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Sample records for lysimeter investigations low-level

  1. Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program for fiscal year 1994. Annual report, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Compressive test results of 11-year-old cement and vinyl ester-styrene solidified waste forms are presented, which show effects of aging and self-irradiation. Results of the ninth year of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period.

  2. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1993. Annual report: Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1994-05-01

    The March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gal of contaminated water to the auxiliary and fuel handling buildings. The water was decontaminated using a three-stage demineralization system called EPICOR-II containing organic and inorganic ion-exchange media. The first stage of the system was designated the prefilter, and the second and third stages were called demineralizers. Research is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on materials from four of those EPICOR-II prefilters. The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the eighth year of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both Portland type I--II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environment conditions, over a 20-year period. 24 references, 43 figures, 12 tables.

  3. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1996. Annual report; Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Larsen, I.L.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-08-01

    A data base development program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. During the field testing experiments, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study was designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over an extended period. Those experiments have been shut down and are to be exhumed. This report discusses the plans for removal, sampling, and analysis of waste form and soil cores from the lysimeters. Results of partition coefficient determinations are presented, as well as application of a source term computer code using those coefficients to predict the lysimeter results. A study of radionuclide-containing colloids associated with the leachate waters removed from these lysimeters is described. An update of upward migration of radionuclides in the sand-filled lysimeter at ORNL is included.

  4. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.

  5. Experiment close out of lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radio nuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST and BLT code predictions of releases and movement, using recently developed partition coefficients and leachate measurements, to actual radio nuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses.

  6. Experiment close out of lysimeter testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Cline, S.R.; Sullivan, T.M.; Reed, P.

    1997-12-31

    The program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms (WFs). These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST code predictions of releases using recently developed partition coefficients to actual radionuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses. This paper discusses soil and waste form sampling in which vertical cores were removed from the lysimeter soil columns for laboratory characterization. Those samples will be analyzed for radionuclide movement from the waste forms and through the soil columns.

  7. Soil Lysimeter Excavation for Coupled Hydrological, Geochemical, and Microbiological Investigations.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aditi; Wang, Yadi; Meira Neto, Antonio A; Matos, Katarena A; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Rob; Neilson, Julie W; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon; Troch, Peter A

    2016-09-11

    Studying co-evolution of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the subsurface of natural landscapes can enhance the understanding of coupled Earth-system processes. Such knowledge is imperative in improving predictions of hydro-biogeochemical cycles, especially under climate change scenarios. We present an experimental method, designed to capture sub-surface heterogeneity of an initially homogeneous soil system. This method is based on destructive sampling of a soil lysimeter designed to simulate a small-scale hillslope. A weighing lysimeter of one cubic meter capacity was divided into sections (voxels) and was excavated layer-by-layer, with sub samples being collected from each voxel. The excavation procedure was aimed at detecting the incipient heterogeneity of the system by focusing on the spatial assessment of hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological properties of the soil. Representative results of a few physicochemical variables tested show the development of heterogeneity. Additional work to test interactions between hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological signatures is planned to interpret the observed patterns. Our study also demonstrates the possibility of carrying out similar excavations in order to observe and quantify different aspects of soil-development under varying environmental conditions and scale.

  8. Lysimeter Soil Retriever (LSR) - A tool for investigation on heterogeneity of the migration and structural changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reth, S.; Gierig, M.; Winkler, J. B.; Mueller, C. W.; Nitsche, C.; Seyfarth, M.

    2009-04-01

    Generally research fields of lysimeter studies scheduled as long term experiments. In the course of the studies, the lysimeters act more or less as a "black box". Usually the soil material is identified and analysed at the beginning of the experiments. But there is also a strong need to analyze the soil without disturbance of the soil structure after the experiments in order to obtain information about spatial and structural changes within the soil profile. The new technique of the Lysimeter Soil Retriever for the first time enables studies on the heterogeneous migration of percolating water, and changes of soil structure as well as soil organic matter (SOM) and biomass distribution, as well as the distribution of mycorrhiza and microbes in different depths on intact soil profiles. The main target by using the LSR is the preparation of an intact soil monolith from the field lysimeter and the immediate dissection into slices to enable a direct sampling of its soil environment at several depths. Distribution and composition of SOM, pF-values, soil porosity, as well as degradation of PAH were only a few parameters, which are determined at the different soil depths. In this presentation we give some examples for the different application of the LSR and the advantage for the experiments: - The soil of 8 lysimeters, planted with young beeches was retrieved after several years of fumigation with doubled atmospheric ozone concentrations and application of fungi. Due to the accurate sectioning of the soil monoliths a very dense and intensive soil sampling was possible. As the whole soil space of 8 lysimeters could be sampled, precise spatial information were obtained about the rapid formation of SOM depth gradients within the experiment duration. - After the investigation on the mobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the seepage water, the lysimeter soil was retrieved. Investigations on the microbiological degradation of the PAH were possible in the whole

  9. Lysimeter Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Plieschnegger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The existing European Lysimeter Platform (www.lysimeter.at/HP_EuLP) provides an overview of lysimeter types used in Europe and show details on equipment, research results and future perspectives of lysimeter facilities. However, this platform is not user-editable and has not been updated since 2008. Thus, the Lysimeter Research Group (www.lysimeter.at) intends to serve a new database based website called Lysimeter Platform, where existing information of the former European Lysimeter Platform will be transferred to the new Lysimeter Platform and, furthermore, registered users are able to create and edit sites where lysimeters, soil water samplers and soil hydrologic measuring profiles are operated. The Lysimeter Research Group is a scientific association and, therefore, the membership is free of charge. The new Lysimeter Platform contains general information of lysimeter sites worldwide (e.g., what is measured at which site) in a standardized form to get a quick but informative overview of the sites and can be linked to more detailed, already existing information provided by the site operators. Due to the standardized information in the database the Lysimeter Platform serves also as search-engine for soil water measurements and helps to find sites of interest and corresponding contact information worldwide. The Session "Estimation of soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes by use of precision lysimeter measurements" at the EGU General Assembly 2014 would be an excellent chance to present the idea and the concept of this new Lysimeter Platform to international site operators and scientists.

  10. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  11. Deep Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-01

    A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.

  12. Compound specific isotope analysis to investigate pesticide degradation in lysimeter experiments at field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabenko, Evgenia; Elsner, Martin; Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas; Torrento, Clara; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    mixtures and c) transformation of pesticides in lysimeters during the year 2014. 1 Elsner, M. Stable isotope fractionation to investigate natural transformation mechanisms of organic contaminants: principles, prospects and limitations. J. Environ. Monit. 12, 2005-2031 (2010). 2 Hofstetter, T. B. & Berg, M. Assessing transformation processes of organic contaminants by compound-specific stable isotope analysis. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30, 618-627 (2011). 3 Elsner, M. et al. Current challenges in compound-specific stable isotope analysis of environmental organic contaminants. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403, 2471-2491, doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5683-y (2012).

  13. Lysimeter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2005-09-06

    A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.

  14. The Bushland weighing lysimeters: A quarter century of crop ET investigations to advance sustainable irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1987-1989, the first irrigated crops were grown on the four large, precision weighing lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Laboratory at Bushland, Texas, on the Southern High Plains (SHP). Thus began >25-years of full- and deficit-irrigated crop growth, energy and water balance, evapotranspiration (ET), yi...

  15. The Bushland weighing lysimeters: A quarter century of crop ET investigations to advance sustainable irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1987-1989, the first irrigated crops were grown on the four large, precision weighing lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Laboratory on the Southern High Plains (SHP) at Bushland, Texas. Thus began >25-years of full- and deficit-irrigated crop growth, energy and water balance, ev...

  16. The Precision Field Lysimeter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding and interpretation of leaching processes have improved significantly during the past decades. Unlike laboratory experiments, which are mostly performed under very controlled conditions (e.g. homogeneous, uniform packing of pre-treated test material, saturated steady-state flow conditions, and controlled uniform hydraulic conditions), lysimeter experiments generally simulate actual field conditions. Lysimeters may be classified according to different criteria such as type of soil block used (monolithic or reconstructed), drainage (drainage by gravity or vacuum or a water table may be maintained), or weighing or non-weighing lysimeters. In 2004 experimental investigations have been set up to assess the impact of different farming systems on groundwater quality of the shallow floodplain aquifer of the river Mur in Wagna (Styria, Austria). The sediment is characterized by a thin layer (30 - 100 cm) of sandy Dystric Cambisol and underlying gravel and sand. Three precisely weighing equilibrium tension block lysimeters have been installed in agricultural test fields to compare water flow and solute transport under (i) organic farming, (ii) conventional low input farming and (iii) extensification by mulching grass. Specific monitoring equipment is used to reduce the well known shortcomings of lysimeter investigations: The lysimeter core is excavated as an undisturbed monolithic block (circular, 1 m2 surface area, 2 m depth) to prevent destruction of the natural soil structure, and pore system. Tracing experiments have been achieved to investigate the occurrence of artificial preferential flow and transport along the walls of the lysimeters. The results show that such effects can be neglected. Precisely weighing load cells are used to constantly determine the weight loss of the lysimeter due to evaporation and transpiration and to measure different forms of precipitation. The accuracy of the weighing apparatus is 0.05 kg, or 0.05 mm water equivalent

  17. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  18. Measurement of precipitation using lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    wind speeds and the measured outliers of lysimeter mass. Moreover, the influence of wind seems to be varying for different lysimeters. At the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, two precipitation gauges in high temporal resolution (weighing-recording gauge and tipping-bucket gauge; both 200 cm² surface; measuring height 1.5 m) are installed. Furthermore, mass time series of various lysimeters cultivated with different vegetation is also available for the same location. Appropriate methods to compensate the influence of wind on measuring precipitation using lysimeters are investigated and results between the different measuring devices are compared. Results show that precipitation measured with lysimeters is generally higher, especially compared to the weighing-recording gauge. In addition it is detected that also the data interval of lysimeter mass time series used for quantifying precipitation (e.g., 1 day, 1 hour, 30 minutes, 10 minutes) is a crucial factor and influences the result. Summarizing, the potential of using highly precise weighable lysimeters for measuring precipitation at the point scale is rather high. However, methods used to compensate external effects on lysimeter weighing have to be enhanced for a global application of using lysimeters as precipitation gauges. Meissner, R., J. Seeger, H. Rupp, M. Seyfarth & H. Borg, 2007: Measurement of dew, fog, and rime with a high-precision gravitation Lysimeter. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2007, 170, p. 335-344. WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 2008. Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation. WMO-No. 8, 140 pp.

  19. An Investigation of Topography Modulated Low Level Moisture Convergence Patterns in the Southern Appalachians Using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. M.; Duan, Y.; Barros, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains (SAM) region is a biodiversity hot-spot that is vulnerable to land use/land cover changes due to its proximity to the rapidly growing population in the Southeast U.S. Persistent near surface moisture and associated microclimates observed in this region have been documented since the colonization of the area. The landform in this area, in particular in the inner mountain region, is highly complex with nested valleys and ridges. The geometry of the terrain causes distinct diurnal and seasonal local flow patterns that result in highly complex interactions of this low level moisture with meso- and synoptic-scale cyclones passing through the region. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was used to conduct high resolution simulations of several case studies of warm season precipitation in the SAM with different synoptic-scale conditions to investigate this interaction between local and larger-scale flow patterns. The aim is to elucidate the microphysical interactions among these shallow orographic clouds and preexisting precipitating cloud systems and identify uncertainties in the model microphysics using in situ measurements. Findings show that ridge-valley precipitation gradients, in particular the "reverse" to the classical orographic effect observed in inner mountain valleys, is linked to horizontal heterogeneity in the vertical structure of low level cloud and precipitation promoted through landform controls on local flow. Moisture convergence patterns follow the peaks and valleys as represented by WRF terrain, and the topography effectively controls their timing and spatial structure. The simulations support the hypothesis that ridge-valley precipitation gradients, and in particular the reverse orographic enhancement effect in inner mountain valleys, is linked to horizontal heterogeneity in the vertical structure of low level clouds and precipitation promoted through landform controls on moisture convergence.

  20. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  1. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Clinical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dalaie, Kazem; Hamedi, Roya; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mahdian, Mina; Bayat, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain. In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 orthodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar extraction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (GA-AL-AS diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm(2), 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode) or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr) was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups. There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05). Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth movement or reducing the associated pain.

  2. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Dalaie, Kazem; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mahdian, Mina; Bayat, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain. Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 orthodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar extraction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (GA-AL-AS diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode) or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr) was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05). Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth movement or reducing the associated pain. PMID:26622279

  3. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lysimeter methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-12-07

    A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.

  5. Investigation of rainfall data with regard to low-level wind flow regime for east central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Joni

    1992-01-01

    Previous research has been conducted to investigate the effect of the low-level wind region on summertime convective storms in the east central Florida area. These effects were described by analyzing the distribution of lightning flashes within classifications based on the low-level wind regime for the months June through September of 1987 to 1990. The present research utilizes the same classification strategy to study rainfall patterns for data gathered for the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment) field program. The CaPE field program was conducted in east central Florida from July 8, 1991 to August 18, 1991.

  6. Epidemiological investigations of aircrew: an occupational group with low-level cosmic radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Hajo; Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to low-level cosmic ionising radiation. Annual effective doses for flight crew have been estimated to be in the order of 2-5 mSv and can attain 75 mSv at career end. Epidemiological studies in this occupational group have been conducted over the last 15-20 years, usually with a focus on radiation-associated cancer. These studies are summarised in this note. Overall cancer risk was not elevated in most studies and subpopulations analysed, while malignant melanoma, other skin cancers and breast cancer in female aircrew have shown elevated incidence, with lesser risk elevations in terms of mortality. In some studies, including the large German cohort, brain cancer risk appears elevated. Cardiovascular mortality risks were generally very low. Dose information for pilots was usually derived from calculation procedures based on routine licence information, types of aircraft and routes/hours flown, but not on direct measurements. However, dose estimates have shown high validity when compared with measured values. No clear-cut dose-response patterns pointing to a higher risk for those with higher cumulative doses were found. Studies on other health outcomes have shown mixed results. Overall, aircrew are a highly selected group with many specific characteristics and exposures that might also influence cancers or other health outcomes. Radiation-associated health effects have not been clearly established in the studies available so far.

  7. Investigation of the liquid low-level waste evaporator steam coil failure and supporting laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.; Keiser, J.R.; Longmire, H.F.

    1995-05-01

    Using a remote video camera, the internals of a low-level waste evaporator tank (termed 2A2, type 304L stainless steel construction, known to have failed steam coils) were inspected. This inspection revealed at least three rather substantial holes as opposed to crack- or pit-like leak sites near the nominal solution level position on one particular steam coil. This section was removed from the evaporator vessel, and subsequent hot cell examination revealed extensive general corrosion on the process side of the coil with little or no attack on the steam side. Hot cell metallography confirmed intense general corrosion on the process side and, in addition, revealed shallow intergranular attack at the leading edge of corrosion. No pits or cracks were detected in this section of the steam coil. Laboratory corrosion tests with coupons of 304L (and other high-alloy materials) isothermally exposed in a range of solutions similar to those expected in the evaporator reveal only very low corrosion rates below 40% sodium hydroxide and the solution boiling point. However, {open_quotes}dried film{close_quotes} experiments revealed that much more dilute solutions became aggressive to stainless steel due to concentrating effects (evaporation and periodic wetting) at the air/solution interface. The high general corrosion rates observed on the failed coil section occurred at or near the air/solution interface and were attributed to such {open_quotes}splash zone{close_quotes} activity.

  8. Investigation of the soil-plant transfer of primordial radionuclides in tomatoes by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Köhler, M; Gleisberg, B; Niese, S

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 227Ac for tomatoes growing at soils from former uranium mining areas. The analysis were carried out using low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in a 47 m deep underground laboratory. For tomato fruits transfer factors of (0.0007 +/- 0.0006) for 235U, (0.0021 +/- 0.0017) for 226Ra, (0.0015 +/- 0.0009) for 210Pb and (0.0018 +/- 0.0012) for 227Ac were obtained. The investigation of the soil-plant transfer by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry is often limited by the Compton-continuum from the always present high-energy gamma-ray emitter 40K.

  9. GPR-Tomography of a Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalholz, J.; Stoffregen, H.; Strehl, S.; Kemna, A.; Yaramanci, U.

    2003-04-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel containing soil placed with its top edge to the ground surface. Lysimeters are used to study phases of the hydrological cycle in terms of water content and dynamics, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration or runoff. With the strong dependence of the dielectric permittivity on the water content, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was chosen as one investigation technique as it can provide non-invasive high-resolution information regarding the distribution of the dielectric permittivity. Because the provided lysimeter has PVC walls tomographic measurements can be performed. The main objective is to investigate the solute transport inside a lysimeter. Considering the small dimensions of the lysimeter (1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m height) and the planned armament with sensors for other methods, a pair of shielded antennas was used with centre frequencies of approximately 750 MHz. In April and September 2002 preliminary measurements were carried out on a filled but unequipped lysimeter to check signal quality, feasibility as well as the time needed to gather a dataset. The datasets used in the tomographic investigations consisted of several horizontal and vertical planes. So far tomographic inversion has been carried out using only first arrival time data. To derive the volumetric water content, the calculated dielectric permittivity values have to be transformed. Based on the soil inside the lysimeter appropriate mixing formulas for bulk dielectric permittivity have to be chosen and compared to the results gathered from alternative methods. At this early stage of the experiment heterogeneities in the dimension of decimetres with water content variations of approximately three volumetric percent can be detected. Beside the inclusion of alternative methods, e. g. time domain reflectometry, improvements can be achieved by optimising data processing and inversion.

  10. Lysimeter literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Is the diagnosis of mass hysteria an excuse for incomplete investigation of low-level environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, H.S.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Mass hysteria is an epidemic diagnostic term used to characterize unexplained outbreaks of syncope among women. A syncope outbreak among women in a meeting in a rural area of Michigan prompted an intense investigation for etiology. Low levels of ozone, carbon monoxide, and pentane were found associated with the outbreak. These levels were too low by themselves to explain the symptoms. A sociometric scale of intensity of illness was devised and found to be highly correlated (r = -0.94) with the weight of those who fainted. It is argued that mass hysteria may be the result of interactions of low levels of toxicants and may not be a result of the hysterical behavior in women at all.

  12. Is the diagnosis of mass hysteria an excuse for incomplete investigation of low-level environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, H.S.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Mass hysteria is an epidemic diagnostic term used to characterize unexplained outbreaks of syncope among women. A syncope outbreak among women in a meeting in a rural area of Michigan prompted an intense investigation to etiology. Low levels of ozone, carbon monoxide, and pentane were found associated with the outbreak. These levels were too low by themselves to explain the symptoms. A sociometric scale of intensity of illness was devised and found to be highly correlated (r = -.094) with the weight of those who fainted. It is argued that mass hysteria may be the result of interactions of low levels of toxicants and may not be a result of the hysterical behavior in women at all.

  13. Differential Gene Expression to Investigate the Effects of Low-level Electrochemical Currents on Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the emergence and spread of multidrug resistant bacteria, effective methods to eliminate both planktonic bacteria and those embedded in surface-attached biofilms are needed. Electric currents at μA-mA/cm2 range are known to reduce the viability of bacteria. However, the mechanism of such effects is still not well understood. In this study, Bacillus subtilis was used as the model Gram-positive species to systematically investigate the effects of electrochemical currents on bacteria including the morphology, viability, and gene expression of planktonic cells, and viability of biofilm cells. The data suggest that weak electrochemical currents can effectively eliminate B. subtilis both as planktonic cells and in biofilms. DNA microarray results indicate that the genes associated with oxidative stress response, nutrient starvation, and membrane functions were induced by electrochemical currents. These findings suggest that ions and oxidative species generated by electrochemical reactions might be important for the killing effects of these currents. PMID:22078549

  14. Cytomorphometric and clinical investigation of the gingiva before and after low-level laser therapy of gingivitis in children.

    PubMed

    Igic, Marija; Mihailovic, Dragan; Kesic, Ljiljana; Milasin, Jelena; Apostolovic, Mirjana; Kostadinovic, Ljiljana; Janjic, Olivera Trickovic

    2012-07-01

    Gingival epithelial cells are the first physical barrier against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial products may penetrate the epithelium and directly disturb its integrity. We investigated the clinical and cytomorphological status of the gingiva in children with gingivitis before and after low-level laser therapy. The study enrolled 130 children divided into three groups: group 1 comprised 50 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis who received basic treatment, group 2 comprised 50 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis who received low-level laser treatment in addition to basic treatment, and group 3 comprised 30 children with healthy gingiva as controls. Oral hygiene and the status of the gingiva were assessed using the appropriate indexes before and after treatment. Inflammation of the gingiva was monitored by cytomorphometric evaluation. Cytomorphometric analysis revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in the size of the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the gingiva before and after treatment in chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Evaluation using clinical parameters showed that treatment of gingivitis with basic treatment was successful. Cytomorphometric analysis showed that after basic treatment the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the gingiva were reduced in size, although not to the size found in healthy gingiva. However, after adjuvant low-level laser therapy, the size of the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells in the gingiva matched the size of the nuclei in the cells in healthy gingiva.

  15. Portable Suction Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-07-13

    A portable lysimeter including a collection vessel having an inflatable bladder and a semi-permeable member assembly at least partially movable in response to inflation of the bladder, a sample conduit in fluid communication with the semi-permeable member and a reservoir in fluid communication with the sample conduit.

  16. A simple snowmelt lysimeter

    Treesearch

    Harold F. Haupt

    1969-01-01

    A simple gage on the lysimeter principle has been developed to provide continuous readings of the volume of water flowing from the base of a snowpack in the form of surface melt alone or rain percolate and surface melt combined. The data obtained show promise, after two seasons of being applicable in river flood forecasting, as well as in studies of snow hydrology....

  17. Investigating the impact of a northerly low-level jet on GHG flux estimates for Indianapolis using WRF-LETKF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Shou, Y.; Ide, K.; Zhang, D. L.; Ren, X.; Shepson, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Northerly, low-level jets (LLJ's) often developed over the Great Lakes region during the cool season and are linked to wintertime blizzards, development and spread of large wildfires, and the transport and dispersion of air pollutants. However, our knowledge regarding northerly LLJ's is still limited. In the present study, characteristics and mechanisms of the formation and evolution of the northerly LLJ are investigated based on a case study by using the local ensemble transform Kalman Filter data (LETKF) assimilation system and Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF). Results are carefully evaluated using data sets collected by the HALO Photonics Lidar Profiler and aircraft flight over Indianapolis during the INFLUX experiment on October 1, 2014. It is found that the northerly LLJ exhibited typical meso-scale, but non-typical diurnal variation characteristics. During its life cycle the northerly LLJ is shown to be supergeostrophic which suggests that except for the synoptic system forcing and upper and low-level jets interactions the inertial oscillation may also contribute to the formation of the northerly LLJ and it may be triggered by the weakening of the turbulent mixing related to a strong temperature inversion developed by frontogenesis. The frontal inversion associated with the LLJ is found to be critical to the dispersion and transportation of the trace gases over Indiana. A backward trajectory analysis based on the HYSPLIT dispersion model suggests that the inversion forces the pollution to be advected by the LLJ aloft. The flux of pollutants including GHG's is heavily impacted by upwind sources and downward mixing into the PBL over Indianapolis. Consideration of these circulations improves estimates of urban GHG emissions. Keywords WRF-LETKF, Northerly low-level jet, air pollution, frontal inversion

  18. Isooctane transport and remediation in soil using lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarieti, M. L.; Toscano, G.; Greco, G.

    2009-04-01

    The AMRA lysimeter station (near Piana di Monte Verna, Caserta, Italy) consists of eight weighable monolithic groundwater lysimeters fully equipped with sensors to provide continuous monitoring of temperature, humidity, water tension and weight, as well as ports for soil, liquid and gas sampling. An air-injection system allows to perform venting or sparging actions into contaminated soils and groundwater. A meteo station provides the indispensable data to evaluate the interactions between lysimeters and the meteorological phenomena on site. A preliminary experiment was performed last year to investigate the reactive transport of a NAPL-type contaminant under passive transport conditions and during an air-venting remediation action. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) was chosen as a representative contaminant from gasoline fuels. Four lysimeters containing undisturbed soil extracted from a former industrial site were used. Surface vegetation was cut to avoid leaves interference during contamination phase. Two lysimeters were contaminated by distributing a fixed amount of isooctane onto the soil surface, while two more lysimeters were left uncontaminated for reference. Only for one of the two contaminated lysimeters air was vented through a port at 150 cm depth. Air injection started 30 min after the contamination, lasted all the experiment time, and was applied also to one of the reference lysimeters. Gas samples were drawn periodically at different depths of the two contaminated lysimeters and analysed for isooctane content. Evolution of isooctane concentration profiles was different in the two contaminated lysimeters. In case of air-venting the contaminant maximum concentration was lower and the maximum depth reached by the contaminant was reduced. The time needed for a complete remediation action was compared with theoretical estimates computed according to normative procedures.

  19. Method of retrieving a liquid sample, a suction lysimeter, a portable suction lysimeter, a lysimeter system, and a deep lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2003-08-26

    A method of retrieving a liquid sample comprises providing a portable lysimeter including a semi-permeable membrane and a chamber in fluid communication with the semi-permeable membrane; making a hole at a site from which a liquid sample is desired; evacuating the chamber by applying a vacuum to the chamber; lowering the portable lysimeter into the hole; obtaining a sample in the chamber; and retrieving the lysimeter from the bore; wherein it is not necessary to backfill the bore. A portable lysimeter includes a semi-permeable member and a chamber in fluid communication with the semi-permeable membrane.

  20. The Site Investigation Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste For Sub-Surface Disposal Facility In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, S.; Sasaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    [1.Concept of the sub-surface disposal facility] In Japan, the facilities of Low-Level Radioactive West (LLW) for near-surface disposal have already been in operation. Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has a plan of a new facility of LLW for sub-surface disposal with engineered barrier, for short "the sub-surface disposal facility".This facility can accept the relatively higher low-level waste from unclear power plant operation and in core materials from the decommissioning, estimated about 20 thousands cubic meter in total.In addition, this will accept transuranim (TRU) slightly contaminated waste from reprocessing plant operation and decommissioning. It shall be located at a sufficient depth enough to avoid normal human activities in future. [2.Site investigation] From 2001 to 2006,the site investigation on geology and hydrogeology has been performed in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment for the sub-surface disposal facility.The candidate area is located at the site of JNFL, where Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture in the northern area of the Mainland of Japan.To confirm geology hydraulic conditions and geo-chemistry, 22 boring survey including 6 holes in swamp and marsh have been performed. The 1km long access tunnel (the entrance level EL 8.0m, incline of 1/10) to the altitude of EL -86m underground, around 100m depth from surface, has excavated. During excavating the tunnel, observation of geology, permeability tests, pore water pressure measurements and so on has been performed in situ.And the large size test cavern of 18m diameters was constructed at the end of the tunnel to demonstrate stability of the tunnel. Prior to the excavation, 3 measuring tunnels were excavated surrounding the test cavern to examine the excavation. [3.Geological features] The sedimentary rock called Takahoko formation at the Neogene period is distributed upper than EL-500m in the candidate area.The quaternary stratum about 10m in thickness is

  1. Use of the model CANDY at the lysimeter scale - model validation on weighable monolithic equilibrium suction field lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, E.; Fank, J.; Franko, U.

    2009-04-01

    Two weighable monolithic equilibrium suction field lysimeters were installed at the field research site Wagna (Austria) in 2004. Using data from high precision lysimeters and accompanying soil hydrologic measuring profiles the influence of different management systems on groundwater quality are investigated, water movement and nutrient transport in the unsaturated zone are being determined. An additional grass reference lysimeter has been installed in 2006. Lysimeter data has been used to calibrate the simulation system CANDY for site specific conditions. CANDY describes relevant soil processes concerning the dynamics of C and N as one-dimensional processes on a daily time step. Key driving variables are soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information. Simulation of mass specific transfer is based on a well known soil water balance. The adaptability of soil water balance part of the CANDY model at the conventional cultivated lysimeter, and the grass reference lysimeter at Wagna test site will be presented. The problem of using a model outside of its primary calibration area is discussed.

  2. Investigation of pulmonary function among employees exposed to low levels of monomeric isocyanates and solvents at an automobile finishings plant.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, Michael; Sax, Sol; House, Ron; Henderson, Bruce

    2002-11-01

    There have been reports in the literature of decrements in pulmonary function associated with long-term, low-level monomeric isocyanate exposure combined with solvent exposure. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between these exposures and pulmonary function in an automobile paint and coating (finishes) plant. A job exposure matrix was developed for isocyanate and solvent exposure; years in a work task were used as a surrogate for exposure. Recent pulmonary function tests were used as the outcome variables; specifically the difference between predicted and actual FEV1 and FVC. The results of the analysis demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between combined isocyanate and solvent exposure and decline in pulmonary function. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between solvent exposure and FEV1 and FVC.

  3. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Processing and comparison of two weighing lysimeters at the Rietholzbach catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Conall; Michel, Dominik; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Weighing lysimeters are a well-established means of accurately obtaining local-scale estimates of actual evapotranspiration and seepage within soils. Current state-of-the-art devices have very high temporal resolutions and weighing precisions, and can also be used to estimate precipitation. These, however, require complex filtering to first remove noise (e.g. resulting from wind influence) from the mass measurements. At the Rietholzbach research catchment in northeastern Switzerland, two weighing lysimeters are in operation. One is a recently-installed state-of-the-art mini-lysimeter with a pump-controlled lower boundary; the other is a large free-drainage lysimeter in operation since 1976. To determine the optimal processing approach for the mini-lysimeter, a number of reported approaches were applied, with the resulting evapotranspiration and precipitation records being compared to those of the large lysimeter and a tipping bucket, respectively. Out of those examined, we found the Adaptive-Window and Adaptive-Threshold (AWAT) filter and a similar, non-adaptive approach, to perform best. Using the AWAT-filtered mini-lysimeter data as a reference, additional, retrospectively-applicable processing steps for the large lysimeter were then investigated. Those found to be most beneficial were the application of a three-point (10-min) moving mean to the mass measurements, and the setting-to-zero of estimated evapotranspiration and condensation in hours with greater-than-zero reference tipping bucket precipitation recordings. A comparison of lysimeter mass increases associated with precipitation revealed that the large lysimeter experiences a previously unknown under-catch of 11.1% (for liquid precipitation). Daily seepage measurements were found to be generally greater from the mini-lysimeter, probably reflecting the reduced input of water to the large lysimeter due to this under-catch.

  6. Paramecium tetraurelia growth stimulation under low-level chronic irradiation: investigations on a possible mechanism. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H.

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effects of low-level chronic irradiation on Paramecium tetraurelia proliferation. Biological effects were strongly dependent on the bacterial density of culture medium and more exactly on the catalase content of the medium. Significant growth stimulation was found under /sup 60/Co chronic irradiation at a dose rate of 2 rad/year when paramecia were grown in a medium containing a high bacterial concentration (2.5 x 10/sup 2/ cells/m) or supplemented with catalase (300 U/ml). In a medium with a low bacterial density (1 x 10/sup 6/ cell/ml) or supplemented with a catalase activity inhibitor, growth simulation was preceded by a transitory inhibiting effect which could be correlated with extracellularly radioproduced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ addition appeared to be able to simulate the biological effects of chronic irradiation. A possible mechanism is discussed.We proposed that the stimulating effects were the result of intracellular enzymatic scavenging of radioproduced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  7. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  8. Developing Present-day Proxy Cases Based on NARVAL Data for Investigating Low Level Cloud Responses to Future Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of the entire global climate is significantly influenced by the presence of boundary layer clouds. The main aim of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) project is to improve climate model predictions by means of process studies of clouds and precipitation. This study makes use of observed elevated moisture layers as a proxy of future changes in tropospheric humidity. The associated impact on radiative transfer triggers fast responses in boundary layer clouds, providing a framework for investigating this phenomenon. The investigation will be carried out using data gathered during the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for VALidation (NARVAL) South campaigns. Observational data will be combined with ECMWF reanalysis data to derive the large scale forcings for the Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Simulations will be generated for a range of elevated moisture layers, spanning a multi-dimensional phase space in depth, amplitude, elevation, and cloudiness. The NARVAL locations will function as anchor-points. The results of the large eddy simulations and the observations will be studied and compared in an attempt to determine how simulated boundary layer clouds react to changes in radiative transfer from the free troposphere. Preliminary LES results will be presented and discussed.

  9. Investigation of low-level (242)Pu contamination on nutrition disturbance and oxidative stress in Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dharmendra K; Tawussi, Frank; Hölzer, Alex; Hamann, Linda; Walther, Clemens

    2017-07-01

    Plutonium associated with higher molecular weight molecules is presumed to be poorly mobile and hardly plant available. In our present study, we investigate the uptake and effects of Pu treatments on Solanum tuberosum plants in amended Hoagland medium at concentrations of [(242)Pu] = 100 and 500 nm, respectively. We found a direct proof of oxidative stress in the plants caused by these rather low concentrations. For the confirmation of oxidative stress, we explored the production of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by epifluorescence microscopy. Oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation and superoxide radicals (O2(•-)) are monitored through histochemical analysis. The biochemical parameters i.e. chlorophyll and carotenoids are measured as an indicator of cellular damage in the tested plants including the enzymatic parameters such as catalase and glutathione reductase. From our work, we conclude that Pu in low concentration has no significant effects on the uptake of many trace and macroelements. In contrast, the content of O2(•-) , malondialdehyde (MDA), and H2O2 increases with increasing Pu concentration in the solution, while the opposite effects was found for NO, catalase, and glutathione reductase. These findings prove that even low concentration of Pu regulates ROS production and generate oxidative stress in S. tuberosum L.

  10. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  11. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  12. The feasibility of epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, 3 July 1979-30 October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, N.A.; Kohn, H.I.; Clapp, R.W.; Covino, S.J. Jr.; Fahey, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    This is the final report of 'A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Conducting Epidemiologic Investigations of the Health Effects of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation', begun July 3, 1979. The study defines low-level ionizing radiation as a single dose of 5 rem (whole-body) or less and chronic doses that accumulate at the rate of less than 5 rem per year. The objective of this project was to determine whether or not further epidemiologic research (either expansion of current projects or initiation of new ones) would be useful at this time for quantitating the health effects due to low-level ionizing radiation. No outstanding candidate population is recommended for study since, even if the largest available populations are studied, the chance of finding a definite positive result is very small. However, the decision to conduct a study must rest heavily on social and political considerations rather than on purely scientific ones. Therefore, four populations are tentatively proposed for prospective cohort studies, with nested case-control studies as needed. Overall, the most practical approach would be to conduct a study through a national worker registry, with cancer as the endpoint of interest.

  13. Atomic force microscopy investigation of the interaction of low-level laser irradiation of collagen thin films in correlation with fibroblast response.

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Andreas; Yova, Dido

    2015-12-01

    Low-level red laser (LLRL)-tissue interactions have a wide range of medical applications and are garnering increased attention. Although the positive effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) have frequently been reported and enhanced collagen accumulation has been identified as one of the most important mechanisms involved, little is known about LLRL-collagen interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of LLRL irradiation on collagen, in correlation with fibroblast response. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize surfaces and identify conformational changes in collagen before and after LLRL irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated collagen thin films were used as culturing substrates to investigate fibroblast response with fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated that LLRL induced small alterations in fluorescence emission and had a negligible effect on the topography of collagen thin films. However, fibroblasts cultured on LLRL-irradiated collagen thin films responded to LRLL. The results of this study show for the first time the effect of LLRL irradiation on pure collagen. Although irradiation did not affect the nanotopography of collagen, it influenced cell behavior. The role of collagen appears to be crucial in the LLLT mechanism, and our results demonstrated that LLRL directly affects collagen and indirectly affects cell behavior.

  14. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  15. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results.

  16. Plant uptake of radionuclides in lysimeter experiments.

    PubMed

    Gerzabek, M H; Strebl, F; Temmel, B

    1998-01-01

    The results of seven years lysimeter experiments to determine the uptake of 60Co, 137Cs and 226Ra into agricultural crops (endive, maize, wheat, mustard, sugarbeet, potato, Faba bean, rye grass) are described. The lysimeter consists of twelve monolithic soil profiles (four soil types and three replicates) and is located in Seibersdorf/Austria, a region with a pannonian climate (pronounced differences between hot and semi-arid summers and humid winter conditions, annual mean of precipitation: 517 mm, mean annual temperature: 9.8 degrees C). Besides soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF), fluxes were calculated taking into account biomass production and growth time. Total median values of TF's (dry matter basis) for the three radionuclides decreased from 226Ra (0.068 kg kg(-1)) to 137Cs (0.043 kg kg(-1)) and 60Co (0.018 kg kg(-1)); flux values exhibited the same ranking. The varying physical and chemical properties of the four experimental soils resulted in statistically significant differences in transfer factors or fluxes between the investigated soils for 137Cs and 226Ra, but not for 60Co. Differences in transfer between plant species and plant parts are distinct, with graminaceous species showing, on average, TF values 5.8 and 15 times lower than dicotyledonous species for 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. This pattern was not found for 226Ra. It can be concluded that 137Cs transfer is heavily influenced by soil characteristics, whilst the plant-specific factors are the main source of TF variability for 60Co. The variability of 226Ra transfer originates both from soil properties and plant species behaviour.

