower than low exposure group (Z=-2.074, P=0.038) . The similar results were not been found in other hydroxylated metabolites as internal exposure group. Conclusion: Increasing levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene might resulting in cell cycle of lymphocyte disorders, mainly for G0/G1 phase shorten and S phase arrest.

  1. Metal Ions Activate Vascular Endothelial Cells and Increase Lymphocyte Chemotaxis and Binding

    PubMed Central

    Ninomiya, James T.; Kuzma, Scott A.; Schnettler, Timothy J.; Krolikowski, John G.; Struve, Janine A.; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    Metal on metal articulations in hip arthroplasty offer advantages, including lower volumetric wear compared to conventional metalonpolyethylene bearings, and increased resistance to dislocation. Reports described early failures, with histologic features similar to a Type IV immune response. Mechanisms by which metal wear products cause this reaction are not completely understood. We hypothesized a mechanism through direct activation of endothelial cells (ECs) by metal ions, resulting in both vasculitis and accumulation of lymphocytes without prior immune sensitization. Effects of metal ions were evaluated using human ECs in culture. Alterations in chemotactic proteins IL8 and MCP1 were assessed, as was upregulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and lymphocyte binding to ECs. Cobalt increased secretion of IL8 and MCP1 significantly, and upregulated the expression of ICAM-1 in ECs compared to stimulation by chromium and controls. Binding of lymphocytes to ECs and transEC migration were both significantly increased by cobalt but not chromium. These findings suggest that cobalt contributes more to the activation of ECs and lymphocyte binding than chromium without an allergic response. Some of the adverse tissue reactions to implants with components made of cobalt–chromium–molybdenium alloys may be due in part to activation of the endothelium by metal ions. PMID:23629852

  2. Metal ions activate vascular endothelial cells and increase lymphocyte chemotaxis and binding.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, James T; Kuzma, Scott A; Schnettler, Timothy J; Krolikowski, John G; Struve, Janine A; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2013-09-01

    Metal on metal articulations in hip arthroplasty offer advantages, including lower volumetric wear compared to conventional metalonpolyethylene bearings, and increased resistance to dislocation. Reports described early failures, with histologic features similar to a Type IV immune response. Mechanisms by which metal wear products cause this reaction are not completely understood. We hypothesized a mechanism through direct activation of endothelial cells (ECs) by metal ions, resulting in both vasculitis and accumulation of lymphocytes without prior immune sensitization. Effects of metal ions were evaluated using human ECs in culture. Alterations in chemotactic proteins IL8 and MCP1 were assessed, as was upregulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and lymphocyte binding to ECs. Cobalt increased secretion of IL8 and MCP1 significantly, and upregulated the expression of ICAM-1 in ECs compared to stimulation by chromium and controls. Binding of lymphocytes to ECs and transEC migration were both significantly increased by cobalt but not chromium. These findings suggest that cobalt contributes more to the activation of ECs and lymphocyte binding than chromium without an allergic response. Some of the adverse tissue reactions to implants with components made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenium alloys may be due in part to activation of the endothelium by metal ions. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  3. AMD3100 disrupts the cross-talk between chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and a mesenchymal stromal or nurse-like cell-based microenvironment: pre-clinical evidence for its association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatments

