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Sample records for lyngbya majuscula ccap

  1. Hantupeptin A, a cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptide from a Singapore collection of Lyngbya majuscula.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ashootosh; Puddick, Jonathan; Prinsep, Michele R; Lee, Peter Peng Foo; Tan, Lik Tong

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula from Pulau Hantu Besar, Singapore, has led to the isolation of a cyclodepsipeptide, hantupeptin A (1). The planar structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic experiments. The absolute configuration of the amino and hydroxyl acid residues in the molecule was determined by application of the advanced Marfey method, chiral HPLC analysis, and Mosher's method. Hantupeptin A showed cytotoxicity to MOLT-4 leukemia cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC(50) values of 32 and 4.0 microM, respectively.

  2. Biochemical Studies of the Lagunamides, Potent Cytotoxic Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Ashootosh; Fang, Wanru; Leong, David Tai; Tan, Lik Tong

    2012-01-01

    Lagunamides A (1) and B (2) are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary findings on the selectivity of lagunamides against various cancer cell lines as well as their mechanism of action by studying their effects on programmed cell death or apoptosis. Lagunamide A exhibited a selective growth inhibitory activity against a panel of cancer cell lines, including P388, A549, PC3, HCT8, and SK-OV3 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 nM to 6.4 nM. Morphological studies showed blebbing at the surface of cancer cells as well as cell shrinkage accompanied by loss of contact with the substratum and neighboring cells. Biochemical studies using HCT8 and MCF7 cancer cells suggested that the cytotoxic effect of 1 and 2 might act via induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Data presented in this study warrants further investigation on the mode of action and underscores the importance of the lagunamides as potential anticancer agents. PMID:22822361

  3. Halogenated fatty acid amides and cyclic depsipeptides from an eastern Caribbean collection of the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Jorge I; Vansach, Tifanie; Yoshida, Wesley Y; Sakamoto, Bryan; Pörzgen, Peter; Horgen, F David

    2009-09-01

    A lipophilic extract of an eastern Caribbean collection of Lyngbya majuscula yielded two new halogenated fatty acid amides, grenadamides B (1) and C (2), and two new depsipeptides, itralamides A (3) and B (4), along with the known compounds hectochlorin and deacetylhectochlorin. The recently reported depsipeptide carriebowmide (5) was also present in the extract and isolated as its sulfone artifact (6). Compounds 1-4 were identified by spectroscopic methods. The configurations of the amino acid residues of 3, 4, and 6 were determined by LC-MS analyses of diastereomeric derivatives of the acid hydrolysates (advanced Marfey's method). Based on the configurational analysis of 6, in direct comparison with authentic carriebowmide (5), a minor structural revision of 5 is proposed. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed marginal activity against the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). Compounds 1-4 and 6 were assessed for general cell toxicity in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Only itralamide B (4) displayed significant cytotoxicity, showing an IC(50) value of 6 +/- 1 muM.

  4. Experiment, modeling and optimization of liquid phase adsorption of Cu(II) using dried and carbonized biomass of Lyngbya majuscula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Deepika; Dutta, Susmita

    2015-07-01

    The present work aims at evaluation of the potential of cyanobacterial biomass to remove Cu(II) from simulated wastewater. Both dried and carbonized forms of Lyngbya majuscula, a cyanobacterial strain, have been used for such purpose. The influences of different experimental parameters viz., initial Cu(II) concentration, solution pH and adsorbent dose have been examined on sorption of Cu(II). Kinetic and equilibrium studies on Cu(II) removal from simulated wastewater have been done using both dried and carbonized biomass individually. Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm have been found to fit most satisfactorily to the kinetic and equilibrium data, respectively. Maximum 87.99 and 99.15 % of Cu(II) removal have been achieved with initial Cu(II) concentration of 10 and 25 mg/L for dried and carbonized algae, respectively, at an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L for 20 min of contact time and optimum pH 6. To optimize the removal process, Response Surface Methodology has been employed using both the dried and carbonized biomass. Removal with initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg/L, with 0.25 g adsorbent dose in 50 mL solution at pH 6 has been found to be optimum with both the adsorbents. This is the first ever attempt to make a comparative study on Cu(II) removal using both dried algal biomass and its activated carbon. Furthermore, regeneration of matrix was attempted and more than 70% and 80% of the adsorbent has been regenerated successfully in the case of dried and carbonized biomass respectively upto the 3rd cycle of regeneration study.

  5. Antileukemia activity in the Osillatoriaceae: isolation of Debromoaplysiatoxin from Lyngbya.

    PubMed

    Mynderse, J S; Moore, R E; Kashiwagi, M; Norton, T R

    1977-04-29

    Chloroform extracts of several seaweeds, of the family Oscillatoriaceae, from Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, display activity against P-388 lymphocytic mouse leukemia. A P-388 active compound, debromoaplysiatoxin, has been isolated from Lyngbya gracilis and characterized. This compound also has dermonecrotic activity and may be the dermatitis-producing substance in L. majuscula, the causative agent of "swimmers' itch" outbreaks in Hawaiian waters.

  6. Phylogenetic and Chemical Diversity of Three Chemotypes of Bloom-Forming Lyngbya Species (Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoriales) from Reefs of Southeastern Florida▿

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Koty; Arthur, Karen E.; Gu, Liangcai; Ross, Cliff; Harrison, Genelle; Gunasekera, Sarath P.; Meickle, Theresa; Matthew, Susan; Luesch, Hendrik; Thacker, Robert W.; Sherman, David H.; Paul, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya includes free-living, benthic, filamentous cyanobacteria that form periodic nuisance blooms in lagoons, reefs, and estuaries. Lyngbya spp. are prolific producers of biologically active compounds that deter grazers and help blooms persist in the marine environment. Here, our investigations reveal the presence of three distinct Lyngbya species on nearshore reefs in Broward County, FL, sampled in 2006 and 2007. With a combination of morphological measurements, molecular biology techniques, and natural products chemistry, we associated these three Lyngbya species with three distinct Lyngbya chemotypes. One species, identified as Lyngbya cf. confervoides via morphological measurements and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, produces a diverse array of bioactive peptides and depsipeptides. Our results indicate that the other two Lyngbya species produce either microcolins A and B or curacin D and dragonamides C and D. Results from screening for the biosynthetic capacity for curacin production among the three Lyngbya chemotypes in this study correlated that capacity with the presence of curacin D. Our work on these bloom-forming Lyngbya species emphasizes the significant phylogenetic and chemical diversity of the marine cyanobacteria on southern Florida reefs and identifies some of the genetic components of those differences. PMID:19270119

  7. CCAP for Universal Discrete Quantum Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Commer, Kenny; Freslon, Amaury; Yamashita, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    We show that the discrete duals of the free orthogonal quantum groups have the Haagerup property and the completely contractive approximation property. Analogous results hold for the free unitary quantum groups and the quantum automorphism groups of finite-dimensional C*-algebras. The proof relies on the monoidal equivalence between free orthogonal quantum groups and SU q (2) quantum groups, on the construction of a sufficient supply of bounded central functionals for SU q (2) quantum groups, and on the free product techniques of Ricard and Xu. Our results generalize previous work in the Kac setting due to Brannan on the Haagerup property, and due to the second author on the CCAP.

  8. Attraction of gravid anopheles Pseudopunctipennis females to oviposition substrates by Spirogyra majuscula (Zygnematales: Zygnmataceae) algae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, José L; Meza-Alvarez, Rosa A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I

    2007-03-01

    The attraction of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis gravid females to oviposition substrates containing Spirogyra majuscula algae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Gravid females deposited significantly more eggs in cups containing natural algae in water from breeding sites than in cups containing artificial (nylon rope) life-like algae in water from the corresponding natural breeding site, or in cups containing natural algae in distilled water. Bioassays with Spirogyra majuscula organic extracts indicated that these extracts at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001% attracted more oviposition, but concentrations of 1%, 10%, and 100% were repellent. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of algae organic extracts revealed a mixture of ethyl acetate and hydrocarbons compounds. These results suggest that the attraction of gravid An. pseudopunctipennis to natural breeding sites containing filamentous algae is probably mediated by organic compounds released by the algae.

  9. Debromoaplysiatoxin in Lyngbya-dominated mats on manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Florida King's Bay ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Szabo, Nancy J; Cichra, Mary; Phlips, Edward J

    2008-08-01

    Proliferation of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya, in Florida lakes and rivers has raised concerns about ecosystem and human health. Debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT) was measured in concentrations up to 6.31 microg/g wet weight lyngbyatoxin A equivalents (WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from natural substrates. DAT was also detected (up to 1.19 microg/g WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from manatee dorsa. Ulcerative dermatitis found on manatees is associated with, but has not been proven to be caused by DAT.

  10. Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anamika; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, P K

    2006-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) isolated from three cyanobacterial species Lyngbya (marine), Phormidium (marine) and Spirulina (fresh water) was studied in vitro. The results demonstrate that C-PCs from Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals (determined by crocin bleaching assay) with relative rate constant ratio of 3.13, 1.89 and 1.8, respectively. C-PCs also scavenge hydroxyl radicals (determined by deoxyribose degradation assay) with second order rate constant values of 7.87 x 10(10), 9.58 x 10(10) and 6.42 x 10(10), respectively. Interestingly, Lyngbya C-PC is found to be an effective inhibitor of peroxyl radicals (IC50 6.63 microM), as compared to Spirulina (IC50 12.15 microM) and Phormidium C-PC (IC50 12.74 microM) and is close to uric acid (IC50 2.15 microM). Further, the studies suggest that the covalently-linked tetrapyrrole chromophore phycocyanobilin is involved in the radical scavenging activity of C-PC. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of C-PCs indicate the presence of free radical active sites, which may play an important role in its radical scavenging property. This is the first report on the ESR activity of native C-PCs without perturbations that can cause radical formation.

  11. Identification, sequence and expression of a crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene in the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Loi, P K; Emmal, S A; Park, Y; Tublitz, N J

    2001-08-01

    The crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene was isolated from the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta. The gene has an open reading frame of 125 amino acid residues containing a single, complete copy of CCAP. Analysis of the gene structure revealed three introns interrupting the coding region. A comparison of the M. sexta CCAP gene with the Drosophila melanogaster genome database reveals significant similarities in sequence and gene structure. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the CCAP gene in the M. sexta central nervous system were determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CCAP gene is expressed in a total of 116 neurons in the post-embryonic M. sexta central nervous system. Nine pairs of cells are observed in the brain, 4.5 pairs in the subesophageal ganglion, three pairs in each thoracic ganglion (T1-T3), three pairs in the first abdominal ganglion (A1), five pairs each in the second to sixth abdominal ganglia (A2-A6) and 7.5 pairs in the terminal ganglion. The CCAP gene is expressed in every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage, except in the thoracic ganglia of first- and second-instar larvae. The number of cells expressing the CCAP gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 52 cells in the first instar and reaching a maximum of 116 shortly after pupation. One set of thoracic neurons expressing CCAP mRNA shows unusual variability in expression levels immediately prior to larval ecdysis. Using previously published CCAP immunocytochemical data, it was determined that 91 of 95 CCAP-immunopositive neurons in the M. sexta central nervous system also express the M. sexta CCAP gene, indicating that there is likely to be only a single CCAP gene in M. sexta.

  12. A Novel, Poly(Ethyl Ethylene Ether) Inhibitor to Trypsin from Marine Cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ambika; Prasanth, Shankar; Murugesh, Easwaran; Haridas, Karickal R; Sabu, Abdulhameed; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-03-01

    A novel, poly(ethyl ethylene ether) inhibitor to trypsin was purified from marine cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides from the coastal areas of Thalassery, North Kerala. The kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters of its interactions with the enzyme were also studied. It was demonstrated that the substrate binding, catalytic triad of the enzyme could be blocked by the inhibitor, as expressed by molecular simulation studies. The study also showed that the cyanobacterial group could prove to be a potential source of novel enzyme inhibitors for various applications.

  13. Evidence for bacterial chemotaxis to cyanobacteria from a radioassay technique. [Lyngbya birgei; Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Aeromonas hydrophila

    SciTech Connect

    Kangatharalingam, N.; Wang, Lizhu; Priscu, J.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Lyngbya birgei and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae elicited a significant chemotactic attraction of Aeromonas hydrophila compared with controls lacking cyanobacteria. There was a positive exponential relationship between biomass (chlorophyll a) of L. birgei and A. flos-aquae and chemotactic attraction of A. hydrophila. The assay equipment was simple and reliable and could be used to study bacterial chemotaxis in other species in situ.

  14. Responses of Lyngbya wollei to algaecide exposures and a risk characterization associated with their use.

    PubMed

    Calomeni, Alyssa J; Iwinski, Kyla J; Kinley, Ciera M; McQueen, Andrew; Rodgers, John H

    2015-06-01

    To make informed decisions regarding management of noxious algal growths, water resource managers require information on responses of target and non-target species to algaecide exposures. Periodic treatments of Phycomycin®-SCP (sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) followed by Algimycin®-PWF (gluconate and citrate chelated copper) to control Lyngbya wollei growths for ten years provided an opportunity for a risk evaluation of treated coves in Lay Lake, AL. Abiotic sediment characteristics (acid soluble copper concentrations, acid volatile sulfides, percent organic matter and cation exchange capacity) and survival of Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus were measured in sediment samples from treated and untreated coves to assess the bioavailability of potential copper-residuals. In laboratory studies to seek a more effective approach for managing the growth of Lyngbya, six algaecide treatments consisting of combinations of copper-based algaecides (Cutrine®-Ultra, Clearigate® and Algimycin®- PWF), a hydrogen peroxide based algaecide (Phycomycin®-SCP) and an adjuvant (Cide-Kick II) were assessed for efficacy in controlling L. wollei sampled from Lay Lake. The most efficient algaecide treatment was determined based on post-treatment algal wet weight and visual observations of responses to exposures. To estimate the margin of safety for non-target organisms, Pimephales promelas was exposed to the most efficacious treatment and a treatment of Phycomycin®-SCP followed by Algimycin®-PWF. Results from sediment experiments demonstrated that there were no measureable copper residuals and no adverse effects on H. azteca and C. dilutus from sediments following ten years of copper-based algaecide treatments. Based on the laboratory results, a treatment of Phycomycin®-SCP at 10.1 mg H2O2/L followed by Cide-Kick II at 0.2 mg/L and Algimycin®- PWF at 0.26 mg Cu/L could control the growth of Lyngbya wollei from Lay Lake, AL and enhance the margin of safety for non

  15. Salinity induced synthesis of UV-screening compound scytonemin in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jnanendra; Mandal, Sikha; Adhikary, Siba Prasad

    2012-10-03

    Lyngbya aestuarii is the dominant cyanobacterium in Chilika lagoon occurring in all the seasons irrespective of variation in the salinity regime ranging from 3 to 28 ppt. The organism possess the UV screening scytonemin pigment, which was maximum when grown at 56 ppt salinity. Three different forms of scytonemin were detected in L. aestuarii with retention time (RT) 1.76, 2.42 and 2.94 min, however, occurrence of these forms was influenced by the salinity. Scytonemin with RT 2.42 was sensitive to higher salinity and its maximum concentration was obtained at 28 ppt salinity correlated with the highest salinity level of Chilika. Formation of multilayer colored sheath around the trichome was prominently observed at the salinity of the culture from 28 to 56 ppt. But at salinity below 7 ppt and also at more than 56 ppt salinity degradation of sheath with corresponding decrease in scytonemin was observed.

  16. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS): Merging clinical practice, training, and research.

    PubMed

    Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G; Xiao, Henry; Janis, Rebecca; McAleavey, Andrew A; Lockard, Allison J; Locke, Benjamin D; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' mental health. We provide (a) a brief review and summary of the psychometric and research support for the CCAPS; (b) examples of the use of the CCAPS for various purposes, including clinical, training, policy, and counseling center advocacy; and (c) implications of the integration of routine outcome monitoring and feedback for the future of training, research, and clinical practice. In particular, the article emphasizes how the assimilation of and symbiotic relationship between research and practice can address the scientist-practitioner gap.

  17. Comparative genomic analyses of the cyanobacterium, Lyngbya aestuarii BL J, a powerful hydrogen producer

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ankita; Vaughn, Michael; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii is an important contributor to marine intertidal microbial mats system worldwide. The recent isolate L. aestuarii BL J, is an unusually powerful hydrogen producer. Here we report a morphological, ultrastructural, and genomic characterization of this strain to set the basis for future systems studies and applications of this organism. The filaments contain circa 17 μm wide trichomes, composed of stacked disk-like short cells (2 μm long), encased in a prominent, laminated exopolysaccharide sheath. Cellular division occurs by transversal centripetal growth of cross-walls, where several rounds of division proceed simultaneously. Filament division occurs by cell self-immolation of one or groups of cells (necridial cells) at the breakage point. Short, sheath-less, motile filaments (hormogonia) are also formed. Morphologically and phylogenetically L. aestuarii belongs to a clade of important cyanobacteria that include members of the marine Trichodesmiun and Hydrocoleum genera, as well as terrestrial Microcoleus vaginatus strains, and alkalyphilic strains of Arthrospira. A draft genome of strain BL J was compared to those of other cyanobacteria in order to ascertain some of its ecological constraints and biotechnological potential. The genome had an average GC content of 41.1%. Of the 6.87 Mb sequenced, 6.44 Mb was present as large contigs (>10,000 bp). It contained 6515 putative protein-encoding genes, of which, 43% encode proteins of known functional role, 26% corresponded to proteins with domain or family assignments, 19.6% encode conserved hypothetical proteins, and 11.3% encode apparently unique hypothetical proteins. The strain's genome reveals its adaptations to a life of exposure to intense solar radiation and desiccation. It likely employs the storage compounds, glycogen, and cyanophycin but no polyhydroxyalkanoates, and can produce the osmolytes, trehalose, and glycine betaine. According to its

  18. Structural determinants for improved stability of designed ankyrin repeat proteins with a redesigned C-capping module.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michaela A; Wetzel, Svava K; Plückthun, Andreas; Mittl, Peer R E; Grütter, Markus G

    2010-12-03

    Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) that specifically bind to almost any target can be obtained by ribosome display or phage display from combinatorial libraries. Although DARPins are already very stable molecules, molecular dynamics simulations, equilibrium denaturation experiments, structural studies, and recent NMR experiments suggested that the unfolding of the original C-terminal capping repeat (C-cap), taken from a natural ankyrin repeat protein, limits the stability of the initial DARPin design. Several point mutations had been introduced to optimize the C-cap and were shown to indeed further increase the stability of DARPins. We now determined crystal structures of DARPins with one or three full-consensus internal repeats (NI(1)C or NI(3)C) between an N-terminal capping repeat and mutants of the C-cap. An NI(1)C mutant, in which the C-cap was only extended by three additional helix-forming residues, showed no structural change but reduced B-factors in the C-cap. An NI(3)C C-cap mutant carrying five additional mutations in the interface to the preceding repeat, previously designed by using the consensus sequence as a guide, showed a rigid-body movement of the C-cap towards the internal repeat. This movement results in an increased buried surface area and a superior surface complementarity and explains the improved stability in equilibrium unfolding, compared to the original C-cap. A C-cap mutant with three additional mutations introducing suitably spaced charged residues did not show formation of salt bridges, explaining why its stability was not increased further. These structural studies underline the importance of repeat coupling for stability and help in the further design of this protein family.

  19. Development of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; Buzolitz, Johanna Soet; Lei, Pui-Wa; Boswell, James F.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Sevig, Todd D.; Dowis, Jerome D.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Few instruments have been designed specifically to address the needs of college counseling centers. This article reviews existing instruments and presents 4 studies that describe the development and psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62). Study 1 describes the initial…

  20. Development of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62).

    PubMed

    Locke, Benjamin D; Buzolitz, Johanna Soet; Lei, Pui-Wa; Boswell, James F; McAleavey, Andrew A; Sevig, Todd D; Dowis, Jerome D; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    Few instruments have been designed specifically to address the needs of college counseling centers. This article reviews existing instruments and presents 4 studies that describe the development and psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62). Study 1 describes the initial item development, factor analysis, and preliminary scale development steps. Study 2 describes the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using data from more than 22,000 clients pooled via a national practice-research network of counseling centers. Studies 3 and 4 provide preliminary evidence of subscales' convergent validity and retest reliability. Results from these 4 studies provide support for the instrument's factor structure, construct validity, and subscale reliabilities for both the total sample and subgroups. Clinical and methodological issues pertaining to the future development of the CCAPS are discussed in the context of a national practice-research network of college counseling centers.

  1. The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP): a biological resource for protistan genomics.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Day, John G; Campbell, Christine N; Pröschold, Thomas; Saxon, Rachel J; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2007-12-30

    CCAP, the largest European protistan culture collection, is based at the Scottish Association for Marine Science near Oban, Scotland (http://www.ccap.ac.uk). The Collection comprises more than 2700 strains in the public domain, of which 1050 are marine algae, 1300 freshwater algae, and 350 protozoa. The primary mission of CCAP is to maintain and distribute defined cultures and their associated information to its customers. It also has a support and advisory function on all aspects of protistan science. In addition, it is involved in the training of students and researchers in algal identification and culture techniques. In light of the increasing number of fully sequenced protists, the CCAP is striving to provide targeted services and support to workers involved in all aspects of genomic research. At present, the Collection holds several hundred strains of genomic model taxa including: Acanthamoeba, Cafeteria, Cercomonas, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Cyanophora, Dictyostelium, Dunaliella, Ectocarpus, Emiliania, Euglena, Micromonas, Naegleria, Nephroselmis, Paramecium, Pavlova, Phaeodactylum, Porphyra, Pseudendoclonium, Pylaiella, Rhodomonas, Scenedesmus, Staurastrum, Tetrahymena, Thalassiosira, Volvox and Zygnema. These strains provide a defined representation of natural variation within model organisms, an increasingly useful resource for post-genomics approaches. Our aim over the next 2-5 years is to add value to the Collection by increasing the number of genome model species, and by offering an integrated, up-to-date, easy-to-use resource that would provide curated information on our strain holdings. In collaboration with other major Biological Resource Centres worldwide, we intend to build a hub providing access to both protistan cultures and their associated bioinformatics data.

  2. Brain-midgut cross-talk and autocrine metabolastat via the sNPF/CCAP negative feed-back loop in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Mikani, Azam; Watari, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Makio

    2015-12-01

    Immunohistochemical reactivities against short neuropeptide F (sNPF-ir) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP-ir) were detected in both the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) and midgut epithelial cells of the male American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Four weeks of starvation increased the number of sNPF-ir cells and decreased the CCAP-ir cells in the Br-SOG, whereas refeeding reversed these effects. The contents of sNPF in the Br-SOG, midgut and hemolymph titer decreased in response to an injection of CCAP into the hemocoel of normally fed male cockroaches, while CCAP titers/contents decreased in response to an injection of sNPF. The results of a double-labeling experiment demonstrated that sNPF-ir co-existed in CCAP-ir cells in the pars intercerebralis (PI), dorsolateral region of protocerebrum (DL), deutocerebrum (De) and SOG. sNPF-ir and CCAP-ir were also colocalized in the midgut. sNPF and CCAP are neuropeptides and midgut factors that interact with each other. Since the two peptides are known to be secreted by identical cells that affect each other, this constitutes autocrine negative feedback regulation for a quick response to food accessibility/inaccessibility. These peptides not only constitute the switch in the digestive mechanism but also couple digestive adaptation with behavior. A CCAP injection suppressed locomotor activity when cockroaches were starved, whereas sNPF activated it when they were fed.

  3. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  4. Clinical Validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): Further Evaluation and Clinical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…

  5. Linking the human cytogenetic map with nucleotide sequence: the CCAP clone set.

    PubMed

    Jang, Wonhee; Yonescu, Raluca; Knutsen, Turid; Brown, Theresa; Reppert, Tricia; Sirotkin, Karl; Schuler, Gregory D; Ried, Thomas; Kirsch, Ilan R

    2006-07-15

    We present the completed dataset and clone repository of the Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), an initiative developed and funded through the intramural program of the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to provide seamless linkage of human cytogenetic markers with the primary nucleotide sequence of the human genome. Spaced at 1-2 Mb intervals across the human genome, 1,339 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have been localized to chromosomal bands through high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping. Of these clones, 99.8% can be positioned on the primary human genome sequence and 95% are placed at or close to their precise nucleotide starts and stops. This dataset can be studied and manipulated within generally available public Web sites. The clones are available from a commercial repository. The CCAP BAC clone set provides anchors for the interrogation of gene and sequence involvement in oncogenic and developmental disorders when the starting point is the recognition of a structural, numerical, or interstitial chromosomal aberration. This dataset also provides a current view of the quality and coherence of the available genome sequence and insight into the nucleotide and three-dimensional structures that manifest as Giemsa light and dark chromosomal banding patterns.

  6. Clinical validity of the counseling center assessment of psychological symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): further evaluation and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    McAleavey, Andrew A; Nordberg, Samuel S; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Castonguay, Louis G; Locke, Benjamin D; Lockard, Allison J

    2012-10-01

    Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and screening instrument. In Study 1, initial evidence regarding the concurrent validity of the CCAPS-62 was replicated and extended in a naturalistic clinical sample of clients from 16 counseling centers. Using this sample, convergent validity of the subscales was examined in counseling center clients, the range of sensitivity of the subscales was investigated using item-response theory, and the presence of 2nd-order factors was preliminarily examined. In Study 2, 7 of the 8 CCAPS-62 subscales statistically significantly differentiated between students in counseling and those who were not, using data collected from a large national survey, although most differences were small and the groups' distributions overlapped considerably. Cut scores based on the differences between these clinical and nonclinical populations showed limited utility due to overall similarities between these broadly defined groups. In Study 3, therapist-rated diagnoses collected from 5 university counseling centers were used to further examine the validity of subscale scores. In addition, cut points for diagnostic screening using receiver operating characteristic curves were evaluated. Overall, these studies support the use of the CCAPS-62 as an initial measure of psychological symptoms in college counseling settings, provide additional information about its psychometric performance, develop cut scores, and illustrate the potential for collaboration between practitioners and researchers on a large scale.

  7. The study of the Bithorax-complex genes in patterning CCAP neurons reveals a temporal control of neuronal differentiation by Abd-B

    PubMed Central

    Moris-Sanz, M.; Estacio-Gómez, A.; Sánchez-Herrero, E.; Díaz-Benjumea, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During development, HOX genes play critical roles in the establishment of segmental differences. In the Drosophila central nervous system, these differences are manifested in the number and type of neurons generated by each neuroblast in each segment. HOX genes can act either in neuroblasts or in postmitotic cells, and either early or late in a lineage. Additionally, they can be continuously required during development or just at a specific stage. Moreover, these features are generally segment-specific. Lately, it has been shown that contrary to what happens in other tissues, where HOX genes define domains of expression, these genes are expressed in individual cells as part of the combinatorial codes involved in cell type specification. In this report we analyse the role of the Bithorax-complex genes – Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B – in sculpting the pattern of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-expressing neurons. These neurons are widespread in invertebrates, express CCAP, Bursicon and MIP neuropeptides and play major roles in controlling ecdysis. There are two types of CCAP neuron: interneurons and efferent neurons. Our results indicate that Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-A are not necessary for specification of the CCAP-interneurons, but are absolutely required to prevent the death by apoptosis of the CCAP-efferent neurons. Furthermore, Abdominal-B controls by repression the temporal onset of neuropeptide expression in a subset of CCAP-efferent neurons, and a peak of ecdysone hormone at the end of larval life counteracts this repression. Thus, Bithorax complex genes control the developmental appearance of these neuropeptides both temporally and spatially. PMID:26276099

  8. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids.

  9. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions.

  10. Affinity and efficacy of copper following an algicide exposure: application of the critical burden concept for Lyngbya wollei control in Lay Lake, AL.

    PubMed

    Bishop, West M; Willis, Ben E; Horton, C Todd

    2015-04-01

    Accurate predictions of nuisance algae responses to algicide exposures are needed to guide management decisions. Copper sorption and responses of Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Speziale and Dyck were measured in the laboratory and two areas in Lay Lake (AL, USA) to treatments of Captain(®) XTR (SePRO Corporation; chelated copper algicide) and a sequential treatment of GreenClean(®) Liquid (BioSafe Systems, LLC; peroxygen algicide) combined with Hydrothol(®) 191 (United Phosphorus, Inc.; endothall algicide) followed by Captain XTR. Measured filament viability in laboratory exposures predicted Captain XTR alone could control L. wollei in Lay Lake, with 2 mg Cu/g algae EC75. This produced a targeted field treatment of 9.7 kg Cu/ha which was divided into three applications of 0.3 mg Cu/L as Captain XTR in the treatment areas. Laboratory and field experiments indicated treatments of Captain XTR alone and the combination treatment resulted in comparable copper sorption and responses of L. wollei. Copper adsorbed greater to L. wollei in laboratory experiments than in the treated areas of Lay Lake with comparable exposures (2 mg Cu/g L. wollei). However, responses and infused copper were similar and correlated in laboratory experiments and treated areas of Lay Lake indicating infused copper is critical for governing toxicity. Laboratory exposures as mg Cu/g algae accurately predicted the necessary algicide exposure required to attain the critical burden of infused copper and elicit desired responses of L. wollei in treated areas of Lay Lake.