  17. Lysimeter Kleče Sanitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Ljubljana field aquifer is the main source of drinking water for Ljubljana. About 35% of the recharge area is used for agriculture, predominantly for intensive vegetable production therefore two lysimeters were built in 1991 at the area of the water pumping station Klece in order to study natural nitrate percolation through the unsaturated zone. The lysimeters consist of two concrete pipes (radius: 0,9 m, depth: 2,0 m), filled with autochthon soil, sandy (pebbles of 2-4 cm diameter) gravel and drainage material, each 50 cm thick. Both lysimeters are connected with control shaft. The mean porosity of the lysimeter is 22 %. At the bottom of the lysimeter outflow a drain pipe leads into adjacent control shaft where outflow is measured with tipping bucket. The measurements of percolating water indicated that the southern lysimeter is damaged, because the part of the percolating water is lost through the bottom of the container. This was the reason for the removal of the southern lysimeter and replacing it with hydro-lysimeter. The monolith of 2 m height and 1,1m diameter will be cut from sandy gravel sediments on the area of the water pumping station. Inside the monolith tensiometers, TDR probes and suction cups will be installed in three levels in depths of 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Additionally 2 tensiometers for temperature and tension in the depths 190 cm to transfer field matrix potential into the lysimeter will be installed. Long term observations of water balance and nitrate percolation are very important in order to assess trends in groundwater recharge and nitrate content. Measurements and monitoring of NO3-N in percolated water from non-fertilised area give information about nitrate natural background, which helps to determine the correct use of plant fertilizers and enables prompt reactions to negative trends on the groundwater quality.

  18. Surface radiological investigations of Trench 6 and low-level waste Line Leak Site 7. 4b at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of Trench 6 and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) Line Leak Site 7.4b was conducted in July and August 1989 and January 1990 by the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purposes of this survey were (1) to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination and (2) to recommend interim corrective action to limit human exposures to radioactivity and minimize the potential for contaminant dispersion. Highest surface gamma levels encountered during the survey (39 mR/h) were found just south of the asphalt covering LLW Line Leak Site 7.4b. Elevated surface gamma levels (measuring 28 to 560 {mu}R/h) extended from this area to a width of 100 ft, westward 250 ft, and beyond the survey boundary. Beta-gamma levels up to 17 mrad/h measured on contact with the trunks of trees growing in the area southwest of Trench 6 suggest that three roots are reaching contamination deep within the ground. Since no gamma activity is associated with the trees or their leaves, the elevated beta levels are probably due to the uptake of residual {sup 90}Sr originating from the documented seepage at the Trench 6/Leak Site 7.4b area. Beta activity present in the leaf litter and surface soil indicate that decaying leaves are depositing measurable contaminants on the ground surface. Recommendations for corrective actions are included. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Special waste-form lysimeters-arid: Three-year monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.; Serne, R.J.; Toste, A.P.

    1988-04-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of commercial low-level waste require all liquid waste to be solidified before burial. Most waste must be solidified into a rigid matrix such as cement or plastic to prevent waste consolidation and site slumping after burial. These solidification processes affect the rate at which radionuclides and other solutes are released into the soil. In 1983, a program was initiated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to study the release of waste from samples of low-level radioactive waste that had been commercially solidified. The primary method used by this program is to bury sample waste forms in field lysimeters and monitor leachate composition from the release and transport of solutes. The lysimeter facility consists of 10 lysimeters, each containing one sample of solidified waste. Five different waste forms are being tested, allowing duplicate samples of each one to be evaluated. The samples were obtained from operating nuclear power plants and are actual waste forms routinely generated at these facilities. All solidification was accomplished by commercial processes. Sample size is a partially filled 210-L drum. All containers were removed prior to burial leaving the bare waste form in contact with the lysimeter soil. 11 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. The effect of advanced oxidation processes on leachate biodegradation in recycling lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Ledakowicz, Stanisław; Kaczorek, Katarzyna

    2004-06-01

    Landfill processes were simulated in laboratory-scale bioreactors--lysimeters. The changes in leachate characteristics as well as the influence of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on the processes taking place in the sanitary landfill were investigated. Lysimeters were filled with material simulating municipal waste in the city of Lodz, Poland. Compost in the amount of 30% w/w and the methanogens inoculum were added in order to enhance development of a methanogenic phase. The leachate produced in lysimeters was recirculated. In order to investigate the influence of AOPs implementation on processes taking place in landfills two runs in lysimeters were performed, each lasting about 250 days. The leachate composition and biogas composition and production changes showed trends that confirmed that the bench-scale lysimeters appeared suitable to simulate processes taking place in the landfill. The application of AOPs to the leachate recirculated into the lysimeters did not bring about unequivocally positive effects. The ozonation of the leachate, implemented at the beginning of the methanogenic phase, caused slight acceleration (about 2 weeks) of the biodegradation, whereas employment of H2O2/UV led to the inhibition of anaerobic processes.

  1. Obtaining representative soil water samples with a hydraulically installed suction lysimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Chaimberg, M.; Carty, R.H. ); Scroppo, J.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The construction of wells for soil water sampling is expensive due to the high cost of drilling and may contribute to the possible spread of pollutants by cross contamination. In this study, a novel small diameter suction lysimeter with a porous ceramic section was designed and tested. The stainless steel ram-tipped lysimeter was constructed so that it could be installed into the ground using a hydraulic ram without the need of predrilling a bore hole. The operating range of the hydraulically-installed lysimeter was compared to that of a lysimeter installed using the standard silica slurry packing technique. The decrease in sample volume uptake due to plugging in the pores of the ceramic section was investigated for the lysimeters installed both hydraulically and with the silica slurry packing, in three types of soil: medium sand, silty clay, and a topsoil clay-sand blend. The operating range for the lysimeters was ascertained in a test chamber filled with a blend of topsoil clay and sand. An investigation of the effect of sampling on the concentration of solutes was performed with aqueous solutions of two hydrocarbon test compounds.

  2. Obtaining representative soil water samples with a hydraulically installed suction lysimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Chaimberg, M.; Carty, R.H.; Scroppo, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    The construction of wells for soil water sampling is expensive due to the high cost of drilling and may contribute to the possible spread of pollutants by cross contamination. In this study, a novel small diameter suction lysimeter with a porous ceramic section was designed and tested. The stainless steel ram-tipped lysimeter was constructed so that it could be installed into the ground using a hydraulic ram without the need of predrilling a bore hole. The operating range of the hydraulically-installed lysimeter was compared to that of a lysimeter installed using the standard silica slurry packing technique. The decrease in sample volume uptake due to plugging in the pores of the ceramic section was investigated for the lysimeters installed both hydraulically and with the silica slurry packing, in three types of soil: medium sand, silty clay, and a topsoil clay-sand blend. The operating range for the lysimeters was ascertained in a test chamber filled with a blend of topsoil clay and sand. An investigation of the effect of sampling on the concentration of solutes was performed with aqueous solutions of two hydrocarbon test compounds.

  3. Evaluation of a hydraulically-installed suction lysimeter to obtain representative soil water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Chaimberg, M.; Carty, R.H. ); Scroppo, J.A. )

    1992-08-01

    The existing technology for obtaining liquid from the vadose zone involves drilling a bore hole, introducing a silica packing, inserting a sampling device, and backfilling the hole. The high cost of drilling and backfilling contribute to the considerable expense of this procedure. Moreover, drilling through potentially contaminated soil increases the possibility of expanding the area of contamination. In this study, a novel small diameter suction lysimeter with a porous ceramic section was designed and tested. The stainless steel ram-tipped lysimeter was designed to be installed into the ground using a hydraulic ram without the need of drilling a bore hole, thereby reducing the expense and potential for cross-contamination. Simulated field testing was employed to evaluate the performance of the hydraulically-installed lysimeter as compared to a lysimeter installed using the standard silica slurry packing technique. The decrease in sample volume uptake due to plugging in the pores of the ceramic section was investigated for the lysimeters installed both hydraulically and with the silica slurry packing, in three types of soil: medium sand, silty clay, and a clayey topsoil-medium sand blend. The soil moisture operating range for the lysimeters was ascertained in a test chamber filled with a blend of clayey topsoil and medium sand. An investigation of the effect of sampling on the concentration of solutes was performed with aqueous solutions of ethanol and phenol. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    PubMed

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Investigation of boundary-layer wind predictions during nocturnal low-level jet events using the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Mirocha, Jeff D.; Simpson, Matthew D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Baskett, R.

    2016-04-01

    Simulations of two periods featuring three consecutive low level jet (LLJ) events in the US Upper Great Plains during the autumn of 2011 were conducted to explore the impacts of various setup configurations and physical process models on simulated flow parameters within the lowest 200 m above the surface, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Sensitivities of simulated flow parameters to the horizontal and vertical grid spacing, planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model (LSM) physics options, were assessed. Data from a Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system, deployed to the Weather Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP; Finley et al. 2013) were used to evaluate the accuracy of simulated wind speed and direction at 80 m above the surface, as well as their vertical distributions between 120 and 40 m, covering the typical span of contemporary tall wind turbines. All of the simulations qualitatively captured the overall diurnal cycle of wind speed and stratification, producing LLJs during each overnight period, however large discrepancies occurred at certain times for each simulation in relation to the observations. 54-member ensembles encompassing changes of the above discussed configuration parameters displayed a wide range of simulated vertical distributions of wind speed and direction, and potential temperature, reflecting highly variable representations of stratification during the weakly stable overnight conditions. Root mean square error (RMSE) statistics show that different ensemble members performed better and worse in various simulated parameters at different times, with no clearly superior configuration . Simulations using a PBL parameterization designed specifically for the stable conditions investigated herein provided superior overall simulations of wind speed at 80 m, demonstrating the efficacy of targeting improvements of physical process models in areas of known deficiencies. However, the considerable magnitudes of the

  6. Lysimeter Study of Plant Water Uptake in a Model Forest Ecosystem on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, M.; Abbaspour, K.; Schulin, R.; Oswald, S.

    2003-04-01

    We have been investigating the impact of heavy metal stress on the water regime of young forest ecosystems grown in 32 open top lysimeters (3 m in diameter and 1 m deep). The factorial treatments of the lysimeters include variations of rainwater acidity (acidic, ambient rain), subsoil type (acidic, calcareous), and soil contamination (with and without copper, zinc and cadmium in the top 20 cm). Each lysimeter was planted in spring of 2000 with the same selection of trees and herbaceous plants. All lysimeters are equipped with tensiometers for monitoring of pressure head and time domain reflectometry for measuring of water content. Irrigation was applied equally to all lysimeters through sprinkler devices. Drainage water was collected by means of canisters installed at the bottom of the lysimeters, and thus evapotranspiration could be calculated through water balancing. We monitored the water regime for two years including an imposed drought period. Significantly more water was extracted from the calcareous than the acidic subsoil. The water potential measurements show that also the heavy metal polluted topsoil had a significant influence on the water regime. Metal stress was particularly evident under reduced irrigation. We suspect that the roots were damaged in the contaminated topsoil. In contrast to the subsoil type, heavy metal pollution did not produce a significant effect on evapotranspiration (ET) though, and neither did acidic rain. Pot experiments confirmed that in presence of clean subsoil plants compensated for metal stress in contaminated topsoil by shifting their root activity from contaminated to uncontaminated zones.

  7. Long-term lysimeter experiment to analyze the influence of the climate change on matter fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Thomas; Groh, Jannis; Wollschläger, Ute; Gerke, Horst; Priesack, Eckart; Kiese, Ralf; Borg, Erik; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Based on the TERENO SoilCan infrastructure, a long-term large-scale experiment was designed to study the effects of climate change on terrestrial systems. The water and matter fluxes in soil are the main focuses of SoilCan. In the frame of SoilCan, fully automated lysimeter systems were installed on several highly equipped experimental field sites of the TERENO-observatories and the relevant status variables of each ecosystem were monitored (e.g. climate, hydrology, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, biodiversity, etc.). In total, 90 lysimeters (1.5 m depth, 1m2 surface) were filled with soil monoliths at the four TERENO-observatories and were instrumented with TDRs, tensiometers, temperature sensors, soil heat flux plates, and CO2 sensors. For the controlling of the lower boundary condition, suction candle rakes were installed into the lysimeter bottoms. In combination with bi-directional pumps and tanks, the water content of the lysimeters was adjusted to the surrounded original field sites. To simulate the expected climate change, 48 lysimeters were transferred along temperature and rainfall gradients within the respective observatories and between the observatories, based on the principle 'Space for Time'. In case of the "Rur" observatory, three intensively instrumented field sites ("Wüstebach", "Rollesbroich" und "Selhausen") were equipped with lysimeter stations. These three field sites include different land uses, "Wüstebach" as a forest site, "Rollesbroich" as a grassland and "Selhausen" as an arable site. In order to standardize the agronomic management, the crop rotation at the arable lysimeters comprised winter wheat - winter rye - winter barley - oats. For investigation of the matter flux, soil solutions and leachates were regularly sampled. The water balances and the dynamics of the carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the first two years of the experiment will be presented.

  8. Using long-term lysimeter data to analyze hydrological trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetz, Thomas; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Roesseler, Anne-Kathrin; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    actual evapotranspiration derived from lysimeter measurements at specific locations. Observed water storage changes, and evaporative and drainage fluxes in lysimeter systems combined with mathematical modeling of the soil water balance may help to separate climate forcing from management. Evett, S.R., et al., 2012. Can weighing lysimeter et represent surrounding field et well enough to test flux station measurements of daily and sub-daily et? Adv. Water Resour. 50:79-90. Jung, M., et al., 2010. Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature 467:951-954. Seneviratne, S.I., et al., 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 3-4, 125-161, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004. Sheffield, J., et al., 2012. Little change in global drought over the past 60 years. Nature, 491, 435-438. Teuling, A.J., et al., 2009: A regional perspective on trends in continental evaporation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02404, doi:10.1029/2008GL036584.

  9. Low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems.

  10. High-resolution estimation of the water balance components from high-precision lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannes, M.; Wollschläger, U.; Schrader, F.; Durner, W.; Gebler, S.; Pütz, T.; Fank, J.; von Unold, G.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Lysimeters offer the opportunity to determine precipitation, evapotranspiration and groundwater-recharge with high accuracy. In contrast to other techniques, like Eddy-flux systems or evaporation pans, lysimeters provide a direct measurement of evapotranspiration from a clearly defined surface area at the scale of a soil profile via the built-in weighing system. In particular the estimation of precipitation can benefit from the much higher surface area compared to typical raingauge systems. Nevertheless, lysimeters are exposed to several external influences that could falsify the calculated fluxes. Therefore, the estimation of the relevant fluxes requires an appropriate data processing with respect to various error sources. Most lysimeter studies account for noise in the data by averaging. However, the effects of smoothing by averaging on the accuracy of the estimated water balance is rarely investigated. In this study, we present a filtering scheme, which is designed to deal with the various kinds of possible errors. We analyze the influence of averaging times and thresholds on the calculated water balance. We further investigate the ability of two adaptive filtering methods (the Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold filter (AWAT-filter) (Peters et al., 2014) and the consecutively described synchro-filter) in further reducing the filtering error. On the basis of the data sets of 18 simultanously running lysimeters of the TERENO SoilCan research site in Bad Lauchstädt, we show that the estimation of the water balance with high temporal resolution and good accuracy is possible.

  11. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  12. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  13. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  14. Behavior of water balance components at sites with shallow groundwater tables: Possibilities and limitations of their simulation using different types of groundwater lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater lysimeters are a special type of lysimeter that can provide valuable insights into processes occurring at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Typically, water balance simulations for such sites using hydrological models are complicated by the permanently changing directions of the water fluxes due to percolation and capillary rise and the complex hydrological conditions. Problems also arise when trying to imitate such conditions correctly in a lysimeter. The biggest challenge is to realistically simulate the lower boundary condition, which has a pronounced impact on most of the hydrological variables, especially when considering time scales shorter than one day. Historically, groundwater levels in soil monoliths of groundwater lysimeters were controlled by so-called Mariotte bottles (type 1). Even nowadays, most groundwater lysimeters use such systems. From a technical standpoint, the solution is reliable and simple to operate and maintain. Nevertheless, the accuracy of Mariotte bottles (type 1) is limited when simulatingnatural shallow groundwater table conditions which are characterized by fluctuations on a short time scale. Today's lysimeters are able to simulate measured groundwater levels with higher accuracy, even for short time steps (type 2). However, conditions in the lysimeter and the place where the reference groundwater level is measured have to be consistent in order to get reliable results. Problems also arise if the behavior of the groundwater level itself is the aim of the investigation as the groundwater level has to be pre-defined, i.e. it is the control value. A new approach regulates the lower boundary condition by controlling the in- and outflows of the lysimeter (type 3). This enlarges the field of possible applications of groundwater lysimeters, especially with respect to simulations of natural site conditions and short time scales. The presentation compares the performance of different types of groundwater lysimeters with

  15. Investigation of low-level laser therapy potentiality on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells in the absence/presence of osteogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloise, Nora; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Minzioni, Paolo; Vercellino, Marco; Benedetti, Laura; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has beneficial effects on bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of LLLI on proliferation and differentiation of a human osteoblast-like cell line (Saos-2 cell line). Cultured cells were exposed to different doses of LLLI with a semiconductor diode laser (659 nm 10 mW power output). The effects of laser on proliferation were assessed daily up to seven days of culture in cells irradiated once or for three consecutive days with laser doses of 1 or 3 J/cm2. The obtained results showed that laser stimulation enhances the proliferation potential of Saos-2 cells without changing their telomerase pattern or morphological characteristics. The effects on cell differentiation were assessed after three consecutive laser irradiation treatments in the presence or absence of osteo-inductive factors on day 14. Enhanced secretion of proteins specific for differentiation toward bone as well as calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in irradiated cells cultured in a medium not supplemented with osteogenic factors. Taken together these findings indicate that laser treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation of Saos-2 cells, and also influences their osteogenic maturation, which suggest it is a helpful application for bone tissue regeneration.

  16. Effect of rice husk gasification residue application on herbicide behavior in micro paddy lysimeter.

    PubMed

    Ok, Junghun; Pisith, Sok; Watanabe, Hirozumi; Thuyet, Dang Quoc; Boulange, Julien; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Effects of rice husk gasification residues (RHGR) application on the fate of herbicides, butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, in paddy water were investigated using micro paddy lysimeters (MPLs). The dissipation of both herbicides in paddy water was faster in the RHGR treated MPL than in the control MPL. The average concentrations of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in paddy water in the lysimeter treated with RHGR during 21 days were significantly reduced by 51% and 48%, respectively, as compared to those in the lysimeter without RHGR application. The half-lives (DT50) of butachlor in paddy water for control and treatment were 3.1 and 2.3 days respectively, and these values of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl were 3.0 and 2.2 days, respectively. Based on this study, RHGR application in rice paddy environment is an alternative method to reduce the concentration of herbicide in paddy field water and consequently to reduce potential pollution to aquatic environment.

  17. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  18. An overview of the geochemical code MINTEQ: Applications to performance assessment for low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Opitz, B.E.; Graham, M.J.; Eary, L.E.

    1987-03-01

    The MINTEQ geochemical computer code, developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), integrates many of the capabilities of its two immediate predecessors, MINEQL and WATEQ3. The MINTEQ code will be used in the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program to perform the calculations necessary to simulate (model) the contact of low-level waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments of the interaction of ground water with solidified low-level wastes. The code can calculate ion speciation/solubilitya, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. Under the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program, the composition of effluents (leachates) from column and batch experiments, using laboratory-scale waste forms, will be used to develop a geochemical model of the interaction of ground water with commercial, solidified low-level wastes. The wastes being evaluated include power-reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen. The thermodynamic database for the code was upgraded preparatory to performing the geochemical modeling. Thermodynamic data for solid phases and aqueous species containing Sb, Ce, Cs, or Co were added to the MINTEQ database. The need to add these data was identified from the characterization of the waste streams. The geochemical model developed from the laboratory data will then be applied to predict the release from a field-lysimeter facility that contains full-scale waste samples. The contaminant concentrations migrating from the waste forms predicted using MINTEQ will be compared to the long-term lysimeter data. This comparison will constitute a partial field validation of the geochemical model.

  19. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EVOLUTION AND NOCTURNAL LOW-LEVEL JETS: LOCAL VERSUS NON-LOCAL PBL SCHEMES. (R826373)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  1. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeFalco, S.; Kaiser, L. L.; May, L. E.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  2. Can low-level ethanol exposure during pregnancy influence maternal care? An investigation using two strains of rat across two generations.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Daniel O; Borrow, Amanda P; Sanders, Julia E; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Cameron, Nicole M

    2015-09-01

    Gestational alcohol use is well documented as detrimental to both maternal and fetal health, producing an increase in offspring's tendency for alcoholism, as well as in behavioral and neuropsychological disorders. In both rodents and in humans, parental care can influence the development of offspring physiology and behavior. Animal studies that have investigated gestational alcohol use on parental care and/or their interaction mostly employ heavy alcohol use and single strains. This study aimed at investigating the effects of low gestational ethanol dose on parental behavior and its transgenerational transmission, with comparison between two rat strains. Pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) and Long Evans (LE) progenitor dams (F0) received 1g/kg ethanol or water through gestational days 17-20 via gavage, or remained untreated in their home cages. At maturity, F1 female offspring were mated with males of the same strain and treatment and were left undisturbed through gestation. Maternal behavior was scored in both generations during the first six postnatal days. Arch-back nursing (ABN) was categorized as: 1, when the dam demonstrated minimal kyphosis; 2, when the dam demonstrated moderate kyphosis; and 3, when the dam displayed maximal kyphosis. Overall, SD showed greater amounts of ABN than LE dams and spent more time in contact with their pups. In the F0 generation, water and ethanol gavage increased ABN1 and contact with pups in SD, behaviors which decreased in treated LE. For ABN2, ethanol-treated SD dams showed more ABN2 than water-treated dams, with no effect of treatment on LE animals. In the F1 generation, prenatal exposure affected retrieval. Transgenerational transmission of LG was observed only in the untreated LE group. Strain-specific differences in maternal behavior were also observed. This study provides evidence that gestational gavage can influence maternal behavior in a strain-specific manner. Our results also suggest that the experimental procedure during

  3. A study to determine the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation. Phase I report. Interim technical report 3 July 79-15 January 80

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, N.A.; Clapp, R.W.; Covino, S.J. Jr; Fahey, F.H.; Friedlander, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    This is the six-month interim report of 'A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Conducting Epidemiologic Investigations of the Health Effects of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation', begun July 3, 1979. The study defines low-level radiation as either doses up to 5 rem (whole-body) per year or doses up to 50 rem (whole body) cumulative. The overall intent of the study is a dual one: (1) to insure that all likely exposed population groups are identified, and (2) to determine at the operational level the requirements for feasibility, i.e. study design, data gathering, information potential and cost for future epidemiologic studies of low-level radiation exposure. Three criteria were developed to select the best prospects for in-depth feasibility studies of the dose-response relationship in the low-dose range. A rigorous application of these criteria would have eliminated all candidates from consideration. Nevertheless, the authors selected seven broadly-defined low-exposure groups that seemed most promising. These groups were exposed to either occupational or diagnostic medical radiation. In addition, owing to strong public interest, the authors selected three groups with special environmental radiation exposures, although this was not specifically required by the contract.

  4. Geochemical analysis of leachates from cement/low-level radioactive waste/soil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, L.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1988-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted as part of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters/endash/Arid Program. These experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical arid, near-surface disposal site, and to evaluate the ability of laboratory tests to predict leaching in actual field conditions. Batch leaching, soil adsorption column, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted using Portland III cement waste forms containing boiling-water reactor evaporator concentrate and ion-exchange resin waste. In order to understand the reaction chemistry of the cement waste form/soil/ground-water system, the compositions of the leachates from the laboratory experiments were studied with the aid of the MINTEQ ion speciation/solubility and mass transfer computer code. The purpose of this report is to describe the changes in leachate composition that occur during the course of the experiments, to discuss the geochemical modeling results, and to explore the factors controlling the major element chemistry of these leachates. 18 refs., 84 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Ecotoxicity and fate of a silver nanomaterial in an outdoor lysimeter study.

    PubMed

    Schlich, Karsten; Hoppe, Martin; Kraas, Marco; Fries, Elke; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Sewage sludge is repeatedly applied as fertilizer on farmland due to its high nutrient content. This may lead to a significant increase of silver nanomaterials (AgNM) in soil over years. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ecotoxicity and fate of AgNM under environmentally relevant conditions in outdoor lysimeters over 25 months. Two AgNM concentrations (1.7 and 8.0 mg/kg dry matter soil) were applied via sewage sludge into soil. In subsamples of the soil, incubated under laboratory conditions for 180 days, the comparability of outdoor and laboratory results regarding ecotoxicity was determined. The results from our long term lysimeter experiments show no detectable horizontal displacement in combination with very low remobilization to the percolate water. Thus, indicate that the sludge applied AgNM remains nearly immobile in the pathway between soils and leachate. However, Ag uptake to the roots of wheat and canola suggests that the chemical conditions in the rhizosphere induce AgNM remobilization from the incorporated sewage sludge even after two harvesting cycles. At the higher AgNM concentration a steady inhibition of the soil microflora was observed over 25 month in the lysimeter study, while there was no effect at the lower AgNM concentration. The results of the laboratory experiment reflect the findings of the lysimeter study and indicate that a risk assessment for AgNM based on data from laboratory tests is acceptable.

  6. Impact of agricultural management practices on DOC leaching - results of a long-term lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Ollesch, G.; Seeger, J.; Meißner, R.; Rode, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are recently increasing in surface waters of humid climate regions. Due to its substantial importance for leaching processes, aquatic foodwebs, and drinking water purification a better understanding of sources and pathways of DOC is needed. Therefore this study aims to analyse and simulate DOC fluxes in agricultural ecosystems with selected crop rotations. A data set of 24 lysimeters of the UFZ Lysimeter station at Falkenberg (Saxony-Anhalt) covering nine years of DOC investigation has been selected and examined. The data set covers a wide range of climatic conditions with deviating management practices for grasslands and agricultural crop rotations. The monthly DOC concentrations assessed in the leached water range from 2.4 to 34.1 mg /l. DOC concentrations depend on temperature, precipitation and discharge. The type of crop grown on the lysimeter is an important trigger for DOC leaching - especially lysimeters used as pasture, or planted with rape and carrots exhibit high DOC concentrations. Management practices and fertilizer application modify the leaching of DOC and offer potentials to reduce DOC losses. The results form the basis of further process simulation studies and upscaling of the results to the small catchment scale.

  7. Characterizing soil water dynamics on steep hillslopes from long-term lysimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenstein, Michael; Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-10-01

    Understanding soil water dynamics on hillslopes is of crucial importance to the prediction of floods and other hydrological events in mountainous catchments, to the identification of natural vegetation patterns, and to the optimization of agricultural land use. In principle, such information can be obtained from lysimeters, but most experimental lysimeter facilities have been installed on flat terrain. This study presents a long-term and high-resolution investigation of soil moisture, surface and subsurface flow using three large-scale lysimeters on a slope with 23.5° inclination on a landfill site in Karlsruhe, Germany. Data from a 10-year observation period were evaluated for this study, including weekly soil moisture data obtained by neutron probes, continuous discharge data from the land surface and several layers within the soil zone, and hydrometeorological data from a climate station. The results reveal (i) clear temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture variations down to a depth of 250 cm, (ii) substantially higher discharge and faster percolation rates in the lower part of the lysimeter field, indicating significant downhill flow at various depths within the soil profile, (iii) characteristic threshold values for flow processes in the soil, associated with a hysteresis effect between soil moisture and flow processes. These results can be used as a basis of improved numerical models for the simulation of floods, soil moisture distributions, and vegetation patterns.

  8. Wireless lysimeters for real-time online soil water monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in drainage water allows accessing the effectiveness of water quality management. A passive capillary wick-type lysimeter (PCAPs) was used to monitor water flux and NO3-N leached below the root zone under an irrigated cropping system. Wireless lysimeters we...

  9. Gravimetric observations of water storage change - lysimeters and superconducting gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, B.; Güntner, A.; Merz, B.; Wziontek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are a key component in the water balance equation, but the estimation of local WSC in the subsurface is still a challenging task. Despite many advances of WSC measurement technique, in general, the measurement scale (point scale) differs to the scale of interest. Advances in lysimeter techniques enable the direct measurement of the soil water balance on the field scale, but exclude WSC in greater depths below the lysimeter. Superconducting gravimeter (SG) measurements are influenced by local water mass changes and thus, may allow for observing WSC in the vadose and saturated zone in an integrative way. Vice versa, lysimeters can contribute to the reduction of noise by hydrological surface processes in SG observations. The Geodetic Observatory Wettzell (Germany) is the only place where both systems - a state-of-the-art weighable, suction-controlled lysimeter and a dual sphere SG -measure in parallel at a distance of around 40 m. This gives the unique opportunity to observe in-situ gravimetric WSC at the field scale by two independent techniques. In this study we focus on assessing the WSC estimated by the lysimeter and its local effect (Newtonian attraction) on the SG. First, we evaluate the lysimeter measurements by comparing them to TDR soil profile data in and around the lysimeter, in terms of artificial conditions in the lysimeter and spatial variability. Then, the effect of local soil moisture change on the SG residuals measured directly with the lysimeter is identified. Finally, we use a hydrological 1D model to estimate WSC in the vadose zone below the lysimeter, whereas the upper boundary is defined by the drainage measured by the lysimeter and the lower boundary by groundwater level data. The estimated WSC are used to explain the sources of the SG signal. Results show that the lysimeter reproduces the soil water dynamics in the field. The results also highlight the importance of WSC in the vadose zone below the lysimeter and the

  10. Coupled pot and lysimeter experiments assessing plant performance in microbially assisted phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Nicoară, Andrei; Neagoe, Aurora; Stancu, Paula; de Giudici, Giovanni; Langella, Francesca; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Iordache, Virgil; Kothe, Erika

    2014-01-01

    We performed an experiment at pot scale to assess the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on the development of five plant species grown on a tailing dam substrate. None of the species even germinated on inoculated unamended tailing material, prompting use of compost amendment. The effect of inoculation on the amended material was to increase soil respiration, and promote elements immobilisation at plant root surface. This was associated with a decrease in the concentrations of elements in the leaching water and an increase of plant biomass, statistically significant in the case of two species: Agrostis capillaris and Festuca rubra. The experiment was repeated at lysimeter scale with the species showing the best development at pot scale, A. capillaris, and the significant total biomass increase as a result of inoculation was confirmed. The patterns of element distribution in plants also changed (the concentrations of metals in the roots of A. capillaris and F. rubra significantly decreased in inoculated treatments, while phosphorus concentration significantly increased in roots of A. capillaris in inoculated treatment at lysimeter scale). Measured variables for plant oxidative stress did not change after inoculations. There were differences of A. capillaris plant-soil system response between experimental scales as a result of different substrate column structure and plant age at the sampling moment. Soil respiration was significantly larger at lysimeter scale than at pot scale. Leachate concentrations of As, Mn and Ni had significantly larger concentrations at lysimeter scale than at pot scale, while Zn concentrations were significantly smaller. Concentrations of several metals were significantly smaller in A. capillaris at lysimeter scale than at pot scale. From an applied perspective, a system A. capillaris-compost-PGPB selected from the rhizosphere of the tailing dam native plants can be an option for the phytostabilisation of tailing dams. Results

  11. Variably-saturated flow in large weighing lysimeters under dry conditions: inverse and predictive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iden, Sascha; Reineke, Daniela; Koonce, Jeremy; Berli, Markus; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    A reliable quantification of the soil water balance in semi-arid regions requires an accurate determination of bare soil evaporation. Modeling of soil water movement in relatively dry soils and the quantitative prediction of evaporation rates and groundwater recharge pose considerable challenges in these regions. Actual evaporation from dry soil cannot be predicted without detailed knowledge of the complex interplay between liquid, vapor and heat flow and soil hydraulic properties exert a strong influence on evaporation rates during stage-two evaporation. We have analyzed data from the SEPHAS lysimeter facility in Boulder City (NV) which was installed to investigate the near-surface processes of water and energy exchange in desert environments. The scientific instrumentation consists of 152 sensors per Lysimeter which measured soil temperature, soil water content, and soil water potential. Data from three weighing lysimeters (3 m long, surface area 4 m2) were used to identifiy effective soil hydraulic properties of the disturbed soil monoliths by inverse modeling with the Richards equation assuming isothermal flow conditions. Results indicate that the observed soil water content in 8 different soil depths can be well matched for all three lysimeters and that the effective soil hydraulic properties of the three lysimeters agree well. These results could only be obtained with a flexible model of the soil hydraulic properties which guaranteed physical plausibility of water retention towards complete dryness and accounted for capillary, film and isothermal vapor flow. Conversely, flow models using traditional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties were not able to match the observed evaporation fluxes and water contents. After identifying the system properties by inverse modeling, we checked the possibility to forecast evaporation rates by running a fully coupled water, heat and vapor flow model which solved the energy balance of the soil surface. In these

  12. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Protective barrier test results (FY 1990, the third year)

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) was constructed to test protective barriers for isolating low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes from the biosphere. Protective barriers are specially configured earth materials placed over near-surface wastes to prevent intrusion of water, plants, and animals. Low-level radioactive waste is stored in near-surface repositories at the Hanford Site and can be transported into the biosphere by water, plants, and animals. The purpose of the FLTF is to measure water balance within barriers as precipitation is partitioned to evaporation (including transpiration), storage, and drainage. Runoff was prevented by raised edges on the lysimeters. Water balance in protective barriers depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, the gradient of a potential, and the conductivity of the underlying capillary barrier. Current barrier design uses soil with a high water storage capacity and a capillary barrier underlying the soil to increase its water storage capacity. This increased storage capacity is to hold water, which would normally drain, near the the surface where evaporation can cycle it back to the atmosphere. 7 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  14. Temperature transport in Lysimeters – comparison of different setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Ulrich; Weber, Katja; Seyfarth, Manfred; Reth, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Lysimeter studies are designed to mimick the undisturbed soil for the study of soil processes. Ecological and chemical processes are influenced by temperature and therefore it is mandatory that the temperature regime in the lysimeter follows closely the natural conditions. Unfortunately the lysimeter has a lower boundary that cuts off the natural dampening temperature flux. Also the walls of the vessel can transport temperature in a higher rate than the soil would do. And the exchange with the surrounding air at the installation facility may add a bias to the temperature regime in the lysimeter vessels. To test the influence of the wall and the lower boundary we have set up a lysimeter experiment with three different lysimeters. These are all 1m² surface by 2 m depth vessels, identically filled with a sandy loam. All three were instrumented with temperature sensors in 4 depths, and at each depth with 4 sensors, with a distance of 2,5 cm; 5 cm; 10 cm and 15 cm from the wall. In addition, temperature sensors in the surrounding soil and air temperature in the lysimeter containment are available. The three vessels differ in their setup and material. One vessel is a standard stainless steel vessel with seepage boundary, the second is stainless steel with isolation and a controlled lower boundary. This vessel has a tube system at the bottom that circulates water in the vessel and the surrounding soil at the same depth. The control ascertains that the bottom temperature of the lysimeter vessel is always the same as in the surrounding soil. The third vessel is made of PE, in order to minimize temperature transport in the wall material. The data so far shows little difference between the alternative setup. It seems that in a well closed lysimeter containment the temperature regime is sufficiently close to the natural soil. This is especially true for the top soil where most biological and chemical processes occur.

  15. A lysimeter-based approach to quantify the impact of climate change on soil hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawitsch, Veronika; Steffen, Birk; Herndl, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The predicted climate change involving increasing CO2 concentrations and increasing temperatures will have effects on both vegetation and soil properties and thus on the soil water balance. The aim of this work is to quantify the effects of changes in these climatic factors on soil hydrological processes and parameters. For this purpose data of six high precision weighable lysimeters will be used. The lysimeters are part of a Lysi-T-FACE concept, where free-air will be enriched with CO2 (FACE-Technique) and infrared heaters heat the plots for investigation on effects of increasing temperatures (T-FACE-Technique). The Lysi-T-FACE concept was developed on the „Clim Grass Site" at the HBLFA Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria) in 2011 and 2012 with a total of 54 experimental plots. These include six plots with lysimeters where the two climatic factors are varied in different combinations. On the basis of these grass land lysimeters the soil hydraulic parameters under different experimental conditions will be investigated. The lysimeters are equipped with TDR-Trime sensors and temperature sensors combined with tensiometers in different depths. In addition, a mechanical separation snow cover system is implemented to obtain a correct water balance in winter. To be able to infer differences between the lysimeters reliably a verification of functionalities and a plausibility check of the data from the lysimeters as well as adequate data corrections are needed. Both an automatic and a user-defined control including the recently developed filter method AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold Filter) are combined with a visualisation tool using the software NI DIAdem. For each lysimeter the raw data is classified in groups of matric potentials, soil water contents and lysimeter weights. Values exceeding technical thresholds are eliminated and marked automatically. The manual data control is employed every day to obtain high precision seepage water weights. The

  16. Small lysimeters for documenting arid site water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J. ); Thiede, M.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Gee, G.W.; Freeman, H.D. ); Sackschewsky, M.R.; Relyea, J.F. )

    1991-07-01

    Small weighing lysimeters consisting of plastic pipes with lifting and drainage fittings were installed at the arid US DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to conduct factorial experiments comparing the influences of various waste site cover designs on soil water balance. Results of a comparison of erosion control designs indicate that gravel can be mixed into the soil surface to control soil loss without influencing the water balance. In contrast, an equivalent amount of gravel applied as a surface mulch suppressed evapotranspiration resulting in increased storage and drainage. Only slight differences were observed in a comparison of storage changes in the small-tube lysimeters and adjacent large weighing lysimeters. Soil temperature curves for small-tube lysimeters and nearby soil profiles converged after insulation collars were installed. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Results of field testing of waste forms using lysimeters

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W., Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the field testing task, using lysimeter arrays, is to expose samples of solidified resin waste to the actual physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions of disposal enviroment. Wastes used in the experiment include a mixture of synthetic organic ion exchange resins and a mixture of organic exchange resins and an inorganic zeolite. Solidification agents used to produce the 4.8-by 7.6-cm cylindrical waste forms used in the study were Portland Type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene. Seven of these waste forms were stacked end-to-end and inserted into each lysimeter to provide a 1-L volume. There are 10 lysimeters, 5 at ORNL and 5 at ANL-E. Lysimeters used in this study were designed to be self-contained units which will be disposed at the termination of the 20-year study. Each is a 0.91-by 3.12-m right-circular cylinder divided into an upper compartment, which contains fill material, waste forms, and instrumentation, and an empty lower compartment, which collects leachate. Four lysimeters at each site are filled with soil, while a fifth (used as a control) is filled with inert silica oxide sand. Instrumentation within each lysimeter includes porous cup soil-water samplers and soil moisture/temperature probes. The probes are connected to an on-site data acquisition and storage system (DAS) which also collects data from a field meteorological station located at each site. 9 refs.