    PubMed Central

    Stamatopoulos, Basile; Meuleman, Nathalie; De Bruyn, Cécile; Pieters, Karlien; Mineur, Philippe; Le Roy, Christine; Saint-Georges, Stéphane; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Cymbalista, Florence; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions with the microenvironment, such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and nurse-like cells, protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis. This protection is partially mediated by the chemokine SDF-1α (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 (CD184) present on the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell surface. Design and Methods Here, we investigated the ability of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, to sensitize chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to chemotherapy in a chronic lymphocytic leukemia/mesenchymal stromal cell based or nurse-like cell based microenvironment co-culture model. Results AMD3100 decreased CXCR4 expression signal (n=15, P=0.0078) and inhibited actin polymerization/migration in response to SDF-1α (n=8, P<0.01) and pseudoemperipolesis (n=10, P=0.0010), suggesting that AMD3100 interferes with chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell trafficking. AMD3100 did not have a direct effect on apoptosis when chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells were cultured alone (n=10, P=0.8812). However, when they were cultured with SDF-1α, mesenchymal stromal cells or nurse-like cells (protecting them from apoptosis, P<0.001), chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell pre-treatment with AMD3100 significantly inhibited these protective effects (n=8, P<0.01) and decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL-1 and FLIP. Furthermore, combining AMD3100 with various drugs (fludarabine, cladribine, valproïc acid, bortezomib, flavopiridol, methylprednisolone) in our mesenchymal stromal cell co-culture model enhanced drug-induced apoptosis (n=8, P<0.05) indicating that AMD3100 could mobilize chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells away from their protective microenvironment, making them more accessible to conventional therapies. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that interfering with the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis by using AMD3100 inhibited chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell trafficking and microenvironment

  4. The oncogene DEK promotes leukemic cell survival and is downregulated by both Nutlin-3 and chlorambucil in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Secchiero, Paola; Voltan, Rebecca; di Iasio, Maria Grazia; Melloni, Elisabetta; Tiribelli, Mario; Zauli, Giorgio

    2010-03-15

    To characterize the role of the oncogene DEK in modulating the response to either Nutlin-3, a small-molecule inhibitor of the MDM2/p53 interaction, or chlorambucil in primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells. DEK mRNA and protein levels were evaluated in primary B-CLL samples (n = 21), p53(wild-type) SKW6.4, p53(mutated) BJAB lymphoblastoid cell lines, and normal CD19(+) B lymphocytes-treated Nutlin-3 or chlorambucil (10 micromol/L, each). Knocking down experiments with either p53 or DEK small interfering RNA (siRNA) were done to investigate the potential role of p53 in controlling the expression of DEK and the role of DEK in leukemic cell survival/apoptosis. Both Nutlin-3 and chlorambucil downregulated DEK in primary B-CLL samples (n = 21) and SKW6.4 but not in BJAB cells. Knocking down p53 attenuated the effect of Nutlin-3 on DEK expression, whereas knocking down DEK significantly increased both spontaneous and Nutlin-3-induced apoptosis. Conversely, counteracting DEK downmodulation by using p53 small interfering RNA reduced Nutlin-3-mediated apoptosis. On the other hand, Nutlin-3 potently induced p53 accumulation, but it did not affect DEK levels in normal CD19(+) B lymphocytes. These data show that the downregulation of DEK in response to either Nutlin-3 or chlorambucil represents an important molecular determinant in the cytotoxic response of leukemic cells, and suggest that strategies aimed to downregulate DEK might improve the therapeutic potential of these drugs.

  5. Effect of elevated growth hormone concentrations on the phenotype and functions of human lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Kotzmann, H; Köller, M; Czernin, S; Clodi, M; Svoboda, T; Riedl, M; Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Zielinski, C C; Luger, A

    1994-12-01

    Over the past decades, strong evidence has accumulated that growth hormone (GH) has immunostimulatory properties. Therefore, an investigation was conducted on 10 acromegalic patients and 9 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to determine whether plasma GH concentrations correlate with changes in several immune parameters, including serum concentrations of immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subsets, lymphocyte transformation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), natural killer (NK) cell activity as well as phagocytic and metabolic burst activity. While NK cell activity, serum concentrations of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) and metabolic burst activity were within the normal range in both groups, a significantly enhanced phagocytic activity was observed in the acromegalic patients. Surface markers on T lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8), B lymphocytes (CD19) and NK cells (CD16/56) were normal in both groups; however, in the acromegalic subjects, CD4+ and CD8+ cells showed a significant higher expression of transferrin receptors (CD71), indicating enhanced T-cell activity. The lymphocyte transformation response to PHA at the highest concentration tested showed a tendency to be elevated in acromegalics; however, the difference failed to be significant. Long-lasting and pronounced elevation of GH in acromegaly induces significantly enhanced phagocytic activity, but only negligible changes in most patients in lymphocyte phenotype and in the lymphocyte response to PHA.