  11. Affinity and Efficacy of Copper Following an Algicide Exposure: Application of the Critical Burden Concept for Lyngbya wollei Control in Lay Lake, AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, West M.; Willis, Ben E.; Horton, C. Todd

    2015-04-01

    Accurate predictions of nuisance algae responses to algicide exposures are needed to guide management decisions. Copper sorption and responses of Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Speziale and Dyck were measured in the laboratory and two areas in Lay Lake (AL, USA) to treatments of Captain® XTR (SePRO Corporation; chelated copper algicide) and a sequential treatment of GreenClean® Liquid (BioSafe Systems, LLC; peroxygen algicide) combined with Hydrothol® 191 (United Phosphorus, Inc.; endothall algicide) followed by Captain XTR. Measured filament viability in laboratory exposures predicted Captain XTR alone could control L. wollei in Lay Lake, with 2 mg Cu/g algae EC75. This produced a targeted field treatment of 9.7 kg Cu/ha which was divided into three applications of 0.3 mg Cu/L as Captain XTR in the treatment areas. Laboratory and field experiments indicated treatments of Captain XTR alone and the combination treatment resulted in comparable copper sorption and responses of L. wollei. Copper adsorbed greater to L. wollei in laboratory experiments than in the treated areas of Lay Lake with comparable exposures (2 mg Cu/g L. wollei). However, responses and infused copper were similar and correlated in laboratory experiments and treated areas of Lay Lake indicating infused copper is critical for governing toxicity. Laboratory exposures as mg Cu/g algae accurately predicted the necessary algicide exposure required to attain the critical burden of infused copper and elicit desired responses of L. wollei in treated areas of Lay Lake.

  12. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice.

  13. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, P; He, X L; Woodcock, C; Pickett, J A; Field, L M; Birkett, M A; Kalinova, B; Gomulski, L M; Scolari, F; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Zhou, J J

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the "calling" period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC-EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies.

  14. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, P.; He, X.L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J.A.; Field, L.M.; Birkett, M.A.; Kalinova, B.; Gomulski, L.M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A.R.; Zhou, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the “calling” period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC–EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies. PMID:24607850

  15. Studies toward the Total Synthesis of Itralamide B and Biological Evaluation of Its Structural Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoji; Lv, Chanshan; Feng, Junmin; Tang, Linjun; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Yuqing; Meng, Yi; Ye, Tao; Xu, Zhengshuang

    2015-01-01

    Itralamides A and B were isolated from the lipophilic extract of Lyngbya majuscula collected from the eastern Caribbean. Itralamide B (1) showed cytotoxic activity towards human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293, IC50 = 6 μM). Preliminary studies disapproved the proposed stereochemistry of itralamide. In this paper, we will provide a full account of the total synthesis of four stereoisomers of itralamide B and the results derived from biological tests of these structural congeners. PMID:25871289

  16. Geospatial Method for Computing Supplemental Multi-Decadal U.S. Coastal Land-Use and Land-Cover Classification Products, Using Landsat Data and C-CAP Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Smoot, James; Ellis, Jean; Hilbert, Kent; Swann, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a geospatial data processing method and multi-decadal Landsat time series for computing general coastal U.S. land-use and land-cover (LULC) classifications and change products consisting of seven classes (water, barren, upland herbaceous, non-woody wetland, woody upland, woody wetland, and urban). Use of this approach extends the observational period of the NOAA-generated Coastal Change and Analysis Program (C-CAP) products by almost two decades, assuming the availability of one cloud free Landsat scene from any season for each targeted year. The Mobile Bay region in Alabama was used as a study area to develop, demonstrate, and validate the method that was applied to derive LULC products for nine dates at approximate five year intervals across a 34-year time span, using single dates of data for each classification in which forests were either leaf-on, leaf-off, or mixed senescent conditions. Classifications were computed and refined using decision rules in conjunction with unsupervised classification of Landsat data and C-CAP value-added products. Each classification's overall accuracy was assessed by comparing stratified random locations to available reference data, including higher spatial resolution satellite and aerial imagery, field survey data, and raw Landsat RGBs. Overall classification accuracies ranged from 83 to 91% with overall Kappa statistics ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. The accuracies are comparable to those from similar, generalized LULC products derived from C-CAP data. The Landsat MSS-based LULC product accuracies are similar to those from Landsat TM or ETM+ data. Accurate classifications were computed for all nine dates, yielding effective results regardless of season. This classification method yielded products that were used to compute LULC change products via additive GIS overlay techniques.

  17. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, < 0.01). There was a treatment × hour interaction for all color attributes ( < 0.01). On d 0, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( < 0.02), and from 48 to 72 h, microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, < 0.04). Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, < 0.01) and off-flavor intensity increased (quadratic, < 0.05). Surface oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin were impacted by microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( < 0.01). From 48 to 84 h of display, feeding microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, < 0

  18. A New Lyngbyatoxin from the Hawaiian Cyanobacterium Moorea producens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weina; Zhou, Wei; Uchida, Hajime; Kikumori, Masayuki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Bryan; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Lyngbyatoxin A from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) is known as the causative agent of “swimmer’s itch” with its highly inflammatory effect. A new toxic compound was isolated along with lyngbyatoxin A from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies revealed the isolated compound had the same planar structure with that of lyngbyatoxin A. The results of optical rotation and CD spectra indicated that the compound was a new lyngbyatoxin A derivative, 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A (1). While 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A showed comparable toxicities with lyngbyatoxin A in cytotoxicity and crustacean lethality tests, it showed more than 100 times lower affinity for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) using the PKCδ-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. PMID:24824022

  19. Hydrolysate of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue: An algal growth promoter and enhancer.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Satpati, Gour Gopal; Pal, Ruma; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the utilization of the algal hydrolysate (AH) prepared from lipid extracted residual harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula biomass, as a growth supplement for the cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. BG-11 replacements with AH in different proportions significantly affects the cell count, dry cell weight (DCW), biomass productivity (BP) and pigments concentration. Among all, 25% AH substitution in BG11 media was found to be optimum which enhanced DCW, BP and pigments content by 39.13%, 40.81% and 129.47%, respectively, compared to control. The lipid content (31.95%) was also significantly higher in the 25% AH replacement. The volumetric productivity of neutral lipids (ideal for biodiesel) and total protein content of the cells significantly increased in all AH substitutions. Thus, lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue (LMBR) hydrolysate can be a potential growth stimulating supplement for oleaginous microalgae C. vulgaris.

  20. Inhibition of coral recruitment by macroalgae and cyanobacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.; Walters, L.J.; Becerro, M.A.; Paul, V.J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Beach, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coral recruitment is a key process in the maintenance and recovery of coral reef ecosystems. While intense competition between coral and algae is often assumed on reefs that have undergone phase shifts from coral to algal dominance, data examining the competitive interactions involved, particularly during the larval and immediate post-settlement stage, are scarce. Using a series of field and outdoor seawater table experiments, we tested the hypothesis that common species of macroalgae and cyanobacteria inhibit coral recruitment. We examined the effects of Lyngbya spp., Dictyota spp., Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley, and Chondrophycus poiteaui (J. V. Lamouroux) Nam (formerly Laurencia poiteaui) on the recruitment success of Porites astreoides larvae. All species but C. poiteaui caused either recruitment inhibition or avoidance behavior in P. astreoides larvae, while L. confervoides and D. menstrualis significantly increased mortality rates of P. astreoides recruits. We also tested the effect of some of these macrophytes on larvae of the gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum. Exposure to Lyngbya majuscula reduced survival and recruitment in the octocoral larvae. Our results provide evidence that algae and cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. On reefs experiencing phase shifts or temporary algal blooms, the restocking of adult coral populations may be slowed due to recruitment inhibition, thereby perpetuating reduced coral cover and limiting coral community recovery. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. Clinical Utility of the CCAPS, CAS, and OQ-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Ian M.; Henry, Courtney L.; Nash, Trisha; Kissel, Susan; Bush, David

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study evaluating the clinical utility of three clinical assessment measures commonly used in university counseling centers: the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45), the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms, and the College Adjustment Scales. Results found subscales assessing depression and anxiety were…

  2. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Trivedi, Khanjan; Pancha, Imran; Kubavat, Denish; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Arup

    2015-01-01

    High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha(-1)); T3 to T6-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant(-1)), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant(-1)) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA) as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  3. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Trivedi, Khanjan; Pancha, Imran; Kubavat, Denish; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Arup

    2016-01-01

    High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha−1); T3 to T6—100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10—100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant−1), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant−1) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA) as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates of different species from a coral reef community after a nutrient pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Brocke, Hannah J.; Goehlich, Henry; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R. W.; van Heeringen, Seth; Honcoop, Saskia A. S.; Bleyenberg, Tanja E.; Schouten, Stefan; Cerli, Chiara; Hoitinga, Leo; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Visser, Petra M.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial runoff after heavy rainfall can increase nutrient concentrations in waters overlying coral reefs that otherwise experience low nutrient levels. Field measurements during a runoff event showed a sharp increase in nitrate (75-fold), phosphate (31-fold) and ammonium concentrations (3-fold) in waters overlying a fringing reef at the island of Curaçao (Southern Caribbean). To understand how benthic reef organisms make use of such nutrient pulses, we determined ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake rates for one abundant coral species, turf algae, six macroalgal and two benthic cyanobacterial species in a series of laboratory experiments. Nutrient uptake rates differed among benthic functional groups. The filamentous macroalga Cladophora spp., turf algae and the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula had the highest uptake rates per unit biomass, whereas the coral Madracis mirabilis had the lowest. Combining nutrient uptake rates with the standing biomass of each functional group on the reef, we estimated that the ammonium and phosphate delivered during runoff events is mostly taken up by turf algae and the two macroalgae Lobophora variegata and Dictyota pulchella. Our results support the often proposed, but rarely tested, assumption that turf algae and opportunistic macroalgae primarily benefit from episodic inputs of nutrients to coral reefs.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates of different species from a coral reef community after a nutrient pulse

    PubMed Central

    den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Brocke, Hannah J.; Goehlich, Henry; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R. W.; van Heeringen, Seth; Honcoop, Saskia A. S.; Bleyenberg, Tanja E.; Schouten, Stefan; Cerli, Chiara; Hoitinga, Leo; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Visser, Petra M.

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial runoff after heavy rainfall can increase nutrient concentrations in waters overlying coral reefs that otherwise experience low nutrient levels. Field measurements during a runoff event showed a sharp increase in nitrate (75-fold), phosphate (31-fold) and ammonium concentrations (3-fold) in waters overlying a fringing reef at the island of Curaçao (Southern Caribbean). To understand how benthic reef organisms make use of such nutrient pulses, we determined ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake rates for one abundant coral species, turf algae, six macroalgal and two benthic cyanobacterial species in a series of laboratory experiments. Nutrient uptake rates differed among benthic functional groups. The filamentous macroalga Cladophora spp., turf algae and the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula had the highest uptake rates per unit biomass, whereas the coral Madracis mirabilis had the lowest. Combining nutrient uptake rates with the standing biomass of each functional group on the reef, we estimated that the ammonium and phosphate delivered during runoff events is mostly taken up by turf algae and the two macroalgae Lobophora variegata and Dictyota pulchella. Our results support the often proposed, but rarely tested, assumption that turf algae and opportunistic macroalgae primarily benefit from episodic inputs of nutrients to coral reefs. PMID:27353576

  6. Kalkitoxin Inhibits Angiogenesis, Disrupts Cellular Hypoxic Signaling, and Blocks Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J. Brian; Liu, Yang; Coothankandaswamy, Veena; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Gerwick, William H.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active lipopeptide kalkitoxin was previously isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (Lyngbya majuscula). Kalkitoxin exhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated neurotoxicity and acted as an inhibitory ligand for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Subsequent studies revealed that kalkitoxin generated a delayed form of colon tumor cell cytotoxicity in 7-day clonogenic cell survival assays. Cell line- and exposure time-dependent cytostatic/cytotoxic effects were previously observed with mitochondria-targeted inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). The transcription factor HIF-1 functions as a key regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Therefore, we investigated the ability of kalkitoxin to inhibit hypoxic signaling in human tumor cell lines. Kalkitoxin potently and selectively inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1 in T47D breast tumor cells (IC50 5.6 nM). Mechanistic studies revealed that kalkitoxin inhibits HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondrial oxygen consumption at electron transport chain (ETC) complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Further studies indicate that kalkitoxin targets tumor angiogenesis by blocking the induction of angiogenic factors (i.e., VEGF) in tumor cells. PMID:25803180

  7. Charismatic microfauna alter cyanobacterial production through a trophic cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geange, S. W.; Stier, A. C.

    2010-06-01

    The trophic ecology of cyanobacterial blooms is poorly understood on coral reefs. Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria, Lyngbya majuscula, can quickly form large mats. The herbivorous sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus, and the predatory nudibranch, Gymnodoris ceylonica, often associate with these blooms, forming a linear food chain: nudibranch—sea hare—cyanobacteria. Using laboratory studies, this study quantified (1) the functional response of nudibranchs, (2) the effect of sea hare size on predation rates, and (3) the strength of the indirect effect of sea hare predation on cyanobacteria (i.e., a trophic cascade). Nudibranchs consumed on average 2.4 sea hares d-1, with the consumption of small sea hares 22 times greater than the consumption of large sea hares. Predation of sea hares reduced herbivory. Cyanobacterial biomass was 1.5 times greater when nudibranchs were present relative to when nudibranchs were absent. Although sea hare grazing can substantially reduce cyanobacterial biomass, predation of sea hares may mitigate grazing pressure, and therefore increase the abundance of cyanobacteria.

  8. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  9. Integrating Bayesian networks and geographic information systems: good practice examples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandra; Low-Choy, Sama; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-07-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are becoming increasingly common in problems with spatial aspects. The degree of spatial involvement may range from spatial mapping of BN outputs based on nodes in the BN that explicitly involve geographic features, to integration of different networks based on geographic information. In these situations, it is useful to consider how geographic information systems (GISs) could be used to enhance the conceptualization, quantification, and prediction of BNs. Here, we discuss some techniques that may be used to integrate GIS and BN models, with reference to some recent literature which illustrate these approaches. We then reflect on 2 case studies based on our own experience. The first involves the integration of GIS and a BN to assess the scientific factors associated with initiation of Lyngbya majuscula, a cyanobacterium that occurs in coastal waterways around the world. The 2nd case study involves the use of GISs as an aid for eliciting spatially informed expert opinion and expressing this information as prior distributions for a Bayesian model and as input into a BN. Elicitator, the prototype software package we developed for achieving this, is also briefly described. Whereas the 1st case study demonstrates a GIS-data driven specification of conditional probability tables for BNs with complete geographical coverage for all the data layers involved, the 2nd illustrates a situation in which we do not have complete coverage and we are forced to extrapolate based on expert judgement.

  10. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, T.A.; Macia, V. Mora; Rooks, P.; White, D.A.; Ali, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed. PMID:26753128

  11. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Rael; Jackson, Matthew D; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species' life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  12. [Natural organic compounds that affect to microtubule functions: syntheses and structure-activity relationships of combretastatins, curacin A and their analogs as the colchicine-site ligands on tubulin].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, S; Shirai, R

    2000-10-01

    Microtubules (MT) are cylindrical polymers of the protein tubulin (TN) alpha, beta-heterodimer, and are known to be the main component of spindles in mitotic apparatus of eucaryotic cells. MT are also involved in many other basic and essential cell functions. There are a number of natural and synthetic compounds that interfere with MT function to cause the mitotic arrest of eucaryotic cells. Such antimitotic agents show a broad biological activity, and can be used for medicinal and agrochemical purposes. On the other hand, they are important also as the biochemical tools for understanding the dynamics of MT network. Most of such antimitotic agents, with a few exceptions, bind to beta-TN. Among them, colchicine (CLC), vinblastine and taxol have played major roles in practical uses as well as in biochemical studies of MT functions. They all bind to beta-TN but their binding sites are different. We have worked on a variety of antimitotic agents that bind to either of colchicine-site, vinblastine-site and taxol-site, in discovery, structures, biological actions and/or interactions with TN. In this paper, the results of our studies on CLC-site ligands were summarized; (1) synthetic analogs of combretastatin A-4 (CBS A-4), isolated as a cytotoxic compound produced by a species of South African tree Combretum caffrum, (2) curacin A (CU-A), a cytotoxic metabolite of a marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula, and its related compounds. Interactions of these compounds with TN were studied and structure-activity relationships of these two classes of compounds were discussed.

  13. Terminal Alkene Formation by the Thioesterase of Curacin A Biosynthesis: Structure of a Decarboxylating Thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Gehret, Jennifer J.; Gu, Liangcai; Gerwick, William H.; Wipf, Peter; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2011-11-07

    Curacin A is a polyketide synthase (PKS)-non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-derived natural product with potent anticancer properties generated by the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Type I modular PKS assembly lines typically employ a thioesterase (TE) domain to off-load carboxylic acid or macrolactone products from an adjacent acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In a striking departure from this scheme the curacin A PKS employs tandem sulfotransferase and TE domains to form a terminal alkene moiety. Sulfotransferase sulfonation of {beta}-hydroxy-acyl-ACP is followed by TE hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and sulfate elimination (Gu, L., Wang, B., Kulkarni, A., Gehret, J. J., Lloyd, K. R., Gerwick, L., Gerwick, W. H., Wipf, P., Hakansson, K., Smith, J. L., and Sherman, D. H. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16033-16035). With low sequence identity to other PKS TEs (<15%), the curacin TE represents a new thioesterase subfamily. The 1.7-{angstrom} curacin TE crystal structure reveals how the familiar {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase architecture is adapted to specificity for {beta}-sulfated substrates. A Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad is centered in an open active site cleft between the core domain and a lid subdomain. Unlike TEs from other PKSs, the lid is fixed in an open conformation on one side by dimer contacts of a protruding helix and on the other side by an arginine anchor from the lid into the core. Adjacent to the catalytic triad, another arginine residue is positioned to recognize the substrate {beta}-sulfate group. The essential features of the curacin TE are conserved in sequences of five other putative bacterial ACP-ST-TE tridomains. Formation of a sulfate leaving group as a biosynthetic strategy to facilitate acyl chain decarboxylation is of potential value as a route to hydrocarbon biofuels.

  14. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality. PMID:28168118

  15. Assessing the Ability of Hyperspectral Data to Detect Lyngbya SPP.: A Potential Biological Indicator for Presence of Metal Objects in the Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    lies 2,800 miles west of San Francisco and 2,200 miles east of Japan. Midway is comprised of three small islands, Sand Island (1,200 acres), Eastern...carried out to widen the south channel, visible in Figure 20 to accommodate larger naval ships and a much larger human population). Six months after...great laboratory for scientific study in different disciplines, from geology to biology to oceanography. The naval and wartime actions have

  16. Using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34 (CCAPS-34) to Predict Premature Termination in a College Counseling Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sean B.

    2012-01-01

    Swift and Greenberg (2012) observed that variables influencing the decision to drop out fluctuate according to the primary presenting problem, the amount of structure in therapy, the length of treatment, and the clinical setting. Due to these reports, researchers may focus on predictors of premature termination (PT) in treatment settings where the…

  17. The actions of crustacean cardioactive peptide on adult and developing stomatogastric ganglion motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Richards, K S; Marder, E

    2000-07-01

    The motor patterns produced by the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) are strongly influenced by descending modulatory inputs from anterior ganglia. With these inputs intact, in control saline, the motor patterns produced by the stomatogastric nervous system of embryonic and larval lobsters are slower and less regular than those of adult lobsters. We studied the effects of the hormonal modulator, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) on the discharge patterns of STG motor patterns in embryos, larvae, and adult Maine lobsters, Homarus americanus, with the anterior inputs present and absent. In adults, CCAP initiated robust pyloric rhythms from STGs isolated from their descending control and modulatory inputs. Likewise, CCAP initiated robust activity in isolated embryonic and larval STGs. Nonetheless, quantitative analyses revealed that the frequency and regularity of the STG motor neuron discharge seen in the presence of CCAP in isolated STGs from embryos were significantly lower than those seen late in larval life and in adults under the same conditions. In contrast, when the descending control and modulatory pathways to the STG were left intact, the embryonic and larval burst frequency seen in the presence of CCAP was increased by CCAP, whereas the burst frequency in adults was decreased by CCAP, so that in CCAP the frequencies at all stages were statistically indistinguishable. These data argue that immature embryonic motor patterns seen in the absence of CCAP are a function of immaturity in both the STG and in the descending and modulatory pathways.

  18. Kinetic role of helix caps in protein folding is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Gregory T; Richardson, Jane S; Oas, Terrence G

    2004-04-06

    Secondary structure punctuation through specific backbone and side chain interactions at the beginning and end of alpha-helices has been proposed to play a key role in hierarchical protein folding mechanisms [Baldwin, R. L., and Rose, G. D. (1999) Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 26-33; Presta, L. G., and Rose, G. D. (1988) Science 240, 1632-1641]. We have made site-specific substitutions in the N- and C-cap motifs of the 5-helix protein monomeric lambda repressor (lambda(6-85)) and have measured the rate constants for folding and unfolding of each variant. The consequences of C-cap changes are strongly context-dependent. When the C-cap was located at the chain terminus, changes had little energetic and no kinetic effect. However, substitutions in a C-cap at the boundary between helix 4 and the subsequent interhelical loop resulted in large changes to the stability and rate constants of the variant, showing a substantial kinetic role for this interior C-cap and suggesting a general kinetic role for interior helix C-caps. Statistical preferences tabulated separately for internal and terminal C-caps also show only weak residue preferences in terminal C-caps. This kinetic distinction between interior and terminal C-caps can explain the discrepancy between the near-absence of stability and kinetic effects seen for C-caps of isolated peptides versus the very strong C-cap effects seen for proteins in statistical sequence preferences and mutational energetics. Introduction of consensus, in-register N-capping motifs resulted in increased stability, accelerated folding, and slower unfolding. The kinetic measurements indicate that some of the new native-state capping interactions remain unformed in the transition state. The accelerated folding rates could result from helix stabilization without invoking a specific role for N-caps in the folding reaction.

  19. Change in Academic Distress: Examining Differences between a Clinical and Nonclinical Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine academic distress over the course of a semester for both a clinical and nonclinical sample of college students by administering the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62 and CCAPS-34) to students at a single university. Results revealed that students who were in counseling showed…

  20. 25 Ways to Reduce the Cost of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Gillen, Andrew; Bennett, Daniel; Denhart, Matthew; Robe, Jonathan; Holbrook, Todd; Neiger, Peter; Coleman, James; Templeton, Jordan; Leirer, Jonathan; Myers, Luke; Brady, Ryan; Malesick, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Center for College Affordability and Productivity (CCAP) is an independent, nonprofit research center based in Washington, DC that is dedicated to researching public policy and economic issues relating to postsecondary education. CCAP aims to facilitate a broader dialogue that challenges conventional thinking about costs, efficiency and…

  1. Development and Initial Validation of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Pui-Wa; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Li, Hongli; Tate, Robin; Lin, Yu-Chu

    2012-01-01

    A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test-retest…

  2. Cyanobacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lyngbya is a toxic marine cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) which forms clumps or mats of fine strands ... Contact Us | Related Links | Site Map The Harmful Algae Page is supported by a National Oceanic and ...

  3. Effects of crustacean cardioactive peptide on the hearts of two Orthopteran insects, and the demonstration of a Frank-Starling-like effect.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sara R; da Silva, Rosa; Lange, Angela B

    2011-04-01

    Like vertebrate cardiovascular systems, the dorsal vessel of the Orthopteran insects Baculum extradentatum and Locusta migratoria is under myogenic as well as neural control, through the action of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones. It was previously shown that the excitatory neuropeptide, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), triggers an increase in heart rate in B. extradentatum, and CCAP-like immunoreactivity is present in the innervation to the heart in many insects. In the present study, CCAP resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heart rate and hemolymph flow velocity, or cardiac output, in B. extradentatum. In contrast, CCAP led to a significant increase in stroke volume and cardiac output in L. migratoria without modifying heart rate or aortic contraction frequency. Hemolymph flow through the excurrent ostia of L. migratoria, small openings or valves on the posterior aorta and anterior heart, was inhibited with increasing concentrations of CCAP, with complete inhibition seen at 10(-7) M CCAP. In the locust, CCAP increases the volume of hemolymph in the dorsal vessel by the synchronous closing of the excurrent ostia, resulting in more forceful heart contractions and increased stroke volume and cardiac output, without modifying heart rate through a physiological mechanism analogous to the Frank-Starling mechanism in vertebrates. Therefore, crustacean cardioactive peptide alters the contractile properties of cardiac tissue in both B. extradentatum and L. migratoria, allowing for an increase in blood flow and circulation.

  4. Neuropeptide Receptor Transcript Expression Levels and Magnitude of Ionic Current Responses Show Cell Type-Specific Differences in a Small Motor Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Veronica J.; Daur, Nelly; Temporal, Simone; Schulz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relationship between neuropeptide receptor transcript expression and current responses in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab, Cancer borealis. We identified a transcript with high sequence similarity to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors in insects and mammalian neuropeptide S receptors. This transcript was expressed throughout the nervous system, consistent with the role of CCAP in a range of different behaviors. In the STG, single-cell qPCR showed expression in only a subset of neurons. This subset had previously been shown to respond to CCAP with the activation of a modulator-activated inward current (IMI), with one exception. In the one cell type that showed expression but no IMI responses, we found CCAP modulation of synaptic currents. Expression levels within STG neuron types were fairly variable, but significantly different between some neuron types. We tested the magnitude and concentration dependence of IMI responses to CCAP application in two identified neurons, the lateral pyloric (LP) and the inferior cardiac (IC) neurons. LP had several-fold higher expression and showed larger current responses. It also was more sensitive to low CCAP concentrations and showed saturation at lower concentrations, as sigmoid fits showed smaller EC50 values and steeper slopes. In addition, occlusion experiments with proctolin, a different neuropeptide converging onto IMI, showed that saturating concentrations of CCAP activated all available IMI in LP, but only approximately two-thirds in IC, the neuron with lower receptor transcript expression. The implications of these findings for comodulation are discussed. PMID:25926455

  5. Parallel regulation of a modulator-activated current via distinct dynamics underlies comodulation of motor circuit output.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Nicholas D; Kirby, Matthew S; Blitz, Dawn M; Nusbaum, Michael P

    2009-09-30

    The cellular mechanisms underlying comodulation of neuronal networks are not elucidated in most systems. We are addressing this issue by determining the mechanism by which a peptide hormone, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), modulates the biphasic (protraction/retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm driven by the projection neuron MCN1 in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. MCN1 activates this rhythm by slow peptidergic (CabTRP Ia) and fast GABAergic excitation of the reciprocally inhibitory central pattern generator neurons LG (protraction) and Int1 (retraction), respectively. MCN1 synaptic transmission is limited to the retraction phase, because LG inhibits MCN1 during protraction. Bath-applied CCAP also excites both LG and Int1, but selectively prolongs protraction. Here, we use computational modeling and dynamic-clamp manipulations to establish that CCAP prolongs the gastric mill protractor (LG) phase and maintains the retractor (Int1) phase duration by activating the same modulator-activated inward current (I(MI)) in LG as MCN1-released CabTRP Ia. However, the CCAP-activated current (I(MI-CCAP)) and MCN1-activated current (I(MI-MCN1)) exhibit distinct time courses in LG during protraction. This distinction results from I(MI-CCAP) being regulated only by postsynaptic voltage, whereas I(MI-MCN1) is also regulated by LG presynaptic inhibition of MCN1. Hence, without CCAP, retraction and protraction duration are determined by the time course of I(MI-MCN1) buildup and feedback inhibition-mediated decay, respectively, in LG. With I(MI-CCAP) continually present, the impact of the feedback inhibition is reduced, prolonging protraction and maintaining retraction duration. Thus, comodulation of rhythmic motor activity can result from convergent activation, via distinct dynamics, of a single voltage-dependent current.