  18. Visualizing Moisture Storage in Basin Lysimeters Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, W.; Munk, J.; Lee, W.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to evaluate soil moisture in two large (10m x 20m x 2m) basin lysimeters over a four-year period in Anchorage, Alaska. The lysimeters were intended to test the efficacy of two competing landfill cover designs, thus water balance information was collected over the entire experimental period. The first lysimeter contained a thin (0.5m) layer of compacted soil within its 2m depth and was planted with local grasses. The second lysimeter contained no compacted soil layer and was planted with deep-rooting woody vegetation to maximize moisture removal via evapotranspiration. After four years of observation, 291mm of moisture percolated through the compacted soil lysimeter compared to 201mm in the evapotranspiration lysimeter. This presentation describes the observed water balance results, discusses efficacy of utilizing compacted soils versus evapotranspiration as the primary means of minimizing infiltration into engineered soil systems, and demonstrates the use of ERT as a technique for visualizing soil moisture storage.

  19. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  20. Chemical characterization, leach, and adsorption studies of solidified low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.B.; Serne, R.J.; Jones, T.L.; McLaurine, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory and field leaching experiments are beig conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical, arid, near-surface disposal site. Under PNL's Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid Program, a field test facility was constructed to monitor the leaching of commercial solidified waste. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the leaching and adsorption characteristics of the waste forms in contact with soil. Liquid radioactive wastes solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen were obtained from commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors, and buried in a field leaching facility on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Batch leaching, soil column adsorption, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted in the laboratory, using small-scale cement waste forms and Hanford site ground water. The purpose of these experiments is to evaluate the ability of laboratory leaching tests to predict leaching under actual field conditions and to determine which mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, solubility, adsorption) actually control the concentration of radionuclides in the soil surrounding the waste form. Chemical and radionuclide analyses performed on samples collected from the field and laboratory experiments indicate strong adsorption of /sup 134,137/Cs and /sup 85/Sr onto the Hanford site sediment. Small amounts of /sup 60/Co are leached from the waste forms as very mobile species. Some /sup 60/Co migrated through the soil at the same rate as water. Chemical constituents present in the reactor waste streams also found at elevated levels in the field and laboratory leachates include sodium, sulfate, magnesium, and nitrate. Plausible solid phases that could be controlling some of the chemical and radionuclide concentrations in the leachate were identified using the MINTEQ geochemical computer code.

  1. Worldwide low-level waste disposal practices

    SciTech Connect

    Towler, O A

    1985-01-01

    Low-level waste disposal practices will be described for ten or more countries. These practices will be compared with expectations for disposal designs for low-level waste regional compacts in the US.

  2. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  3. Effects of dietary protein concentration on ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching, and plant nitrogen uptake from dairy manure applied to lysimeters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This lysimeter experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on nitrate-N (NO3-N) and ammonia (NH3) losses from dairy manure applied to soil and manure N use for plant growth. Lactating dairy cows were fed diets with 16.7 (HighCP) or 14.8% (LowCP) cru...

  4. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  5. Spatial extrapolation of lysimeter results using thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voortman, B. R.; Bosveld, F. C.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Measuring evaporation (E) with lysimeters is costly and prone to numerous errors. By comparing the energy balance and the remotely sensed surface temperature of lysimeters with those of the undisturbed surroundings, we were able to assess the representativeness of lysimeter measurements and to quantify differences in evaporation caused by spatial variations in soil moisture content. We used an algorithm (the so called 3T model) to spatially extrapolate the measured E of a reference lysimeter based on differences in surface temperature, net radiation and soil heat flux. We tested the performance of the 3T model on measurements with multiple lysimeters (47.5 cm inner diameter) and micro lysimeters (19.2 cm inner diameter) installed in bare sand, moss and natural dry grass. We developed different scaling procedures using in situ measurements and remotely sensed surface temperatures to derive spatially distributed estimates of Rn and G and explored the physical soundness of the 3T model. Scaling of Rn and G considerably improved the performance of the 3T model for the bare sand and moss experiments (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) increasing from 0.45 to 0.89 and from 0.81 to 0.94, respectively). For the grass surface, the scaling procedures resulted in a poorer performance of the 3T model (NSE decreasing from 0.74 to 0.70), which was attributed to effects of shading and the difficulty to correct for differences in emissivity between dead and living biomass. The 3T model is physically unsound if the field scale average air temperature, measured at an arbitrarily chosen reference height, is used as input to the model. The proposed measurement system is relatively cheap, since it uses a zero tension (freely draining) lysimeter which results are extrapolated by the 3T model to the unaffected surroundings. The system is promising for bridging the gap between ground observations and satellite based estimates of E.

  6. The estimation of soil water fluxes using lysimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegehenkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    The validation of soil water balance models regarding soil water fluxes in the field is still a problem. This requires time series of measured model outputs. In our study, a soil water balance model was validated using lysimeter time series of measured model outputs. The soil water balance model used in our study was the Hydrus-1D-model. This model was tested by a comparison of simulated with measured daily rates of actual evapotranspiration, soil water storage, groundwater recharge and capillary rise. These rates were obtained from twelve weighable lysimeters with three different soils and two different lower boundary conditions for the time period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1998. In that period, grass vegetation was grown on all lysimeters. These lysimeters are located in Berlin, Germany. One potential source of error in lysimeter experiments is preferential flow caused by an artificial channeling of water due to the occurrence of air space between the soil monolith and the inside wall of the lysimeters. To analyse such sources of errors, Hydrus-1D was applied with different modelling procedures. The first procedure consists of a general uncalibrated appli-cation of Hydrus-1D. The second one includes a calibration of soil hydraulic parameters via inverse modelling of different percolation events with Hydrus-1D. In the third procedure, the model DUALP_1D was applied with the optimized hydraulic parameter set to test the hy-pothesis of the existence of preferential flow paths in the lysimeters. The results of the different modelling procedures indicated that, in addition to a precise determination of the soil water retention functions, vegetation parameters such as rooting depth should also be taken into account. Without such information, the rooting depth is a calibration parameter. However, in some cases, the uncalibrated application of both models also led to an acceptable fit between measured and simulated model outputs.

  7. Effects of soil type, irrigation volume and plant species on treatment of log yard run-off in lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Elowson, Torbjörn

    2004-09-01

    Wet storage of timber and pulpwood produces large quantities of run-off water. A study was conducted to determine the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems for log yard run-off. Sixteen 1200-l lysimeters (1.2 m deep soil columns) with clay or sand soil were planted with willow (Salix sp.) or alder (Alnus glutinosa), and irrigated with run-off from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. Drainage water was analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), phenols, total P and total N in order to determine concentrations and levels of retention. High retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred in the lysimeters, but no clear differences between willows and alder or clay and sand were identified. Lysimeters with high levels of irrigation showed greater retention than those with low levels. Soil-plant systems using willow and alder could provide an alternative for log yard run-off purification: the key requirement is to optimise irrigation rather than manipulate the plants or soils.

  8. Low level moisture from VAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Previous research and current opinion are too pessimistic concerning the capability of defining moisture fields from satellite measurements. The TIROS-N sounder is a close analogue to what will fly on GEOS-D and can be used to investigate the probable capability of VAS. Basically, there are three frequencies applied to sensing moisture in the troposphere. The ability of these three measurements to define the moisture pattern is assessed. It is certainly true that one cannot achieve the detail available with a radiosonde hygristor. Sharp discontinuities cannot be sensed by a passive sounder, especially since the measurement tends to "saturate" with the first moisture layer encountered. However, the satellite measurements demonstrate a high degree of skill in defining the horizontal gradient. Moisture "tongues" and "dry lines" are readily delineated with some, perhaps two layers, of vertical definition. These attributes allow both the calculation of important advective quantities as well as (in concert with the temperature sounding) a gross definition of the vertical stability. The skill is demonstrably commensurate with subsynoptic forecast models and perhaps even to regional scale models.

  9. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  10. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Roberts, K.; Bagwell, L.

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  11. A method for installing zero-tension pan and wick lysimeters in soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zero-tension pan lysimeters and passive capillary fiberglass wick lysimeters are useful in determining water quality and volumetric aspects of subsurface water flow. Installation of pan and wick lysimeters beneath undisturbed soil may be complicated by the tendency for the soil to cave-in as the lys...

  12. A comprehensive filtering scheme for high-resolution estimation of the water balance components from high-precision lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannes, M.; Wollschlager, U.; Schrader, F.; Durner, W.; Gebler, S.; Putz, T.; Fank, J.; von Unold, G.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2015-08-01

    Large weighing lysimeters are currently the most precise method to directly measure all components of the terrestrial water balance in parallel via the built-in weighing system. As lysimeters are exposed to several external forces such as management practices or wind influencing the weighing data, the calculated fluxes of precipitation and evapotranspiration can be altered considerably without having applied appropriate corrections to the raw data. Therefore, adequate filtering schemes for obtaining most accurate estimates of the water balance components are required. In this study, we use data from the TERENO (TERrestrial ENvironmental Observatories) SoilCan research site in Bad Lauchstadt to develop a comprehensive filtering procedure for high-precision lysimeter data, which is designed to deal with various kinds of possible errors starting from the elimination of large disturbances in the raw data resulting e.g., from management practices all the way to the reduction of noise caused e.g., by moderate wind. Furthermore, we analyze the influence of averaging times and thresholds required by some of the filtering steps on the calculated water balance and investigate the ability of two adaptive filtering methods (the adaptive window and adaptive threshold filter (AWAT filter; Peters et al., 2014), and a new synchro filter applicable to the data from a set of several lysimeters) to further reduce the filtering error. Finally, we take advantage of the data sets of all 18 lysimeters running in parallel at the Bad Lauchstadt site to evaluate the performance and accuracy of the proposed filtering scheme. For the tested time interval of 2 months, we show that the estimation of the water balance with high temporal resolution and good accuracy is possible. The filtering code can be downloaded from the journal website as Supplement to this publication.

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  14. Support of low-level instrument background for HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. D.; Starostin, A. S.; Kuzmenko, V. I.; Rozite, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    The development results for the cryostats with the low-level of instrument background supported by special design, the reduction of mass of the materials surrounding detector and application of the materials with very low content of radiation impurities are presented. The development results for HPGe detector with ultra low-level of instrument background for gamma spectrometer under the GEMMA project for investigation of the neutrino magnetic moment are presented. (authors)

  15. Large Plate Lysimeter Efficiency for Collecting Water Transported from Soil to Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T

    2004-04-14

    A large, zero-tension, plate lysimeter (3.05 x 2.13 m) was installed to intercept percolating soil water at Bikini Atoll (11 35'N, 165 25'E), a former nuclear test-site. In two experiments controlled amounts of irrigation water were applied over the lysimeter and leachate water was collected. Evapotranspiration (ET) calculations were made using the Penman-Monteith equation and climate data collected at the atoll. The efficiency of the lysimeter was essentially 100% in contrast to low efficiencies reported for smaller plate lysimeters. Lysimeter design, installation, and water balance results are discussed.

  16. Lysimeters at the Hanford Site: present use and future needs

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Jones, J.L.

    1985-10-01

    Lysimeters have been built and used at the Hanford Site for a variety of reasons, including the assessment of recharge (drainage) rates, biointrusion studies, the development of shallow-land burial monitoring and measurement methods, radionuclide transport studies, evapotranspiration studies, and field-scale waste-form leaching tests. A common feature of lysimeters is that they provide a way either to directly measure or to estimate water balance parameters such as soil-water storage changes, evapotranspiration, and drainage for a given site. The number of water balance parameters and the precision with which they can be measured vary depending on the design features of the lysimeter. In this report we describe key design features of the six major lysimeters facilities at Hanford and the types of data available from them. We also address the deficiencies of the present facilities for adequately determining recharge rates and propose additional facilities to evaluate protective barrier systems and arid-land water dynamics. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Precipitation and evapotranspiration at the mountain lysimeter station Stoderzinken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Markus; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    Alpine water resources are highly important for the Austrian drinking water supply. In particular, the Northern Calcareous Alps contribute substantially to both the regional and the national drinking water supply. To analyse water balance, runoff and recharge in a representative mountain pasture area in the Northern Calcareous Alps a lysimeter station was established at the mountain Stoderzinken (1830 m a.s.l.) in 2005. This work examines the water balance at the lysimeter station during one summer period. Precipitation and evapotranspiration are determined using various approaches in order to identify potential errors in the measurement or interpretation of the data and thus to assess the uncertainties in the water balance components. For this purpose, data of rain gauges and a distrometer was compared with the precipitation calculated from the water balance of the lysimeter. Furthermore evapotranspiration was calculated using the HAUDE and PENMAN-MONTEITH equations for comparison. Already in previous seasons the distrometer was found to be prone to errors, which was confirmed when compared to the rain gauge data. In contrast, precipitation rates calculated from the lysimeter data were found to agree better with the rain gauge data but showed a trend to higher values. However, the approach to calculate precipitation from the lysimeter data turned out to be unsuitable for time periods with significant contribution of snow melt. Evapotranspiration calculated from lysimeter data are in good agreement with the results from the above-mentioned (semi-)empirical equations during dry periods. Furthermore the differences to the evapotranspiration calculated from the climate data correlate with the amount of precipitation. These results suggest that in alpine catchments the uncertainty in the precipitation data constitutes the major source of error in the calculation of evapotranspiration from the water balance of the lysimeter. However, it should be noted that these

  18. Weighing lysimeter studies as basis for irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, P.; Nolz, R.

    2009-04-01

    Efficient irrigation management aims for an optimum water supply for the plant in order to maximize yield on the one hand, and minimize losses of water and energy on the other hand. One approach in this regard is to keep the soil water content within an ideal range for plant water uptake. Therefore, it is essential to know the current soil water content during the vegetation period. In general, the soil water content is increased by rainfall R and irrigation I, and it is decreased by evapotranspiration ET and deep percolation P. Provided that the necessary data are available, the change of the soil water content dS can be computed using the water balance equation dS=R+I-ET-P. Beside this method, the soil water content can be measured using soil water sensors. For example, FDR-sensors can measure the water content in a soil profile with a high temporal resolution. Both methods are the basis for irrigation scheduling in the Marchfeld, an intensively used agricultural area in the eastern part of Austria. The lysimeter- and agro-meteorological station in Groß-Enzersdorf lies in the Marchfeld. The lysimeters are operated by the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna. Two weighing lysimeters are used to adapt and improve irrigation management practices. One lysimeter is grown with grass in order to determine the reference-evapotranspiration, the second one is planted with different annual crops that are typical for the Marchfeld. The amount of percolation water and the change of weight are measured and stored automatically. FDR-sensors are installed in the lysimeter for measuring the soil water content in different soil layers. ET is determined from the lysimeter data and calculated from equations, e.g. Penman-Montieth. The essential weather data originate from the nearby meteorological station of the Austrian national weather service. As a result, daily measured soil water content is compared with calculated soil water and FDR-sensor readings

  19. A Protocol for Collecting and Constructing Soil Core Lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Saporito, Louis S; Bryant, Ray B; Kleinman, Peter J A

    2016-06-06

    Leaching of nutrients from land applied fertilizers and manure used in agriculture can lead to accelerated eutrophication of surface water. Because the landscape has complex and varied soil morphology, an accompanying disparity in flow paths for leachate through the soil macropore and matrix structure is present. The rate of flow through these paths is further affected by antecedent soil moisture. Lysimeters are used to quantify flow rate, volume of water and concentration of nutrients leaching downward through soils. While many lysimeter designs exist, accurately determining the volume of water and mass balance of nutrients is best accomplished with bounded lysimeters that leave the natural soil structure intact. Here we present a detailed method for the extraction and construction of soil core lysimeters equipped with soil moisture sensors at 5 cm and 25 cm depths. Lysimeters from four different Coastal Plain soils (Bojac, Evesboro, Quindocqua and Sassafras) were collected on the Delmarva Peninsula and moved to an indoor climate controlled facility. Soils were irrigated once weekly with the equivalent of 2 cm of rainfall to draw down soil nitrate-N concentrations. At the end of the draw down period, poultry litter was applied (162 kg TN ha(-1)) and leaching was resumed for an additional five weeks. Total recovery of applied irrigation water varied from 71% to 85%. Nitrate-N concentration varied over the course of the study from an average of 27.1 mg L(-1) before litter application to 40.3 mg L(-1) following litter application. While greatest flux of nutrients was measured in soils dominated by coarse sand (Sassafras) the greatest immediate flux occurred from the finest textured soil with pronounced macropore development (Quindocqua).

  20. Influence of the lower boundary in lysimeter observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Ulrich; Richter, Katja; Gubis, Jozef; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Lysimeters are a valuable tool to study the water household in soils under close to natural conditions. One major drawback is that they are cut off at the lower boundary. This influences strongly the percolation of water. As long as water is leaching down in the soil, it is stagnating at the lower boundary until saturated conditions are reached and the water can percolate through the gravel filter, and under unsaturated conditions there is no flow at all at the lower boundary. In natural soils the water potential at the same depth differs considerably from the regime in a lysimeter. If the depth of the soil or the soil forming substrate is deep enough, the lower boundary is at the potential that allows the percolation of the long term mean of percolation. In other situations, a water table may influence the matric potential in the natural soil, or a less permeable layer may impede free drainage. In all these situations the matric potential at the depth of the lower boundary of the lysimeter will differ substantially in the natural soil. The latest generation of lysimeter therefore has a controlled lower boundary. The matric potential can be actively adjusted to a desired value over a broad range. Most applications connect the suction in the lysimeter to a reference value obtained in the field at the same depth in order to mimic the correct distribution of the soil water. In this presentation we demonstrate the long term influence of the different lower boundary regimes on percolation and evaporation of water based on soil physical models, and we show first field data on the practical implementations with several months of observations.

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage.

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections.

  4. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York`s challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria.

  5. Effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The effects of low-level radiation inhumans are usually estimated by extrapolation from high-level effects. Biological radiation effects from low-level radiation can be defined as those from doses below which no deterministic or graded biological responses will occur. In addition, the health consequences are almost all probabilistic. There is incomplete knowledge regarding the role of sex, age at exposure, co-factors, or environmental pollutants.

  6. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. 4D GPR Experiments--Towards the Virtual Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Drasdis, J. B.; Kruse, S. E.; Or, D.

    2006-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of infiltration, water flow and retention in the vadose zone currently rely primarily on invasive methods, which irreversibly disturb original soil structure and alter its hydrologic behavior in the vicinity of the measurement. For example, use of lysimeters requires extraction and repacking of soil samples, and time- domain reflectometry (TDR) requires insertion of probes into the soil profile. This study investigates the use of repeated high-density 3D ground penetrating radar surveys (also known as 4D GPR) as a non-invasive alternative for detailed visualization and quantification of water flow in the vadose zone. Evaluation of the 4D GPR method was based on a series of controlled point-source water injection experiments into undisturbed beach sand deposits at Crandon Park in Miami, Florida. The goal of the GPR surveys was to image the shape and evolution of a wet-bulb as it propagates from the injection points (~0.5 m) towards the water table at 2.2 m depth. The experimental design was guided by predictive modeling using Hydrus 2D and finite-difference GPR waveform codes. Input parameters for the modeling were derived from hydrologic and electromagnetic characterization of representative sand samples. Guided by modeling results, we injected 30 to 40 liters of tap water through plastic-cased boreholes with slotted bottom sections (0.1 m) located 0.4 to 0.6 m below the surface. During and after injection, an area of 25 m2 was surveyed every 20 minutes using 250 and 500 MHz antennas with a grid spacing of 0.05 x 0.025 m. A total of 20 3D GPR surveys were completed over 3 infiltration sites. To confirm wet-bulb shapes measured by GPR, we injected 2 liters of "brilliant blue" dye (~100 mg/l) along with a saline water tracer towards the end of one experiment. After completion of GPR scanning, a trench was excavated to examine the distribution of the saltwater and dye using TDR and visual inspection, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the 4D GPR

  8. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  9. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  10. Seasonal groundwater contribution to crop-water use assessed with lysimeter observations and model simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Sophocleous, M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater evaporation can play an important role in crop-water use where the water table is shallow. Lysimeters are often used to quantify the groundwater evaporation contribution influenced by a broad range of environmental factors. However, it is difficult for such field facilities, which are operated under limited conditions within limited time, to capture the whole spectrum of capillary upflow with regard to the inter-seasonal variability of climate, especially rainfall. Therefore, in this work, the method of combining lysimeter and numerical experiments was implemented to investigate seasonal groundwater contribution to crop-water use. Groundwater evaporation experiments were conducted through a weighing lysimeter at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the lower Yellow River Basin for two winter wheat growth seasons. A HYDRUS-1D model was first calibrated and validated with weighing lysimeter data, and then was employed to perform scenario simulations of groundwater evaporation under different depths to water table (DTW) and water input (rainfall plus irrigation) driven by long term meteorological data. The scenario simulations revealed that the seasonally averaged groundwater evaporation amount was linearly correlated to water input for different values of DTW. The linear regression could explain more than 70% of the variability. The seasonally averaged ratio of the groundwater contribution to crop-water use varied with the seasonal water input and DTW. The ratio reached as high as 75% in the case of DTW=1.0. m and no irrigation, and as low as 3% in the case of DTW=3.0. m and three irrigation applications. The results also revealed that the ratio of seasonal groundwater evaporation to potential evapotranspiration could be fitted to an exponential function of the DTW that may be applied to estimate seasonal groundwater evaporation. In this case study of multilayered soil profile, the depth at which groundwater may

  11. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-08-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  12. The Bladon Lysimeter: An Innovative Environmental Characterization Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    2000-12-15

    Chemical analysis of groundwater samples is the baseline method of characterizing and monitoring groundwater contamination in the vadose (unsaturated) zone at most waste sites. Contamination moving from the surface to the water table passes through an unsaturated zone that can range in thickness from a few inches to hundreds of feet at a give site. Lysimeters are samplers that are designed to apply suction to the subsurface and are typically used to collect groundwater in the unsaturated zone.

  13. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  14. Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability

  15. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report.

  16. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Timlin, Homa; Machireddy, Kirthi; Petri, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis. PMID:28203576

  17. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues.

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.

    1994-12-31

    This speaker presents definitions of low-level radioactive waste according to the Federal Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the South Carolina governing body. The classification of waste for near surface disposal and the various, NRC classes of waste are described.

  20. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  1. Vital parameters related low level laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Capone, Stefania

    2011-08-01

    The first work hypotesis is that biosensors on the patient detecting heart, breath rate and skin parameters, modulate laser radiation to enhance the therapeutic outcome; in the second work hypotesis: biofeedback could be effective, when integrated in the low level laser energy release.

  2. Infrared low-level wind shear work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Pat

    1988-01-01

    Results of field experiments for the detection of clear air disturbance and low level wind shear utilizing an infrared airborne system are given in vugraph form. The hits, misses and nuisance alarms scores are given. Information is given on the infrared spatial resolution technique. The popular index of aircraft hazard (F= WX over g - VN over AS) is developed for a remote temperature sensor.

  3. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  4. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan - ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Remsen

    2006-12-21

    The objectives of the Annual Report are to: 1) describe changes in the volume of liquid seen in each lysimeter, 2) describe concentrations and changes or trends in the concentrations of leachate-indicator constituents in any liquids accumulated in each lysimeter, 3) summarize the finding in regard to the presence or absence of leachate in each lysimeter, 4) make recommendations, if any, limited to vadose-zone study-related variables. The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters.

  5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  6. Low level liquid scintillation counter performance in a low level surface laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaihola, L.; Kojola, H.; Kananen, R.

    1986-11-01

    A surface low level laboratory has been constructed where usage of special materials has reduced the gamma background to {1}/{20} of the standard laboratory, lowering the background in a low level liquid scintillation counter by 40 to 55% in C-14 window for sample volumes 15 to 3 ml.

  7. Concepts and data-collection techniques used in a study of the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Striegl, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water and radionuclide movement through the unsaturated zone is being conducted at the low level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Included in the study are detailed investigations of evapotranspiration, movement of water through waste trench covers, and movement of water and radionuclides (dissolved and gaseous) from the trenches. An energy balance/Bowen ratio approach is used to determine evapotranspiration. Precipitation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, air temperature and water vapor content gradients, wind speed, and wind direction are measured. Soil water tension is measured with tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers are monitored with automatic data loggers. Soil moisture contents are measured through small-diameter access tubes with neutron and gamma-ray attenuation gages. Data beneath the trenches are obtained through a 130-meter-long tunnel which extends under four of the trenches. Water samples are obtained with suction lysimeters, and samples of the geologic material are obtained with core tubes. These samples are analyzed for radiometric and inorganic chemistry. Gas samples are obtained from gas piezometers and analyzed for partial pressures of major constituents, Radon-222, tritiated water vapor, and carbon-14 dioxide. (USGS)

  8. (Low-level radioactive waste management techniques)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kennerly, J.M.; Williams, L.C.; Lingle, W.N.; Peters, M.S.; Darnell, G.R.; USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN; Du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant; Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID )

    1988-08-08

    The US team consisting of representatives of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River plant (SRP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations participated in a training program on French low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management techniques. Training in the rigorous waste characterization, acceptance and certification procedures required in France was provided at Agence Nationale pour les Gestion des Dechets Radioactif (ANDRA) offices in Paris.

  9. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field

  10. Field Lysimeter Test Facility status report IV: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Felmy, D.G.; Ritter, J.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Downs, J.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kirkham, R.R.; Link, S.O.

    1993-10-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, a unique facility, the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is used to measure drainage from and water storage in soil covers. Drainage has ranged from near zero amounts to more than 50% of the applied water, with the amount depending on vegetative cover and soil type. Drainage occurred from lysimeters with coarse soils and gravel covers, but did not occur from capillary barrier-type lysimeters (1.5 m silt loam soil over coarse sands and gravels) except under the most extreme condition tested. For capillary barriers that were irrigated and kept vegetation-free (bare surface), no drainage occurred in 5 of the past 6 years. However, this past year (1992--1993) a record snowfall of 1,425 mm occurred and water storage in the irrigated, bare-surfaced capillary barriers exceeded 500 mm resulting in drainage of more than 30 mm from these barriers. In contrast, capillary barriers, covered with native vegetation (i.e., shrubs and grasses) did not drain under any climatic condition (with or without irrigation). In FY 1994, the FLTF treatments will be increased from 11 to 17 with the addition of materials that will simulate portions of a prototype barrier planned for construction in 1994 at the Hanford Site. The 17 FLTF treatments are designed to test the expected range of surface soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions encountered at the Hanford Site and will assist in evaluating final surface barrier designs for a waste disposal facility.

  11. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring in ERDF Cells 5, 6, 7, an 8, CY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence

    2010-07-08

    The purpose of this annual report is to evaluate the conditions and identify trends to develop Hanford Site specific data on the performance of the lysimeter systems related to the vadose zone monitoring and potential future use of lysimeter systems.

  12. Water balance measurements and simulations of maize plants on lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinlein, Florian; Biernath, Christian; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2016-04-01

    In Central Europe expected major aspects of climate change are a shift of precipitation events and amounts towards winter months, and the general increase of extreme weather events like heat waves or summer droughts. This will lead to strongly changing regional water availability and will have an impact on future crop growth, water use efficiency and yields. Therefore, to estimate future crop yields by growth models accurate descriptions of transpiration as part of the water balance is important. In this study, maize was grown on weighing lysimeters (sowdate: 24 April 2013). Transpiration was determined by sap flow measurement devices (ICT International Pty Ltd, Australia) using the Heat-Ratio-Method: two temperature probes, 0.5 cm above and below a heater, detect a heat pulse and its speed which allows the calculation of sap flow. Water balance simulations were executed with different applications of the model framework Expert-N. The same pedotransfer and hydraulic functions and the same modules to simulate soil water flow, soil heat and nitrogen transport, nitrification, denitrification and mineralization were used. Differences occur in the chosen potential evapotranspiration ETpot (Penman-Monteith ASCE, Penman-Monteith FAO, Haude) and plant modules (SPASS, CERES). In all simulations ETpot is separated into a soil and a plant part using the leaf are index (LAI). In a next step, these parts are reduced by soil water availability. The sum of these parts is the actual evapotranspiration ETact which is compared to the lysimeter measurements. The results were analyzed from Mid-August to Mid-September 2013. The measured sap flow rates show clear diurnal cycles except on rainy days. The SPASS model is able to simulate these diurnal cycles, overestimates the measurements on rainy days and at the beginning of the analyzed period, and underestimates transpiration on the other days. The main reason is an overestimation of potential transpiration Tpot due to too high

  13. Comparison of three pesticide fate models based on lysimeter data of chloridazon and s-metolachlor from the Wagna test site, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Lisa; Klammler, Gernot; Schuhmann, Andrea; Kupfersberger, Hans; Fank, Johann

    2017-04-01

    A lysimeter experiment was conducted at the agricultural test site in Wagna, Austria, where clayey-sandy cambisol are predominant. The pesticides chloridazon and s-metolachlor were applied between 2010 and 2014 and the concentration of the active ingredients and their metabolites were measured regularly in the soil and the leachate in different depths (Schuhmann et al. 2016). During the lysimeter experiment maize, pumpkin and triticale were cultivated, which are the main field crops in that region. Beside this data, precise measurements of the soil hydrology parameters as well as meteorological data are available. Average annual precipitation at this site is 972 mm, mean annual groundwater recharge is 358 mm (2005-2014). Based on this data and the different breakthrough curves a comparison of the three different pesticide fate models PEARL, PELMO and MACRO is carried out for the pesticides s-metolachlor and chloridazon and their metabolites metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid, desphenyl-chloridazon and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon. The results of the modeling of the water movement and pesticide fate are evaluated and discussed. This work will contribute to a better understanding of the performance of this pesticide fate models for the above mentioned soil and hydrologic conditions. Schuhmann, A; Gans, O; Weiss, S; Fank, J; Klammler, G; Haberhauer, G; Gerzabek, MH (2016): A long-term lysimeter experiment to investigate the environmental dispersion of the herbicide chloridazon and its metabolites - comparison of lysimeter types. J SOIL SEDIMENT. 2016; 16(3): 1032-1045

  14. Low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Narinder

    1990-01-01

    The vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure for the low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are evaluated. Experimental data on precision, efficiency of the scrubbing liquid, instrument response, detection and reliable quantitation limits, stability of the vapor scrubbed solution, and interference were obtained to assess the applicability of the method for the low ppb level detection of the analyte vapor in air. The results indicated that the analyte vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure can be utilized for the quantitative detection of low ppb level vapor of MMH in air.

  15. Lid design for low level waste container

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, R.H.; Keener, W.E.

    1995-02-28

    A container for low level waste includes a shell and a lid. The lid has a frame to which a planar member is welded. The lid frame includes a rectangular outer portion made of square metal tubing, a longitudinal beam extending between axial ends of the rectangular outer portion, and a transverse beam extending between opposite lateral sides of the rectangular outer portion. Two pairs of diagonal braces extend between the longitudinal beam and the four corners of the rectangular outer portion of the frame. 6 figs.

  16. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry generally equates to high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometry that can be attained by background reduction, selective signal identification, or some combination of both. Various methods for selectively identifying gamma-ray events and for reducing the background in gamma-ray spectrometers are given. The relative magnitude of each effect on overall sensitivity and the relative cost'' for implementing them are given so that a cost/benefit comparison can be made and a sufficiently sensitive spectrometer system can be designed for any application without going to excessive or unnecessary expense. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Low level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    Historical information for 26 years of documented US transport experience with radioactive material (RAM) packages indicates that no significant releases of low level waste have taken place, although accidents involving transportation, handling or reported incident have been documented. This article uses information from the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) data base, developed in 1981, to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events that have occurred in the US 1971-96. Topic areas include the summary of RAM transportation accident/incident experience in the US and characteristics of LLW accidents where release of contents has occurred. 2 tabs.

  19. Lid design for low level waste container

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Richard H.; Keener, Wendell E.

    1995-01-01

    A container for low level waste includes a shell and a lid. The lid has a frame to which a planar member is welded. The lid frame includes a rectangular outer portion made of square metal tubing, a longitudinal beam extending between axial ends of the rectangular outer portion, and a transverse beam extending between opposite lateral sides of the rectangular outer portion. Two pairs of diagonal braces extend between the longitudinal beam and the four corners of the rectangular outer portion of the frame.

  20. Hydraulic considerations in sampling the unsaturated zone with inclined gravity lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oaksford, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    Inclined gravity lysimeters as deep as 5.39 meters below land surface designed for sampling soil water in coarse sand under continuous ponding conditions, were shown to be capable of collecting 10 liters per hour at an infiltration rate of 0.5 meter per hour. This represents a capture efficiency of approximately 50%, a value observed in two similar but shallower lysimeters. When lysimeters are installed from a trench or observation manhole, soil-water samples can be taken under virtually undisturbed conditions, avoiding the soil disturbance and filtration associated with porous-cup vacuum lysimeters. Successful operation requires that the sampler be designed for the hydraulic characteristics of the soil from which the water sample is to be extracted. Criteria for lysimeter dimensions can be established on the basis of pressure heads experienced during sampling, can be induced to flow into the lysimeter by gradient manipulation. Observed head gradients outside the lysimeter ranged between 1.7 and 2.2 times those across the lysimeter, which would seem to explain the observed capture efficiency. (USGS)

  1. Control of environmental conditions at the lower boundary of field lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwärzel, Kai; Podlasly, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Lysimeters are vessels containing disturbed or undisturbed soil, embedded completely in soil with its top even to the soil surface. At the bottom of lysimeters, the soil is cut off from the parent soil, and the lower boundary of lysimeters is usually exposed to atmospheric pressure. For this reason, soil water conditions may be different than of the surrounding soil. This may affect the soil-water conditions throughout the soil profile in comparison to the surrounding soil. To avoid this problem, lysimeters with a construction depth much more than the expected rooting depth should be used or a suction-controlled drainage system needs to be installed at the bottom of lysimeters. Not only the water flow but also the heat flow in the lysimeter is affected by the isolation of the soil and by the fact that the soil at the bottom of the lysimeter is cut off from the surrounding area. However, since now only a few studies have dealt with this issue. This is surprising because the soil thermal regime controls both growth and function of roots and shoots. Therefore, a new design for an automatic control of soil temperature at the lower boundary of large, undisturbed field lysimeters was developed. The objective of the intended talk is to present and evaluate the design and functionality of this new setup.

  2. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan- ERDF Cells 5 and 6, CY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-08-25

    The purpose of this annual report is to evaluate the conditions and identify trends to develop Hanford site-specific data on the performance of the lysimeter systems related to the vadose zone monitoring and potential future use of lysimeter systems.

  3. Pilot uranium lysimeter studies at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Hyder, L.K.; Howard, S.C.; Cline, J.E.; Clapp, R.B.

    1993-08-01

    A field lysimeter test facility has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant to evaluate land burial of wastes containing depleted uranium. The principal objective in the construction of such a facility is to provide a means for monitoring waste leachate characteristics over time, in particular uranium concentrations in leachate. The design of the field lysimeter test facility allows, via the portals along the side walls of the lysimeter, the collection of leachate as a function of depth in the lysimeter. The methodology to collect leachate from within the field lysimeter has not been clearly defined. Thus, before wastes were loaded into the field lysimeter facility, a pilot lysimeter study was initiated to test several design concepts for the collection of in situ leachate. The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility and quality assurance of proposed instrumentation used to monitor leachate generation and characteristics in the full-scale field lysimeter. Secondary objectives included gaining experience in the handling/packing of wastes, installation/operation of the leachate collection devices, and waste leachate characterization

  4. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  5. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  6. Airborne infrared low level wind shear predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The operating principles and test performance of an airborne IR (13-16 micron) temperature-sensing detection and warning system for low-level wind shear (LLWS) are presented. The physics of LLWS phenomena and of the IR radiometer are introduced. The cold density-current outflow or gust front related to LLWS is observed in the IR spectrum of CO2 by a radiometer with + or - 0.5-C accuracy at 0.5-Hz sampling rate; LLWS alerts are given on the basis of specific criteria. Test results from the JAWS experiments conducted at Denver in July 1982, are presented graphically and discussed. The feasibility of the passive IR system is demonstrated, with an average warning time of 51 sec, corresponding to a distance from touchdown of about 2 miles.

  7. Statistical analysis of low level atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tieleman, H. W.; Chen, W. W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The statistical properties of low-level wind-turbulence data were obtained with the model 1080 total vector anemometer and the model 1296 dual split-film anemometer, both manufactured by Thermo Systems Incorporated. The data obtained from the above fast-response probes were compared with the results obtained from a pair of Gill propeller anemometers. The digitized time series representing the three velocity components and the temperature were each divided into a number of blocks, the length of which depended on the lowest frequency of interest and also on the storage capacity of the available computer. A moving-average and differencing high-pass filter was used to remove the trend and the low frequency components in the time series. The calculated results for each of the anemometers used are represented in graphical or tabulated form.

  8. Measurements for low level RF control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simrock, S. N.

    2007-08-01

    The low level RF control system for the European x-ray free electron laser, which is based on TESLA technology, requires information on a large number of signals and parameters which are either directly measurable as physical signals or must be derived from the physical signals. In most cases, calibrations are required to obtain the desired quantities. The measured signals are used in the real time feedback loops for field and resonance control, and for diagnostic purposes to support automation and exception handling. Good system models and powerful signal processors (including field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors) combined with fast communication links allow for processing a large number of complex algorithms in real time. Several of these algorithms have been implemented at the free electron laser at Hamburg (FLASH) for evaluation and have increased the availability of the facility for user operation.

  9. R&D ERL: Low level RF

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.

