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Sample records for lysosome-related organelles complex-1

  1. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    Luzio, J Paul; Hackmann, Yvonne; Dieckmann, Nele M G; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-09-02

    Lysosomes were once considered the end point of endocytosis, simply used for macromolecule degradation. They are now recognized to be dynamic organelles, able to fuse with a variety of targets and to be re-formed after fusion events. They are also now known to be the site of nutrient sensing and signaling to the cell nucleus. In addition, lysosomes are secretory organelles, with specialized machinery for regulated secretion of proteins in some cell types. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles is discussed, taking into account their dynamic nature and multiple roles. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Genetic Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans Lysosome Related Organelle Function

    PubMed Central

    Soukas, Alexander A.; Carr, Christopher E.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain acid hydrolases that degrade cellular proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and oligosaccharides, and are important for cellular maintenance and protection against age-related decline. Lysosome related organelles (LROs) are specialized lysosomes found in organisms from humans to worms, and share many of the features of classic lysosomes. Defective LROs are associated with human immune disorders and neurological disease. Caenorhabditis elegans LROs are the site of concentration of vital dyes such as Nile red as well as age-associated autofluorescence. Even though certain short-lived mutants have high LRO Nile red and high autofluorescence, and other long-lived mutants have low LRO Nile red and low autofluorescence, these two biologies are distinct. We identified a genetic pathway that modulates aging-related LRO phenotypes via serotonin signaling and the gene kat-1, which encodes a mitochondrial ketothiolase. Regulation of LRO phenotypes by serotonin and kat-1 in turn depend on the proton-coupled, transmembrane transporter SKAT-1. skat-1 loss of function mutations strongly suppress the high LRO Nile red accumulation phenotype of kat-1 mutation. Using a systems approach, we further analyzed the role of 571 genes in LRO biology. These results highlight a gene network that modulates LRO biology in a manner dependent upon the conserved protein kinase TOR complex 2. The results implicate new genetic pathways involved in LRO biology, aging related physiology, and potentially human diseases of the LRO. PMID:24204312

  3. Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 subunit 1 (BLOS1) interacts with sorting nexin 2 and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I (ESCRT-I) component TSG101 to mediate the sorting of epidermal growth factor receptor into endosomal compartments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aili; He, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Lin; Woodman, Philip; Li, Wei

    2014-10-17

    Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) is a component of the molecular machinery required for the biogenesis of specialized organelles and lysosomal targeting of cargoes via the endosomal to lysosomal trafficking pathway. BLOS1, one subunit of BLOC-1, is implicated in lysosomal trafficking of membrane proteins. We found that the degradation and trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were delayed in BLOS1 knockdown cells, which were rescued through BLOS1 overexpression. A key feature to the delayed EGFR degradation is the accumulation of endolysosomes in BLOS1 knockdown cells or BLOS1 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts. BLOS1 interacted with SNX2 (a retromer subunit) and TSG101 (an endosomal sorting complex required for transport subunit-I) to mediate EGFR lysosomal trafficking. These results suggest that coordination of the endolysosomal trafficking proteins is important for proper targeting of EGFR to lysosomes.

  4. Comparative bioinformatics analyses and profiling of lysosome-related organelle proteomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhang-Zhi; Valencia, Julio C.; Huang, Hongzhan; Chi, An; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hearing, Vincent J.; Appella, Ettore; Wu, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    Complete and accurate profiling of cellular organelle proteomes, while challenging, is important for the understanding of detailed cellular processes at the organelle level. Mass spectrometry technologies coupled with bioinformatics analysis provide an effective approach for protein identification and functional interpretation of organelle proteomes. In this study, we have compiled human organelle reference datasets from large-scale proteomic studies and protein databases for seven lysosome-related organelles (LROs), as well as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, for comparative organelle proteome analysis. Heterogeneous sources of human organelle proteins and rodent homologs are mapped to human UniProtKB protein entries based on ID and/or peptide mappings, followed by functional annotation and categorization using the iProXpress proteomic expression analysis system. Cataloging organelle proteomes allows close examination of both shared and unique proteins among various LROs and reveals their functional relevance. The proteomic comparisons show that LROs are a closely related family of organelles. The shared proteins indicate the dynamic and hybrid nature of LROs, while the unique transmembrane proteins may represent additional candidate marker proteins for LROs. This comparative analysis, therefore, provides a basis for hypothesis formulation and experimental validation of organelle proteins and their functional roles.

  5. Disorders of Lysosome-related Organelle Biogenesis: Clinical and Molecular Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Huizing, Marjan; Helip-Wooley, Amanda; Westbroek, Wendy; Gunay-Aygun, Meral; Gahl, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are a heterogeneous group of vesicles that share various features with lysosomes, but are distinct in function, morphology, and composition. The biogenesis of LROs employs a common machinery, and genetic defects in this machinery can affect all LROs or only an individual LRO, resulting in a variety of clinical features. In this review, we discuss the main components in LRO biogenesis. We also address the function, composition and resident cell type of the major LROs. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of the major human LRO disorders. PMID:18544035

  6. Notochord vacuoles are lysosome-related organelles that function in axis and spine morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Kathryn; Bagwell, Jennifer; Bagnat, Michel

    2013-03-04

    The notochord plays critical structural and signaling roles during vertebrate development. At the center of the vertebrate notochord is a large fluid-filled organelle, the notochord vacuole. Although these highly conserved intracellular structures have been described for decades, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their biogenesis and maintenance. Here we show that zebrafish notochord vacuoles are specialized lysosome-related organelles whose formation and maintenance requires late endosomal trafficking regulated by the vacuole-specific Rab32a and H(+)-ATPase-dependent acidification. We establish that notochord vacuoles are required for body axis elongation during embryonic development and identify a novel role in spine morphogenesis. Thus, the vertebrate notochord plays important structural roles beyond early development.

  7. Notochord vacuoles are lysosome-related organelles that function in axis and spine morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Kathryn; Bagwell, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The notochord plays critical structural and signaling roles during vertebrate development. At the center of the vertebrate notochord is a large fluid-filled organelle, the notochord vacuole. Although these highly conserved intracellular structures have been described for decades, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their biogenesis and maintenance. Here we show that zebrafish notochord vacuoles are specialized lysosome-related organelles whose formation and maintenance requires late endosomal trafficking regulated by the vacuole-specific Rab32a and H+-ATPase–dependent acidification. We establish that notochord vacuoles are required for body axis elongation during embryonic development and identify a novel role in spine morphogenesis. Thus, the vertebrate notochord plays important structural roles beyond early development. PMID:23460678

  8. glo-3, a novel Caenorhabditis elegans gene, is required for lysosome-related organelle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rabbitts, Beverley M; Ciotti, Marcela K; Miller, Natalie E; Kramer, Maxwell; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Levitte, Steven; Kremer, Susan; Kwan, Elizabeth; Weis, Allison M; Hermann, Greg J

    2008-10-01

    Gut granules are specialized lysosome-related organelles that act as sites of fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells. We identified mutations in a gene, glo-3, that functions in the formation of embryonic gut granules. Some glo-3(-) alleles displayed a complete loss of embryonic gut granules, while other glo-3(-) alleles had reduced numbers of gut granules. A subset of glo-3 alleles led to mislocalization of gut granule contents into the intestinal lumen, consistent with a defect in intracellular trafficking. glo-3(-) embryos lacking gut granules developed into adults containing gut granules, indicating that glo-3(+) function may be differentially required during development. We find that glo-3(+) acts in parallel with or downstream of the AP-3 complex and the PGP-2 ABC transporter in gut granule biogenesis. glo-3 encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein that lacks obvious sequence homologs outside of nematodes. glo-3 expression initiates in embryonic intestinal precursors and persists almost exclusively in intestinal cells through adulthood. GLO-3GFP localizes to the gut granule membrane, suggesting it could play a direct role in the trafficking events at the gut granule. smg-1(-) suppression of glo-3(-) nonsense alleles indicates that the C-terminal half of GLO-3, predicted to be present in the cytoplasm, is not necessary for gut granule formation. Our studies identify GLO-3 as a novel player in the formation of lysosome-related organelles.

  9. glo-3, a Novel Caenorhabditis elegans Gene, Is Required for Lysosome-Related Organelle Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rabbitts, Beverley M.; Ciotti, Marcela K.; Miller, Natalie E.; Kramer, Maxwell; Lawrenson, Andrea L.; Levitte, Steven; Kremer, Susan; Kwan, Elizabeth; Weis, Allison M.; Hermann, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    Gut granules are specialized lysosome-related organelles that act as sites of fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells. We identified mutations in a gene, glo-3, that functions in the formation of embryonic gut granules. Some glo-3(−) alleles displayed a complete loss of embryonic gut granules, while other glo-3(−) alleles had reduced numbers of gut granules. A subset of glo-3 alleles led to mislocalization of gut granule contents into the intestinal lumen, consistent with a defect in intracellular trafficking. glo-3(−) embryos lacking gut granules developed into adults containing gut granules, indicating that glo-3(+) function may be differentially required during development. We find that glo-3(+) acts in parallel with or downstream of the AP-3 complex and the PGP-2 ABC transporter in gut granule biogenesis. glo-3 encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein that lacks obvious sequence homologs outside of nematodes. glo-3 expression initiates in embryonic intestinal precursors and persists almost exclusively in intestinal cells through adulthood. GLO-3∷GFP localizes to the gut granule membrane, suggesting it could play a direct role in the trafficking events at the gut granule. smg-1(−) suppression of glo-3(−) nonsense alleles indicates that the C-terminal half of GLO-3, predicted to be present in the cytoplasm, is not necessary for gut granule formation. Our studies identify GLO-3 as a novel player in the formation of lysosome-related organelles. PMID:18780725

  10. C. elegans Major Fats Are Stored in Vesicles Distinct from Lysosome-Related Organelles

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Eyleen J.; Soukas, Alexander A.; Carr, Christopher E.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic conservation allows ancient features of fat storage endocrine pathways to be explored in C. elegans. Multiple studies have used Nile red or BODIPY-labeled fatty acids to identify regulators of fat mass. When mixed with their food, E. coli bacteria, Nile red, and BODIPY-labeled fatty acids stain multiple spherical cellular structures in the C. elegans major fat storage organ, the intestine. However, here we demonstrate that, in the conditions previously reported, the lysosome-related organelles stained by Nile red and BODIPY-labeled fatty acids are not the C. elegans major fat storage compartment. We show that the major fat stores are contained in a distinct cellular compartment that is not stained by Nile red. Using biochemical assays, we validate oil red O staining as a method to assess major fat stores in C. elegans, allowing for efficient and accurate genetic and functional genomic screens for genes that control fat accumulation at the organismal level. PMID:19883620

  11. C. elegans major fats are stored in vesicles distinct from lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Soukas, Alexander A; Carr, Christopher E; Ruvkun, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Genetic conservation allows ancient features of fat storage endocrine pathways to be explored in C. elegans. Multiple studies have used Nile red or BODIPY-labeled fatty acids to identify regulators of fat mass. When mixed with their food, E. coli bacteria, Nile red, and BODIPY-labeled fatty acids stain multiple spherical cellular structures in the C. elegans major fat storage organ, the intestine. However, here we demonstrate that, in the conditions previously reported, the lysosome-related organelles stained by Nile red and BODIPY-labeled fatty acids are not the C. elegans major fat storage compartment. We show that the major fat stores are contained in a distinct cellular compartment that is not stained by Nile red. Using biochemical assays, we validate oil red O staining as a method to assess major fat stores in C. elegans, allowing for efficient and accurate genetic and functional genomic screens for genes that control fat accumulation at the organismal level.

  12. Lysosome-Related Organelles in Intestinal Cells Are a Zinc Storage Site in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyun Cheol; Collier, Sara; Guthrie, James; Robertson, J. David; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Zinc is an essential trace element involved in many biological processes and human diseases. Because zinc deficiency and excess are deleterious, animals require homeostatic mechanisms to maintain zinc levels in response to dietary fluctuations. Here we demonstrate that lysosome-related organelles in intestinal cells of C. elegans, called gut granules, function as the major site of zinc storage. Zinc storage in gut granules promotes detoxification and subsequent mobilization, linking cellular and organismal zinc metabolism. The cation diffusion facilitator protein CDF-2 plays a critical role in this process by transporting zinc into gut granules. In response to high dietary zinc, gut granules displayed structural changes characterized by a bilobed morphology with asymmetric distributions of zinc and molecular markers. We defined a genetic pathway that mediates the formation of bilobed morphology. These findings elucidate mechanisms of zinc storage, detoxification and mobilization in C. elegans and may be relevant to other animals. PMID:22225878

  13. Exocytosis of Endothelial Lysosome-Related Organelles Hair-Triggers a Patchy Loss of Glycocalyx at the Onset of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zullo, Joseph A.; Fan, Jie; Azar, Tala T.; Yen, Wanyi; Zeng, Min; Chen, Jun; Ratliff, Brian B.; Song, Jun; Tarbell, John M.; Goligorsky, Michael S.; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory syndrome induced by bacterial infection that can lead to multiorgan failure. Endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) decorating the inner wall of blood vessels is a regulator of multiple vascular functions. Here, we tested a hypothesis that patchy degradation of ESG occurs early in sepsis and is a result of exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies and secretory lysosomes occurred a few minutes after application of lipopolysaccharides to endothelial cells. Two therapeutic maneuvers, a nitric oxide intermediate, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, and culture media conditioned by endothelial progenitor cells reduced the motility of lysosome-related organelles. Confocal and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy confirmed the patchy loss of ESG simultaneously with the exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and Weibel-Palade bodies in cultured endothelial cells and mouse aorta. The loss of ESG was blunted by pretreatment with NG-hydroxy-l-arginine or culture media conditioned by endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, these treatments resulted in a significant reduction in deaths of septic mice. Our data support the hypothesis assigning to stress-induced exocytosis of these organelles the role of a hair-trigger for local degradation of ESG that initiates leukocyte infiltration, increase in vascular permeability, and partially accounts for the later rates of morbidity and mortality. PMID:26683662

  14. Exocytosis of Endothelial Lysosome-Related Organelles Hair-Triggers a Patchy Loss of Glycocalyx at the Onset of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Joseph A; Fan, Jie; Azar, Tala T; Yen, Wanyi; Zeng, Min; Chen, Jun; Ratliff, Brian B; Song, Jun; Tarbell, John M; Goligorsky, Michael S; Fu, Bingmei M

    2016-02-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory syndrome induced by bacterial infection that can lead to multiorgan failure. Endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) decorating the inner wall of blood vessels is a regulator of multiple vascular functions. Here, we tested a hypothesis that patchy degradation of ESG occurs early in sepsis and is a result of exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies and secretory lysosomes occurred a few minutes after application of lipopolysaccharides to endothelial cells. Two therapeutic maneuvers, a nitric oxide intermediate, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, and culture media conditioned by endothelial progenitor cells reduced the motility of lysosome-related organelles. Confocal and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy confirmed the patchy loss of ESG simultaneously with the exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and Weibel-Palade bodies in cultured endothelial cells and mouse aorta. The loss of ESG was blunted by pretreatment with NG-hydroxy-l-arginine or culture media conditioned by endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, these treatments resulted in a significant reduction in deaths of septic mice. Our data support the hypothesis assigning to stress-induced exocytosis of these organelles the role of a hair-trigger for local degradation of ESG that initiates leukocyte infiltration, increase in vascular permeability, and partially accounts for the later rates of morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Function of the Caenorhabditis elegans ABC Transporter PGP-2 in the Biogenesis of a Lysosome-related Fat Storage Organelle

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Lena K.; Kremer, Susan; Kramer, Maxwell J.; Currie, Erin; Kwan, Elizabeth; Watts, Jennifer L.; Lawrenson, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are intestine specific lysosome-related organelles with birefringent and autofluorescent contents. We identified pgp-2, which encodes an ABC transporter, in screens for genes required for the proper formation of gut granules. pgp-2(−) embryos mislocalize birefringent material into the intestinal lumen and are lacking in acidified intestinal V-ATPase–containing compartments. Adults without pgp-2(+) function similarly lack organelles with gut granule characteristics. These cellular phenotypes indicate that pgp-2(−) animals are defective in gut granule biogenesis. Double mutant analysis suggests that pgp-2(+) functions in parallel with the AP-3 adaptor complex during gut granule formation. We find that pgp-2 is expressed in the intestine where it functions in gut granule biogenesis and that PGP-2 localizes to the gut granule membrane. These results support a direct role of an ABC transporter in regulating lysosome biogenesis. Previously, pgp-2(+) activity has been shown to be necessary for the accumulation of Nile Red–stained fat in C. elegans. We show that gut granules are sites of fat storage in C. elegans embryos and adults. Notably, levels of triacylglycerides are relatively normal in animals defective in the formation of gut granules. Our results provide an explanation for the loss of Nile Red–stained fat in pgp-2(−) animals as well as insight into the specialized function of this lysosome-related organelle. PMID:17202409

  16. BLOC-1 Is Required for Cargo-specific Sorting from Vacuolar Early Endosomes toward Lysosome-related Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Tenza, Danièle; Truschel, Steven T.; Chou, Evelyn; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Theos, Alexander C.; Lamoreux, M. Lynn; Di Pietro, Santiago M.; Starcevic, Marta; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C.; Raposo, Graça

    2007-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defects in the formation and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS in humans or mice is caused by mutations in any of 15 genes, five of which encode subunits of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, a protein complex with no known function. Here, we show that BLOC-1 functions in selective cargo exit from early endosomes toward melanosomes. BLOC-1–deficient melanocytes accumulate the melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Tyrp1), but not other melanosomal proteins, in endosomal vacuoles and the cell surface due to failed biosynthetic transit from early endosomes to melanosomes and consequent increased endocytic flux. The defects are corrected by restoration of the missing BLOC-1 subunit. Melanocytes from HPS model mice lacking a different protein complex, BLOC-2, accumulate Tyrp1 in distinct downstream endosomal intermediates, suggesting that BLOC-1 and BLOC-2 act sequentially in the same pathway. By contrast, intracellular Tyrp1 is correctly targeted to melanosomes in melanocytes lacking another HPS-associated protein complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3. The results indicate that melanosome maturation requires at least two cargo transport pathways directly from early endosomes to melanosomes, one pathway mediated by AP-3 and one pathway mediated by BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, that are deficient in several forms of HPS. PMID:17182842

  17. BLOC-1 is required for cargo-specific sorting from vacuolar early endosomes toward lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Tenza, Danièle; Truschel, Steven T; Chou, Evelyn; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Theos, Alexander C; Lamoreux, M Lynn; Di Pietro, Santiago M; Starcevic, Marta; Bennett, Dorothy C; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defects in the formation and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS in humans or mice is caused by mutations in any of 15 genes, five of which encode subunits of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, a protein complex with no known function. Here, we show that BLOC-1 functions in selective cargo exit from early endosomes toward melanosomes. BLOC-1-deficient melanocytes accumulate the melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Tyrp1), but not other melanosomal proteins, in endosomal vacuoles and the cell surface due to failed biosynthetic transit from early endosomes to melanosomes and consequent increased endocytic flux. The defects are corrected by restoration of the missing BLOC-1 subunit. Melanocytes from HPS model mice lacking a different protein complex, BLOC-2, accumulate Tyrp1 in distinct downstream endosomal intermediates, suggesting that BLOC-1 and BLOC-2 act sequentially in the same pathway. By contrast, intracellular Tyrp1 is correctly targeted to melanosomes in melanocytes lacking another HPS-associated protein complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3. The results indicate that melanosome maturation requires at least two cargo transport pathways directly from early endosomes to melanosomes, one pathway mediated by AP-3 and one pathway mediated by BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, that are deficient in several forms of HPS.

  18. Rab27A Regulates Transport of Cell Surface Receptors Modulating Multinucleation and Lysosome-Related Organelles in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Sakai, Eiko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Izumi, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Noriaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Rab27A regulates transport of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and release of secretory granules in various types of cells. Here, we identified up-regulation of Rab27A during differentiation of osteoclasts (OCLs) from bone-marrow macrophages (BMMs), by DNA microarray analysis. Rab27A deficiency in OCLs, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in RAW-D cell line or BMMs derived from ashen mice, which display genetic defects in Rab27A expression, induced multinucleated and giant cells. Upon stimulation with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), essential cytokines for OCL differentiation, phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (Src), and p-38 were slightly enhanced in ashen BMMs than in wild-type BMMs. The cell surface level of c-fms, an M-CSF receptor, was slightly higher in ashen BMMs than in wild-type BMMs, and down-regulation of RANK, a RANKL receptor, was delayed. In addition to receptors, OCLs derived from ashen mice exhibited aberrant actin ring formation, abnormal subcellular localization of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP2) and cathepsin K (CTSK), and marked reduction in resorbing activity. Thus, these findings suggest that Rab27A regulates normal transport of cell surface receptors modulating multinucleation and LROs in OCLs. PMID:25882854

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans HOPS and CCZ-1 mediate trafficking to lysosome-related organelles independently of RAB-7 and SAND-1

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye, Jared L.; Foster, Olivia K.; Vine, Annalise; Saxton, Daniel S.; Curtin, Thomas P.; Somhegyi, Hannah; Salesky, Rebecca; Hermann, Greg J.