  6. Purification and characterization of C-Phycocyanin from cyanobacterial species of marine and freshwater habitat.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anamika; Mishra, Sandhya; Pawar, Richa; Ghosh, P K

    2005-04-01

    The present paper describes an efficient single step chromatographic method for purification of C-Phycocyanin from three cyanobacterial species, i.e., Spirulina sp. (freshwater), Phormidium sp. (marine water) and Lyngbya sp. (marine water). C-Phycocyanin from these cyanobacterial species was purified to homogeneity and some of their properties were investigated. The purification involves a multistep treatment of the crude extract by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column. Pure C-Phycocyanin was finally obtained from Spirulina, Phormidium, and Lyngbya spp. with purity ratio (A620/A280) 4.42, 4.43, and 4.59, respectively, further the purity and homogeneity were confirmed by native and SDS-PAGE. The estimated molecular weights of purified C-PC from Spirulina, Phormidium, and Lyngbya spp. were 112, 131, and 81 kDa, respectively. SDS-PAGE of pure C-Phycocyanin yielded two bands corresponding to alpha and beta subunits. The results of SDS-PAGE demonstrate the same molecular weight of beta subunits (24.4 kDa) for all the three cyanobacterial species, whereas the molecular weight of the alpha subunit is different for all (17 kDa Spirulina sp., 19.1 kDa Phormidium sp., 15.2 kDa Lyngbya sp.). Thus, the C-Phycocyanin was characterized as (alphabeta)3 for Spirulina and Phormidium spp., while as (alphabeta)2 for Lyngbya sp.

  7. Characteristics of two calcium pectinates prepared from citrus pectin using either calcium chloride or calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiujun; Duan, Hanying; Wang, Chao; Huang, Xuesong

    2014-07-09

    Calcium pectinate (CaP) was prepared from citrus pectin using either calcium chloride (C-CaP) or calcium hydroxide (HO-CaP) as the source of calcium for the reaction. The production yields and the rates of decalcification for the two calcium pectinates were compared and both found to be lower for C-CaP than for HO-CaP. In an attempt to explain these differences, certain chemical and structural characteristics of the two products, including functional groups (-CH3, C═O, COO-), rheological properties, morphology, and egg-box junction zones, were investigated by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, rheology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results from FTIR showed that, with an increase in calcium content, the wavenumber values and peak areas of FTIR for -CH3, C═O, and COO- groups all changed dramatically for C-CaP, while they were virtually unchanged for HO-CaP. Rheological analysis of the CaP gel showed that C-CaP had a stronger cross-linked network structure and a greater range of elastic behavior as compared to HO-CaP. SEM images of two CaP gels showed irregular membranes. C-CaP maintained a tight structure and a smooth surface, whereas HO-CaP was loose and rough. The results from XRD revealed a higher degree of crystallinity within C-CaP than within HO-CaP, which indicated that C-CaP possessed compact, ordered, and stable egg-box junction zones while the junction zones in HO-CaP were metastable and loose.

  8. The pars intercerebralis affects digestive activities of the American cockroach, Periplaneta Americana, via crustacean cardioactive peptide and allatostatin-A.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takaaki; Sakai, Tsubasa; Satake, Honoo; Takeda, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Our previous report showed that the pars intercerebralis (PI)-ablated cockroach, Periplaneta americana (PIX), exhibited hypertrophy and a significant increase in α-amylase and protease activities in the midgut under constant darkness (DD). Bath-applied crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and allatostatin (AST) stimulated α-amylase and protease activities in the dissected midgut cultured in medium. However, the functional relationship and regulatory mechanism between the brain, particularly the pars intercerebralis and the midgut digestive activity remain to be investigated. Here, we investigated the immunohistochemical reactivities (IHCr) against CCAP and AST in the midgut of cockroach subjected to the above operation (PIX-DD). Three types of IHCr cells were observed in both the muscle layer and the epithelium: (1) CCAP-ir only, (2) AST-ir only and (3) both reactivities are colocalized. The number of all three types increased intensively after PIX under DD compared with that of sham operated control that was kept under constant condition (CNT-DD), indicating that the PI suppresses the expression of CCAP and AST in the midgut epithelium. We also showed that co-administration of CCAP and AST to the midgut caused increases of 1.5-fold and 1.4-fold for α-amylase and protease activities, respectively, compared with application of either peptide above. On the other hand, CCAP-ir in the muscle layer was more strongly expressed but AST-ir was suppressed in PIX-DD. While these peptides showed opposite effects on spontaneous contraction, when epithelially released, these peptides both activated the digestive enzyme system. Overall, up-regulated AST-6 and down-regulated CCAP in the stomatogastric nerve in the muscle layer produce the same end result, that is, stimulation of digestive activity (hypertrophy) via both enzyme activation and the retarded peristalsis that leads to increased throughput time.

  9. Litopenaeus vannamei clathrin coat AP17 involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Huang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the main pathogen of shrimp culture, and has brought great losses of the shrimp aquaculture industry every year since it has been found. However, the specific mechanism of the virus into the cell is not very clear. Recent research suggests that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in WSSV infection. By sequence analysis, clathrin coat AP17 is an σ subunit of AP-2 complex which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To obtain the full-length sequence of Clathrin coat AP17 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCCAP17), the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed to get the sequence of 3'and 5' end and splicing by DNAMAN. The full-length sequence of LvCCAP17 is 842 bp and expected to encoding 142 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence was analyzed by online software. The mRNA expression of LvCCAP17 in different tissues was carried out with quantitative real-time PCR and the LvCCAP17 was detected in all tested tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei. The transcriptional expression level of LvCCAP17 in epithelium and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated after WSSV infection. Far-Western blotting and ELISA assay showed that LvCCAP17 interacted with rVP26 and rVP37. Silencing of LvCCAP17 gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference significantly delay of cumulative mortality rate in WSSV infected shrimp and reduced the expression level of immediate early gene 1(ie1) and vp28. These results indicated that clathrin-meated endocytosis is responsible for WSSV infection.

  10. Structure and function of a G-actin sequestering protein with a vital role in malaria oocyst development inside the mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Hliscs, Marion; Sattler, Julia M; Tempel, Wolfram; Artz, Jennifer D; Dong, Aiping; Hui, Raymond; Matuschewski, Kai; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-04-09

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are evolutionary conserved G-actin-binding proteins that regulate microfilament turnover. CAPs have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal adenylate cyclase binding domain, a central proline-rich segment, and a C-terminal actin binding domain. Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, express small CAP orthologs with homology to the C-terminal actin binding domain (C-CAP). Here, we demonstrate by reverse genetics that C-CAP is dispensable for the pathogenic Plasmodium blood stages. However, c-cap(-) parasites display a complete defect in oocyst development in the insect vector. By trans-species complementation we show that the Cryptosporidium parvum ortholog complements the Plasmodium gene functions. Purified recombinant C. parvum C-CAP protein binds actin monomers and prevents actin polymerization. The crystal structure of C. parvum C-CAP shows two monomers with a right-handed beta-helical fold intercalated at their C termini to form the putative physiological dimer. Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages. This study also exemplifies how Plasmodium reverse genetics combined with biochemical and structural analyses of orthologous proteins can offer a fast track toward systematic gene characterization in apicomplexan parasites.

  11. Phytoplankton-Environmental Interactions in Reservoirs. Volume I. Papers Presented at Workshop, 10-12 April 1979, Monterey, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    sample occurrences, were Sconedesmus, Synedra, Cyclotella, Oscil- latoria, Euglena , Cryptomonas, Navicula, Nitzschia, Anabaena, and Microcystis. All...Ldgerheimia 126 *Oscillatoria 48 **Anabaenopsis 28 *Schroederia 15- Euglena 408 *Schroederia 227 **Anabaenopsis 114A Cryptomonas 393 **Raphidiopsis 212...Pediastrum 80 *Lyngbya 286 *Oactylococcopsis 164 Phacus 79 Stephanodiscus 275 ClosteriLfzii 156 Closterium 71 Staurastrum 271 Euglena 153 Pandorina 70

  12. Proceedings, Annual Meeting (27th), Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Held in Bellevue, Washington on 16-19 November 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Pine, Brazilian pepper , Mimosa pigra, and gram. Miscellaneous Paper A-87-2, U.S. Chinese Tallow, pose a severe threat to the Army Engineer Waterways...Cruet, omy of Lyngbya wollei Comb. Nov. ( Cyan - M. J. (1987). "Effect of selected dyes on obacteria)," J. of Phycology 28, 693-706. the growth of the

  13. Insights into the Processing of Carbon by Early Microbial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D.; Bebout, B.; Carpenter, S.; Discipulo, S.; Londry, K.; Habicht, K.; Turk, K.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between Earth and the biosphere that were crucial for early biological evolution also influenced substantially the processes that circulate C between its reservoirs in the atmosphere, ocean, crust and mantle. The C-13 C-12 values of crustal carbonates and organics have recorded changes both in biological discrimination and in the relative rates of burial of organics and carbonates. A full interpretation of these patterns needs further isotopic studies of microbial ecosystems and individual anaerobes. Thus we measured carbon isotope discrimination during autotrophic and heterotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea (SRB and SRA). Discrimination during CO2 assimilation is significantly larger than during heterotrophic growth on lactate or acetate. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination, as follows: Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (alpha 1.0100 to 1.0123), Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus (alpha = 0.0138), and Desulfotomuculum acetoxidans (alpha = 1.0310). Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with delta C-13 composition intermediate to that of the substrates. We have recently extended these experiments to include the thermophilic SRA Archeoglobus spp. Ecological forces also influence isotopic discrimination. Accordingly, we quantified the flow of C and other constituents in modern marine cyanobacterial mats, whose ancestry extends back billions of years. Such ecosystem processes shaped the biosignatures that entered sediments and atmospheres. At Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, we examined mats dominated by Microcoleus (subtidal) and Lyngbya (intertidal to supratidal) cyanobacteria. During 24 hour cycles, we observed the exchange of O2 and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) between mats and the overlying water. Microcoleus mats assimilated near-equal amounts of DIC during the day as they released at night, but

  14. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  15. Unlocking nature's treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Stephen P; Zhang, QianYi; Ross, Michael; Anderson, Avril; Thomas, Naomi J; Lapresa, Ángela; Rad-Menéndez, Cecilia; Campbell, Christine N; Black, Kenneth D; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G

    2015-07-23

    Micro-algae synthesize high levels of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins photoautotrophically, thus attracting considerable interest for the biotechnological production of fuels, environmental remediation, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, only a few micro-algae species are grown commercially at large-scale, primarily for "health-foods" and pigments. For a range of potential products (fuel to pharma), high lipid productivity strains are required to mitigate the economic costs of mass culture. Here we present a screen concentrating on marine micro-algal strains, which if suitable for scale-up would minimise competition with agriculture for water. Mass-Spectrophotometric analysis (MS) of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) was subsequently validated by measurement of total fatty acids (TFA) by Gas-Chromatography (GC). This identified a rapid and accurate screening strategy based on elemental analysis. The screen identified Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 and a marine isolate of Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211/21A as the best lipid producers. Analysis of C, N, protein, carbohydrate and Fatty Acid (FA) composition identified a suite of strains for further biotechnological applications e.g. Dunaliella polymorpha CCAP 19/14, significantly the most productive for carbohydrates, and Cyclotella cryptica CCAP 1070/2, with utility for EPA production and N-assimilation.

  16. Unlocking nature’s treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, Stephen P.; Zhang, QianYi; Ross, Michael; Anderson, Avril; Thomas, Naomi J.; Lapresa, Ángela; Rad-Menéndez, Cecilia; Campbell, Christine N.; Black, Kenneth D.; Stanley, Michele S.; Day, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae synthesize high levels of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins photoautotrophically, thus attracting considerable interest for the biotechnological production of fuels, environmental remediation, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, only a few micro-algae species are grown commercially at large-scale, primarily for “health-foods” and pigments. For a range of potential products (fuel to pharma), high lipid productivity strains are required to mitigate the economic costs of mass culture. Here we present a screen concentrating on marine micro-algal strains, which if suitable for scale-up would minimise competition with agriculture for water. Mass-Spectrophotometric analysis (MS) of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) was subsequently validated by measurement of total fatty acids (TFA) by Gas-Chromatography (GC). This identified a rapid and accurate screening strategy based on elemental analysis. The screen identified Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 and a marine isolate of Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211/21A as the best lipid producers. Analysis of C, N, protein, carbohydrate and Fatty Acid (FA) composition identified a suite of strains for further biotechnological applications e.g. Dunaliella polymorpha CCAP 19/14, significantly the most productive for carbohydrates, and Cyclotella cryptica CCAP 1070/2, with utility for EPA production and N-assimilation. PMID:26202369

  17. Modeling Heterogeneity in Students Seeking College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordberg, Samuel S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A series of four studies explored the heuristic value of a method of grouping students in counseling by the severity of symptoms across eight domains. Method: Participants were over 50,000 college students in counseling, assessed with the CCAPS-62 and -34 as part of routine clinical care. Latent Profile Analysis was used to group…

  18. Specific Metabolites in a Phaeodactylum tricornutum Strain Isolated from Western Norwegian Fjord Water

    PubMed Central

    Prestegard, Siv Kristin; Erga, Svein Rune; Steinrücken, Pia; Mjøs, Svein Are; Knutsen, Gjert; Rohloff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    We have searched for special characteristics in growth, protein expression, fatty acids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a local Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin strain (Bergen Marine Biobank), by comparing it with a common accession strain (CCAP). Differences in growth and expressed proteins were detected between the BMB strain and the CCAP strain, and the BMB strain reached the highest cell densities under the given growth conditions. Fatty acid (FA) analyses showed highest relative eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels in the exponential phase (25.73% and 28.31%), and highest levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1 n-7) in the stationary phase (46.36% and 43.66%) in the BMB and CCAP strain, respectively. The most striking finding of the VOCs analyses was the relatively high levels of ectocarpene, 6-((1E)-butenyl)-1,4-cycloheptadiene, hormosirene, and desmarestene and structurally related compounds, which were exclusively detected in the BMB strain. Many of the VOCs detected in the CCAP and, in particular, in the BMB strain have been reported as antimicrobial agents. We suggest that the array of pheromones and antimicrobial substances could be part of an allelopathic strategy of the BMB strain, dominated by oval cells, thus reflecting the benthic life stage of this morphological form. These findings show the potential for bioactive metabolites in the BMB strain. PMID:26729140

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of inhibitors of bacterial drug efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily.

    PubMed

    Okandeji, Babajide O; Greenwald, Daniel M; Wroten, Jessica; Sello, Jason K

    2011-12-15

    Inhibitors of drug efflux pumps have great potential as pharmacological agents that restore the drug susceptibility of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Most attention has been focused on the discovery of small molecules that inhibit the resistance nodulation division (RND) family drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The prototypical inhibitor of RND-family efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria is MC-207,110 (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide), a C-capped dipeptide. Here, we report that C-capped dipeptides inhibit two chloramphenicol-specific efflux pumps in Streptomyces coelicolor, a Gram-positive bacterium that is a relative of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diversity-oriented synthesis of a library of structurally related C-capped dipeptides via an Ugi four component reaction and screening of the resulting compounds resulted in the discovery of a compound that is threefold more potent as a suppressor of chloramphenicol resistance in S. coelicolor than MC-207,110. Since chloramphenicol resistance in S. coelicolor is mediated by major facilitator superfamily drug efflux pumps, our findings provide the first evidence that C-capped dipeptides can inhibit drug efflux pumps outside of the RND superfamily.

  20. Genotypic, phenotypic, biochemical, physiological and pathogenicity-based categorisation of Acanthamoeba strains.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Noor Khan

    2003-06-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes more than 20 morphological species, but classification is problematical. Recently, the discovery of substantial interstrain differences in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences has prompted questions about the relatedness of strains of the same species. In this study, therefore, we have investigated relationships between two isolates of A. polyphaga, CCAP 1501/3c and ATCC 30871, using morphological, biochemical, physiological, molecular and cytotoxicity assays. We observed that A. polyphaga ATCC 30871 exhibited up to six arms in endocyst while A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3c exhibited a maximum of 5 arms thus indicating their position in group 2 and 3, respectively. Acanthamoeba polyphaga ATCC 30871 exhibited growth at 37 degrees C and growth on 1M mannitol plates while A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3c did not. In addition, both isolates exhibited differences in isoenzyme banding patterns and rDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms. More importantly, A. polyphaga ATCC 30871 produced cytotoxicity on corneal epithelial cells while A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3c had no effects, suggesting differences in pathogenicity. Thus, all the results provide evidence for significant differences between the strains and further provided the basis for reclassification of the isolates. Implications of these results in the clinical diagnosis of pathogenic Acanthamoeba are discussed.

  1. Structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins show propagation of inter-repeat interface effects

    PubMed Central

    Reichen, Christian; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Hansen, Simon; Grütter, Markus G.; Plückthun, Andreas; Mittl, Peer R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The armadillo repeat serves as a scaffold for the development of modular peptide-recognition modules. In order to develop such a system, three crystal structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins with third-generation N-caps (YIII-type), four or five internal repeats (M-type) and second-generation C-caps (AII-type) were determined at 1.8 Å (His-YIIIM4AII), 2.0 Å (His-YIIIM5AII) and 1.95 Å (YIIIM5AII) resolution and compared with those of variants with third-generation C-caps. All constructs are full consensus designs in which the internal repeats have exactly the same sequence, and hence identical conformations of the internal repeats are expected. The N-cap and internal repeats M1 to M3 are indeed extremely similar, but the comparison reveals structural differences in internal repeats M4 and M5 and the C-cap. These differences are caused by long-range effects of the C-cap, contacting molecules in the crystal, and the intrinsic design of the repeat. Unfortunately, the rigid-body movement of the C-terminal part impairs the regular arrangement of internal repeats that forms the putative peptide-binding site. The second-generation C-cap improves the packing of buried residues and thereby the stability of the protein. These considerations are useful for future improvements of an armadillo-repeat-based peptide-recognition system. PMID:26894544

  2. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production.

  3. X-ray crystallographic studies on C-phycocyanins from cyanobacteria from different habitats: marine and freshwater

    SciTech Connect

    Satyanarayana, L.; Suresh, C. G.; Patel, Anamika; Mishra, Sandhya Ghosh, Pushpito Kumar

    2005-09-01

    The protein C-phycocyanin, involved in photosynthesis, has been purified from three cyanobacterial species: Spirulina, Phormidium and Lyngbya. These three proteins have been crystallized and characterized using X-ray crystallography. C-phycocyanins from three cyanobacterial cultures of freshwater and marine habitat, Spirulina, Phormidium and Lyngbya spp., were purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Blue-coloured crystals in different crystal forms, monoclinic and hexagonal, were obtained for the three species. The crystals took 1–12 weeks to grow to full size using polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights as precipitants. The amino-acid sequences of these proteins show high similarity to other known C-phycocyanins from related organisms; however, the C-phycocyanins reported here showed different biochemical and biophysical properties, i.e. molecular weight, stability etc. The X-ray diffraction data were collected at resolutions of 3.0 Å for the monoclinic and 3.2 and 3.6 Å for the hexagonal forms. The unit-cell parameters corresponding to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} are a = 107.33, b = 115.64, c = 183.26 Å, β = 90.03° for Spirulina sp. C-phycocyanin and are similar for crystals of Phormidium and Lyngbya spp. C-phycocyanins. Crystals belonging to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.97, c = 40.35 Å and a = b = 151.96, c = 39.06 Å, were also obtained for the C-phycocyanins from Spirulina and Lyngbya spp., respectively. The estimated solvent content is around 50% for the monoclinic crystals of all three species assuming the presence of two hexamers per asymmetric unit. The solvent content is 66.5 and 64.1% for the hexagonal crystals of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina and Lyngbya spp. assuming the presence of one αβ monomer per asymmetric unit.

  4. Stereotyped responses of Drosophila peptidergic neuronal ensemble depend on downstream neuromodulators.

    PubMed

    Mena, Wilson; Diegelmann, Sören; Wegener, Christian; Ewer, John

    2016-12-15

    Neuropeptides play a key role in the regulation of behaviors and physiological responses including alertness, social recognition, and hunger, yet, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here, we focus on the endocrine control ecdysis behavior, which is used by arthropods to shed their cuticle at the end of every molt. Ecdysis is triggered by ETH (Ecdysis triggering hormone), and we show that the response of peptidergic neurons that produce CCAP (crustacean cardioactive peptide), which are key targets of ETH and control the onset of ecdysis behavior, depends fundamentally on the actions of neuropeptides produced by other direct targets of ETH and released in a broad paracrine manner within the CNS; by autocrine influences from the CCAP neurons themselves; and by inhibitory actions mediated by GABA. Our findings provide insights into how this critical insect behavior is controlled and general principles for understanding how neuropeptides organize neuronal activity and behaviors.

  5. Estimators for the truncated beta-binomial distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Let X have a beta-binomial(m,p,theta) distribution, truncated such that X > t for t = 0 or 1. Suppose that independent observations of X are available. A consistent estimator of (p,theta) is given, based on the first three sample moments. This may be used as a start for maximum likelihood estimation or jackknifing. The standard assumptions for a C(..cap alpha..) is truncated binomial do not hold; however, a test is proposed based on jackknifing the sample variance of X. Some Monte Carlo comparisons are given. For moderately small data sets, these comparisons show that the moment estimator is often superior to the MLE, and the C(..cap alpha..) test is superior to other proposed tests, in spite of its lack of theoretical justification. 3 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Identification and developmental expression of mRNAs encoding putative insect cuticle hardening hormone, bursicon in the green shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Wilcockson, David C; Webster, Simon G

    2008-03-01

    Bursicon is the ultimate hormone in insect ecdysis, which is involved in cuticle hardening. Here we show that mRNAs encoding the heterodimeric cystine knot protein bursicon (Burs alpha, beta), are present in crustaceans, suggesting ubiquity of this hormone in arthropods. We firstly report the cloning, sequencing of mRNAs encoding subunits from the water flea, Daphnia arenata and the CNS of the crab, Carcinus maenas, in comparison with insect bursicon subunits. Expression patterns of alpha and beta burs mRNAs were examined by in-situ hybridisation (ISH) and quantitative RT-PCR. In the thoracic ganglion, burs alpha and beta mRNAs were completely colocalised in neurones expressing crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). However, in the brain and eyestalk, bursicon transcripts were never observed, despite a complex expression pattern of CCAP interneurones. Patterns of expression of burs alpha and beta mRNAs were constitutive during the moult cycle of adult crabs, in stark contrast to the situation in insects. Whilst copy numbers of burs beta transcripts closely matched those of CCAP, those of burs alpha mRNA were around 3-fold higher than burs beta. This pattern was apparent during embryogenesis, where bursicon transcripts were first observed at around 50% development-the same time as first expression of CCAP mRNA. Transcript ratios (burs alpha: beta) increased during development. Our studies have shown, for the first time, that bursicon mRNAs are expressed in identified neurones in the nervous system of crustaceans. These findings will now promote further investigation into the functions of bursicon during the moult cycle and development of crustaceans.

  7. Convergent neuromodulation onto a network neuron can have divergent effects at the network level.

    PubMed

    Kintos, Nickolas; Nusbaum, Michael P; Nadim, Farzan

    2016-04-01

    Different neuromodulators often target the same ion channel. When such modulators act on different neuron types, this convergent action can enable a rhythmic network to produce distinct outputs. Less clear are the functional consequences when two neuromodulators influence the same ion channel in the same neuron. We examine the consequences of this seeming redundancy using a mathematical model of the crab gastric mill (chewing) network. This network is activated in vitro by the projection neuron MCN1, which elicits a half-center bursting oscillation between the reciprocally-inhibitory neurons LG and Int1. We focus on two neuropeptides which modulate this network, including a MCN1 neurotransmitter and the hormone crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Both activate the same voltage-gated current (I MI ) in the LG neuron. However, I MI-MCN1 , resulting from MCN1 released neuropeptide, has phasic dynamics in its maximal conductance due to LG presynaptic inhibition of MCN1, while I MI-CCAP retains the same maximal conductance in both phases of the gastric mill rhythm. Separation of time scales allows us to produce a 2D model from which phase plane analysis shows that, as in the biological system, I MI-MCN1 and I MI-CCAP primarily influence the durations of opposing phases of this rhythm. Furthermore, I MI-MCN1 influences the rhythmic output in a manner similar to the Int1-to-LG synapse, whereas I MI-CCAP has an influence similar to the LG-to-Int1 synapse. These results show that distinct neuromodulators which target the same voltage-gated ion channel in the same network neuron can nevertheless produce distinct effects at the network level, providing divergent neuromodulator actions on network activity.

  8. Real-Time Analysis of African Political Violence, June 2013 (Conflict Trends, Number 15)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    our research part- ners at Climate Change and African Political Sta- bility (CCAPS), and presented in a report which contrasts continental, regional...2211 Printed on Recycled Paper February 11, 2015 Ref: Request to DTIC for Distribution Classification Changes To DTIC...is no proprietary information in any of them that would require a limited distribution. Please date the changes using the first available date that

  9. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Tingting; Zhao, Tao; Hewes, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although the growth capacity of mature neurons is often limited, some neurons can shift through largely unknown mechanisms from stable maintenance growth to dynamic, organizational growth (e.g. to repair injury, or during development transitions). During insect metamorphosis, many terminally differentiated larval neurons undergo extensive remodeling, involving elimination of larval neurites and outgrowth and elaboration of adult-specific projections. Here, we show in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), that a metamorphosis-specific increase in insulin signaling promotes neuronal growth and axon branching after prolonged stability during the larval stages. FOXO, a negative effector in the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon. RNA interference and CCAP/bursicon cell-targeted expression of dominant-negative constructs for other components of the insulin signaling pathway (InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, S6K) also partially suppressed the growth of the CCAP/bursicon neuron somata and neurite arbor. In contrast, expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, Rheb, and TOR, as well as RNA interference for negative regulators of insulin signaling (PTEN, FOXO), stimulated overgrowth. Interestingly, InR displayed little effect on larval CCAP/bursicon neuron growth, in contrast to its strong effects during metamorphosis. Manipulations of insulin signaling in many other peptidergic neurons revealed generalized growth stimulation during metamorphosis, but not during larval development. These findings reveal a fundamental shift in growth control mechanisms when mature, differentiated neurons enter a new phase of organizational growth. Moreover, they highlight strong evolutionarily conservation of insulin signaling in neuronal growth regulation. PMID:24357229

  10. Temperature Effect on Exploitation and Interference Competition among Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and, Cyclotella meneghiniana

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia Maria da Anunciação; Azevedo, Sandra Maria Feliciano de Oliveira e; Lürling, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of temperature (18 and 30°C) on growth and on the exploitation and interference competition of three species: Microcystis aeruginosa (MIJAC), Planktothrix agardhii (PAT), and Cyclotella meneghiniana (CCAP). Coculturing the organisms in batch systems allowed for the examination of both competitive interactions, while the interference competition was studied in cross-cultures. The experiments were done during 10–12 days, and samples were taken for chlorophyll-a analysis, using PHYTO-PAM. The temperature did not influence exploitation competition between MIJAC and other competitors and it was the best competitor in both temperatures. PAT presented higher growth rates than CCAP in competition at 18 and 30°C. The temperature influenced the interference competition. The growth of MIJAC was favored in strains exudates at 30°C, while CCAP was favored at 18°C, revealing that the optimum growth temperature was important to establish the competitive superiority. Therefore, we can propose two hypotheses: (i) different temperatures may results in production of distinct compounds that influence the competition among phytoplankton species and (ii) the target species may have different vulnerability to these compounds depending on the temperature. At last, we suggest that both the sensitivity and the physiological status of competing species can determine their lasting coexistence. PMID:26380369

  11. Discovery of sea urchin NGFFFamide receptor unites a bilaterian neuropeptide family

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Beets, Isabel; Rowe, Matthew L.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Oliveri, Paola; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are ancient regulators of physiology and behaviour, but reconstruction of neuropeptide evolution is often difficult owing to lack of sequence conservation. Here, we report that the receptor for the neuropeptide NGFFFamide in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (phylum Echinodermata) is an orthologue of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS) receptors and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors. Importantly, this has facilitated reconstruction of the evolution of two bilaterian neuropeptide signalling systems. Genes encoding the precursor of a vasopressin/oxytocin-type neuropeptide and its receptor duplicated in a common ancestor of the Bilateria. One copy of the precursor retained ancestral features, as seen in highly conserved vasopressin/oxytocin–neurophysin-type precursors. The other copy diverged, but this took different courses in protostomes and deuterostomes. In protostomes, the occurrence of a disulfide bridge in neuropeptide product(s) of the precursor was retained, as in CCAP, but with loss of the neurophysin domain. In deuterostomes, we see the opposite scenario—the neuropeptides lost the disulfide bridge, and neurophysin was retained (as in the NGFFFamide precursor) but was subsequently lost in vertebrate NPS precursors. Thus, the sea urchin NGFFFamide precursor and receptor are ‘missing links’ in the evolutionary history of neuropeptides that control ecdysis in arthropods (CCAP) and regulate anxiety in humans (NPS). PMID:25904544

  12. Effects of carbon source and light intensity on the growth and total lipid production of three microalgae under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Gim, Geun Ho; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Moon Jong; Kim, Pyung Il; Kim, Si Wouk

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to enhance the growth and total lipid production of three microalgal species, Isochrysis galbana LB987, Nannochloropsis oculata CCAP849/1, and Dunaliella salina, which are capable of accumulating high content of lipid in cells. Low nitrogen concentration under photoautotrophic conditions stimulated total lipid production, but a decreasing total lipid content and an increasing biomass were observed with increasing nitrogen concentration. Among the different carbon sources tested for heterotrophic cultivation, glucose improved the growth of all three strains. The optimal glucose concentration for growth of I. galbana LB987 and N. oculata CCAP849/1 was 0.02 M, and that of D. salina was 0.05 M. Enhanced growth occurred when they were cultivated under heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions compared with photoautotrophic conditions. Meanwhile, high total lipid accumulation in cells occurred when they were cultivated under photoautotrophic or mixotrophic conditions. During mixotrophic cultivation, biomass production was not affected significantly by light intensity; however, both chlorophyll concentration and total lipid content increased dramatically with increasing light intensity up to 150 µmol/m(2)/s. The amount and composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in cells were different from each other depending on both species and light intensity. The highest accumulation of total fatty acid (C16-C18) among the three strains was found from cells of N. oculata CCAP849/1, which indicates that this species can be used as a source for production of biodiesel.