    2010-01-15

    A superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is currently under development at the Collider-Accelerator Department (C-AD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The major components from an RF perspective are (a) a 5-cell SRF ERL cavity, (b) an SRF photocathode electron gun, and (c) a drive laser for the photocathode gun. Each of these RF subsystems has its own set of RF performance requirements, as well as common requirements for ensuring correct synchronism between them. A low level RF (LLRF) control system is currently under development, which seeks to leverage both technology and experience gained from the recently commissioned RHIC LLRF system upgrade. This note will review the LLRF system requirements and describe the system to be installed at the ERL.

  10. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  11. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-03-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance.

  12. Draft low level waste technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information.

  13. Airborne infrared low level wind shear predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The operating principles and test performance of an airborne IR (13-16 micron) temperature-sensing detection and warning system for low-level wind shear (LLWS) are presented. The physics of LLWS phenomena and of the IR radiometer are introduced. The cold density-current outflow or gust front related to LLWS is observed in the IR spectrum of CO2 by a radiometer with + or - 0.5-C accuracy at 0.5-Hz sampling rate; LLWS alerts are given on the basis of specific criteria. Test results from the JAWS experiments conducted at Denver in July 1982, are presented graphically and discussed. The feasibility of the passive IR system is demonstrated, with an average warning time of 51 sec, corresponding to a distance from touchdown of about 2 miles.

  14. Mechanisms of low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova, Tatiana N.

    2006-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In particular a biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect than higher levels. This introductory review will cover some of the proposed cellular chromophores responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the near infrared) and photoactive porphyrins. Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initial effects of light, leading to increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of transcription factors. These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and

  15. Disposal of low-level and low-level mixed waste: audit report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-03

    The Department of Energy (Department) is faced with the legacy of thousands of contaminated areas and buildings and large volumes of `backlog` waste requiring disposal. Waste management and environmental restoration activities have become central to the Department`s mission. One of the Department`s priorities is to clean up former nuclear weapons sites and find more effective and timely methods for disposing of nuclear waste. This audit focused on determining if the Department was disposing of low-level and low-level mixed waste in the most cost-effective manner.

  16. Influence of tropical seasonal variations on landfill leachate characteristics--results from lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Tränkler, J; Visvanathan, C; Kuruparan, P; Tubtimthai, O

    2005-01-01

    Considering the quality of design and construction of landfills in developing countries, little information can be derived from randomly taken leachate samples. Leachate generation and composition under monsoon conditions have been studied using lysimeters to simulate sanitary landfills and open cell settings. In this study, lysimeters were filled with domestic waste, highly organic market waste and pre-treated waste. Results over two subsequent dry and rainy seasons indicate that the open cell lysimeter simulation showed the highest leachate generation throughout the rainy season, with leachate flow in all lysimeters coming to a halt during the dry periods. More than 60% of the precipitation was found in the form of leachate. The specific COD and TKN load discharged from the open cell was 20% and 180% more than that of the sanitary landfill lysimeters. Types of waste material and kind of pre-treatment prior to landfilling strongly influenced the pollutant load. Compared to the sanitary landfill lysimeter filled with domestic waste, the specific COD and TKN load discharged from the pre-treated waste lysimeter accounted for only 4% and 16%, respectively. Considering the local settings of tropical landfills, these results suggest that landfill design and operation has to be adjusted. Leachate can be collected and stored during the rainy season, and recirculation of leachate is recommended to maintain a steady and even accelerated degradation during the prolonged dry season. The open cell approach in combination with leachate recirculation is suggested as an option for interim landfill operations.

  17. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance.

  18. Bioassessments of anaerobically decomposing organic refuse in laboratory lysimeters with and without leachate recycling and pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kong, In Chul

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, various microbial characteristics of degrading refuse in three lysimeters were compared to bioassess the operating conditions with and without leachate recycling and pH adjustment. Laboratory lysimeters with leachate recycling produced more gas and took less time to reach the highest methane percentage than a lysimeter without leachate recycling. Generally, lysimeters with leachate recycling showed high ATP (adenosine triphosphate) contents in the leachate. But there were no significant differences in dehydrogenase activities among the lysimeters. Leachate of all lysimeters inhibited the bioluminescence activities of the strain tested. Bioluminescence activity was more inhibited by the lysimeter with no leachate recycling (high inhibition corresponds to high toxicity of leachate). Generally, less inhibition was observed in the middle of the operation phase, which was related with the biodegradation activity.

  19. MESERAN Calibration for Low Level Organic Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2004-04-08

    Precision cleaning studies done at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), the Kansas City Plant (KCP), and at other locations within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons complex over the last 30 years have depended upon results from MESERAN Evaporative Rate Analysis for detecting low levels of organic contamination. The characterization of the surface being analyzed is carried out by depositing a Carbon-14 tagged radiochemical onto the test surface and monitoring the rate at which the radiochemical disappears from the surface with a Geiger-Mueller counter. In the past, the total number of counts over a 2-minute span have been used to judge whether a surface is contaminated or not and semi-quantitatively to what extent. This technique is very sensitive but has not enjoyed the broad acceptance of a purely quantitative analysis. The work on this project developed calibrations of various organic contaminants typically encountered in KCP operations. In addition, a new analysis method was developed to enhance the ability of MESERAN Analyzers to detect organic contamination and yield quantitative data in the microgram and nanogram levels.

  20. Low-level HIV infection of hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only limited data on whether HIV infection occurs within the liver; therefore, we explored early and late stages of the HIV life cycle in two hepatocyte cell lines – Huh7.5 and Huh7.5JFH1 – as well as in primary human hepatocytes. Results Integrated HIV DNA was detected in Huh7.5 and Huh7.5JFH1 cells, as well as in primary hepatocytes, and was inhibited by the integrase inhibitor raltegravir in a dose-dependent manner. HIV p24 protein was also detected in cell culture supernatants at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection and was inhibited by AZT, although levels were modest compared to those in a lymphocyte cell line. Culture supernatants from HIV-infected hepatocytes were capable of infecting a non-hepatic HIV indicator cell line. Conclusions These results indicating low-level HIV replication in hepatoctyes in vitro complement evidence suggesting that HIV has deleterious effects on the liver in vivo. PMID:22877244

  1. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  2. Actual evapotranspiration and precipitation measured by lysimeters: a comparison with eddy covariance and tipping bucket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Pütz, T.; Post, H.; Schmidt, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study compares actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measurements by a set of six weighable lysimeters, ETa estimates obtained with the eddy covariance (EC) method, and potential crop evapotranspiration according to FAO (ETc-FAO) for the Rollesbroich site in the Eifel (Western Germany). The comparison of ETa measured by EC (including correction of the energy balance deficit) and by lysimeters is rarely reported in literature and allows more insight into the performance of both methods. An evaluation of ETa for the two methods for the year 2012 shows a good agreement with a total difference of 3.8% (19 mm) between the ETa estimates. The highest agreement and smallest relative differences (<8%) on monthly basis between both methods are found in summer. ETa was close to ETc-FAO, indicating that ET was energy limited and not limited by water availability. ETa differences between lysimeter, ETc-FAO, and EC were mainly related to differences in grass height caused by harvesting management and the EC footprint. The lysimeter data were also used to estimate precipitation amounts in combination with a filter algorithm for high precision lysimeters recently introduced by Peters et al. (2014). The estimated precipitation amounts from the lysimeter data show significant differences compared to the precipitation amounts recorded with a standard rain gauge at the Rollesbroich test site. For the complete year 2012 the lysimeter records show a 16% higher precipitation amount than the tipping bucket. With the help of an on-site camera the precipitation measurements of the lysimeters were analyzed in more detail. It was found that the lysimeters record more precipitation than the tipping bucket in part related to the detection of rime and dew, which contributes 17% to the yearly difference between both methods. In addition, fog and drizzle explain an additional 5.5% of the total difference. Larger differences are also recorded for snow and sleet situations. During snowfall, the

  3. Actual evapotranspiration and precipitation measured by lysimeters: a comparison with eddy covariance and tipping bucket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Pütz, T.; Post, H.; Schmidt, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-05-01

    This study compares actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measurements by a set of six weighable lysimeters, ETa estimates obtained with the eddy covariance (EC) method, and evapotranspiration calculated with the full-form Penman-Monteith equation (ETPM) for the Rollesbroich site in the Eifel (western Germany). The comparison of ETa measured by EC (including correction of the energy balance deficit) and by lysimeters is rarely reported in the literature and allows more insight into the performance of both methods. An evaluation of ETa for the two methods for the year 2012 shows a good agreement with a total difference of 3.8% (19 mm) between the ETa estimates. The highest agreement and smallest relative differences (< 8%) on a monthly basis between both methods are found in summer. ETa was close to ETPM, indicating that ET was energy limited and not limited by water availability. ETa differences between lysimeter and EC were mainly related to differences in grass height caused by harvest and the EC footprint. The lysimeter data were also used to estimate precipitation amounts in combination with a filter algorithm for the high-precision lysimeters recently introduced by Peters et al. (2014). The estimated precipitation amounts from the lysimeter data differ significantly from precipitation amounts recorded with a standard rain gauge at the Rollesbroich test site. For the complete year 2012 the lysimeter records show a 16 % higher precipitation amount than the tipping bucket. After a correction of the tipping bucket measurements by the method of Richter (1995) this amount was reduced to 3%. With the help of an on-site camera the precipitation measurements of the lysimeters were analyzed in more detail. It was found that the lysimeters record more precipitation than the tipping bucket, in part related to the detection of rime and dew, which contribute 17% to the yearly difference between both methods. In addition, fog and drizzle explain an additional 5.5% of the total

  4. Effect of exposure on the water balance of two identical lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenau, J.; Meissner, R.; Borg, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at the water balance of two identical weighable lysimeters located right next to each other. They contain the same soil and are managed in the same way. Both were planted with maize. The area around them was planted with maize, too, to ensure that the lysimeters were located inside a crop. The only difference between them was that one side of lysimeter 2 was exposed due to a footpath. At first both yielded similar results. However, as the maize became taller lysimeter 2 began to show consistently more precipitation and drainage. After harvest the differences disappeared again. Since precipitation often falls at an angle, a crop with an exposed side receives more than a crop without one, if the precipitation falls towards the exposed side. The additional precipitation a crop with an exposed side may capture increases with the height of the crop. After harvest this exposure effect therefore disappears completely. Compared to lysimeter 1, lysimeter 2 accumulated >100 mm of additional precipitation during the growth of the maize. After the maize was removed, both crops recorded the same amount of precipitation again. Lysimeter 2 showed more drainage, too, because the additional precipitation led to higher water contents, which in turn caused the water holding capacity of the soil to be exceeded on more days than in the case of lysimeter 1. The difference in actual evapotranspiration was small, because lysimeter 2 was exposed towards west-northwest and therefore received only little more radiation, and because the distribution of the rainfall pattern was such that the additional precipitation led to a similar amount of additional drainage rather than to an increase in the volume of stored water, which could have been consumed by evapotranspiration later. The data clearly illustrate that exposure can significantly alter the water balance of a lysimeter, which makes it inadvisable to extrapolate data obtained under such circumstances to the field. This

  5. The effects of radiative transfer on low-level cyclogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.J.; Raman, S.

    1995-04-01

    Many investigators have documented the role that thermodynamic forcing due to radiative flux divergence plays in the enhancement or generation of circulation. Most of these studies involve large-scale systems, small-scale systems such as thunderstorms, and squall lines. The generation of circulation on large scales results from the creation of divergence in the upper troposphere and the maintenance of low-level potentially unstable air, and the maintenance of baroclinicity throughout the atmosphere. On smaller scales, radiative flux divergence acts similarly. In the thunderstorms and squall lines, the radiative forcing acts as a pump, increasing the divergence at the top of the storm systems and increasing the updraft velocity and the intensity of inflow at mid-levels in the storm systems. Other researchers have examined the role of surface processes and low-level baroclinicity in east coast cyclogenesis. In this paper, we examine the interactive role that radiative flux divergence, clouds, and surface processes play in low-level cyclogenesis and the creation or maintenance of the boundary layer baroclinicity.

  6. Simulating Roll Clouds associated with Low-Level Convergence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A. A.; Sherwood, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Convective initiation often takes place when features such as fronts and/or rolls collide, merge or otherwise meet. Rolls indicate boundary layer convergence and may initiate thunderstorms. These are often seen in satellite and radar imagery prior to the onset of deep convection. However, links between convergence driven rolls and convection are poor in global models. The poor representation of convection is the source of many model biases, especially over the Maritime Continent in the Tropics. We simulate low-level convergence lines over north-eastern Australia using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (version 3.7). The simulations are events from September-October 2002 driven by sea breeze circulations. Cloud lines associated with bore-waves that form along the low-level convergence lines are thoroughly investigated in this study with comparisons from satellite and surface observations. Initial simulations for a series of cloud lines observed on 4th October, 2002 over the Gulf of Carpentaria showed greater agreement in the timing and propagation of the disturbance and the low-level convergence, however the cloud lines or streets of roll clouds were not properly captured by the model. Results from a number of WRF simulations with different microphysics, cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes, resolution and boundary conditions will also be discussed.

  7. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the baseline value. Our results indicate that tissue oxygenation significantly decreases during brief, low levels of static muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle

  8. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the baseline value. Our results indicate that tissue oxygenation significantly decreases during brief, low levels of static muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle

  9. Studying water budget of paved urban sites using weighable lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, Yong-Nam; Nehls, Thomas; Litz, Norbert; Trinks, Steffen; Wessolek, Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Our lysimeter study addresses high-resolution analysis of the water balance of permeable pavements used for sidewalks and streets. Berlin's typical pavers, "Bernburg cobble stone" and "concrete paver" are analysed for actual evaporation, runoff and groundwater recharge. To achieve the reasonable boundary condition realistic seam material were bed in surface construction. The lysimeter bodies, filled with construction sand, stand in 1.5 m deep stainless cave on a scale with a 100g/sec resolution. The seepage water is captured by four suction plates with a suction of 63 hPa. To measure the run-off separately, special gutters are set up directly along the surface edge. This gutter leads the run-off water immediately to a separate discharge pipe and the run-off will be measured with a resolution of 0.0005 mm/sec; no water gets lost within this procedure. A dynamic runoff coefficient could be gained for a span of typical rainfall intensities. We will present runoff coefficients (RC) from both pavements as functions of the rainfall intensity, based on about 40 individual precipitation events. We could show that the rainfall intensity is the best predictor for the runoff behaviour. Concrete pavers can cause runoff with higher RC at lower intensity. However, for intensities > 0.1 mm/min their RCs tend to increase slower than those of mosaic cobble stone pavements. RCs might not be dependent on pavements during strong precipitation events. The measured RC are typical for the rainfall characteristic of Berlin, Germany and should not be used for other climate regions. First, the controlling variable must be identified and incorporated into process based models. Such models are essential for the prediction of urban evaporation so as to develop new urban water and climate management strategies.

  10. Low level laser therapy on experimental myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, Soledad; Vignola, María Belén; Cremonezzi, David; Simes, Juan C.; Soriano, Fernando; Campana, Vilma R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Helium-Neon (HeNe) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) laser upon nitric oxide (NO) plasma levels, an inflammatory biomarker associated with oxidative stress, in rats with experimental myopathy. These were evaluated through histological assessment. Materials and Methods: The groups studied were: (A) control (intact rats that received LLLT sham exposures), (B) rats with myopathy and sacrificed at 24 h later, (C) rats with myopathy and sacrificed 8 days later, (D) rats with myopathy and treated with HeNe laser, (E) rats with myopathy and treated with GaAs laser, (F) intact rats treated with HeNe laser and (G) intact rats treated with GaAs laser. Myopathy was induced by injecting 50μl of 1% carrageenan λ (type IV) in the left gastrocnemius muscle. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) was applied with 9.5 J.cm−2 daily for 10 consecutive days with each laser. The determination of the NO was made by spectrophotometry. The muscles were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and examined by optic microscopy. Quantitative variables were statistically analyzed by the Fisher test, and categorical by applying Pearson's Chi Squared test at p <0.05 for all cases. Results: In groups B and C, NO was significantly increased compared to groups A, D, E, F and G (p<0.05). In group C, the percentage of area with inflammatory infiltration was significantly increased compared to the other groups (p<0.001). Conclusions: LLLT decreased plasma levels of NO in rats with experimental myopathies and significant muscle recovery. PMID:24155539

  11. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Nocturnal low-level jet and low-level cloud occurrence over Southern West Africa during DACCIWA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dione, Cheikh; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Kaltoff, Norbert; Adler, Bianca; Babić, Karmen; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier

    2017-04-01

    During the summer monsoon period in West Africa, a nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) is frequently observed and is associated with the formation of a low-level deck of stratus or stratocumulus clouds over the southern domain of this region. The understanding of the mechanisms controlling the diurnal cycle of the low-level cloud (LLC) is one of the goals of the DACCIWA (Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa) project. During the ground campaign, which took place in June-July 2016, numerous instruments devoted to document the atmospheric boundary-layer dynamics and thermodynamics, clouds, aerosols and precipitation were deployed at Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria) supersites. Several parameters can influence the LLC formation: these are the large-scale conditions, but also local parameters such as stability, the interaction between Monsoon and Harmattan flows and turbulence. It has been pointed out in previous studies that the NLLJ plays a key role in LLC formation. Therefore, based on 49 nights of observations, our study focuses on the possible link between NLLJ and the formation, evolution and dissipation of the LLC over Savè. The characteristics of LLCs (onset, evolution and dissipation time, base height and thickness) are investigated using data from the ceilometer, infrared cloud camera, and frequent and normal radiosoundings. The UHF wind profiler data are used to estimate the occurrence of the NLLJ as well as the depth of the monsoon flow.

  13. Phytotoxicity testing of lysimeter leachates from aided phytostabilized Cu-contaminated soils using duckweed (Lemna minor L.).

    PubMed

    Marchand, Lilian; Mench, Michel; Marchand, Charlotte; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Kolbas, Aliaksandr; Maalouf, Jean-Paul

    2011-12-01

    Aided phytostabilization of a Cu-contaminated soil was conducted at a wood preservation site located in southwest France using outdoor lysimeters to study leaching from the root zone and leachate ecotoxicity. The effects of Cu-tolerant plants (Agrostis gigantea L. and Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. Beaupré) and four amendments were investigated with seven treatments: untreated soil without plants (UNT) and with plants (PHYTO), and planted soils amended with compost (OM, 5% per air-dried soil weight), dolomitic limestone (DL, 0.2%), Linz-Donawitz slag (LDS, 1%), OM with DL (OMDL), and OM with 2% of zerovalent iron grit (OMZ). Total Cu concentrations (mgkg(-1)) in lysimeter topsoil and subsoil were 1110 and 111-153, respectively. Lysimeter leachates collected in year 3 were characterized for Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K and Zn concentrations, free Cu ions, and pH. Total Cu concentration in leachates (mgL(-1)) ranged from 0.15±0.08 (LDS) to 1.95±0.47 (PHYTO). Plants grown without soil amendment did not reduce total Cu and free Cu ions in leachates. Lemna minor L. was used to assess the leachate phytotoxicity, and based on its growth, the DL, LDS, OM and OMDL leachates were less phytotoxic than the OMZ, PHYTO and UNT ones. The LDS leachates had the lowest Cu, Cu(2+), Fe, and Zn concentrations, but L. minor developed less in these leachates than in a mineral water and a river freshwater. Leachate Mg concentrations were in decreasing order OMDL>DL>PHYTO=OM=LDS>UNT=OMZ and influenced the duckweed growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (<4mm particle size) and unsaturated, intermittent down-flow lysimeters (<40mm particle size). While standardised column tests are meant primarily to provide basic information on characteristic leaching properties and mechanisms and not to reproduce field conditions, the lysimeters were intended to mimic the actual leaching conditions when C&DW is used in unbound geotechnical layers. In practice, results from standardised percolation tests are often interpreted as estimations of actual release from solid materials in percolation scenarios. In general, the two tests yielded fairly similar results in terms of cumulative release at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10l·kgTS; however, significant differences were observed for P, Pb, Ba, Mg and Zn. Further differences emerged in terms of concentration in the early eluates (L/S<5l·kg(-1)TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Zn. Observed differences between tests are likely to be due to differences in pH related to crushing and exposure of fresh particle surfaces, as well as in equilibrium conditions. In the case of C&DW, the standardised column tests, which are more practical, are considered to acceptably describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg(-1)TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se, Cr and, to a lesser extent, SO4 and Sb were leaching from C&DW in critical amounts compared with existing limit values.

  15. Sensitivity analysis and benchmarking of the BLT low-level waste source term code

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, C.J.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the source term for low-level waste disposal, a comprehensive model had been developed and incorporated into a computer code, called BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport) Since the release of the original version, many new features and improvements had also been added to the Leach model of the code. This report consists of two different studies based on the new version of the BLT code: (1) a series of verification/sensitivity tests; and (2) benchmarking of the BLT code using field data. Based on the results of the verification/sensitivity tests, the authors concluded that the new version represents a significant improvement and it is capable of providing more realistic simulations of the leaching process. Benchmarking work was carried out to provide a reasonable level of confidence in the model predictions. In this study, the experimentally measured release curves for nitrate, technetium-99 and tritium from the saltstone lysimeters operated by Savannah River Laboratory were used. The model results are observed to be in general agreement with the experimental data, within the acceptable limits of uncertainty.

  16. Case study of a hillside lysimeter with realistic boundary conditions on slope and hillside in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Weingartner, Rolf; Liniger, Hanspeter

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Thus, datas is of importance to have a precise idea of the water resources. As most of the measuring systems are usually installed at lower altitudes (less than 1500 m asl), water inputs and outputs were monitored through a dense measuring network from the bottom of the Rhone valley to the Plaine Morte glacier (from 550 m asl to 2800 m asl). Weather and discharge stations, but also soil moisture sensors were installed in the key areas of our study region (Sierre-Crans-Motana region, Valais, Switzerland). But Evapotranspiration is a crucial data for water resources management. A hillside lysimeter was built in a typical unirrigated dry meadow to get the actual evapotranspiration on the driest place of the study area. This case study allows us to compare the usual evapotranspiration measurements using soil moisture datas (Seneviratnae et al. 2010). We will calibrate our soil moisture measurements using the lysimeter datas to compute actual evapotranspiration on the whole region. To our knowledge this is the first time a lysimeter is built on slope on an hillside. It was built in September 2010 and the first month were used to set up the lysimeter and all the sensors. Measurements began in 2011 and still occur. The results of the measuring network bring out a north-south and a west-east important rainfall gradients in the region. This mainly means for the region, that the water remain on the upper areas, as higher from Montana, 2000 mm/a of water is coming as rainfall, and less than 800 mm/a fall on the lower area. The lysimeter measured an actual evapotranspiration of 400-440 mm/a on 2011-2012, which leaves less than 200 mm/a of water for the grassland/pasture system. As most of the grassland are irrigated, our soil moisture and lysimeter measurements bring out the amount of water necessary for the agriculture in the region for the next year

  17. A comparison of cation sampling in forest soils by tension and tension-free lysimeters

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1981-01-01

    Field tests conducted in two soils with ceramic cup, ceramic plate, and tension-free lysimeters showed no concentration differences in collected cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) between cups and plates, except for the hydrogen ion. Mean pH was 0.6 lower in cup collected samples for a sandy loam profile. Tension-free lysimeters of the design tested had persistent contamination...

  18. [Measurement difference in paddy field nitrogen leakage by using different type lysimeters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mi; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Jing-Ping; Xu, Wei; Ge, Chang-Shui; Chen, Wen-Yue

    2009-05-01

    Vertical and 'T' types of lysimeter were used to measure the concentrations of ammonia N, nitrate N, and total nitrogen (TN) in the leakage of paddy field in rice growth season under different N application levels. For ammonia N, its concentration measured with these two types of lysimeter all ranged in 0-8 mg x L(-1) in 2007 and 0-4 mg x L(-1) in 2006; for nitrate N, its concentration measured with vertical lysimeter was 0-4 mg x L(-1) in 2007 and basically the same in 2006, while that measured with 'T' type lysimeter was 0-20 mg x L(-1) in 2007 but lower in 2006. The TN concentration in the leakage was 0-60 mg x L(-1) in 2007, much higher than that (0-16 mg x L(-1)) in 2006. In the leakage, nitrate N was the dominant N form. The total leakage loss of N in whole rice growth season in 2007 was 15.81 kg x hm(-2) of TN and 9.33 kg x hm(-2) of nitrate N when measured with vertical lysimeter, and 7.21 kg x hm(-2) of TN and 4.25 kg x hm(-2) of nitrate N when measured with 'T' type lysimeter. Due to the difference in the pathways of ammonia-N and nitrate-N leakage, different methods for calculating N leakage should be employed when using the two types of lysimeter in measurement. The N leakage measured by vertical lysimeter was more close to that estimated by paddy plot-leaching measurement method.

  19. Using Multiple FPGA Architectures for Real-time Processing of Low-level Machine Vision Functions

    Treesearch

    Thomas H. Drayer; William E. King; Philip A. Araman; Joseph G. Tront; Richard W. Conners

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architectures for real-time machine vision processing. The use of FPGAs for low-level processing represents an excellent tradeoff between software and special purpose hardware implementations. A library of modules that implement common low-level machine vision operations is presented...

  20. Modelling of a Tracer experiment (Bromide) at the lysimeter Wagna/Austria with MIKE-SHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Fank, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Data of a tracer experiment with Bromide at one of the three lysimeters in Wagna/Austria are used to test the unsaturated zone solute transport model in MIKE-SHE. On April 4th, 2005 50 mg/l of Bromide were applied on the lysimeter operated with conventional farming. At this time the lysimeter was covered with bare soil until the start of the cultivation of pumpkin one month later. Concentrations at the lysimeter bottom (180 cm depth) were measured and, after break-through, plant uptake was measured to quantify mass recovery. The model using the Richards-Van Genuchten-Mualem approach is setup by comprehensive data of vegetation and soil hydraulic properties available at the lysimeter. Water movement simulation in the unsaturated zone is tested against measured seepage rates at the lysimeter bottom and soil water contents in different soil depths in a period of five years. A sensitivity study shows that, particularly in the quaternary gravel zone two different parameter sets are necessary to represent the different dynamics of water content and seepage. With both two sets the general dynamics of the tracer experiment are simulated well. However, the early rapid rise of the measured concentrations could not be represented by either parameter set, which indicates a complex pore system consisting of different flow paths in the gravel zone, e.g., a system of matrix flow and macro-pore flow.

  1. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management.

  2. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  3. Trusted Computing Exemplar: Low-Level Design Document Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    for writing low-level design documents. Low-level design documents provide a detailed description of one or more modules. The level of detail should...further this goal, the NPS CAG and NPS CISR ask that any derivative products, code, writings , and/or other derivative materials, include an attribution...functionality, whether accidental or intentional. This document provides the standard format for writing low-level design documents. Low-level design

  4. Comparison of Reference Evapotranspiration Rates Measured by a Weighing Lysimeter and Meteorological Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, P. J.; Trout, T. J.; Ayars, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    Weighing lysimeters make direct measurements of evapotranspiration rate, providing data that may be used to assess predictions of evapotranspiration rate calculated from meteorological data. A partially-buried lysimeter located at the University of California West Side Research and Extension Center is near the center of a tall fescue grass field providing a 70 m fetch. A California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather station is installed 7 m from the lysimeter. Tall fescue grass grown in the lysimeter is cut weekly to a height of 0.1 m as is the surrounding grass. Daytime subsurface drip irrigation of the lysimeter is regulated to meet the evapotranspirative demand. CIMIS hourly predictions of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) are based on the Pruitt-Doorenbos (PD) and Penman-Monteith (PM) models. Our objective was a comparison of the predictions with hourly evapotranspiration rates calculated from lysimeter data for 2004-05. After correcting for lysimeter drainage, a 7-point Savitsky-Golay filter computed the derivative providing the hourly evapotranspiration rate. CIMIS hourly ETo predictions plotted against lysimeter ETo almost matched a 1:1 line indicating that the CIMIS predictions were accurate for the large data set but the scatter was substantial. The data were selected by hour and a best-fit line was calculated assuming a zero intercept. Slopes of best-fit lines to CIMIS PD ETo vs. lysimeter ETo for data representing each hour from 9 AM through 3 PM were greater than one, reaching a maximum of 1.13, but were consistently less than one at other times during the day. In contrast, the slopes of CIMIS PM ETo vs. lysimeter ETo were close to one between 10 AM and 3 PM but increased in the late afternoon reaching a maximum of 1.11. The PM model includes soil heat flux but the PD model does not. The difference in the slopes during the middle part of the day could be due to lack of downward heat flux in the PD model compensated by an

  5. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Second year (FY 1989) test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Record of Decision associated with the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (53 FR 12449-53) commits to an evaluation of the use of protective barriers placed over near-surface wastes. The barrier must protect against wind and water erosion and limit plant and animal intrusion and infiltration of water. Successful conclusion of this program will yield the necessary protective barrier design for near-surface waste isolation. This report presents results from the second year of tests at the FLTF. The primary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to measure the water budgets within the various barriers and assess the effectiveness of their designs in limiting water intrusion into the zone beneath each barrier. Information obtained from these measurements is intended for use in refining barrier designs. Four elements of water budget were measured during the year: precipitation, evaporation, storage, and drainage. Run-off, which is a fifth element of a complete water budget, was made negligible by a lip on the lysimeters that protrudes 5 cm above the soil surface to prevent run-off. A secondary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to refine procedures and equipment to support data collection for verification of the computer model needed for long-term projections of barrier performance. 6 refs.

  6. Reconsider an element: F budgets for field lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, R.; Keller, K.; April, R. A.; Keller, D.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical budgets of Fluorine (F) can be relatively simple in ecosystems due to the presence of only one anionic form at circumneutral pH values (F-) and relatively few potential sources and/or sinks. In many cases, F may serve as a tracer of primary mineral weathering. We constructed annual water and fluoride budgets for experimental lysimeters ("sandboxes") with 3 different types of plant cover. The sandboxes were constructed in 1982 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest; these systems have identical substrate material and are fully lined to collect all water and solute exports. Aqueous fluoride export from a sandbox covered with moss and lichen was 330 Eq/ha/yr; plant uptake decreased both water and fluoride exports from sandboxes with bunchgrass and pine cover. Microprobe analysis of the sand has identified fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) as the dominant F-bearing mineral phase. Modal analysis of the sand, coupled with actual mineral formulae, provide an inventory of the existing mass of F in primary minerals. Thus, fluorine budgets for these systems may be useful for estimating weathering rates of fluorapatite as well as release rates and long-term availability of phosphorus to ecosystems.

  7. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

  8. Changes in South American Low-level jet during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Montini, T.; Carvalho, L. V.

    2016-12-01

    Climate variability and change in South America affect millions of people and impact water resources, agriculture, economic activity, human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) is the most important climatic feature in the continent. South America has warmed significantly over the last several decades, and climate model projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change confidently agree that warming will continue into the 21st century. The eastern Andes low-level winds can significantly intensify under certain synoptic and large-scale conditions forming the South America low-level jet (SALLJ). The SALLJ transports large amounts of moisture from the Amazon to the La Plata Basin and induces the formation of mesoscale convective systems that bring substantial amounts of precipitation. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this study to investigate regional warming in South America. WRF is configured with two nested grids with 45 km and 15 km horizontal grid sizes and 41 vertical levels. Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) is used as initial and boundary conditions to develop dynamical downscaling over South America for the period 1 November - 31 March, 1980-2015. This presentation will discuss regional warming in South America in recent decades and the elevation dependency of such warming over the eastern slopes of the Central Andes. Potential changes in the SALLJ will also be discussed.

  9. Electrolytic decontamination of metal low level waste (LLW) and mixed low level waste (MLLW)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Metal objects resulting from ER activities were decontaminated using electrolytic methods. The project involved about 500 kg of ballistic test projectiles, 23 augers and drill heads, and 50 pieces of shrapnel containing lead. All objects were free-released and either reclaimed as scrap metal or reused. Electrolytic decontamination was proven to be an effective method to decontaminate metal waste objects to free-release standards. A cost analysis showed the process to be economical, especially when applied to decontamination of mixed waste, TRU waste, or when the recovered materials could be reused or recycled. The cost of decontamination of scrap iron is approximately equal to the cost of its land disposal as low level waste.

  10. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

  11. Cadmium leaching from micro-lysimeters planted with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens: experimental findings and modeling.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Bücherl, Barbara; Neumann, Günter; Streck, Thilo

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants has the potential to become a promising new technique to remediate contaminated sites. We investigated the role of metal mobilization in the Cd hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, 'Ganges'). In a micro-lysimeter experiment we investigated the dynamics of Cd concentration of leachate as well as Cd removal by plant uptake in four treatments: (i) Control (bare soil), (ii) T. caerulescens, (iii) nonhyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ('PI 426308'), and (iv) co-cropping of the hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator. The experimental findings were analyzed using one- and two-site rate-limited desorption models. Co-cropping of T. caerulescens and B. juncea did not enhance metal uptake by B. juncea. Although Cd uptake of T. caerulescens was 10 times higher than that of B. juncea, the Cd concentration of leachate of the T. caerulescens treatment did not decrease below that of the B. juncea treatment. The Cd depletion in leachate was well reproduced by the two-site rate-limited desorption model. The optimized desorption coefficient was three orders of magnitude higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that T. caerulescens accelerates the resupply of Cd from soil pointing to an important role of kinetic desorption in the hyperaccumulation by T. caerulescens.

  12. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  13. Transport of Bromide, Simazine, and MS-2 Coliphage in a Lysimeter Containing Undisturbed, Unsaturated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletika, Nicholas N.; Jury, William A.; Yates, Marylynn V.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of rate-limited adsorption on transport of environmental contaminants is difficult to characterize at the field scale. This study investigated transport, during unsaturated water flow, of pulse inputs of bromide, simazine (2-chloro-4,6- bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine), and MS-2 coliphage in a field lysimeter (0.8 m × 0.8 m square) containing undisturbed Tujunga loamy sand (mixed, thermic, Typic Xeropsamment). Sixty-four fiberglass wick soil solution samplers collected drainage fractions from the exit surface (30 cm depth) following daily 2-cm water inputs applied at 0.5 cm h-1. After 19.7 cm of cumulative drainage, the soil above 10 of the 64 locations was sampled to determine final depth distributions of simazine and virus. Most of the bromide was leached from the transport volume, while the sorbing pesticide and virus remained in the soil. Variance analysis indicated that local dispersion processes contributed more to the observed bromide spreading than did differences in local water velocities. A linear, first-order, kinetic adsorption submodel was incorporated into a generalized linear transport model relating the bromide flux concentrations to the simazine and virus final resident concentrations. Least squares fitting showed that area-averaged bromide transport could be described reasonably well by the two-parameter convection-dispersion model (CDM), although the mobile-immobile water model provided a slightly better representation of effluent tailing. The CDM parameters fitted to the bromide data were then held constant while the two parameters of the adsorption submodel were varied to fit the pesticide soil concentrations at the end of the experiment at 10 days. A good fit was obtained for simazine, and the fitted value 0.54 d-1 of the rate coefficient was in the range characterizing nonequilibrium adsorption. A batch adsorption/desorption experiment produced Freundlich isotherms describing nonlinear adsorption (exponent m = 0.85) and hysteresis in

  14. Soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes at the Wagna - lysimeter: Workflow, models, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, Johann

    2014-05-01

    A precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Weighing lysimeters are precise tools to allow the determination of the hydrological cycle components in very short time intervals. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise and deep water percolation on short time scales. Evapotranspiration, rainfall, and irrigation can be computed from weight changes. In the last decades resolution and precision of the weighing systems have been substantially improved, so that modern lysimeters, resting on weighing cells can reach resolutions of up to 0.01 mm. Nevertheless, a lot of external effects (e.g. from maintenance, surface treatment) and small mechanical disturbances (e.g. caused by wind) became visible in the data. Seepage mass data are affected by water sampling and the emptying process of the seepage water container. Increasing parts of corrected seepage mass data show deep water percolation, decreasing parts in dry weather periods can be interpreted as capillary rise. In the evaluation process of corrected lysimeter mass data every increase in system weight (lysimeter mass + cumulative seepage mass) might be interpreted as rainfall or irrigation, whereas every decrease in system weight is interpreted as evapotranspiration. To apply this concept correctly, the noise in both data sets has to be separated from signals using a filtering routine (e.g. Peters et al., 2013) which is appropriate for any event, including events with low disturbances as well as strong wind and heavy precipitation in small time intervals. Based on the data set from the "Wagna" lysimeter in Austria with a high resolution of the scale (~ 0,015 mm) and very low noise due to low wind velocities for the year 2010 a lysimeter data preparation workflow will be executed: (a) correction of the

  15. Water flow and multicomponent solute transport in drip-irrigated lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raij, Iael; Šimûnek, Jiří; Ben-Gal, Alon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2016-08-01

    Controlled experiments and modeling are crucial components in the evaluation of the fate of water and solutes in environmental and agricultural research. Lysimeters are commonly used to determine water and solute balances and assist in making sustainable decisions with respect to soil reclamation, fertilization, or irrigation with low-quality water. While models are cost-effective tools for estimating and preventing environmental damage by agricultural activities, their value is highly dependent on the accuracy of their parameterization, often determined by calibration. The main objective of this study was to use measured major ion concentrations collected from drip-irrigated lysimeters to calibrate the variably saturated water flow model HYDRUS (2D/3D) coupled with the reactive transport model UNSATCHEM. Irrigation alternated between desalinated and brackish waters. Lysimeter drainage and soil solution samples were collected for chemical analysis and used to calibrate the model. A second objective was to demonstrate the potential use of the calibrated model to evaluate lower boundary design options of lysimeters with respect to leaching fractions determined using drainage water fluxes, chloride concentrations, and overall salinity of drainage water, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) in the profile. The model showed that, in the long term, leaching fractions calculated with electrical conductivity values would be affected by the lower boundary condition pressure head, while those calculated with chloride concentrations and water fluxes would not be affected. In addition, clear dissimilarities in ESP profiles were found between lysimeters with different lower boundary conditions, suggesting a potential influence on hydraulic conductivities and flow patterns.

  16. Chemical equilibria model analysis of Hope Creek eastern oil shale lysimeter leachate data

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.