    2014-01-01

    As early endosomes mature, the SAND-1/CCZ-1 complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-7 to promote the activity of its effector, HOPS, which facilitates late endosome–lysosome fusion and the consumption of AP-3–containing vesicles. We show that CCZ-1 and the HOPS complex are essential for the biogenesis of gut granules, cell type–specific, lysosome-related organelles (LROs) that coexist with conventional lysosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells. The HOPS subunit VPS-18 promotes the trafficking of gut granule proteins away from lysosomes and functions downstream of or in parallel to the AP-3 adaptor. CCZ-1 also acts independently of AP-3, and ccz-1 mutants mistraffic gut granule proteins. Our results indicate that SAND-1 does not participate in the formation of gut granules. In the absence of RAB-7 activity, gut granules are generated; however, their size and protein composition are subtly altered. These observations suggest that CCZ-1 acts in partnership with a protein other than SAND-1 as a GEF for an alternate Rab to promote gut granule biogenesis. Point mutations in GLO-1, a Rab32/38-related protein, predicted to increase spontaneous guanine nucleotide exchange, specifically suppress the loss of gut granules by ccz-1 and glo-3 mutants. GLO-3 is known to be required for gut granule formation and has homology to SAND-1/Mon1–related proteins, suggesting that CCZ-1 functions with GLO-3 upstream of the GLO-1 Rab, possibly as a GLO-1 GEF. These results support LRO formation occurring via processes similar to conventional lysosome biogenesis, albeit with key molecular differences. PMID:24501423

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans HOPS and CCZ-1 mediate trafficking to lysosome-related organelles independently of RAB-7 and SAND-1.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, Jared L; Foster, Olivia K; Vine, Annalise; Saxton, Daniel S; Curtin, Thomas P; Somhegyi, Hannah; Salesky, Rebecca; Hermann, Greg J

    2014-04-01

    As early endosomes mature, the SAND-1/CCZ-1 complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-7 to promote the activity of its effector, HOPS, which facilitates late endosome-lysosome fusion and the consumption of AP-3-containing vesicles. We show that CCZ-1 and the HOPS complex are essential for the biogenesis of gut granules, cell type-specific, lysosome-related organelles (LROs) that coexist with conventional lysosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells. The HOPS subunit VPS-18 promotes the trafficking of gut granule proteins away from lysosomes and functions downstream of or in parallel to the AP-3 adaptor. CCZ-1 also acts independently of AP-3, and ccz-1 mutants mistraffic gut granule proteins. Our results indicate that SAND-1 does not participate in the formation of gut granules. In the absence of RAB-7 activity, gut granules are generated; however, their size and protein composition are subtly altered. These observations suggest that CCZ-1 acts in partnership with a protein other than SAND-1 as a GEF for an alternate Rab to promote gut granule biogenesis. Point mutations in GLO-1, a Rab32/38-related protein, predicted to increase spontaneous guanine nucleotide exchange, specifically suppress the loss of gut granules by ccz-1 and glo-3 mutants. GLO-3 is known to be required for gut granule formation and has homology to SAND-1/Mon1-related proteins, suggesting that CCZ-1 functions with GLO-3 upstream of the GLO-1 Rab, possibly as a GLO-1 GEF. These results support LRO formation occurring via processes similar to conventional lysosome biogenesis, albeit with key molecular differences.

  1. An endosomal syntaxin and the AP-3 complex are required for formation and maturation of candidate lysosome-related secretory organelles (mucocysts) in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harsimran; Sparvoli, Daniela; Osakada, Hiroko; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Turkewitz, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila synthesizes large secretory vesicles called mucocysts. Mucocyst biosynthesis shares features with dense core granules (DCGs) in animal cells, including proteolytic processing of cargo proteins during maturation. However, other molecular features have suggested relatedness to lysosome-related organelles (LROs). LROs, which include diverse organelles in animals, are formed via convergence of secretory and endocytic trafficking. Here we analyzed Tetrahymena syntaxin 7-like 1 (Stx7l1p), a Qa-SNARE whose homologues in other lineages are linked with vacuoles/LROs. Stx7l1p is targeted to both immature and mature mucocysts and is essential in mucocyst formation. In STX7L1-knockout cells, the two major classes of mucocyst cargo proteins localize independently, accumulating in largely nonoverlapping vesicles. Thus initial formation of immature mucocysts involves heterotypic fusion, in which a subset of mucocyst proteins is delivered via an endolysosomal compartment. Further, we show that subsequent maturation requires AP-3, a complex widely implicated in LRO formation. Knockout of the µ-subunit gene does not impede delivery of any known mucocyst cargo but nonetheless arrests mucocyst maturation. Our data argue that secretory organelles in ciliates may represent a new class of LROs and reveal key roles of an endosomal syntaxin and AP-3 in the assembly of this complex compartment. PMID:28381425

  2. The SM protein Car/Vps33A regulates SNARE-mediated trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Mohammed A; Ray, Sanchali; Krämer, Helmut

    2009-03-01

    The SM proteins Vps33A and Vps33B are believed to act in membrane fusions in endosomal pathways, but their specific roles are controversial. In Drosophila, Vps33A is the product of the carnation (car) gene. We generated a null allele of car to test its requirement for trafficking to different organelles. Complete loss of car function is lethal during larval development. Eye-specific loss of Car causes late, light-independent degeneration of photoreceptor cells. Earlier in these cells, two distinct phenotypes were detected. In young adults, autophagosomes amassed indicating that their fusion with lysosomes requires Car. In eye discs, endocytosed receptors and ligands accumulate in Rab7-positive prelysosomal compartments. The requirement of Car for late endosome-to-lysosome fusion in imaginal discs is specific as early endosomes are unaffected. Furthermore, lysosomal delivery is not restored by expression of dVps33B. This specificity reflects the distinct pattern of binding to different Syntaxins in vitro: dVps33B predominantly binds the early endosomal Avl and Car to dSyntaxin16. Consistent with a role in Car-mediated fusion, dSyntaxin16 is not restricted to Golgi membranes but also present on lysosomes.

  3. The SM Protein Car/Vps33A Regulates SNARE-mediated Trafficking to Lysosomes and Lysosome-related Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Mohammed A.; Ray, Sanchali

    2009-01-01

    The SM proteins Vps33A and Vps33B are believed to act in membrane fusions in endosomal pathways, but their specific roles are controversial. In Drosophila, Vps33A is the product of the carnation (car) gene. We generated a null allele of car to test its requirement for trafficking to different organelles. Complete loss of car function is lethal during larval development. Eye-specific loss of Car causes late, light-independent degeneration of photoreceptor cells. Earlier in these cells, two distinct phenotypes were detected. In young adults, autophagosomes amassed indicating that their fusion with lysosomes requires Car. In eye discs, endocytosed receptors and ligands accumulate in Rab7-positive prelysosomal compartments. The requirement of Car for late endosome-to-lysosome fusion in imaginal discs is specific as early endosomes are unaffected. Furthermore, lysosomal delivery is not restored by expression of dVps33B. This specificity reflects the distinct pattern of binding to different Syntaxins in vitro: dVps33B predominantly binds the early endosomal Avl and Car to dSyntaxin16. Consistent with a role in Car-mediated fusion, dSyntaxin16 is not restricted to Golgi membranes but also present on lysosomes. PMID:19158398

  4. Integrin ligands mobilize Ca2+ from ryanodine receptor-gated stores and lysosome-related acidic organelles in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Anita; Thompson, Michael A; Chini, Eduardo N; Yip, Kay-Pong; Sham, James S K

    2006-11-10

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) protein receptors, or integrins, participate in vascular remodeling and the systemic myogenic response. Synthetic ligands and ECM fragments regulate the vascular smooth muscle cell contractile state by altering intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i). Information on the Ca2+ effect of integrins in vascular smooth muscle cells is limited, but nonexistent in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We therefore characterized integrin expression in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries, and explored [Ca2+]i mobilization pathways induced by soluble ligands in rat PASMCs. Reverse transcriptase-PCR showed mRNA expression of integrins alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha7, alpha8, alpha(v), beta1, beta3, and beta4, and immunoblots of alpha5, alpha(v), beta1, and beta3 confirmed protein expression. Exposure of PASMCs to integrin-binding peptides (0.5 mM) containing the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif elicited [Ca2+]i responses with an order of potency of GRGDNP > GRGDSP > GRGDTP = cyclo-RGD. Pharmacological analysis revealed that the GRGDSP-induced Ca2+ response was unrelated to Ca2+ influx and the inositol triphosphate receptor-gated Ca2+ store, but partially blocked by ryanodine or inhibition of lysosome-related acidic organelles with bafilomycin A1. Simultaneous inhibition of both pathways was necessary to abolish the response. GRGDSP treatment increased cyclic ADP-ribose, the endogenous activator of ryanodine receptors, by 70%. GRGDSP also rapidly reduced Lysotracker Red accumulation, confirming direct modulation of acidic organelles. These data are the first demonstration of integrin-mediated Ca2+ regulation in PASMCs. The presence of an array of integrins, and activation of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores and lysosome-like organelles by GRGDSP suggest important roles for integrin-dependent Ca2+ signaling in regulating PASMC function.

  5. An endosomal syntaxin and the AP-3 complex are required for formation and maturation of candidate lysosome-related secretory organelles (mucocysts) in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harsimran; Sparvoli, Daniela; Osakada, Hiroko; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2017-06-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila synthesizes large secretory vesicles called mucocysts. Mucocyst biosynthesis shares features with dense core granules (DCGs) in animal cells, including proteolytic processing of cargo proteins during maturation. However, other molecular features have suggested relatedness to lysosome-related organelles (LROs). LROs, which include diverse organelles in animals, are formed via convergence of secretory and endocytic trafficking. Here we analyzed Tetrahymena syntaxin 7-like 1 (Stx7l1p), a Qa-SNARE whose homologues in other lineages are linked with vacuoles/LROs. Stx7l1p is targeted to both immature and mature mucocysts and is essential in mucocyst formation. In STX7L1-knockout cells, the two major classes of mucocyst cargo proteins localize independently, accumulating in largely nonoverlapping vesicles. Thus initial formation of immature mucocysts involves heterotypic fusion, in which a subset of mucocyst proteins is delivered via an endolysosomal compartment. Further, we show that subsequent maturation requires AP-3, a complex widely implicated in LRO formation. Knockout of the µ-subunit gene does not impede delivery of any known mucocyst cargo but nonetheless arrests mucocyst maturation. Our data argue that secretory organelles in ciliates may represent a new class of LROs and reveal key roles of an endosomal syntaxin and AP-3 in the assembly of this complex compartment. © 2017 Kaur et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Touz, María C; Kulakova, Liudmila; Nash, Theodore E

    2004-07-01

    Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorting system, which mediates the targeting of a membrane-associated cysteine protease (encystation-specific cysteine protease, ESCP) to the PVs. Here, we show that Giardia AP1 mediates the transport of ESCP and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay we found that the ESCP tyrosine-based motif interacts specifically with the medium subunit of AP1 (Gimicroa). Hemagglutinin-tagged Gimicroa colocalizes with ESCP and AcPh and coimmunoprecipitates with clathrin, suggesting that protein trafficking toward the PVs is clathrin-adaptin dependent. Targeted disruption of Gimicroa results in mislocalization of ESCP and AcPh but not of variant-specific surface proteins. Our results suggest that, unlike mammalian cells, only AP1 is involved in anterograde protein trafficking to the PVs in Giardia. Moreover, even though Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, the presence of a clathrin-adaptor system suggests that this parasite possess a primitive secretory organelle capable of sorting proteins similar to that of more evolved cells.

  7. C. elegans BLOC-1 Functions in Trafficking to Lysosome-Related Gut Granules

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Greg J.; Scavarda, Emily; Weis, Allison M.; Saxton, Daniel S.; Thomas, Laura L.; Salesky, Rebecca; Somhegyi, Hannah; Curtin, Thomas P.; Barrett, Alec; Foster, Olivia K.; Vine, Annalise; Erlich, Katherine; Kwan, Elizabeth; Rabbitts, Beverley M.; Warren, Kaila

    2012-01-01

    The human disease Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome results from defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and can be caused by mutations in subunits of the BLOC-1 complex. Here we show that C. elegans glo-2 and snpn-1, despite relatively low levels of amino acid identity, encode Pallidin and Snapin BLOC-1 subunit homologues, respectively. BLOC-1 subunit interactions involving Pallidin and Snapin were conserved for GLO-2 and SNPN-1. Mutations in glo-2 and snpn-1,or RNAi targeting 5 other BLOC-1 subunit homologues in a genetic background sensitized for glo-2 function, led to defects in the biogenesis of lysosome-related gut granules. These results indicate that the BLOC-1 complex is conserved in C. elegans. To address the function of C. elegans BLOC-1, we assessed the intracellular sorting of CDF-2::GFP, LMP-1, and PGP-2 to gut granules. We validated their utility by analyzing their mislocalization in intestinal cells lacking the function of AP-3, which participates in an evolutionarily conserved sorting pathway to LROs. BLOC-1(−) intestinal cells missorted gut granule cargo to the plasma membrane and conventional lysosomes and did not have obviously altered function or morphology of organelles composing the conventional lysosome protein sorting pathway. Double mutant analysis and comparison of AP-3(−) and BLOC-1(−) phenotypes revealed that BLOC-1 has some functions independent of the AP-3 adaptor complex in trafficking to gut granules. We discuss similarities and differences of BLOC-1 activity in the biogenesis of gut granules as compared to mammalian melanosomes, where BLOC-1 has been most extensively studied for its role in sorting to LROs. Our work opens up the opportunity to address the function of this poorly understood complex in cell and organismal physiology using the genetic approaches available in C. elegans. PMID:22916203

  8. Melanosomes – dark organelles enlighten endosomal membrane transport

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Melanosomes are tissue-specific “lysosome-related” organelles of pigment cells in which melanins are synthesized and stored. Analyses of the trafficking and fate of melanosomal components are beginning to reveal how melanosomes are formed through novel pathways from early endosomal intermediates. These studies unveil generalized structural and functional modifications of the endosomal system in specialized cells, and provide unexpected insights into the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies and how compartmentalization regulates protein refolding. Moreover, genetic disorders that affect the biogenesis of melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles have shed light into the molecular machinery that controls specialized endosomal sorting events. PMID:17878918

  9. Cancer therapy: Targeting mitochondria and other sub-cellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Ubah, Obinna C; Wallace, Heather M

    2014-01-01

    Tumour cell death is required for the clearance of malignant cells and is a vital part of the mechanism of natural tumour suppression. Cancer cells, having acquired multiple deregulated pathways involving several cellular oragenelles, are capable of disrupting these normally finely tuned processes thereby evading both physiological and therapeutic intervention. Although current available data indicate the dependence of successful tumour cell clearance on classical apoptotic pathways (intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways), there is now evidence suggesting that alternative apoptotic and non-apoptotic pathways may effectively contribute to tumour cell death. The mitochondria, proteasomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles of tumour cells exhibit a number of deregulations which have been identified as potential druggable targets for successful rational drug design and therapy. In this review, we summarise the roles of these cellular organelles in tumour initiation and establishment as well as current trends in development of agents that target deregulations in these organelles.

  10. Individual organelle pH determinations of magnetically enriched endocytic organelles via laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Satori, Chad P; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of biotransformations that occur in lysosomes and other endocytic organelles is critical to studies on intracellular degradation, nutrient recycling, and lysosomal storage disorders. Such analyses require bioactive organelle preparations that are devoid of other contaminating organelles. Commonly used differential centrifugation techniques produce impure fractions and may not be compatible with microscale separation platforms. Density gradient centrifugation procedures reduce the level of impurities but may compromise bioactivity. Here we report on simple magnetic setup and a procedure that produce highly enriched bioactive organelles based on their magnetic capture as they traveled through open tubes. Following capture, in-line laser-induced fluorecence detection (LIF) determined for the first time the pH of each magnetically retained individual endocytic organelle. Unlike bulk measurements, this method was suitable to describe the distributions of pH values in endocytic organelles from L6 rat myoblasts treated with dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (for magnetic retention) and fluorescein/TMRM-conjugated dextran (for pH measurements by LIF). Their individual pH values ranged from 4 to 6, which is typical of bioactive endocytic organelles. These analytical procedures are of high relevance to evaluate lysosomal-related degradation pathways in aging, storage disorders, and drug development.

  11. Individual organelle pH determinations of magnetically-enriched endocytic organelles via laser-induced fluorescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Satori, Chad P.; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of biotransformations that occur in lysosomes and other endocytic organelles is critical to studies on intracellular degradation, nutrient recycling and lysosomal storage disorders. Such analyses require bioactive organelle preparations that are devoid of other contaminating organelles. Commonly used differential centrifugation techniques produce impure fractions and may not compatible with micro-scale separation platforms. Density gradient centrifugation procedures reduce the level of impurities but may compromise bioactivity. Here we report on simple magnetic setup and a procedure that produce highly enriched bioactive organelles based on their magnetic capture as they traveled through open tubes. Following capture, in-line laser-induced fluorecence detection (LIF) determined for the first time that each magnetically retained individual endocytic organelles have an acidic pH. Unlike bulk measurements, this method was suitable to describe the distributions of pH values in endocytic organelles from L6 rat myoblasts treated with dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (for magnetic retention) and fluorescein/TMRM-conjugated dextran (for pH measurements by LIF). Their individual pH values ranged from 4 to 6, which is typical of bioactive endocytic organelles. These analytical procedures are of high relevance to evaluate lysosomal-related degradation pathways in aging, storage disorders and drug development. PMID:21863795

  12. Nanoparticles restore lysosomal acidification defects: Implications for Parkinson and other lysosomal-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Daniel, Jonathan; Genin, Emilie; Soria, Federico N.; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lysosomal impairment causes lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) and is involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, notably Parkinson disease (PD). Strategies enhancing or restoring lysosomal-mediated degradation thus appear as tantalizing disease-modifying therapeutics. Here we demonstrate that poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) acidic nanoparticles (aNP) restore impaired lysosomal function in a series of toxin and genetic cellular models of PD, i.e. ATP13A2-mutant or depleted cells or glucocerebrosidase (GBA)-mutant cells, as well as in a genetic model of lysosomal-related myopathy. We show that PLGA-aNP are transported to the lysosome within 24 h, lower lysosomal pH and rescue chloroquine (CQ)-induced toxicity. Re-acidification of defective lysosomes following PLGA-aNP treatment restores lysosomal function in different pathological contexts. Finally, our results show that PLGA-aNP may be detected after intracerebral injection in neurons and attenuate PD-related neurodegeneration in vivo by mechanisms involving a rescue of compromised lysosomes. PMID:26761717

  13. Impact of Solvent pH on Direct Immobilization of Lysosome-Related Cell Organelle Extracts on TiO₂ for Melanin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seung Hyuck; Kim, Pil; Oh, Suk-Jung; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2015-05-01

    Techniques for immobilizing effective enzymes on nanoparticles for stabilization of the activity of free enzymes have been developing as a pharmaceutical field. In this study, we examined the effect of three different pH conditions of phosphate buffer, as a dissolving solvent for lysosomal enzymes, on the direct immobilization of lysosomal enzymes extracted from Hen's egg white and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, which are extensively used in many research fields, were used in this study. The lysosomal enzymes immobilized on TiO2 under each pH condition were evaluated to maintain the specific activity of lysosomal enzymes, so that we can determine the degree of melanin treatment in lysosomal enzymes immobilized on TiO2. We found that the immobilization efficiency and melanin treatment activity in both lysosomal enzymes extracted from Hen's egg white and S. cerevisiae were the highest in an acidic condition of phosphate buffer (pH 4). However, the immobilization efficiency and melanin treatment activity were inversely proportional to the increase in pH under alkaline conditions. In addition, enhanced immobilization efficiency was shown in TiO2 pretreated with a divalent, positively charged ion, Ca(2+), and the melanin treatment activity of immobilized lysosomal enzymes on TiO2 pretreated with Ca(2+) was also increased. Therefore, this result suggests that the immobilization efficiency and melanin treatment activity of lysosomal enzymes can be enhanced according to the pH conditions of the dissolving solvent.

  14. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takuro; Archibald, John M

    2012-04-24

    The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles.The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis--the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy--and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  15. Proteomics of regulated secretory organelles.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Yannick; Schvartz, Domitille; Couté, Yohann; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    Regulated secretory organelles are important subcellular structures of living cells that allow the release in the extracellular space of crucial compounds, such as hormones and neurotransmitters. Therefore, the regulation of biogenesis, trafficking, and exocytosis of regulated secretory organelles has been intensively studied during the last 30 years. However, due to the large number of different regulated secretory organelles, only a few of them have been specifically characterized. New insights into regulated secretory organelles open crucial perspectives for a better comprehension of the mechanisms that govern cell secretion. The combination of subcellular fractionation, protein separation, and mass spectrometry is also possible to study regulated secretory organelles at the proteome level. In this review, we present different strategies used to isolate regulated secretory organelles, separate their protein content, and identify the proteins by mass spectrometry. The biological significance of regulated secretory organelles-proteomic analysis is discussed as well. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Proteomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Organelles*

    PubMed Central

    Wiederhold, Elena; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Poolman, Bert; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the subcellular localization of proteins is indispensable to understand their physiological roles. In the past decade, 18 studies have been performed to analyze the protein content of isolated organelles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we integrate the data sets and compare them with other large scale studies on protein localization and abundance. We evaluate the completeness and reliability of the organelle proteomics studies. Reliability depends on the purity of the organelle preparations, which unavoidably contain (small) amounts of contaminants from different locations. Quantitative proteomics methods can be used to distinguish between true organellar constituents and contaminants. Completeness is compromised when loosely or dynamically associated proteins are lost during organelle preparation and also depends on the sensitivity of the analytical methods for protein detection. There is a clear trend in the data from the 18 organelle proteomics studies showing that proteins of low abundance frequently escape detection. Proteins with unknown function or cellular abundance are also infrequently detected, indicating that these proteins may not be expressed under the conditions used. We discuss that the yeast organelle proteomics studies provide powerful lead data for further detailed studies and that methodological advances in organelle preparation and in protein detection may help to improve the completeness and reliability of the data. PMID:19955081

  17. Mechanisms of organelle biogenesis govern stochastic fluctuations in organelle abundance.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Shankar; O'Shea, Erin K

    2014-06-10

    Fluctuations in organelle abundance can profoundly limit the precision of cell biological processes from secretion to metabolism. We modeled the dynamics of organelle biogenesis and predicted that organelle abundance fluctuations depend strongly on the specific mechanisms that increase or decrease the number of a given organelle. Our model exactly predicts the size of experimentally measured Golgi apparatus and vacuole abundance fluctuations, suggesting that cells tolerate the maximum level of variability generated by the Golgi and vacuole biogenesis pathways. We observe large increases in peroxisome abundance fluctuations when cells are transferred from glucose-rich to fatty acid-rich environments. These increased fluctuations are significantly diminished in mutants lacking peroxisome fission factors, leading us to infer that peroxisome biogenesis switches from de novo synthesis to primarily fission. Our work provides a general framework for exploring stochastic organelle biogenesis and using fluctuations to quantitatively unravel the biophysical pathways that control the abundance of subcellular structures.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02678.001. Copyright © 2014, Mukherji and O'Shea.