  13. Temperature Effect on Exploitation and Interference Competition among Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and, Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andreia Maria da Anunciação; de Oliveira e Azevedo, Sandra Maria Feliciano; Lürling, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of temperature (18 and 30°C) on growth and on the exploitation and interference competition of three species: Microcystis aeruginosa (MIJAC), Planktothrix agardhii (PAT), and Cyclotella meneghiniana (CCAP). Coculturing the organisms in batch systems allowed for the examination of both competitive interactions, while the interference competition was studied in cross-cultures. The experiments were done during 10-12 days, and samples were taken for chlorophyll-a analysis, using PHYTO-PAM. The temperature did not influence exploitation competition between MIJAC and other competitors and it was the best competitor in both temperatures. PAT presented higher growth rates than CCAP in competition at 18 and 30°C. The temperature influenced the interference competition. The growth of MIJAC was favored in strains exudates at 30°C, while CCAP was favored at 18°C, revealing that the optimum growth temperature was important to establish the competitive superiority. Therefore, we can propose two hypotheses: (i) different temperatures may results in production of distinct compounds that influence the competition among phytoplankton species and (ii) the target species may have different vulnerability to these compounds depending on the temperature. At last, we suggest that both the sensitivity and the physiological status of competing species can determine their lasting coexistence.

  14. Comparative Plasmodium gene overexpression reveals distinct perturbation of sporozoite transmission by profilin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuko; Hliscs, Marion; Dunst, Josefine; Goosmann, Christian; Brinkmann, Volker; Montagna, Georgina N.; Matuschewski, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium relies on actin-based motility to migrate from the site of infection and invade target cells. Using a substrate-dependent gliding locomotion, sporozoites are able to move at fast speed (1–3 μm/s). This motility relies on a minimal set of actin regulatory proteins and occurs in the absence of detectable filamentous actin (F-actin). Here we report an overexpression strategy to investigate whether perturbations of F-actin steady-state levels affect gliding locomotion and host invasion. We selected two vital Plasmodium berghei G-actin–binding proteins, C-CAP and profilin, in combination with three stage-specific promoters and mapped the phenotypes afforded by overexpression in all three extracellular motile stages. We show that in merozoites and ookinetes, additional expression does not impair life cycle progression. In marked contrast, overexpression of C-CAP and profilin in sporozoites impairs circular gliding motility and salivary gland invasion. The propensity for productive motility correlates with actin accumulation at the parasite tip, as revealed by combinations of an actin-stabilizing drug and transgenic parasites. Strong expression of profilin, but not C-CAP, resulted in complete life cycle arrest. Comparative overexpression is an alternative experimental genetic strategy to study essential genes and reveals effects of regulatory imbalances that are not uncovered from deletion-mutant phenotyping. PMID:27226484

  15. Crystal structure of the actin binding domain of the cyclase-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Dodatko, Tetyana; Fedorov, Alexander A; Grynberg, Marcin; Patskovsky, Yury; Rozwarski, Denise A; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Kondraskina, Elena; Irving, Tom; Godzik, Adam; Almo, Steven C

    2004-08-24

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is a modular actin monomer binding protein that directly regulates filament dynamics and has been implicated in a number of complex developmental and morphological processes, including mRNA localization and the establishment of cell polarity. The crystal structure of the C-terminal dimerization and actin monomer binding domain (C-CAP) reveals a highly unusual dimer, composed of monomers possessing six coils of right-handed beta-helix flanked by antiparallel beta-strands. Domain swapping, involving the last two strands of each monomer, results in the formation of an extended dimer with an extensive interface. This structural and biochemical characterization provides new insights into the organization and potential mechanistic properties of the multiprotein assemblies that integrate dynamic actin processes into the overall physiology of the cell. An unanticipated finding is that the unique tertiary structure of the C-CAP monomer provides a structural model for a wide range of molecules, including RP2 and cofactor C, proteins involved in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and tubulin maturation, respectively, as well as several uncharacterized proteins that exhibit very diverse domain organizations. Thus, the unusual right-handed beta-helical fold present in C-CAP appears to support a wide range of biological functions.

  16. Progress of a policy experiment: Climate challenge interim report card

    SciTech Connect

    Sturges, S.; Hewitt, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Climate Challenge is the electric utility industry`s first chance to prove it can collaborate with government to address the possibility of climate change rather than waiting for legislative fiat on an environmental issue. Initial reports suggest that utilities are taking it seriously and the program will generate significant results. The Clinton administration is faced with the challenge of meeting international environmental committments in an era of budget tightening and scientific uncertainty. To do so, it based its Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) primarily on breaking `new ground in the relationship between government and the private sector - fostoring cooperative approaches and a forward-looking agenda, rather than relying exclusively on command-and-control mandates that tend to lock technologies into place and stifel innovation.` The CCAP contains initiatives in several sectors, including electric utilities, industry, commercial and residential buildings, and agriculture. This artice is an interim report card on one of the major components of the CCAP, the Climate Challenge. Climate Challenge is a joint Department of Energy/electric utility program. In telephone surveys conducted by the authors, utilities considering participating in the program discussed their opinions of its potential success and the challenges they face in developing their participation plans. While the potential for success in generating significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is cited by a majority of participants, the prediction is not uniformly rosy. Participants cite serious challenges to achieving GHG emission reductions, including factors that seem beyond their control, such as demand growth, deregulation, and competition.

  17. Destabilizing an interacting motif strengthens the association of a designed ankyrin repeat protein with tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shoeb; Pecqueur, Ludovic; Dreier, Birgit; Hamdane, Djemel; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Plückthun, Andreas; Knossow, Marcel; Gigant, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Affinity maturation by random mutagenesis and selection is an established technique to make binding molecules more suitable for applications in biomedical research, diagnostics and therapy. Here we identified an unexpected novel mechanism of affinity increase upon in vitro evolution of a tubulin-specific designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin). Structural analysis indicated that in the progenitor DARPin the C-terminal capping repeat (C-cap) undergoes a 25° rotation to avoid a clash with tubulin upon binding. Additionally, the C-cap appears to be involved in electrostatic repulsion with tubulin. Biochemical and structural characterizations demonstrated that the evolved mutants achieved a gain in affinity through destabilization of the C-cap, which relieves the need of a DARPin conformational change upon tubulin binding and removes unfavorable interactions in the complex. Therefore, this specific case of an order-to-disorder transition led to a 100-fold tighter complex with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant, remarkably associated with a 30% decrease of the binding surface. PMID:27380724

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on cool building materials

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Fishman, B.; Frohnsdorff, G.

    1994-04-01

    The Option 9, Cool Communities, of the Clinton-Gore Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) calls for mobilizing community and corporate resources to strategically plant trees and lighten the surfaces of buildings and roads in order to reduce cooling energy use of the buildings. It is estimated that Cool Communities Project will potentially save over 100 billion kilowatt-hour of energy per year corresponding to 27 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2015. To pursue the CCAP`s objectives, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on behalf of the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), organized a one-day meeting to (1) explore the need for developing a national plan to assess the technical feasibility and commercial potential of high-albedo (``cool``) building materials, and if appropriate, to (2) outline a course of action for developing the plan. The meeting took place on February 28, 1994, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The proceedings of the conference, Cool Building Materials, includes the minutes of the conference and copies of presentation materials distributed by the conference participants.

  19. The Embedded Counseling Model: An Application to Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Adams, David Francis

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that dental students experience high rates of stress, anxiety, and mood concerns, which have been linked to poor academic performance, health concerns, and substance abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an embedded counseling office at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry & Dental Clinics in its first three academic semesters. Data were gathered from students attending appointments, and two inventories were used to monitor students' counseling progress and gather psychological outcomes data: the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34 (CCAPS-34) and the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS). In the three semesters, 55 students attended 251 counseling appointments, with an average of 4.5 appointments per student. Their presenting psychological concerns included academic concerns, time management, test anxiety, study skills, low self-esteem, self-care, interpersonal conflicts, anxiety, depression, stress management, sexual concerns, substance abuse, eating/body image concerns, work-life balance, and financial issues. The CCAPS-34 data showed that, at initial clinical assessment, students experienced moderate levels of depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, academic distress, and overall psychological distress; 45 (82%) showed clinically significant symptoms on at least one CCAPS-34 subscale. The ORS data further showed that the students entered counseling experiencing high levels of psychological distress. A positive relationship was found between number of counseling appointments and increased overall functioning. These results suggest that an embedded counseling office can help dental schools meet the needs of their students.

  20. Woody-plant ecosystems under climate change and air pollution-response consistencies across zonobiomes?

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Kozovits, A R; Wieser, G; King, J; Rennenberg, H

    2017-03-14

    Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling. Responses to CC-AP are compared across evergreen/deciduous foliage types, discussing implications of nutrition and resource turnover at tree and ecosystem scales. The availability of data is extremely uneven across zonobiomes, yet unifying patterns of ecosystem response are discernable. Ecosystem warming results in trade-offs between respiration and biomass production, affecting high elevation forests more than in the lowland tropics and low-elevation temperate zone. Resilience to drought is modulated by tree size and species richness. Elevated O3 tends to counteract stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide (CO2). Biotic stress and genomic structure ultimately determine ecosystem responsiveness. Aggrading early- rather than mature late-successional communities respond to CO2 enhancement, whereas O3 affects North American and Eurasian tree species consistently under free-air fumigation. Insect herbivory is exacerbated by CC-AP in biome-specific ways. Rhizosphere responses reflect similar stand-level nutritional dynamics across zonobiomes, but are modulated by differences in tree-soil nutrient cycling between deciduous and evergreen systems, and natural versus anthropogenic nitrogen (N) oversupply. The hypothesis of consistency of forest responses to interacting CC-AP is supported by currently available data, establishing the precedent for a global network of long-term coordinated research sites across zonobiomes to simultaneously advance both

  1. Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach

    DOE PAGES

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C.; Behnam, Faris; ...

    2014-10-10

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N2 fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers andmore » members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N2 fixation, whereas 15N2 tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of 15N2-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in 15N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% 15N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. As a result, our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N2 fixation in the intertidal mats, whereas support for significant N2 fixation activity of the targeted deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers could not be found.« less

  2. Effects of copper on composition species of periphyton in a Sierra Nevada, California, stream.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, H.V.; Carter, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An oligotrophic stream was continuously dosed for 1 yr at 2.5, 5 and 10 mu g l-1 CuT; c12, 25 and 50 ng l-1 Cu2+. The numerically most abundant taxa were Bacillariophyceae (Achnanthes minutissima, Cocconeis placentula, Cymbella microcephala, C. sinuata, Fragilaria construens, F. crotonensis, Navicula spp., Synedra acus and S. rumpens), and the Cyanophyta Lyngbya spp., a co-dominant during spring and summer. Population densities of Lyngbya spp. were markedly reduced at all Cu concentrations. Population densities of the principal Chlorophyta (Spirogyra spp., Cladophora spp.) and the diatom Amphipleura pellucida were reduced at 5 mu g l-1 CuT. Of the 22 most abundant taxa, 16 were reduced in abundance by continuous exposure to 10 mu g l-1 CuT. There was no commensurate reduction in standing crop. Achnanthes minutissima was the primary replacement species. Other taxa more abundant at 5 mu g l-1 CuT than in the control were Ceratoneis arcus, Cocconeis placentula, Navicula spp. and Synedra rumpens. Only A. minutissima and Calothrix spp. were more abundant at 10 mu g l-1 than in the control. Three resemblance measures (Canberra metric, Bray-Curtis and Dice) and diversity (Brillouin's) were evaluated for detecting differences in species composition among stream sections. The Canberra metric, an index sensitive to proportional rather than absolute differences, was the most informative. -from Authors

  3. Methodology, capabilities, and an example: Employment impacts of the Climate Change Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Schultz, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A software package, Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System (SEADS-PC), that can translate policy changes into employment and energy impacts is described. The core data for this tool include input-output (I/O) tables for 1977, 1982, 1987, and 2005 in 1982 dollars, and I/O tables for 1987 and 1990 in 1987 dollars. For each of the I/O tables there are corresponding final demand vectors and employment intensities. For a but the 2005 table there are energy intensities as well. The final demands and the intensities can be changed to reflect alternative policies. A final demand vector that reflects a specific policy, for example, can be created, based on an existing final demand vector. This vector can then be premultiplied by the appropriate I/O table to yield industry output, which in turn can be multiplied by energy or employment intensities to yield employment or energy resulting from the policy scenario. These policy results can then be compared with a base case and the differences reported. The report is in four sections. The first section is an introduction. The second section provides the accounting framework for the tool and describes the data provided. The third section serves as a user`s guide to the software, describing the functionality of the program and what results can be expected. The fourth section uses the President`s Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) as an example policy for which employment impacts can be calculated. The results of the CCAP exercise suggest that this program will result in about 60,000 new jobs (about 115 million additional hours of work) for the year 2000. In the year 2000, the CCAP final demands are greater than the base case final demands by $192.8 million (1990 dollars). The additional jobs are created as a result of both the shifts among final demand categories and a slight increase in economic activity.

  4. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  5. Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach

    SciTech Connect

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C.; Behnam, Faris; Mayali, Xavier; Schintlmeister, Arno; Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Singer, Steven W.; Cortes, Alehandro Lopez; Hoehler, Tori M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Spormann, Alfed M.; Wagner, Michael; Weber, Peter K.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2014-10-10

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N2 fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers and members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N2 fixation, whereas 15N2 tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of 15N2-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in 15N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% 15N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. As a result, our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N2

  6. Genetic evidence of "American" and "European" type symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, R; Kato, Y; Kamako, S; Imamura, N

    2005-09-01

    Paramecium bursaria is composed of a "host" ciliate and a "symbiont" green alga. Based upon physiology, DNA hybridization and virus infection, two types of symbionts, called "American" type and "European" type, have been reported to date. Here, we determined the 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions for both "American" and "European" types. Sequence features clearly separated into two lineages; NC64A (USA), Syngen 2-3 (USA), Cs2 (Chinese), MRBG1 (Australian), and Japanese strains belong to the "American", whereas PB-SW1 (German) and CCAP 1660/11 (British) strains belong to the "European". In "American" 18S rDNA, three introns were inserted in the same positions as for previously described Japanese symbionts. In "European" 18S rDNA, a single intron occurred in a different position than in the "American". Between the types, sequence differences were seven or eight nucleotides (0.39 %) in the 18S rDNA exon, and more than 48 nucleotides (19.2 %) in ITS2 regions. We subsequently sequenced the host 18S rDNA. As a result, two groups: Cs2, MRBG1, and Japanese strains, and PB-SW1 and CCAP 1660/11 strains, were separated (with 23 substitutions and 4 insertions or deletions between the groups). The congruent separations between hosts and symbionts may imply that the type of symbiont depends on the host type.

  7. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  8. Stereotyped responses of Drosophila peptidergic neuronal ensemble depend on downstream neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Wilson; Diegelmann, Sören; Wegener, Christian; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a key role in the regulation of behaviors and physiological responses including alertness, social recognition, and hunger, yet, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here, we focus on the endocrine control ecdysis behavior, which is used by arthropods to shed their cuticle at the end of every molt. Ecdysis is triggered by ETH (Ecdysis triggering hormone), and we show that the response of peptidergic neurons that produce CCAP (crustacean cardioactive peptide), which are key targets of ETH and control the onset of ecdysis behavior, depends fundamentally on the actions of neuropeptides produced by other direct targets of ETH and released in a broad paracrine manner within the CNS; by autocrine influences from the CCAP neurons themselves; and by inhibitory actions mediated by GABA. Our findings provide insights into how this critical insect behavior is controlled and general principles for understanding how neuropeptides organize neuronal activity and behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19686.001 PMID:27976997

  9. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  10. Rescheduling Behavioral Subunits of a Fixed Action Pattern by Genetic Manipulation of Peptidergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Han, Mi-Ran; Lee, Gyunghee; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Young-Joon; Adams, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The ecdysis behavioral sequence in insects is a classic fixed action pattern (FAP) initiated by hormonal signaling. Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) release the FAP through direct actions on the CNS. Here we present evidence implicating two groups of central ETH receptor (ETHR) neurons in scheduling the first two steps of the FAP: kinin (aka drosokinin, leucokinin) neurons regulate pre-ecdysis behavior and CAMB neurons (CCAP, AstCC, MIP, and Bursicon) initiate the switch to ecdysis behavior. Ablation of kinin neurons or altering levels of ETH receptor (ETHR) expression in these neurons modifies timing and intensity of pre-ecdysis behavior. Cell ablation or ETHR knockdown in CAMB neurons delays the switch to ecdysis, whereas overexpression of ETHR or expression of pertussis toxin in these neurons accelerates timing of the switch. Calcium dynamics in kinin neurons are temporally aligned with pre-ecdysis behavior, whereas activity of CAMB neurons coincides with the switch from pre-ecdysis to ecdysis behavior. Activation of CCAP or CAMB neurons through temperature-sensitive TRPM8 gating is sufficient to trigger ecdysis behavior. Our findings demonstrate that kinin and CAMB neurons are direct targets of ETH and play critical roles in scheduling successive behavioral steps in the ecdysis FAP. Moreover, temporal organization of the FAP is likely a function of ETH receptor density in target neurons. PMID:26401953

  11. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  12. A species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Colletotrichum capsici.

    PubMed

    Torres-Calzada, C; Tapia-Tussell, R; Quijano-Ramayo, A; Martin-Mex, R; Rojas-Herrera, R; Higuera-Ciapara, I; Perez-Brito, D

    2011-09-01

    Colletotrichum capsici is an important fungal species that causes anthracnose in many genera of plants causing severe economic losses worldwide. A primer set was designed based on the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions for use in a conventional PCR assay. The primer set (CcapF/CcapR) amplified a single product of 394 bp with DNA extracted from 20 Mexican isolates of C. capsici. The specificity of primers was confirmed by the absence of amplified product with DNA of four other Colletotrichum species and eleven different fungal genera. This primer set is capable of amplifying only C. capsici from different contaminated tissues or fungal structures, thereby facilitating rapid diagnoses as there is no need to isolate and cultivate the fungus in order to identify it. The sensitivity of detection with this PCR method was 10 pg of genomic DNA from the pathogen. This is the first report of a C. capsici-specific primer set. It allows rapid pathogen detection and provides growers with a powerful tool for a rational selection of fungicides to control anthracnose in different crops and in the post-harvest stage.

  13. Structural insights for designed alanine-rich helices: Comparing NMR helicity measures and conformational ensembles from molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kun; Stewart, James M.; Fesinmeyer, R. Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The temperature dependence of helical propensities for the peptides Ac-ZGG-(KAAAA)3X-NH2 (Z = Y or G, X = A, K, and d-Arg) were studied both experimentally and by molecular dynamics simulations. Good agreement is observed in both the absolute helical propensities as well as relative helical content along the sequence; the global minimum on the calculated free energy landscape corresponds to a single α-helical conformation running from K4 – A18 with some terminal fraying, particularly at the C-terminus. Energy component analysis shows that the single helix state has favorable intramolecular electrostatic energy due to hydrogen bonds, and that less-favorable two-helix globular states have favorable solvation energy. The central lysine residues do not appear to increase helicity; however, both experimental and simulation studies show increasing helicity in the series X = Ala → Lys → d-Arg. This C-capping preference was also experimentally confirmed in Ac-(KAAAA)3X-GY-NH2 and (KAAAA)3X-GY-NH2 sequences. The roles of the C-capping groups, and of lysines throughout the sequence, in the MD-derived ensembles are analyzed in detail. PMID:18428207

  14. National technology needs assessment for the preparation and implementation of climate change action plans

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, C.W.M. van; Blonk, T.J.; Westra, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) it is recognised that developed countries have a responsibility in assisting developing countries and countries in economic transition in building a national capacity for the development, acquisition and transfer of Climate-related Technologies (CTs). Such assistance is most likely to be successful once it is tailored to the results of a sound assessment of the country`s development needs and once the results of this assessment have been endorsed by the most important stakeholders in the country. Recent insight in the opportunities and constraints for National (technology) Needs Assessments (NNAs) as planning tool for both capacity building and technology transfer regarding Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) is applied here to propose a participatory Climate Change Action Planning (CCAP) process. This participatory planning process is thought to serve the dual objective of defining a national Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) while at the same time contributing to the creation of a broad supportive basis for its acceptance and implementation among stakeholders in the developing country.

  15. Microbial ecology summer research program, June 20-August 26, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The personnel, lecture topics, and summaries of research reports generated are presented. Research topics include: mutants of Escherichia coli affected in inducer exclusion; anaerobic chitin degradation; feeding relationships of harpacticoid copepods and microbial flora; degradation of ortho phenyl phenol by streptomycetes; biodegradation of dieldrin and aromatic compounds; the effect of neurotoxins on chemotaxis is Spirochaeta aurantia; chemotaxis and algal attachment of caulobacter; pigment formation in Lyngbya aestuari; diel movements of bacteria in a salt marsh; chemotaxis in S. Aurantia; isolation of marine toluate-oxidizing bacteria; growth inhibition of enteric bacteria by methyl-..cap alpha..-D-glucoside; studies of magnetic bacteria in brackish waters; and mechanisms of interaction between two microbial populations in activated sludge. (ACR)

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Cyanobacteria Diversity and Toxic Potential in Ten Freshwater Lakes in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinang, Som Cit; Poh, Keong Bun; Shamsudin, Syakirah; Sinden, Ann

    2015-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing in magnitude and frequency worldwide. However, this issue has not been adequately addressed in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to better understand eutrophication levels, cyanobacteria diversity, and microcystin concentrations in ten Malaysian freshwater lakes. The results revealed that most lakes were eutrophic, with total phosphorus and total chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from 15 to 4270 µg L(-1) and 1.1 to 903.1 µg L(-1), respectively. Cyanobacteria were detected in all lakes, and identified as Microcystis spp., Planktothrix spp., Phormidium spp., Oscillatoria spp., and Lyngbya spp. Microcystis spp. was the most commonly observed and most abundant cyanobacteria recorded. Semi-quantitative microcystin analysis indicated the presence of microcystin in all lakes. These findings illustrate the potential health risk of cyanobacteria in Malaysia freshwater lakes, thus magnifying the importance of cyanobacteria monitoring and management in Malaysian waterways.

  17. Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Isomura, Naoko; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20 m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium–shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom. PMID:25112498

  18. Subsurface Intertidal Microbes: A Cryptic Source Of Organic Carbon For Beach Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Giver, Lorraine J.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some freshwater, marine or hotspring beaches have no visible source of primary production, yet beneath the surface is an interstitial photosynthetic microbial community. To assess the significance of this source of organic carbon, we measured in situ carbon fixation rates in an intertidal marine beach through a diurnal cycle. Gross fixation for a transect (99 x 1 m) perpendicular to the shore was approx. 4041 mg C fixed/ day, or approx. 41 mg C fixed/ sq m day. In contrast, an adjacent well-established cyanobacterial (Lyngbya) mat was approx. 12 x as productive (approx. 490 mg C fixed/sq m day). Thus, subsurface sand mats may be an overlooked, yet important, endogenous source of organic carbon for intertidal ecosystems, as well as a sink in the global carbon cycle.

  19. In the eye of the beholder: Assessing the water quality of shoreline parks around the Island of Montreal through citizen science.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, D; Cattaneo, A; Deschamps, G; Hudon, C

    2017-02-01

    As a part of the FreshWater Watch project aiming to promote volunteers' water monitoring in 25 cities around the world, St. Lawrence River water quality was characterized at 28 public shoreline parks around Montreal Island, Quebec, Canada. This involved training of 69 citizen scientists by researchers of the Université de Montréal in five one-day sessions. Shoreline sampling yielded 174 data points over three summers (May 2013 to November 2015). Water turbidity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were measured in situ, together with the thickness and type of beach-cast vegetation, and the relative abundance of different types of beach litter. Data generated by citizen scientists provided 1) an overview of the water quality of the St. Lawrence and Des Prairies rivers around the Island of Montreal, 2) an estimation of the quantity and types of beach-cast aquatic plants and filamentous algae, and 3) novel insights into the distribution of the nuisance cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. Overall, half of the sites were classified as "good" being characterized by low turbidity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and little deposition of beach-cast vegetation. Lyngbya wollei was found at 57% of the sites, revealing a more frequent occurrence than initially anticipated. The amount of litter recorded along the shoreline was generally small, comprising items related to picnicking (cans/bottles), smoking, and fishing activities in most parks. Wind exposure and rain events explained a significant fraction of the variability in nutrient concentration and turbidity among sites and dates. Shoreline condition assessed from water quality and vegetation data from this study was not correlated, however, with the most serious problem of faecal coliform counts gathered by the City of Montreal. This assessment of the quality and utilization of shoreline parks provides additional information to support planning and management activities of municipalities.

  20. Epilithic cyanobacterial communities of a marine tropical beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef): diversity and diazotrophy.

    PubMed

    Díez, Beatriz; Bauer, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta

    2007-06-01

    The diversity and nitrogenase activity of epilithic marine microbes in a Holocene beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with a proposed biological calcification "microbialite" origin were examined. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the dominant mat (a coherent and layered pink-pigmented community spread over the beach rock) and biofilms (nonstratified, differently pigmented microbial communities of small shallow depressions) were retrieved using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and a clone library was retrieved from the dominant mat. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological analyses revealed heterogeneity in the cyanobacterial distribution patterns. The nonheterocystous filamentous genus Blennothrix sp., phylogenetically related to Lyngbya, dominated the mat together with unidentified nonheterocystous filaments of members of the Pseudanabaenaceae and the unicellular genus Chroococcidiopsis. The dominance and three-dimensional intertwined distribution of these organisms were confirmed by nonintrusive scanning microscopy. In contrast, the less pronounced biofilms were dominated by the heterocystous cyanobacterial genus Calothrix, two unicellular Entophysalis morphotypes, Lyngbya spp., and members of the Pseudanabaenaceae family. Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Alphaproteobacteria phylotypes were also retrieved from the beach rock. The microbial diversity of the dominant mat was accompanied by high nocturnal nitrogenase activities (as determined by in situ acetylene reduction assays). A new DGGE nifH gene optimization approach for cyanobacterial nitrogen fixers showed that the sequences retrieved from the dominant mat were related to nonheterocystous uncultured cyanobacterial phylotypes, only distantly related to sequences of nitrogen-fixing cultured cyanobacteria. These data stress the occurrence and importance of nonheterocystous epilithic cyanobacteria, and it is hypothesized that such epilithic cyanobacteria are

  1. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  2. Isolation and characterization of potentially toxic or harmful cyanobacteria from Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arino, Alejandra; Mora-Heredia, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of 7 coastal cyanobacterial strains isolated from Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico were evaluated. Growth was determined by dry weight. Toxicity bioassays were done in Artemia sp., juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and mice Mus musculus (ICR strain). In shrimp, three feeding methods were implemented: cyanobacterial biomass plus commercial food, cyanobacteria only, and biomass at different concentrations (18, 9, 4.5 and 2.2% w/v). In Artemia sp., Limnothrix amphigranulata (LIMA-3 strain) caused 100% mortality, and in the other organisms mortality was less than 30%. In the treatment L. vannamei with the food mix, mortality was less than 40%, but there was weight gain (6.2% +/- 1.03). With the biomass concentration treatment, the highest and the least mortality were 66.7% with Limnothrix amphigranulata (LIMA-3) and 26.7% with L. majuscula-all groups lost weight (3-5%). The last experiment showed no mortality. Shrimps showed gill damage evidenced by color changes and filament accumulation. Mouse bioassays exhibited 100% mortality with LIMA-3 extracts at every concentration (LD(50) 150 mg kg(- 1), i.p. mouse). Necropsies showed hemorrhage and increases in liver weight, indicating hepatotoxin. LIMA-3 strain was considered a medium-toxicity cyanobacteria. Weight-loss in L. vannamei could indicate the presence of a toxin. Therefore, a critical examination of the toxicity role in overall cyanobacteria ecotoxicology is needed.