  6. Heterogeneity of human lymphocyte Fc receptors. II. Relationship to antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gormus, B. J.; Woodson, Mildred; Kaplan, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were incubated (stripped) with pronase or papain and compared with unstripped lymphocytes for their ability to mediate antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Despite marked removal or inactivation of receptors for heat-aggregated IgG (aggG) by proteolytic digestion, and pronounced changes in the percentages of cells rosetting with IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA) (decreased by papain, increased by pronase), stripped PBL functioned normally in ADCC. Stripped and unstripped lymphocytes were pre-treated with aggG to determine the role of aggG receptors in ADCC. AggG almost totally abolished ADCC by unstripped PBL, but inhibited ADCC by enzyme-stripped lymphocytes relatively poorly. Neither untreated nor stripped PBL were able to induce cytotoxicity of chicken erythrocyte (CRBC) target cells sensitized with the Fab'2 fragment of anti-CRBC IgG antibody (CRBC-A). Exposure of PBL to EA monolayers composed of CRBC-A or of sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) sensitized with rabbit anti-SRBC IgG antibody (SRBC-A) depleted PBL of cells that rosetted with CRBC-A and with human Rh-positive, type O erythrocytes sensitized with the human anti-Rh serum Ripley (HRBC-A Ripley). Non-adherent cells were incapable of binding aggG and had markedly diminished cytotoxicity in ADCC. Similarly, exposure of PBL to HRBC-A Ripley monolayers resulted in non-adherent cells that were incapable of rosette formation with HRBC-A or CRBC-A, failed to bind aggG, and exhibited significantly diminished ADCC activity. These studies indicated that: (1) cytotoxic effector PBL active in ADCC (K cells) have receptors for aggG and for EA; (2) PBL deficient in functional aggG receptors (enzymatically inactivated or removed) are capable of inducing normal levels of ADCC; (3) aggG and EA receptors appear to be closely associated on native K-cell membranes; (4) there is no clear-cut relationship in a given lymphocyte population between the presence of either aggG or

  7. Thymosin increases production of T-cell growth factor by normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zatz, M M; Oliver, J; Samuels, C; Skotnicki, A B; Sztein, M B; Goldstein, A L

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro incubation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes with thymosin results in a marked and reproducible increase in production of T-cell growth factor, which is dose dependent and most pronounced in the first 24 hr of culture. Incubation of lymphocytes with thymosin alone failed to induce any production of T-cell growth factor. The biological activity of thymosin fraction 5 cannot be attributed to the activity of thymosin alpha 1, one of the well-characterized peptide components of fraction 5. These data provide the basis for (i) a potential mechanism for the in vivo immunorestorative effects of thymosin in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies and (ii) identification of an additional, but as yet undefined, immunoregulatory component of thymosin fraction 5. PMID:6609371

  8. Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4(+) lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gekker, Genya; Hu, Shuxian; Spivak, Marla; Lokensgard, James R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2005-11-14

    An urgent need for additional agents to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection led us to assess the anti-HIV-1 activity of the natural product propolis in CD4(+) lymphocytes and microglial cell cultures. Propolis inhibited viral expression in a concentration-dependent manner (maximal suppression of 85 and 98% was observed at 66.6 microg/ml propolis in CD4(+) and microglial cell cultures, respectively). Similar anti-HIV-1 activity was observed with propolis samples from several geographic regions. The mechanism of propolis antiviral property in CD4(+) lymphocytes appeared to involve, in part, inhibition of viral entry. While propolis had an additive antiviral effect on the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine, it had no noticeable effect on the protease inhibitor indinavir. The results of this in vitro study support the need for clinical trials of propolis or one or more of its components in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  9. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  10. The Impact of ATRA on Shaping Human Myeloid Cell Responses to Epithelial Cell-Derived Stimuli and on T-Lymphocyte Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gogolak, Péter; Blottière, Hervé M.; Rajnavölgyi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116) derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1β or TNF-α this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1β. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4+ T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses. PMID:25944986