    1989-09-01

    Leachates from field lysimeters containing an eastern oil shale, a retorted eastern oil shale, and an oil shale fines/retorted oil shale mixture were subjected to chemical equilibria analysis by the GEOCHEM model. Results of the chemical equilibria model analysis provided a more detailed characterization of the chemistry of oil shale materials. The aqueous chemistry of the lysimeter leachates is dominated by free ionic metal species and metal sulfate ion pairs. Activity diagrams shows that free metal ion activities (with the exception of Ca{sup 2+}) are directly related to SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activities. This suggests that the aqueous activities of the metals examined are not supported by metal sulfate solid phases. However, an examination of metal sulfate ion activity products (IAPs) as a function of time shows that the IAPs approach constant values after approximately 800 days of the field study. For the great majority of the metals examined, the IAP values suggest leachate undersaturation with respect to even the most stable metal sulfate phases. Leachates from all three materials are predicted by GEOCHEM to approach equilibrium with respect to gypsum and goethite. In addition, leachates from the oil shale lysimeter are predicted by GEOCHEM to approach equilibrium with respect to melanterite, Fe-jurbanite, franklinite, molybdite, and molybdic acid. Aluminum activities in all three lysimeter leachates fall within the stability region of several basic aluminum sulfates. However, Al{sup 3+} activities in the lysimeter leachates are not supported by sulfate phases. 34 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A comparison of simulation models for predicting soil water dynamics in bare and vegetated lysimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Kickert, R.N.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of simulation models used to predict soil water storage dynamics at the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) weighing lysimeters. The objectives of this research is to develop the capability to predict soil water storage dynamics with plants in support of water infiltration control studies for the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. It is important to gain confidence in one`s ability to simulate soil water dynamics over long time periods to assess the barrier`s ability to prevent drainage. Two models were compared for their ability to simulate soil water storage dynamics with and without plants in weighing lysimeters, the soil water infiltration and movement (SWIM) and the simulation of production and utilization of rangelands (SPUR-91) models. These models adequately simulated soil water storage dynamics for the weighing lysimeters. The range of root mean square error values for the two models was 7.0 to 19.8. This compares well with the range reported by Fayer et al. (1992) for the bare soil data sets of 8.1 to 22.1. Future research will test the predictive capability of these models for longer term lysimeter data sets and for historical data sets collected in various plant community types.

  18. A site-level comparison of lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements of evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, Martin; Michel, Dominik; Lehner, Irene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-03-01

    Accurate measurements of evapotranspiration are required for many meteorological, climatological, ecological, and hydrological research applications and developments. Here we examine and compare two well-established methods to determine evapotranspiration at the site level: lysimeter-based measurements (EL) and eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements (EEC). The analyses are based on parallel measurements carried out with these two methods at the research catchment Rietholzbach in northeastern Switzerland, and cover the time period of June 2009 to December 2015. The measurements are compared on various timescales, and with respect to a 40-year lysimeter-based evapotranspiration time series. Overall, the lysimeter and EC measurements agree well, especially on the annual timescale. On that timescale, the long-term lysimeter measurements also correspond well with catchment water-balance estimates of evapotranspiration. This highlights the representativeness of the site-level lysimeter and EC measurements for the entire catchment despite their comparatively small source areas and the heterogeneous land use and topography within the catchment. Furthermore, we identify that lack of reliable EC measurements using open-path gas analyzers during and following precipitation events (due to limitations of the measurement technique under these conditions) significantly contributes to an underestimation of EEC and to the overall energy balance gap at the site.

  19. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin. PMID:24409391

  20. Influence of low-level laser radiation on kidney functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.

    1998-12-01

    Most of all renal diseases are accompanied by lowering of kidney functions. That makes the quality of the treatment worse. On an example 69 patients receiving Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), the influence of the laser radiation on a contracting system of blood, on current of an active and inactive tubercular inflammation and on partial functions of kidneys were investigated. Is established, that LLLT does not render influence to a contracting system; promotes stopping of unspecific and moderate peaking of a specific inflammation of kidneys. Is proved, that after a rate of laserotherapy the improving of a blood micricirculation in kidney occurs in 57.9% of patients; a secretion - in 63.1% of the patients; a stimulation of urodynamic is fixed in 79% of cases. Magnification of diuresis, improving filtration and concentration functions of kidneys also is marked.

  1. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin.

  2. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  3. Screening Experiments for Removal of Low-Level Tritiated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yun Mi; Baney, Ronald; Powers, Kevin; Koopman, Ben; Tulenko, James

    2005-03-15

    Screening experiments for low levels of tritiated water (HTO) remediation based upon selective adsorption/desorption mechanisms utilizing equilibrium isotope effects have been carried out. Several organic and inorganic high surface area materials were investigated to assess their ability to selectively adsorb low concentrations of HTO. Ion-exchange resins with cation functionalities, chitosan, sodium alginate, and several inorganic media modified with metal cations exhibited promising results. Biomaterials, for example, chitosan and modified alginate, demonstrated positive results. Based on the literature and our preliminary testing, we postulate four possible mechanisms for selected tritium adsorption: hydrogen ion exchange, HTO coordination with surface cation sites, hydrogen bonding to surface basic sites, and secondary hydrogen bonding (structural water) in fine pores.

  4. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  5. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  6. Quantifying soil evaporation and transpiration at the scale of a remote sensing pixel by extrapolating mini-lysimeter results with the aid of remote sensed surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voortman, B.; Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Lysimeters are often used to measure evapotranspiration (Et) by changes in mass of a volume of soil. Precision lysimeters generate data of Et at a high resolution in the order of 0.02 to 0.05 mm. This resolution is often reported as the accuracy of the lysimeter, which is in fact the accuracy of the weighing device. Improper installation or design of lysimeters is often not accounted for when assessing their accuracy. In general, measurement errors due to improper environmental conditions will decrease with increasing surface area and depth of the lysimeter. This is primarily because a larger part of the lysimeter is unaffected by its boundaries and because heterogeneities in soil hydraulic properties and micro-climate are more averaged out. However, the cost of large systems make them unattractive and scientists often choose for more economical solutions, optimizing between lysimeter dimensions and costs. One of the difficulties when designing a lysimeter is controlling the boundary condition at the base of the lysimeter. In case of a freely draining lysimeter (atmospheric pressure at the bottom), the lower portion of the lysimeter must saturate to generate a hydraulic gradient in downward direction, after which the lysimeter starts to drain. In groundwater independent sites this will lead to a higher soil moisture content in the lysimeter in comparison with the surrounding soil. One could overcome this problem by using suction plates and vacuum pumps to set a suction level at the base of the lysimeter equal to the surrounding soil., In dry soils, however, suction plates may dry out beyond the air entry value of the ceramic material, which neutralizes the suction pressure. Furthermore, a sophisticated drainage system will increase the maintenance and construction cost of the lysimeter. Moisture conditions in lysimeters are difficult to control and whenever this affects the available water for rooting plants this will lead to erroneous measurements of Et. We

  7. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  8. The role of lysimeters in the development of our understanding of processes in the vadose zone relevant to contamination of groundwater aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Michael J.; Ehlers, Wilfried; Unc, Adrian

    further highlighted the importance of preferential flow. Lysimeters have permitted investigation of the mechanisms by which these chemical and biological materials, which can be hazardous to human health, reach our sources of drinking water. They have also provided the means of identifying soil management practices that could be used to reduce the movement contaminants in the leachate from agricultural fields.

  9. 77 FR 26991 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY... to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 61, ``Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These...

  10. 77 FR 10401 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues... possible revisions to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste... Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These regulations were published in the Federal Register on December 27...

  11. 77 FR 72997 - Low-Level Waste Disposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities to require new and revised site-specific... Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' to require new and revised site-specific analyses and to permit the...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Waste Disposal AGENCY:...

  12. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-10-07

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups. (ACR)

  13. Comparison of Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and weighing-lysimeter evapotranspiration for two sparse-canopy sites in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomlinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report compares evapotranspiration estimated with the Bowen-ratio and eddy-correlation methods with evapotranspiration measured by weighing lysimeters for two sparse-canopy sites in eastern Washington. The sites are located in a grassland area (grass lysimeter site) and a sagbrush- covered area (sage lysimeter site) on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. Lysimeter data were collected at the sites from August 1990 to November 1994. Bowen-ratio data were collected for varying periods from May 1993 to November 1994. Additional Bowen-ratio data without interchanging air- temperature and vapor-pressure sensors to remove sensor bias (fixed-sensor system) were collected from October 1993 to June 1994. Eddy-correlation data were collected at the grass lysimeter site from March to April 1994, and at the sage lysimeter site from April to May 1994. The comparisons of evapotranspiration determined by the various methods differed considerably, depending on the periods of record being compared and the sites being analyzed. The year 1993 was very wet, with about 50 percent more precipitation than average; 1994 was a very dry year, with only about half the average precipitation. The study showed that on an annual basis, at least in 1994, Bowen-ratio evapotranspiration closely matched lysimeter evapotranspiration. In 1993, Bowen-ratio and lysimeter evapotranspiration comparisons were variable. Evapotranspiration estimated with the Bowen-ratio method averaged 5 percent more than evapotranspiration measured by lysimeters at the grass lysimeter site from October 1993 to November 1994, and 3 percent less than lysimeters at the sage lysimeter site from November 1993 to October 1994. From March 24 to April 5, 1994, at the grass lysimeter site, the Bowen-ratio method estimated 11 percent less, the Bowen-ratio method utilizing the fixed sensor system about 7 percent more, and the eddy-correlation method about 28 percent less evapotranspiration than the

  14. The Role of Low-Level Laser in Periodontal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Heydari, Mohaddase; Barati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Treatment protocols with low-level Laser (also called ‘soft laser therapy) have been used in health care systems for more than three decades. Bearing in mind the suitable sub-cellular absorption and the cellular-vascular impacts, low-level laser may be a treatment of choice for soft tissues. Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. In this present review article, searches have been made in Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, focusing on the studies which included low-level lasers, flap-periodontal surgeries, gingivectomy, and periodontal graft. The present study has sought to review the cellular impacts of low-level lasers and its role on reducing pain and inflammation following soft tissue surgical treatments. PMID:25987968

  15. Application of Low level Lasers in Dentistry (Endodontic)

    PubMed Central

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Low level lasers, cold or soft lasers: These lasers do not produce thermal effects on tissues and induce photoreactions in cells through light stimulation which is called photobiostimulation. Power of these lasers is usually under 250mW. The main point differentiating low level lasers and high power ones is the activation of photochemical reactions without heat formation. The most important factor to achieve this light characteristic in lasers is not their power, but their power density for each surfa ceunit (i.e cm2). Density lower than 670mW/cm2, can induce the stimulatory effects of low level lasers without thermal effects. Low level lasers (therapeutic) used today as treatment adjunctive devices in medicine and dentistry. Numerous studies have been performed on the applications of low level lasers in patient pain reduction. Mechanisms of pain reduction with therapeutic lasers and their application are expressed, and the studies realized in this field are presented. PMID:25606308

  16. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  17. The influence of the lysimeter filling on the soil monolith inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetz, T.; Schilling, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-04-01

    In general, lysimeters are vessels containing disturbed or undisturbed soil blocks, for the most realistic scenario with regard to real outdoor conditions an undisturbed soil block so called soil monolith is preferable. The lower boundary condition was realized in two different ways: as a zero-tension lysimeter with a perforated bottom plate or as controlled lower boundary condition with a suction plate. The optimal surface area and the lysimeter length depend mainly on the scientific question. For cropped lysimeter experiments the lysimeter length has to reflect to a maximum root length. The base area is strongly connected to the scale of observation, whereby small-scale heterogeneity will be averaged using large base areas. For our experiments lysimeters with 2.5 m length, 2 m2 base area and with a wall thickness of the round vessel of 10 mm were used. A base frame weighted down by 120 t of concrete weights is necessary to press a lysimeter cylinder into the ground by the aid of a hydraulic press. The hydraulic press is connected with the base frame via chains. Because of the control of the four hydraulic cylinders a very precise vertical pressing process is guaranteed. To visualize the impact of the lysimeter filling on the intactness of the soil monolith a finite element computation was conducted. The finite element package ANSYS Release 11 was used to execute a nonlinear static analysis on a 2D-axisymmetric finite element model, to simulate the pressing process starting from a soil initial stress state and ending with the full length of the vessel driven into the soil, after which the hydraulic press and the concrete weights are deactivated and the vessel-surrounding soil is excavated. The numerical model of the pressing process considers among other things, a cap non-associative plasticity model with shear and volumetric hardening, soil to soil contact with cohesive zone modelling, soil to vessel contact with high friction, soil excavation using element birth

  18. Modelling the water balance of a precise weighable lysimeter for short time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the atmosphere and the soil-plant system and the percolation to the groundwater system is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the atmosphere-plant-soil-groundwater system. Weighable lysimeters yield the most precise and realistic measures for the change of stored water volume (ΔS), Precipitation (P) which can be rain, irrigation, snow and dewfall and evapotranspiration (ET) as the sum of soil evaporation, evaporation of intercepted water and transpiration. They avoid systematic errors of standard gauges and class-A pans. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise (C) and leachate (L) on short time scales. Precise weighable large scale (surface >= 1 m2) monolithic lysimeters avoiding oasis effects allow to solve the water balance equation (P - ET - L + C ± ΔS = 0) for a 3D-section of a natural atmosphere-plant-soil-system for a certain time period. Precision and accuracy of the lysimeter measurements depend not only on the precision of the weighing device but also on external conditions, which cannot be controlled or turned off. To separate the noise in measured data sets from signals the adaptive window and adaptive threshold (AWAT) filter (Peters et al., 2014) is used. The data set for the years 2010 and 2011 from the HYDRO-lysimeter (surface = 1 m2, depth = 1 m) in Wagna, Austria (Klammler and Fank, 2014) with a resolution of 0,01 mm for the lysimeter scale and of 0,001 mm for the leachate tank scale is used to evaluate the water balance. The mass of the lysimeter and the mass of the leachate tank is measured every two seconds. The measurements are stored as one minute arithmetic means. Based on calculations in a calibration period from January to May 2010 with different widths of moving window the wmax - Parameter for the AWAT filter was set to 41 minutes. A time series for the system mass ('upper boundary') of the

  19. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  1. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  2. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  3. Estrogenic effect of leachates and soil extracts from lysimeters spiked with sewage sludge and reference endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Dizer, Halim; Fischer, Birgit; Sepulveda, Isabel; Loffredo, Elisabetta; Senesi, Nicola; Santana, Fernando; Hansen, Peter-D

    2002-01-01

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the behavior and performance of some potential endocrine disrupters (ECDs). Two in vitro screening assays, one based on MCF7-cell proliferation (E-screen test) and the other on estrogenic receptor activity [enzyme-linked receptor assay (ELRA)], were used for the tests, which were done in lysimeters 80 cm in diameter with depth of 30 cm (shallow) or 90 cm (deep). A sandy soil was used to fill in all lysimeters, which were spiked on the surface with either: (a) a sewage sludge (SS) at a dose equivalent to 20 tons ha-1; (b) a mixture of reference ECDs, comprising 17 alpha- and 17 beta-estradiol (E2), nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol A at doses 100 times higher than the maximum concentrations respectively found in the applied SS; or (c) a mixture of ECDs and SS. After percolation of the lysimeters with rain and/or artificial water, five leachates were sampled from each lysimeter during a period of 210 days. Immediately after the lysimeter percolation experiments, four and six soil fractions were dissected from, respectively, the 30-cm and 90-cm lysimeters and extracted by water. Both the leachate and soil extract samples were analyzed for their estrogenicity using the assays indicated above. The E-screen assay was highly sensitive only for some leachate and extract samples but gave no response for most leachates and soil extracts. The results of the ELRA assay suggests a significantly higher estrogenicity of leachate samples from shallow lysimeters compared with that of leachates from deep lysimeters. In contrast, the estrogenic effect measured for soil extracts of shallow lysimeters was lower than that measured for soil extracts of deep lysimeters. The results of the E-screen assay suggests the occurrence of a fast mobilization of applied ECDs and a moderate retardation effect of native ECDs contained in applied SS in the sandy soil used in the lysimeters. In lysimeters spiked with a mixture of SS and ECDs, the

  4. Surface effects on water storage under dryland summer fallow, a lysimeter study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small changes in short and long term soil water storage can have large effects on crop productivity in semi-arid climates. To optimize tillage and residue management, we need to measure evaporation from a range of treatments on contrasting soil types. Sixty low-cost, low-maintenance lysimeters were ...

  5. Lysimeter vs. superconducting gravimeter: Measuring the influence of local water storage changes on temporal gravity observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Güntner, Andreas; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    Temporal gravimeter observations, which are used in geodesy and geophysics to study changes in the Earth's gravity field like tidal or mass transfer effects, are influenced by local water storage change (WSC). This study presents the first comparison of lysimeter measurements with temporal gravimeter observations made by a superconducting gravimeter (SG). Lysimeter measurements in combination with complementary hydrological observations and a rigid hydrological 1D model give the unique opportunity to estimate WSC from the snow down to the groundwater at the field scale. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell (Germany), water storage changes in the snow pack, top soil, unsaturated saprolite and fractured aquifer are all important terms for the local water budget. The hydrological influence on SG measurements is estimated by calculating the gravity response of local WSC. We find a high correlation of local WSC and SG residuals on the event and seasonal scale. Lysimeter measurements significantly improve the estimation of WSC on the field scale and consequently provide a better reduction of local hydrological influence on temporal gravimeter measurements. Hence, at temporal gravity observation sites a lysimeter installation is recommended in case that the gravity signal should be reduced from local WSC.

  6. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.

    2003-04-01

    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  7. Settlement behavior of municipal solid waste due to internal and external environmental factors in a lysimeter.

    PubMed

    Melo, Márcio C; Caribé, Rômulo M; Ribeiro, Libânia S; Sousa, Raul B A; Monteiro, Veruschka E D; de Paiva, William

    2016-12-05

    Long-term settlement magnitude is influenced by changes in external and internal factors that control the microbiological activity in the landfill waste body. To improve the understanding of settlement phenomena, it is instructive to study lysimeters filled with MSW. This paper aims to understand the settlement behavior of MSW by correlating internal and external factors that influence waste biodegradation in a lysimeter. Thus, a lysimeter was built, instrumented and filled with MSW from the city of Campina Grande, the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Physicochemical analysis of the waste (from three levels of depth of the lysimeter) was carried out along with MSW settlement measurements. Statistical tools such as descriptive analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were also performed. The settlement/compression, coefficient of variation and PCA results indicated the most intense rate of biodegradation in the top layer. The PCA results of intermediate and bottom levels presented fewer physicochemical and meteorological variables correlated with compression data in contrast with the top layer. It is possible to conclude that environmental conditions may influence internal indicators of MSW biodegradation, such as the settlement.

  8. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  9. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  10. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan - ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    W. E. Remsen

    2006-12-19

    The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters. Therefore, the scope of this report will be to establish constituent levels and document dewatering activities completed to date.

  11. Two source energy balance model-refinements and lysimeter tests in the Southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A thermal two-source energy balance model (TSM) was evaluated for predicting daily evapotranspiration (ET) of alfalfa, corn, cotton, grain sorghum, soybean, and wheat in a semiarid, advective environment. Crop ET was measured with large, monolythic weighing lysimeters. The TSM solved the energy budg...

  12. Two source energy balance model:Refinements and lysimeter tests in the Southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A thermal two-source energy balance model (TSM) was evaluated for predicting daily evapotranspiration (ET) of alfalfa, corn, cotton, grain sorghum, soybean, and wheat in a semiarid, advective environment. Crop ET was measured with large, monolythic weighing lysimeters. The TSM solved the energy budg...

  13. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan – ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-04-04

    The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters. Therefore, the scope of this report will be to establish constituent levels and document dewatering activities completed to date.

  14. An Integrated Lysimeter and Satellite Imagery Approach for Estimating Crop Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorahoo, D.; Cassel-Sharma, F.; Johnson, L.; Melton, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of crop water requirement (CWR) is essential for the implementation efficient irrigation schedules in an effort to optimize water use efficiency. This is particularly important in the central San Joaquin Valley (SJV), California, USA, where severe droughts have accentuated the need to conserve water and improve on-farm water management. In the current study, we adopt an integrated approach for estimation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) involving the use of weighing lysimeters and satellite imagery. In the first phase of the study with the crop lysimeter, conducted on a clay loam soil with processing tomatoes grown under sub-surface drip irrigation, observations of crop ground cover were conducted weekly and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected daily to derive relationships between crop coefficients and fractional cover. Data collected during the first year of the study, indicted that the crop coefficients (Kc) obtained at peak season were relatively higher than those generally reported for tomatoes commonly grown in the central SJV. Overall, there was a good correlation between fractional cover and crop coefficients (r2 = 0.91), with the average peak ET and Kc values ranging from 6 to 7 mm per day and from 0.8 to 0.9, respectively. Data obtained from satellite imagery, representing relatively larger spatial measurements than the lysimeters, are being compared with the surface observations from the lysimeters and will also be discussed in our presentation.

  15. Simulating Water Flow and Heat Transfer in Arid Soil Using Weighing Lysimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkema, Jelle; Koonce, Jeremy; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Berli, Markus; van der Ploeg, Martine; (Rien) van Genuchten, Martinus

    2015-04-01

    Deserts cover about one third of the Earth's land surface. Rather little though is known about the physics of desert soils and their implications for the ecology and hydrology of arid environments. The recently constructed weighing lysimeters located in Boulder City, Nevada, were designed to improve our understanding of the physical processes and properties of arid soils at the meter scale. In this study, we developed a HYDRUS-1D model to simulate water infiltration, hydraulic redistribution, and heat transfer for one of the lysimeters. HYDRUS-1D solves the coupled equations for water flow and heat transfer in variably saturated soil. Soil hydraulic and thermal properties were initialized based on prior knowledge and characterizations of the lysimeter soil. Soil hydraulic and thermal parameters were further refined by inverse simulation using a subset of the soil water content, water potential and temperature measurements at various depths. The model was validated using a separate portion of the soil moisture and temperature data set that was not used for calibration. The calibrated model provides a tool to virtually test future experiments in the lysimeters such as changes in the irrigation regime or the incorporation of plants. The model will also help to assess the impact of the placement of physical structures (such as solar panels) on the water and heat balance of desert soils.

  16. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    SciTech Connect

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  17. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made. (DLC)

  18. Digital-to-analog converter operates from low level inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelstein, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Circuit controls a voltage controlled oscillator from computer output binary data representing a rate at which the oscillator is to change. It operates with low level output devices such as integrated circuit registers and devices with somewhat variable output levels.

  19. Study of the Low Level Wind Shear using AMDAR reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urlea, Ana-Denisa; Pietrisi, Mirela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the effects of the wind shear on aircraft flights, in particularly when it appears on path of take-off or landing phase which is the most troublesome phase. This phenomenon has a lot of generating sources as: convection, frontal surfaces, strong surface wind coupled with local topography, breezes (either sea or mountain originated), mountain waves or low level temperature inversions. Low Level Jet is also a most frequent cause of Low Level Wind Shear. It has a lot of generating causes, but in Romania the most encountered is the presence of a Mediterranean low in southeastern part of Europe mainly in winter, sometimes in the first days of spring or the last days of autumn. It generates Low Level Wind Shear between surface and up to 600m, affecting approaching, landing or take-off phases of an aircraft flight. Diagnosis of meteorological general and local conditions and presence of Low Level Jet- generating Low Level Wind Shear is made using Meteo-France ARPEGE products model and ALARO high resolution model dedicated to Romanian area. The study is focused on use of real-time and in situ data as AMDAR (Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay) registrations with verification of a mobile Doppler SODAR registrations-("SOnic Detection And Ranging" system -PCS.2000- Metek manufactured by Meteorologische Messtechnik GMBH) in the processes of estimation of the quantitative and qualitative manifestation of Low Level Wind Shear. The results will be used to improve the timing and the accuracy of the Low Level Wind Shear forecasting for the aerodrome area.

  20. Do the Low Levels of Reading Course Material Continue? An Examination in a Forensic Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clump, Michael A.; Doll, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Clump, Bauer, and Bradley (2004) and Burchfield and Sappington (2000) previously found extremely low levels of reading in undergraduate psychology courses. The current study investigated whether these low levels of reading are also found with graduate students, or if this value is altered by only investigating individuals who show continued…

  1. Do the Low Levels of Reading Course Material Continue? An Examination in a Forensic Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clump, Michael A.; Doll, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Clump, Bauer, and Bradley (2004) and Burchfield and Sappington (2000) previously found extremely low levels of reading in undergraduate psychology courses. The current study investigated whether these low levels of reading are also found with graduate students, or if this value is altered by only investigating individuals who show continued…

  2. Low-level laser therapy to treat fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ruaro, J A; Fréz, A R; Ruaro, M B; Nicolau, R A

    2014-11-01

    Several clinical treatments have been proposed to manage symptoms of fibromyalgia. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a useful tool to treat this dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT in patients with fibromyalgia. A placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out with 20 patients divided randomly into either an LLLT group (n = 10) or a placebo group (n = 10). The LLLT group was treated with a GaAlAs laser (670 nm, 4 J/cm(2) on 18 tender points) three times a week over 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, patients were evaluated with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire, and visual analog scale (VAS). Data from the FIQ and McGill questionnaire for the treated and control groups were analyzed by paired t tests, and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze data from the VAS. After LLLT or sham treatment, the number of tender points was significantly reduced in both groups (LLLT, p < 0.0001; placebo, p = 0.0001). However, all other fibromyalgia symptoms showed significant improvements after LLLT compared to placebo (FIQ, p = 0.0003; McGill, p = 0.0078; and VAS, p = 0.0020). LLLT provided relief from fibromyalgia symptoms in patients and should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for management in fibromyalgia.

  3. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Junkert, R.

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  4. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy in TMD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayyildiz, Simel; Emir, Faruk; Sahin, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is one of the most recent treatment modalities in dentistry. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is suggested to have biostimulating and analgesic effects through direct irradiation without causing thermal response. There are few studies that have investigated the efficacy of laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in reduced mouth opening. The case report here evaluates performance of LLLT with a diode laser for temporomandibular clicking and postoperative findings were evaluated in two cases of TMD patients. First patient had a history of limited mouth opening and pain in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region since nine months. Second patient's main complaint was his restricted mouth opening, which was progressed in one year. LLLT was performed with a 685 nm red probed diode laser that has an energy density of 6.2 J/cm2, three times a week for one month, and application time was 30 seconds (685 nm, 25 mW, 30 s, 0.02 Hz, and 6.2 J/cm2) (BTL-2000, Portative Laser Therapy Device). The treatment protocol was decided according to the literature. One year later patients were evaluated and there were no changes. This application suggested that LLLT is an appropriate treatment for TMD related pain and limited mouth opening and should be considered as an alternative to other methods. PMID:26587294

  6. High resolution LES study of the nocturnal low level jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giometto, Marco; Calaf, Marc; Oldroyd, Holly; Fang, Jiannong; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Katabatic winds are buoyantly driven flows arising along cooled sloping surfaces which play a crucial role in driving the local weather, redistributing scalars such as temperature and moisture in the atmosphere. These winds are established following sunset under strong radiational cooling and rapidly stop after dawn with the formation of the convective boundary layer. They are characterized by a peak in the along slope velocity known as nocturnal low level jet (LLJ) whose effects, on the dynamics of such systems, have been recently investigated but are still not fully understood. The current contribution proposes a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) study at high resolution of idealized katabatic flows along cooled sloping surfaces and aims at gaining a deeper understanding on those that are the dynamics of such thermodynamical systems at the LLJ height. The stably stratified atmosphere is approximated in the Boussinesq sense, rotational effects are not taken into account and the subgrid terms for momentum and buoyancy are independently parametrized adopting Lagrangian scale dependent dynamic models (Bou Zeid et al., 2005). The structure of the mean and turbulent fields obtained from our numerical setup is analysed and results are compared with recent literature and meteorological observations from a narrow alpine valley with steep slopes (Val Ferret, Switzerland). The importance of the subgrid parametrization is tested via run at various resolution.

  7. Concentrating low-level tritiated water through isotope exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Dye, R.C.; Pratt, L.R.; Gomez, M.A.; Meadows, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    Trapping of tritium on polymers with specific functional groups was investigated as a means of treating waste streams containing low levels of tritium. Chemical exchange of tritium with hydrogen on the functional group was used as the mechanism for trapping. The polymers tested include Aurorez polybenzimidazole resin beads, Chelex 100 resin beads, Duolite GT-73, microcrystalline cellulose, and polyethylenimine. The tests were performed under simulated operating conditions on water obtained from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Tritiated water from the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is discharged to this plant. Polyethylenimine is a water-soluble polymer that was tested using a stirred membrane cell with an ultrafiltration membrane. All of the polymers except polyethylenimine took up tritium from the water. Polybenzimidazole demonstrated the highest tritium uptake. The results are explained on the basis of the type of functional group, hydrogen bonding, and rigidity of the molecular structure of the polymer. The theoretical calculations indicate that significant isotope discrimination requires high-frequency modes with hydrogen bonding contribution and support the experimental findings. Modeling suggested trends that may lead to structures that are more efficient in trapping tritium.

  8. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.

    2002-02-26

    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  9. Special waste-form lysimeters - arid: 1984--1992 data summary and preliminary interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    A lysimeter facility constructed at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State has been used since 1984 to monitor the leaching of buried waste forms under natural conditions. The facility is generating data that are useful in evaluating source-term models used in radioactive waste transport analyses. The facility includes ten bare-soil lysimeters (183 cm diameter by 305 cm depth) containing buried waste forms generated at nuclear reactors in the United States and solidified with Portland M cement, masonry cement, bitumen, and vinyl-ester styrene. The waste forms contained in the lysimeters have been leached under natural, semiarid conditions. In spite of the semiarid conditions, from 1984 through 1992, an average of 45 cm of water leached through the lysimeters, representing 27% of area precipitation. Leachate samples have been routinely collected and analyzed for radionuclide and chemical content. To date, tritium, cobalt-60, and cesium-137 have been identified in the lysimeter leachate samples. From 1984 through 1992, over 4000 {mu}Ci of tritium, representing 76 and 71 % of inventory (not decay corrected), have been leached from the two waste forms containing tritium. Cobalt-60 has been found in the leachate from all six of the waste forms that originally contained > 1 mCi of inventory. The leached amounts of cobalt-60 represent < 0.1 % of original cobalt inventories. Mobile cobalt is believed to be chelated with organic compounds, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), that are present in the waste. Trace amounts of cesium-137 have occasionally been identified in leachate from two waste forms since 1991. Qualitatively, the field leaching results confirm laboratory studies suggesting that tritium is readily leached from cement, and that cobalt-60 is generally leached more easily from cement than from vinyl-ester styrene.

  10. Tracer breakthrough curves in a complex lysimeter system: evidence of non-stationary transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, P.; Bertuzzo, E.; Botter, G.; Rao, P.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the outcomes of a lysimeter experiment aimed at the measurement of travel time distributions of water and certain nonreactive solutes under non-stationary conditions to examine the kinematics of age mixing. In order to simulate the release of a compound in a receiving water body, it is common in hydrology to attribute a travel time probability distribution to each particle, which reflects the response of a catchment unit to a solute input. Hence, the concentration measured at a control section becomes the convolution between the travel time distribution and the concentration of the inputs throughout the past. This study aims at experimentally demonstrating that the tracer travel time probability distribution is, in fact, strongly dependent on the antecedent conditions at the time of tracer injection and the subsequent states experienced in the system. It is therefore a function of numerous transient processes such as hydrologic filtering in soils, climatic forcing or evapotranspiration patterns. A 2-meter deep weighing lysimeter was equipped with a discharge measurement system coupled with a sample collector, an array of water content sensors and an array of porous cups for soil water sampling at three different depths. Controlled random rainfall following a Poisson process was generated, and evapotranspiration losses from two willow trees planted in the lysimeter created an important soil-water storage deficit. Five species of fluorobenzoic acids were used as tracers, and sequentially injected through rainfall at different times. The measurement system installed allowed a precise and accurate monitoring of every input and output flux and water storage, which is crucial to determine the conditions influencing the travel time distribution and to calculate the mass loads and recovery rates. Breakthrough curves for multiple tracers measured at several depths within the lysimeter and at the lysimeter outlet provide support for non-stationary tracer travel

  11. Numerical study on the potential impact of different bottom boundary conditions on the water balance of lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Jannis; Vanderborght, Jan; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    The SOILCan lysimeter network is a large scale climate feedback experiment and is embedded in the four long term observatories of TERENO (TERestrial ENvironmental Observatories). The focus of the SOILCan-project is to observe the impact of climate change on water and matter budgets in different grass- and arable-land lysimeters. The monitoring infrastructure was established across a rainfall and temperature transect along which lysimeters were transported from wetter to drier conditions. The lysimeters in SOILCan have a controlled bottom boundary condition using a rack of suction candles that enables upward and downward flow of water. This pressure head at the bottom is controlled by measured soil water potentials in undisturbed soil in the close vicinity of the bottom of the lysimeter. For transported lysimeters this controlling approach no longer works as the surrounding soil profile and both its upper climatic boundary conditions and lower boundary conditions related to its hydrogeological setting differ from the place where the lysimeter was taken from. In order to evaluate these artefacts and to derive a suited approach to control the lower boundary of transported lysimeters, water balance simulations were run. We analyzed three different approaches to impose bottom boundary conditions for transported lysimeters. A 'zeroth-order' approach is to define the bottom boundary at the bottom of the lysimeter and use the pressure heads measured at the location from which the soil lysimeter was taken. However, this approach is prone to artefacts since these bottom boundary conditions are determined by the climate at the site where the lysimeter was taken from. A 'first-order' approach is to define a bottom boundary condition at a certain hydrogeological boundary that can be defined deeper in the soil profile such as a seepage face or a groundwater table. However, for shallow groundwater tables, this approach may also lead to artefacts since the depth of the groundwater

  12. Low-Level Laser Therapy Decreases Renal Interstitial Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fabiana Aparecida Mayrink; Moraes, Ana Carolina Meneghin; Paiva, Amanda Povoa; Schinzel, Vânia; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Semedo, Patricia; Castoldi, Angêla; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Oliveira, Roberto Sotto-Maior Fortes; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitial fibrosis that occurs after experimental UUO in rats. Methods: The occluded kidney of half of the 32 Wistar rats that underwent UUO received a single intraoperative dose of LLLT (AlGaAs laser, 780 nm, 22.5 J/cm2, 30 mW, 0.75 W/cm2, 30 sec on each of nine points). After 14 days, renal fibrosis was assessed by Sirius red staining under polarized light. Immunohistochemical analyses quantitated the renal tissue cells that expressed fibroblast (FSP-1) and myofibroblast (α-SMA) markers. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and Smad3. Results: The UUO and LLLT animals had less fibrosis than the UUO animals, as well having decreased expression inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers. Conclusions: For the first time, we showed that LLLT had a protective effect regarding renal interstitial fibrosis. It is conceivable that by attenuating inflammation, LLLT can prevent tubular activation and transdifferentiation, which are the two processes that mainly drive the renal fibrosis of the UUO model. PMID:23134313

  13. Multiobjective Optimization of Effective Soil Hydraulic Properties on a Lysimeter from a Layered, Gravelly Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werisch, Stefan; Lennartz, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of effective soil hydraulic parameters for characterization of the vadose zone properties is important for many applications from prediction of solute and pesticide transport to water balance modeling in small catchments. Inverse modeling has become a common approach to infer the parameters of the water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions from dynamic experiments under varying boundary conditions. To gain further inside into to the water transport behavior of an agricultural field site with a layered, gravelly vadose zone, a lysimeter was taken and equipped with a total of 48 sensors (24 tensiometers and 24 water content probes). The sensors were arranged in 6 vertical arrays consisting of 4 sensor pairs, respectively. Pressure heads and water contents were measured in four depths in each of the arrays allowing for the estimation of the soil hydraulic properties of the three individual soil layers by inverse modeling. For each of the soil horizons, a separate objective function was defined to fit the model to the observation. We used the global multiobjective multimethod search algorithm AMALGAM (Vrugt et al., 2007) in combination with the water flow and solute transport model Hydrus1D (Šimúnek et al., 2008) to estimate the soil hydraulic properties of the Mualem van Genuchten model (van Genuchten, 1980). This experimental design served for the investigation of two important questions: a) do effective soil hydraulic properties at the lysimeter scale exist, more specifically: can a single representative parameter set be found which describes the hydraulic behavior in each of the arrays with acceptable performance? And b) which degree of freedom is necessary or required for an accurate description of the one dimensional water flow at each of the arrays? Effective soil hydraulic parameters were obtained for each of the sensor arrays individually, resulting in good agreement between the model predictions and the observations for the individual

  14. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  15. Low Level Laser Therapy: A Panacea for oral maladies

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Vartika; Kalra, Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To review the applications of low level laser therapy on various soft and hard oral tissues. A variety of therapeutic effects of Low Level Laser Therapy have been reported on a broad range of disorders. It has been found amenably practical in dental applications including soft as well as hard tissues of the oral cavity. LLLT has been found to be efficient in acceleration of wound healing, enhanced remodelling and bone repair, regeneration of neural cells following injury, pain attenuation, endorphin release stimulation and modulation of immune system. The aforementioned biological processes induced by Low level lasers have been effectively applied in treating various pathological conditions in the oral cavity. With is article, we attempt to review the possible application of Low Laser Therapy in the field of dentistry. PMID:26557737

  16. Low-level radioactive waste: Gamma rays in the garbage

    SciTech Connect

    Saleska, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Of the four categories of radioactive waste (uranium mill tailings, high-level waste, transuranic, and low-level), the last term, low-level, proves to be the most misleading. The author suggests that a better term for this category would be miscellaneous radioactive junk, since it is by definition everything not included in the other three categories. Ted Taylor, a New York State resident and physicist and former nuclear weapons designer, points out that this category includes such intensely radioactive materials as reactor components that would deliver in a few minutes a lethal dose of gamma rays to anyone standing nearby. It is pointed out that of the original 6 low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, only 3 are still operating and two of those are slated to be closed in 1993 when they will be full. Unquestionably, new standards and policies are needed to deal sensibly with the problem; these are discussed briefly. 9 refs.