  3. Current Neural and Behavioral Dimensional Constructs across Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Langenecker, Scott A.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the underlying neurobiology for mood disorders is still limited. We present an integrated model for conceptualizing and understanding mood disorders drawing upon a broad literature pertinent to mood disorders. The integrated model of emotion processing and regulation incorporates the linguistic constructs of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. In particular, we focus on the Positive Valence domain/circuit (PVC), highlighting recent reward research and the Negative Valence domain/circuit (NVC), highlighting rumination. Furthermore, we also illustrate the Cognitive Control and Problem Solving (CCaPS) circuit, which is heavily involved in emotion regulation, as well as the default mode network (DMN) and interactions between circuits. We conclude by proposing methods for addressing challenges in the developmental study of mood disorders including using high-risk design that incorporates risk for many disorders. PMID:25147755

  4. Late stages of massive star evolution and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of massive stars in the mass range of 8 to 25 M solar mass is reviewed. The effect of electron degeneracy on the gravothermal nature of stars is discussed. Depending on the stellar mass, the stars form three types of cores, namely, non-degenerate, semi-degenerate, and strongly degenerate cores. The evolution for these cases is quite distinct from each other and leads to the three different types of final fate. It is suggested that our helium star model, which is equivalent to a 25 M solar mass star, will form a relatively small mass iron core despite the faster /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O reaction. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  5. Selected Field Parameters from Streams and Analytical Data from Water and Macroinvertebrate Samples, Central Colorado Assessment Project, Environmental Assessment Task, 2004 and 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stanley E.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) began in October 2003 and is planned to last through September 2008. One major goal of this project is to compare the relationships between surface-water chemistry and aquatic fauna in mined and unmined areas. To accomplish this goal, we are conducting a State-scale reconnaissance sampling program, in which we are collecting water and macroinvertebrate samples. Selected results from the first two years of project analyses are reported here. We plan to develop statistical models and use geographic information system (GIS) technology to quantify the relationships between ecological indicators of metal contamination in Rocky Mountain streams and water quality, landscape and land-use characteristics (for example, mine density, geology, geomorphology, vegetation, topography). Our research will test the hypothesis that physicochemical variables and ecological responses to metal concentrations in stream water in Rocky Mountain streams are ultimately determined largely by historical land uses.

  6. Neurohormones as putative circadian clock output signals in the central nervous system of two cricket species.

    PubMed

    Sehadová, H; Shao, Q-M; Sehnal, F; Takeda, M

    2007-04-01

    Antisera to the neuropeptides corazonin (Crz) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and to the diapause hormone (DH) react with small sets of neurones in the cephalic ganglia of the crickets Dianemobius nigrofasciatus and Allonemobius allardi. The distribution of their immunoreactivities is similar in the two species and overlaps with the locations of presumed circadian clock components in the optic lobes, protocerebrum, tritocerebrum, suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and frontal ganglion. D. nigrofasciatus contains two Crz-immunoreactive (Crz-ir) cells in each optic lobe, six cell groups in the protocerebrum, four in the tritocerebrum, and one in SOG, whereas A. allardi harbours only five Crz-ir groups in the protocerebrum and four in the tritocerebrum. CCAP immunoreactivity occurs in both species in four protocerebrum cell clusters, four tritocerebrum cell clusters, four SOG cell clusters, one frontal ganglion cell cluster, and two optic lobe cell clusters; D. nigrofasciatus possesses two additional cells with unique links to the lamina in the optic lobe. DH-related antigens are present in four cell clusters in the optic lobe, six (D. nigrofasciatus) or eight (A. allardi) in the protocerebrum, four in the tritocerebrum, and three (A. allardi) or five (D. nigrofasciatus) in the SOG. Some of the detected cells also react with antibody to the clock protein Period (PER) or lie close to PER-ir cells. Crickets reared at two different photoperiods do not differ in the distribution and intensity of immunoreactivities. No changes have been detected during the course of diurnal light/dark cycles, possibly because the antisera react with persistent prohormones, whereas circadian fluctuations may occur at the level of their processing or of hormone release. The projection of immunoreactive fibres to several brain regions, the stomatogastric nervous system and the neurohaemal organs indicates multiple functions of the respective hormones.

  7. Development and utilization strategies for recovery and utilization of coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    Byrer, C.W.; Layne, A.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been involved in natural gas research since the 1970`s. DOE has assessed the potential of gas in coals throughout the U.S. and promoted research and development for recovery and use of methane found in minable and unminable coalbeds. DOE efforts have focused on the use of coal mine methane for regional economic gas self-sufficiency, energy parks, self-help initiatives, and small-power generation. This paper focuses on DOE`s past and present efforts to more effectively and efficiently recover and use this valuable domestic energy source. The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) (1) lists a series of 50 voluntary initiatives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane from mining operations, to their 1990 levels. Action No. 36 of the CCAP expands the DOE research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts to broaden the range of cost-effective technologies and practices for recovering methane associated with coal mining operations. The major thrust of Action No. 36 is to reduce methane emissions associated with coal mining operations from target year 2000 levels by 1.5 MMT of carbon equivalent. Crosscutting activities in the DOE Natural Gas Program supply the utilization sectors will address RD&D to reduce methane emissions released from various mining operations, focusing on recovery and end use technology systems to effectively drain, capture, and utilize the emitted gas. Pilot projects with industry partners will develop and test the most effective methods and technology systems for economic recovery and utilization of coal mine gas emissions in regions where industry considers efforts to be presently non-economic. These existing RD&D programs focus on near-term gas recovery and gathering systems, gas upgrading, and power generation.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the critical floral genes in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Xu, Yingwu; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Qiu, Jiani; Huang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    The full ORFs of three floral genes in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), CcAGL24 (the AGAMOUS-LIKE24 homolog), CcSOC1 (the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 homolog) and CcAP1 (the APETALA1 homolog) are derived using a 5' RACE PCR protocol. Through sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it is demonstrated that the three genes belong to the MADS-Box family. According to the evolutionary trees of the three genes, the homologous genes from the same family cluster well together, while those from different orders doesn't match evolutionary regularity of individual organisms. The result of Quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that the transcriptional levels of the three genes are up-regulated in early stage and down-regulated in late stage in pistillate floral development. However, it takes different time to reach respective expression peak among the three genes. In staminate floral development, the transcription trend of the three genes is up-regulated, subsequently down-regulated, and then up-regulated again. Nevertheless, those trajectories, peaks, expression levels, inflection points are different in pistillate floral development. The result suggests that their functions are different in between pistillate and staminate floral development. The probable ordinal site of the three genes in the flowering network from top down is CcAGL24, CcSOC1, and CcAP1, which is identical to that in herbaceous plants. Moreover, several adverse environmental factors trigger several negative genes and then confine the development of staminate floral buds. Our results suggest the possible relationship among the three critical floral genes and their functions throughout the floral development in hickory.

  9. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for programmed cell death and clearance of developmentally-transient peptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-08-15

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function, is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 product (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein best established to function in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic connections. In the Drosophila FXS disease model, loss of functionally-conserved dFMRP causes synaptic overgrowth and overelaboration in pigment dispersing factor (PDF) peptidergic neurons in the adult brain. Here, we identify a very different component of PDF neuron misregulation in dfmr1 mutants: the aberrant retention of normally developmentally-transient PDF tritocerebral (PDF-TRI) neurons. In wild-type animals, PDF-TRI neurons in the central brain undergo programmed cell death and complete, processive clearance within days of eclosion. In the absence of dFMRP, a defective apoptotic program leads to constitutive maintenance of these peptidergic neurons. We tested whether this apoptotic defect is circuit-specific by examining crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon circuits, which are similarly developmentally-transient and normally eliminated immediately post-eclosion. In dfmr1 null mutants, CCAP/bursicon neurons also exhibit significantly delayed clearance dynamics, but are subsequently eliminated from the nervous system, in contrast to the fully persistent PDF-TRI neurons. Thus, the requirement of dFMRP for the retention of transitory peptidergic neurons shows evident circuit specificity. The novel defect of impaired apoptosis and aberrant neuron persistence in the Drosophila FXS model suggests an entirely new level of "pruning" dysfunction may contribute to the FXS disease state.

  10. Molecular Ecological and Stable Isotopic Studies of Nitrogen Fixation in Modern Microbial Mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, B. M.; Crumbliss, L. L.; DesMarais, D. J.; Hogan, M. E.; Omoregie, E.; Turk, K. A.; Zehr, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen is usually the element limiting biological productivity in the marine environment. Microbial mats, laminated microbial communities analogous to some of the oldest forms of life on Earth, are often the sites of high rates of N fixation (the energetically expensive conversion of atmospheric dinitrogen into a biologically useful form). The N fixing enzyme nitrogenase is generally considered to be of ancient origin, and is widely distributed throughout the Bacterial and Archaeal domains of life, indicating an important role for this process over evolutionary time. The stable isotopic signature of N fixation is purportedly recognizable in organic matter (ancient kerogens as well as present-day microbial mats) as a delta (15)N(sub organic) near zero. We studied two microbial mats exhibiting different rates of N fixation in order to better understand the impact of N fixation on the delta (15)N (sub organic) of the mats, as well as what organisms are important in this process. Mats dominated by the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes grow in permanently submerged hypersaline salterns, and exhibit low rates of N fixation, whereas mats dominated by the cyanobacterium Lyngbya spp grow in an intertidal area, and exhibit rates of N fixation an order of magnitude higher. To examine successional stages in mat growth, both developing and established mats at each location were sampled. PCR and RT-PCR based approaches were used to identify, respectively, the organisms containing nifH (one of the genes that encode nitrogenase) as well as those expressing nifH in these mats. Both mats exhibited a distinct diel cycle of N fixation, with highest rates occurring at night. The delta (15)N(sub organic) of the subtidal Microcoleus mats is near zero whereas the delta (15)N(sub organic) is slightly more positive (+ 2-3%), in the intertidal Lyngbya mats, an interesting difference in view of the fact that overall rates of activity in the intertidal mats are much higher that those

  11. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic transition: the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, Turukhansk Uplift, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicified carbonates of the latest Mesoproterozoic Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, northwestern Siberia, contain abundant and diverse permineralized microfossils. Peritidal environments are dominated by microbial mats built by filamentous cyanobacteria comparable to modern species of Lyngbya and Phormidium. In subtidal to lower intertidal settings, mat-dwelling microbenthos and possible coastal microplankton are abundant. In contrast, densely woven mat populations with few associated taxa characterize more restricted parts of tidal flats; the preservation of vertically oriented sheath bundles and primary fenestrae indicates that in these mats carbonate cementation was commonly penecontemporaneous with mat growth. Eoentophysalis mats are limited to restricted environments where microlaminated carbonate precipitates formed on or just beneath the sediment surface. Most microbenthic populations are cyanobacterial, although eukaryotic microfossils may occur among the simple spheroidal cells interpreted as coastal plankton. Protists are more securely represented by large (up to 320 micrometers in diameter) but poorly preserved acritarchs in basinal facies. The Sukhaya Tunguska assemblage contains 27 species in 18 genera. By virtue of their stratigraphic longevity and their close and predictable association with specific paleoenvironmental conditions, including substrates, Proterozoic cyanobacteria support a model of bacterial evolution in which populations adapt rapidly to novel environments and, thereafter, resist competitive replacement. The resulting evolutionary pattern is one of accumulation and stasis rather than the turnover and replacement characteristic of Phanerozoic plants and animals.

  12. Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sanchez, José D; Bond-Compeán, J Guillermo; Cold-Morgan, Michelle

    2002-11-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples.

  13. Response of benthic algae to environmental gradients in an agriculturally dominated landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Black, R.W.; Gruber, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Benthic algal communities were assessed in an agriculturally dominated landscape in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, to determine which environmental variables best explained species distributions, and whether algae species optima models were useful in predicting specific water-quality parameters. Land uses in the study area included forest, range, urban, and agriculture. Most of the streams in this region can be characterized as open-channel systems influenced by intensive dryland (nonirrigated) and irrigated agriculture. Algal communities in forested streams were dominated by blue-green algae, with communities in urban and range streams dominated by diatoms. The predominance of either blue-greens or diatoms in agricultural streams varied greatly depending on the specific site. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated a strong gradient effect of several key environmental variables on benthic algal community composition. Conductivity and % agriculture were the dominant explanatory variables when all sites (n = 24) were included in the CCA; water velocity replaced conductivity when the CCA included only agricultural and urban sites. Other significant explanatory variables included dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), orthophosphate (OP), discharge, and precipitation. Regression and calibration models accurately predicted conductivity based on benthic algal communities, with OP having slightly lower predictability. The model for DIN was poor, and therefore may be less useful in this system. Thirty-four algal taxa were identified as potential indicators of conductivity and nutrient conditions, with most indicators being diatoms except for the blue-greens Anabaenasp. and Lyngbya sp.

  14. Hydrogen export from intertidal cyanobacterial mats: sources, fluxes and the influence of community composition.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Dörte; Maldonado, Juan; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2015-10-01

    Microbial mats from marine intertidal settings have been reported to release significant quantities of H2 , in a unique trait among other mats and microbial communities. However, the H2 source and ecophysiological mechanisms that enable its export are not well understood. We examined H2 accumulation and export in three types of greenhouse-reared mats, from the intertidal region of Guerrero Negro, Mexico, and kept under natural light-dark conditions and wetting and drying cycles simulating low-, mid- and high-tidal height periodicity. All mats released H2 reproducibly and sustainably for 1.5 years. Net H2 export took place in a pulsed daily manner, starting after dusk, and waning in the morning, as photosynthesis resumed. Mid- and low-tidal mats developed high concentrations, capable of sustaining export fluxes that represented 2-4% of the water split through primary productivity. Neither N2 fixation nor direct photolytic hydrogenogenesis was significant to this H2 export, which was fermentative in origin, variable among mats, originating from cyanobacterial photosynthate. Analyses of community composition by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and hoxH genes indicate that filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacteria (e.g. Lyngbya, Microcoleus) were important in the process of H2 export, as was the relatively low abundance and activity of methanogens and sulfate reducers.

  15. The effects of UV radiation A and B on diurnal variation in photosynthesis in three taxonomically and ecologically diverse microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, C. S.; Rothschild, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthetic primary production, the basis of most global food chains, is inhibited by UV radiation. Evaluating UV inhibition is therefore important for assessing the role of natural levels of UV radiation in regulating ecosystem behavior as well as the potential impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on global ecosystems. As both photosynthesis and UV fluxes are subject to diurnal variations, we examined the diurnal variability of the effect of UV radiation on photosynthesis in three diverse algal mats. In one of the mats (Cyanidium caldarium) a small mean decrease in primary productivity over the whole day occurred when both UVA and UVB were screened out. In two of the mats (Lyngbya aestuarii and Zygogonium sp.) we found a mean increase in the total primary productivity over the day when UVB alone was screened and a further increase when UVA and UVB were both screened out. Variations in the effects of UV radiation were found at different times of the day. This diurnal variability may be because even under the same solar radiation flux, there are different factors that may control photosynthetic rate, including nutritional status and other physiological processes in the cell. The results show the importance of assessing the complete diurnal productivity. For some of the time points the increase in the mean was still within the standard deviations in primary productivity, illustrating the difficulty in dissecting UV effects from other natural variations.

  16. Growth and metal removal potential of a Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat following long-term exposure to elevated levels of copper.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Gaur, J P

    2014-09-01

    The present study explores the tolerance and metal removal response of a well-developed 2-week-old Phormidium mat after long-term exposure to Cu(2+)-enriched medium. Cu(2+) enrichment inhibited increase in mat biomass in a concentration-dependent manner. Mat area and the number of entrapped air bubbles decreased as Cu(2+) concentration increased in the medium. Decrease in number of air bubbles obviously reflects the adverse effect of Cu(2+) on photosynthetic performance of the mat. Metal enrichment did not substantially alter the amount of pigments, such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and phycocyanin, in the mat. Enhancement of Cu(2+) concentration in the medium led to changes in species composition of the test mat; however, Phormidium bigranulatum always remained the dominant organism. Relative share of green algae and some cyanobacterial taxa, namely, Lyngbya sp. and Oscillatoria tenuis, in the mat were increased by Cu(2+) enrichment. The mat successfully removed 80 to 94 % Cu(2+) from the growth medium containing 10 to 100 μM Cu(2+). Extracellular polysaccharides, whose share increased in the mat community after metal addition, seem to have contributed substantially to metal binding by the mat biomass.

  17. Lipid biomarkers, pigments and cyanobacterial diversity of microbial mats across intertidal flats of the arid coast of the Arabian Gulf (Abu Dhabi, UAE).

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Kohls, Katharina; Schoon, Raphaela; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Schacht, Marion; Palinska, Katarzyna A; Al-Hassani, Huda; Hamza, Waleed; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Golubic, Stjepko

    2008-09-01

    Variations in morphology, fatty acids, pigments and cyanobacterial community composition were studied in microbial mats across intertidal flats of the arid Arabian Gulf coast. These mats experience combined extreme conditions of salinity, temperature, UV radiation and desiccation depending on their tidal position. Different mat forms were observed depending on the topology of the coast and location. The mats contained 63 fatty acids in different proportions. The increased amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (12-39%) and the trans/cis ratio (0.6-1.6%) of the cyanobacterial fatty acid n-18:1omega9 in the higher tidal mats suggested an adaptation of the mat microorganisms to environmental stress. Chlorophyll a concentrations suggested lower cyanobacterial abundance in the higher than in the lower intertidal mats. Scytonemin concentrations were dependent on the increase in solar irradiation, salinity and desiccation. The mats showed richness in cyanobacterial species, with Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Lyngbya aestuarii morphotypes as the dominant cyanobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns suggested shifts in the cyanobacterial community dependent on drainage efficiency and salinity from lower to higher tidal zones. We conclude that the topology of the coast and the variable extreme environmental conditions across the tidal flat determine the distribution of microbial mats as well as the presence or absence of different microorganisms.

  18. Survival and reproduction of some blue-green and green algae as affected by sewage water, fertilizer factory effluent, brassica oil, phenol, toluene and benzene.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C; Gupta, S

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen blue-green and green algae survived for widely different time periods ranging between 22-102 d in control culture medium. Irrespective of their long or short survival period in control cultures, their pro- or eukaryotic nature, their different morphological types or natural habitats, they all survived for a short time period ranging between 3-8 d in sewage water, 5-10 d in fertilizer factory effluent, (1/4)-2 d in brassica oil, (1/2)-2 d in phenol, 1-3 d in toluene, and 1-4 d in benzene (showing the relative toxicity of different chemicals to different algae, and the antialgal nature of brassica oil). Dilution decreased the toxicity of these agents very little, indicating that they all were very toxic to algae. None of the agent induced the formation of any reproductive or dormant cells. Sewage water, fertilizer factory effluent, brassica oil and/or benzene favored the formation of necridia cells in Phormidium bohneri, P. foveolarum, Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Lyngbya birgei, and L. major filaments. Scenedesmus quadricauda shed off all spines earlier, Hormidium flaccidum fragmented less or not at all, Scytonema millei formed no false branch and heterocyst, Aphanothece pallida and Gloeocapsa atrata cells did not divide, Cosmarium granatum cells did not form any zygospore and Oedogonium sp. not any oogonia-like cells under all or most of treatments with 25-100 % sewage water, 1-100 % fertilizer factory effluent, 1-100 % brassica oil, 25-100 % phenol, toluene and benzene.

  19. Five chemically rich species of tropical marine cyanobacteria of the genus Okeania gen. nov. (Oscillatoriales, Cyanoprokaryota).

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Paul, Valerie J; Byrum, Tara; Gerwick, William H; Thor, Andrea; Ellisman, Mark H

    2013-12-01

    An adverse consequence of applying morphology-based taxonomic systems to catalog cyanobacteria, which generally are limited in the number of available morphological characters, is a fundamental underestimation of natural biodiversity. In this study, we further dissect the polyphyletic cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya and delineate the new genus Okeania gen. nov. Okeania is a tropical and subtropical, globally distributed marine group abundant in the shallow-water benthos. Members of Okeania are of considerable ecological and biomedical importance because specimens within this group biosynthesize biologically active secondary metabolites and are known to form blooms in coastal benthic environments. Herein, we describe five species of the genus Okeania: O. hirsuta (type species of the genus), O. plumata, O. lorea, O. erythroflocculosa, and O. comitata, under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants. All five Okeania species were morphologically, phylogenetically, and chemically distinct. This investigation provides a classification system that is able to identify Okeania spp. and predict their production of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  20. Using digital flow cytometry to assess the degradation of three cyanobacteria species after oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Wert, Eric C; Dong, Mei Mei; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2013-07-01

    Depending on drinking water treatment conditions, oxidation processes may result in the degradation of cyanobacteria cells causing the release of toxic metabolites (microcystin), odorous metabolites (MIB, geosmin), or disinfection byproduct precursors. In this study, a digital flow cytometer (FlowCAM(®)) in combination with chlorophyll-a analysis was used to evaluate the ability of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine to damage or lyse cyanobacteria cells added to Colorado River water. Microcystis aeruginosa (MA), Oscillatoria sp. (OSC) and Lyngbya sp. (LYN) were selected for the study due to their occurrence in surface water supplies, metabolite production, and morphology. Results showed that cell damage was observed without complete lysis or fragmentation of the cell membrane under many of the conditions tested. During ozone and chlorine experiments, the unicellular MA was more susceptible to oxidation than the filamentous OSC and LYN. Rate constants were developed based on the loss of chlorophyll-a and oxidant exposure, which showed the oxidants degraded MA, OSC, and LYN according to the order of ozone > chlorine ~ chlorine dioxide > chloramine. Digital and binary images taken by the digital flow cytometer provided qualitative insight regarding cell damage. When applying this information, drinking water utilities can better understand the risk of cell damage or lysis during oxidation processes.

  1. Aerophytic Cyanophyceae (cyanobacteria) from some Cairo districts, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Ahmed

    2008-05-15

    Twenty three aerophytic blue-green algal species were isolated and identified from 5 districts in Cairo, namely: Nasr City, Abassiya, Downtown, Maadi and Tebbin. Downtown contained the highest numbers of total algal species (13 species) during the study throughout the years 2004-2005 in comparison to other districts. The composition of aeroalgal taxa varied with seasonal changes. Chroococcus limenticus, Lyngbya lagerheimii, Phormidium ambigum and Schizothrix purpurascens have been isolated during the both years 2004-2005, while the rest of algal species (nineteen species) have been trapped either in 2004 or 2005. Nostoc spp. is the most common isolate of all algal isolates during the study. Analysis of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, suspended particles less than 10 micro (PM10), black smoke and lead are also recorded. Downtown showed the highest concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 level during the present study in comparison to other sites. The interaction between air pollutants and aerophytic Cyanophyceae species was concerned.

  2. Application of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing For Detection of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, R. M.; Accorsi, E.; Austerberry, D.; Palacios, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater Cyanobacterial Harmful algal blooms (CHABs) represent a pressing and apparently increasing threat to both human and environmental health. In California, toxin producing blooms of several species, including Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Lyngbya, and Anabaena are common; toxins from these blooms have been linked to impaired drinking water, domestic and wild animal deaths, and increasing evidence for toxin transfer to coastal marine environments, including the death of several California sea otters, a threatened marine species. California scientists and managers are under increasing pressure to identify and mitigate these potentially toxic blooms, but point-source measurements and grab samples have been less than effective. There is increasing awareness that these toxic events are both spatially widespread and ephememeral, leading to the need for better monitoring methods applicable to large spatial and temporal scales. Based on monitoring in several California water bodies, it appears that Aphanizomenon blooms frequently precede dangerous levels of toxins from Microcystis. We are exploring new detection methods for identifying CHABs and potentially distinguishing between blooms of the harmful cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon and Microcystis using remote sensing reflectance from a variety of airborne and satellite sensors. We suggest that Aphanizomenon blooms could potentially be used as an early warning of more highly toxic subsequent blooms, and that these methods, combined with better toxin monitoring, can lead to improved understanding and prediction of CHABs by pinpointing problematic watersheds.

  3. Sediment toxicity and community composition of benthos and colonized periphyton in the Everglades-Florida Bay transitional zone.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael A; Goodman, Larry R; Macauley, John M; Moore, James C

    2004-04-01

    This survey provides information on sediment toxicity and structural characteristics of the macrobenthic and periphytic algal communities at 10 locations in northeast Florida Bay. Whole sediments were not acutely toxic to Mysidopsis bahia (marine invertebrate) and Hyalella azteca (freshwater invertebrate) relative to reference sediment. Survival was between 80% and 100%. Community structure of the macrobenthos and algal-periphyton varied spatially. A total of 116 benthic species were identified at the 10 locations; mean density was greater in Shell Creek (10,017 organisms/m2) and least in Canal C-103 (441 organisms/m2). Tubificids and the crustacean Halmyrapseudes bahamensis (Family: Apseudidae) dominated the benthos at 4 of 10 locations. One hundred and six species of periphytic algae representing 52 genera were identified on substrates colonized for 21 days. Mean algal density was greater in Florida Bay (19,440 cells/cm2) and least in Long Sound (10 cells/cm2). Diatoms and blue green algae dominated the algal-periphyton. Major diatom genera were Navicula, Brachysira and Nitzschia. The more abundant and widely occurring blue-green taxa were species of Oscillatoria, Polycystis and Lyngbya. Ash free dry weight and chlorophyll a were significantly greater for periphyton colonized in Canal C-111 and Florida Bay and the least in Long Sound. Spatial variation and the availability of reference areas are important issues that need consideration in future biomonitoring efforts conducted in this region to ensure relevancy of results.

  4. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria—A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50–100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  5. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  6. Elevated CO2: Impact on diurnal patterns of photosynthesis in natural microbial ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    Algae, including blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), are the major source of fixed carbon in many aquatic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that photosynthetic carbon fixation is often enhanced in the presence of additional carbon dioxide (CO2). This study was undertaken to determine if this CO2 fertilization effect extended to microbial mats, and, if so, at what times during the day might the addition of CO2 affect carbon fixation. Four microbial mats from diverse environments were selected, including mats from a hypersaline pond (area 5, Exportadora de Sal, Mexico), the marine intertidal (Lyngbya, Laguna Ojo de Liebre, Mexico), an acidic hotspring (Cyanidium, Nymph Creek, Yellowstone National Park), and an acidic stream at ambient temperature (Zygogonium, Yellowstone National Park). Carbon fixation in the absence of additional CO2 essentially followed the rising and falling sunlight levels, except that during the middle of the day there was a short dip in carbon fixation rates. The addition of CO2 profoundly enhanced carbon fixation rates during the daylight hours, including during the midday dip. Therefore, it is unlikely that the midday dip was due to photoinhibition. Surprisingly, enhancement of carbon fixation was often greatest in the early morning or late afternoon, times when carbon fixation would be most likely to be light limited.

  7. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorous, and their interaction on coral reef algal succession in Glover's Reef, Belize.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Carreiro-Silva, M; DiLorenzo, M

    2007-12-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers were used to determine their short-term summer effects on algal colonization, abundance, and species composition in moderate herbivory treatments. Secondary succession of algae on coral skeletons was examined in four treatments: an untreated control, a pure phosphate fertilizer, a pure nitrogen fertilizer, and an equal mix of the two fertilizers. Turf algae cover was the only measure of algae abundance to respond significantly to fertilization. Turf cover was three times higher in treatments with added nitrogen when compared with the pure phosphorus treatment. These turfs were dominated by green and cyanobacteria taxa, namely Enteromorpha prolifera, Lyngbya confervoides, and two species of Cladophora. The phosphate treatment was dominated by encrusting corallines and the cyanobacteria L. confervoides, while the controls had the highest cover of frondose brown algae, namely Padina sanctae-crucis and two species of Dictyota. Results indicate that turf algae were co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus but enrichment appeared to inhibit brown frondose algae that currently dominate these reefs. Number of species was lowest on the pure phosphorus and nitrogen treatments, highest in the controls and intermediate in the mixed treatments, which suggests that diversity is reduced most by an imbalanced nutrient ratio.

  8. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  9. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Larter, S. R.

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analysed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterise various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass ( Halodule uninervis), and mangrove ( Avicennia marina) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr Bp. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria ( Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria ( Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other "minor" saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms.