  18. Mechanisms of organelle biogenesis govern stochastic fluctuations in organelle abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mukherji, Shankar; O'Shea, Erin K

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in organelle abundance can profoundly limit the precision of cell biological processes from secretion to metabolism. We modeled the dynamics of organelle biogenesis and predicted that organelle abundance fluctuations depend strongly on the specific mechanisms that increase or decrease the number of a given organelle. Our model exactly predicts the size of experimentally measured Golgi apparatus and vacuole abundance fluctuations, suggesting that cells tolerate the maximum level of variability generated by the Golgi and vacuole biogenesis pathways. We observe large increases in peroxisome abundance fluctuations when cells are transferred from glucose-rich to fatty acid-rich environments. These increased fluctuations are significantly diminished in mutants lacking peroxisome fission factors, leading us to infer that peroxisome biogenesis switches from de novo synthesis to primarily fission. Our work provides a general framework for exploring stochastic organelle biogenesis and using fluctuations to quantitatively unravel the biophysical pathways that control the abundance of subcellular structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02678.001 PMID:24916159

  19. Cell Biology of Prokaryotic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Dorothee; Byrne, Meghan; Komeili, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence in recent years has challenged the dogma that prokaryotes are simple and undefined cells devoid of an organized subcellular architecture. In fact, proteins once thought to be the purely eukaryotic inventions, including relatives of actin and tubulin control prokaryotic cell shape, DNA segregation, and cytokinesis. Similarly, compartmentalization, commonly noted as a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells, is also prevalent in the prokaryotic world in the form of protein-bounded and lipid-bounded organelles. In this article we highlight some of these prokaryotic organelles and discuss the current knowledge on their ultrastructure and the molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and maintenance. PMID:20739411

  20. Cell biology of prokaryotic organelles.

    PubMed

    Murat, Dorothee; Byrne, Meghan; Komeili, Arash

    2010-10-01

    Mounting evidence in recent years has challenged the dogma that prokaryotes are simple and undefined cells devoid of an organized subcellular architecture. In fact, proteins once thought to be the purely eukaryotic inventions, including relatives of actin and tubulin control prokaryotic cell shape, DNA segregation, and cytokinesis. Similarly, compartmentalization, commonly noted as a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells, is also prevalent in the prokaryotic world in the form of protein-bounded and lipid-bounded organelles. In this article we highlight some of these prokaryotic organelles and discuss the current knowledge on their ultrastructure and the molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and maintenance.

  1. Basal Organelles of Bacterial Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Bazire, Germaine; London, Jack

    1967-01-01

    Liberated by enzymatic lysis of the cells, the flagella of Rhodospirillum rubrum, R. molischianum, and R. fulvum all have a similar structure. The hook at the base of the flagellum is connected by a short, narrow collar to a paired disc in the basal organelle. This paired disc is in turn connected to a second paired disc. The disposition of flagella to which fragments of the cell membrane still adhere suggests that the narrow collar at the base of the hook traverses both the wall and the membrane, and that the upper pair of discs in the basal organelle lies just beneath the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6039362

  2. Muscle intermediate filaments and their links to membranes and membranous organelles.

    PubMed

    Capetanaki, Yassemi; Bloch, Robert J; Kouloumenta, Asimina; Mavroidis, Manolis; Psarras, Stelios

    2007-06-10

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) play a key role in the integration of structure and function of striated muscle, primarily by mediating mechanochemical links between the contractile apparatus and mitochondria, myonuclei, the sarcolemma and potentially the vesicle trafficking apparatus. Linkage of all these membranous structures to the contractile apparatus, mainly through the Z-disks, supports the integration and coordination of growth and energy demands of the working myocyte, not only with force transmission, but also with de novo gene expression, energy production and efficient protein and lipid trafficking and targeting. Desmin, the most abundant and intensively studied muscle intermediate filament protein, is linked to proper costamere organization, myoblast and stem cell fusion and differentiation, nuclear shape and positioning, as well as mitochondrial shape, structure, positioning and function. Similar links have been established for lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles, consistent with the presence of widespread links between IFs and membranous structures and the regulation of their fusion, morphology and stabilization necessary for cell survival.

  3. Muscle intermediate filaments and their links to membranes and membranous organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanaki, Yassemi . E-mail: ycapetanaki@bioacademy.gr; Bloch, Robert J.; Kouloumenta, Asimina; Mavroidis, Manolis; Psarras, Stelios

    2007-06-10

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) play a key role in the integration of structure and function of striated muscle, primarily by mediating mechanochemical links between the contractile apparatus and mitochondria, myonuclei, the sarcolemma and potentially the vesicle trafficking apparatus. Linkage of all these membranous structures to the contractile apparatus, mainly through the Z-disks, supports the integration and coordination of growth and energy demands of the working myocyte, not only with force transmission, but also with de novo gene expression, energy production and efficient protein and lipid trafficking and targeting. Desmin, the most abundant and intensively studied muscle intermediate filament protein, is linked to proper costamere organization, myoblast and stem cell fusion and differentiation, nuclear shape and positioning, as well as mitochondrial shape, structure, positioning and function. Similar links have been established for lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles, consistent with the presence of widespread links between IFs and membranous structures and the regulation of their fusion, morphology and stabilization necessary for cell survival.

  4. Evolution of organelle-associated protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Aebersold, Ruedi; Raines, Elaine W

    2009-02-15

    Identification of the protein constituents of cell organelles forms the basis for studies to define the roles of specific proteins in organelle structure and functions. Over the past decade, the use of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has dissected various organelles and allowed the association of many novel proteins with particular organelles. This review chronicles the evolution of organelle proteomics technology, and discusses how many limitations, such as organelle heterogeneity and purity, can be avoided with recently developed quantitative profiling approaches. Although many challenges remain, quantitative profiling of organelles holds the promise to begin to address the complex and dynamic shuttling of proteins among organelles that will be critical for application of this advanced technology to disease-based changes in organelle function.

  5. Organelle extensions in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mammone, Alena; Barton, Kiah A

    2012-11-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supra-organization of a plant. Despite its fixed location, each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning, continued growth and development, and eventual long-term survival of the plant. The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell. In recent years, fluorescent protein-aided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell. One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed, and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli. In many cases, the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle. Specific terms such as stromules from plastids, matrixules from mitochondria, and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions. Here, we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Cleaning House: Selective Autophagy of Organelles.

    PubMed

    Anding, Allyson L; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2017-04-10

    The selective clearance of organelles by autophagy is critical for the regulation of cellular homeostasis in organisms from yeast to humans. Removal of damaged organelles clears the cell of potentially toxic byproducts and enables reuse of organelle components for bioenergetics. Thus, defects in organelle clearance may be detrimental to the health of the cells, contributing to cancer, neurodegeneration, and inflammatory diseases. Organelle-specific autophagy can clear mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, ER, chloroplasts, and the nucleus. Here, we review our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the clearance of organelles by autophagy and highlight gaps in our knowledge of these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid pigment organelles in an invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Schliwa, M; Euteneuer, U

    1979-02-28

    Observations of a number of vertebrate chromatophores have revealed the presence of more than one type of pigment organelles, suggesting that the different types are all derived from an equipotential organelle able to differentiate into any of the major pigment-containing organelles (Bagnara, 1972). Observations are presented concerning the occurrence of hybrid pigment inclusions, i.e., all kinds of intergrades between melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets in pigment cells of the daddy-long-legs. It therefore seems possible that pigment organelles in some invertebrates may also be derived from a common pluripotential primordial organelle.

  8. Evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles

    PubMed Central

    Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2013-01-01

    The alveolate superphylum includes many free-living and parasitic organisms, which are united by the presence of alveolar sacs lying proximal to the plasma membrane, providing cell structure. All species comprising the apicomplexan group of alveolates are parasites and have adapted to the unique requirements of the parasitic lifestyle. Here the evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles that are involved in the critical process of egress from one cell and invasion of another is explored. The variations within the Apicomplexa and how these relate to species-specific biology will be discussed. In addition, recent studies have identified specific calcium-sensitive molecules that coordinate the various events and regulate the release of these secretory organelles within apicomplexan parasites. Some aspects of this machinery are conserved outside the Apicomplexa, and are beginning to elucidate the conserved nature of the machinery. Briefly, the relationship of this secretion machinery within the Apicomplexa will be discussed, compared with free-living and predatory alveolates, and how these might have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:23068912

  9. Mechanisms of Polarized Organelle Distribution in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Dylan J.; Farías, Ginny G.; Guardia, Carlos M.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells exhibiting axonal and somatodendritic domains with distinct complements of cytoplasmic organelles. Although some organelles are widely distributed throughout the neuronal cytoplasm, others are segregated to either the axonal or somatodendritic domains. Recent findings show that organelle segregation is largely established at a pre-axonal exclusion zone (PAEZ) within the axon hillock. Polarized sorting of cytoplasmic organelles at the PAEZ is proposed to depend mainly on their selective association with different microtubule motors and, in turn, with distinct microtubule arrays. Somatodendritic organelles that escape sorting at the PAEZ can be subsequently retrieved at the axon initial segment (AIS) by a microtubule- and/or actin-based mechanism. Dynamic sorting along the PAEZ-AIS continuum can thus explain the polarized distribution of cytoplasmic organelles between the axonal and somatodendritic domains. PMID:27065809

  10. Mechanisms of Polarized Organelle Distribution in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Britt, Dylan J; Farías, Ginny G; Guardia, Carlos M; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells exhibiting axonal and somatodendritic domains with distinct complements of cytoplasmic organelles. Although some organelles are widely distributed throughout the neuronal cytoplasm, others are segregated to either the axonal or somatodendritic domains. Recent findings show that organelle segregation is largely established at a pre-axonal exclusion zone (PAEZ) within the axon hillock. Polarized sorting of cytoplasmic organelles at the PAEZ is proposed to depend mainly on their selective association with different microtubule motors and, in turn, with distinct microtubule arrays. Somatodendritic organelles that escape sorting at the PAEZ can be subsequently retrieved at the axon initial segment (AIS) by a microtubule- and/or actin-based mechanism. Dynamic sorting along the PAEZ-AIS continuum can thus explain the polarized distribution of cytoplasmic organelles between the axonal and somatodendritic domains.

  11. Novel organelles in primate retinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, A; Gouras, P

    2016-10-01

    We are investigating age-related changes in organelles in monkey retinal epithelium using transmission and analytic electron microscopy. We previously described a circular organelle in retinal epithelium with a diameter of about 0.5μm. The organelle is unique in containing a single, round vacuole within an otherwise electron dense interior. We suggested that the organelle might be a melanosome with lysosomal properties. We now find that there are two similar organelles with such a single vacuole but which differ in their chemical composition, electron density, cell location and according to age. Epon embedded sections from the macular epithelium of seven monkeys, ranging from 1 to 35 years of age, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. A seven year old monkey was processed for analytic electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of the organelles. The number and location of the organelles in the retinal epithelium were determined. The chemical composition of these two organelles was different. One of the organelles contained high mole fractions of oxygen and nitrogen and little phosphorous characteristic of melanin; the other had little oxygen and nitrogen and higher mole fractions of phosphorous uncharacteristic of melanin, but more common with lysosomal organelles. The latter had an electron dense rim around the vacuole, a less electron dense interior than the melanin containing organelle and also contained iron. The melanin containing organelle was more common in young monkeys and in the middle third of the cell. The organelle without melanin was more common in old monkeys and localized in the basal third of the cell. Two similarly vacuolated organelles, not identified before in retinal epithelium, differ in their chemical composition. One contains melanin; the other does not. The former is more common in young and the latter more common in old monkeys. This suggests reorganization and or degradation of melanin-containing organelles

  12. A lumenal domain-dependent pathway for sorting to intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes involved in organelle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Truschel, Steven T; Tenza, Daniele; Hurbain, Ilse; Harper, Dawn C; Berson, Joanne F; Thomas, Penelope C; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2006-03-01

    Cargo partitioning into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes underlies such cellular processes as receptor downregulation, viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. We show that the melanosomal protein Pmel17 is sorted into ILVs by a mechanism that is dependent upon lumenal determinants and conserved in non-pigment cells. Pmel17 targeting to ILVs does not require its native cytoplasmic domain or cytoplasmic residues targeted by ubiquitylation and, unlike sorting of ubiquitylated cargo, is insensitive to functional inhibition of Hrs and ESCRT complexes. Chimeric protein and deletion analyses indicate that two N-terminal lumenal subdomains are necessary and sufficient for ILV targeting. Pmel17 fibril formation, which occurs during melanosome maturation in melanocytes, requires a third lumenal subdomain and proteolytic processing that itself requires ILV localization. These results establish an Hrs- and perhaps ESCRT-independent pathway of ILV sorting by lumenal determinants and a requirement for ILV sorting in fibril formation.

  13. The plant organelles database (PODB): a collection of visualized plant organelles and protocols for plant organelle research.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    The plant organelles database (PODB; http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome) was built to promote a comprehensive understanding of organelle dynamics, including organelle function, biogenesis, differentiation, movement and interactions with other organelles. This database consists of three individual parts, the organellome database, the functional analysis database and external links to other databases and homepages. The organellome database provides images of various plant organelles that were visualized with fluorescent and nonfluorescent probes in various tissues of several plant species at different developmental stages. The functional analysis database is a collection of protocols for plant organelle research. External links give access primarily to other databases and Web pages with information on transcriptomes and proteomes. All the data and protocols in the organellome database and the functional analysis database are populated by direct submission of experimentally determined data from plant researchers and can be freely downloaded. Our database promotes the exchange of information between plant organelle researchers for the comprehensive study of the organelle dynamics that support integrated functions in higher plants. We would also appreciate contributions of data and protocols from all plant researchers to maximize the usefulness of the database.

  14. Organelle acidification: an ancient cellular leak detector.

    PubMed

    Thattai, Mukund

    2017-06-26

    Intracellular membrane-bounded organelles of eukaryotic cells transiently contact the extracellular environment during endocytosis and secretion. Such contacts must be precisely timed to prevent leakage of cargo. I argue that early eukaryotes evolved organelle acidification as a way to detect and prevent leakage.

  15. Mitochondrion-related organelles in eukaryotic protists.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, April M; Johnson, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of mitochondrion-type genes in organisms thought to lack mitochondria led to the demonstration that hydrogenosomes share a common ancestry with mitochondria, as well as the discovery of mitosomes in multiple eukaryotic lineages. No examples of examined eukaryotes lacking a mitochondrion-related organelle exist, implying that the endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion was present in the first eukaryote. These organelles, known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes, or mitochondrion-like organelles, are typically reduced, both structurally and biochemically, relative to classical mitochondria. However, despite their diversification and adaptation to different niches, all appear to play a role in Fe-S cluster assembly, as observed for mitochondria. Although evidence supports the use of common protein targeting mechanisms in the biogenesis of these diverse organelles, divergent features are also apparent. This review examines the metabolism and biogenesis of these organelles in divergent unicellular microbes, with a focus on parasitic protists.

  16. Mitochondrion-related Organelles in Parasitic Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, April; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of mitochondrial-type genes in organisms thought to lack mitochondria led to the demonstration that hydrogenosomes share a common ancestry with mitochondria, as well as the discovery of mitosomes in multiple eukaryotic lineages. No examples of examined eukaryotes lacking a mitochondrion-related organelle exist, implying that the endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion was present in the first eukaryote. These organelles, known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes or mitochondrion-like organelles (MLO), are typically reduced, both structurally and biochemically, relative to classical mitochondria. However, despite diversification and adaptation to different niches, all appear to play a role in Fe-S cluster assembly, as observed for mitochondria. Although evidence supports the use of common protein targeting mechanisms in the biogenesis of these diverse organelles, divergent features are also apparent. The metabolism and biogenesis of these organelles in parasitic protists is discussed here. PMID:20528687

  17. Endosymbiotic theory for organelle origins.

    PubMed

    Zimorski, Verena; Ku, Chuan; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbiotic theory goes back over 100 years. It explains the similarity of chloroplasts and mitochondria to free-living prokaryotes by suggesting that the organelles arose from prokaryotes through (endo)symbiosis. Gene trees provide important evidence in favour of symbiotic theory at a coarse-grained level, but the finer we get into the details of branches in trees containing dozens or hundreds of taxa, the more equivocal evidence for endosymbiotic events sometimes becomes. It seems that either the interpretation of some endosymbiotic events are wrong, or something is wrong with the interpretations of some gene trees having many leaves. There is a need for evidence that is independent of gene trees and that can help outline the course of symbiosis in eukaryote evolution. Protein import is the strongest evidence we have for the single origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria. It is probably also the strongest evidence we have to sort out the number and nature of secondary endosymbiotic events that have occurred in evolution involving the red plastid lineage. If we relax our interpretation of individual gene trees, endosymbiotic theory can tell us a lot.

  18. Why are most organelle genomes transmitted maternally?

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stephan; Sobanski, Johanna; Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Why the DNA-containing organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, are inherited maternally is a long standing and unsolved question. However, recent years have seen a paradigm shift, in that the absoluteness of uniparental inheritance is increasingly questioned. Here, we review the field and propose a unifying model for organelle inheritance. We argue that the predominance of the maternal mode is a result of higher mutational load in the paternal gamete. Uniparental inheritance evolved from relaxed organelle inheritance patterns because it avoids the spread of selfish cytoplasmic elements. However, on evolutionary timescales, uniparentally inherited organelles are susceptible to mutational meltdown (Muller's ratchet). To prevent this, fall-back to relaxed inheritance patterns occurs, allowing low levels of sexual organelle recombination. Since sexual organelle recombination is insufficient to mitigate the effects of selfish cytoplasmic elements, various mechanisms for uniparental inheritance then evolve again independently. Organelle inheritance must therefore be seen as an evolutionary unstable trait, with a strong general bias to the uniparental, maternal, mode. © 2015 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Why are most organelle genomes transmitted maternally?

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Stephan; Sobanski, Johanna; Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Why the DNA-containing organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, are inherited maternally is a long standing and unsolved question. However, recent years have seen a paradigm shift, in that the absoluteness of uniparental inheritance is increasingly questioned. Here, we review the field and propose a unifying model for organelle inheritance. We argue that the predominance of the maternal mode is a result of higher mutational load in the paternal gamete. Uniparental inheritance evolved from relaxed organelle inheritance patterns because it avoids the spread of selfish cytoplasmic elements. However, on evolutionary timescales, uniparentally inherited organelles are susceptible to mutational meltdown (Muller's ratchet). To prevent this, fall-back to relaxed inheritance patterns occurs, allowing low levels of sexual organelle recombination. Since sexual organelle recombination is insufficient to mitigate the effects of selfish cytoplasmic elements, various mechanisms for uniparental inheritance then evolve again independently. Organelle inheritance must therefore be seen as an evolutionary unstable trait, with a strong general bias to the uniparental, maternal, mode. PMID:25302405

  20. Motors, anchors, and connectors: orchestrators of organelle inheritance.

    PubMed

    Knoblach, Barbara; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Organelle inheritance is a process whereby organelles are actively distributed between dividing cells at cytokinesis. Much valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of organelle inheritance has come from the analysis of asymmetrically dividing cells, which transport a portion of their organelles to the bud while retaining another portion in the mother cell. Common principles apply to the inheritance of all organelles, although individual organelles use specific factors for their partitioning. Inheritance factors can be classified as motors, which are required for organelle transport; anchors, which immobilize organelles at distinct cell structures; or connectors, which mediate the attachment of organelles to motors and anchors. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in the field of organelle inheritance and highlight how motor, anchor, and connector molecules choreograph the segregation of a multicopy organelle, the peroxisome. We also discuss the role of organelle population control in the generation of cellular diversity.

  1. The Upsides and Downsides of Organelle Interconnectivity.

    PubMed

    Gottschling, Daniel E; Nyström, Thomas

    2017-03-23

    Interconnectivity and feedback control are hallmarks of biological systems. This includes communication between organelles, which allows them to function and adapt to changing cellular environments. While the specific mechanisms for all communications remain opaque, unraveling the wiring of organelle networks is critical to understand how biological systems are built and why they might collapse, as occurs in aging. A comprehensive understanding of all the routes involved in inter-organelle communication is still lacking, but important themes are beginning to emerge, primarily in budding yeast. These routes are reviewed here in the context of sub-system proteostasis and complex adaptive systems theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooperative protein transport in cellular organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieff, S.; Sens, P.

    2011-04-01

    Compartmentalization into biochemically distinct organelles constantly exchanging material is one of the hallmarks of eukaryotic cells. In the most naive picture of interorganelle transport driven by concentration gradients, concentration differences between organelles should relax. We determine the conditions under which cooperative transport, i.e., based on molecular recognition, allows for the existence and maintenance of distinct organelle identities. Cooperative transport is also shown to control the flux of material transiting through a compartmentalized system, dramatically increasing the transit time under high incoming flux. By including chemical processing of the transported species, we show that this property provides a strong functional advantage to a system responsible for protein maturation and sorting.