  11. Variant antigenic peptide promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte adhesion to target cells without cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David M.; Attaran, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Timelapse video microscopy has been used to record the motility and dynamic interactions between an H-2Db-restricted murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone (F5) and Db-transfected L929 mouse fibroblasts (LDb) presenting normal or variant antigenic peptides from human influenza nucleoprotein. F5 cells will kill LDb target cells presenting specific antigen (peptide NP68: ASNENMDAM) after “browsing” their surfaces for between 8 min and many hours. Cell death is characterized by abrupt cellular rounding followed by zeiosis (vigorous “boiling” of the cytoplasm and blebbing of the plasma membrane) for 10–20 min, with subsequent cessation of all activity. Departure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from unkilled target cells is rare, whereas serial killing is sometimes observed. In the absence of antigenic peptide, cytotoxic T lymphocytes browse target cells for much shorter periods, and readily leave to encounter other targets, while never causing target cell death. Two variant antigenic peptides, differing in nonamer position 7 or 8, also act as antigens, albeit with lower efficiency. A third variant peptide NP34 (ASNENMETM), which differs from NP68 in both positions and yet still binds Db, does not stimulate F5 cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, timelapse video analysis shows that NP34 leads to a significant modification of cell behavior, by up-regulating F5–LDb adhesive interactions. These data extend recent studies showing that partial agonists may elicit a subset of the T cell responses associated with full antigen stimulation, by demonstrating that TCR interaction with variant peptide antigens can trigger target cell adhesion and surface exploration without activating the signaling pathway that results in cytotoxicity. PMID:9861010

  12. Proteomic and protein interaction network analysis of human T lymphocytes during cell-cycle entry

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Stephen J; Boutz, Daniel R; Wang, Rong; Chronis, Constantinos; Lea, Nicholas C; Thayaparan, Thivyan; Hamilton, Emma; Milewicz, Hanna; Blanc, Eric; Mufti, Ghulam J; Marcotte, Edward M; Thomas, N Shaun B

    2012-01-01

    Regulating the transition of cells such as T lymphocytes from quiescence (G0) into an activated, proliferating state involves initiation of cellular programs resulting in entry into the cell cycle (proliferation), the growth cycle (blastogenesis, cell size) and effector (functional) activation. We show the first proteomic analysis of protein interaction networks activated during entry into the first cell cycle from G0. We also provide proof of principle that blastogenesis and proliferation programs are separable in primary human T cells. We employed a proteomic profiling method to identify large-scale changes in chromatin/nuclear matrix-bound and unbound proteins in human T lymphocytes during the transition from G0 into the first cell cycle and mapped them to form functionally annotated, dynamic protein interaction networks. Inhibiting the induction of two proteins involved in two of the most significantly upregulated cellular processes, ribosome biogenesis (eIF6) and hnRNA splicing (SF3B2/SF3B4), showed, respectively, that human T cells can enter the cell cycle without growing in size, or increase in size without entering the cell cycle. PMID:22415777

  13. Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Marco; Arrigoni, Alberto; Rossetti, Grazisa; Gruarin, Paola; Ranzani, Valeria; Politano, Claudia; Bonnal, Raoul J P; Provasi, Elena; Sarnicola, Maria Lucia; Panzeri, Ilaria; Moro, Monica; Crosti, Mariacristina; Mazzara, Saveria; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano; Palleschi, Alessandro; Santambrogio, Luigi; Bovo, Giorgio; Zucchini, Nicola; Totis, Mauro; Gianotti, Luca; Cesana, Giancarlo; Perego, Roberto A; Maroni, Nirvana; Pisani Ceretti, Andrea; Opocher, Enrico; De Francesco, Raffaele; Geginat, Jens; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Abrignani, Sergio; Pagani, Massimiliano