  10. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Microalgae mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S S; Rajamanickam, Karthic; Rengaramanujam, J

    2013-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles is known to have antimicrobial affects. Cyanobacteria isolates from muthupet mangrove includes Aphanothece sp, Oscillatoria sp, Microcoleus sp, Aphanocapsa sp, Phormidium sp, Lyngbya sp, Gleocapsa sp, Synechococcus sp, Spirulina sp with were set in compliance with their cellular mechanism of nano silver creation, and were investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Silver nanoparticles were spherical shaped well distributed without aggregation in solution with an average size of about 40- 80 nm. Synthesised nano silver had antibacterial production on various organisms that provoked various diseases in humans. The cellular metabolites of Microcoleus sp. only created nano silver and it enhanced the antibacterial activity against test pathogenic bacteria from MTCC (Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli.) The antimicrobial assay was performed using 0.001 M concentration of nano silver in well diffusion method with positive control of appropriate standard antibiotic discs Cephotaxime, Ampicillin, Tetracyclin, Cephalexin etc. Synthesised silver nanoparticles acted as an effective antimicrobial agent and proved as an alternative for the development of new antimicrobial agents to combat the problem of resistance.

  12. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria-A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  13. Diet of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Gomez, Nicole Auil

    2017-01-01

    Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, 6 digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon), and 124 fecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme, and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants, and algae consumption was analyzed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification, and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.

  14. Caldora penicillata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Cyanobacteria), a pantropical marine species with biomedical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Engene, Niclas; Tronholm, Ana; Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.; Luesch, Hendrik; Paul, Valerie J.

    2015-01-01

    Many tropical marine cyanobacteria are prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites with ecological relevance and promising pharmaceutical applications. One species of chemically rich, tropical marine cyanobacteria that was previously identified as Symploca hydnoides or Symploca sp. corresponds to the traditional taxonomic definition of Phormidium penicillatum. In this study, we clarified the taxonomy of this biomedically and ecologically important cyanobacterium by comparing recently collected specimens with the original type material and the taxonomic description of P. penicillatum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S ITS regions showed that P. penicillatum formed an independent clade sister to the genus Symploca, and distantly related to Phormidium and Lyngbya. We propose the new genus Caldora for this clade, with Caldora penicillata comb. nov. as the type species and designate as the epitype the recently collected strain FK13-1. Furthermore, the production of bioactive secondary metabolites among various geographically dispersed collections of C. penicillata showed that this species consistently produced the metabolite dolastatin 10 and/or the related compound symplostatin 1, which appear to be robust autapomorphic characters and chemotaxonomic markers for this taxon. PMID:26327714

  15. A Landsat-Based Assessment of Mobile Bay Land Use and Land Cover Change from 1974 to 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Ellis, Jean; Smoot, James; Swann, Roberta; Graham, William

    2009-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has experienced noteworthy land use and land cover (LULC) change in the latter half of the 20th century. Accompanying this change has been urban expansion and a reduction of rural land uses. Much of this LULC change has reportedly occurred since the landfall of Hurricane Frederic in 1979. The Mobile Bay region provides great economic and ecologic benefits to the Nation, including important coastal habitat for a broad diversity of fisheries and wildlife. Regional urbanization threatens the estuary s water quality and aquatic-habitat dependent biota, including commercial fisheries and avian wildlife. Coastal conservation and urban land use planners require additional information on historical LULC change to support coastal habitat restoration and resiliency management efforts. This presentation discusses results of a Gulf of Mexico Application Pilot project that was conducted in 2008 to quantify and assess LULC change from 1974 to 2008. This project was led by NASA Stennis Space Center and involved multiple Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) partners, including the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (NEP), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s (NOAA s) National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), and the NOAA Coastal Services Center. Nine Landsat images were employed to compute LULC products because of their availability and suitability for the application. The project also used Landsat-based national LULC products, including coastal LULC products from NOAA s Coastal Change & Analysis Program (C-CAP), available at 5-year intervals since 1995. Our study was initiated in part because C-CAP LULC products were not available to assess the region s urbanization prior to 1995 and subsequent to post Hurricane Katrina in 2006. This project assessed LULC change across the 34-year time frame and at decadal and middecadal scales. The study area included the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties that

  16. Rock Geochemistry and Mineralogy from Fault Zones and Polymetallic Fault Veins of the Central Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Bove, Dana J.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2004 to 2008 field seasons, approximately 200 hand samples of fault and polymetallic vein-related rocks were collected for geochemical and mineralogical analyses. The samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Evolution of Brittle Structures Task under the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) of the Mineral Resources Program (http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/projects/colorado_assessment/index.html). The purpose of this work has been to characterize the relation between epithermal, polymetallic mineral deposits, paleostress, and the geological structures that hosted fluid flow and localization of the deposits. The data in this report will be used to document and better understand the processes that control epithermal mineral-deposit formation by attempting to relate the geochemistry of the primary structures that hosted hydrothermal fluid flow to their heat and fluid sources. This includes processes from the scale of the structures themselves to the far field scale, inclusive of the intrusive bodies that have been thought to be the sources for the hydrothermal fluid flow. The data presented in this report are part of a larger assessment effort on public lands. The larger study area spans the region of the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado from the Wyoming to New Mexico borders and from the eastern boundary of the Front Range to approximately the longitude of Vail and Leadville, Colorado. Although the study area has had an extensive history of geological mapping, the mapping has resulted in a number of hypotheses that are still in their infancy of being tested. For example, the proximity of polymetallic veins to intrusive bodies has been thought to reflect a genetic relation between the two features; however, this idea has not been well tested with geochemical indicators. Recent knowledge regarding the coupled nature of stress, strain, fluid flow, and geochemistry warrant new investigations and approaches to test a variety of

  17. α- And β-subunit composition of voltage-gated sodium channels investigated with μ-conotoxins and the recently discovered μO§-conotoxin GVIIJ

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael J.; Zhang, Min-Min; Gajewiak, Joanna; Azam, Layla; Rivier, Jean E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the identities of the isoforms of the α (NaV1)- and β (NaVβ)-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels, including those responsible for action potentials in rodent sciatic nerves. To examine α-subunits, we used seven μ-conotoxins, which target site 1 of the channel. With the use of exogenously expressed channels, we show that two of the μ-conotoxins, μ-BuIIIB and μ-SxIIIA, are 50-fold more potent in blocking NaV1.6 from mouse than that from rat. Furthermore, we observed that μ-BuIIIB and μ-SxIIIA are potent blockers of large, myelinated A-fiber compound action potentials (A-CAPs) [but not small, unmyelinated C-fiber CAPs (C-CAPs)] in the sciatic nerve of the mouse (unlike A-CAPs of the rat, previously shown to be insensitive to these toxins). To investigate β-subunits, we used two synthetic derivatives of the recently discovered μO§-conotoxin GVIIJ that define site 8 of the channel, as previously characterized with cloned rat NaV1- and NaVβ-subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where it was shown that μO§-GVIIJ is a potent inhibitor of several NaV1-isoforms and that coexpression of NaVβ2 or -β4 (but not NaVβ1 or -β3) totally protects against block by μO§-GVIIJ. We report here the effects of μO§-GVIIJ on 1) sodium currents of mouse NaV1.6 coexpressed with various combinations of NaVβ-subunits in oocytes; 2) A- and C-CAPs of mouse and rat sciatic nerves; and 3) sodium currents of small and large neurons dissociated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Our overall results lead us to conclude that action potentials in A-fibers of the rodent sciatic nerve are mediated primarily by NaV1.6 associated with NaVβ2 or NaVβ4. PMID:25632083

  18. High-resolution mapping of combustion processes and implications for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Tao, S.; Ciais, P.; Shen, H. Z.; Huang, Y.; Chen, H.; Shen, G. F.; Wang, B.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, D.; Chen, Y. C.; Liu, X. P.; Wang, W. T.; Wang, X. L.; Liu, W. X.; Li, B. G.; Piao, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion and CO2 emission provides valuable information for modeling pollutant transport, developing mitigation policy, and for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. Previous global emission maps included only few fuel types, and emissions were estimated on a grid by distributing national fuel data on an equal per capita basis, using population density maps. This process distorts the geographical distribution of emissions within countries. In this study, a sub-national disaggregation method (SDM) of fuel data is applied to establish a global 0.1° × 0.1° geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL) and corresponding CO2 emissions (PKU-CO2) based upon 64 fuel sub-types for the year 2007. Uncertainties of the emission maps are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method. It is estimated that CO2 emission from combustion sources including fossil fuel, biomass, and solid wastes in 2007 was 11.2 Pg C yr-1 (9.1 Pg C yr-1 and 13.3 Pg C yr-1 as 5th and 95th percentiles). Of this, emission from fossil fuel combustion is 7.83 Pg C yr-1, which is very close to the estimate of the International Energy Agency (7.87 Pg C yr-1). By replacing national data disaggregation with sub-national data in this study, the average 95th minus 5th percentile ranges of CO2 emission for all grid points can be reduced from 417 to 68.2 Mg km-2 yr-1. The spread is reduced because the uneven distribution of per capita fuel consumptions within countries is better taken into account by using sub-national fuel consumption data directly. Significant difference in per capita CO2 emissions between urban and rural areas was found in developing countries (2.08 vs. 0.598 Mg C/(cap. × yr)), but not in developed countries (3.55 vs. 3.41 Mg C/(cap. × yr)). This implies that rapid urbanization of developing countries is very likely to drive up their emissions in the future.

  19. Experimental investigation of initial steps of helix propagation in model peptides.

    PubMed

    Goch, Grazyna; Maciejczyk, Maciej; Oleszczuk, Marta; Stachowiak, Damian; Malicka, Joanna; Bierzyński, Andrzej

    2003-06-10

    It is not certain whether the helix propagation parameters s(n)() (i.e., the equilibrium constants between (n - 1)- and n-residue long alpha-helices) determined from numerous studies of rather long model peptides are applicable for description of the initial steps of the helix formation during the protein folding process. From fluorescence, NMR, and calorimetric studies of a series of model peptides, containing the La(3+)-binding sequence nucleating the helix (Siedlecka, M., Goch, G., Ejchart, A., Sticht, H., and Bierzynski, A. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 903-908), we have determined, at 25 degrees C, the average values of the enthalpy DeltaH(n)() and of the helix growth parameters s(n)() describing the first four steps of helix propagation in polyalanine. The absolute values of the C-cap parameters, describing the contribution of the C-terminal residues to the helix free energy, have also been estimated for alanine (1.2 +/- 0.5) and NH(2) group (1.6 +/- 0.7). The initial four steps of the helix growth in polyalanine can be described by a common propagation parameter s = 1.54 +/- 0.04. The enthalpy DeltaH(n)() is also constant and equals -980 +/- 100 cal mol(-)(1).

  20. Production of Fatty Acids and Protein by Nannochloropsis in Flat-Plate Photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Wijffels, René H.; Bolla, Sylvie; Kiron, Viswanath

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis is an industrially-promising microalga that may be cultivated for alternative sources of nutrition due to its high productivity, protein content and lipid composition. We studied the growth and biochemical profile of Nannochloropsis 211/78 (CCAP) in optimized flat-plate photobioreactors. Eighteen cultivations were performed at two nutrient concentrations. The fatty acid, protein content and calorific values were analyzed after 8, 12 and 16 days. Neutral lipids were separated and the changes in fatty acids in triglycerides (TAGs) during nutrient depletion were recorded. The maximum cell density reached 4.7 g∙L-1 and the maximum productivity was 0.51 g∙L-1∙d-1. During nutrient-replete conditions, eicosapentaneoic acid (EPA) and total protein concentrations measured 4.2–4.9% and 50–55% of the dry mass, respectively. Nutrient starvation induced the accumulation of fatty acids up to 28.3% of the cell dry weight, largely due to the incorporation of C16:0 and C16:1n-7 fatty acyl chains into neutral lipids. During nutrient starvation the total EPA content did not detectibly change, but up to 37% was transferred from polar membrane lipids to the neutral lipid fraction. PMID:28103296

  1. An innovative partnership for national environmental assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, D.M.; Field, D.W.; Holm, T.M.; Jennings, M.D.; Sturdevant, J.A.; Thelin, G.P.; Worthy, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Four federal environmental programs: EMAP (USEPA), GAP (USFWS), C-CAP (NOAA), NAWQA (USGS) have formed a partnership with EROS Data Center (USGS) to facilitate the development of baseline land characteristics information for the conterminous U.S. Each of the respective programs brings to the group unique experience and expertise. Despite emphasis on different environmental issues, together we have identified common requirements for source satellite data, preprocessing, spectral clustering, ancillary data, data management and distribution. We are also developing a research agenda to support this initiative and future efforts of this partnership. The short-term goal of out effort is the joint acquisition and preprocessing of recent Landsat TM images for the conterminous U.S. To date, images have been identified for acquisition, and preliminary plans have been made for preprocessing. The long-term goal for this group is collaborative research and development of a flexible and functional land characteristics database for use by our programs and others. This partnership demonstrates that national environmental programs within multiple government agencies can work effectively together to achieve common goals and reduce overall cost.

  2. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16. cap alpha. -carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnenolone-16 ..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of /sup 14/C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver.

  3. The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium: 20 years of development and integration of USA national land cover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Homer, Collin G.; Vogelmann, James E.; McKerrow, Alexa; Mueller, Rick; Herold, Nate; Coluston, John

    2014-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium demonstrates the national benefits of USA Federal collaboration. Starting in the mid-1990s as a small group with the straightforward goal of compiling a comprehensive national Landsat dataset that could be used to meet agencies’ needs, MRLC has grown into a group of 10 USA Federal Agencies that coordinate the production of five different products, including the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP), the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), the Gap Analysis Program (GAP), and the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE). As a set, the products include almost every aspect of land cover from impervious surface to detailed crop and vegetation types to fire fuel classes. Some products can be used for land cover change assessments because they cover multiple time periods. The MRLC Consortium has become a collaborative forum, where members share research, methodological approaches, and data to produce products using established protocols, and we believe it is a model for the production of integrated land cover products at national to continental scales. We provide a brief overview of each of the main products produced by MRLC and examples of how each product has been used. We follow that with a discussion of the impact of the MRLC program and a brief overview of future plans.

  4. Effect of mutation on aggregation propensity in homology model structures of syntaxin-3 from Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Amutha Selvaraj; Rajesh, Durairaj; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-10-01

    Perception of molecular mechanism would provide potent additional knowledge on mammalian membrane proteins involved in causing diseases. In human, syntaxin-3 (STX3) is a significant apical targeting protein in the epithelial membrane and in exocytosis process; it also acts as a vesicle transporter by cellular receptor in neutrophils, which is crucial for protein trafficking event. Structurally, syntaxin-3 has hydrophobic domain at carboxyl terminus that directs itself to intra-cellular compartments. In addition, the experimental structure of STX3 is not available and no mutational study has been carried out with natural variants of proteins. Moreover, there is no evidence so far for the natural variant Val286 of STX3 causing any diseases. Hence, in the present study, analyses of residue-based properties of the homology model STX3 were carried out along with mutations at carboxyl terminus of STX3 by implementing protein engineering and in silico approaches. The model structure of STX3 was constructed adopting Modeller v9.11 and the aggregation propensity was analyzed with BioLuminate tool. The results showed that there was reduction in aggregation propensity with point mutation at Val286, instead of Ile, resulting into increasing the structural stability of STX3. In conclusion, the Ccap exposed residue would be a suitable position for further mutational studies, particularly with Val286 of STX3 in human. This approach could gainfully be applied to STX3 for efficient drug designing which would be a valuable target in the cancer treatment.

  5. Laser Ceilometer CL51 Demonstration Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Victor; Winston, Herb A.

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the measurements of clouds and the ability to support observation systems are critically important to advancing our understanding and improving global climate model performance. The purpose of a demonstration of the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was to evaluate its high-range capabilities as a possible augmentation to data provided by the CL31 ceilometer that currently is deployed at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites. Vaisala performed a no-cost demonstration of the equipment; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supported the data analysis; and ARM provided logistical support, power, maintenance, etc. The laser ceilometer provided measurements of cloud-base height, vertical visibility, and backscatter profile at a vertical range of 15 km. The ceilometer demonstration was conducted during the Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties campaign (CCAP) to provide coincident observations of cirrus cloud heights and potential backscatter signals by aerosols. This campaign included deployment of a CL51 ceilometer at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, co-located with the current CL31, micropulse lidar, and balloon-borne sounding system. Data collected from these sensors were analyzed to compare and contrast the data from the CL51 ceilometer.

  6. Design of a binding scaffold based on variable lymphocyte receptors of jawless vertebrates by module engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Chul; Park, Keunwan; Han, Jieun; Lee, Joong-jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Seungpyo; Heu, Woosung; Kim, Yu Jung; Ha, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seung-Goo; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Dongsup; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2012-02-28

    Repeat proteins have recently been of great interest as potential alternatives to immunoglobulin antibodies due to their unique structural and biophysical features. We here present the development of a binding scaffold based on variable lymphocyte receptors, which are nonimmunoglobulin antibodies composed of Leucine-rich repeat modules in jawless vertebrates, by module engineering. A template scaffold was first constructed by joining consensus repeat modules between the N- and C-capping motifs of variable lymphocyte receptors. The N-terminal domain of the template scaffold was redesigned based on the internalin-B cap by analyzing the modular similarity between the respective repeat units using a computational approach. The newly designed scaffold, termed "Repebody," showed a high level of soluble expression in bacteria, displaying high thermodynamic and pH stabilities. Ease of molecular engineering was shown by designing repebodies specific for myeloid differentiation protein-2 and hen egg lysozyme, respectively, by a rational approach. The crystal structures of designed repebodies were determined to elucidate the structural features and interaction interfaces. We demonstrate general applicability of the scaffold by selecting repebodies with different binding affinities for interleukin-6 using phage display.

  7. A correction procedure for the volume conductor effect in the compound action potential recorded from isolated nerve trunk.

    PubMed

    Dalkilic, Nizamettin; Pehlivan, Ferit

    2002-09-01

    The shape and magnitude of the compound action potential (CAP), which is the linear summation of the single fiber action potentials, depend strongly on the recording conditions. Volume conductor effect should be eliminated or corrected in order to get reliable information about the functional state of the nerve trunk. In the case of monophasic extracellular recordings, the integral of CAP recorded extracellularly tends to decrease with the distance, because the extracellular resistance between the stimulating and recording electrodes changes. To compensate for this effect, we took into account the spatial deviation of the integral of CAP versus distance and defined a spatial correcting factor, g(x). By applying g(x) to all CAPs, we get corrected CAP (cCAP) data for further evaluations. It is well known that the slope of the maximum derivative of CAP versus distance curve would be a measure of conduction velocity distribution for the fast conducting nerves in a nerve trunk. The slopes of these curves for extracellular and suction techniques on the same nerves are compared; we concluded that the difference between the two techniques was not important for the correction procedure on extracellular records.

  8. Structural evidence for variable oligomerization of the N-terminal domain of cyclase-associated protein (CAP).

    PubMed

    Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Hu, Nien-Jen; Wlodawer, Alexander; Hofmann, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a highly conserved and widely distributed protein that links the nutritional response signaling to cytoskeleton remodeling. In yeast, CAP is a component of the adenylyl cyclase complex and helps to activate the Ras-mediated catalytic cycle of the cyclase. While the N-terminal domain of CAP (N-CAP) provides a binding site for adenylyl cyclase, the C-terminal domain (C-CAP) possesses actin binding activity. Our attempts to crystallize full-length recombinant CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in growth of orthorhombic crystals containing only the N-terminal domain (residues 42-227) due to auto-proteolytic cleavage. The structure was solved by molecular replacement with data at 2.2 A resolution. The present crystal structure allows the characterization of a head-to-tail N-CAP dimer in the asymmetric unit and a crystallographic side-to-side dimer. Comparison with previously published structures of N-CAP reveals variable modes of dimerization of this domain, but the presence of a common interface for the side-to-side dimer.

  9. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: 2002 update

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Church, Deanna M.; Lash, Alex E.; Leipe, Detlef D.; Madden, Thomas L.; Pontius, Joan U.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Schriml, Lynn M.; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Rapp, Barbara A.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval resources that operate on the data in GenBank and a variety of other biological data made available through NCBI’s web site. NCBI data retrieval resources include Entrez, PubMed, LocusLink and the Taxonomy Browser. Data analysis resources include BLAST, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), Human Genome Sequencing, Human MapViewer, Human¡VMouse Homology Map, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), Entrez Genomes, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and the Conserved Domain Database (CDD). Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:11752242

  10. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Church, Deanna M.; Federhen, Scott; Lash, Alex E.; Madden, Thomas L.; Pontius, Joan U.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Schriml, Lynn M.; Sequeira, Edwin; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), LocusLink, the NCBITaxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR (e-PCR), Open Reading Frame (ORF) Finder, References Sequence (RefSeq), UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), Human/Mouse Homology Map, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker (MM), Evidence Viewer (EV), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), and the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART). Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:12519941

  11. DNA fingerprinting differentiation between β-carotene hyperproducer strains of Dunaliella from around the world

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalía

    2009-01-01

    Background Dunaliella salina is the most important species of the genus for β-carotene production. Several investigations have demonstrated that D. salina produces more than 10% dry weight of pigment and that the species grows in salt saturated lagoons. High plasticity in the green stage and the almost indistinguishable differences in the red phase make identification and differentiation of species and ecotypes very difficult and time consuming. Results In this work, we applied our intron-sizing method to compare the 18S rDNA fingerprint between D. salina (CCAP 19/18), D. salina/bardawil (UTEX LB2538) and β-carotene hyperproducing strains of Dunaliella isolated from salt saturated lagoons in Baja, Mexico. All hyperproducer strains reached β-carotene levels of about 10 pg/cell. Optical microscopy did not allow to differentiate between these Dunaliella strains; however, 18S rDNA fingerprinting methodology allowed us to differentiate D. salina from D. salina/bardawil. Conclusion In Baja Mexico we found D. salina and D. salina/bardawil species by using intron-sizing-method. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Dunaliella 18S rDNA gene sequences were analyzed with our methodology and extraordinary correlation was found with experimental results. PMID:19563682

  12. Coprophilic amoebae and flagellates, including Guttulinopsis, Rosculus and Helkesimastix, characterise a divergent and diverse rhizarian radiation and contribute to a large diversity of faecal-associated protists.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Brown, Matthew W; Pearce, Rebecca A; Tice, Alexander K; Jousset, Alexandre; Geisen, Stefan; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-05-01

    A wide diversity of organisms utilize faecal habitats as a rich nutrient source or a mechanism to traverse through animal hosts. We sequenced the 18S rRNA genes of the coprophilic, fruiting body-forming amoeba Guttulinopsis vulgaris and its non-fruiting relatives Rosculus 'ithacus' CCAP 1571/3, R. terrestris n. sp. and R. elongata n. sp. and demonstrate that they are related to the coprophilic flagellate Helkesimastix in a strongly supported, but highly divergent 18S sister clade. PCR primers specific to both clades were used to generate 18S amplicons from a range of environmental and faecal DNA samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the cloned sequences demonstrated a high diversity of uncharacterised sequence types within this clade, likely representing previously described members of the genera Guttulinopsis, Rosculus and Helkesimastix, as well as so-far unobserved organisms. Further, an Illumina MiSeq sequenced set of 18S V4-region amplicons generated from faecal DNAs using universal eukaryote primers showed that core-cercozoan assemblages in faecal samples are as diverse as those found in more conventionally examined habitats. These results reveal many novel lineages, some of which appear to occur preferentially in faecal material, in particular cercomonads and glissomonads. More broadly, we show that faecal habitats are likely untapped reservoirs of microbial eukaryotic diversity.

  13. Production of Fatty Acids and Protein by Nannochloropsis in Flat-Plate Photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hulatt, Chris J; Wijffels, René H; Bolla, Sylvie; Kiron, Viswanath

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis is an industrially-promising microalga that may be cultivated for alternative sources of nutrition due to its high productivity, protein content and lipid composition. We studied the growth and biochemical profile of Nannochloropsis 211/78 (CCAP) in optimized flat-plate photobioreactors. Eighteen cultivations were performed at two nutrient concentrations. The fatty acid, protein content and calorific values were analyzed after 8, 12 and 16 days. Neutral lipids were separated and the changes in fatty acids in triglycerides (TAGs) during nutrient depletion were recorded. The maximum cell density reached 4.7 g∙L-1 and the maximum productivity was 0.51 g∙L-1∙d-1. During nutrient-replete conditions, eicosapentaneoic acid (EPA) and total protein concentrations measured 4.2-4.9% and 50-55% of the dry mass, respectively. Nutrient starvation induced the accumulation of fatty acids up to 28.3% of the cell dry weight, largely due to the incorporation of C16:0 and C16:1n-7 fatty acyl chains into neutral lipids. During nutrient starvation the total EPA content did not detectibly change, but up to 37% was transferred from polar membrane lipids to the neutral lipid fraction.

  14. A comparison of the neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex of adult male and female Manduca sexta using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2003-11-15

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the retrocerebral complexes of adult male and females of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), post source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS. From fractions of methanol extracts of corpora cardiaca (CC)/corpora allata (CA), separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a total of 11 mass ions were assigned to known peptides from M. sexta. These peptides were adipokinetic hormone (AKH), FLRFamides I, II and III, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), cardioactive peptide 2b (CAP(2b)), three myoinhibitory peptides, corazonin, and M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS). A further six masses were in agreement with Y/FXFGLamide allatostatins identified from other Lepidoptera. The sequence identities of FLRFamide I and AKH were confirmed using post source decay analysis. Fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation MS/MS identified an extended AKH peptide. The apparent differences in the peptides present in male and female retrocerebral complexes are most likely quantitative rather than sex specific.

  15. Consortium of the 'bichlorophyllous' cyanobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica and chemoheterotrophic partner bacteria: culture and metagenome-based description.

    PubMed

    Velichko, Natalia; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina; Averina, Svetlana; Gavrilova, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Pinevich, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    'Bacterial consortium' sensu lato applies to mutualism or syntrophy-based systems consisting of unrelated bacteria. Consortia of cyanobacteria have been preferentially studied on Anabaena epibioses; non-photosynthetic satellites of other filamentous or unicellular cyanobacteria were also considered although structure-functional data are few. At the same time, information about consortia of cyanobacteria which have light-harvesting antennae distinct from standard phycobilisome was missing. In this study, we characterized first, via a polyphasic approach, the cultivable consortium of Prochlorothrix hollandica CCAP 1490/1 (filamentous cyanobacterium which contains chlorophylls a, b/carotenoid/protein complex in the absence of phycobilisome) and non-photosynthetic heterotrophic bacteria. The strains of most abundant satellites were isolated and identified. Consortium metagenome reconstructed via 454-pyro and Illumina sequencing was shown to include, except for P. hollandica, several phylotypes of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The ratio of consortium members was essentially stable irrespective of culture age, and restored after artificially imposed imbalance. The consortium had a complex spatial arrangement as demonstrated by FISH and SEM images of the association, epibiosis, and biofilm type. Preliminary data of metagenome annotation agreed with the hypothesis that satellite bacteria contribute to P. hollandica protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  16. SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS OF MOTILE AND NON MOTILE CELLS OF HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS (CHLOROPHYCEAE) TO PHOTOOXIDATIVE STRESS(1).

    PubMed

    Han, Danxiang; Wang, Junfeng; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-06-01

    The life cycle of the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis consists of motile and nonmotile stages under typical growing conditions. In this study, we observed that motile cells were more susceptible than nonmotile cells to high light, resulting in a decrease in population density and photo-bleaching. Using two Haematococcus strains, CCAP 34/12 (a motile cell dominated strain) and SAG 34/1b (a nonmotile cell dominated strain), as model systems we investigated the cause of cell death and the protective mechanisms of the cells that survived high light. The death of motile cells under high light was attributed to the generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused severe damage to the photosynthetic components and the membrane system. Motile cells were able to dissipate excess light energy by nonphotochemical quenching and to relax ROS production by a partially up-regulated scavenging enzyme system. However, these strategies were not sufficient to protect the motile cells from high light stress. In contrast, nonmotile cells were able to cope with and survive under high light by (i) relaxing the over-reduced photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC), thereby effectively utilizing PETC-generated NADPH to produce storage starch, neutral lipid, and astaxanthin, and thus preventing formation of excess ROS; (ii) down-regulating the linear electron transport by decreasing the level of cytochrome f; and (iii) consuming excess electrons produced by PSII via a significantly enhanced plastid terminal oxidase pathway.

  17. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation.

  18. Spontaneous self-assembly of engineered armadillo repeat protein fragments into a folded structure.

    PubMed

    Watson, Randall P; Christen, Martin T; Ewald, Christina; Bumbak, Fabian; Reichen, Christian; Mihajlovic, Maja; Schmidt, Elena; Güntert, Peter; Caflisch, Amedeo; Plückthun, Andreas; Zerbe, Oliver

    2014-07-08

    Repeat proteins are built of modules, each of which constitutes a structural motif. We have investigated whether fragments of a designed consensus armadillo repeat protein (ArmRP) recognize each other. We examined a split ArmRP consisting of an N-capping repeat (denoted Y), three internal repeats (M), and a C-capping repeat (A). We demonstrate that the C-terminal MA fragment adopts a fold similar to the corresponding part of the entire protein. In contrast, the N-terminal YM2 fragment constitutes a molten globule. The two fragments form a 1:1 YM2:MA complex with a nanomolar dissociation constant essentially identical to the crystal structure of the continuous YM3A protein. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the complex is structurally stable over a 1 μs timescale and reveal the importance of hydrophobic contacts across the interface. We propose that the existence of a stable complex recapitulates possible intermediates in the early evolution of these repeat proteins.