  3. Implications of mutation of organelle genomes for organelle function and evolution.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2015-09-01

    Organelle genomes undergo more variation, including that resulting from damage, than eukaryotic nuclear genomes, or bacterial genomes, under the same conditions. Recent advances in characterizing the changes to genomes of chloroplasts and mitochondria of Zea mays should, when applied more widely, help our understanding of how damage to organelle genomes relates to how organelle function is maintained through the life of individuals and in succeeding generations. Understanding of the degree of variation in the changes to organelle DNA and its repair among photosynthetic organisms might help to explain the variations in the rate of nucleotide substitution among organelle genomes. Further studies of organelle DNA variation, including that due to damage and its repair might also help us to understand why the extent of DNA turnover in the organelles is so much greater than that in their bacterial (cyanobacteria for chloroplasts, proteobacteria for mitochondria) relatives with similar rates of production of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species. Finally, from the available data, even the longest-lived organelle-encoded proteins, and the RNAs needed for their synthesis, are unlikely to maintain organelle function for much more than a week after the complete loss of organelle DNA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Membraneless organelles: Phasing in and out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, James

    2016-06-01

    The low-complexity-protein, liquid phases of membraneless organelles have now been established to selectively partition biomolecules. The specialized microenvironment that they provide differs chemically from the surrounding medium and enables specific nucleic-acid remodelling reactions.

  5. Dynamic regulation of endosymbiotic organelles by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qihua; Jarvis, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Recent work has revealed that mitochondria and chloroplasts are subject to direct control by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin E3 ligases are present at the outer membrane of both organelles where they mediate ubiquitination and turnover of other organellar proteins. Both organelles exhibit remarkable structural dynamism and UPS control is particularly concerned with these properties. In mitochondria, the UPS targets factors involved in organellar fission and fusion, with significant impacts upon organellar morphology, mitophagy, and apoptosis. In chloroplasts (and other plastids), the UPS targets components of the protein import machinery, facilitating reorganization of the organellar proteome to determine organellar development and functions. Acquisition of such regulatory control during evolution is perhaps linked to the dynamic characteristics of the two organelles, which are not paralleled in their prokaryotic relatives. Here we discuss our current understanding of the role of the UPS in the regulation of endosymbiotic organelles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling organelle transport after traumatic axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, I A; Kuznetsov, A V

    2015-01-01

    This paper is motivated by recent experimental research (Tang-Schomer et al. 2012) on the formation of periodic varicosities in axons after traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI leads to the formation of undulated distortions in the axons due to their dynamic deformation. These distortions result in the breakage of some microtubules (MTs) near the peaks of undulations. The breakage is followed by catastrophic MT depolymerisation around the broken ends. Although after relaxation axons regain their straight geometry, the structure of the axon after TBI is characterised by the presence of periodic regions where the density of MTs has been decreased due to depolymerisation. We modelled organelle transport in an axon segment with such a damaged MT structure and investigated how this structure affects the distributions of organelle concentrations and fluxes. The modelling results suggest that organelles accumulate at the boundaries of the region where the density of MTs has been decreased by depolymerisation. According to the model, the presence of such damaged regions decreases the organelle flux by only about 12%. This provides evidence that axon degradation after TBI may be caused by organelle accumulation rather than by starvation due to insufficient organelle flux.

  7. Optogenetic control of organelle transport and positioning

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kapitein, Lukas C.

    2016-01-01

    Proper positioning of organelles by cytoskeleton-based motor proteins underlies cellular events such as signaling, polarization, and growth1–8. For many organelles, however, the precise connection between position and function has remained unclear, because strategies to control intracellular organelle positioning with spatiotemporal precision are lacking. Here, we establish optical control of intracellular transport by using light-sensitive heterodimerization to recruit specific cytoskeletal motor proteins (kinesin, dynein or myosin) to selected cargoes. We demonstrate that the motility of peroxisomes, recycling endosomes and mitochondria can be locally and repeatedly induced or stopped, allowing rapid organelle repositioning. We applied this approach in primary neurons to test how local positioning of recycling endosomes contributes to axon outgrowth and found that dynein-driven removal of endosomes from axonal growth cones reversibly suppressed axon growth, whereas kinesin-driven endosome enrichment enhances growth. Our strategy for optogenetic control of organelle positioning will be widely applicable to directly explore site-specific organelle functions in different model systems. PMID:25561173

  8. The different facets of organelle interplay—an overview of organelle interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Michael; Godinho, Luis F.; Costello, Joseph L.; Islinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) create distinct environments to promote specific cellular tasks such as ATP production, lipid breakdown, or protein export. During recent years, it has become evident that organelles are integrated into cellular networks regulating metabolism, intracellular signaling, cellular maintenance, cell fate decision, and pathogen defence. In order to facilitate such signaling events, specialized membrane regions between apposing organelles bear distinct sets of proteins to enable tethering and exchange of metabolites and signaling molecules. Such membrane associations between the mitochondria and a specialized site of the ER, the mitochondria associated-membrane (MAM), as well as between the ER and the plasma membrane (PAM) have been partially characterized at the molecular level. However, historical and recent observations imply that other organelles like peroxisomes, lysosomes, and lipid droplets might also be involved in the formation of such apposing membrane contact sites. Alternatively, reports on so-called mitochondria derived-vesicles (MDV) suggest alternative mechanisms of organelle interaction. Moreover, maintenance of cellular homeostasis requires the precise removal of aged organelles by autophagy—a process which involves the detection of ubiquitinated organelle proteins by the autophagosome membrane, representing another site of membrane associated-signaling. This review will summarize the available data on the existence and composition of organelle contact sites and the molecular specializations each site uses in order to provide a timely overview on the potential functions of organelle interaction. PMID:26442263

  9. A novel pathway for sorting to intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes involved in organelle morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Theos, Alexander C.; Truschel, Steven T.; Tenza, Danielle; Hurbain, Ilse; Harper, Dawn C.; Berson, Joanne F.; Thomas, Penelope C.; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Cargo partitioning into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes underlies such cellular processes as growth factor down-regulation, viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles including melanosomes. Here we show that the melanosomal protein, Pmel17, is sorted into ILVs by a novel mechanism that is conserved in non-pigment cells and is dependent upon lumenal determinants. ILV targeting of Pmel17 is unaffected by mutagenesis of cytoplasmic lysine and cysteine residues or replacement of the cytoplasmic domain, indicating independence of ubiquitylation, and unlike ILV targeting of ubiquitylated cargo, is insensitive to functional inhibition of Hrs and ESCRT complexes. Chimeric protein and deletion analyses indicate that two N-terminal lumenal sub-domains are necessary and sufficient for ILV targeting. Pmel17 fibril formation, which occurs during melanosome maturation in melanocytes, requires a third lumenal sub-domain and proteolytic processing that itself requires ILV localization. These results establish a novel Hrs- and perhaps ESCRT-independent pathway of ILV sorting by lumenal determinants and a requirement for ILV sorting in fibril formation. PMID:16516837

  10. Probing and tracking organelles in living plant cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Xiaohua; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Zheng, Maozhong; Šamaj, Jozef; Ji, Wanquan; Lin, Jinxing

    2012-06-01

    Intracellular organelle movements and positioning play pivotal roles in enabling plants to proliferate life efficiently and to survive diverse environmental stresses. The elaborate dissection of organelle dynamics and their underlying mechanisms (e.g., the role of the cytoskeleton in organelle movements) largely depends on the advancement and efficiency of organelle tracking systems. Here, we provide an overview of some recently developed tools for labeling and tracking organelle dynamics in living plant cells.

  11. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants.

    PubMed

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima

    2009-09-01

    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence indicating that organelles of prokaryotic origin, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, are integrated into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. An important transducer of calcium in these organelles appears to be calmodulin. In this review we want to give an overview over present data showing that endosymbiotic organelles harbour calcium-dependent biological processes with a focus on calmodulin-regulation.

  12. On the move: organelle dynamics during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Berlin, Ilana; Neefjes, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    A cell constitutes the minimal self-replicating unit of all organisms, programmed to propagate its genome as it proceeds through mitotic cell division. The molecular processes entrusted with ensuring high fidelity of DNA replication and subsequent segregation of chromosomes between daughter cells have therefore been studied extensively. However, to process the information encoded in its genome a cell must also pass on its non-genomic identity to future generations. To achieve productive sharing of intracellular organelles, cells have evolved complex mechanisms of organelle inheritance. Many membranous compartments undergo vast spatiotemporal rearrangements throughout mitosis. These controlled organizational changes are crucial to enabling completion of the division cycle and ensuring successful progeny. Herein we review current understanding of intracellular organelle segregation during mitotic division in mammalian cells, with a focus on compartment organization and integrity throughout the inheritance process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Harnessing yeast organelles for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Sarah K; Avalos, José L

    2017-08-01

    Each subcellular compartment in yeast offers a unique physiochemical environment and metabolite, enzyme, and cofactor composition. While yeast metabolic engineering has focused on assembling pathways in the cell cytosol, there is growing interest in embracing subcellular compartmentalization. Beyond harnessing distinct organelle properties, physical separation of organelles from the cytosol has the potential to eliminate metabolic crosstalk and enhance compartmentalized pathway efficiency. In this Perspective we review the state of the art in yeast subcellular engineering, highlighting the benefits of targeting biosynthetic pathways to subcellular compartments, including mitochondria, peroxisomes, the ER and/or Golgi, vacuoles, and the cell wall, in different yeast species. We compare the performances of strains developed with subcellular engineering to those of native producers or yeast strains previously engineered with cytosolic pathways. We also identify important challenges that lie ahead, which need to be addressed for organelle engineering to become as mainstream as cytosolic engineering in academia and industry.

  14. Plant organelle proteomics: collaborating for optimal cell function.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Bourguignon, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Ferro, Myriam; Jaquinod, Michel; Alexiou, Konstantinos G; Chardot, Thierry; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Jolivet, Pascale; Doonan, John H; Rakwal, Randeep

    2011-01-01

    Organelle proteomics describes the study of proteins present in organelle at a particular instance during the whole period of their life cycle in a cell. Organelles are specialized membrane bound structures within a cell that function by interacting with cytosolic and luminal soluble proteins making the protein composition of each organelle dynamic. Depending on organism, the total number of organelles within a cell varies, indicating their evolution with respect to protein number and function. For example, one of the striking differences between plant and animal cells is the plastids in plants. Organelles have their own proteins, and few organelles like mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genome to synthesize proteins for specific function and also require nuclear-encoded proteins. Enormous work has been performed on animal organelle proteomics. However, plant organelle proteomics has seen limited work mainly due to: (i) inter-plant and inter-tissue complexity, (ii) difficulties in isolation of subcellular compartments, and (iii) their enrichment and purity. Despite these concerns, the field of organelle proteomics is growing in plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize. The available data are beginning to help better understand organelles and their distinct and/or overlapping functions in different plant tissues, organs or cell types, and more importantly, how protein components of organelles behave during development and with surrounding environments. Studies on organelles have provided a few good reviews, but none of them are comprehensive. Here, we present a comprehensive review on plant organelle proteomics starting from the significance of organelle in cells, to organelle isolation, to protein identification and to biology and beyond. To put together such a systematic, in-depth review and to translate acquired knowledge in a proper and adequate form, we join minds to provide discussion and viewpoints on the collaborative nature of organelles in

  15. Review on recent advances in the analysis of isolated organelles.

    PubMed

    Satori, Chad P; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2012-11-13

    The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Review on Recent Advances in the Analysis of Isolated Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Satori, Chad P.; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. PMID:23107131

  17. How cells know the size of their organelles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yee-Hung M; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-09-07

    Cells have developed ways to sense and control the size of their organelles. Size-sensing mechanisms range from direct measurements provided by dedicated reporters to indirect functional readouts, and they are used to modify organelle size under both normal and stress conditions. Organelle size can also be controlled in the absence of an identifiable size sensor. Studies on flagella have dissected principles of size sensing and control, and it will be exciting to see how these principles apply to other organelles.

  18. Electron tomography for organelles, cells, and tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Wanzhong; He, Yongning

    2014-01-01

    Electron tomography (ET) is an emerging electron microscopy (EM) technique for three-dimensional (3D) visualization of molecular arrangements and ultrastructural architectures in organelles, cells, and tissues at 2-10 nm resolution. The 3D tomogram is reconstructed from a series of 2D EM images taken from a single specimen at different projecting orientations. The specimen for ET must be specially prepared to meet the ET imaging requirements, i.e., ultrastructural preservation, specimen thickness, tolerance of electron dose and vacuum, and image contrast. In this chapter, the strategies of specimen preparation of organelles, cells, and tissues and the corresponding EM imaging requirements for ET will be described in detail. In addition, the general procedures tomographic reconstruction and tomogram interpretation will be described.

  19. The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush

    2008-01-01

    More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed. PMID:18274771

  20. Proteomics of a fuzzy organelle: interphase chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Kustatscher, Georg; Hégarat, Nadia; Wills, Karen L H; Furlan, Cristina; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Hochegger, Helfrid; Rappsilber, Juri

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin proteins mediate replication, regulate expression, and ensure integrity of the genome. So far, a comprehensive inventory of interphase chromatin has not been determined. This is largely due to its heterogeneous and dynamic composition, which makes conclusive biochemical purification difficult, if not impossible. As a fuzzy organelle, it defies classical organellar proteomics and cannot be described by a single and ultimate list of protein components. Instead, we propose a new approach that provides a quantitative assessment of a protein's probability to function in chromatin. We integrate chromatin composition over a range of different biochemical and biological conditions. This resulted in interphase chromatin probabilities for 7635 human proteins, including 1840 previously uncharacterized proteins. We demonstrate the power of our large-scale data-driven annotation during the analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) regulation in chromatin. Quantitative protein ontologies may provide a general alternative to list-based investigations of organelles and complement Gene Ontology. PMID:24534090

  1. Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles: Txt Msg Organelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M

    2016-04-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from cell surfaces to monitor the surrounding environment. In addition to its role as sensory receiver, the cilium also releases extracellular vesicles (EVs). The release of sub-micron sized EVs is a conserved form of intercellular communication used by all three kingdoms of life. These extracellular organelles play important roles in both short and long range signaling between donor and target cells and may coordinate systemic responses within an organism in normal and diseased states. EV shedding from ciliated cells and EV-cilia interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena, yet remarkably little is known about the relationship between the cilia and EVs and the fundamental biology of EVs. Studies in the model organisms Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis elegans have begun to shed light on ciliary EVs. Chlamydomonas EVs are shed from tips of flagella and are bioactive. Caenorhabditis elegans EVs are shed and released by ciliated sensory neurons in an intraflagellar transport-dependent manner. Caenorhabditis elegans EVs play a role in modulating animal-to-animal communication, and this EV bioactivity is dependent on EV cargo content. Some ciliary pathologies, or ciliopathies, are associated with abnormal EV shedding or with abnormal cilia-EV interactions. Until the 21st century, both cilia and EVs were ignored as vestigial or cellular junk. As research interest in these two organelles continues to gain momentum, we envision a new field of cell biology emerging. Here, we propose that the cilium is a dedicated organelle for EV biogenesis and EV reception. We will also discuss possible mechanisms by which EVs exert bioactivity and explain how what is learned in model organisms regarding EV biogenesis and function may provide insight to human ciliopathies.

  2. Organelle-specific Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Ho

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is involved in the folding, activation, and stabilization of numerous oncogenic proteins. It has become an attractive therapeutic target, especially for eradicating malignant cancers and overcoming chemotherapy resistance. The Hsp90 family in mammalian cells is composed of four major homologs: Hsp90α, Hsp90β, 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp94), and TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (Trap1). Hsp90α and Hsp90β are mainly localized in the cytoplasm, while Grp94 and Trap1 reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, respectively. Additionally, some Hsp90 s are secreted from the cytoplasm, commonly called extracellular Hsp90. Interestingly, each Hsp90 isoform is localized in a particular organelle, possesses a unique biological function, and participates in various physiological and pathological processes. To inhibit the organelle-specific Hsp90 chaperone function, there have been significant efforts to accumulate Hsp90 inhibitors in particular cellular compartments. This review introduces current studies regarding the delivery of Hsp90 inhibitors to subcellular organelles, particularly to the extracellular matrix and the mitochondria, and discusses their biological insights and therapeutic implications.

  3. Organelle size equalization by a constitutive process.

    PubMed

    Ludington, William B; Shi, Linda Z; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-11-20

    How cells control organelle size is an elusive problem. Two predominant models for size control can be distinguished: (1) induced control, where organelle genesis, maintenance, and disassembly are three separate programs that are activated in response to size change, and (2) constitutive control, where stable size results from the balance between continuous organelle assembly and disassembly. The problem has been studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii because the flagella are easy to measure, their size changes only in the length dimension, and the genetics are comparable to yeast. Length dynamics in Chlamydomonas flagella are quite robust: they maintain a length of about 12 μm and recover from amputation in about 90 min with a growth rate that decreases smoothly to zero as the length approaches 12 μm. Despite a wealth of experimental studies, existing data are consistent with both induced and constitutive control models for flagella. Here we developed novel microfluidic trapping and laser microsurgery techniques in Chlamydomonas to distinguish between length control models by measuring the two flagella on a single cell as they equilibrate after amputation of a single flagellum. The results suggest that cells equalize flagellar length by constitutive control.

  4. Organelle communication: signaling crossroads between homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Chiong, Mario; Hill, Joseph A; Simmen, Thomas; Quest, Andrew F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Cellular organelles do not function as isolated or static units, but rather form dynamic contacts between one another that can be modulated according to cellular needs. The physical interfaces between organelles are important for Ca2+ and lipid homeostasis, and serve as platforms for the control of many essential functions including metabolism, signaling, organelle integrity and execution of the apoptotic program. Emerging evidence also highlights the importance of organelle communication in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on organelle communication and the link to human pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluorescent proteins in cellular organelles: serious pitfalls and some solutions.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lindsey M; Snapp, Erik Lee

    2013-11-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been powerful tools for cell biologists for over 15 years. The large variety of FPs available rarely comes with an instruction manual or a warning label. The potential pitfalls of the use of FPs in cellular organelles represent a significant concern for investigators. FPs generally did not evolve in the often distinctive physicochemical environments of subcellular organelles. In organelles, FPs can misfold, go dark, and even distort organelle morphology. In this minireview, we describe the issues associated with FPs in organelles and provide solutions to enable investigators to better exploit FP technology in cells.

  6. Organelle segregation during mitosis: lessons from asymmetrically dividing cells.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Jimmy; Barral, Yves

    2012-02-06

    Studies on cell division traditionally focus on the mechanisms of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, yet we know comparatively little about how organelles segregate. Analysis of organelle partitioning in asymmetrically dividing cells has provided insights into the mechanisms through which cells control organelle distribution. Interestingly, these studies have revealed that segregation mechanisms frequently link organelle distribution to organelle growth and formation. Furthermore, in many cases, cells use organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and P granules, as vectors for the segregation of information. Together, these emerging data suggest that the coordination between organelle growth, division, and segregation plays an important role in the control of cell fate inheritance, cellular aging, and rejuvenation, i.e., the resetting of age in immortal lineages. © 2012 Ouellet and Barral

  7. Dynamic shape changes of cytoplasmic organelles translocating along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Transient shape changes of organelles translocating along microtubules are directly visualized in thinly spread cytoplasmic processes of the marine foraminifer. Allogromia laticollaris, by a combination of high- resolution video-enhanced microscopy and fast-freezing electron microscopy. The interacting side of the organelle flattens upon binding to a microtubule, as if to maximize contact with it. Organelles typically assume a teardrop shape while moving, as if they were dragged through a viscous medium. Associated microtubules bend around attachments of the teardrop-shaped organelles, suggesting that they too are acted on by the forces deforming the organelles. An 18-nm gap between the organelles and the microtubules is periodically bridged by 10-nm-thick cross-bridge structures that may be responsible for the binding and motive forces deforming organelles and microtubules. PMID:3654751

  8. Dynamic shape changes of cytoplasmic organelles translocating along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kachar, B; Bridgman, P C; Reese, T S

    1987-09-01

    Transient shape changes of organelles translocating along microtubules are directly visualized in thinly spread cytoplasmic processes of the marine foraminifer. Allogromia laticollaris, by a combination of high-resolution video-enhanced microscopy and fast-freezing electron microscopy. The interacting side of the organelle flattens upon binding to a microtubule, as if to maximize contact with it. Organelles typically assume a teardrop shape while moving, as if they were dragged through a viscous medium. Associated microtubules bend around attachments of the teardrop-shaped organelles, suggesting that they too are acted on by the forces deforming the organelles. An 18-nm gap between the organelles and the microtubules is periodically bridged by 10-nm-thick cross-bridge structures that may be responsible for the binding and motive forces deforming organelles and microtubules.