    2016-11-15

    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and Treg cells infiltrating colorectal or non-small-cell lung cancers were compared to transcriptomes of the same subsets from normal tissues and validated at the single-cell level. We found that tumor-infiltrating Treg cells were highly suppressive, upregulated several immune-checkpoints, and expressed on the cell surfaces specific signature molecules such as interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL1R2), programmed death (PD)-1 Ligand1, PD-1 Ligand2, and CCR8 chemokine, which were not previously described on Treg cells. Remarkably, high expression in whole-tumor samples of Treg cell signature genes, such as LAYN, MAGEH1, or CCR8, correlated with poor prognosis. Our findings provide insights into the molecular identity and functions of human tumor-infiltrating Treg cells and define potential targets for tumor immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for adoptive T-cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Silvia; Delbue, Serena; Signorini, Lucia; Setola, Elisabetta; Bagliani, Anna; Della Valle, Alberto; Galli, Andrea; Ferrante, Pasquale; Bregni, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study designs a strategy for an adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) protocol based on the ex-vivo selection of autologous peripheral blood-derived CD8-enriched T-cells, stimulated with dendritic cells (DCs) that had been pulsed with apoptotic tumor cells to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with anti-tumor activity. Seventy-eight colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were enrolled in this study. Tumor tissues and peripheral blood (PB) were obtained at surgery. Tissues were mechanically dissociated and cultured to obtain a primary tumor cell line from each patient. DCs were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using magnetic positive selection of CD14+ monocytes. Anti-tumor CTLs were elicited in co-/micro-cultures using DCs as antigen-presenting cells, autologous apoptotic tumor cells as a source of antigens, and CD8+ T lymphocytes as effectors. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion was assessed by ELISpot assays to evaluate the activation of the CTLs against the autologous tumor cells. Primary tumor cell lines were obtained from 20 of 78 patients (25.6%). DCs were generated from 26 patients, and of them, corresponding tumor cell lines were derived from six patients. ELISpot results showed that significant IFN-γ secretion was detected after different numbers of stimulations for two patients, whereas weak secretion was observed for three patients. Despite difficulties due to contamination of several primary tumor cell lines with gut intestinal flora, the results suggest that the generation of tumor-specific CTLs is feasible from patients with CRC, and could be useful for supporting an ACT approach in CRC.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of fluorescent lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Jean; Maire, Eric; Jacquey, Serge; Schultz, Guy; Jung, Georges

    1995-01-01

    The complete process, image acquisition, deblurring, 3D reconstruction and analysis has been tested on 160 normal T lymphoid cells marked with monoclonal antibodies CD4-CD8. The images are acquired from a conventional optical microscope illuminated by a mercury vapor lamp. A set of 16 serial image cuts is first grabbed by a high sensitivity Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) camera fitted on the microscope. The 2D image cuts are then deblurred using an original deconvolution method developed in the laboratory. The 3D reconstruction is processed slice by slice using a variant of the 2D Delaunay triangulation. To get a correct triangulation in the case of our specific application the following stringent requirements must be met. First, we exclude the possibility of joining two contours if we meet an empty cut between them, and secondly we must avoid branching points and finally, we state that reconstructed shapes may not have holes. The 3D reconstruction highlights some qualitative characteristics of the cells. So we can show that the fluorescent spots are either scattered on the membrane surface and present a regular radial arrangement or on the contrary are confined in a restricted area. Accordingly we propose to introduce a spatial coefficient in order to characterize such a volume distribution. In a further development we plan to obtain discriminant descriptors of the immunological status of hematopoietic cells.