  17. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste.

  18. Liquefaction potential of sand deposits under low levels of excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Many researchers currently believe that liquefaction will not occur at a site unless the ground surface accelerations exceed some value between about 0.05g and 0.1g. It seems probable however, that levels of earthquake shaking significantly less than this value have induced liquefaction in the past. In addition, it also seems likely that non-seismic sources of low level vibration such as trains have caused several large scale liquefaction failures over the last forty years. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were as follows: (1) to determine whether train induced ground vibrations might be capable of inducing liquefaction, and (2) to determine the minimum level of earthquake shaking required to liquefy sand deposits in-situ. Train-induced ground motions were recorded at 4 different sites. These records show that trains appear to be capable of generating peak ground surface accelerations significantly in excess of 0.10g at distances closer than about 6 meters from the tracks. The liquefaction potential of sand sites shaken by trains is evaluated by following both the shear strain and the shear stress approaches. It is found that while trains are probably incapable of liquefying the sands underlying level sites, they appear to be capable of triggering liquefaction in sloping deposits under some conditions. On the basis of available data and analytical techniques, the minimum level of earthquake shaking required to cause liquefaction is shown to be heavily dependent on the magnitudes of both the initial static shear stresses, and any artesian pore pressures, present within the deposit. As the magnitudes of the initial shear stress/normal stress ratios increase, the level of shaking required to liquefy loose sand sites becomes extremely low.

  19. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  20. Assessing the effect of micro-lysimeters on NRWI: Do micro-lysimeters adequately represent the water input of natural soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidron, Giora J.; Kronenfeld, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The use of micro-lysimeters (MLs) by the scientific community for the measurement of non-rainfall water input, NRWI (dew, fog, water vapor) has become more widespread. With MLs being isolated bodies, we hypothesized that changes in heat flux may affect the surface temperatures and subsequently NRWI. Measurements were conducted with MLs of various lengths (3.5, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50 cm for 2014 and 3.5, 12, 50 cm for 2015), and on the adjacent soil that served as a control (COT) using cloths attached to glass plates in Sede Boqer (Negev Desert, Israel) during the late summer and fall of 2014 and 2015. In addition, periodical temperature and moisture measurements were also conducted on additional lysimeters. Non-significant differences in NRWI characterized MLs 12-50 cm-long, which could have been therefore grouped (termed ML12/50). However, these lysimeters and especially the 3.5 cm-long ML (ML3.5) yielded substantially higher values than that of COT, with the ratio of ML12/50 to COT and the ratio of ML3.5 to COT being up to 2.4 and 5.8, respectively, implying, as was indeed found during periodic measurements, lower nocturnal temperatures and subsequently higher moisture content at 0-0.2 cm at the MLs in comparison to COT. This was also reflected in the amount of recorded mornings with effective (>0.03 mm) NRWI: 34 mornings based on the ML12/50 in comparison to only 4 when based on COT. The findings raise serious concerns regarding published data on NRWI and call for proper calibration between the amounts obtained by the MLs and the natural intact soil.

  1. Stability testing of low-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Technical Position on Waste Form identifies methods for thermal cycle testing and biodegradation testing of low-level waste forms. These tests were carried out on low-level waste forms to establish whether the tests are reasonable and can be achieved. The thermal-cycle test is believed adequate for demonstrating the thermal stability of solidified waste forms. The biodegradation tests are sufficient for distinguishing materials that are susceptible to biodegradation. However, failure of either of these tests should not be regarded of itself as an indication that the waste form will biodegrade to an extent that the form does not meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR Part 61.

  2. Thermal stabilization of low level RF distribution systems at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Himel, T.; Spencer, N.

    1993-07-01

    Analysis of SLC accelerator operator activity, in particular control system knob turns, indicated poor thermal stability performance of the low level RF distribution system in the SLC injector and positron production complex. Daily drifts of up to 15 S-band delay, about 30 times the tolerance, were observed. In this paper we describe the tool used to track down and quantify operator knob turn activity, the low level RF distribution stabilization systems, and some fixes used to correct the problem. In order to identify poorly performing components, a beam timing or phase monitor diagonstic has been developed. Initial results from it will be presented.

  3. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  4. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  5. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  6. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  7. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  8. Effects of low levels of radiation on humans

    SciTech Connect

    Auxier, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed. (ACR)

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Environmentalism and low-level waste-the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorelle, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    Radical Environmentalists, anxious to shut down nuclear power, are directing efforts against the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (contaminated coveralls, tools, paper, plastic, glass, etc.). The rationals is that if nuclear power facilities cannot dispose of their waste streams, eventually they may have to stop operating. This article discusses the political and practical issues surrounding this approach.

  11. Teaching Low-Level Adult ESL Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Grace Massey

    In recent years, the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching profession has made discoveries about teaching beginning or low-level adult learners (those with little or no schooling in their native languages, learners who may not be familiar with the Roman alphabet, those with learning disabilities, and those literate in their native languages…

  12. 28. LOW LEVEL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG THE NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LOW LEVEL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG THE NEW BRIDGE, WITH THE OLD BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. April 23, 1949 (Field welding began at the far end of span #5. on April 19, 1949.) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  13. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  14. 60. VIEW OF LOW LEVEL CHECK STATION ON THE ARIZONA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF LOW LEVEL CHECK STATION ON THE ARIZONA CANAL, NEAR THE DEER VALLEY TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING WEST. THE ARIZONA CANAL DIVERSION CHANNEL IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, low level aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, low level aerial view of Test Stand "D," looking due west, after completion of Dd station installation in 1961. Note Test Stand "D" "neutralization pond" to immediate southeast of tower. (JPL negative no. 384-2997-B, 12 December 1961) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peel, J.W.; Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document.

  17. Decontamination and melting of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.W.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes the decommissioning project of the Capenhurst Diffusion Plant in Europe. Over 99 percent of the low-level waste was successfully treated and recycled. Topics include the following: decommissioning philosophy; specialized techniques including plant pretreatment, plant dismantling, size reduction, decontamination, melting, and encapsulation of waste; recycled materials and waste stream; project safety; cost drivers and savings. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Biomedical Cost of Low Level Flight in a Hot Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    orining almilistrative duties oil the ground. Flights were nected , ia breakawkay plug to a signal conditioner in the classified as low% level if they had...bsr\\L1101gW0 dinlo Edgar Williams and ’I’Sgi David 1-reeze assisted with) the chemi- itdtsc obcrscd intng \\’ ~s lurng ot cal airlyses Mr kiehard Mc.Nee

  19. Low Level Lead Toxicity: The Hidden Challenge for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Patrick P.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the widespread problem of low level lead toxicity and how it affects young children's behavior and learning ability. Discusses what medical and environmental measures can be taken to remedy the problem. Briefly notes what role states have taken. Also suggests actions early childhood teachers can take to remedy the problem. (BB)

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  1. Vertical migration of 60Co, 137Cs and 226Ra in agricultural soils as observed in lysimeters under crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Shinonaga, T; Schimmack, W; Gerzabek, M H

    2005-01-01

    In most studies quantifying the migration parameters - apparent migration velocity and apparent dispersion coefficient - of radionuclides in the soil by model calculations, these parameters are determined for undisturbed soils. For soils disturbed by ploughing, however, no such data are available in the literature. Therefore, in the present study, the migration parameters of (137)Cs, (60)Co and (226)Ra were estimated for ploughed soils by means of a convection-dispersion model. The depth distributions of the radionuclides were determined in four lysimeters (area: 1m(2), depth of soil monolith: 0.75m) filled with artificially contaminated soils of different types in July 1990. The lysimeters were cropped with agricultural plants. The soil in each lysimeter was ploughed manually once a year until 1996 (plough depth 20cm). In July 1999, soil samples were collected from three pits in each lysimeter. The depth distributions of all radionuclides proved to be very similar in each soil pit. The spatial variability of the depth distributions of a given radionuclide within the lysimeters was about the same as their variability between the four lysimeters. Evaluation of the migration parameters revealed that the convective transport of the radionuclides was always rather small or even zero, while the dispersive transport caused a "melting" process of the initially sharp activity edge at the lower border of the Ap horizon. These results are explained by the high evapotranspiration (80-90% of the total precipitation plus irrigation) and the small amounts of seepage water during the observation period of 9 years.

  2. Laboratory-lysimeter studies of dry FGD wastes from tests of the Coolside technology

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.N.; Schram, W.H.; Thomas, G.A.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Twenty two laboratory lysimeters were monitored for 12 months in an effort to characterize the leaching behavior of dry flue-gas desulfurization wastes generated during tests of the Coolside duct-injection Technology. Included were samples from Ohio Edison`s 1990 demonstration runs conducted at its Edgewater power plant and materials derived from runs conducted in CONSOL`s Coolside pilot plant. The primary objective of the study was to generate predictive information on leaching behavior of Coolside wastes. In addition, the test matrix was designed to examine the impact of various parameters including (1)lysimeter packing density, (2) use of a constant vs rain simulation method of water addition, (3) variation in the extent of prehydration of the wastes prior to loading, and (4) exposure to elevated levels of CO{sub 2} during the study. The relationships between these latter parameters and leachate characteristics are discussed.

  3. Central nervous system transplantation benefited by low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochkind, S.; Lubart, Rachel; Wollman, Yoram; Simantov, Rabi; Nissan, Moshe; Barr-Nea, Lilian

    1990-06-01

    Effect of low-level laser irradiation on the central nervous system transplantation is reported. Ernbryonal brain allografts were transplanted into the brain of 20 adult rats and peripheral nerve graft transplanted into the severely injured spinal cord of 16 dogs. The operated wound of 10 rats and 8 dogs were exposed daily for 21 days to lowpower laser irradiation CW HeNe laser (35 mW, 632.8 run, energy density of 30 J/cm2 at each point for rats and 70 J/cm2 at each point for dogs). This study shows that (i) the low-level laser irradiation prevents extensive glial scar formation (a limiting factor in CNS regeneration) between embryonal transplants and host brain; (ii) Dogs made paraplegic by spinal cord injury were able to walk 3-6 months later. Recovery of these dogs was effected by the implantation of a fragment of autologous sciatic nerve at the site of injury and subsequently exposing the dogs to low-level laser irradiation. The effect of laser irradiation on the embryonal nerve cells grown in tissue culture was also observed. We found that low-level laser irradiation induced intensive migration of neurites outward of the aggregates 15-22 The results of the present study and our previous investigations suggest that low-level laser irradiation is a novel tool for treatment of peripheral and central nervous system injuries.

  4. Forearm Muscle Oxygenation Decreases During Low Levels of Brief, Isometric Contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy Gita; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Rempel, D. M.; Hargens, Murthy G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Regional muscle pain syndromes can be caused by repeated and sustained exertion of a specific muscle. Such exertion may elevate local tissue fluid pressure, reduce blood flow and tissue oxygenation (TO2), and cause fatigue, pain and functional deficits of the Involved muscle. Low levels (less than 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) of prolonged static contraction of the upper extremity are common In many occupational settings and May cause fatigue. The purpose of our Investigation was to determine whether TO2 decreases significantly at low levels of static contraction of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB).

  5. Effect of photon energy in collagen generation by interstitial low level laser stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Eunkwon; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Radfar, Edalat; Park, Jihoon; Jung, Byungjo

    2015-03-01

    Although the mechanism of low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unclear, many studies demonstrated the positive clinical performance of LLLT for skin rejuvenation. An increase in dermal collagen plays an important role in skin rejuvenation and wound healing. This study aimed to investigate collagen generation after interstitial low level laser stimulation (ILLS). Rabbits were divided into two groups: surfacing irradiation and minimally invasive irradiation. 660nm diode laser of 20mW with 10J, 13J and 15J was applied to the backside of rabbits. Collagen formation was evaluated with ultrasound skin scanner every 12 hours. Results shows that ILLS groups have denser collagen density than surfacing groups.

  6. Forearm Muscle Oxygenation Decreases During Low Levels of Brief, Isometric Contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy Gita; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Rempel, D. M.; Hargens, Murthy G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Regional muscle pain syndromes can be caused by repeated and sustained exertion of a specific muscle. Such exertion may elevate local tissue fluid pressure, reduce blood flow and tissue oxygenation (TO2), and cause fatigue, pain and functional deficits of the Involved muscle. Low levels (less than 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) of prolonged static contraction of the upper extremity are common In many occupational settings and May cause fatigue. The purpose of our Investigation was to determine whether TO2 decreases significantly at low levels of static contraction of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB).

  7. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  8. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, J.; Evans, R.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with sampling surface dimensions of 31 cm width * 91 cm long and 87 cm in height were placed 90 cm below the soil surface in a Lihen sandy loam. Our state-of-the-art design incorporated Bluetooth wireless technology to enable an automated datalogger to transmit drainage water data simultaneously every 15 minutes to a remote host and had a greater efficiency than other types of lysimeters. It also offered a significantly larger coverage area (2700 cm2) than similarly designed vadose zone lysimeters. The cumulative manually extracted drainage water was compared with the cumulative volume of drainage water recorded by the datalogger from the tipping bucket using several statistical methods. Our results indicated that our automated PCAPs are accurate and provided convenient means for estimating water drainage in the vadose zone without the need for costly and manually time-consuming supportive systems.

  9. Towards an unbiased filter routine to determine precipitation and evapotranspiration from high precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andre; Groh, Jannis; Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Vereecken, Harry; Pütz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters are considered to be the best means for a precise measurement of water fluxes at the interface between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere. Any decrease of the net mass of the lysimeter can be interpreted as evapotranspiration (ET), any increase as precipitation (P). However, the measured raw data need to be filtered to separate real mass changes from noise. Such filter routines typically apply two steps: (i) a low pass filter, like moving average, which smooths noisy data, and (ii) a threshold filter that separates significant from insignificant mass changes. Recent developments of these filters have identified and solved some problems regarding bias in the data processing. A remaining problem is that each change in flow direction is accompanied with a systematic flow underestimation due to the threshold scheme. In this contribution, we analyze this systematic effect and show that the absolute underestimation is independent of the magnitude of a flux event. Thus, for small events, like dew or rime formation, the relative error is high and can reach the same magnitude as the flux itself. We develop a heuristic solution to the problem by introducing a so-called ;snap routine;. The routine is calibrated and tested with synthetic flux data and applied to real measurements obtained with a precision lysimeter for a 10-month period. The heuristic snap routine effectively overcomes these problems and yields an almost unbiased representation of the real signal.

  10. High-resolution accurate mass spectrometry as a technique for characterization of complex lysimeter leachate samples.

    PubMed

    Hand, Laurence H; Marshall, Samantha J; Saeed, Mansoor; Earll, Mark; Hadfield, Stephen T; Richardson, Kevan; Rawlinson, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Lysimeter studies can be used to identify and quantify soil degradates of agrochemicals (metabolites) that have the potential to leach to groundwater. However, the apparent metabolic profile of such lysimeter leachate samples will often be significantly more complex than would be expected in true groundwater samples. This is particularly true for S-metolachlor, which has an extremely complex metabolic pathway. Consequently, it was not practically possible to apply a conventional analytical approach to identify all metabolites in an S-metolachlor lysimeter study, because there was insufficient mass to enable the use of techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Recent advances in high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry, however, allow innovative screening approaches to characterize leachate samples to a greater extent than previously possible. Leachate from the S-metolachlor study was screened for accurate masses (±5 ppm of the nominal mass) corresponding to more than 400 hypothetical metabolite structures. A refined list of plausible metabolites was constructed from these data to provide a comprehensive description of the most likely metabolites present. The properties of these metabolites were then evaluated using a principal component analysis model, based on molecular descriptors, to visualize the entire chemical space and to cluster the metabolites into a number of subclasses. This characterization and principal component analysis evaluation enabled the selection of suitable representative metabolites that were subsequently used as exemplars to assess the toxicological relevance of the leachate as a whole. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1401-1412. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Extremely low-level microwaves attenuate immune imbalance induced by inhalation exposure to low-level toluene in mice.

    PubMed

    Novoselova, Elena G; Glushkova, Olga V; Khrenov, Maxim O; Novoselova, Tatyana V; Lunin, Sergey M; Fesenko, Eugeny E

    2017-05-01

    To clarify whether extremely low-level microwaves (MW) alone or in combination with p38 inhibitor affect immune cell responses to inhalation exposure of mice to low-level toluene. The cytokine profile, heat shock proteins expression, and the activity of several signal cascades, namely, NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IRF-3, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 were measured in spleen lymphocytes of mice treated to air-delivered toluene (0.6 mg/m(3)) or extremely low-level microwaves (8.15-18 GHz, 1μW/cm(2), 1 Hz swinging frequency) or combined action of these two factors. A single exposure to air-delivered low-level toluene induced activation of NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IFR-3, p38 MAPK and TLR4 pathways. Furthermore, air toluene induced the expression of Hsp72 and enhanced IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in blood plasma, which is indicative of a pro-inflammatory response. Exposure to MW alone also resulted in the enhancement of the plasma cytokine values (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) and activation of the NF-κB, MAPK p38, and especially the TLR4 pathways in splenic lymphocytes. Paradoxically, pre-exposure to MW partially recovered or normalized the lymphocyte parameters in the toluene-exposed mice, while the p38 inhibitor XI additionally increased protective activity of microwaves by down regulating MAPKs (JNK and p38), IKK, as well as expression of TLR4 and Hsp90-α. The results suggest that exposure to low-intensity MW at specific conditions may recover immune parameters in mice undergoing inhalation exposure to low-level toluene via mechanisms involving cellular signaling.

  12. A model for a national low level waste program

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenhorn, James A

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  13. Low-level RF control for the AFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek, C.; Kinross-Wright, J.; Plato, J.

    1994-09-01

    A limiting factor in the performance of the Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser (AFEL) is the stability of the RF accelerating field. A high-performance low-level RF control system has been implemented that uses analog feedback and digital feed forward to regulate the RF field. This low-level RF control system has achieved long-term amplitude and phase stabilities better than {+-}0.25% and {+-}0.33{degree} respectively. In order to improve the RF field stability further, a detailed system analysis and design is proceeding. Subsystem measurements are being used to model the system performance, predict the performance-limiting components, and determine possible improvements. Results to-date, modeling analyses, and suggested future improvements are presented.

  14. Wind turbines—low level noise sources interfering with restoration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines generate a low level noise and would thus not be expected to cause annoyance and disturb rest. In a society where people are being exposed to an increasing noise load, moderate and low level noise sources may also be perceived as annoying and hence inhibit restoration. This article presents an analysis of two socio-acoustic studies of wind turbine noise with the emphasis on perception, annoyance and consequences for restoration. It is hypothesized that low and moderate stressors such as wind turbine noise could have an impact on health. The risk seems to be higher if restoration is, or is perceived to be, impaired and also for certain groups of individuals. The observations warrant further studies.

  15. Immobilization of low level hazardous organics using recycled materials

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.R.; Smith, F.G.

    1996-12-31

    Rust Remedial Services, Inc. (RRS) recently conducted a major study on the effectiveness of additives, both virgin and recycled, in the immobilization of low-level organics in soils. Using a clean soil spiked with a mixture of hazardous organic chemicals, twelve different stabilization formulations were comparatively tested using leaching (TCLP) and total analysis (TCA) methods. TCLP reduction levels illustrated the effectiveness of the stabilization treatment on a wide variety of low level organics in contaminated soil, with the proper selection of stabilization admixtures. A specially prepared, comminuted, rubber particulate was especially effective in reducing the apparent presence of certain semi-volatile organic compounds in soil, as measured by TCA methods. Most semi-volatile organic compounds were so strongly held by the rubber particles that they were not recovered in the analytical procedure.

  16. (Low-level waste disposal facility siting and site characterization)

    SciTech Connect

    Mezga, L.J.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1985-10-25

    A US team consisting of representatives of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), Savannah river Laboratory (SRL), and the Department of Energy Office of Defense Waste and Byproducts Management participated in the fourth meeting held under the US/French Radioactive Waste Management Agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. This meeting, held at Agence Nationale pour les Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs' (ANDRA's) Headquarters in Paris, was a detailed, technical topical workshop focusing on Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Siting and Site Characterization.'' The meeting also included a visit to the Centre de la Manche waste management facility operated by ANDRA to discuss and observe the French approach to low-level waste management. The final day of the meeting was spent at the offices of Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) discussing potential areas of future cooperation and exchange. 20 figs.

  17. Low-level background absorption in durable window materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    The understanding and characterization of low level absorption in window materials is important for applications involving high energy lasers and hot windows in front of detectors. Low concentration impurities are important as well as disorders and defects. Such mechanisms can produce weak absorption that can manifest itself as background continuum absorption between the band gap and the multiphonon absorption edges. This so called weak absorption tail has been characterized in amorphous semiconductors and glasses, but not as completely in crystalline or polycrystalline materials that are typical durable window materials. Low-level absorption in the visible and near infrared has been reported for single crystal o-ray sapphire and a limited set on other crystalline based material. A survey of reported measurements in regions of high transparency for such materials is presented.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  19. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  20. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA. (PSB)

  1. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-02-28

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application.

  2. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process.

  3. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  4. The Argonne low level /sup 14/C counting system

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.; Rymas, S.J.; Studebaker, L.D.; Yule, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    A low level /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ counting system is described. This system was used to process several thousand CO/sub 2/ samples derived from atmospheric collections at various altitudes. Special features include counter construction utilizing electrolytic copper and shielding with neutron moderating and absorbing paraffin containing sodium metaborate. The effect of steel shielding thickness is shown, and the anticoincidence counters are described. Purification of the CO/sub 2/ for proportional counting is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A Study of Low Level Laser Retinal Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    16 Related Projects 18 References 20 STR-90-01 INTRODUCTION The objectives of this program were to document retinal changes due to low level laser...fluores- cence parameters measurements was stopped when I found that, contrary to popular opinion, fluorescein is a potent phototoxic agent in the...Mechanisms E. Dyed Artificial Tear Films for Eye Protection F. Light Scatter in the Eye 4 STR-90-01 G. Other Projects Related to the Problem of Retinal

  6. Low Levels of Insurance Reimbursement Impede Access to Cochlear Implants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Low Levels of Insurance Reimbursement Impede Access to Cochlear Implants Cochlear implants enable many severely to profoundly hearing-impaired...a cochlear implant device and required professional services, can cost more than $40,000. But studies by other organizations show that the benefits of...using the technology generally outweigh the treatment costs. About 3,000 people received cochlear implants in the United States in 1999—a number

  7. An Improvement to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Vitrification Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Protection Standards 40 CFR 191 EPA Environmental Standards for (DRAFT) the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel , High-Level and Transuranic ...test activities. In the U.S. Radwaste is subdivided into three categories: High-level Radioactive Wastes (HLW), Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (TRU...and Low-Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines4 𔃿 HLW as: (1) Irradiated reactor fuel , (2) liquid wastes resulting

  8. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  9. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  10. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  12. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  13. High-Speed, Low-Level Flight: Aircrew Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    clear from the material presented that the major problems currently encountered in high-speed, low-level flight are ’ride-bumpiness’, excessive workload...which we have for centuries, colonized, administered, developed, explored and loved. The unexpected drying up of preferential sources of raw materials and...definition means assuming responsibility for providing them with the material means necessary to carry the assigned mission, one can nevertheless say that the

  14. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  15. Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Wen-Dien; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Jiang, Joe-Air; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chang, Yang-Chyuan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG) changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz) to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  16. Low-level measurements of tritium in water.

    PubMed

    Villa, M; Manjón, G

    2004-01-01

    Using a liquid scintillation counter, an experimental procedure for measuring low-level activity concentrations of tritium in environmental water has been developed by our laboratory, using the electrolytic tritium enrichment. Additionally, some quality tests were applied in order to assure the goodness of the method. Well-known water samples collected in the Tagus River (West of Spain) and the Danube River (Bulgaria), both affected by nuclear plant releases, were analysed and results were compared to previous data. The analytical procedure was applied to drinking water samples from the public water supply of Seville and mineral waters from different springs in Spain in order to characterize its origin. Due to the very low levels of tritium in the analysed samples, some results were reported as lower than the minimum detectable activity concentration (MDA). However, the count rate of these measurements was over the background count rate of LS counter in all the cases. For that reason, an exhaustive discussion about the meaning of the MDA, using an experimental essay, was made in order to establish a rigorous criterion that leads to a reliable value in the case of low-level measurements.

  17. Recent progress in low-level gamma imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mahe, C.; Girones, Ph.; Lamadie, F.; Le Goaller, C.

    2007-07-01

    The CEA's Aladin gamma imaging system has been operated successfully for several years in nuclear plants and during decommissioning projects with additional tools such as gamma spectrometry detectors and dose rate probes. The radiological information supplied by these devices is becoming increasingly useful for establishing robust and optimized decommissioning scenarios. Recent technical improvements allow this gamma imaging system to be operated in low-level applications and with shorter acquisition times suitable for decommissioning projects. The compact portable system can be used in places inaccessible to operators. It is quick and easy to implement, notably for onsite component characterization. Feasibility trials and in situ measurements were recently carried out under low-level conditions, mainly on waste packages and glove boxes for decommissioning projects. This paper describes recent low-level in situ applications. These characterization campaigns mainly concerned gamma emitters with {gamma} energy < 700 keV. In many cases, the localization of hot spots by gamma camera was confirmed by additional measurements such as dose rate mapping and gamma spectrometry measurements. These complementary techniques associated with advanced calculation codes (MCNP, Mercure 6.2, Visiplan and Siren) offer a mobile and compact tool for specific assessment of waste packages and glove boxes. (authors)

  18. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  20. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls.

  1. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  2. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, G.E.; Steedman, W.G.; Chandran, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the treatment and disposal of an inventory of approximately 160,000 tons of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). Most of this LLMW is stored in drums, barrels and steel boxes at 20 different sites throughout the DOE complex. The basic objective of low-level mixed waste treatment systems is to completely destroy the hazardous constituents and to simultaneously isolate and capture the radionuclides in a superior final waste form such as glass. The DOE is sponsoring the development of advanced technologies that meet this objective while achieving maximum volume reduction, low-life cycle costs and maximum operational safety. ThermoChem, Inc. is in the final stages of development of a steam-reforming system capable of treating a wide variety of DOE low-level mixed waste that meets these objectives. The design, construction, and testing of a nominal 1 ton/day Process Development Unit is described.

  3. Taking play seriously: low-level smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Peter; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi

    2007-03-01

    Cigarettes have been socially engineered to become potent symbols. Therefore, they need to be understood as cultural products invested with cognitive and emotional salience as well as nicotine delivery devices engineered to create a population of dependent users. In this paper, we look at the symbolism of cigarettes, but unlike many researchers examining this topic, we attend as much to what tobacco users do with cigarettes as to what smoking means to them cognitively. Based on interviews with low-level smokers conducted on two college campuses, we suggest that students use tobacco in order to accomplish interactional goals and to structure social time and space that would otherwise be ambiguously defined. By conceptualizing this structuring activity as play, we gain valuable insights into early stages and trajectories of tobacco use among college students. Our conceptualization of smoking as play is not meant to trivialize low-level tobacco use. Much the opposite, we caution that the contexts in which low-level smoking takes place and the utility functions of such smoking must be taken seriously by researchers in light of current increases in tobacco use among college students.

  4. Fluxes of N2O and CH4 from forest and grassland lysimeter soils in response to simulated climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is expected to be exposed to altered temperature and hydrological conditions, which will affect the vulnerability of nitrogen and carbon cycling in soils and thus production and fluxes of climate relevant trace gases. However, knowledge of the response of greenhouse gas fluxes to climate change is limited so far, but will be an important basis for future climate projections. Here we present preliminary results of an ongoing lysimeter field study which aims to assess the impact of simulated climate change on N2O and CH4 fluxes from a forest and a fertilized grassland soil. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide research infrastructure TERENO, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Lysimeters (A = 1m2) were established in 2010 at high elevated sites (HE, 500 and 600 m.a.s.l.) and subsequently transferred along an altitudinal gradient to a low elevated site (LE, 100 m.a.s.l.) within the Eifel / Lower Rhine Valley Observatory in Western Germany, thereby resulting in a temperature increase of 2.3 K whereas precipitation decreased by 160 mm during the present study period. Systematic monitoring of soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O and CH4 based on weekly manual closed chamber measurements at HE and LE sites has started in August 2013. Furthermore, we routinely determine dissolved N2O and CH4 concentrations in the seepage water using a headspace equilibration technique and record water discharge in order to quantify leaching losses of both greenhouse gases. Cumulative N2O fluxes clearly responded to simulated climate change conditions and increased by 250 % and 600 % for the forest and the grassland soil, respectively. This difference between the HE and LE sites was mainly caused by an exceptionally heavy precipitation event in July 2014 which turned the LE site sustainably to a consistently higher emission level. Nonetheless, emissions remained rather small and ranged between 20 and 40 μg m-2 h-1. In

  5. Determining water balance components at a lysimeter site in north-eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Kammerer, Gerhard; Cepuder, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The water balance of a certain soil profile in a certain time interval is subjected to changes of soil water content within the respective profile, and fluxes at its upper and lower boundary such as evapotranspiration and percolation, respectively. Weighing lysimeters are valuable instruments for water balance studies. Typically, mass changes - thus, changes of soil profile water content - are detected by a weighing system, while percolating water is measured by a tipping bucket or a weighed storage tank, and precipitation is measured by a rain gauge. Consequently, evapotranspiration can be determined by solving a simple water balance equation. However, a typical problem is that using separately measured precipitation data may cause implausible (negative) evapotranspiration. As a solution, the quantities can be determined directly from lysimeter mass changes, which are assumed to be positive due to precipitation and negative due to evapotranspiration. This method requires short measuring intervals and precise data. In this regard, data management of primarily older lysimeter facilities may be improved to fulfil these criteria. At an experimental site in north-eastern Austria hourly water balance components were determined using a reference lysimeter that was installed 1983 and equipped with lever-arm-counterbalance weighing system. A disadvantage of such systems is their sensitivity to external disturbances, mainly forces exerted by wind, which can significantly decrease measuring accuracy. Hence, we firstly studied the mechanical performance of the system regarding wind effects and oscillation behavior, and tested averaging procedures on noisy raw data to enhance measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy for a wind velocity <5 m/s (measured in 10 m height) was ±0.4 kg (equivalent to ±0.14 mm); at a larger wind velocity the accuracy was three times lower, but there was no linear relationship. Modifying the averaging procedure would improve accuracy to ±0

  6. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (< 10 microg/dL). The assessment focuses on epidemiological evidence at blood Pb levels < 10 microg/dL and < 5 microg/dL because health effects at higher blood Pb levels are well established. The NTP evaluation was conducted through the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT, formerly the Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction) and completed in April of 2012. The results of this evaluation are published in the NTP Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels < 10 microg/dL and < 5 microg/dL are associated with adverse health effects in children and adults. This conclusion was based on a review of the primary epidemiological literature, scientific

  7. Leaching of brominated flame retardants from mixed wastes in lysimeters under conditions simulating landfills in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Hirata, Osamu; Takigami, Hidetaka; Noma, Yukio; Tachifuji, Ayako; Matsufuji, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    In developing countries, wastes are usually not separated before being disposed of in solid-waste landfills, most of which are open dumps without adequate measures to prevent environmental pollution. To understand the leaching behavior of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from waste consumer products in landfills, we have been conducting a long-term landfill lysimeter experiment since 2006 under conditions designed to mimic three types of landfill conditions in developing countries: aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic. Pilot-scale lysimeters (60-cm i.d.) were filled with a 400-cm layer of mixed wastes consisting of 35 wt% food, 20 wt% paper, 20 wt% paper pulp, 13 wt% plastic, 10 wt% wood chips, 1 wt% glass, and 1 wt% metals, proportions that are typical of unsorted municipal solid waste in Asian developing countries. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, tribromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes in leachate samples collected from the lysimeters during the first 3.5 years of the experiment, to evaluate BFR elution behavior in early-stage landfills. Under all three conditions, BFR elution started at the beginning of the experiment. The BFR concentrations in the leachates from the aerobic lysimeter tended to be lower than those from the anaerobic lysimeter, suggesting that the presence of air inside landfills considerably reduces BFR elution to the surrounding environment. During the 3.5-year experiment, BFR outflow from the lysimeters was only 0.001-0.58% of the total BFRs in the loaded waste; that is, most of the BFRs in the waste remained in the lysimeters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  9. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  10. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities.

  11. Measurement of low levels of 26Al from meteorite samples.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter N; Hult, Mikael; Altzitzoglo, Timotheos

    2002-01-01

    As part of an intercomparison to resolve discrepancies between accelerator mass spectrometry results and radiometric results, the 26Al activity in four meteorite samples was measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in the underground laboratory HADES. Although reference sources were used, extensive use was made of computer modelling to determine corrections for absorption, coincidence summing between gamma rays in the decays and annihilation radiation following positron emission. Directional correlation corrections were also taken into account. The limiting uncertainties in these measurements arose from counting statistics of 5-9%. Some computer modelling was undertaken to determine optimum geometry for this type of intercomparison involving gamma-ray spectrometry.

  12. Treatment of Lymphedema Praecox through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)

    PubMed Central

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Rajabi, Majid

    2011-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl with right lower extremity lymphedema praecox was treated through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), by means of a GaAs and GaAlAs diodes laser-therapy device. Treatment sessions were totally 24, each cycle containing 12 every other day 15-minute sessions, and one month free between the cycles. The treatment was achieved to decrease the edema and no significant increase in circumference of involved leg was found following three months after the course of treatment. Although LLLT can be considered a beneficial treatment for Lymphedema Praecox, any definite statement around its effectiveness needs more studies on more cases. PMID:22091317

  13. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m{sup 3}. The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year).

  14. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. . Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. )

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  15. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.; Quapp, W.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  16. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  17. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  18. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K.; Slate, J.L.; Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B.

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  19. Determination of low level Np-237 by various techniques.

    PubMed

    Benedik, L; Trdin, M

    2017-02-09

    Determination of a low level (237)Np in environmental samples was performed by various techniques: i) a direct gamma-ray spectrometry, ii) an alpha-particle spectrometry that followed pre-separation of neptunium radioisotope(s) by ion-exchange or extraction chromatography and iii) pre-separation radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The methods used were applied to various reference materials with inorganic and organic matrix as well as to a wide range of neptunium content. The results were compared with reference and literature values.

  20. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-09-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Ankle-foot orthosis function in low-level myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Hullin, M G; Robb, J E; Loudon, I R

    1992-01-01

    Six children with low-level myelomeningocele underwent gait analysis. All showed excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion when walking barefoot. A rigid thermoplastic ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) improved gait by preventing ankle dorsiflexion and reducing knee flexion. Biomechanically, the AFO caused a reduction in external knee moment by aligning the knee with the ground reaction force. Small changes in the foot-shank angle of the orthosis had profound effects on knee mechanics. Knee hyperextension could be controlled by a rocker sole. Kinetic gait analysis permits understanding of the biomechanical effects of orthoses.

  2. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  3. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P < 0.01; I2 = 0%). The sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) (at 12 weeks) was better in the LLLT group (MD = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.44–1.73; P = 0.001; I2 = 0%). However, 1 included study was weighted at >95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion

  4. Parametric study of radionuclide characterization -- Low-level waste. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    The criteria and guidance given in this addendum specifically address the classification of low-level waste at the Hanford Reservation into Category 1, Category 3, and Greater Than Category 3 (GTC3). These categories are developed based on the performance assessment (PA) being conducted for the Hanford Site. The radionuclides and their concentration for each category are listed in the revised Table 1-1 (Attachment 1). The information to classify the waste for US Department of Transportation (DOT) and to classify Transuranic (TRU)/ Non-TRU, Contact Handled (CH)/Remote Handled (RH) waste is given in WHC-EP-0063-3 (WHC 1991).

  5. A multi-year comparison of lysimeter and eddy covariance measurements of evapotranspiration at the Rietholzbach catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, Martin; Michel, Dominik; Lehner, Irene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of evapotranspiration are required for many meteorological, climatological, ecological, and hydrological research applications and developments. Here we examine and compare two well-established methods to determine evapotranspiration at the site level: lysimeter-based measurements (EL) and eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements (EEC). The analyses are based on parallel measurements carried out with these two methods at the research catchment Rietholzbach in northeastern Switzerland, and cover the time period June 2009 to December 2015. The measurements are compared on various time scales, and with respect to a 40-year lysimeter-based evapotranspiration time series. Overall, the lysimeter and EC measurements agree well, especially on the annual time scale. On that time scale, the long-term lysimeter measurements also correspond well with catchment water-balance estimates of evapotranspiration. This highlights the representativeness of the site-level lysimeter and EC measurements for the entire catchment despite their comparatively small source areas and the heterogeneous land use and topography within the catchment. Furthermore, we identify that lack of reliable EC measurements using open-path gas analyzers during and following precipitation events (due to limitations of the measurement technique under these conditions) significantly contributes to an underestimation of EEC and to the overall energy balance gap at the site.

  6. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  7. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm-2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  8. Low-level diode laser therapy reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone cell inflammation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsui Hsien; Lu, Yu Chuan; Kao, Chia Tze

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the aim is to investigate the cytologic effects of inflammatory bone cells after in vitro low-level laser therapy (LLLT). A human osteosarcoma cell line (MG63) was cultured, infected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exposed to low-level laser treatment at 5 or 10 J/cm(2) using a 920 nm diode laser. MG63 cell attachment was observed under a microscope, and cell viability was quantified by mitochondrial colorimetric assay (MTT). LPS-treated MG63 cells were irradiated with LLLT, and the inflammatory markers iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1, were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. The data were collected and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); p < 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. Low-level laser treatment on MG63 cells increased their ability to attach and survive. After irradiation, the expression levels of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1 in LPS-infected MG63 cells decreased over time (p < 0.05). low-level diode laser treatment increased the MG63 cell proliferative ability and decreased the expression of inflammatory mediators in MG63 cells.