  9. Sharing the cell's bounty - organelle inheritance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Knoblach, Barbara; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2015-02-15

    Eukaryotic cells replicate and partition their organelles between the mother cell and the daughter cell at cytokinesis. Polarized cells, notably the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are well suited for the study of organelle inheritance, as they facilitate an experimental dissection of organelle transport and retention processes. Much progress has been made in defining the molecular players involved in organelle partitioning in yeast. Each organelle uses a distinct set of factors - motor, anchor and adaptor proteins - that ensures its inheritance by future generations of cells. We propose that all organelles, regardless of origin or copy number, are partitioned by the same fundamental mechanism involving division and segregation. Thus, the mother cell keeps, and the daughter cell receives, their fair and equitable share of organelles. This mechanism of partitioning moreover facilitates the segregation of organelle fragments that are not functionally equivalent. In this Commentary, we describe how this principle of organelle population control affects peroxisomes and other organelles, and outline its implications for yeast life span and rejuvenation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Actin-Based Motility of Isolated Axoplasmic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, Elaine L.; DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Medeiros, Nelson A.; Reese, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that axoplasmic organelles from the squid giant axon move toward the barbed ends of actin filaments and that KI-washed organelles separated from soluble proteins by sucrose density fractionation retain a 235-kDa putative myosin. Here, we examine the myosin-like activities of KI-washed organelles after sucrose density fractionation to address the question whether the myosin on these organelles is functional. By electron microscopy KI-washed organelles bound to actin filaments in the absence of ATP but not in its presence. Analysis of organelle-dependent ATPase activity over time and with varying amounts of organelles revealed a basal activity of 350 (range: 315–384) nmoles Pi/mg/min and an actin-activated activity of 774 (range: 560–988) nmoles/mg/min, a higher specific activity than for the other fractions. By video microscopy washed organelles moved in only one direction on actin filaments with a net velocity of 1.11 ± .03 μm/s and an instantaneous velocity of 1.63 ± 0.29 μm/s. By immunogold electronmicroscopy, 7% of KI-washed organelles were decorated with an anti-myosin antibody as compared to 0.5% with non-immune serum. Thus, some axoplasmic organelles have a tightly associated myosin-like activity. PMID:8635200

  11. Reconstitution of microtubule-dependent organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Dubey, Alok Kumar; Rai, Priyanka; Mallik, Roop

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins transport many cellular factors to their functionally relevant locations within cells, and defects in transport are linked to human disease. Understanding the mechanism and regulation of this transport process in living cells is difficult because of the complex in vivo environment and limited means to manipulate the system. On the other hand, in vitro motility assays using purified motors attached to beads does not recapitulate the full complexity of cargo transport in vivo. Assaying motility of organelles in cell extracts is therefore attractive, as natural cargoes are being examined, but in an environment that is more amenable to manipulation. Here, we describe the purification and in vitro MT-based motility of phagosomes from Dictyostelium and lipid droplets from rat liver. These assays have the potential to address diverse questions related to endosome/phagosome maturation, fatty acid regulation, and could also serve as a starting point for reconstituting the motility of other types of organelles. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescence spectral imaging of organelle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohen, Elli; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Kohen, Cahide; Schachtschabel, Dietrich O.; Monti, Marco; Stanikunaite, Rita

    2000-04-01

    In cell biology, one of the great mysteries, which has bene only superficially 8investigate,d is the integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear organelles as part of the intracellular regulatory mechanism. The methodology used for the exploration of such intracellular processes is the pixel-by-pixel scanning by means of fluorescence spectral imaging and excitation emission fluorescence spectroscopy. While several of the steps required by this method are still in the process of implementation, the Michelson interferometer, the Sagnac interferometer and the related 'pentaferometer' are possible components of the instrumental design. One of the illustrative experimental models to begin the study of intracellular integrative processes is based on the hypothesis of a 'nuclear pump' in conjunction with cell treatment by chemotherapeutic agents such as adriamycin. Preliminary observations initiated in cultured fibroblasts, and to be pursued in Cloudman's melanoma cells, suggest that this cytotoxic agent first moves into the nucleus, form which it is subsequently ejected to be incorporated into the lysosomes and Golgi apparatus, possibly prior to exclusion via the multiple drug resistance pathway. The timetable of such a process is under investigation. This subject has obvious implications for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic studies of organelles integration.

  13. The function of genomes in bioenergetic organelles.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John F

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are energy-transducing organelles of the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They originated as bacterial symbionts whose host cells acquired respiration from the precursor of the mitochondrion, and oxygenic photosynthesis from the precursor of the chloroplast. The host cells also acquired genetic information from their symbionts, eventually incorporating much of it into their own genomes. Genes of the eukaryotic cell nucleus now encode most mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins. Genes are copied and moved between cellular compartments with relative ease, and there is no obvious obstacle to successful import of any protein precursor from the cytosol. So why are any genes at all retained in cytoplasmic organelles? One proposal is that these small but functional genomes provide a location for genes that is close to, and in the same compartment as, their gene products. This co-location facilitates rapid and direct regulatory coupling. Redox control of synthesis de novo is put forward as the common property of those proteins that must be encoded and synthesized within mitochondria and chloroplasts. This testable hypothesis is termed CORR, for co-location for redox regulation. Principles, predictions and consequences of CORR are examined in the context of competing hypotheses and current evidence. PMID:12594916

  14. Cell-size-dependent control of organelle sizes during development.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuki; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-01-01

    During development, cells differentiate into diverse cell types with different sizes. The size of intracellular organelles often correlates with the size of the cell, which may be important for cell homeostasis. The nucleus is a well-known example of an organelle whose size correlates with cell size. However, the mechanical basis of the correlation is unknown. The lengths of the mitotic spindle and contractile ring are emerging as model system to investigate the cell-size-dependent control mechanisms of organelle size. Mechanistic models are proposed for the cell-size-dependent control of these organelles. Understanding the cell-size dependency of organelle sizes is expected to impact not only on the morphogenesis of the individual organelle, but also on cell homeostasis, cell cycle progression, and cell differentiation.

  15. Right Time, Right Place: Probing the Functions of Organelle Positioning.

    PubMed

    van Bergeijk, Petra; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2016-02-01

    The proper spatial arrangement of organelles underlies many cellular processes including signaling, polarization, and growth. Despite the importance of local positioning, the precise connection between subcellular localization and organelle function is often not fully understood. To address this, recent studies have developed and employed different strategies to directly manipulate organelle distributions, such as the use of (light-sensitive) heterodimerization to control the interaction between selected organelles and specific motor proteins, adaptor molecules, or anchoring factors. We review here the importance of subcellular localization as well as tools to control local organelle positioning. Because these approaches allow spatiotemporal control of organelle distribution, they will be invaluable tools to unravel local functioning and the mechanisms that control positioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Evolution of Per-cell Organelle Number.

    PubMed

    Cole, Logan W

    2016-01-01

    Organelles with their own distinct genomes, such as plastids and mitochondria, are found in most eukaryotic cells. As these organelles and their host cells have evolved, the partitioning of metabolic processes and the encoding of interacting gene products have created an obligate codependence. This relationship has played a role in shaping the number of organelles in cells through evolution. Factors such as stochastic evolutionary forces acting on genes involved in organelle biogenesis, organelle-nuclear gene interactions, and physical limitations may, to varying degrees, dictate the selective constraint that per-cell organelle number is under. In particular, coordination between nuclear and organellar gene expression may be important in maintaining gene product stoichiometry, which may have a significant role in constraining the evolution of this trait.

  17. Isolation of endocitic organelles by density gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    de Araùjo, Mariana Eça Guimarães; Huber, Lukas Alfons; Stasyk, Taras

    2008-01-01

    Advanced prefractionation strategies, in combination with highly sensitive and accurate mass spectrometers provide powerful means to detect and analyze low abundant proteins on the subcellular and organelle-specific level. Among enrichment techniques, subcellular fractionation has become the most commonly used. Its application gives access to less complex subproteomes and organelle constituents, facilitating downstream analysis. Furthermore, subcellular fractionation allows the identification of proteins that shuttle between different subcellular compartments in a stimulus dependent manner. As a paradigm of subcellular organelle isolation, we describe here endosomal purification protocols, based on differential centrifugation in continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients. Described methods can be easily modified to isolate other organelles and are compatible with subsequent organelle- and functional organelle proteome analyses by, e.g., two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  18. The inheritance of organelle genes and genomes: patterns and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping

    2005-12-01

    Unlike nuclear genes and genomes, the inheritance of organelle genes and genomes does not follow Mendel's laws. In this mini-review, I summarize recent research progress on the patterns and mechanisms of the inheritance of organelle genes and genomes. While most sexual eukaryotes show uniparental inheritance of organelle genes and genomes in some progeny at least part of the time, increasing evidence indicates that strictly uniparental inheritance is rare and that organelle inheritance patterns are very diverse and complex. In contrast with the predominance of uniparental inheritance in multicellular organisms, organelle genes in eukaryotic microorganisms, such as protists, algae, and fungi, typically show a greater diversity of inheritance patterns, with sex-determining loci playing significant roles. The diverse patterns of inheritance are matched by the rich variety of potential mechanisms. Indeed, many factors, both deterministic and stochastic, can influence observed patterns of organelle inheritance. Interestingly, in multicellular organisms, progeny from interspecific crosses seem to exhibit more frequent paternal leakage and biparental organelle genome inheritance than those from intraspecific crosses. The recent observation of a sex-determining gene in the basidiomycete yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which controls mitochondrial DNA inheritance, has opened up potentially exciting research opportunities for identifying specific molecular genetic pathways that control organelle inheritance, as well as for testing evolutionary hypotheses regarding the prevalence of uniparental inheritance of organelle genes and genomes.

  19. Morphology and function of membrane-bound organelles.

    PubMed

    Heald, Rebecca; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2014-02-01

    The cell interior is a busy and crowded place. A large fraction of the cell volume is taken up by organelles that come in a variety of shapes and sizes. These organelles are surrounded by membrane that not only acts as a diffusion barrier, but also provides each organelle with its unique morphology that contributes to its function, often in ways that are poorly understood. Here we discuss recent discoveries on the relationship between organelle structure and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondria-organelle contact sites: the plot thickens.

    PubMed

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael

    2017-04-15

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) are areas of close apposition between the membranes of two different organelles that enable non-vesicular transfer of ions and lipids. Recent studies reveal that mitochondria maintain contact sites with organelles other than the endoplasmic reticulum such as the vacuole, plasma membrane and peroxisomes. This review focuses on novel findings achieved mainly in yeast regarding tethers, function and regulation of mitochondria-organelle contact sites. The emerging network of MCSs linking virtually all cellular organelles is highly dynamic and integrated with cellular metabolism.

  1. Requirements and standards for organelle genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-09

    Mitochondria and plastids (collectively called organelles)descended from prokaryotes that adopted an intracellular, endosymbioticlifestyle within early eukaryotes. Comparisons of their remnant genomesaddress a wide variety of biological questions, especially when includingthe genomes of their prokaryotic relatives and the many genes transferredto the eukaryotic nucleus during the transitions from endosymbiont toorganelle. The pace of producing complete organellar genome sequences nowmakes it unfeasible to do broad comparisons using the primary literatureand, even if it were feasible, it is now becoming uncommon for journalsto accept detailed descriptions of genome-level features. Unfortunatelyno database is currently useful for this task, since they have littlestandardization and are riddled with error. Here I outline what iscurrently wrong and what must be done to make this data useful to thescientific community.

  2. The peroxisome as a cell signaling organelle.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durga Nand; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Peroxisomes participate in lipid metabolism, and are a major source of ROS in the cell. Their importance in cellular energy balance and redox homeostasis is well-established, as is the need to maintain peroxisome homeostasis to prevent pathologies associated with too few, or too many, of these organelles. How cells regulate peroxisome number has remained somewhat elusive. Recently, the tumor suppressors ATM and TSC, which regulate mTORC1 signaling, have been localized to peroxisomes. When activated by peroxisomal ROS, ATM signals to TSC to repress mTORC1 signaling and increase autophagic flux in cells, and also phosphorylates the peroxisomal protein PEX 5 to target peroxisomes for selective autophagy (pexophagy), providing a mechanism for regulation of peroxisomal homeostasis using ROS as a rheostat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The mitochondrial UPR - protecting organelle protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Cole M; Ron, David

    2010-11-15

    Mitochondria are required for numerous essential metabolic processes including the regulation of apoptosis; therefore, proper maintenance of the mitochondrial proteome is crucial. The protein-folding environment in mitochondria is challenged by organelle architecture, the presence of reactive oxygen species and the difficulties associated with assembly of the electron transport chain, which consists of components encoded by both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. Mitochondria have dedicated molecular chaperones and proteases that promote proper protein folding, complex assembly and quality control. Work in cultured mammalian cells and Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded clues to the mechanisms linking perturbations in the protein-folding environment in the mitochondrial matrix to the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge of this mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), compare it with the better understood UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum and highlight its potential impact on development and disease.

  4. Apoptotic death sensor: an organelle's alter ego?

    PubMed

    Bratton, S B; Cohen, G M

    2001-06-01

    Caspases are intracellular cysteine proteases that are primarily responsible for the stereotypic morphological and biochemical changes that are associated with apoptosis. Caspases are often activated by the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1) apoptosome, a complex that is formed following mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in response to many death-inducing stimuli. Both pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members regulate apoptosis, primarily by their effects on mitochondria, whereas many inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate apoptosis by directly inhibiting distinct caspases. Exposure of cells to chemicals and radiation, as well as loss of trophic stimuli, perturb cellular homeostasis and, depending on the type of cellular stress, particular or multiple organelles appear to 'sense' the damage and signal the cell to undergo apoptosis by stimulating the formation of unique and/or common caspase-activating complexes.

  5. Dynamic lipid landscape of picornavirus replication organelles.

    PubMed

    Belov, George A

    2016-08-01

    Picornavirus infection induces rapid reorganization of the cellular membrane architecture and appearance of novel membranous structures associated with the viral RNA replication and virion assembly-replication organelles. Recent studies significantly advanced our understanding of their lipid composition and cellular mechanisms involved in their development. Picornaviruses activate synthesis of both structural and signaling lipids and reroute cellular cholesterol trafficking pathways to create unique membranous domains favoring viral replication. Rapidly replicating picornaviruses rely on posttranslational activation and/or specific recruitment of cellular proteins rather than on modulation of expression of cellular genes to create favorable membrane microenvironment. At the same time picornaviruses demonstrate remarkable adaptability to changes in the lipid landscape which should be taken into account when developing novel antiviral strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Plant Organelles Database 2 (PODB2): an updated resource containing movie data of plant organelle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-02-01

    The Plant Organelles Database (PODB) was launched in 2006 and provides imaging data of plant organelles, protocols for plant organelle research and external links to relevant websites. To provide comprehensive information on plant organelle dynamics and accommodate movie files that contain time-lapse images and 3D structure rotations, PODB was updated to the next version, PODB2 (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome). PODB2 contains movie data submitted directly by plant researchers and can be freely downloaded. Through this organelle movie database, users can examine the dynamics of organelles of interest, including their movement, division, subcellular positioning and behavior, in response to external stimuli. In addition, the user interface for access and submission has been enhanced. PODB2 contains all of the information included in PODB, and the volume of data and protocols deposited in the PODB2 continues to grow steadily. Moreover, a new website, Plant Organelles World (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome/PODBworld/en/index.html), which is based on PODB2, was recently launched as an educational tool to engage members of the non-scientific community such as students and school teachers. Plant Organelles World is written in layman's terms, and technical terms were avoided where possible. We would appreciate contributions of data from all plant researchers to enhance the usefulness of PODB2 and Plant Organelles World.

  7. The Plant Organelles Database 2 (PODB2): An Updated Resource Containing Movie Data of Plant Organelle Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Shoji; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Organelles Database (PODB) was launched in 2006 and provides imaging data of plant organelles, protocols for plant organelle research and external links to relevant websites. To provide comprehensive information on plant organelle dynamics and accommodate movie files that contain time-lapse images and 3D structure rotations, PODB was updated to the next version, PODB2 (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome). PODB2 contains movie data submitted directly by plant researchers and can be freely downloaded. Through this organelle movie database, users can examine the dynamics of organelles of interest, including their movement, division, subcellular positioning and behavior, in response to external stimuli. In addition, the user interface for access and submission has been enhanced. PODB2 contains all of the information included in PODB, and the volume of data and protocols deposited in the PODB2 continues to grow steadily. Moreover, a new website, Plant Organelles World (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome/PODBworld/en/index.html), which is based on PODB2, was recently launched as an educational tool to engage members of the non-scientific community such as students and school teachers. Plant Organelles World is written in layman's terms, and technical terms were avoided where possible. We would appreciate contributions of data from all plant researchers to enhance the usefulness of PODB2 and Plant Organelles World. PMID:21115470

  8. Degradation of organelles or specific organelle components via selective autophagy in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Simon; Galili, Gad

    2014-05-05

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a cellular mechanism dedicated to the degradation and recycling of unnecessary cytosolic components by their removal to the lytic compartment of the cell (the vacuole in plants). Autophagy is generally induced by stresses causing energy deprivation and its operation occurs by special vesicles, termed autophagosomes. Autophagy also operates in a selective manner, recycling specific components, such as organelles, protein aggregates or even specific proteins, and selective autophagy is implicated in both cellular housekeeping and response to stresses. In plants, selective autophagy has recently been shown to degrade mitochondria, plastids and peroxisomes, or organelle components such as the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) membrane and chloroplast-derived proteins such as Rubisco. This ability places selective-autophagy as a major factor in cellular steady-state maintenance, both under stress and favorable environmental conditions. Here we review the recent advances documented in plants for this cellular process and further discuss its impact on plant physiology.

  9. Multicompartment Artificial Organelles Conducting Enzymatic Cascade Reactions inside Cells.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Labay, Cédric; Trikalitis, Vasileios D; Kempen, Paul J; Larsen, Jannik B; Andresen, Thomas L; Hosta-Rigau, Leticia

    2017-02-13

    Cell organelles are subcellular structures entrapping a set of enzymes to achieve a specific functionality. The incorporation of artificial organelles into cells is a novel medical paradigm which might contribute to the treatment of various cell disorders by replacing malfunctioning organelles. In particular, artificial organelles are expected to be a powerful solution in the context of enzyme replacement therapy since enzymatic malfunction is the primary cause of organelle dysfunction. Although several attempts have been made to encapsulate enzymes within a carrier vehicle, only few intracellularly active artificial organelles have been reported to date and they all consist of single-compartment carriers. However, it is noted that biological organelles consist of multicompartment architectures where enzymatic reactions are executed within distinct subcompartments. Compartmentalization allows for multiple processes to take place in close vicinity and in a parallel manner without the risk of interference or degradation. Here, we report on a subcompartmentalized and intracellularly active carrier, a crucial step for advancing artificial organelles. In particular, we develop and characterize a novel capsosome system, which consists of multiple liposomes and fluorescent gold nanoclusters embedded within a polymer carrier capsule. We subsequently demonstrate that encapsulated enzymes preserve their activity intracellularly, allowing for controlled enzymatic cascade reaction within a host cell.

  10. Organelle growth control through limiting pools of cytoplasmic components.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Nathan W; Hyman, Anthony A

    2012-05-08

    The critical importance of controlling the size and number of intracellular organelles has led to a variety of mechanisms for regulating the formation and growth of cellular structures. In this review, we explore a class of mechanisms for organelle growth control that rely primarily on the cytoplasm as a 'limiting pool' of available material. These mechanisms are based on the idea that, as organelles grow, they incorporate subunits from the cytoplasm. If this subunit pool is limited, organelle growth will lead to depletion of subunits from the cytoplasm. Free subunit concentration therefore provides a measure of the number of incorporated subunits and thus the current size of the organelle. Because organelle growth rates are typically a function of subunit concentration, cytoplasmic depletion links organelle size, free subunit concentration, and growth rates, ensuring that as the organelle grows, its rate of growth slows. Thus, a limiting cytoplasmic pool provides a powerful mechanism for size-dependent regulation of growth without recourse to active mechanisms to measure size or modulate growth rates. Variations of this general idea allow not only for size control, but also cell-size-dependent scaling of cellular structures, coordination of growth between similar structures within a cell, and the enforcement of singularity in structure formation, when only a single copy of a structure is desired. Here, we review several examples of such mechanisms in cellular processes as diverse as centriole duplication, centrosome and nuclear size control, cell polarity, and growth of flagella. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergent complexity in Myosin V-based organelle inheritance.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Rachubinski, Richard A; Dacks, Joel B

    2012-03-01

    How is adaptability generated in a system composed of interacting cellular machineries, each with a separate and functionally critical job to perform? The machinery for organelle inheritance is precisely one such system, requiring coordination between robust and ancient cellular modules, including the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, and organelle biogenesis/identity. Budding yeasts have emerged as powerful models to study these processes, which are critical for cellular survival, propagation, and differentiation, as organelles must compete for access to myosin V motors that travel along polarized actin cables to vectorially deliver bound cargo to the bud. Under the direction of the cell cycle, myosin V motors are recruited to organelles by specific interactions between their carboxyl-terminal globular tail domains and organelle-specific receptors. We used comparative genomics, phylogenetics, and secondary structure modeling to characterize the evolutionary history of these organelle-specific receptors. We find that while some receptors are retained widely across the animals and fungi, others are limited primarily to the Saccharomycetaceae family of budding yeast, with the emergent pattern of a conserved biogenic and inheritance factor often paired with an evolutionarily novel inheritance adaptor. We propose an evolutionary model whereby the emergence of myosin V-based organelle inheritance has utilized mechanisms of paralogy, mutation, and the appearance of pliable evolutionarily novel adaptor proteins. Our findings suggest an overarching evolutionary mechanism for how diverse cargoes compete for a single myosin V motor in organelle transport and detail one system's solution to obtaining evolutionary adaptability amongst constrained cellular modules.

  12. The Evolution of Per-cell Organelle Number

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Logan W.