  19. Correct identification of species makes the amoebozoan rRNA tree congruent with morphology for the order Leptomyxida Page 1987; with description of Acramoeba dendroida n. g., n. sp., originally misidentified as 'Gephyramoeba sp.'.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexey V; Nassonova, Elena S; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Morphological identification of protists remains an expert task, especially for little known and poorly described species. Culture collections normally accept organisms under the name provided by depositors and are not responsible for identification. Uncritical acceptance of these names by molecular phylogeneticists may result in serious errors of interpretation of phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences, making them appear more incongruent with morphology than they really are. Several cases of misidentification in a major culture collection have recently been reported. Here we provide evidence for misidentifications of two more gymnamoebae. The first concerns "Gephyramoeba sp." ATCC 50654; it is not Gephyramoeba, a leptomyxid with lobose pseudopods, but a hitherto undescribed branching amoeba with fine, filamentous subpseudopods named here Acramoeba dendroida gen. et sp. nov. We also sequenced 18S rRNA of Page's strain of Rhizamoeba saxonica (CCAP 1570/2) and show that it is the most deeply branching leptomyxid and is not phylogenetically close to 'Rhizamoeba saxonica' ATCC 50742, which was misidentified. Correcting these misidentifications improves the congruence between morphological diversity of Amoebozoa and their rRNA-based phylogenies, both for Leptomyxida and for the Acramoeba part of the tree. On morphological grounds we transfer Gephyramoebidae from Varipodida back to Leptomyxida and remove Flamella from Leptomyxida; sequences are needed to confirm these two revisions.

  20. Toxic effects of blooms of marine species of Oscillatoriales on farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon, Penaeus japonicus) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina).

    PubMed

    Smith, P T

    1996-08-01

    Benthic and planktonic blooms of species of Oscillatoriales coincided with mortalities of Penaeus monodon during four episodes at Australian prawn farms. Oscillatoria corakiana was the dominant planktonic species at 65-90,000 cells/ml, but Spirulina sp., Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nodularia sp. were also identified from the water column, benthic layers or surface mats. The levels and variety of Vibrionaceae in prawn tissue, suggest that mortalities were caused by secondary infections of bacteria. However, experimental results indicate that toxicity of the blooms of Oscillatoriales was the primary cause of disease. Pond water and extracts from a tank culture of benthic Oscillatoriales caused mortalities when injected into P. monodon and P. japonicus. Immersion of artemia in extracts from the tank culture also caused mortalities, with L.D50 values for the supernatant extract of 70 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 50 mg/litre for adult artemia, and LD50 values for the pellet extract of 110 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 200 mg/litre for adult artemia. Experiments with artemia suggested the blooms of Oscillatoriales produced water-soluble, heat-labile toxin/s. Mortalities may have been caused by a neurotoxin because: (a) there was a lack of histopathological evidence of damage to the digestive tracts of prawns during each episode; and (b) artemia cysts immersed in extracts of Oscillatoriales died before they developed digestive tracts. PSP toxin, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and microcystins were not detected when pond water from a diseased pond was tested. It is proposed that sub-lethal levels of toxin weakened the prawns, causing reduced feeding behaviour and an impaired immune system. As a result, prawns were prone to secondary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Because Oscillatoriales are ubiquitous in prawn farms, the findings have significant implications for the assessment of disease in the prawn farming industry.

  1. Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jackson Z.; Burow, Luke C.; Woebken, Dagmar; Everroad, R. Craig; Kubo, Mike D.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Weber, Peter K.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Bebout, Brad M.; Hoehler, Tori M.

    2013-01-01

    Past studies of hydrogen cycling in hypersaline microbial mats have shown an active nighttime cycle, with production largely from Cyanobacteria and consumption from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, the mechanisms and magnitude of hydrogen cycling have not been extensively studied. Two mats types near Guerrero Negro, Mexico—permanently submerged Microcoleus microbial mat (GN-S), and intertidal Lyngbya microbial mat (GN-I)—were used in microcosm diel manipulation experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), molybdate, ammonium addition, and physical disruption to understand the processes responsible for hydrogen cycling between mat microbes. Across microcosms, H2 production occurred under dark anoxic conditions with simultaneous production of a suite of organic acids. H2 production was not significantly affected by inhibition of nitrogen fixation, but rather appears to result from constitutive fermentation of photosynthetic storage products by oxygenic phototrophs. Comparison to accumulated glycogen and to CO2 flux indicated that, in the GN-I mat, fermentation released almost all of the carbon fixed via photosynthesis during the preceding day, primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenase transcripts predominated. Molybdate inhibition experiments indicated that SRBs from a wide distribution of DsrA phylotypes were responsible for H2 consumption. Incubation with 13C-acetate and NanoSIMS (secondary ion mass-spectrometry) indicated higher uptake in both Chloroflexi and SRBs relative to other filamentous bacteria. These manipulations and diel incubations confirm that Cyanobacteria were the main fermenters in Guerrero Negro mats and that the net flux of nighttime fermentation byproducts (not only hydrogen) was largely regulated by the interplay between Cyanobacteria, SRBs, and Chloroflexi. PMID:24616716

  2. Populations of exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria and diatoms in the mucilaginous benthic aggregates of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tuscan Archipelago).

    PubMed

    De Philippis, Roberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Sili, Claudio; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2005-12-15

    The microalgal community of benthic mucilages sampled in various sites of the Tuscan Archipelago during the period May 1999-July 2002, was always dominated by diatoms. Synedra, Licmophora and Navicula were the most frequently found genera, their presence having been observed within all the period under study; other ten genera of diatoms were found in the benthic mucilages, but their presence was dependent on the month and the year of observation. As concerns the cyanobacterial community, the filamentous genera Leptolyngbya, Lyngbya and Rivularia were the most frequently found, independently on the period and the year of samplings, while other genera, namely Oscillatoria, Symploca, Aphanocapsa and Gloeocapsa, were less frequently observed. During the period under study, the highest number of different genera of diatoms and cyanobacteria in the mucilaginous aggregates was observed during summer periods, particularly in June and July. The microscopic observation of the samples demonstrated that only diatoms belonging to the genera Navicula, Amphora, Cylindrotheca and Pseudo-nitzschia possessed outermost polysaccharidic investments, the cells of the other genera being devoid of sheaths or capsules. On the other side, all the observed cyanobacteria, with the exception of Oscillatoria strains, were characterized by the presence of outermost polysaccharidic investments, most frequently in the form of sheaths. However, when the microalgal and cyanobacterial isolates were cultured under laboratory conditions, the release of polysaccharidic material into the culture medium was observed only in a few cases and always in very small amounts. The observations done on the natural samples and the results obtained with the cultures of the microalgae and cyanobacteria isolated from the benthic aggregates suggest that only diatoms have given some contribution to the formation of the polysaccharidic material constituting the matrix of the mucilages, whereas the role of cyanobacteria

  3. Effect of oxidant exposure on the release of intracellular microcystin, MIB, and geosmin from three cyanobacteria species.

    PubMed

    Wert, Eric C; Korak, Julie A; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2014-04-01

    The release of intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and geosmin was investigated after the oxidation of three cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa (MA), Oscillatoria sp. (OSC), and Lyngbya sp. (LYN)). During the oxidation of 200,000 cells/mL of MA, release of intracellular MC-LR exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 1 μg/L during the lowest oxidant exposures (CT) tested: ozone (0 mg-min/L, below the ozone demand), chlorine (<40 mg-min/L), chlorine dioxide (<560 mg-min/L), and chloramine (<640 mg-min/L). As the CT increased, ozone, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide were able to oxidize the released MC-LR. During the oxidation of OSC (2800 cells/mL) and LYN (1600 cells/mL), release of intracellular MIB and geosmin exceeded reported threshold odor values after exposure to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine, which have low reactivity with these taste and odor compounds. Ozone oxidation of OSC yielded an increase in MIB concentration at lower exposures (≤2.9 mg-min/L), likely due to insufficient oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. The release of intracellular organic matter (IOM) was also measured to determine the potential of bulk measurements to act as a surrogate for cyanotoxins and metabolite release. In all cases, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release was less than 0.25 mgC/L, which lacked the sensitivity to indicate the release of MC-LR, MIB, or geosmin. The fluorescence index proved to be a more sensitive indicator of intracellular organic matter release than DOC for MA. These results illustrate that toxic or odorous compounds may be released from cyanobacteria cells during oxidation processes with minimal changes in the DOC concentration.

  4. Morphology and elemental composition of recent and fossil cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Amand, Ann; Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Coston, James; Rozanov, Alexei Y.

    2005-09-01

    genera Calothrix, Leptolyngbya, Lyngbya, Planktolyngbya and Oscillatoria.

  5. Effects of acid stress on Scenedesmus quadricauda (chlorophyta) and Anabaena sp. (cyanophyta)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden-Carter, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of pH in conjunction with light and temperature on growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyta) and Anabaena sp. (Cyanophyta) were examined in culture. Decreasing pH from 7 to 3 inhibited growth, more so in the blue-green alga. Effects were greatly influenced by light and temperature. Above a critical level (pH4 with the blue-green, pH 3 with the green) both algae recovered when acid stress was removed; post-acidification growth rates varied inversely with pH for the green alga and directly for the blue-green. Two sheathed blue-green algae (Lyngbya and Gleocapsa) grew below pH 6, while two unsheathed blue-green algae (Anabaena and Oscillatoria) did not. Cell dimensions of both S. quadricaude and Anabaena sp. generally increased as pH declined; the green alga was the more plastic of the two. Acid stress significantly decreased photosynthetic rate in S. quadricauda but did not for Anabaena sp. Respiratory rates were not significantly related to pH for either alga. Chlorophyll a per cell was higher than controls (pH 7) at pH 5 and 6 in Anabaena sp. and at pH 4 through 6 for S. quadricauda. Both cell division and total culture biomass declined with pH. When grown in mixed culture, the green alga usually predominated at pH 4 and often at pH 5; the blue-green was favored at lower light intensities and higher temperatures. In no instance did one alga stimulate growth of the other, although mutual inhibition occurred in several instances.

  6. On the origin of 3-methylglutaconic acid in disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ikon, Nikita; Ryan, Robert O

    2016-09-01

    3-methylglutaconic acid (3MGA)-uria occurs in numerous inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) associated with compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism. This organic acid arises from thioester cleavage of 3-methylglutaconyl CoA (3MG CoA), an intermediate in leucine catabolism. In individuals harboring mutations in 3MG CoA hydratase (i.e., primary 3MGA-uria), dietary leucine is the source of 3MGA. In secondary 3MGA-uria, however, no leucine metabolism defects have been reported. While others have suggested 3MGA arises from aberrant isoprenoid shunting from cytosol to mitochondria, an alternative route posits that 3MG CoA arises in three steps from mitochondrial acetyl CoA. Support for this biosynthetic route in IEMs is seen by its regulated occurrence in microorganisms. The fungus, Ustilago maydis, the myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus and the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscule, generate 3MG CoA (or acyl carrier protein derivative) in the biosynthesis of iron chelating siderophores, iso-odd chain fatty acids and polyketide/nonribosomal peptide products, respectively. The existence of this biosynthetic machinery in these organisms supports a model wherein, under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of acetyl CoA in the inner mitochondrial space as a result of inefficient fuel utilization drives de novo synthesis of 3MG CoA. Since humans lack the downstream biosynthetic capability of the organisms mentioned above, as 3MG CoA levels rise, thioester hydrolysis yields 3MGA, which is excreted in urine as unspent fuel. Understanding the metabolic origins of 3MGA may increase its utility as a biomarker.

  7. Total synthesis of the marine cyanobacterial cyclodepsipeptide apratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiehao; Forsyth, Craig J.

    2004-01-01

    A total synthesis of apratoxin A was developed. Apratoxin A, isolated from Lyngbya spp. cyanobacteria, is representative of a growing class of marine cyanobacterial cyclodepsipeptides wherein discrete polypeptide and polyketide domains are merged by ester and amide or amide-derived linkages. In the apratoxins, the N terminus of the peptide domain [(Pro)-(N-Me-Ile)-(N-Me-ala)-(O-Me-Tyr)-(moCys)] is a modified vinylogous cysteine that is joined to a novel ketide [3,7-dihydroxy-2,5,8,8-tetramethylnonanoic acid (Dtna)] by an acid-sensitive thiazoline. The C-terminal proline is esterified to a hindered hydroxyl vicinal to the ketide's tert-butyl terminus. Major synthetic challenges included assembly and maintenance the thiazoline-containing moiety and macrolide formation involving acylation of the C39 hydroxyl. The Dtna domain was assembled in the biogenetic direction beginning with a Brown allylation of trimethylacetaldehyde to establish the C39 alcohol configuration. Diastereofacial selective addition of a higher-order dimethylcuprate upon a ring-closing metathesis-derived α,β-unsaturated valerolactone installed the C37 methyl-bearing center. A Paterson anti-aldol process was used to incorporate the remaining two ketide stereogenic centers at C34 and C35. Although attempts to incorporate the thiazoline moiety by condensations of thiol esters bearing α-amino carbamate derivatives failed, an intramolecular Staudinger reduction–aza-Wittig process using α-azido thiol esters was uniquely successful. Late-stage macrocycle closure proceeded well by lactam formation between Pro and N-Me-Ile residues, but attempted lactonizations of the Pro carboxylate with the C39 hydroxyl failed. Optimization of C35 hydroxyl group protection-deprotection completed the effort, which culminated in the first total synthesis of apratoxin A and will enable analog generation toward improving differential cytotoxicity. PMID:15231999

  8. Grazer Effects on Stream Primary Production and Nitrate Utilization: Estimating Feedbacks Under Reduced Nitrate Levels at High-Temporal Resolutions from the Patch to Reach-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijo, C. J.; Cohen, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    While nutrient enrichment is often identified as the leading cause for changes in stream gross primary production (GPP) and shifts in vegetative communities, other factors such as grazers influence overall stream structure and function. Evidence shows that grazers are a top-down control on algae in streams; however, the specific feedbacks between overall stream metabolism, grazer effects, and nutrient cycling have been variable and little is known about these interactions at nutrient levels below ambient. To further our understanding of these linkages, a nutrient depletion chamber was created and paired with high-resolution in situ sensors to estimate stream metabolism and characterize nitrate uptake (UNO3) pathways (i.e. plant uptake and denitrification). The Plexiglas chamber blocks flow and nutrient supply, inserts into upper sediments, allows light in and sediment-water-air interactions to occur. At Gum Slough Springs, FL, nitrate was reduced from ambient levels (1.40 mg N/L) to below regulatory thresholds (ca. 0.20 mg N/L) within one week. Paired chambers with and without the presence of snails (Elimia floridensis) were deployed across submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; Vallisneria americana) and algae (Lyngbya) substrates. Results show that GPP and UNO3 were higher under SAV (70 g O2/m2/d and 300 mg NO3/m2/d, respectively) and a general lack of nutrient limitation even at low [NO3]. Grazer effects differed by vegetation type as it alleviated the reduction of NO3 levels and GPP under SAV but enhanced the decrease of algal GPP and NO3 levels over time. Continued work includes estimating grazer effects on denitrification, quantifying snail nutrient excretion contributions, and scaling up all estimates from the patch to reach level. Overall, this study will further our understanding of grazer-production-nutrient interactions within stream systems, making it possible to predict changes in feedbacks when one part of the biotic or abiotic ecosystem is altered.

  9. Morphology and Elemental Composition of Recent and Fossil Cyanobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintAmand, Ann; Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.

    2005-01-01

    genera Calothnx, Leptolyngbya, Lyngbya, Planktolyngbya and Oscillatoria.

  10. Biological Soil Crusts from Coastal Dunes at the Baltic Sea: Cyanobacterial and Algal Biodiversity and Related Soil Properties.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Dreßler, Mirko; Leinweber, Peter; Karsten, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known as "ecosystem-engineers" that have important, multifunctional ecological roles in primary production, in nutrient and hydrological cycles, and in stabilization of soils. These communities, however, are almost unstudied in coastal dunes of the temperate zone. Hence, for the first time, the biodiversity of cyanobacterial and algal dominated BSCs collected in five dunes from the southern Baltic Sea coast on the islands Rügen and Usedom (Germany) was investigated in connection with physicochemical soil parameters. The species composition of cyanobacteria and algae was identified with direct determination of crust subsamples, cultural methods, and diatom slides. To investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition, the texture, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate content, total contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and the bioavailable phosphorus-fraction (PO4 (3-)) were analyzed in adjacent BSC-free surface soils at each study site. The data indicate that BSCs in coastal dunes of the southern Baltic Sea represent an ecologically important vegetation form with a surprisingly high site-specific diversity of 19 cyanobacteria, 51 non-diatom algae, and 55 diatoms. All dominant species of the genera Coleofasciculus, Lyngbya, Microcoleus, Nostoc, Hydrocoryne, Leptolyngbya, Klebsormidium, and Lobochlamys are typical aero-terrestrial cyanobacteria and algae, respectively. This first study of coastal sand dunes in the Baltic region provides compelling evidence that here the BSCs were dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, or a mixture of both. Among the physicochemical soil properties, the total phosphorus content of the BSC-free sand was the only factor that significantly influenced the cyanobacterial and algal community structure of BSCs in coastal dunes.

  11. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  12. Isotopic patterns in caps and stipes in sporocarps reveal patterns of organic nitrogen use by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbie, Erik; Ouimette, Andrew; Chen, Janet

    2016-04-01

    were explained best by exploration type (45% of explained variance), the interaction of exploration type and %Ncap-stipe (20%), the interaction of exploration type and %Ncap/stipe (22%), %Ccap-stipe (8%), and %Ncap-stipe (5%). δ15N differences between caps and stipes in a multiple regression model had an adjusted r2 of 0.486 (p < 0.0001), and were explained best by exploration type (47% of explained variance), the interaction of exploration type and %Ncap-stipe (26%), the interaction of exploration type and %Ncap/stipe (14%), %Ncap/stipe (11%),and %Ccap-stipe (2%). We argue that these differences in the 13C and 15N enrichment of caps relative to stipes reflect not only shifts in the proportions of protein and carbohydrates, but also differences in the extent of fluxes and the δ13C and δ15N signatures of soil- and litter-derived organic nitrogen taken up by these fungi. We also propose equations to quantify this uptake. Organic nitrogen from litter (lower δ13C and δ15N) may be incorporated by medium-distance mat, short-distance, and contact exploration types of ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas long-distance and medium-distance fringe exploration types appeared to incorporate deeper soil organic nitrogen.

  13. Amino acid utilization by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: specific study of histidine.

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Veron, Benoit; Le Gal, Yves

    2004-03-01

    Phytoplankton live in fluctuating environments where many factors such as grazing pressure, sinking, light availability, nutrient uptake and turnover influence the distribution of phytoplankton in time and space. The purpose of this study was to investigate if under conditions of depletion of inorganic nitrogen, as recorded in summer in naturals waters, phytoplanktonic species have the capability of using organic nitrogen sources, including free or combined amino acids, in addition to inorganic nitrogen. The study has focussed on histidine, the degradation of which yielding potentially three nitrogen atoms for each molecule of histidine. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CCAP 11/32A) was cultivated axenically with two different sources of nitrogen (histidine and/or ammonium). In the presence of histidine as sole source of nitrogen, cell growth was comparable to that observed with the same concentration of nitrogen in ammonium form. In the presence of both histidine and ammonium, histidine degradation was observed only when the concentration of ammonium was depleted. Under these conditions, the first two enzymes of histidine degradation pathway, histidase (EC 4.3.1.3) and urocanase (EC 4.2.1.49) were produced and were co-ordinately regulated. Histidase activity was also controlled by succinate and glutamate as carbon sources. Histidase was purified 1018-fold and partially characterized. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to 152.4 kDa corresponding to four subunits of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme did not exhibit classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics but showed a relationship between the rate of catalysis (V) and the concentration of substrate (S), characteristic of negative allosteric behavior. A Hill coefficient of 4 was measured for histidine concentrations higher than 20.5 mM.

  14. A PCR technique based on the Hip1 interspersed repetitive sequence distinguishes cyanobacterial species and strains.

    PubMed

    Smith, J K; Parry, J D; Day, J G; Smith, R J

    1998-10-01

    The use of primers based on the Hip1 sequence as a typing technique for cyanobacteria has been investigated. The discovery of short repetitive sequence structures in bacterial DNA during the last decade has led to the development of PCR-based methods for typing, i.e., distinguishing and identifying, bacterial species and strains. An octameric palindromic sequence known as Hip1 has been shown to be present in the chromosomal DNA of many species of cyanobacteria as a highly repetitious interspersed sequence. PCR primers were constructed that extended the Hip1 sequence at the 3' end by two bases. Five of the 16 possible extended primers were tested. Each of the five primers produced a different set of products when used to prime PCR from cyanobacterial genomic DNA. Each primer produced a distinct set of products for each of the 15 cyanobacterial species tested. The ability of Hip1-based PCR to resolve taxonomic differences was assessed by analysis of independent isolates of Anabaena flos-aquae and Nostoc ellipsosporum obtained from the CCAP (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, IFE, Cumbria, UK). A PCR-based RFLP analysis of products amplified from the 23S-16S rDNA intergenic region was used to characterize the isolates and to compare with the Hip1 typing data. The RFLP and Hip1 typing yielded similar results and both techniques were able to distinguish different strains. On the basis of these results it is suggested that the Hip1 PCR technique may assist in distinguishing cyanobacterial species and strains.

  15. Simple absolute quantification method correcting for quantitative PCR efficiency variations for microbial community samples.

    PubMed

    Brankatschk, Robert; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Zeyer, Josef; Bürgmann, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique in microbial community analysis, allowing the quantification of the number of target genes in a community sample. Currently, the standard-curve (SC) method of absolute quantification is widely employed for these kinds of analysis. However, the SC method assumes that the amplification efficiency (E) is the same for both the standard and the sample target template. We analyzed 19 bacterial strains and nine environmental samples in qPCR assays, targeting the nifH and 16S rRNA genes. The E values of the qPCRs differed significantly, depending on the template. This has major implications for the quantification. If the sample and standard differ in their E values, quantification errors of up to orders of magnitude are possible. To address this problem, we propose and test the one-point calibration (OPC) method for absolute quantification. The OPC method corrects for differences in E and was derived from the ΔΔC(T) method with correction for E, which is commonly used for relative quantification in gene expression studies. The SC and OPC methods were compared by quantifying artificial template mixtures from Geobacter sulfurreducens (DSM 12127) and Nostoc commune (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa [CCAP] 1453/33), which differ in their E values. While the SC method deviated from the expected nifH gene copy number by 3- to 5-fold, the OPC method quantified the template mixtures with high accuracy. Moreover, analyzing environmental samples, we show that even small differences in E between the standard and the sample can cause significant differences between the copy numbers calculated by the SC and the OPC methods.

  16. Genetic analysis of Eclosion hormone action during Drosophila larval ecdysis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eileen; Mena, Wilson; Lahr, Eleanor C; Johnson, Erik C; Ewer, John

    2015-12-15

    Insect growth is punctuated by molts, during which the animal produces a new exoskeleton. The molt culminates in ecdysis, an ordered sequence of behaviors that causes the old cuticle to be shed. This sequence is activated by Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), which acts on the CNS to activate neurons that produce neuropeptides implicated in ecdysis, including Eclosion hormone (EH), Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and Bursicon. Despite more than 40 years of research on ecdysis, our understanding of the precise roles of these neurohormones remains rudimentary. Of particular interest is EH; although it is known to upregulate ETH release, other roles for EH have remained elusive. We isolated an Eh null mutant in Drosophila and used it to investigate the role of EH in larval ecdysis. We found that null mutant animals invariably died at around the time of ecdysis, revealing an essential role in its control. Further analyses showed that these animals failed to express the preparatory behavior of pre-ecdysis while directly expressing the motor program of ecdysis. Although ETH release could not be detected, the lack of pre-ecdysis could not be rescued by injections of ETH, suggesting that EH is required within the CNS for ETH to trigger the normal ecdysial sequence. Using a genetically encoded calcium probe, we showed that EH configured the response of the CNS to ETH. These findings show that EH plays an essential role in the Drosophila CNS in the control of ecdysis, in addition to its known role in the periphery of triggering ETH release.

  17. Cultivation and complete genome sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a lava cave in Kīlauea Caldera, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Schatz, Michael; Brown, Mark V; Kunkel, Dennis D; Foster, Jamie S; Shick, Harry; Christensen, Stephanie; Hou, Shaobin; Wan, Xuehua; Donachie, Stuart P

    2013-01-01

    The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421(T) is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain's genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1(T), from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in Kīlauea Caldera, Hawai'i. The strain's genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1(T) and G. violaceus PCC 7421(T) genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1(T), for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1(T) has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute's Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1(T) genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1(T) may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis.

  18. Attenuation of Storm Surge Flooding By Wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay: An Integrated Geospatial Framework Evaluating Impacts to Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.; Ferreira, C.

    2014-12-01

    Areas along the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are extremely vulnerable to hurricane flooding, as evidenced by the costly effects and severe impacts of recent storms along the Virginia coast, such as Hurricane Isabel in 2003 and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Coastal wetlands, in addition to their ecological importance, are expected to mitigate the impact of storm surge by acting as a natural protection against hurricane flooding. Quantifying such interactions helps to provide a sound scientific basis to support planning and decision making. Using storm surge flooding from various historical hurricanes, simulated using a coupled hydrodynamic wave model (ADCIRC-SWAN), we propose an integrated framework yielding a geospatial identification of the capacity of Chesapeake Bay wetlands to protect critical infrastructure. Spatial identification of Chesapeake Bay wetlands is derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP). Inventories of population and critical infrastructure are extracted from US Census block data and FEMA's HAZUS-Multi Hazard geodatabase. Geospatial and statistical analyses are carried out to develop a relationship between wetland land cover, hurricane flooding, population and infrastructure vulnerability. These analyses result in the identification and quantification of populations and infrastructure in flooded areas that lie within a reasonable buffer surrounding the identified wetlands. Our analysis thus produces a spatial perspective on the potential for wetlands to attenuate hurricane flood impacts in critical areas. Statistical analysis will support hypothesis testing to evaluate the benefits of wetlands from a flooding and storm-surge attenuation perspective. Results from geospatial analysis are used to identify where interactions with critical infrastructure are relevant in the Chesapeake Bay.

  19. Structural refinement of the non-fluorescent flavoprotein from Photobacterium leiognathi at 1.60 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A; James, M N

    1995-05-26

    The crystallographically-determined structure of the non-fluorescent flavoprotein (NFP) from Photobacterium leiognathi, a homolog of the bacterial luciferase subunits, has been refined to a conventional R-factor [formula: see text] of 0.175 using synchrotron data between 10.0 and 1.60 A resolution. The molecular structure is a homodimer of beta/alpha domains, the monomer having structural similarities to (beta alpha)8 barrel proteins. However, one beta-strand and three alpha-helices of a typical (beta alpha)8 domain are not present in the NFP structure. The refined structure of NFP consists of the 228 amino acid polypeptide, 191 water molecules, a sulfate ion, and two flavin mononucleotides (FMNs) each with a covalently-attached myristate (C14 fatty acid). Both flavin adducts are well-ordered and have exceptional electron density for both the FMN and the myristate moieties. Each flavin mononucleotide-myristate adduct is characterized by a stereospecific linkage (the S enantiomer) between C-6 of the flavin isoalloxazine ring and the C-3' atom of the fatty acyl chain. The stereospecific nature of this flavin-fatty acid linkage suggests that it is the result of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, most likely the bioluminescence reaction itself. The myristate chains are buried from solvent in hydrophobic pockets in the interior of the protein. Four amino acid side-chains of the NFP polypeptide have been modeled with alternate conformations. Five of the protein's seven alpha-helices have classical C-capping boxes. NFP is dimeric and many of the extensive contacts at the dimer interface are mediated by hydrogen-bonded water molecules as well as by hydrophobic interactions. One of the myristate acyl chains sits between NFP monomers and contributes a significant portion of the hydrophobic interactions at the NFP dimer interface.