  16. Fibroblastic reticular cells: organization and regulation of the T lymphocyte life cycle.

    PubMed

    Brown, Flavian D; Turley, Shannon J

    2015-02-15

    The connective tissue of any organ in the body is generally referred to as stroma. This complex network is commonly composed of leukocytes, extracellular matrix components, mesenchymal cells, and a collection of nerves, blood, and lymphoid vessels. Once viewed primarily as a structural entity, stromal cells of mesenchymal origin are now being intensely examined for their ability to directly regulate various components of immune cell function. There is particular interest in the ability of stromal cells to influence the homeostasis, activation, and proliferation of T lymphocytes. One example of this regulation occurs in the lymph node, where fibroblastic reticular cells support the maintenance of naive T cells, induce Ag-specific tolerance, and restrict the expansion of newly activated T cells. In an effort to highlight the varied immunoregulatory properties of fibroblastic reticular cells, we reviewed the most recent advances in this field and provide some insights into potential future directions.

  17. Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma expressing NK-cell intraepithelial lymphocyte (NK-IEL) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Naoko; Asaoka, Daisuke; Mori, Kiyoshi L; Sohda, Naomi; Miura, Ichiro; Miwa, Hiroto; Sato, Nobuhiro; Oshimi, Kazuo

    2004-07-01

    Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) is an intraepithelial T-lymphocyte (T-IEL) tumor. The tumor cells are usually CD3+, CD4-, CD8+, and contain cytotoxic granule associated proteins. We report on a CD3-negative CD56-positive enteropathy-associated lymphoma (ETL). This is the first case report of CD3-negative, CD56-positive, CD94-negative, and CD161-positive ETL. ETL cells originate from intraepithelial T-lymphocytes of the intestine. CD3-negative intraepithelial lymphocytes are known as natural killer (NK)-IELs. The phenotype of NK-IELs is also CD3-negative, CD56-positive, CD94-negative, and CD161-positive, while most normal NK cells express CD56 and CD94. CD3-negative lymphoma cells in this report also expressed CD56 and CD161, but not CD94. Because Southern blotting analysis showed a rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TCR) Cbeta in this case, the tumor is classified as an ETL. Based on the findings, NK-IELs may originate from T-cells, not NK-cells.

  18. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade during exercise decreases intestinal lymphocyte apoptosis but not cell loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Marra, S; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2004-07-01

    Catecholamines induce apoptosis in various lymphoid populations. This process can occur with both alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptors. Heavy exercise increases plasma catecholamine concentrations, and is also a cause of lymphocyte apoptosis, a possible explanation for postexercise lymphocytopenia. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adrenoreceptor antagonism on exercise-induced decreases and apoptosis of intestinal lymphocytes. Mice received an intraperitoneal injection of phentolamine (a nonselective alpha-blocker), nadolol (a nonselective beta-blocker), or saline (vehicle) prior to an exhaustive bout of exercise. Total intestinal lymphocyte numbers, percent and number of CD3+ lymphocytes, and cell viability were assessed. Neither alpha- nor beta-antagonism prevented exercise-induced cell loss in the intestine; however, pretreatment with nadolol significantly reduced the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Phentolamine administration appeared to increase the incidence of cell death among intestinal lymphocytes. Both drugs decreased the percentage of CD3+ intestinal lymphocytes. Our study suggests that catecholamines are not responsible for postexercise lymphocytopenia, but beta-adrenoceptor blockade may confer protection against exercise-induced apoptosis of intestinal lymphocytes.

  19. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. I. A hybridoma secreting antibody against a marker specific for human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, D A; Beckman, I; Bradley, J; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-01-01

    A hybridoma has been isolated from the products of fusion of a myeloma cell line with spleen cells from mice immunized with a human B cell line. After cloning, the hybridoma secretes antibody with the following properties: (i) Human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines react with the antibody while T and null cell lines do not. (ii) The antibody reacts with the majority of leucocytes in the blood of patients with CLL, but with a minority of cells in the blood of patients with AML or ALL of the null or T type. (iii) The antibody reacts with 9-21% of mononuclear cells in normal peripheral blood. The reacting cells are not T cells and overlap extensively with cells identified as B cells by other markers. The antigen identified by this antibody appears to be distinct from known B cell markers, and is put forward as a new B cell marker with diagnostic potential. PMID:6966995

  20. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for