    2016-01-01

    Organelles with their own distinct genomes, such as plastids and mitochondria, are found in most eukaryotic cells. As these organelles and their host cells have evolved, the partitioning of metabolic processes and the encoding of interacting gene products have created an obligate codependence. This relationship has played a role in shaping the number of organelles in cells through evolution. Factors such as stochastic evolutionary forces acting on genes involved in organelle biogenesis, organelle–nuclear gene interactions, and physical limitations may, to varying degrees, dictate the selective constraint that per-cell organelle number is under. In particular, coordination between nuclear and organellar gene expression may be important in maintaining gene product stoichiometry, which may have a significant role in constraining the evolution of this trait. PMID:27588285

  13. Application of proteomic marker ensembles to subcellular organelle identification.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Alexander Y; Shen, Zhouxin; Guan, Ziqiang; Ryan, Andrea; Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raetz, Christian R H; Briggs, Steven; Dennis, Edward A

    2010-02-01

    Compartmentalization of biological processes and the associated cellular components is crucial for cell function. Typically, the location of a component is revealed through a co-localization and/or co-purification with an organelle marker. Therefore, the identification of reliable markers is critical for a thorough understanding of cellular function and dysfunction. We fractionated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, both in the resting and endotoxin-activated states, into six fractions representing the major organelles/compartments: nuclei, mitochondria, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane as well as an additional dense microsomal fraction. The identity of the first five of these fractions was confirmed via the distribution of conventional enzymatic markers. Through a quantitative liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of the fractions, we identified 50-member ensembles of marker proteins ("marker ensembles") specific for each of the corresponding organelles/compartments. Our analysis attributed 206 of the 250 marker proteins ( approximately 82%) to organelles that are consistent with the location annotations in the public domain (obtained using DAVID 2008, EntrezGene, Swiss-Prot, and references therein). Moreover, we were able to correct locations for a subset of the remaining proteins, thus proving the superior power of analysis using multiple organelles as compared with an analysis using one specific organelle. The marker ensembles were used to calculate the organelle composition of the six above mentioned subcellular fractions. Knowledge of the precise composition of these fractions can be used to calculate the levels of metabolites in the pure organelles. As a proof of principle, we applied these calculations to known mitochondria-specific lipids (cardiolipins and ubiquinones) and demonstrated their exclusive mitochondrial location. We speculate that the organelle-specific protein ensembles may be used to

  14. The Plant Organelles Database 3 (PODB3) update 2014: integrating electron micrographs and new options for plant organelle research.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Nakamura, Takanori; Kondo, Maki; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nagatani, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The Plant Organelles Database 2 (PODB2), which was first launched in 2006 as PODB, provides static image and movie data of plant organelles, protocols for plant organelle research and external links to relevant websites. PODB2 has facilitated plant organellar research and the understanding of plant organelle dynamics. To provide comprehensive information on plant organelles in more detail, PODB2 was updated to PODB3 (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome/). PODB3 contains two additional components: the electron micrograph database and the perceptive organelles database. Through the electron micrograph database, users can examine the subcellular and/or suborganellar structures in various organs of wild-type and mutant plants. The perceptive organelles database provides information on organelle dynamics in response to external stimuli. In addition to the extra components, the user interface for access has been enhanced in PODB3. The data in PODB3 are directly submitted by plant researchers and can be freely downloaded for use in further analysis. PODB3 contains all the information included in PODB2, and the volume of data and protocols deposited in PODB3 continue to grow steadily. We welcome contributions of data from all plant researchers to enhance the utility and comprehensiveness of PODB3.

  15. Organelle membranes from germinating castro bean endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.P.; Tully, R.E.; Young, O.A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-01-01

    Glyoxysome ghosts were isolated from germinating castor bean endosperms using established methods. Electron microscopic examination showed that some matrix material was retained within the glyoxysomal membrane. Two cytochrome reductases and phosphorylcholine glyceride transferase co-sedimented with the alkaline lipase, a known component of the glyoxysome membrane, in sucrose gradient centrifugation of osmotically shocked glyoxysomes. The activities of these enzymes in the glyoxysome membranes were compared to those in the endoplasmic reticulum relative to phospholipid content. On this basis, the phosphorylcholine glyceride transferase was 10-fold more active in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the lipase was 50-fold more active in the glyoxysome membrane. The cytochrome reductases were only 2-fold more active in the endoplasmic reticulum, indicating that they are components of the two membranes. Difference spectroscopy of the glyoxysome membrane suspension revealed the presence of a b5-type cytochrome similar to that found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Since the glyoxysome membrane is apparently derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, components of the endoplasmic reticulum such as these are likely to be incorporated into the glyoxysome membrane during biogenesis. Enzyme activites involving the cofactors NADH or CoA were measurable in broken, but not in intact, glyoxysomes. Thus, it appears that cofactors for enzymes within the organelle cannot pass through the membrane.

  16. Engineering carbon fixation with artificial protein organelles.

    PubMed

    Giessen, Tobias W; Silver, Pamela A

    2017-08-01

    Based on projections for global population growth, current techniques for improving agricultural yields will not be able to address future demands for major food crops. Improving photosynthetic efficiency by engineering carbon fixation has been identified as one of the most important approaches for increasing agricultural output. Recent studies indicate that introducing cyanobacterial-like carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into plant chloroplasts represents a promising strategy for enhancing plant photosynthesis. Here, we give a general outline for transferring CCMs to plants. The proposed trajectory includes introducing bicarbonate transporters and CO2-fixing organelles into plant chloroplasts as well as minimizing stromal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We focus on different approaches for constructing compartments that co-localize the CO2-fixing enzyme d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and CA, aimed at increasing RuBisCO turnover and decreasing wasteful photorespiration. We consider strategies based on cyanobacterial carboxysomes and on other protein-based compartments, specifically encapsulin nanocompartments. Finally, recent advances in expressing catalytic and structural carboxysomal components in plants will be highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Organelles are transported on sliding microtubules in Reticulomyxa.

    PubMed

    Orokos, D D; Cole, R W; Travis, J L

    2000-12-01

    Organelles and plasma membrane domains appear to be transported along Reticulomyxa's microtubule cytoskeleton. Previously we demonstrated that organelle and cell surface transport share the same enzymatic properties and suggested that both are powered by the same cytoplasmic dynein. Motility analysis in Reticulomyxa is complicated by the fact that the microtubules also are motile and appear to "slide" bidirectionally throughout the network. We have utilized laser ablation to address this frame-of-reference problem as to how each transport component (microtubule sliding vs. organelle translocations) contributes to reactivated bidirectional translocation of organelles along the microtubule cytoskeleton. Laser ablation was used to cut microtubule bundles from lysed networks into 4-15-microm segments. After examining these reactivated cut fragments, it appears that the majority of organelles did not move relative to microtubule fragments, but remained attached to microtubules and moved as the microtubules slid. Microtubule sliding stops after 1-2 min and cannot be reactivated even when perfused with fresh ATP. Furthermore, once sliding stops, organelle transport also stops. Our findings indicate that the majority of Reticulomyxa pseudopodial organelles do not move along the surface of the microtubules, rather it is the sliding of the microtubules to which they are attached that moves them.

  18. Programmed death phenomena: from organelle to organism.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2002-04-01

    Programmed death phenomena appear to be inherent not only in living cells (apoptosis), but also in subcellular organelles (e.g., self-elimination of mitochondria, called mitoptosis), organs (organoptosis), and even whole organisms (phenoptosis). In all these cases, the "Samurai law of biology"--it is better to die than to be wrong--seems to be operative. The operation of this law helps complicated living systems avoid the risk of ruin when a system of lower hierarchic position makes a significant mistake. Thus, mitoptosis purifies a cell from damaged and hence unwanted mitochondria; apoptosis purifies a tissue from unwanted cells; and phenoptosis purifies a community from unwanted individuals. Defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of the primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo-, and phenoptoses, which is consistent with Harman's theory of aging. Here a concept is described that tries to unite Weismann's hypothesis of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the generally accepted alternative point of view that considers aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by a system(s) actuating a phenoptotic death program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system(s) in question are organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before the occasional injuries make impossible the functioning of the organism. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that, if overcome, might dramatically prolong the human life span.

  19. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    PubMed

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  20. Mechanisms of organelle division and inheritance and their implications regarding the origin of eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria and plastids have their own DNAs and are regarded as descendants of endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Organellar DNAs are not naked in vivo but are associated with basic proteins to form DNA-protein complexes (called organelle nuclei). The concept of organelle nuclei provides a new approach to explain the origin, division, and inheritance of organelles. Organelles divide using organelle division rings (machineries) after organelle-nuclear division. Organelle division machineries are a chimera of the FtsZ (filamentous temperature sensitive Z) ring of bacterial origin and the eukaryotic mechanochemical dynamin ring. Thus, organelle division machineries contain a key to solve the origin of organelles (eukaryotes). The maternal inheritance of organelles developed during sexual reproduction and it is also probably intimately related to the origin of organelles. The aims of this review are to describe the strategies used to reveal the dynamics of organelle division machineries, and the significance of the division machineries and maternal inheritance in the origin and evolution of eukaryotes.

  1. Peroxisomes as dynamic organelles: peroxisome abundance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Ruchi; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisomes are cell organelles that are present in almost all eukaryotic cells and involved in a large range of metabolic pathways. The organelles are highly dynamic in nature: their number and enzyme content is highly variable and continuously adapts to prevailing environmental conditions. This review summarizes recent relevant developments in research on processes that are involved in the regulation of peroxisome abundance and maintenance. These processes include fission of the organelles, formation of new peroxisomes from the endoplasmic reticulum, autophagic degradation and segregation/inheritance during cell division.

  2. Morphological Features of Organelles during Apoptosis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Maria Grazia; Santin, Giada; Aredia, Francesca; Bernocchi, Graziella; Pellicciari, Carlo; Scovassi, Anna Ivana

    2013-01-01

    An apoptotic program leading to controlled cell dismantling implies perturbations of nuclear dynamics, as well as changes affecting the organelle structure and distribution. In human cancer cells driven to apoptosis by different stimuli, we have recently investigated the morphological properties of several organelles, including mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In this review, we will discuss the body of evidence in the literature suggesting that organelles are generally relocated and/or degraded during apoptosis, irrespectively of the apoptogenic stimulus and cell type. PMID:24709702

  3. Ultrastructural relationship of the phagophore with surrounding organelles

    PubMed Central

    Biazik, Joanna; Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Phagophore nucleates from a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) termed the omegasome and also makes contact with other organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi complex, plasma membrane and recycling endosomes during its formation. We have used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SB-EM) and electron tomography (ET) to image phagophore biogenesis in 3 dimensions and to determine the relationship between the phagophore and surrounding organelles at high resolution. ET was performed to confirm whether membrane contact sites (MCSs) are evident between the phagophore and those surrounding organelles. In addition to the known contacts with the ER, we identified MCSs between the phagophore and membranes from putative ER exit sites, late endosomes or lysosomes, the Golgi complex and mitochondria. We also show that one phagophore can have simultaneous MCSs with more than one organelle. Future membrane flux experiments are needed to determine whether membrane contacts also signify lipid translocation. PMID:25714487

  4. Ultrastructural relationship of the phagophore with surrounding organelles.

    PubMed

    Biazik, Joanna; Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Phagophore nucleates from a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) termed the omegasome and also makes contact with other organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi complex, plasma membrane and recycling endosomes during its formation. We have used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SB-EM) and electron tomography (ET) to image phagophore biogenesis in 3 dimensions and to determine the relationship between the phagophore and surrounding organelles at high resolution. ET was performed to confirm whether membrane contact sites (MCSs) are evident between the phagophore and those surrounding organelles. In addition to the known contacts with the ER, we identified MCSs between the phagophore and membranes from putative ER exit sites, late endosomes or lysosomes, the Golgi complex and mitochondria. We also show that one phagophore can have simultaneous MCSs with more than one organelle. Future membrane flux experiments are needed to determine whether membrane contacts also signify lipid translocation.

  5. Fungal evo-devo: organelles and multicellular complexity.

    PubMed

    Jedd, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome-derived Woronin bodies of the Ascomycota phyla, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived septal pore cap (SPC) of the Basidiomycota, are both fungal organelles that prevent cytoplasmic bleeding when multicellular hyphal filaments are wounded. Analysis of Woronin body constituent proteins suggests that these organelles evolved in part through gene duplication and co-opting of non-essential genes for new functions, indicating that new organelles can arise through typical evolutionary mechanisms. Interestingly, clades possessing the Woronin body and SPC also produce the largest and most complex multicellular fungal reproductive structures. Certain Woronin body and SPC mutants have defects in growth and development, suggesting functions beyond cellular wound healing. I argue that studying these specialized systems will help to reveal the basis for fungal diversity and provide general principles for co-evolution of organelles and multicellular complexity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomics of Secretory and Endocytic Organelles in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Wampfler, Petra B.; Tosevski, Vinko; Nanni, Paolo; Spycher, Cornelia; Hehl, Adrian B.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan enteroparasite transmitted as an environmentally resistant cyst. Trophozoites attach to the small intestine of vertebrate hosts and proliferate by binary fission. They access nutrients directly via uptake of bulk fluid phase material into specialized endocytic organelles termed peripheral vesicles (PVs), mainly on the exposed dorsal side. When trophozoites reach the G2/M restriction point in the cell cycle they can begin another round of cell division or encyst if they encounter specific environmental cues. They induce neogenesis of Golgi-like organelles, encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), for regulated secretion of cyst wall material. PVs and ESVs are highly simplified and thus evolutionary diverged endocytic and exocytic organelle systems with key roles in proliferation and transmission to a new host, respectively. Both organelle systems physically and functionally intersect at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which has catabolic as well as anabolic functions. However, the unusually high degree of sequence divergence in Giardia rapidly exhausts phylogenomic strategies to identify and characterize the molecular underpinnings of these streamlined organelles. To define the first proteome of ESVs and PVs we used a novel strategy combining flow cytometry-based organelle sorting with in silico filtration of mass spectrometry data. From the limited size datasets we retrieved many hypothetical but also known organelle-specific factors. In contrast to PVs, ESVs appear to maintain a strong physical and functional link to the ER including recruitment of ribosomes to organelle membranes. Overall the data provide further evidence for the formation of a cyst extracellular matrix with minimal complexity. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD000694. PMID:24732305

  7. Proteomics of secretory and endocytic organelles in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Wampfler, Petra B; Tosevski, Vinko; Nanni, Paolo; Spycher, Cornelia; Hehl, Adrian B

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan enteroparasite transmitted as an environmentally resistant cyst. Trophozoites attach to the small intestine of vertebrate hosts and proliferate by binary fission. They access nutrients directly via uptake of bulk fluid phase material into specialized endocytic organelles termed peripheral vesicles (PVs), mainly on the exposed dorsal side. When trophozoites reach the G2/M restriction point in the cell cycle they can begin another round of cell division or encyst if they encounter specific environmental cues. They induce neogenesis of Golgi-like organelles, encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), for regulated secretion of cyst wall material. PVs and ESVs are highly simplified and thus evolutionary diverged endocytic and exocytic organelle systems with key roles in proliferation and transmission to a new host, respectively. Both organelle systems physically and functionally intersect at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which has catabolic as well as anabolic functions. However, the unusually high degree of sequence divergence in Giardia rapidly exhausts phylogenomic strategies to identify and characterize the molecular underpinnings of these streamlined organelles. To define the first proteome of ESVs and PVs we used a novel strategy combining flow cytometry-based organelle sorting with in silico filtration of mass spectrometry data. From the limited size datasets we retrieved many hypothetical but also known organelle-specific factors. In contrast to PVs, ESVs appear to maintain a strong physical and functional link to the ER including recruitment of ribosomes to organelle membranes. Overall the data provide further evidence for the formation of a cyst extracellular matrix with minimal complexity. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD000694.

  8. Optogenetic control of molecular motors and organelle distributions in cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liting; Che, Daphne; Zhang, Kai; Ong, Qunxiang; Guo, Shunling; Cui, Bianxiao

    2015-05-21

    Intracellular transport and distribution of organelles play important roles in diverse cellular functions, including cell polarization, intracellular signaling, cell survival, and apoptosis. Here, we report an optogenetic strategy to control the transport and distribution of organelles by light. This is achieved by optically recruiting molecular motors onto organelles through the heterodimerization of Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and its interacting partner CIB1. CRY2 and CIB1 dimerize within subseconds upon exposure to blue light, which requires no exogenous ligands and low intensity of light. We demonstrate that mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lysosomes can be driven toward the cell periphery upon light-induced recruitment of kinesin, or toward the cell nucleus upon recruitment of dynein. Light-induced motor recruitment and organelle movements are repeatable, reversible, and can be achieved at subcellular regions. This light-controlled organelle redistribution provides a new strategy for studying the causal roles of organelle transport and distribution in cellular functions in living cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of HAF-4- and HAF-9-localizing organelles as distinct organelles in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Tanji, Takahiro; Nishikori, Kenji; Haga, Syoko; Kanno, Yuki; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Takaya, Mai; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Mitani, Shohei; Shiraishi, Hirohisa; Ohashi-Kobayashi, Ayako

    2016-01-27

    The intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are filled with heterogeneous granular organelles that are associated with specific organ functions. The best studied of these organelles are lipid droplets and acidified gut granules associated with GLO-1, a homolog of the small GTPase Rab38. In this study, we characterized a subset of the intestinal granules in which HAF-4 and HAF-9 localize on the membrane. HAF-4 and HAF-9 are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that are homologous to the mammalian lysosomal peptide transporter TAPL (transporter associated with antigen processing-like, ABCB9). Using transgenic worms expressing fluorescent protein-tagged marker proteins, we demonstrated that the HAF-4- and HAF-9-localizing organelles are not lipid droplets and do not participate in yolk protein transport. They were also ruled out as GLO-1-positive acidified gut granules. Furthermore, we clarified that the late endosomal protein RAB-7 localizes to the HAF-4- and HAF-9-localizing organelles and is required for their biogenesis. Our results indicate that the HAF-4- and HAF-9-localizing organelles are distinct intestinal organelles associated with the endocytic pathway.

  10. Association of a Nonmuscle Myosin II with Axoplasmic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Reese, Thomas S.; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    Association of motor proteins with organelles is required for the motors to mediate transport. Because axoplasmic organelles move on actin filaments, they must have associated actin-based motors, most likely members of the myosin superfamily. To gain a better understanding of the roles of myosins in the axon we used the giant axon of the squid, a powerful model for studies of axonal physiology. First, a ∼220 kDa protein was purified from squid optic lobe, using a biochemical protocol designed to isolate myosins. Peptide sequence analysis, followed by cloning and sequencing of the full-length cDNA, identified this ∼220 kDa protein as a nonmuscle myosin II. This myosin is also present in axoplasm, as determined by two independent criteria. First, RT-PCR using sequence-specific primers detected the transcript in the stellate ganglion, which contains the cell bodies that give rise to the giant axon. Second, Western blot analysis using nonmuscle myosin II isotype-specific antibodies detected a single ∼220 kDa band in axoplasm. Axoplasm was fractionated through a four-step sucrose gradient after 0.6 M KI treatment, which separates organelles from cytoskeletal components. Of the total nonmuscle myosin II in axoplasm, 43.2% copurified with organelles in the 15% sucrose fraction, while the remainder (56.8%) was soluble and found in the supernatant. This myosin decorates the cytoplasmic surface of 21% of the axoplasmic organelles, as demonstrated by immunogold electron-microscopy. Thus, nonmuscle myosin II is synthesized in the cell bodies of the giant axon, is present in the axon, and is associated with isolated axoplasmic organelles. Therefore, in addition to myosin V, this myosin is likely to be an axoplasmic organelle motor. PMID:11907281

  11. Rab GTPases and myosin motors in organelle motility.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Miguel C; Coudrier, Evelyne

    2004-06-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential to ensure the proper location of, and communication between, intracellular organelles. Some actin-based myosin motors have been implicated in this process, particularly members of the class V myosins. We discuss here the emerging role of the Ras-like GTPases of the Rab family as regulators of myosin function in organelle transport. Evidence from yeast secretory vesicles and mitochondria, and mammalian melanosomes and endosomes suggests that Rab GTPases are crucial components of the myosin organelle receptor machinery. Better understood is the case of the melanosome where Rab27a recruits a specific effector called melanophilin, which in turn binds myosin Va. The presence of a linker protein between a Rab and a myosin may represent a general mechanism. We argue that Rabs are ideally suited to perform this role as they are exquisite organelle markers. Furthermore, the molecular switch property of Rabs may enable them to regulate the timing of the myosin association with the target organelle.

  12. Systematic Structural Analyses of Attachment Organelle in Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Daisuke; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Lisa; Miyata, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a human pathogenic bacterium, glides on host cell surfaces by a unique and unknown mechanism. It forms an attachment organelle at a cell pole as a membrane protrusion composed of surface and internal structures, with a highly organized architecture. In the present study, we succeeded in isolating the internal structure of the organelle by sucrose-gradient centrifugation. The negative-staining electron microscopy clarified the details and dimensions of the internal structure, which is composed of terminal button, paired plates, and bowl complex from the end of cell front. Peptide mass fingerprinting of the structure suggested 25 novel components for the organelle, and 3 of them were suggested for their involvement in the structure through their subcellular localization determined by enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) tagging. Thirteen component proteins including the previously reported ones were mapped on the organelle systematically for the first time, in nanometer order by EYFP tagging and immunoelectron microscopy. Two, three, and six specific proteins localized specifically to the terminal button, the paired plates, and the bowl, respectively and interestingly, HMW2 molecules were aligned parallel to form the plate. The integration of these results gave the whole image of the organelle and allowed us to discuss possible gliding mechanisms.

  13. Systematic Structural Analyses of Attachment Organelle in Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Lisa; Miyata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a human pathogenic bacterium, glides on host cell surfaces by a unique and unknown mechanism. It forms an attachment organelle at a cell pole as a membrane protrusion composed of surface and internal structures, with a highly organized architecture. In the present study, we succeeded in isolating the internal structure of the organelle by sucrose-gradient centrifugation. The negative-staining electron microscopy clarified the details and dimensions of the internal structure, which is composed of terminal button, paired plates, and bowl complex from the end of cell front. Peptide mass fingerprinting of the structure suggested 25 novel components for the organelle, and 3 of them were suggested for their involvement in the structure through their subcellular localization determined by enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) tagging. Thirteen component proteins including the previously reported ones were mapped on the organelle systematically for the first time, in nanometer order by EYFP tagging and immunoelectron microscopy. Two, three, and six specific proteins localized specifically to the terminal button, the paired plates, and the bowl, respectively and interestingly, HMW2 molecules were aligned parallel to form the plate. The integration of these results gave the whole image of the organelle and allowed us to discuss possible gliding mechanisms. PMID:26633540

  14. Multidimensional fluorescence microscopy of multiple organelles in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Naohiro; Reynolds, Dexter; Brown, Matthew L; Boisdore, Marietta; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Morales, Andrea; Meisel, Lee A

    2008-01-01

    Background The isolation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the development of spectral variants over the past decade have begun to reveal the dynamic nature of protein trafficking and organelle motility. In planta analyses of this dynamic process have typically been limited to only two organelles or proteins at a time in only a few cell types. Results We generated a transgenic Arabidopsis plant that contains four spectrally different fluorescent proteins. Nuclei, plastids, mitochondria and plasma membranes were genetically tagged with cyan, red, yellow and green fluorescent proteins, respectively. In addition, methods to track nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts and quantify the interaction between these organelles at a submicron resolution were developed. These analyzes revealed that N-ethylmaleimide disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial but not nuclear-plastids interactions in root epidermal cells of live Arabidopsis seedlings. Conclusion We developed a tool and associated methods for analyzing the complex dynamic of organelle-organelle interactions in real time in planta. Homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis (Kaleidocell) is available through Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center. PMID:18489765

  15. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro-and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. In conclusion, it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  16. Transient domain formation in membrane-bound organelles undergoing maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Sens, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The membrane components of cellular organelles have been shown to segregate into domains as the result of biochemical maturation. We propose that the dynamical competition between maturation and lateral segregation of membrane components regulates domain formation. We study a two-component fluid membrane in which enzymatic reaction irreversibly converts one component into another and phase separation triggers the formation of transient membrane domains. The maximum domain size is shown to depend on the maturation rate as a power law similar to the one observed for domain growth with time in the absence of maturation, despite this time dependence not being verified in the case of irreversible maturation. This control of domain size by enzymatic activity could play a critical role in regulating exchange between organelles or within compartmentalized organelles such as the Golgi apparatus.