  9. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  10. Hyper-heuristics with low level parameter adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhilei; Jiang, He; Xuan, Jifeng; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the great success of hyper-heuristics applying to numerous real-world applications. Hyper-heuristics raise the generality of search methodologies by manipulating a set of low level heuristics (LLHs) to solve problems, and aim to automate the algorithm design process. However, those LLHs are usually parameterized, which may contradict the domain independent motivation of hyper-heuristics. In this paper, we show how to automatically maintain low level parameters (LLPs) using a hyper-heuristic with LLP adaptation (AD-HH), and exemplify the feasibility of AD-HH by adaptively maintaining the LLPs for two hyper-heuristic models. Furthermore, aiming at tackling the search space expansion due to the LLP adaptation, we apply a heuristic space reduction (SAR) mechanism to improve the AD-HH framework. The integration of the LLP adaptation and the SAR mechanism is able to explore the heuristic space more effectively and efficiently. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms, we choose the p-median problem as a case study. The empirical results show that with the adaptation of the LLPs and the SAR mechanism, the proposed algorithms are able to achieve competitive results over the three heterogeneous classes of benchmark instances.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  12. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  13. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. LaRue

    1999-05-25

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements.

  14. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C-H; Carroll, James D; Hamblin, Michael R

    2009-09-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing cell death and tissue damage has been known for over forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial in mainstream medicine. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. A biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect on stimulating and repairing tissues than higher levels of light. The so-called Arndt-Schulz curve is frequently used to describe this biphasic dose response. This review will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms in LLLT, and describe some of our recent results in vitro and in vivo that provide scientific explanations for this biphasic dose response.

  15. The effect of low-level laser therapy on hearing.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Shawn S; Bentler, Ruth A; Dittberner, Andrew; Mertes, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    One purported use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is to promote healing in damaged cells. The effects of LLLT on hearing loss and tinnitus have received some study, but results have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine if LLLT improved hearing, speech understanding, and/or cochlear function in adults with hearing loss. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects were assigned to a treatment, placebo, or control group. The treatment group was given LLLT, which consisted of shining low-level lasers onto the outer ear, head, and neck. Each laser treatment lasted approximately five minutes. Three treatments were applied within the course of one week. A battery of auditory tests was administered immediately before the first treatment and immediately after the third treatment. The battery consisted of pure-tone audiometry, the Connected Speech Test, and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Data were analyzed by comparing pre- and posttest results. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the auditory tests. Additionally, no clinically significant differences were found in any individual subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01820416).

  16. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers.

  17. Low-level light stimulates excisional wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Salomatina, Elena V; Yaroslavsky, Anna N; Herman, Ira M; Hamblin, Michael R

    2007-10-01

    Low levels of laser or non-coherent light, termed low-level light therapy (LLLT) have been reported to accelerate some phases of wound healing, but its clinical use remains controversial. A full thickness dorsal excisional wound in mice was treated with a single exposure to light of various wavelengths and fluences 30 minutes after wounding. Wound areas were measured until complete healing and immunofluorescence staining of tissue samples was carried out. Wound healing was significantly stimulated in BALB/c and SKH1 hairless mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. Illuminated wounds started to contract while control wounds initially expanded for the first 24 hours. We found a biphasic dose-response curve for fluence of 635-nm light with a maximum positive effect at 2 J/cm(2). Eight hundred twenty nanometer was found to be the best wavelength tested compared to 635, 670, and 720 nm. We found no difference between non-coherent 635+/-15-nm light from a lamp and coherent 633-nm light from a He/Ne laser. LLLT increased the number of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells at the wound edge. LLLT stimulates wound contraction in susceptible mouse strains but the mechanism remains uncertain. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. Low-Level Light Stimulates Excisional Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Salomatina, Elena V.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Herman, Ira M.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Low levels of laser or non-coherent light, termed low-level light therapy (LLLT) have been reported to accelerate some phases of wound healing, but its clinical use remains controversial. Methods A full thickness dorsal excisional wound in mice was treated with a single exposure to light of various wavelengths and fluences 30 minutes after wounding. Wound areas were measured until complete healing and immunofluorescence staining of tissue samples was carried out. Results Wound healing was significantly stimulated in BALB/c and SKH1 hairless mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. Illuminated wounds started to contract while control wounds initially expanded for the first 24 hours. We found a biphasic dose–response curve for fluence of 635-nm light with a maximum positive effect at 2 J/cm2. Eight hundred twenty nanometer was found to be the best wavelength tested compared to 635, 670, and 720 nm. We found no difference between non-coherent 635 ± 15-nm light from a lamp and coherent 633-nm light from a He/Ne laser. LLLT increased the number of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells at the wound edge. Conclusion LLLT stimulates wound contraction in susceptible mouse strains but the mechanism remains uncertain. PMID:17960752

  19. Low level lead inhibits the human brain cation pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, J.M.; Sprenkle, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The impact of low level lead exposure on human central nervous system function is a major public health concern. This study addresses the inhibition of the cation pump enzyme Na,K-ATPase by low level lead. Human brain tissue was obtained at autopsy and frozen until use. Brain homogenates were preincubated with PbCl{sub 2} for 20 min at 0{degree}C. Inhibition of K-paranitrophenylphosphatase (pNPPase), a measure of the dephosphorylation step of Na,K-ATPase, reached steady state within 10 min. K-pNPPase activity, expressed as a percentage of control, fell to 96.3 {plus minus} 0.9% at 0.25 uM (PbCl{sub 2}) to 82.0 {plus minus} 1.6% at 2.5 uM (PbCl{sub 2}) in homogenates prepared from normal brain. Similar results were obtained with homogenates prepared from brains of patients with a history of alcohol abuse and of those with other miscellaneous conditions. Since the mean blood level of lead in the US has ranged recently from m9.2 to 16.0 ug/dl, these results indicate that current in vivo levels of lead exposure may impair important human brain function.

  20. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.W.; Swanson, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  1. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  3. Biphasic Dose Response in Low Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing cell death and tissue damage has been known for over forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial in mainstream medicine. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. A biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect on stimulating and repairing tissues than higher levels of light. The so-called Arndt-Schulz curve is frequently used to describe this biphasic dose response. This review will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms in LLLT, and describe some of our recent results in vitro and in vivo that provide scientific explanations for this biphasic dose response. PMID:20011653

  4. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  6. Evaluation of the Transport of Natural Radioactive Materials in Large Lysimeters Using Hydrus-1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontedeiro, E.; Cipriani, M.; van Genuchten, M.; Simunek, J.

    2007-12-01

    The mining industry in Brazil often uses raw materials that contain relatively high concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (referred to as NORM). Ores of relatively low grade typically are used to produce refined metals of high purity (e.g., Nb, Ta, Sn, and Au) using pyrometallurgic processes. The final waste is a slag rich in natural radioactive contaminants (the U and Th decay series), which are then usually deposited in industrial landfills. To study the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides leached from the NORM wastes, several large (3 m deep) lysimeters were constructed at the Pocos de Caldas Laboratory of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commision (CNEN). The lysimeters were packed with surface soils and slags from one of the mining sites in South East Brazil. Main purpose of our lysimeter experiments was to follow the dissolution and transport of radionuclides from the slags under natural climatic conditions. Leaching rates and radionuclide concentrations of the effluent were observed during a three-year time period. A variety of physical and chemical properties of the soils and slags (including laboratory batch equilibrium sorption values) were also determined. The data were analyzed using several computer software packages, including the STANMOD code for analytical modeling of decay chain transport during steady flow, the HYDRUS-1D code for variably-saturated flow and the transport of multiple solutes, and the HP1 code for a more comprehensive analysis of the geochemistry involved. In this presentation we describe the experimental setup and provide preliminary results of the theoretical analyses, especially those using HYDRUS-1D.

  7. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( < 0.001) effect of lower NO-N leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( < 0.05) effects among the cultivars of barley, rye, and wheat covers. Nitrate-N leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Design, manufacture and evaluation of a hydraulically installed, multi-sampling lysimeter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.; Scroppo, G.L.; Carty, R.H.; Chaimberg, M.; Timmons, R.D.; O`Donnell, M.

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for a quick, simple, reliable, and inexpensive on-site method for sampling soil pollutants before they reach the groundwater. Vadose zone monitoring is an important aspect of sound groundwater management. In the vadose zone, where water moves via percolation, this water medium possesses the ability to transfer hazardous wastes to the nation`s groundwater system. Obtaining samples of moisture and contaminants from the vadose zone is necessary if potential problems are to be identified before they reach the water table. Accurate determination of spatial distribution, movement, and concentrations of contaminants is essential to the selection of remediation technologies. There is a need for three-dimentional subsurface characterization technologies to identify the location of hazardous plumes and their migration. Current subsurface characterization methods for dispersed contaminants primarily involve a time consuming, expensive process for drilling wells and taking samples. With no major water flow in the vadose zone, conventional monitoring wells will not function as designed. The multi-sampling lysimeter can be readily linked with physical and chemical sensors for on-site screening. The hydraulically-installed suction lysimeter was capable of extracting soil pore liquid samples from unsaturated test soils without the need to predrill a well. Test results verified that the lysimeters installed with a hydraulic or mechanical ram were able to collect soil pore liquid samples in excess of the amount typically required for monitoring and analysis on a daily basis. Modifications to the prototype design eliminated moving parts and the need for inflatable packers. The elimination of the packer system and the use of porous nickel contributed to increased system ruggedness.

  9. Testing data evaluation strategies for estimating precipitation and actual evaporation from precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Fank, Johann; Pütz, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Weighing lysimeters have long been recognized as valuable tools not only for monitoring of groundwater recharge and solute transport, but also for the determination of the soil water balance and quantification of water exchange processes at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. If well embedded into an equally-vegetated environment, they reach a hitherto unprecedented accuracy in estimating precipitation (P) by rain, dew, fog, rime and snow, as well as actual evapotranspiration (ET). At the same time, they largely avoid errors made by traditional micrometeorological instruments, such as the wind error of Hellman rain samplers or the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on readings from in situ instrumentation of soil water state variables. Beginning in 2008, the Helmholtz Association established a network of terrestrial environmental observatories (TERENO) that aim at long-term monitoring of climate and land-use change consequences. A total of 126 identically designed large weighing lysimeters, operating at a sampling frequency of 1 min-1, were installed for this purpose, which raises the demand for standardized data processing methods. In theory, estimating P and ET from these measurements is straightforward: An increase in the combined mass of the soil monolith and the collected seepage water indicates P, while a decrease indicates ET. However, in practice, lysimeter data are prone to numerous sources of error, including, but not limited to, outliers, systematic errors due to plant growth and removal, data gaps, and stochastic fluctuations. The latter pose a particularly challenging problem - if we would directly calculate P and ET from a time-series that is affected by random noise, every positive fluctuation would be interpreted as P and every negative one as ET. Consequently, we would overestimate both quantities by far. The aim of this study was to evaluate algorithms that focus on eliminating the effect of these fluctuations and to estimate actual fluxes

  10. Flow through in situ reactors with suction lysimeter sampling capability and methods of using

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey W [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwelder, D Brad [Blackfoot, ID; Hubbell, Joel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and a sampling conduit received within the passageway. The sampling conduit may be used to receive a geological speciment derived from geological strata therein and a lysimeter is disposed within the sampling conduit in communication with the geological specimen. Fluid may be added to the geological specimen through the passageway defined by the liner, between an inside surface of the liner and an outside surface of the sampling conduit. A distal portion of the sampling conduit may be in fluid communication with the passageway.

  11. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement.

  12. Biological monitoring of low-level exposure to benzene.

    PubMed

    Campagna, M; Satta, Giannina; Campo, Laura; Flore, Valeria; Ibba, A; Meloni, M; Tocco, Maria Giuseppina; Avataneo, G; Flore, C; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cocco, P

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting opinions exist about the reliability of biomarkers of low-level exposure to benzene. We compared the ability of the urinary excretion of trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), s-phenilmercapturic acid (s-PAMA) and urinary benzene (U-Benz) to detect low level occupational and environmental exposure to benzene. We monitored airborne benzene by personal air sampling, and U-Benz, s-PMAI, t,t-MA and cotinine (U-Cotinine) in spot urine samples, collected at 8 am and 8 pm, in 32 oil refinery workers and 65 subjects, randomly selected among the general population of urban and suburban Cagliari, Italy. Information on personal characteristics, diet and events during the sampling day was acquired through in person interviews. The median concentration of airborne benzene was 25.2 microg/m3 in oil refinery workers, and 8.5 microg/m3 in the general population subgroup. U-Benz in morning and evening samples was significantly more elevated among oil refinery workers than the general population subgroup (p = 0.012, and p = 7.4 x 10(-7), respectively) and among current smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 5.2 x 10(-8), and p = 5.2 x 10(-5) respectively). Benzene biomarkers and their readings in the two sampling phases were well correlated to each other. The Spearman's correlation coefficient with airborne benzene was significant for U-Benz in the evening sample, while no correlation was seen with t,t-MA and s-PMA readings in either samplings. The two benzene metabolites were frequently below limit of detection (LOD), particularly among the general population study subjects (17-9% and 39%, for t,t-MA and s-PMA respectively). Morning U-Cotinine excretion showed a good correlation with U-Benz in the morning and in the evening sampling (p < 0.001), and with s-PMA in the evening sample (p < 0.001), but not with t,t-MA in either samplings. t,t-MA in the evening sample was the only biomarker showing a moderate inverse correlation with BMI (p < 0.05). The multiple regression

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  14. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air.

  15. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT doses, using continuous illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We verified that all applied doses produce an effect on reducing the number of inflammatory cells and the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines. The best results were obtained for 40 mW. The results may suggest a biphasic dose response curve.

  16. Low level light therapy and tattoos: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) frequently provide neuromusculoskeletal treatment for patients who incidentally may have one or more tattoos. Low level light therapy (LLLT) is one of the modalities commonly used by physical therapists to decrease pain and facilitate healing. This case report describes a 22 year old man who was given LLLT to address his complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Blistering of the skin was documented over the LLLT application site, a black tattoo. The blisters, which formed after the LLLT treatment were most likely caused by the inadvertent and unexpected heating of the iron oxides and/or the metal salts in the tattoo's black pigment. PTs should exercise caution when applying LLLT in the presence of dark tattoos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oestrogen, ocular function and low-level vision: a review.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Walker, James A; Davidson, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, a literature has emerged concerning the sex steroid hormone oestrogen and its role in human vision. Herein, we review evidence that oestrogen (oestradiol) levels may significantly affect ocular function and low-level vision, particularly in older females. In doing so, we have examined a number of vision-related disorders including dry eye, cataract, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In each case, we have found oestrogen, or lack thereof, to have a role. We have also included discussion of how oestrogen-related pharmacological treatments for menopause and breast cancer can impact the pathology of the eye and a number of psychophysical aspects of vision. Finally, we have reviewed oestrogen's pharmacology and suggest potential mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects, with particular emphasis on anti-apoptotic and vascular effects. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  19. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  20. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  1. Preliminary low-level waste feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.

    1996-02-05

    A Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan was prepared. The plan supports the Phase I privatization effort by providing recommendations that may influence the technical content of the final request for proposal, and the interface control documents for the turnover of two double-shell tanks (DST) to the private contractors for use as feed tanks and the transfer of supernate to these tanks. Additionally, the preliminary schedule of feed staging activities will be useful to both RL and the private bidders during the contract negotiation period. A revised feed staging plan will be issued in August 1996 reflecting anticipated changes in the request for proposal, resolution of issues identified in this report, and completion of additional work scope.

  2. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  4. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  5. Pyrochemical Processing for Low-Level Waste Production in PEACER

    SciTech Connect

    Byung Gi Park; Il Soon Hwang

    2002-07-01

    A pyrochemical partitioning process has been conceptually designed so that the transmutation of spent LWR fuels in PEACER can produce mainly low-level waste (Class C waste) for near-surface burial. Chloride salt technology developed for IFR has been employed as the baseline. Electrorefining, reductive extraction and salt recycling steps are used to construct overall flowsheet in order to support PEACER operation. The decontamination factor for transuranic elements was estimated based on both thermodynamic models and reported experimental data. It is expected that overall decontamination factor can be as high as 10{sup 5} for transuranic elements. Final wastes from pyrochemical processing for PEACER are noble metals, alkaline earth metal, and lanthanides. The final wastes are stabilized by mixing with zeolite and glass-frits such that concentration limit for class C waste can be met. The volume of Class C waste is estimated to be small enough to make PEACER concept valuable for densely populated countries. (authors)

  6. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  7. Managing the uncertainties of low-level radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Bullard, C W; Weger, H T; Wagner, J

    1998-08-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) entails financial and safety risks not common to most market commodities. This manifests debilitating uncertainty regarding future waste volume and disposal technology performance in the market for waste disposal services. Dealing with the publicly perceived risks of LLRW disposal increases the total cost of the technology by an order of magnitude, relative to traditional shallow land burial. Therefore, this analysis first examines five proposed disposal facility designs and quantifies the costs associated with these two important sources of uncertainty. Based upon this analysis, a marketable disposal permit mechanism is proposed and analyzed for the purpose of reducing market uncertainty and thereby facilitating a market solution to the waste disposal problem. In addition to quantifying the costs, the results illustrate the ways in which the design of a technology is influenced by its institutional environment, and vice versa.

  8. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Stensrud, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  9. Characteristics of low-level radioactive decontamination waste

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Morcos, N. )

    1993-02-01

    This document addresses the work performed during fiscal year 1992 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste -- Decontamination Waste Program (FIN A6359), which is funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program evaluates the physical stability and leachability of solidified waste streams generated in the decontamination process of primary coolant systems in operating nuclear power stations. The data in this document include the chemical composition and characterization of waste streams from Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3 and from Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant Unit 1. The results of compressive strength testing on immersed and unimmersed solidified waste-form specimens from peach Bottom, and the results of leachate analysis are addressed. Cumulative fractional release rates and leachability indexes of those specimens were calculated and are included in this report.

  10. Overview of low-level radioactive waste in US utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, S.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper the author provides a review of the level of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated in PWR and BWR power plants over time through 1995, and efforts presently being implemented to further constrain and minimize the volume of generated LLW. These efforts include more careful characterization of waste streams, concerted effort to minimize materials falling under RCA control, more emphasis on recycle and reuse, minimization and repair of leaks which can spread contamination, and a more concerted program aimed at `Pack in - Pack out` policing of areas. Efforts are directed at involving all levels of plant employees in ownership of the problem, and its solution, by task force efforts, awareness campaigns, and incentive type programs.

  11. Rehabilitation nursing management of persons in low level neurologic states.

    PubMed

    Antoinette, T

    1996-01-01

    The survival of patients in low level neurologic states following traumatic brain injury requires the provision of quality rehabilitation nursing care. This article presents a concise, multi-system overview of the nursing care issues most commonly encountered in patients who are functioning at Rancho Levels I, II, and III. Included is a review of the most frequently encountered complications and nursing interventions. Reaction patterns of family members and the role of the nurse in providing support and therapeutic interventions is also discussed. The importance of astute observation of neurobehavioral responsiveness and subsequent input to the interdisciplinary team is addressed, including discussion of the nurse's core role as an integral member of the team.

  12. Impact of Low-level Jet on Regional Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.

    2011-12-01

    During spring and summer seasons, the frequent occurrences of nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) over Great Plains region of the United States are widely recognized. As an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation this LLJ effectively transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of server weather over the central United States. The LLJ has long been known to be conducive to summer rainfall and widespread flooding over the Great Plains of North America. The LLJ transports more than just moisture. Ozone episodes occur mainly during summer and are influenced by regional transport. Little is known, however,about the interrelation between the Great Plains LLJ and regional ozone transport. In this study, analysis of observational data during 1993-2006 has shown strong influence of the Great Plains LLJ on local and regional ozone distributions. Hourly ozone measurements from Air Quality System (AQS) are compared with wind fields at 850 hPa from the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). It is demonstrated that the low ozone concentrations over Texas in late spring and summer are identified with large LLJ transport of clean marine air mass from the Gulf of Mexico. Significant negative correlations exist between daily ozone concentration and LLJ index (Figure 1), suggesting that lower ozone over Texas is associated with stronger LLJ. On the other hand, positive correlations occur in the Midwest and Northeast, indicating the important role of regional transport of ozone and precursors along the pathway by the wind circulation accompanying the LLJ. In addition, the LLJ is significantly correlated with northerly flows in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the adjacent coast. This relationship explains the coexistence of low ozone concentrations in Texas and southwestern U.S during summer, both attributed to the inland transport of clean marine air. These observed ozone-LLJ patterns are well simulated by the regional CMM5

  13. Low-level cadmium exposure and effects on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Maria; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Barregard, Lars

    2014-12-01

    The nephrotoxicity of cadmium at low levels of exposure, measured by urinary cadmium, has recently been questioned since co-excretion of cadmium and proteins may have causes other than cadmium toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between kidney function and low or moderate cadmium levels, measured directly in kidney biopsies. We analysed cadmium in kidney biopsies (K-Cd), blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) from 109 living kidney donors in a cross-sectional study. We measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR), cystatin C in serum, albumin, β-2-microglobulin (B2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), α-1-microglobulin (A1M), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) in 24 h and overnight urine. We found significant positive associations between A1M excretion and K-Cd in multiple regression models including age, sex, weight, smoking and urinary flow rate. This association was also present in never-smokers. A1M was also positively associated with B-Cd and U-Cd. GFR and the other biomarkers of kidney function were not associated with K-Cd. GFR estimated from serum cystatin C showed a very poor correlation with measured GFR. KIM-1, RBP and possibly albumin were positively associated with U-Cd, but only in overnight urine. No associations were found with B2M. Our results suggest that A1M in urine is a sensitive biomarker for effects of low-level cadmium exposure. A few associations between other renal biomarkers and U-Cd, but not K-Cd, were probably caused by physiological co-excretion or chance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Low-level cadmium exposure and effects on kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Wallin, Maria; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Barregard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The nephrotoxicity of cadmium at low levels of exposure, measured by urinary cadmium, has recently been questioned since co-excretion of cadmium and proteins may have causes other than cadmium toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between kidney function and low or moderate cadmium levels, measured directly in kidney biopsies. Methods We analysed cadmium in kidney biopsies (K-Cd), blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) from 109 living kidney donors in a cross-sectional study. We measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR), cystatin C in serum, albumin, β-2-microglobulin (B2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), α-1-microglobulin (A1M), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) in 24 h and overnight urine. Results We found significant positive associations between A1M excretion and K-Cd in multiple regression models including age, sex, weight, smoking and urinary flow rate. This association was also present in never-smokers. A1M was also positively associated with B-Cd and U-Cd. GFR and the other biomarkers of kidney function were not associated with K-Cd. GFR estimated from serum cystatin C showed a very poor correlation with measured GFR. KIM-1, RBP and possibly albumin were positively associated with U-Cd, but only in overnight urine. No associations were found with B2M. Conclusions Our results suggest that A1M in urine is a sensitive biomarker for effects of low-level cadmium exposure. A few associations between other renal biomarkers and U-Cd, but not K-Cd, were probably caused by physiological co-excretion or chance. PMID:25286916

  15. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Materials and Methods: Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm2 per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). After treatment, no significant differences were observed in the knee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee. PMID:25705083

  16. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-12-31

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan`s radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan`s population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California`s. If everyone`s backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan`s contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R&D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC.

  17. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative `incineration` was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material.

  18. Tooth Movement Alterations by Different Low Level Laser Protocols: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Vahid-Dastjerdi, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) provides several benefits for patients receiving orthodontic treatment. According to some literatures, Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) can be enhanced but some investigators have reported contradictory results. This article reviews the literature regarding the different aspects of the use of LLLT on OTM and its alterations. The general data regarding the study design, sample size, wavelength (nm), power (mW), and duration were extracted and recorded independently. Electronic databases of PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 2009 to August 2014 were searched. Also Google Scholar and grey literature was searched for relevant references. Some investigators found that the amount of tooth movement in the Low-Energy Laser Irradiation (LELI) group was significantly greater than in the nonirradiation group by the end of the experimental period. Low-level laser irradiation accelerates the bone remodeling process by stimulating osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell proliferation and function during orthodontic tooth movement. But some researchers have reported that no statistical differences in the mean rate of tooth movement were noted between low energy and high energy experimental sides and their controls. Some evidence shows that low-level laser irradiation accelerates the bone remodeling process and some evidence shows that LLLT has not effect on OTM. In some investigations no statistical differences in the mean rate of tooth movement can be seen between low energy and high energy experimental sides and their controls. It has been shown by authors that laser irradiation can reduce the amount of OTM and a clinical usage for the inhibitory role of low level laser irradiation is enforcing the anchorage unit. PMID:25699160

  19. Transport of europium colloids in vadose zone lysimeters at the semiarid Hanford site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Zhang, Z Fred; Harsh, James B; Gee, Glendon W; Strickland, Chris E; Clayton, Ray E

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)(CO3), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (<1%) were detected in the deepest wick sampler (2.14 m depth) 2.5 months after application and cumulative precipitation of only 20 mm. We observed rapid transport of Eu colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.

  20. Analysis of soil water residence times in a monolith lysimeter at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, B.F.; Eckstein, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Estimates of soil water residence times can be made using water budget records. A single average value, referred to as conventional residence time, can be obtained by dividing the mean storage volume by the mean output volume. Using concepts from queuing theory, estimates of residence times can be made by assuming first-in-first-out (FIFO) or last-in-first-out (LIFO) movement of the water. Using such assumption, estimates can be made on the length of time that water remains in the soil, depending on the time of year that water enters the soil. For residence time estimations, monthly water budget data was obtained for the period from 1947 through 1982 for a weighing monolith lysimeter located at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed near Coshocton, Ohio. The lysimeter encloses an undisturbed block of silt loam soil. The conventional residence time for the record period is 10.2 months. The mean maximum residence time, based on the assumption of all FIFO movement, is 11.1 months with a minimum value of 4 months and a maximum value of 18 months. The assumption of all LIFO movement gives a mean maximum residence time value of 3.8 months with a minimum value of less than one month and a maximum value of 102 months.

  1. Transport of Europium Colloids in Vadose Zone Lysimeters at the Semiarid Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Zhang, Z. Fred; Harsh, James B.; Gee, Glendon W.; Strickland, Chris E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)-(CO3), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (<1%) were detected in the deepest wick sampler (2.14 m depth) 2.5 months after application and cumulative precipitation of only 20 mm. We observed rapid transport of Eu colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.

  2. Impact of paper mill wastewater on soil properties and crop yield through lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Ladwani, K; Ladwani, K; Deshbhratar, P B; Ramteke, D S

    2013-01-01

    Paper and pulp industries produce large quantities of wastewater which can have adverse effects on the receiving water systems. In the present study lysimeters were used and filled with different soils replicating natural soil horizons and provided with a leachate collection system. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil in each lysimeter and the quality of wastewater before leaching were assessed. Treated wastewater was evaluated for crop irrigation, and was categorized according to the irrigation water class 'Increasing Problem to Severe Problem' with respect to salinity and specific ion toxicity. Sandy loam soils showed 96% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal while clay loam soils removed 99% of COD, and the colour removal in both the cases was found to be 100%. Application of wastewater resulted in an increase of pH value, ranging from 6.2-7.6; the electrical conductivity (ECe) of saturated extracts was found to be 0.6-1.7 dS m(-1), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ranged from 7.8-11.1% in soils. Similarly, an increase in the organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of soils was observed when irrigated with wastewater. Wastewater irrigation showed increased grain and straw yield of jowar, wheat and moong. These results permit successful utilization of pulp and paper mill wastewater for crop production without damaging the soils.

  3. Low level laser versus placebo in the treatment of tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Vasseljen, O; Høeg, N; Kjeldstad, B; Johnsson, A; Larsen, S

    1992-01-01

    The effect of low level laser (GaAs) on lateral epicondylitis was investigated in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Thirty patients were assigned equally to a laser (n = 15) or a placebo laser (n = 15) group. All patients received eight treatments and were evaluated subjectively and objectively before, at the end of, and four weeks after treatment. Patients also completed a follow-up questionnaire on an average of five to six months after treatment. A significant improvement in the laser compared to the placebo group was found on visual analog scale (p = 0.02) and grip strength (p = 0.03) tests four weeks after treatment. In this study low level laser therapy was shown to have an effect over placebo; however, as a sole treatment for lateral epicondylitis it is of limited value. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability of our findings and to compare laser to other established treatment methods.

  4. Effects of low-level boron doping on the photocurrent of amorphous silicon Schottky photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, H.; Kasuya, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Shibata, S.

    1989-03-01

    The effects of low-level boron doping on the photocurrent-electric field (Jph-F) characteristics of amorphous silicon Schottky photodiodes were investigated by measuring the Jph-F characteristics of a lightly B-doped photodiode with a configuration of Cr/a-Si:H/tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The Jph-F curves, which were found to be strongly dependent on the B-doping ratio, were analyzed on the basis of Crandall's (1984) theory, and the B-doping dependencies of the mobility-lifetime (mu-tau) product for electrons and holes were deduced. The effects of low-level B-doping on the mu-tau products and space charges of the photodiodes were discussed in terms of the charge state of the dangling bond state.

  5. Impact of low level praseodymium substitution on the magnetic properties of YCrO3 orthochromites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Surendra; Coondoo, Indrani; Rao, Ashok; Lu, Bo-Han; Kuo, Yung-Kang; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Panwar, Neeraj

    2017-04-01

    Praseodymium (Pr) modified yttrium orthochromites (YCrO3 with Pr =0% and 5% at Y-sites) have been investigated with the aim of exploring the impact of low level Pr substitution on the magnetic properties including magnetization reversal, spin reorientation, and exchange bias of YCrO3 compound. The samples exhibit a distorted orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. A negative magnetization (or magnetization reversal) was observed under zero-field cooled (ZFC) mode for the pristine YCrO3 sample, whereas such a feature disappeared with a 5% Pr substitution. In addition, the Pr-doped samples exhibited a spin reorientation behaviour which was absent in the pristine sample. Most interestingly, the ZFC magnetic hysteresis loops revealed a left and upward shift, resembling a negative exchange bias effect. These results indicate the effectiveness of low level doping in tailoring the magnetic properties of orthochromites.

  6. Low-level visible light (LLVL) irradiation promotes proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, Anat; Oron, Uri; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Low-level visible light irradiation was found to stimulate proliferation potential of various types of cells in vitro. Stem cells in general are of significance for implantation in regenerative medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-level light irradiation on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow, and light irradiation was applied at energy densities of 2.4, 4.8, and 7.2 J/cm(2). Illumination of the MSCs resulted in almost twofold increase in cell number as compared to controls. Elevated reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production was also observed in MSCs cultures following illumination with broadband visible light. The present study clearly demonstrates the ability of broadband visible light illumination to promote proliferation of MSCs in vitro. These results may have an important impact on wound healing.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste volume reduction and stabilization technologies resource manual: National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This manual on volume reduction and stabilization technologies is intended to serve as a resource document to policy personnel at the state or regional level. The manual provides concise descriptions of currently available and promising methods of volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste. Technologies in this manual include cement solidification, bituminization, evaporation, incineration, high-integrity containerization, shredding, and compaction and supercompaction. Each technology is discussed in detail in relation to how the technology works, its suitability for specific waste types, volume reduction factors typically obtainable, costs, its applicability to treatment of mixed waste, its commercial availability and its history of use. An annotated bibliography is included to allow for further independent research on the technologies. 78 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Impact of climate change on GHG emissions of (pre-) alpine grassland ecosystems under intensive and extensive management - a climate sequence lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiese, Ralf; Lu, Haiyan; Fu, Jin; Diaz-Pines, Eugenio; Gasche, Rainer; Dannenmann, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Due to cool and moist climatic conditions alpine grassland soils of moderate elevation are rich in soil organic carbon and associated nitrogen. In the framework of an in-situ climate change experiment we test the hypothesis that soil organic carbon and nitrogen are either volatilized (GHG emissions) or leached with seepage water due to increase in temperature. Field investigations are carried out in the (Pre-) Alpine TERENO Observatory covering several research sites (including ICOS sites) in South-Bavaria, Germany. IMK-IFU has installed 36 weighable lysimeters with undisturbed intact grassland soil cores (diameter 1m, depth 1.4m) and is operating them at three sites differing in altitude and thus climatic conditions (850m, 750m, 600m) since 2011. Lysimeters were partly translocated from higher elevation to sites at lower elevation and other soil cores still staying at the sites as controls. In addition to the space for time in-situ climate change approach the total of 36 lysimeters are split into treatments of intensive and extensive grassland management. GHG exchange was measured by manual (850m site) but also with two novel automatic robot chamber systems (750m, 600m) connected to QCLs for simultaneous detection of CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentration changes in chamber headspace. GHG flux monitoring was supplemented by NEE measurements with transparent chambers since 2014. Climate change, generally stimulated plant growth (according to biomass sampling after cutting events) and soil C and N turnover leading to increased soil CO2 emissions and an increased uptake of atmospheric CH4. N2O emission were generally low and slightly increased in spring, summer and autumn but significantly decreased during the winter period under global change conditions, the latter due to lower intensity and frequency of frost-thaw events. The main gaseous nitrogen component emitted from the grassland ecosystems was N2 which also showed a much stronger increase with climate change than N2O

  9. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, A.C.; Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R.; Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  10. Development of a Low-Level Ar-37 Calibration Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-03-07

    Argon-37 is an important environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level 37Ar standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments for use during an On-Site Inspection, a key provision of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the development of a process to generate and quantify low-level 37Ar standard material, which can then be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. The 37Ar used for our work was generated using a laboratory-scale, high-energy neutron source to irradiate powdered samples of calcium carbonate. Small aliquots of 37Ar were then extracted from the head space of the irradiated samples. The specific activity of the head space samples, mixed with P10 (90% stable argon:10% methane by mole fraction) count gas, is then derived using the accepted Length-Compensated Internal-Source Proportional Counting method. Due to the low activity of the samples, a set of three Ultra-Low Background Proportional-Counters designed and fabricated at PNNL from radio-pure electroformed copper was used to make the measurements in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. Very low background levels (<10 counts/day) have been observed in the spectral region near the 37Ar emission feature at 2.8 keV. Two separate samples from the same irradiation were measured. The first sample was counted for 12 days beginning 28 days after irradiation, the second sample was counted for 24 days beginning 70 days after irradiation (the half-life of 37Ar is 35.0 days). Both sets of measurements were analyzed and yielded very similar results for the starting activity (~0.1 Bq) and activity concentration (0.15 mBq/ccSTP argon) after P10 count gas was added. A detailed uncertainty model was developed based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in

  11. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  12. Observation of cloud formation caused by low-level jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; McCormick, M. P.; Lei, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of analyses performed on high-resolution remotely-sensed and in situ atmospheric measurements of the boundary layer and lower atmosphere centered over the northeast coast of the Hampton Roads body of water in southeast Virginia. This region is adjacent to the confluence of the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean where often times, low-level jets (LLJs) are found in the boundary layer during summer months. An East Hampton Roads Aerosol Flux (EHRAF) campaign, was conducted from the campus of Hampton University (HU) to examine small-scale aerosol transport using aerosol, Raman, and Doppler lidars, as well as rawindsondes over a one-week period in May 2014 . LLJs were observed from evening of 20 May to the morning of 21 May, and were found to lead to cloud formation. In this paper, the cloud formation caused by LLJs is analyzed using data that includes high-resolution profiles of: aerosol backscatter, turbulence structure, temperature, wind speed and direction, and water vapor. It is found that enhanced nighttime turbulence triggered by LLJs causes the aerosol and water vapor content of boundary layer to be lifted up forming a well-mixed region. We show that this region contains the cloud condensation nuclei that are very important for the formation of clouds.

  13. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  14. Honeybees as monitors of low levels of radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A. ); Bromenshenk, J.J.; Gudatis, J.L. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1990-07-01

    Large-scale environmental monitoring programs rely on sampling many media -- air, water, food, et cetera -- from a large network of sampling stations. For describing the total region possibly impacted by contaminants, the most efficient sampler would be one that covered a large region and simultaneously sampled many different media, such as water, air, soil, and vegetation. Honeybees have been shown to be useful monitors of the environment in this context for detecting both radionuclides and heavy metals. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of honeybees as monitors of low levels of radioactivity in the form of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. For the study, approximately 50 honeybee colonies were placed on the Hanford Site and along the Columbia River in areas downwind of the site. The mini-hive colonies were sampled after 1 month and tested for tritium and for gamma-emitting radionuclides. From this and other studies, it is known that honeybees can be used to detect radionuclides present in the environment. Their mobility and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could expand and add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  16. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  17. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cretaro, Paolo; Di Lorenzo, Stefano; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-11-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  18. Integrated software system for low level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Worku, G.

    1995-12-31

    In the continually changing and uncertain world of low level waste management, many generators in the US are faced with the prospect of having to store their waste on site for the indefinite future. This consequently increases the set of tasks performed by the generators in the areas of packaging, characterizing, classifying, screening (if a set of acceptance criteria applies), and managing the inventory for the duration of onsite storage. When disposal sites become available, it is expected that the work will require re-evaluating the waste packages, including possible re-processing, re-packaging, or re-classifying in preparation for shipment for disposal under the regulatory requirements of the time. In this day and age, when there is wide use of computers and computer literacy is at high levels, an important waste management tool would be an integrated software system that aids waste management personnel in conducting these tasks quickly and accurately. It has become evident that such an integrated radwaste management software system offers great benefits to radwaste generators both in the US and other countries. This paper discusses one such approach to integrated radwaste management utilizing some globally accepted radiological assessment software applications.

  19. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla P; Melo, Cristina; Alexandrino, Ana M; Noites, Andreia

    2013-06-01

    Physiotherapy has a very important role in the maintenance of the integumentary system integrity. There is very few evidence in humans. Nevertheless, there are some studies about tissue regeneration using low-level laser therapy (LLLT). To analyze the effectiveness of LLLT on scar tissue. Seventeen volunteers were stratified by age of their scars, and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) - n = 9 - and a placebo group (PG) - n = 8. Fifteen sessions were conducted to both the groups thrice a week. However, in the PG, the laser device was switched off. Scars' thickness, length, width, macroscopic aspect, pain threshold, pain perception, and itching were measured. After 5 weeks, there were no statistically significant differences in any variable between both the groups. However, analyzing independently each group, EG showed a significant improvement in macroscopic aspect (p = 0.003) using LLLT. Taking into account the scars' age, LLLT showed a tendency to decrease older scars' thickness in EG. The intervention with LLLT appears to have a positive effect on the macroscopic scars' appearance, and on old scars' thickness, in the studied sample. However, it cannot be said for sure that LLLT has influence on scar tissue.