  20. Structural dynamics of soluble chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 examined by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stoychev, Stoyan H; Nathaniel, Christos; Fanucchi, Sylvia; Brock, Melissa; Li, Sheng; Asmus, Kyle; Woods, Virgil L; Dirr, Heini W

    2009-09-08

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) functions as an anion channel in plasma and nuclear membranes when its soluble monomeric form converts to an integral-membrane form. The transmembrane region of CLIC1 is located in its thioredoxin-like domain 1, but the mechanism whereby the protein converts to its membrane conformation has yet to be determined. Since channel formation in membranes is enhanced at low pH (5 to 5.5), a condition that is found at the surface of membranes, the structural dynamics of soluble CLIC1 was studied at pH 7 and at pH 5.5 in the absence of membranes by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). Rapid hydrogen exchange data indicate that CLIC1 displays a similar core structure at these pH values. Domain 1 is less stable than the all-helical domain 2, and, while the structure of domain 1 remains intact, its conformational flexibility is further increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.5). In the absence of membrane, an acidic environment appears to prime the solution structure of CLIC1 by destabilizing domain 1 in order to lower the activation energy barrier for its conversion to the membrane-insertion conformation. The significantly enhanced H/D-exchange rates at pH 5.5 displayed by two segments (peptides 11-31 and 68-82) could be due to the protonation of acidic residues in salt bridges. One of these segments (peptide 11-31) includes part of the transmembrane region which, in the solution structure, consists of helix alpha1. This helix is intrinsically stable and is most likely retained in the membrane conformation. Strand beta2, another element of the transmembrane region, displays a propensity to form a helical structure and has putative N- and C-capping motifs, suggesting that it too most likely forms a helix in a lipid bilayer.

  1. Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat

  2. Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change in the City of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, D. J.; Hayhoe, K.; Coffee, J.; McGraw, J.; Parzen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Under Mayor Richard M. Daley's leadership, the City of Chicago initiated the Chicago Climate Action Plan (CCAP) to better understand local implications of global climate change in both higher and lower emissions scenarios, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and implement programs to build future climate change resilience. The City approached this work not only as a way to make Chicago more adaptable in the future, but also to improve Chicago's quality of life today. The Chicago Climate Action Plan adopted stresses the importance of both reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Chicago and preparing for climate changes that may be unavoidable. Building off of the City's significant environmental programs and projects, and based on our analyses of the climate effects and impacts that improved the scientific understanding of future climate change impacts on Chicago, the City then developed a set of climate change adaptation strategies, resulting in the City of Chicago Climate Change Adaptation Summary. This document includes prioritization of climate change adaptations based on relative risk as well as framework strategies for those tactics categorized as "must do/early action." In early 2008, The Mayor's Office asked five Commissioners from its Green Steering Committee to chair adaptation work groups including: extreme heat; extreme precipitation; buildings, infrastructure and equipment; ecosystems; and leadership, planning and communications. Working with staff from relevant departments, sister agencies and other stakeholders, these work groups developed 39 basic adaptation work plans, including plans for enhancing the City's existing projects and programs that relate to climate change adaptation. Climate change adaptation work will be on-going in City Departments under the Mayor's Office leadership. The City intends to continually monitor and improve its response to climate change, resulting in an improved quality of life for Chicago residents.

  3. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an Aromatic-Hydrocarbon-Degrading Marine Bacterium Found Associated with Laboratory Cultures of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Green, David H.; Nichols, Peter D.; Whitman, William B.; Semple, Kirk T.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, and C18:1 ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  4. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: Efficacy to Effectiveness to Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Craske, Michelle G.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, costly and debilitating, and yet often unrecognized or inadequately treated in real world, primary care settings. Our group has been researching ways of delivering evidence-based treatment for anxiety in primary care settings, with special interest to preserving the fidelity of the treatment while at the same time promoting its sustainability once the research is over. In this paper, we describe the programs we have developed and our directions for future research. Our first study evaluated the efficacy of CBT and expert pharmacotherapy recommendations for panic disorder in primary care, using a collaborative care model of service delivery (CCAP). Symptom, disability and mental health functioning measures were superior for the intervention group compared to treatment as usual both in the short term and the long term, although also more costly. In our ongoing CALM study, we have extended our population to include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic disorder, while at the same time utilizing clinicians with limited mental health care experience. In addition to pharmacotherapy management, we developed a computer-assisted CBT that guides both novice clinician and patient, thereby contributing to sustainability once the research is over. We have also incorporated a measurement based approach to treatment planning, using a web-based tracking system of patient status. To date, the computer-assisted CBT program has been shown to be acceptable to clinicians and patients. Clinicians rated the program highly, and patients engaged in the program. Future directions for our research include dissemination and implementation of the CALM program, testing potential alternations to the CALM program, and distance delivery of CALM. PMID:19632667

  5. Production of Chlorella vulgaris as a source of essential fatty acids in a tubular photobioreactor continuously fed with air enriched with CO2 at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Montoya, Erika Y; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions and simultaneously produce biomass rich in essential fatty acids, Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211 was continuously grown in a tubular photobioreactor using air alone or air enriched with CO2 as the sole carbon source. While on one hand, nitrogen-limited conditions strongly affected biomass growth, conversely, they almost doubled its lipid fraction. Under these conditions using air enriched with 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16% (v/v) CO2 , the maximum biomass concentration was 1.4, 5.8, 6.6, 6.8, and 6.4 gDB L(-1) on a dry basis, the CO2 consumption rate 62, 380, 391, 433, and 430 mgCO2 L(-1) day(-1) , and the lipid productivity 3.7, 23.7, 24.8, 29.5, and 24.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) , respectively. C. vulgaris was able to grow effectively using CO2 -enriched air, but its chlorophyll a (3.0-3.5 g 100gDB (-1) ), chlorophyll b (2.6-3.0 g 100gDB (-1) ), and lipid contents (10.7-12.0 g 100gDB (-1) ) were not significantly influenced by the presence of CO2 in the air. Most of the fatty acids in C. vulgaris biomass were of the saturated series, mainly myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, but a portion of no less than 45% consisted of unsaturated fatty acids, and about 80% of these were high added-value essential fatty acids belonging to the ω3 and ω6 series. These results highlight that C. vulgaris biomass could be of great importance for human health when used as food additive or for functional food production.

  6. A helix-turn motif in the C-terminal domain of histone H1.

    PubMed Central

    Vila, R.; Ponte, I.; Jiménez, M. A.; Rico, M.; Suau, P.

    2000-01-01

    The structural study of peptides belonging to the terminal domains of histone H1 can be considered as a step toward the understanding of the function of H1 in chromatin. The conformational properties of the peptide Ac-EPKRSVAFKKTKKEVKKVATPKK (CH-1), which belongs to the C-terminal domain of histone H1(o) (residues 99-121) and is adjacent to the central globular domain of the protein, were examined by means of 1H-NMR and circular dichroism. In aqueous solution, CH-1 behaved as a mainly unstructured peptide, although turn-like conformations in rapid equilibrium with the unfolded state could be present. Addition of trifluoroethanol resulted in a substantial increase of the helical content. The helical limits, as indicated by (i,i + 3) nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) cross correlations and significant up-field conformational shifts of the C(alpha) protons, span from Pro100 to Val116, with Glu99 and Ala117 as N- and C-caps. A structure calculation performed on the basis of distance constraints derived from NOE cross peaks in 90% trifluoroethanol confirmed the helical structure of this region. The helical region has a marked amphipathic character, due to the location of all positively charged residues on one face of the helix and all the hydrophobic residues on the opposite face. The peptide has a TPKK motif at the C-terminus, following the alpha-helical region. The observed NOE connectivities suggest that the TPKK sequence adopts a type (I) beta-turn conformation, a sigma-turn conformation or a combination of both, in fast equilibrium with unfolded states. Sequences of the kind (S/T)P(K/R)(K/R) have been proposed as DNA binding motifs. The CH-1 peptide, thus, combines a positively charged amphipathic helix and a turn as potential DNA-binding motifs. PMID:10794405

  7. Transcriptome and Peptidome Characterisation of the Main Neuropeptides and Peptidic Hormones of a Euphausiid: The Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias

    PubMed Central

    Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Bernay, Benoît; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Cascella, Kévin; Ollivaux, Céline; Henry, Joël; Clark, Melody S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (α and β), Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH), the Eclosion Hormone (EH), Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH) and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. Conclusions This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change and provides

  8. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  9. Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Power, Ian M; Wilson, Siobhan A; Thom, James M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Background This study provides experimental evidence for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O), by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia. This wetland is part of a larger hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O) playa. Abiotic and biotic processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment are compared. Results Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp.) contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O) and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7‰, δ18O avg. = 17.2‰) were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3‰, δ18O avg. = 24.9‰). Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing for water quality applications in Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality measurements are relevant to control and prevent the pollution of surface water essential for human use. Previous studies have used standard methods of water sampling to estimate water quality parameters. Nevertheless those methods are extremely expensive and time-consuming and do not provide information for an entire water body. Hence it is important to implement techniques that allow for the monitoring of water quality parameters in a timely and cost-effective manner, and remote sensing represents a feasible alternative. This study focuses on the largest algal bloom affecting Lake Atitlan, located in Guatemala, by using the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion on board the EO-1 satellite. This algal bloom had a life span that extended for a little more than a month and had a maximum coverage of approximately 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. This algal bloom occurred at the end of the year 2009, with November being the most critical month. Different satellite sensors were used to monitor the extent of the algal bloom, including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). However, Hyperion images were used to distinguish the characteristics of the vegetation populating the algal bloom. Hyperion satellite images provided a more complete spectral profile of the algal bloom affecting the lake due to its high spectral resolution characteristics. This enabled the identification of unique peaks of reflectance and absorption features of the spectral signature obtained from the algal bloom. The algal bloom was formed mainly by the cyanobacteria Lyngbya robusta. Hyperion satellite images were used to characterize the algal bloom and the unique pigments of cyanobacteria such as phycocyanin. Atmospheric correction was critical to obtain the pure reflectance of the algal bloom and differentiate the spectral features unique to the cyanobacteria

  11. Dynamics of Molecular Hydrogen in Hypersaline Microbial Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Bebout, Brad M.; Visscher, Pieter T.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Early Earth microbial communities that centered around the anaerobic decomposition of organic molecular hydrogen as a carrier of electrons, regulator of energy metabolism, and facilitator of syntroph'c microbial interactions. The advent of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms added a highly dynamic and potentially dominant term to the hydrogen economy of these communities. We have examined the daily variations of hydrogen concentrations in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mats from hypersaline ponds in Baja California Sur, Mexico. These mats bring together phototrophic and anaerobic bacteria (along with virtually all other trophic groups) in a spatially ordered and chemically dynamic matrix that provides a good analog for early Earth microbial ecosystems. Hydrogen concentrations in the photic zone of the mat can be three orders of magnitude or more higher than in the photic zone, which are, in turn, an order of magnitude higher than in the unconsolidated sediments underlying the mat community. Within the photic zone, hydrogen concentrations can fluctuate dramatically during the diel (24 hour day-night) cycle, ranging from less than 0.001% during the day to nearly 10% at night. The resultant nighttime flux of hydrogen from the mat to the environment was up to 17% of the daytime oxygen flux. The daily pattern observed is highly dependent on cyanobacterial species composition within the mat, with Lyngbya-dominated systems having a much greater dynamic range than those dominated by Microcoleus; this may relate largely to differing degrees of nitrogen-fixing and fermentative activity in the two mats. The greatest H2 concentrations and fluxes were observed in the absence of oxygen, suggesting an important potential feedback control in the context of the evolution of atmospheric composition. The impact of adding this highly dynamic photosynthetic term to the hydrogen economy of early microbial ecosystems must have been substantial. From an evolutionary standpoint, the H2

  12. Phytoplankton community dynamics in West Lake after drawing water from the Qiantang River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yinxin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zuoming

    2004-06-01

    Seventeen phytoplankton dominant species of 218 taxa were found to have contributed to more than 80% of the biomass after analysis of the January, 1955 to December, 1996 phytoplankton population at five stations in West Lake after Qiantang River water had been drawn into the lake for a decade. The seasonal fluctuations were obvious; the maximum cell density of 90.91×107 93.58.×107 cells/L and biomass of 57.41 58.61 mg/L occurred mainly in summer of 1996, largely as a result of the development of Lyngbya contorta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Oscillatoria limnetica, Spirulina laxissima and Scenedesmus quadricauda, etc. at Stations 2 and 4. At Station 1 located near the inlet for drawing water from the Qiantang River, the species number, cell density, biomass, chlorophyll a concentration and physico-chemical parameters (except for total nitrogen) were obviously greater than those at the other four stations, also greater than the corresponding parameters before the drawing of water from the Qiantang River into the lake. Compared with the results of study on the phytoplankton community in 1980 before the drawing of Qiantang River into the lake, the species number and the total individual density were increased, the dominant species changed some-what, the biomass was decreased. The water quality was improved (especially at Station 1) after the drawing of river water into the lake. Based on criteria for evaluating trophic status, the biological and chemical indicators such as species composition and dominant species, and other parameters such as annual mean value cell densities (36.06×107 51.27×107 cells/L), biomass (29.03 39.74 mg/L), chl a concentrations (41.29 67.67μg/L), total nitrigen (1.72 2.89 mg/L), total phosphorus (0.12 0.16 mg/L) obtained at Stations 2, 3, 4 and 5, showed that West Lake is still at eutrophic lake.

  13. Modern lacustrine stromatolites, Walker Lake, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Robert H.; Licari, Gerald R.; Link, Martin H.

    1982-05-01

    The Walker River drainage basin occupies about 10,000 km 2 in western Nevada and parts of California and is essentially a closed hydrologic system which drains from the crest of the Sierra Nevada in California and terminates in Walker Lake, Nevada. Walker Lake trends north and is about 27.4 km long and 8 km wide with water depths exceeding 30.5 m. The lake is situated in an asymmetric basin with steep alluvial fans flanking the western shoreline (Wassuk Range) and more gentle but areally more extensive alluvial fans flanking the eastern shoreline (Gillis Range). Exposed lake terraces and the present shoreline of Walker Lake record a sequence of Pleistocene and Holocene stromatolitic and tufaceous carbonate deposits. Small generalized and columnar stromatolites, frequently encrusted on exposed coarse-grained clasts or bedrock, are present along parts of the nearshore margin of Walker Lake and at elevated lake stands. Columnar stromatolites as much as 4 cm high are subcylindrical to club shaped discrete, and laterally linked at the base with local branching. These digitate stromatolites start as wavy, generalized stromatolites which are vertically transitional to small, laterally linked cabbage heads with laminae which thicken over the crests. Although algal structures are not well preserved in the older stromatolites, recent precipitation of low magnesium calcite occurs as smooth encrustations and as tiny mounds which are consistently associated with a diverse, seasonally variable, green and blue-green algal community including Cladophora glomerata, Ulothrix (cf. aequalis), Gongrosira, Schizothrix, Amphithrix janthina, Calothrix, Homeothrix, Spirulina, Anabaena, Lyngbya, and Entophysalis. Cladophora glomerata and a species of Ulothrix, which are the two most abundant algae within the Walker Lake stromatolite community, are known to condition semi-alkaline lake water by the removal of CO 2 from bicarbonate during photosynthesis. Such conditioning results in the

  14. Variability in the sxt Gene Clusters of PSP Toxin Producing Aphanizomenon gracile Strains from Norway, Spain, Germany and North America

    PubMed Central

    Cerasino, Leonardo; Hostyeva, Vladyslava; Cirés, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production. The strain NIVA-CYA 851 was identified as A. gracile using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and was confirmed to produce neosaxitoxin, saxitoxin and gonyautoxin 5 by LC-MS. The whole sxt gene clusters (circa 27.3 kb) of four A. gracile strains: NIVA-CYA 851 (Norway); NIVA-CYA 655 & NIVA-CYA 676 (Germany); and UAM 529 (Spain), all from latitudes between 40° and 59° North were sequenced and compared with the sxt gene cluster of reference strain A. gracile NH-5 from the USA. All five sxt gene clusters are highly conserved with similarities exceeding 99.4%, but they differ slightly in the number and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (In/Dels). Altogether 178 variable sites (44 SNPs and 4 In/Dels, comprising 134 nucleotides) were found in the sxt gene clusters of the Norwegian, German and Spanish strains compared to the reference strain. Thirty-nine SNPs were located in 16 of the 27 coding regions. The sxt gene clusters of NIVA-CYA 851, NIVA-CYA 655, NIVA-CYA 676 and UAM 529, were characterized by 15, 16, 19 and 23 SNPs respectively. Only the Norwegian strain NIVA-CYA 851 possessed an insertion of 126 base pairs (bp) in the noncoding area between the sxtA and sxtE genes and a deletion of 6 nucleotides in the sxtN gene. The sxtI gene showed the highest variability and is recommended as the best genetic marker for further phylogenetic studies

  15. Variability in the sxt Gene Clusters of PSP Toxin Producing Aphanizomenon gracile Strains from Norway, Spain, Germany and North America.

    PubMed

    Ballot, Andreas; Cerasino, Leonardo; Hostyeva, Vladyslava; Cirés, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production. The strain NIVA-CYA 851 was identified as A. gracile using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and was confirmed to produce neosaxitoxin, saxitoxin and gonyautoxin 5 by LC-MS. The whole sxt gene clusters (circa 27.3 kb) of four A. gracile strains: NIVA-CYA 851 (Norway); NIVA-CYA 655 & NIVA-CYA 676 (Germany); and UAM 529 (Spain), all from latitudes between 40° and 59° North were sequenced and compared with the sxt gene cluster of reference strain A. gracile NH-5 from the USA. All five sxt gene clusters are highly conserved with similarities exceeding 99.4%, but they differ slightly in the number and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (In/Dels). Altogether 178 variable sites (44 SNPs and 4 In/Dels, comprising 134 nucleotides) were found in the sxt gene clusters of the Norwegian, German and Spanish strains compared to the reference strain. Thirty-nine SNPs were located in 16 of the 27 coding regions. The sxt gene clusters of NIVA-CYA 851, NIVA-CYA 655, NIVA-CYA 676 and UAM 529, were characterized by 15, 16, 19 and 23 SNPs respectively. Only the Norwegian strain NIVA-CYA 851 possessed an insertion of 126 base pairs (bp) in the noncoding area between the sxtA and sxtE genes and a deletion of 6 nucleotides in the sxtN gene. The sxtI gene showed the highest variability and is recommended as the best genetic marker for further phylogenetic studies

  16. Image applications for coastal resource planning: Elkhorn Slough Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sharp, Gary D.; VanCoops, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the utility of digital spectral imagery at two levels of resolution for large scale, accurate, auto-classification of land cover along the Central California Coast. Although remote sensing technology offers obvious advantages over on-the-ground mapping, there are substantial trade-offs that must be made between resolving power and costs. Higher resolution images can theoretically be used to identify smaller habitat patches, but they usually require more scenes to cover a given area and processing these images is computationally intense requiring much more computer time and memory. Lower resolution images can cover much larger areas, are less costly to store, process, and manipulate, but due to their larger pixel size can lack the resolving power of the denser images. This lack of resolving power can be critical in regions such as the Central California Coast where important habitat change often occurs on a scale of 10 meters. Our approach has been to compare vegetation and habitat classification results from two aircraft-based spectral scenes covering the same study area but at different levels of resolution with a previously produced ground-truthed land cover base map of the area. Both of the spectral images used for this project were of significantly higher resolution than the satellite-based LandSat scenes used in the C-CAP program. The lower reaches of the Elkhorn Slough watershed was chosen as an ideal study site because it encompasses a suite of important vegetation types and habitat loss processes characteristic of the central coast region. Dramatic habitat alterations have and are occurring within the Elkhorn Slough drainage area, including erosion and sedimentation, land use conversion, wetland loss, and incremental loss due to development and encroachnnent by agriculture. Additonally, much attention has already been focused on the Elkhorn Slough due to its status as a National Marine Education and Research

  17. Using NEXRAD Radar Rainfall to Calibrate a Development Impact Model in a Coastal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, A.; Bedient, P.

    2012-12-01

    Low slopes and shallow, impermeable soils are characteristic of the Upper Texas Gulf Coast. These, coupled with large rainfall events, contribute to wide floodplains and ponding. Rapid, high intensity development has further exacerbated flooding in this coastal region. The Clear Creek Watershed is located in southeast Houston and empties into Galveston Bay. During the past decade, the watershed has been impacted by significant historical coastal storms and rainfall events such as Tropical Storm Allison (2001), Hurricane Ike (2008), and the April 2009 Event. In this study, we employ a calibrated, distributed hydrologic model and pre- and LID-development models to analyze how development characteristics have contributed to costly flooding in coastal watersheds. In 2012, Brody et al. used FEMA floodclaims collected over the 11-year period between 1999 and 2009 to examine the pattern of flood loss across the Clear Creek watershed. The results showed that the 100-year floodplain did not adequately represent overall or event-specific loss. Using a spatial cluster analysis, the Turkey Creek sub-area of the Clear Creek watershed was pin-pointed as an area of statistically significant flood loss, an area where there were a considerable number of high-value flood claims. This area is characterized by high-density, poorly constructed development and frequent flooding. In parallel with Brody's study of flood-risk indicators, our study aims to examine the behavior of the flood-wave in the coastal watershed and how it is affected by different development patterns. A distributed hydrologic VfloTM model was built for Turkey Creek using 2008 CCAP land cover data and calibrated using NEXRAD radar rainfall for the Hurricane Ike (2008) and April 2009 events. Once the model was calibrated, both pre- and LID-development models were built using historical land cover data. These models were used to identify how development patterns have influence the flood hydrograph. Early results

  18. Characterization of the hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of selected springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Gerwig, Robert M.; Tate, William B.

    2006-01-01

    from the Silver Springs group and in both boils at Gemini Springs. No pesticides were detected in water samples from De Leon Spring and Green Spring. Evidence of denitrification was indicated by the presence of excess nitrogen gas in water samples from most of the springs. Aquatic communities varied among the springs. Large floating mats of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), identified as Lyngbya wollei, were observed in De Leon Spring during all sampling events in 2004. At Gemini Springs, the dominant periphyton was Rhizoclonium sp. Of the three springs sampled for benthic invertebrates, De Leon Spring had the highest overall species richness and most disturbance intolerant species (Florida Index = 4). Green Spring had the lowest species richness of the springs sampled. Based on qualitative comparisons, overall macroinvertebrate species richness seemed to be negatively related to magnesium, potassium, sodium, and specific conductance. Invertebrate abundance was greatest when dissolved oxygen and nitrate were high but phosphorus and potassium concentrations were low. Dipteran abundance seemed to be positively associated with specific conductance and total organic carbon but negatively associated with nitrate-N. Amphipods were the numerically dominant group collected in most (six of nine) collections. Shifts in amphipod abundance of the two species collected (Gammarus sp. and Hyalella azteca) varied by season among the three springs, but there were no trends evident in the variation. Fish populations were relatively species-rich at the Silver Springs group, De Leon Spring, and Gemini Springs, but not at Green Spring. Nonindigenous fish species were observed at all springs except Green Spring.

  19. Nutrient and other environmental controls of harmful cyanobacterial blooms along the freshwater-marine continuum.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient and hydrologic conditions strongly influence harmful planktonic and benthic cyanobacterial bloom (CHAB) dynamics in aquatic ecosystems ranging from streams and lakes to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization, agricultural and industrial development have led to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) discharge, which affect CHAB potentials of receiving waters. The amounts, proportions and chemical composition of N and P sources can influence the composition, magnitude and duration of blooms. This, in turn, has ramifications for food web dynamics (toxic or inedible CHABs), nutrient and oxygen cycling and nutrient budgets. Some CHABs are capable of N2 fixation, a process that can influence N availability and budgets. Certain invasive N2 fixing taxa (e.g., Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya) also effectively compete for fixed N during spring, N-enriched runoff periods, while they use N2 fixation to supplant their N needs during N-deplete summer months. Control of these taxa is strongly dependent on P supply. However, additional factors, such as molar N:P supply ratios, organic matter availability, light attenuation, freshwater discharge, flushing rates (residence time) and water column stability play interactive roles in determining CHAB composition (i.e. N2 fixing vs. non-N2 fixing taxa) and biomass. Bloom potentials of nutrient-impacted waters are sensitive to water residence (or flushing) time, temperatures (preference for > 15 degrees C), vertical mixing and turbidity. These physical forcing features can control absolute growth rates of bloom taxa. Human activities may affect "bottom up" physical-chemical modulators either directly, by controlling hydrologic, nutrient, sediment and toxic discharges, or indirectly, by influencing climate. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on N and/or P. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies

  20. U.S. Energy Flow -- 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H; Mui, N; Pasternak, A

    1997-12-01

    under construction in the United States came on line in 1995. The Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Watts Bar-l received a low-power operating license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The construction permit was granted in 1972. Also, TVA canceled plans to complete construction of three other nuclear plants. In 1995, federal and state governments took steps to deregulate and restructure the electric power industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) unanimously approved a proposal to require utilities to open their electric transmission system to competition from wholesale electricity suppliers. California has been at the forefront in the restructuring of the electric utility industry. Plans authorized by the California Public Utility Commission prepare for a free market in electricity to be established by 1998. In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began reporting statistics on renewable energy consumption. The types and amounts of renewable energy consumed vary by end-use sector, electric utilities and the industrial sector being the primary consumers since 1990. Renewable energy provided 6.83 quads (7.6I) of the total energy consumed in the United States in 1995, compared to 7.1% in 1994. Increasing concern over the emission of greenhouse gases has resulted in exhaustive analysis of U.S. carbon emissions from energy use. Emissions in the early 1990s have already exceeded those projected by the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) released in 1994 that was developed to stabilize U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000.

  1. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change around Mobile Bay, Alabama from 1974-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Jean; Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James C.

    2009-01-01

    ), which is critical nursing ground for many Gulf fish species. A survey of Mobile Bay SAV showed widespread decreases since the 1940s. Prior to our project, coastal environmental managers in Baldwin and Mobile counties needed more understanding of the historical LULC for properly assessing the impacts of urbanization. In particular, more information on the location and extent of changing urbanization LULC patterns was needed to aid LULC planning and to assess predictions of future LULC patterns. Our products will assist the coastal environmental managers and land-use planners in making better community growth planning decisions. Our project also will help to establish a historical baseline of LULC distributions, which is a fundamental need in any stewardship plan. The primary research objective of our project was to produce historic and current geospatial LULC change products across a 34-year time frame. A multi-decadal coastal LULC change product was the major project deliverable. The geographic extent and nature of change was quantified and assessed for the upland herbaceous, barren, open water, urban, upland forest, woody wetland, and non-woody wetlanddominated land cover types. We focused on regional analyses of decadal-scale urban expansion and watershed-scaled analyses of LULC change for multiple areas of concern to the Mobile Bay NEP (Figure A). We used the following dates to derive LULC classification products from Landsat data: 1974, 1979, 1984, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2008. We assessed the accuracy of our products using randomly sampled locations and digital geospatial reference data including field survey data, high resolution orthorectified aerial photography, high resolution multispectral and panchromatic satellite data displays (from QuickBird and Corona sensors), digital elevation model data, and National Wetlands Inventory wetland cover type data. NOAA s Coastal Change Assessment Program s (C-CAP) and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) procts

  2. Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M. Z.

    2012-04-01

    distribute with cover about 1% of the entire study area. Prior to revegetation, straw-checkerboards approximately 1×1 m2 in area were constructed using wheat or rice straw to stabilize the dune surface and allow time for the planted xerophytic shrubs to adapt to the new environment. In 1956, the following 2-year-old xerophytic shrub seedlings were planted within the checkerboard at a density of 16 individuals per 100 m2 and grown without irrigation: Artemisia ordosica Krasch, H. scoparium Fisch, Calligonum mongolicum Turc'z, Caragana microphylla Lam., Caragana korshinskii Kom, Salix gordejevii and Atraphaxis bracteata A.Los. The stabilized area was then expanded to parallel areas in 1964 and 1982 using the same method and species. As a result, the initial stages of change that have occurred at these sites were similar. After more than fifties years succession, the predominant plants are semi-shrubs, shrubs, forbs, and grasses at present and BSCs formed. The common BSCs in the region may be dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, or any combination of these organisms. Cyanobacteria species include Microcolous vaginatus Gom., Hydrocoleus violacens Gom., Lyngbya crytoraginatus Schk., Phormidium amblgum Gom., P. autumnale (Ag.) Gom., P. foveolarum (Mont.) Gom. and Phormidium luridum (Kutz) Gom. etc; algal species mainly include Anabaena azotica Ley, Euglena sp., Hantzschia amphioxys var capitata Grum, Oscillatoria obscura Gom., O. pseudogeminate G. Schm. And Scytonema javanicum (Kutz) Bornet Flash etc; lichen species include Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach., Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.; and moss species are dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw., Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito., Tortula bidentata Bai Xue Liang and T. desertorum Broth.. Experimental Design and Rs measurements On October 2010, We selected the moss-dominated BSCs at four revegetation sites and natural vegetation sites, in which 3 replicated plots were selected randomly. In each plot, olyvinyl chloride (PVC