  17. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  18. The Role of Oocyte Organelles in Determining Developmental Competence.

    PubMed

    Reader, Karen L; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2017-09-18

    The ability of an oocyte to undergo successful cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo development is referred to as the oocyte's quality or developmental competence. Quality is dependent on the accumulation of organelles, metabolites and maternal RNAs during the growth and maturation of the oocyte. Various models of good and poor oocyte quality have been used to understand the essential contributors to developmental success. This review covers the current knowledge of how oocyte organelle quantity, distribution and morphology differ between good and poor quality oocytes. The models of oocyte quality are also described and their usefulness for studying the intrinsic quality of an oocyte discussed. Understanding the key critical features of cytoplasmic organelles and metabolites driving oocyte quality will lead to methods for identifying high quality oocytes and improving oocyte competence, both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Poles apart: prokaryotic polar organelles and their spatial regulation.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Viollier, Patrick H

    2011-03-01

    While polar organelles hold the key to understanding the fundamentals of cell polarity and cell biological principles in general, they have served in the past merely for taxonomical purposes. Here, we highlight recent efforts in unraveling the molecular basis of polar organelle positioning in bacterial cells. Specifically, we detail the role of members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily and coiled-coil-rich scaffolding proteins in modulating bacterial cell polarity and in recruiting effector proteins to polar sites. Such roles are well established for eukaryotic cells, but not for bacterial cells that are generally considered diffusion-limited. Studies on spatial regulation of protein positioning in bacterial cells, though still in their infancy, will undoubtedly experience a surge of interest, as comprehensive localization screens have yielded an extensive list of (polarly) localized proteins, potentially reflecting subcellular sites of functional specialization predicted for organelles.

  20. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    PubMed Central

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies. PMID:26911251

  1. Insights into the mechanisms of sterol transport between organelles.

    PubMed

    Mesmin, Bruno; Antonny, Bruno; Drin, Guillaume

    2013-09-01

    In cells, the levels of sterol vary greatly among organelles. This uneven distribution depends largely on non-vesicular routes of transfer, which are mediated by soluble carriers called lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). These proteins have a domain with a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates one sterol molecule. However, a demonstration of their role in sterol transport in cells remains difficult. Numerous LTPs also contain membrane-binding elements, but it is not clear how these LTPs couple their ability to target organelles with lipid transport activity. This issue appears critical, since many sterol transporters are thought to act at contact sites between two membrane-bound compartments. Here, we emphasize that biochemical and structural studies provide precious insights into the mode of action of sterol-binding proteins. Recent studies on START, Osh/ORP and NPC proteins suggest models on how these proteins could transport sterol between organelles and, thereby, influence cellular functions.

  2. Spatiotemporal analysis of organelle and macromolecular complex inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Menendez-Benito, Victoria; van Deventer, Sjoerd J.; Jimenez-Garcia, Victor; Roy-Luzarraga, Marina; van Leeuwen, Fred; Neefjes, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Following mitosis, daughter cells must inherit a functional set of essential proteins and organelles. We applied a genetic tool to simultaneously monitor the kinetics and distribution of old and new proteins marking all intracellular compartments in budding yeasts. Most organelles followed a general pattern whereby preexisting proteins are symmetrically partitioned followed by template-based incorporation of new proteins. Peroxisomes belong to this group, supporting a model of biogenesis by growth and division from preexisting peroxisomes. We detected two exceptions: the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and the spindle pole body (SPB). Old NPCs are stably inherited during successive generations but remained separated from new NPCs, which are incorporated de novo in mother and daughter cells. Only the SPB displayed asymmetrical distribution, with old components primarily inherited by daughter cells and new proteins equally incorporated in both cells. Our analysis resolves conflicting models (peroxisomes, NPC) and reveals unique patterns (NPC, SPB) of organelle inheritance. PMID:23248297

  3. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  4. Transient domain formation in membrane-bound organelles undergoing maturation.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Sens, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The membrane components of cellular organelles have been shown to segregate into domains as the result of biochemical maturation. We propose that the dynamical competition between maturation and lateral segregation of membrane components regulates domain formation. We study a two-component fluid membrane in which enzymatic reaction irreversibly converts one component into another and phase separation triggers the formation of transient membrane domains. The maximum domain size is shown to depend on the maturation rate as a power law similar to the one observed for domain growth with time in the absence of maturation, despite this time dependence not being verified in the case of irreversible maturation. This control of domain size by enzymatic activity could play a critical role in regulating exchange between organelles or within compartmentalized organelles such as the Golgi apparatus.

  5. (+)RNA viruses rewire cellular pathways to build replication organelles.

    PubMed

    Belov, George A; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2012-12-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses show a significant degree of conservation of their mechanisms of replication. The universal requirement of (+)RNA viruses for cellular membranes for genome replication, and the formation of membranous replication organelles with similar architecture, suggest that they target essential control mechanisms of membrane metabolism conserved among eukaryotes. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the role of key host factors and pathways that are hijacked for the development of replication organelles. In addition, electron tomography studies have shed new light on their ultrastructure. Collectively, these studies reveal an unexpected complexity of the spatial organization of the replication membranes and suggest that (+)RNA viruses actively change cellular membrane composition to build their replication organelles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogenesis of a bacterial organelle: the carboxysome assembly pathway.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jeffrey C; Wilson, Steven C; Bernstein, Susan L; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2013-11-21

    The carboxysome is a protein-based organelle for carbon fixation in cyanobacteria, keystone organisms in the global carbon cycle. It is composed of thousands of subunits including hexameric and pentameric proteins that form a shell to encapsulate the enzymes ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and carbonic anhydrase. Here, we describe the stages of carboxysome assembly and the requisite gene products necessary for progression through each. Our results demonstrate that, unlike membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotes, in carboxysomes the interior of the compartment forms first, at a distinct site within the cell. Subsequently, shell proteins encapsulate this procarboxysome, inducing budding and distribution of functional organelles within the cell. We propose that the principles of carboxysome assembly that we have uncovered extend to diverse bacterial microcompartments.

  7. Organelle-localized potassium transport systems in plants.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-15

    Some intracellular organelles found in eukaryotes such as plants have arisen through the endocytotic engulfment of prokaryotic cells. This accounts for the presence of plant membrane intrinsic proteins that have homologs in prokaryotic cells. Other organelles, such as those of the endomembrane system, are thought to have evolved through infolding of the plasma membrane. Acquisition of intracellular components (organelles) in the cells supplied additional functions for survival in various natural environments. The organelles are surrounded by biological membranes, which contain membrane-embedded K(+) transport systems allowing K(+) to move across the membrane. K(+) transport systems in plant organelles act coordinately with the plasma membrane intrinsic K(+) transport systems to maintain cytosolic K(+) concentrations. Since it is sometimes difficult to perform direct studies of organellar membrane proteins in plant cells, heterologous expression in yeast and Escherichia coli has been used to elucidate the function of plant vacuole K(+) channels and other membrane transporters. The vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells; it has an important task in the K(+) homeostasis of the cytoplasm. The initial electrophysiological measurements of K(+) transport have categorized three classes of plant vacuolar cation channels, and since then molecular cloning approaches have led to the isolation of genes for a number of K(+) transport systems. Plants contain chloroplasts, derived from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. A novel K(+) transport system has been isolated from cyanobacteria, which may add to our understanding of K(+) flux across the thylakoid membrane and the inner membrane of the chloroplast. This chapter will provide an overview of recent findings regarding plant organellar K(+) transport proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The contribution of specific organelles to side scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourant, Judith R.; Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge of which cellular structures scatter light is needed to fully utilize the information available from light scattering measurements of cells and tissues. To determine how specific organelles contribute to light scattering, wide angle side scattering was imaged simultaneously with fluorescence from specific organelles for thousands of cells using flow cytometry. Images were obtained with different depth of field conditions and analyzed with different assumptions. Both sets of data demonstrated that mitochondria and lysosomes, contribute similarly to side scatter. The nucleus contributes as much or more light scatter than either the mitochondria or the lysosomes.

  9. METABOLIC REGULATION OF ORGANELLE HOMEOSTASIS IN LUPUS T CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Caza, Tiffany N; Talaber, Gergely; Perl, Andras

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal T-cell signaling and activation is a characteristic feature in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus T cells are shifted towards an over-activated state, important signaling pathways are rewired, and signaling molecules are replaced. Disturbances in metabolic and organelle homeostasis, importantly within the mitochondrial, endosomal, and autophagosomal compartments, underlie the changes in signal transduction. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization, enhanced endosomal recycling, and dysregulated autophagy are hallmarks of pathologic organelle homeostasis in SLE. This review is focused on the metabolic checkpoints of endosomal traffic that control immunological synapse formation and mitophagy and may thus serve as targets for treatment in SLE. PMID:22836085

  10. Plant cell organelle proteomics in response to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics is one of the finest molecular techniques extensively being used for the study of protein profiling of a given plant species experiencing stressed conditions. Plants respond to a stress by alteration in the pattern of protein expression, either by up-regulating of the existing protein pool or by the synthesizing novel proteins primarily associated with plants antioxidative defense mechanism. Improved protein extraction protocols and advance techniques for identification of novel proteins have been standardized in different plant species at both cellular and whole plant level for better understanding of abiotic stress sensing and intracellular stress signal transduction mechanisms. In contrast, an in-depth proteome study of subcellular organelles could generate much detail information about the intrinsic mechanism of stress response as it correlates the possible relationship between the protein abundance and plant stress tolerance. Although a wealth of reviews devoted to plant proteomics are available, review articles dedicated to plant cell organelle proteins response under abiotic stress are very scanty. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize all significant contributions related to abiotic stresses and their impacts on organelle proteomes for better understanding of plants abiotic stress tolerance mechanism at protein level. This review will not only provide new insights into the plants stress response mechanisms, which are necessary for future development of genetically engineered stress tolerant crop plants for the benefit of humankind, but will also highlight the importance of studying changes in protein abundance within the cell organelles in response to abiotic stress.

  11. More than a locomotive organelle: flagella in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Yang, Yang; Chen, Panlin; Hu, Huijie; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-11-01

    The flagellum is a locomotive organelle that allows bacteria to respond to chemical gradients. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding Escherichia coli flagellin variants and the role of flagella in bacterial functions other than motility, including the relationship between flagella and bacterial virulence.

  12. Osmotic regulation of Rab-mediated organelle docking.

    PubMed

    Brett, Christopher L; Merz, Alexey J

    2008-07-22

    Osmotic gradients across organelle and plasma membranes modulate the rates of membrane fission and fusion; sufficiently large gradients can cause membrane rupture [1-6]. Hypotonic gradients applied to living yeast cells trigger prompt (within seconds) swelling and fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles, whereas hypertonic gradients cause vacuoles to fragment on a slower time scale [7-11]. Here, we analyze the influence of osmotic strength on homotypic fusion of isolated yeast vacuoles. Consistent with previously reported in vivo results, we find that decreases in osmolyte concentration increase the rate and extent of vacuole fusion in vitro, whereas increases in osmolyte concentration prevent fusion. Unexpectedly, our results reveal that osmolytes regulate fusion by inhibiting early Rab-dependent docking or predocking events, not late events. Our experiments reveal an organelle-autonomous pathway that may control organelle surface-to-volume ratio, size, and copy number: Decreasing the osmolyte concentration in the cytoplasmic compartment accelerates Rab-mediated docking and fusion. By altering the relationship between the organelle surface and its enclosed volume, fusion in turn reduces the risk of membrane rupture.

  13. Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Focusing on Subcellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy–lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles. PMID:25366597

  14. Neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage: focusing on subcellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy-lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles.

  15. Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Schnapp, B.J.; Reese, T.S.

    1989-03-01

    Vesicular organelles in axons of nerve cells are transported along microtubules either toward their plus ends (fast anterograde transport) or toward their minus ends (retrograde transport). Two microtubule-based motors were previously identified by examining plastic beads induced to move along microtubules by cytosol fractions from the squid giant axon: (i) an anterograde motor, kinesin, and (ii) a retrograde motor, which is characterized here. The retrograde motor, a cytosolic protein previously termed HMW1, was purified from optic lobes and extruded axoplasm by nucleotide-dependent microtubule affinity and release; microtubule gliding was used as the assay of motor activity. The following properties of the retrograde motor suggest that it is cytoplasmic dynein: (i) sedimentation at 20-22 S with a heavy chain of Mr greater than 200,000 that coelectrophoreses with the alpha and beta subunits of axonemal dynein, (ii) cleavage by UV irradiation in the presence of ATP and vanadate, and (iii) a molecular structure resembling two-headed dynein from axonemes. Furthermore, bead movement toward the minus end of microtubules was blocked when axoplasmic supernatants were treated with UV/vanadate. Treatment of axoplasmic supernatant with UV/vanadate also blocks the retrograde movement of purified organelles in vitro without changing the number of anterograde moving organelles, indicating that dynein interacts specifically with a subgroup of organelles programmed to move toward the cell body. However, purified optic lobe dynein, like purified kinesin, does not by itself promote the movement of purified organelles along microtubules, suggesting that additional axoplasmic factors are necessary for retrograde as well as anterograde transport.

  16. Behaviour of cytoplasmic organelles and cytoskeleton during oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Luna; Lou, Hangying; Lou, Yiyun; Wang, Ning; Jin, Fan

    2014-03-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) has become an attractive option for infertility treatment and holds tremendous promise. However, at present, there is still room for improvement in its success rates. Oocyte maturation is a process by which the oocyte becomes competent for fertilization and subsequent embryo development. To better understand the mechanism underlying oocyte maturation and for the future improvement of assisted reproduction technology, this review focuses on the complex processes of cytoplasmic organelles and the dynamic alterations of the cytoskeleton that occur during oocyte maturation. Ovarian stimulation and in-vitro maturation are the major techniques used in assisted reproduction technology and their influence on the organelles of oocytes is also discussed. Since the first birth by assisted reproduction treatment was achieved in 1978, numerous techniques involved in assisted reproduction have been developed and have become attractive options for infertility treatment. However, the unsatisfactory success rate remains as a main challenge. Oocyte maturation is a process by which the oocyte becomes competent for fertilization and subsequent embryo development. Oocyte maturation includes both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Nuclear maturation primarily involves chromosomal segregation, which has been well studied, whereas cytoplasmic maturation involves a series of complicated processes, and there are still many parts of this process that remain controversial. Ovarian stimulation and in-vitro maturation (IVM) are the major techniques of assisted reproduction. The effect of ovarian stimulation or IVM on the behaviour of cell organelles of the oocyte has been postulated as the reason for the reduced developmental potential of in-vitro-produced embryos. To further understanding of the mechanism of oocyte maturation and future improvement of assisted reproduction treatment, the complex events of cytoplasmic organelles and the cytoskeleton that

  17. When size does matter: organelle size influences the properties of transport mediated by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, María Cecilia; Bruno, Luciana; Wolosiuk, Alejandro; Despósito, Marcelo A; Levi, Valeria

    2013-11-01

    Organelle transport is driven by the action of molecular motors. In this work, we studied the dynamics of organelles of different sizes with the aim of understanding the complex relation between organelle motion and microenvironment. We used single particle tracking to obtain trajectories of melanosomes (pigmented organelles in Xenopus laevis melanophores). In response to certain hormones, melanosomes disperse in the cytoplasm or aggregate in the perinuclear region by the combined action of microtubule and actin motors. Melanosome trajectories followed an anomalous diffusion model in which the anomalous diffusion exponent (α) provided information regarding the trajectories' topography and thus of the processes causing it. During aggregation, the directionality of big organelles was higher than that of small organelles and did not depend on the presence of either actin or intermediate filaments (IF). Depolymerization of IF significantly reduced α values of small organelles during aggregation but slightly affect their directionality during dispersion. Our results could be interpreted considering that the number of copies of active motors increases with organelle size. Transport of big organelles was not influenced by actin or IF during aggregation showing that these organelles are moved processively by the collective action of dynein motors. Also, we found that intermediate filaments enhance the directionality of small organelles suggesting that this network keeps organelles close to the tracks allowing their efficient reattachment. The higher directionality of small organelles during dispersion could be explained considering the better performance of kinesin-2 vs. dynein at the single molecule level. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A nonproteolytic proteasome activity controls organelle fission in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Line; Saunier, Rémy; Cossard, Raynald; Esposito, Michela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Delahodde, Agnès

    2009-10-15

    To understand the processes underlying organelle function, dynamics and inheritance, it is necessary to identify and characterize the regulatory components involved. Recently in yeast and mammals, proteins of the membrane fission machinery (Dnm1-Mdv1-Caf4-Fis1 in yeast and DLP1-FIS1 in human) have been shown to have a dual localization on mitochondria and peroxisomes, where they control mitochondrial fission and peroxisome division. Here, we show that whereas vacuole fusion is regulated by the proteasome degradation function, mitochondrial fission and peroxisomal division are not controlled by the proteasome activity but rather depend on a new function of the proteasomal lid subunit Rpn11. Rpn11 was found to regulate the Fis1-dependent fission machinery of both organelles. These findings indicate a unique role of the Rpn11 protein in mitochondrial fission and peroxisomal proliferation that is independent of its role in proteasome-associated deubiquitylation.

  19. Updating Our View of Organelle Genome Nucleotide Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Roy

    2012-01-01

    Organelle genomes show remarkable variation in architecture and coding content, yet their nucleotide composition is relatively unvarying across the eukaryotic domain, with most having a high adenine and thymine (AT) content. Recent studies, however, have uncovered guanine and cytosine (GC)-rich mitochondrial and plastid genomes. These sequences come from a small but eclectic list of species, including certain green plants and animals. Here, I review GC-rich organelle DNAs and the insights they have provided into the evolution of nucleotide landscape. I emphasize that GC-biased mitochondrial and plastid DNAs are more widespread than once thought, sometimes occurring together in the same species, and suggest that the forces biasing their nucleotide content can differ both among and within lineages, and may be associated with specific genome architectural features and life history traits. PMID:22973299

  20. Amyloplast sedimentation and organelle saltation in living corn columella cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Suyemoto, M. M.; Leopold, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Amyloplast sedimentation during gravistimulation and organelle movements was studied in living central rootcap cells of Zea mays L. cv. Merit. Cells from sectioned roots were viewed with a horizontally-mounted videomicroscope. The kinetics of gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation were comparable to those calculated from experiments using fixed material. Individual amyloplasts fell at an average velocity of 5.5 micrometers min-1; the maximal velocity of fall measured was 18.0 micrometers min-1. Amyloplasts often rotated, sometimes rose in the cytoplasm, and occasionally underwent sudden rapid movements as fast as 58 micrometers min-1. Saltations of other organelles were frequently observed. This appears to be the first report of cytoplasmic streaming in the presumptive statocytes of roots.

  1. Amyloplast sedimentation and organelle saltation in living corn columella cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Suyemoto, M. M.; Leopold, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Amyloplast sedimentation during gravistimulation and organelle movements was studied in living central rootcap cells of Zea mays L. cv. Merit. Cells from sectioned roots were viewed with a horizontally-mounted videomicroscope. The kinetics of gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation were comparable to those calculated from experiments using fixed material. Individual amyloplasts fell at an average velocity of 5.5 micrometers min-1; the maximal velocity of fall measured was 18.0 micrometers min-1. Amyloplasts often rotated, sometimes rose in the cytoplasm, and occasionally underwent sudden rapid movements as fast as 58 micrometers min-1. Saltations of other organelles were frequently observed. This appears to be the first report of cytoplasmic streaming in the presumptive statocytes of roots.