  20. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra-low level radon assays in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin Ran

    2015-08-17

    The SuperNEMO experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νβ β) to T{sub 1{sub /{sub 2}}}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, this corresponds to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The extremely rare event rate means the minimisation of background is of critical concern. The stringent strategy instigated to ensure detector radiopurity is outlined here for all construction materials. In particular the large R&D programme undertaken to reach the challengingly low level of radon, < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}, required inside the SuperNEMO gaseous tracker will be detailed. This includes an experiment designed to measure radon diffusion through various materials. A “Radon Concentration Line” (RnCL) was developed to be used in conjunction with a state-of-the-art radon detector in order to achieve world leading sensitivity to {sup 222}Rn content in large gas volumes at the level of a few µBq/m{sup 3}. A radon purification system was developed and installed which has demonstrated radon suppression by several orders of magnitude depending on the carrier gas. This apparatus has now been commissioned and measurements of cylindered gas have been made to confirm radon suppression by a factor 20 when using nitrogen as the carrier gas. The results from measurements of radon content in various gases, used inside SuperNEMO, using the RnCL will be presented.

  2. Durability of cement stabilized low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kkruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Cementitious materials containing high proportions of slag and fly ash have been tested for suitability to immobilize simulated alkaline and carbonated off-gas waste solutions after vitrification of low- level tank wastes stored at Hanford. To assess their performance, long-term durability was assessed by measuring stability of compressive strength and weight during leaching and exposure to sulfate and carbonate solutions. The important parameter controlling the durability is pore structure, because it affects both compressive strength and susceptibility to different kinds of chemical attack. Impedance spectroscopy was utilized to assess the connectivity of the pore system at early ages. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and SEM were utilized to assess development of porosity at later ages. Phase alterations in the matrix exposed to aging and leaching in different media were followed using XRD. Mixtures were resistant to deterioration during immersion in solutions containing high concentrations of sulfate or carbonate ions. Mixtures were also resistant to leaching. These results are consistent with microstructural observations, which showed development of a finer pore structure and reduction in diffusivity over days or months of hydration.

  3. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, low level aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, low level aerial view of Test Stand "D," looking due south, after completion of Dd station installation in 1961. Note Test Stand "D" "neutralization pond" to immediate southeast of tower. A steel barrier north of and parallel to the Dd station separates fuel run tanks (on south side obscured from view) from oxidizer run tanks (on north side). Small Dj injector test stand is visible to the immediate left of oxidizer run tanks; it is oriented on a northeast/southwest diagonal to the Dd test station. The large tank to the north of the oxidizer run tanks (near center bottom of view) is an oxidizer storage tank for nitrogen tetroxide. Slender tanks to the northwest of the tower (lower right of view) contain high pressure nitrogen gas. A large vertical tank at the base of the tower contains distilled water for flushing propellant lines. (JPL negative no. 384-2997-B, 12 December 1961) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Non-US advanced low-level radwaste treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyen, L. C.; Tucker, R. F., Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A review of power plant radwaste treatment practices and research in Canada, Japan, Korea and Europe is given. In addition to a review of the available English language literature, visits were made to power plants and research centers in Europe and Japan and to private and government agencies in Korea. the nuclear research centers and power plants which were visited in Japan made use of volume reduction (VR) techniques and on site storage facilities. VR techniques were in use at the two major nuclear research centers in West Germany, and several power plants have made plans to use VR systems. Research on leaching was also being carried out in Japan because they intend to dispose of low level radioactive waste by deep sea disposal. Information concerning the VR systems in Canada included in this report is based on a trip to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development Station in 1977 and on reports and personal communications with Ontario Hydro engineers. The status of the work on radwaste VR systems and radwaste incinerators in the United States is updated along with other significant events concerning VR systems.

  5. Low-level light treatment ameliorates immune thrombocytopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingke; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Mei X.

    2017-02-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated acquired bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally low platelet counts. We reported here the ability of low-level light treatment (LLLT) to alleviate ITP in mice. The treatment is based on noninvasive whole body illumination 30 min a day for a few consecutive days by near infrared light (830 nm) transmitted by an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). LLLT significantly lifted the nadir of platelet counts and restored tail bleeding time when applied to two passive ITP models induced by anti-CD41 antibody. The anti-platelet antibody hindered megakaryocyte differentiation from the progenitors, impaired proplatelet and platelet formation, and induced apoptosis of platelets. These adverse effects of anti-CD41 antibody were all mitigated by LLLT to varying degrees, owing to its ability to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in megakaryocytes and preserve mitochondrial functions in platelets in the presence of the antibody. The observations argue not only for contribution of mitochondrial stress to the pathology of ITP, but also clinical potentials of LLLT as a safe, simple, and cost-effective modality of ITP.

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Low Level Jets over Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez Rodriguez, Walter; Araya, Guillermo; Ruiz-Columbie, Arquimedes; Tutkun, Murat; Castillo, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    Low Level Jets (LLJs) are defined as regions of relatively strong winds in the lower part of the atmosphere. They are a common feature over the Great Plains in the United States. This paper is focused on the determination of the static/dynamic impacts that real LLJs in West Texas have over wind turbines and wind farms. High-frequency (50Hz) observational data from the 200-m meteorological tower (Reese, Texas) have been input as inflow conditions into the NREL FAST code in order to evaluate the LLJ's structural impacts on a typical wind turbine. Then, the effect of the LLJ on the wind turbine's wake is considered to evaluate the overall impact on the wind farm. It has been observed that during a LLJ event the levels of turbulence intensity and turbulence kinetic energy are significantly much lower than those during unstable conditions. Also, low-frequency oscillations prevail during stable conditions when LLJs are present, as opposed to high-frequency oscillations which are more prevalent during unstable conditions. Additionally, in LLJs the energy concentrates in particular frequencies that stress the turbine whereas turbine signals show frequencies that are also present in the incoming wind. Grants: NSF-CBET #1157246, NSF-CMMI #1100948, NSF-PIRE # NSF-OISE-1243482.

  7. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  8. Low-Level Jets: The Data Assimilation Office and Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Data assimilation brings together atmospheric observations and atmospheric models-what we can measure of the atmosphere with how we expect it to behave. NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) sponsors research projects in data reanalysis, which take several years of observational data and analyze them with a fixed assimilation system, to create an improved data set for use in atmospheric studies. Using NCCS computers, one group of NASA researchers employs reanalysis to examine the role of summertime low-level jet (LLJ) winds in regional seasonal climate. Prevailing winds that blow strongly in a fixed direction within a vertically and horizontally confined region of the atmosphere are known as jets. Jets can dominate circulation and have an enormous impact on the weather in a region. Some jets are as famous as they are influential. The jet stream over North America, for instance, is the wind that blows eastward across the continent, bringing weather from the west coast and increasing the speed of airplanes flying to the east coast. The jet stream, while varying in intensity and location, is present in all seasons at the very high altitude of 200-300 millibars - more than 6 miles above Earth's surface.

  9. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  10. Summing nondetects: incorporating low-level contaminants in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Helsel, Dennis R

    2010-07-01

    Low-level contaminants often are present below the detection or reporting limits of a laboratory, resulting in values reported as a nondetect or less-than. How can these values be summed along with detected concentrations to obtain a total, particularly when weighting factors such as toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) are used? The most common method employed by environmental scientists for summing nondetects along with detected values is to substitute one-half the detection limit for each nondetect. This substitution allows the least precise measurements, data with high detection limits, to have a strong influence on the resulting total amount. Substitution methods have repeatedly been shown to provide substandard results in studies over the last 2 decades. Here an alternative, the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method used throughout the fields of medical and industrial statistics, is used to obtain the total. KM estimates are far less affected by the least precise data than are estimates computed using substitution. No assumptions about the distribution of data (whether they follow a normal or other distribution) need be made. Direct application of KM to computation of toxicity equivalence concentrations (TECs) is shown. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  11. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1984-11-01

    Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the US is regulated by EPA, as authorized by the MPRSA. Other US laws and regulations applicable to ocean dumping of radioactive waste include the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, The National Environmental Policy Act, The Atomic Energy Act, and the Energy Reorganization Act, along with internal orders for executive departments such as the US DOE. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention of the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention), which prohibits the disposal of high-level wastes and requires a special permit prior to ocean disposal of other wastes. Several international organization focus on radioactive waste management; the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency are the largest and most active. Because the US is a member of the IAEA and a party to the London Dumping Convention, EPA will have to make US regulations under MPRSA agree with international policy. 6 references, 1 figure.

  12. Low-level radioactive wastes. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    1989-08-04

    Under a federal law, each state by January 1, 1993, must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the wastes are from using nuclear power to produce electricity, but 25% to 30% are from medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Exposures to radioactivity from the wastes are much smaller than those from natural sources, and federal standards limit public exposure. Currently operating disposal facilities are in Beatty, Nev, Barnwell, SC, and Richland, Wash. National policy encourages the development of regional facilities. Planning a regional facility, selecting a site, and building, monitoring, and closing the facility will be a complex project lasting decades that involves legislation, public participation, local and state governments, financing, quality control, and surveillance. The facilities will utilize geological factors, structural designs, packaging, and other approaches to isolate the wastes. Those providing medical care can reduce wastes by storing them until they are less radioactive, substituting nonradioactive compounds, reducing volumes, and incinerating. Physicians have an important role in informing and advising the public and public officials about risks involved with the wastes and about effective methods of dealing with them.

  13. Low-level radioactive wastes. AMA Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    1990-02-01

    Under a federal law, each state by January 1, 1993, must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the wastes are from using nuclear power to produce electricity, but 25% to 30% are from medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Exposures to radioactivity from the wastes are much smaller than those from natural sources, and federal standards limit public exposure. Currently operating disposal facilities are in Beatty, Nev, Barnwell, SC, and Richland, Wash. National policy encourages the development of regional facilities. Planning a regional facility, selecting a site, and building, monitoring, and closing the facility will be a complex project lasting decades that involves legislation, public participation, local and state governments, financing, quality control, and surveillance. The facilities will utilize geological factors, structural designs, packaging, and other approaches to isolate the wastes. Those providing medical care can reduce wastes by storing them until they are less radioactive, substituting nonradioactive compounds, reducing volumes, and incinerating. Physicians have an important role in informing and advising the public and public officials about risks involved with the wastes and about effective methods of dealing with them.

  14. Low-level liquid waste treatment system start-up

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Gessner, R.F.

    1989-07-01

    Following removal of Cs-137 by ion exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System immediately upstream, the radioactive liquid waste is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids (by weight), is encapsulated in cement, producing a stable low-level waste form. This report provides a summary of work performed to test the Liquid Waste Treatment System following construction turnover and prior to radioactive operation. All mechanical and electrical components, piping, valves, pumps, tanks, controls, and instrumentation required to operate the system were tested; first with water, then with simulated waste. Subsystems (individual tanks, pumps, and control loops) were tested individually, then as a complete system. Finally, the system began a controlled start-up phase, which included the first four months of radioactive operation. Components were tested for operability then for performance data to verify the system`s ability to produce an acceptable waste form at design feed rates.

  15. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy - an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K; Carroll, James; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been known since 1967 but still remains controversial due to incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms and the selection of inappropriate dosimetric parameters that led to negative studies. The biphasic dose-response or Arndt-Schulz curve in LLLT has been shown both in vitro studies and in animal experiments. This review will provide an update to our previous (Huang et al. 2009) coverage of this topic. In vitro mediators of LLLT such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential show biphasic patterns, while others such as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species show a triphasic dose-response with two distinct peaks. The Janus nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may act as a beneficial signaling molecule at low concentrations and a harmful cytotoxic agent at high concentrations, may partly explain the observed responses in vivo. Transcranial LLLT for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice shows a distinct biphasic pattern with peaks in beneficial neurological effects observed when the number of treatments is varied, and when the energy density of an individual treatment is varied. Further understanding of the extent to which biphasic dose responses apply in LLLT will be necessary to optimize clinical treatments.

  16. FUNDING ALTERNATIVES FOR LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Bruce D.; Carilli, Jhon

    2003-02-27

    For 13 years, low-level waste (LLW) generator fees and disposal volumes for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) had been on a veritable roller coaster ride. As forecast volumes and disposal volumes fluctuated wildly, generator fees were difficult to determine and implement. Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 forecast projections were so low, the very existence of disposal operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were threatened. Providing the DOE Complex with a viable, cost-effective disposal option, while assuring the disposal site a stable source of funding, became the driving force behind the development of the Waste Generator Access Fee at the NTS. On September 26, 2000, NNSA/NV (after seeking input from DOE/Headquarters [HQ]), granted permission to Bechtel Nevada (BN) to implement the Access Fee for FY 2001 as a two-year Pilot Program. In FY 2001 (the first year the Access Fee was implemented), the NTS Disposal Operations experienced a 90 percent increase in waste receipts from the previous year and a 33 percent reduction in disposal fee charged to the waste generators. Waste receipts for FY 2002 were projected to be 63 percent higher than FY 2001 and 15 percent lower in cost. Forecast data for the outyears are just as promising. This paper describes the development, implementation, and ultimate success of this fee strategy.

  17. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes.

  18. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  19. Low-level light treatment ameliorates immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingke; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiyu; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated acquired bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally low platelet counts. We reported here the ability of low-level light treatment (LLLT) to alleviate ITP in mice. The treatment is based on noninvasive whole body illumination 30 min a day for a few consecutive days by near infrared light (830 nm) transmitted by an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). LLLT significantly lifted the nadir of platelet counts and restored tail bleeding time when applied to two passive ITP models induced by anti-CD41 antibody. The anti-platelet antibody hindered megakaryocyte differentiation from the progenitors, impaired proplatelet and platelet formation, and induced apoptosis of platelets. These adverse effects of anti-CD41 antibody were all mitigated by LLLT to varying degrees, owing to its ability to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in megakaryocytes and preserve mitochondrial functions in platelets in the presence of the antibody. The observations argue not only for contribution of mitochondrial stress to the pathology of ITP, but also clinical potentials of LLLT as a safe, simple, and cost-effective modality of ITP. PMID:27901126

  20. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  1. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  2. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Tracey, E.M.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock & Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM).

  3. Low-level laser therapy for Peyronie's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Bertini, John E. J.; Harris, James M.; Hawkins, Janet H.

    1995-05-01

    We are reporting the preliminary results of a nonrandomized trial using a low-level gallium- aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at a wavelength of 830 nm (Microlight 830, Lasermedics, Inc., Stafford, TX) to treat patients with symptomatic Peyronie's disease. All patients entered into the study had disease consisting of a well-defined fibrous plaque causing pain and/or curvature of the penile shaft on erection that interfered with satisfactory sexual intercourse. Treatment has consisted of 30 mW administered over a duty cycle of 100 seconds (3 J) beginning at the base of the penis and extending to the coronal sulcus over the dorsum of the penis at 0.5 cm intervals. An additional duty cycle of 100 seconds was delivered to each 0.5 cm of palpable plaque. The ability of the therapy to reduce the size of the fibrous plaque, the severity of the penile curvature, and the severity of pain associated with penile erection and the treatment's effect on the patient's quality of life were assessed for each patient at completion of therapy and 6 weeks later.

  4. Recent international developments in low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1986-11-01

    Recent international developments in low-level waste (LLW) disposal have included a move away from ocean dumping and a trend towards engineered and deeper dispoosal. Siting efforts have accelerated as interim storage facilities and existing sites reach capacity. The suspension of ocean dumping by the London Dumping Conventions of 1983 and 1985 has affected the LLW disposal practices of several countries, including the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Japan. Their plans now include disposal in trenches, shallow concrete pits, deep mines, sub-seabed caverns, horizontal mountain tunnels, and long-term storage facilities. Other recent developments include selection of the semi-desert Vaalputs site in South Africa, licensing activities for the Konrad mine site in the Federal Republic of Germany, design of at-reactor sites in Finland, and construction of a Baltic Sea site in Sweden. Also, the French have recently selected the Aube site for engineered disposal in monoliths and tumuli, now used at the La Manche site.

  5. Low-level waste minimization at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, J.

    1993-03-01

    The Y-12 Development Waste Minimization Program is used as a basis for defining new technologies and processes that produce minimum low-level wastes (hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and industrial) for the Y-12 Plant in the future and for Complex-21 and that aid in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) efforts throughout the complex. In the past, the strategy at the Y-12 Plant was to treat the residues from the production processes using chemical treatment, incineration, compaction, and other technologies, which often generated copious quantities of additional wastes and, with the exception of highly valuable materials such as enriched uranium, incorporated very little recycle in the process. Recycle, in this context, is defined as material that is put back into the process before it enters a waste stream. Additionally, there are several new technology drivers that have recently emerged with the changing climate in the Nuclear Weapons Complex such as Complex 21 and D and D technologies and an increasing number of disassemblies. The hierarchies of concern in the waste minimization effort are source reduction, recycle capability, treatment simplicity, and final disposal difficulty with regard to Complex 21, disassembly efforts, D and D, and, to a lesser extent, weapons production. Source reduction can be achieved through substitution of hazardous substances for nonhazardous materials, and process changes that result in less generated waste.

  6. Effect of Pulsing in Low-Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Javad T.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Kurup, Divya Balachandran; De Taboada, Luis; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Low level light (or laser) therapy (LLLT) is a rapidly growing modality used in physical therapy, chiropractic, sports medicine and increasingly in mainstream medicine. LLLT is used to increase wound healing and tissue regeneration, to relieve pain and inflammation, to prevent tissue death, to mitigate degeneration in many neurological indications. While some agreement has emerged on the best wavelengths of light and a range of acceptable dosages to be used (irradiance and fluence), there is no agreement on whether continuous wave or pulsed light is best and on what factors govern the pulse parameters to be chosen. Study Design/Materials and Methods The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1970 and 2010. Results The basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of LLLT are discussed. The type of pulsed light sources available and the parameters that govern their pulse structure are outlined. Studies that have compared continuous wave and pulsed light in both animals and patients are reviewed. Frequencies used in other pulsed modalities used in physical therapy and biomedicine are compared to those used in LLLT. Conclusion There is some evidence that pulsed light does have effects that are different from those of continuous wave light. However further work is needed to define these effects for different disease conditions and pulse structures. PMID:20662021

  7. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  8. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  9. Feedback Configuration Tools for LHC Low Level RF

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, D.; Fox, J.; Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Baudrenghien, P.; Butterworth, A.; Molendijk, J.; /CERN

    2009-12-16

    The LHC Low Level RF System (LLRF) is a complex multi-VME crate system which is used to regulate the superconductive cavity gap voltage as well as to lower the impedance as seen by the beam through low latency feedback. This system contains multiple loops with several parameters to be set before the loops can be closed. In this paper, we present a suite of MATLAB based tools developed to perform the preliminary alignment of the RF stations and the beginnings of a closed loop model based alignment routine. We briefly introduce the RF system and in particular the base band (time domain noise based) network analyzer system built into the LHC LLRF. The main focus of this paper is the methodology of the algorithms used by the routines within the context of the overall system. Measured results are presented that validate the technique. Because the RF systems are located in a cavern 120 m underground in a location which is relatively un-accessible without beam and completely un-accessible with beam present or magnets are energized, these remotely operated tools are a necessity for the CERN LLRF team to maintain and tune their LLRF systems in a similar fashion as to what was done very successfully in PEP-II at SLAC.

  10. Behavioral effects of low level neonatal lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastings, L; Cooper, G P; Bornschein, R L; Michaelson, I A

    1977-07-01

    Rats exposed to lead via maternal milk were tested at various stages of development on a number of behavioral tasks. Beginning at paturition, the dams were given either tap water, 0.02%, or 0.10% lead acetate in the drinking water. Pups from all three groups were weaned to normal chow and tap water at 21 days of age. The mean lead concentration of the dam's blood and of neonatal (20 days of age) brain and blood were all below 50 microgram/100 ml. No significant differences were found between the high lead-exposed group and controls in general as measured by wheel running over a 21 day period beginning at 30 days of age. However, there was a significant difference in wheel running behavior during the first three hr of testing. Both lead-exposed groups were found to display significantly less aggressive behavior as measured by the shock-elicited aggression test. Low level lead exposure had no discernable effect on the acquisition and subsequent reversal of a successive brightness discrimination task. Lead exposure under these conditions appears to affect some aspects of emotional behavior, while having little effect on general activity or cognitive function.

  11. Low Level Laser Therapy for Patients with Cervical Disk Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Okuni, Ikuko; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Harada, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Ohshiro, Toshio; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Musya, Yoshiro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic shoulder joint pain, elbow, hand and finger pain, and low back pain. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic neck pain. Materials and Methods: Over a 3 year period, 26 rehabilitation department outpatients with chronic neck pain, diagnosed as being caused by cervical disk hernia, underwent treatment applied to the painful area with a 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device delivering at 830 nm in continuous wave, 20.1 J/cm2/point, and three shots were given per session (1 treatment) with twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: 1. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). 2. After treatment, no significant differences in cervical spine range of motion were observed. 3. Discussions with the patients revealed that in order to receive continued benefits from treatment, it was important for them to be taught how to avoid postures that would cause them neck pain in everyday life. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that LLLT was an effective form of treatment for neck and back pain caused by cervical disk hernia, reinforced by postural training. PMID:24511189

  12. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-05-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

  13. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

  14. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Stark, A D; Costas, K; Chang, H G; Vallet, H L

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure, duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were reinterviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  15. Unusually low levels of genetic variation among Giardia lamblia isolates.

    PubMed

    Teodorovic, Smilja; Braverman, John M; Elmendorf, Heidi G

    2007-08-01

    Giardia lamblia, an intestinal pathogen of mammals, including humans, is a significant cause of diarrheal disease around the world. Additionally, the parasite is found on a lineage which separated early from the main branch in eukaryotic evolution. The extent of genetic diversity among G. lamblia isolates is insufficiently understood, but this knowledge is a prerequisite to better understand the role of parasite variation in disease etiology and to examine the evolution of mechanisms of genetic exchange among eukaryotes. Intraisolate genetic variation in G. lamblia has never been estimated, and previous studies on interisolate genetic variation have included a limited sample of loci. Here we report a population genetics study of intra- and interisolate genetic diversity based on six coding and four noncoding regions from nine G. lamblia isolates. Our results indicate exceedingly low levels of genetic variation in two out of three G. lamblia groups that infect humans; this variation is sufficient to allow identification of isolate-specific markers. Low genetic diversity at both coding and noncoding regions, with an overall bias towards synonymous substitutions, was discovered. Surprisingly, we found a dichotomous haplotype structure in the third, more variable G. lamblia group, represented by a haplotype shared with one of the homogenous groups and an additional group-specific haplotype. We propose that the distinct patterns of genetic-variation distribution among lineages are a consequence of the presence of genetic exchange. More broadly, our findings have implications for the regulation of gene expression, as well as the mode of reproduction in the parasite.

  16. Navigational demands of low-level helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzell, Susanne; Battiste, Vernol

    1993-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the verbal references to map, terrain, direction, and position, that navigators and pilots communicate during a simulated low-level flight. Two-person crews were asked to communicate normally while negotiating six short flight missions that varied widely in regard to map-terrain characteristics. Half of the crews performed the exercises with fixed, north-up maps and the other half used movable maps that were adjusted to maintain a track-up correspondence to the flight route. An analysis was performed to compare differences in crew communication patterns between map orientations, characteristics, and navigation tasks. The results showed differences in the frequency of communication across categories for map characteristics but not for map orientations or tasks. A difference in the proportion of communications between pilot and navigator occurred when crew were lost. Pilots communicated more than navigators when crews were lost and the reverse was true when crews were not lost. The results support and extend findings from a distance error performance analysis performed on the same flight missions.

  17. Low-level laser therapy and invisible removal aligners.

    PubMed

    Caccianiga, G; Crestale, C; Cozzani, M; Piras, A; Mutinelli, S; Lo Giudice, A; Cordasco, G

    2016-01-01

    It seems that Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) stimulates orthodontic tooth movements, increasing the alveolar bone turnover. The aim of this study is to evaluate how LLLT can influence the orthodontic treatment with invisible removal aligner. A sample of 21 subjects was divided into two groups, a laser group (10 patients) and a control group (11 patients). All subjects were instructed to wear each aligner 12 hours a day for 2 weeks. Laser external bio-stimulation was given in the laser group every second week. The laser group successfully finished the treatment, while at 3rd – 5th aligner the control group did not finish the treatment. Laser treatment seemed to be better than treatment without laser. LLLT combined with aligners is able to favour, in 12 hours, the same tooth movement obtained by wearing the aligner 22 hours a day, according to the traditional protocol. This aspect could be useful for those patients who prefer not to use the aligners during the day. LLLT makes invisible removal aligner treatment more comfortable also because during the day the patients have to wear the aligners less hours than the treatment without laser.

  18. Towards smart homes using low level sensory data.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Truc, Phan Tran Ho; Hung, Le Xuan; Vinh, La The; Dang, Viet-Hung; Guan, Donghai; Pervez, Zeeshan; Han, Manhyung; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous Life Care (u-Life care) is receiving attention because it provides high quality and low cost care services. To provide spontaneous and robust healthcare services, knowledge of a patient's real-time daily life activities is required. Context information with real-time daily life activities can help to provide better services and to improve healthcare delivery. The performance and accuracy of existing life care systems is not reliable, even with a limited number of services. This paper presents a Human Activity Recognition Engine (HARE) that monitors human health as well as activities using heterogeneous sensor technology and processes these activities intelligently on a Cloud platform for providing improved care at low cost. We focus on activity recognition using video-based, wearable sensor-based, and location-based activity recognition engines and then use intelligent processing to analyze the context of the activities performed. The experimental results of all the components showed good accuracy against existing techniques. The system is deployed on Cloud for Alzheimer's disease patients (as a case study) with four activity recognition engines to identify low level activity from the raw data captured by sensors. These are then manipulated using ontology to infer higher level activities and make decisions about a patient's activity using patient profile information and customized rules.

  19. Treating cognitive impairment with transcranial low level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jack C

    2017-03-01

    This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans. The rationale for this approach, as indicated in this report, is supported by growing evidence that neurodegenerative damage and cognitive impairment during advanced aging is accelerated or triggered by a neuronal energy crisis generated by brain hypoperfusion. We have previously proposed that chronic brain hypoperfusion in the elderly can worsen in the presence of one or more vascular risk factors, including hypertension, cardiac disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes type 2. Although many unanswered questions remain, boosting neurometabolic activity through non-invasive transcranial laser biostimulation of neuronal mitochondria may be a valuable tool in preventing or delaying age-related cognitive decline that can lead to dementia, including its two major subtypes, Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The technology to achieve significant improvement of cognitive dysfunction using LLLT or variations of this technique is moving fast and may signal a new chapter in the treatment and prevention of neurocognitive disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  1. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-12-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

  2. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  3. Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

  4. Risk evaluation - conventional and low level effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Any discussion of the risk of exposure to potentially-hazardous agents in the environment inevitably involves the question of whether the dose effect curve is of the threshold or linear, non-threshold type. A principal objective of this presentation is to show that the function is actually two separate relationships, each representing distinctly different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different disciplines (i.e., the threshold function, of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine (PTM); the linear, non-threshold function, of Public Health including safety and accident statistics (PHS)). It is shown that low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation falls clearly in the PHS category. A function for cell dose vs. the fraction of single cell quantal responses is characterized, which reflects the absolute and relative sensitivities of cells. Acceptance of this function would obviate any requirement for the use in Radiation Protection of the concepts of a standard radiation, Q, dose equivalent and rem. 9 references, 4 figures.

  5. Low level laser therapy for traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiuhe; Huang, Ying-Ying; Dhital, Saphala; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Whalen, Michael J.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Low level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) has been clinically applied for many indications in medicine that require the following processes: protection from cell and tissue death, stimulation of healing and repair of injuries, and reduction of pain, swelling and inflammation. One area that is attracting growing interest is the use of transcranial LLLT to treat stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The fact that near-infrared light can penetrate into the brain would allow non-invasive treatment to be carried out with a low likelihood of treatment-related adverse events. LLLT may have beneficial effects in the acute treatment of brain damage injury by increasing respiration in the mitochondria, causing activation of transcription factors, reducing key inflammatory mediators, and inhibiting apoptosis. We tested LLLT in a mouse model of TBI produced by a controlled weight drop onto the skull. Mice received a single treatment with 660-nm, 810-nm or 980-nm laser (36 J/cm2) four hours post-injury and were followed up by neurological performance testing for 4 weeks. Mice with moderate to severe TBI treated with 660- nm and 810-nm laser had a significant improvement in neurological score over the course of the follow-up and histological examination of the brains at sacrifice revealed less lesion area compared to untreated controls. Further studies are underway.

  6. Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects and research needs.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, M H

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the German and Austrian Governments jointly sponsored an international seminar in November of 1996 on the biological effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. For purposes of this seminar, RF fields having frequencies only in the range of about 10 MHz to 300 GHz were considered. This is one of a series of scientific review seminars held under the International Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Project to identify any health hazards from EMF exposure. The scientific literature was reviewed during the seminar and expert working groups formed to provide a status report on possible health effects from exposure to low-level RF fields and identify gaps in knowledge requiring more research to improve health risk assessments. It was concluded that, although hazards from exposure to high-level (thermal) RF fields were established, no known health hazards were associated with exposure to RF sources emitting fields too low to cause a significant temperature rise in tissue. Biological effects from low-level RF exposure were identified needing replication and further study. These included in vitro studies of cell kinetics and proliferation effects, effects on genes, signal transduction effects and alterations in membrane structure and function, and biophysical and biochemical mechanisms for RF field effects. In vivo studies should focus on the potential for cancer promotion, co-promotion and progression, as well as possible synergistic, genotoxic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects associated with chronic low-level RF exposure. Research is needed to determine whether low-level RF exposure causes DNA damage or influences central nervous system function, melatonin synthesis, permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), or reaction to neurotropic drugs. Reported RF-induced changes to eye structure and function should also be investigated

  7. Interpersonal Movement Synchrony Responds to High- and Low-Level Conversational Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Much work on communication and joint action conceptualizes interaction as a dynamical system. Under this view, dynamic properties of interaction should be shaped by the context in which the interaction is taking place. Here we explore interpersonal movement coordination or synchrony—the degree to which individuals move in similar ways over time—as one such context-sensitive property. Studies of coordination have typically investigated how these dynamics are influenced by either high-level constraints (i.e., slow-changing factors) or low-level constraints (i.e., fast-changing factors like movement). Focusing on nonverbal communication behaviors during naturalistic conversation, we analyzed how interacting participants' head movement dynamics were shaped simultaneously by high-level constraints (i.e., conversation type; friendly conversations vs. arguments) and low-level constraints (i.e., perceptual stimuli; non-informative visual stimuli vs. informative visual stimuli). We found that high- and low-level constraints interacted non-additively to affect interpersonal movement dynamics, highlighting the context sensitivity of interaction and supporting the view of joint action as a complex adaptive system. PMID:28804466

  8. Activity in high-level brain regions reflects visibility of low-level stimuli.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, F; Heinzle, J; Imfeld, A; Haynes, J-D

    2014-11-15

    Stimulus visibility is associated with neural signals in multiple brain regions, ranging from visual cortex to prefrontal regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate to which extent the perceived visibility of a "low-level" grating stimulus is reflected in the brain activity in high-level brain regions. Oriented grating stimuli were presented under varying visibility conditions created by backward masking. Visibility was manipulated using four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), which created a continuum from invisible to highly visible target stimuli. Brain activity in early visual areas, high-level visual brain regions (fusiform gyrus), as well as parietal and prefrontal brain regions was significantly correlated with subjects' psychometric visibility functions. In addition, increased stimulus visibility was reflected in the functional coupling between low and high-level visual areas. Specifically, neuroimaging signals in the middle occipital gyrus were significantly more correlated with signals in the inferior temporal gyrus when subjects successfully perceived the target stimulus than when they did not. These results provide evidence that not only low-level visual but also high-level brain regions reflect visibility of low-level grating stimuli and that changes in functional connectivity reflect perceived stimulus visibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  10. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  12. Low-level luminescence as a method of detecting the UV influence on biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Wei-Ping; Popp, Fritz A.

    1995-02-01

    It is well known that low-level luminescence is correlated to many physiological and biological parameters, e.g. cell cycle, temperature, oxidation- and UV-stress. We report some new approaches on low-level luminescence measurements and UV influence on different biological systems. One example concerns yeast cultures, which show an increasing intensity of luminescence after UV-treatment with a maximum after 1.5 h. Investigations on normal human fibroblasts and keratinocytes display different longtime kinetics: The former show no changes of the luminescence in time, the latter an increase that reaches the maximum after 9 h. The time-dependent spectral measurement on xeroderma pigmentosum after UV-treatment displays a time-shift of the action-spectra shifting the maximum from 400 nm to 420 nm in 12 h. Some results on neutrophils reveals spectral UV influence on respiratory burst and the cellular repair system. The results on human skin display spectral changes of low-level luminescence after UV-treatment. These results provide a useful tool of analyzing UV influence on human skin.

  13. Spectral analysis of large-eddy advection in ET from eddy covariance towers and a large weighting lysimeter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a cotton field in Bushland, Texas. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms wer...

  14. Non-Stationary Hydrologic Transport in the Vadose Zone: Experimental Results of Multiple Tracer Injections in Lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, P.; Rao, P. C.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Travel and residence times are well-known descriptors of hydrologic and solute transport in the vadose zone. It has been observed that their probability density functions are stationary only under specific conditions, rarely encountered in natural catchments. This study aims at demonstrating the emergence of non-stationary solute transport in a highly monitored system, and identifying the factors controlling the variations of the observed solute travel-times. 2-meters deep weighing lysimeters are exposed to stochastic rainfall sequences. Multiple derivatives of difluorobenzoate compounds are sequentially injected at different times in the system, and are analyzed in the drainage flux at the bottom outlet and at different depth within the soil profiles. Willow trees planted in the systems create a stochastic soil water deficit by evapotranspiration. As each tracer injected is analytically differentiable from the others, the computation of the tracer breakthrough curves at the lysimeter outlet allows measuring the solute travel-time distributions conditional on the injection time. The observed breakthrough curves display a large variability, emphasizing the effects of the initial conditions at the injection time and the subsequent states encountered in the system on solute transport. Two types of climate have been simulated on the lysimeters. With the precision load cells installed under each lysimeter and the water content probes deployed in the soil profiles, a detailed comparison of the water balance and storage dynamics and their influence on solute transport timing can be done.

  15. The impact of multiple low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations on response to ponatinib

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, David T. O.; Yeoman, Alexandra L.; Altamura, Haley K.; Jamison, Bronte A.; Field, Chani R.; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Branford, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ponatinib shows activity against all common BCR-ABL1 single mutants, including the highly resistant BCR-ABL1-T315I mutant, improving outcome for patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, responses are variable, and causal baseline factors have not been well-studied. The type and number of low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations present after imatinib resistance has prognostic significance for subsequent treatment with nilotinib or dasatinib as second-line therapy. We therefore investigated the impact of low-level mutations detected by sensitive mass-spectrometry before ponatinib initiation (baseline) on treatment response in 363 TKI-resistant patients enrolled in the PONATINIB for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Evaluation and Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia trial, including 231 patients in chronic phase (CP-CML). Low-level mutations were detected in 53 patients (15%, including low-level T315I in 14 patients); most, however, did not undergo clonal expansion during ponatinib treatment and, moreover, no specific individual mutations were associated with inferior outcome. We demonstrate however, that the number of mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance is associated with response to ponatinib treatment and could be used to refine the therapeutic approach. Although CP-CML patients with T315I (63/231, 27%) had superior responses overall, those with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry (20, 32%) had substantially inferior responses compared with those with T315I as the sole mutation detected (43, 68%). In contrast, for CP-CML patients without T315I, the inferior responses previously observed with nilotinib/dasatinib therapy for imatinib-resistant patients with multiple mutations were not seen with ponatinib treatment, suggesting that ponatinib may prove to be particularly advantageous for patients with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance

  16. Clinical effectiveness of low-level laser treatment on peripheral somatosensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Alireza; Mirzaei, Alireza; Gutknecht, Norbert; Demneh, Amir Saberi

    2017-04-01

    Peripheral sensory neuropathy treatment is one of the common treatment problems and causes morbidity and mortality in people suffering from that. Although treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, nevertheless, in some cases, there is no cure for it, and it requires palliative and symptomatic treatment. In laboratory studies, low-level laser has been effective in the nerves protection and restoration. The aim of this article is to investigate the clinical efficacy of low-level laser on improvement of the peripheral somatosensory neuropathy. Search in the articles published up to 30 October 2015 (full text and abstracts) in databases PubMed (Medline), Cochrane library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database was performed. The studies of low-level laser trials on patients with peripheral neuropathy were carried out and evaluated in terms of the exclusion criteria. There are 35 articles among which 10 articles had the intended and required criteria. 1, 3, and 6 articles study the patients with diabetes, neuropathy caused by trauma, and carpal tunnel syndrome, respectively. In six studies, laser led to a reduction in sensory impairment and improvement of the physiological function of the sensory nerves. In these articles, lasers (Diode, GaAlAs, He-Ne) had wavelength range 660-860 nm, radiation power 20-250 mW, energy density 0.45-70 J/cm(2). The intervention sessions range was 6-21 times and patient follow-up was 0-6 months. According to the results of these studies, low-level laser therapy can improve sensory function in patients with peripheral somatosensory neuropathy, although little research have not been done, laser treatment regimens are varied and do not recommend a specific treatment protocol. It seems it requires more research to sum up better, particularly in relation to diabetes.

  17. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  18. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  19. A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less

  20. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.