  2. Quantitative optical trapping on single cellular organelles in cell extract

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Rai, Priyanka; Mallik, Roop

    2012-01-01

    We develop optical trapping methodology to precisely measure the force generated by motor-proteins on single organelles of unknown size in cell extract. Native motor-complexes can now be interrogated functionally, overcoming limitations of assays with purified motors coated on artificial beads. Forces, number and activity of kinesin-1 is measured on motile lipid droplets isolated from liver of normal and fasted rats to detect a correlation between metabolic state and kinesin-1 activity. PMID:23241632

  3. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Angela E; Raven, John A

    2003-01-01

    The topic of the transition of the genome of a free-living bacterial organism to that of an organelle is addressed by considering three cases. Two of these are relatively clear-cut as involving respectively organisms (cyanobacteria) and organelles (plastids). Cyanobacteria are usually free-living but some are involved in symbioses with a range of eukaryotes in which the cyanobacterial partner contributes photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, or both of these. In several of these symbioses the cyanobacterium is vertically transmitted, and in a few instances, sufficient unsuccessful attempts have been made to culture the cyanobiont independently for the association to be considered obligate for the cyanobacterium. Plastids clearly had a cyanobacterial ancestor but cannot grow independently of the host eukaryote. Plastid genomes have at most 15% of the number of genes encoded by the cyanobacterium with the smallest number of genes; more genes than are retained in the plastid genome have been transferred to the eukaryote nuclear genome, while the rest of the cyanobacterial genes have been lost. Even the most cyanobacteria-like plastids, for example the "cyanelles" of glaucocystophyte algae, are functionally and genetically very similar to other plastids and give little help in indicating intermediates in the evolution of plastids. The third case considered is the vertically transmitted intracellular bacterial symbionts of insects where the symbiosis is usually obligate for both partners. The number of genes encoded by the genomes of these obligate symbionts is intermediate between that of organelles and that of free-living bacteria, and the genomes of the insect symbionts also show rapid rates of sequence evolution and AT (adenine, thymine) bias. Genetically and functionally, these insect symbionts show considerable similarity to organelles. PMID:12594915

  4. Kinesin-3 is an organelle motor in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    DeGiorgis, Joseph A; Petukhova, Tatyana A; Evans, Teresa A; Reese, Thomas S

    2008-11-01

    Conventional kinesin (Kinesin-1), the founding member of the kinesin family, was discovered in the squid giant axon, where it is thought to move organelles on microtubules. In this study, we identify a second squid kinesin by searching an expressed sequence tag database derived from the ganglia that give rise to the axon. The full-length open reading frame encodes a 1753 amino acid sequence that classifies this protein as a Kinesin-3. Immunoblots demonstrate that this kinesin, unlike Kinesin-1, is highly enriched in chaotropically stripped axoplasmic organelles, and immunogold electron microscopy (EM) demonstrates that Kinesin-3 is tightly bound to the surfaces of these organelles. Video microscopy shows that movements of purified organelles on microtubules are blocked, but organelles remain attached, in the presence Kinesin-3 antibody. Immunogold EM of axoplasmic spreads with antibody to Kinesin-3 decorates discrete sites on many, but not all, free organelles and localizes Kinesin-3 to organelle/microtubule interfaces. In contrast, label for Kinesin-1 decorates microtubules but not organelles. The presence of Kinesin-3 on purified organelles, the ability of an antibody to block their movements along microtubules, the tight association of Kinesin-3 with motile organelles and its distribution at the interface between native organelles and microtubules suggest that Kinesin-3 is a dominant motor in the axon for unidirectional movement of organelles along microtubules.

  5. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    DOE PAGES

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; ...

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro-and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (whichmore » some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. In conclusion, it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.« less

  6. Protein localization and dynamics within a bacterial organelle

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, H. Velocity; Huitema, Edgar; Pritchard, Sean; Keiler, Kenneth C.; Brun, Yves V.; Viollier, Patrick H.

    2010-01-01

    Protein localization mechanisms dictate the functional and structural specialization of cells. Of the four polar surface organelles featured by the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the stalk, a cylindrical extension of all cell envelope layers, is the least well characterized at the molecular level. Here we apply a powerful experimental scheme that integrates genetics with high-throughput localization to discover StpX, an uncharacterized bitopic membrane protein that modulates stalk elongation and is sequestered to the stalk. In stalkless mutants StpX is dispersed. Two populations of StpX were discernible within the stalk with different mobilities: an immobile one near the stalk base and a mobile one near the stalk tip. Molecular anatomy provides evidence that (i) the StpX transmembrane domain enables access to the stalk organelle, (ii) the N-terminal periplasmic domain mediates retention in the stalk, and (iii) the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain enhances diffusion within the stalk. Moreover, the accumulation of StpX and an N-terminally truncated isoform is differentially coordinated with the cell cycle. Thus, at the submicron scale the localization and the mobility of a protein are precisely regulated in space and time and are important for the correct organization of a subcellular compartment or organelle such as the stalk. PMID:20212131

  7. Whole-Genome Hitchhiking on an Organelle Mutation.

    PubMed

    Flood, Pádraic J; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Becker, Frank; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Harbinson, Jeremy; Aarts, Mark G M

    2016-05-23

    Strong selection on a beneficial mutation can cause a selective sweep, which fixes the mutation in the population and reduces the genetic variation in the region flanking the mutation [1-3]. These flanking regions have increased in frequency due to their physical association with the selected loci, a phenomenon called "genetic hitchhiking" [4]. Theoretically, selection could extend the hitchhiking to unlinked parts of the genome, to the point that selection on organelles affects nuclear genome diversity. Such indirect selective sweeps have never been observed in nature. Here we show that strong selection on a chloroplast gene in the wild plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has caused widespread and lasting hitchhiking of the whole nuclear genome. The selected allele spread more than 400 km along the British railway network, reshaping the genetic composition of local populations. This demonstrates that selection on organelle genomes can significantly reduce nuclear genetic diversity in natural populations. We expect that organelle-mediated genetic draft is a more common occurrence than previously realized and needs to be considered when studying genome evolution.

  8. Cell-penetrating peptides with intracellular organelle targeting.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Carmine Pasquale; Künnapuu, Kadri; Langel, Ülo

    2017-02-01

    One of the major limiting steps in order to have an effective drug is the passage through one or more cell membranes to reach its site of action. To reach the action-site, the specific macromolecules are required to be delivered specifically to the cell compartment/organelle in their (pre)active form. Areas covered: In this review, we will discuss cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) developed in the last decade to transport small RNA/DNA, plasmids, antibodies, and nanoparticles into specific sites of the cell. The article describes CPPs in complex with cargo molecules that target specific intracellular organelles and their potential for pharmacological or clinical use. Expert opinion: Organelle targeting is the ultimate goal to ensure selective delivery to the site of action in the cells. CPP technologies represent an important strategy to address drug delivery to specific intracellular compartments by covalent conjugation to targeting sequences, potentially enabling strategies to combat genomic diseases as well as infections, cancer, neurodegenerative and hereditary diseases. They have proven to be successful in delivering various therapeutic agents into cells however, further in vivo experiments and clinical trials are required to demonstrate the efficacy of this technology.

  9. Autophagy and mitophagy participate in ocular lens organelle degradation.

    PubMed

    Costello, M Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A; Basu, Subharsee; Chauss, Daniel; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O; Johnsen, Sönke; Menko, Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The eye lens consists of a layer of epithelial cells that overlay a series of differentiating fiber cells that upon maturation lose their mitochondria, nuclei and other organelles. Lens transparency relies on the metabolic function of mitochondria contained in the lens epithelial cells and in the immature fiber cells and the programmed degradation of mitochondria and other organelles occurring upon lens fiber cell maturation. Loss of lens mitochondrial function in the epithelium or failure to degrade mitochondria and other organelles in lens fiber cells results in lens cataract formation. To date, the mechanisms that govern the maintenance of mitochondria in the lens and the degradation of mitochondria during programmed lens fiber cell maturation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate using electron microscopy and dual-label confocal imaging the presence of autophagic vesicles containing mitochondria in lens epithelial cells, immature lens fiber cells and during early stages of lens fiber cell differentiation. We also show that mitophagy is induced in primary lens epithelial cells upon serum starvation. These data provide evidence that autophagy occurs throughout the lens and that mitophagy functions in the lens to remove damaged mitochondria from the lens epithelium and to degrade mitochondria in the differentiating lens fiber cells for lens development. The results provide a novel mechanism for how mitochondria are maintained to preserve lens metabolic function and how mitochondria are degraded upon lens fiber cell maturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Connection of Protein Transport and Organelle Contact Sites in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Lars; Rampelt, Heike; Becker, Thomas

    2017-07-07

    Mitochondrial biogenesis and function depend on the intensive exchange of molecules with other cellular compartments. The mitochondrial outer membrane plays a central role in this communication process. It is equipped with a number of specific protein machineries that enable the transport of proteins and metabolites. Furthermore, the outer membrane forms molecular contact sites with other cell organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus integrating mitochondrial function in cellular physiology. The best-studied mitochondrial organelle contact site, the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) has been linked to many vital processes including mitochondrial division, inheritance, mitophagy, and phospholipid transport. Strikingly, ER-mitochondria contact sites are closely connected to outer membrane protein translocases. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) represents the general mitochondrial entry gate for precursor proteins that are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes. The outer membrane also harbors the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) that mediates membrane insertion of β-barrel proteins. Both of these essential protein translocases are functionally linked to ER-mitochondria contact sites. First, the SAM complex associates with an ERMES core component to promote assembly of the TOM complex. Second, several TOM components have been co-opted as ER-mitochondria tethers. We propose that protein import and organelle contact sites are linked to coordinate processes important for mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  12. Intracellular delivery of nanocarriers and targeting to subcellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Aditi; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in drug delivery indicate a steady increase in the use of targeted therapeutics to enhance the specific delivery of biologically active payloads to diseased tissues while avoiding their off-target effects. However, in most cases, the distribution of therapeutics inside cells and their targeting to intracellular targets still presents a formidable challenge. The main barrier to intracellular delivery is the translocation of therapeutic molecules across the cell membrane, and ultimately through the membrane of their intracellular target organelles. Another prerequisite for an efficient intracellular localization of active molecules is their escape from the endocytic pathway. Pharmaceutical nanocarriers have demonstrated substantial advantages for the delivery of therapeutics and offer elegant platforms for intracellular delivery. They can be engineered with both intracellular and organelle-specific targeting moieties to deliver encapsulated or conjugated cargoes to specific sub-cellular targets. In this review, we discuss important aspects of intracellular drug targeting and delivery with a focus on nanocarriers modified with various ligands to specifically target intracellular organelles. Intracellular delivery affords selective localization of molecules to their target site, thus maximizing their efficacy and safety. The advent of novel nanocarriers and targeting ligands as well as exploration of alternate routes for the intracellular delivery and targeting has prompted extensive research, and promises an exciting future for this field.

  13. Gregarina niphandrodes may lack both a plastid genome and organelle.

    PubMed

    Toso, Marc A; Omoto, Charlotte K

    2007-01-01

    Gregarines are early diverging apicomplexans that appear to be closely related to Cryptosporidium. Most apicomplexans, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria, possess both plastids and corresponding plastid genomes. Cryptosporidium lacks both the organelle and the genome. To investigate the evolutionary history of plastids in the Apicomplexa, we tried to determine whether gregarines possess a plastid and/or its genome. We used PCR and dot-blot hybridization to determine whether the gregarine Gregarina niphandrodes possesses a plastid genome. We used an inhibitor of plastid function for any reduction in gregarine infection, and transmission electron microscopy to search for plastid ultrastructure. Despite an extensive search, an organelle of the appropriate ultrastructure in transmission electron microscopy, was not observed. Triclosan, an inhibitor of the plastid-specific enoyl-acyl carrier reductase enzyme, did not reduce host infection by G. niphandrodes. Plastid-specific primers produced amplicons with the DNA of Babesia equi, Plasmodium falciparum, and Toxoplasma gondii as templates, but not with G. niphandrodes DNA. Plastid-specific DNA probes, which hybridized to Babesia equi, failed to hybridize to G. niphandrodes DNA. This evidence indicates that G. niphandrodes is not likely to possess either a plastid organelle or its genome. This raises the possibility that the plastid was lost in the Apicomplexan following the divergence of gregarines and Cryptosporidium.

  14. Reorganization of axoplasmic organelles following beta, beta'- iminodipropionitrile administration

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    beta, beta'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), a synthetic compound that selectively impairs slow axonal transport, produced a rearrangement of the axonal cytoskeleton, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Immunoperoxidase staining using an antiserum to the 68,000-dalton neurofilament subunit demonstrated a displacement of neurofilaments toward the periphery of the axons of IDPN-treated rats. This change occurred simultaneously along the entire length of the sciatic nerve. Ultrastructural morphometry of the axonal organelles confirmed the peripheral relocation of neurofilaments and also showed a displacement of microtubules, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria to the center of the axons. The overall density of axonal mitochondria was increased, whereas those of other organelles were not significantly changed. Axons were reduced in size by 10--24%, the large axons being more affected than the small ones. The observed rearrangement of axonal organelles may be due to an effect of IDPN on microtubule-neurofilament interactions, which could in turn explain the impairment of the slow transport. Axons in IDPN intoxication are a useful model to study the organization of the axoplasm and the mechanism of axonal transport. PMID:7199048

  15. Reduction of Cr (VI) into Cr (III) by organelles of Chlorella vulgaris in aqueous solution: An organelle-level attempt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zunwei; Song, Shufang; Wen, Yuezhong

    2016-12-01

    The priority pollutant chromium (Cr) was ubiquitous and great efforts have been made to reduce Cr (VI) into less-toxic Cr (III) by alga for the convenient availability and low expense. However, the functional role of organelle inside the algal cell in Cr (VI) reduction was poorly understood. In this study, organelles in green algae Chlorella vulgaris were extracted and further decorated for Cr (VI) reduction tests. Results showed that the chloroplast exhibited not only adsorption ability of total Cr (21.18% comparing to control) but also reduction potential of Cr (VI) (almost 70% comparing to control), whose most suitable working concentration was at 17μg/mL. Furtherly, the isolated thylakoid membrane (ITM) showed better Cr (VI) reduction potential with the presence of sodium alginate (SA), even though the Hill reaction activity (HRA) was inhibited. As for photosystem II (PSII), the addition of mesoporous silica SBA-15 enhanced the reduction ability through improving the light-harvesting complex (LHC) II efficiency and electron transport rate. On the whole, the reduction ability order of the three kinds of materials based on chloroplast in C. vulgaris was PSII@SBA-15>Chloroplast>ITM@SA. The attempt made in this study to reduce the Cr (VI) with C. vulgaris organelles might not only offer basement to detect the potential action mechanism of Cr (VI) reduction by C. vulgaris but also provide a new sight for the scavenge of heavy metal with biological materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus end-directed motor for membranous organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Schroer, T.A.; Steuer, E.R.; Sheetz, M.P.

    1989-03-24

    The role of cytoplasmic dynein in microtubule-based organelle transport was examined using a reconstituted assay developed from chick embryo fibroblasts. Factors present in a high-speed cytosol caused the movement of purified organelles on microtubules predominantly in the minus end direction. Inactivation of cytoplasmic dynein in the high-speed cytosol by vanadate-mediated UV photocleavage inhibited minus end-directed organelle motility by over 90%. Addition of purified cytoplasmic dynein to the inactive cytosol restored minus end-directed organelle motility, although purified cytoplasmic dynein by itself did not support organelle movement. We propose that cytoplasmic dynein is the motor for minus end-directed organelle movement, but that additional cytosolic factors are also required to produce organelle motility.

  17. Highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelles in anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-05-01

    The mitochondria have arisen as a consequence of endosymbiosis of an ancestral α-proteobacterium with a methane-producing archae. The main function of the canonical aerobic mitochondria include ATP generation via oxidative phosphorylation, heme and phospholipid synthesis, calcium homeostasis, programmed cell death, and the formation of iron-sulfur clusters. Under oxygen-restricted conditions, the mitochondrion has often undergone remarkable reductive alterations of its content and function, leading to the generation of mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, and mithochondrion-like organelles, which are found in a wide range of anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes that include several medically important parasitic protists such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Blastocystis hominis, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, as well as free-living protists such as Sawyeria marylandensis, Neocallimastix patriciarum, and Mastigamoeba balamuthi. The transformation from canonical aerobic mitochondria to MROs apparently have occurred in independent lineages, and resulted in the diversity of their components and functions. Due to medical and veterinary importance of the MRO-possessing human- and animal-pathogenic protozoa, their genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and biochemical evidence has been accumulated. Detailed analyses of the constituents and functions of the MROs in such anaerobic pathogenic protozoa, which reside oxygen-deprived or oxygen-poor environments such as the mammalian intestine and the genital organs, should illuminate the current evolutionary status of the MROs in these organisms, and give insight to environmental constraints that drive the evolution of eukaryotes and their organelles. In this review, we summarize and discuss the diverse metabolic functions and protein transport systems of the MROs from anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

  18. Scanning ion images; analysis of pharmaceutical drugs at organelle levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larras-Regard, E.; Mony, M.-C.

    1995-05-01

    With the ion analyser IMS 4F used in microprobe mode, it is possible to obtain images of fields of 10 × 10 [mu]m2, corresponding to an effective magnification of 7000 with lateral resolution of 250 nm, technical characteristics that are appropriate for the size of cell organelles. It is possible to characterize organelles by their relative CN-, P- and S- intensities when the tissues are prepared by freeze fixation and freeze substitution. The recognition of organelles enables correlation of the tissue distribution of ebselen, a pharmaceutical drug containing selenium. The various metabolites characterized in plasma, bile and urine during biotransformation of ebselen all contain selenium, so the presence of the drug and its metabolites can be followed by images of Se. We were also able to detect the endogenous content of Se in tissue, due to the increased sensitivity of ion analysis in microprobe mode. Our results show a natural occurrence of Se in the border corresponding to the basal lamina of cells of proximal but not distal tubules of the kidney. After treatment of rats with ebselen, an additional site of Se is found in the lysosomes. We suggest that in addition to direct elimination of ebselen and its metabolites by glomerular filtration and urinary elimination, a second process of elimination may occur: Se compounds reaching the epithelial cells via the basal lamina accumulate in lysosomes prior to excretion into the tubular fluid. The technical developments of using the IMS 4F instrument in the microprobe mode and the improvement in preparation of samples by freeze fixation and substitution further extend the limit of ion analysis in biology. Direct imaging of trace elements and molecules marked with a tracer make it possible to determine their targets by comparison with images of subcellular structures. This is a promising advance in the study of pathways of compounds within tissues, cells and the whole organism.

  19. Organelle biogenesis and intracellular lipid transport in eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, D R

    1991-01-01

    The inter- and intramembrane transport of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols involves the most fundamental processes of membrane biogenesis. Identification of the mechanisms involved in these lipid transport reactions has lagged significantly behind that for intermembrane protein traffic until recently. Application of methods that include fluorescently labeled and spin-labeled lipid analogs, new cellular fractionation techniques, topographically specific chemical modification techniques, the identification of organelle-specific metabolism, permeabilized cell methodology, and yeast molecular genetics has contributed to revealing a diverse biochemical array of transport processes for lipids. Compelling evidence now exists for ATP-dependent, ATP-independent, vesicle-dependent, and vesicle-independent transport processes that are lipid and membrane specific. ATP-dependent transport processes include the transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine at the plasma membrane and the transport of phosphatidylserine from its site of synthesis to the mitochondria. ATP-independent processes include the transbilayer movement of virtually all lipids at the endoplasmic reticulum, the movement of phosphatidylserine between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, and the transfer of nascent phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to the plasma membrane. The ATP-independent movement of lipids between organelles is believed to be due to the action of lipid transfer proteins, but this still remains to be proved. Vesicle-based transport mechanisms (which are also inherently ATP dependent) include the transport of nascent cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and glycosphingolipids from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane and the recycling of sphingolipids and selected pools of phosphatidylcholine from the plasma membrane to the cell interior. The vesicles involved in cholesterol transport to the plasma membrane are different from those

  20. The lipid droplet—a well-connected organelle

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Goodman, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of inter-organellar communication has grown exponentially in recent years. This review focuses on the interactions that cytoplasmic lipid droplets have with other organelles. Twenty-five years ago droplets were considered simply particles of coalesced fat. Ten years ago there were hints from proteomics studies that droplets might interact with other structures to share lipids and proteins. Now it is clear that the droplets interact with many if not most cellular structures to maintain cellular homeostasis and to buffer against insults such as starvation. The evidence for this statement, as well as probes to understand the nature and results of droplet interactions, are presented. PMID:26322308

  1. Organelle evolution, fragmented rRNAs, and Carl.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    I am honored to have been asked to contribute to this memorial issue, although I cannot claim to have known Carl Woese well. Carl's insights and the discoveries that his research group made over the years certainly stimulated my own research program, and at several points early on, interactions with him were pivotal in my career. Here I comment on these personal dealings with Carl and emphasize his influence in two areas of long-standing interest in my lab: organelle evolution and rRNA evolution.

  2. Ligand-directed profiling of organelles with internalizing phage libraries.

    PubMed

    Dobroff, Andrey S; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Roja, Liliana; Salmeron, Carolina C; Gelovani, Juri G; Sidman, Richard L; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2015-02-02

    Phage display is a resourceful tool to, in an unbiased manner, discover and characterize functional protein-protein interactions, create vaccines, and engineer peptides, antibodies, and other proteins as targeted diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. Recently, our group has developed a new class of internalizing phage (iPhage) for ligand-directed targeting of organelles and to identify molecular pathways within live cells. This unique technology is suitable for applications ranging from fundamental cell biology to drug development. This unit describes the methods for generating and screening the iPhage display system, and explains how to select and validate candidate internalizing homing peptide.

  3. Sequence-Specific Polyampholyte Phase Separation in Membraneless Organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Chan, Hue Sun

    2016-10-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation of charge- and/or aromatic-enriched intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is critical in the biological function of membraneless organelles. Much of the physics of this recent discovery remains to be elucidated. Here, we present a theory in the random phase approximation to account for electrostatic effects in polyampholyte phase separations, yielding predictions consistent with recent experiments on the IDP Ddx4. The theory is applicable to any charge pattern and thus provides a general analytical framework for studying sequence dependence of IDP phase separation.

  4. Organelle evolution, fragmented rRNAs, and Carl

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    I am honored to have been asked to contribute to this memorial issue, although I cannot claim to have known Carl Woese well. Carl’s insights and the discoveries that his research group made over the years certainly stimulated my own research program, and at several points early on, interactions with him were pivotal in my career. Here I comment on these personal dealings with Carl and emphasize his influence in two areas of long-standing interest in my lab: organelle evolution and rRNA evolution. PMID:24572720

  5. Ligand-directed profiling of organelles with internalizing phage libraries

    PubMed Central

    Dobroff, Andrey S.; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Roja, Liliana; Salmeron, Carolina C.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a resourceful tool to, in an unbiased manner, discover and characterize functional protein-protein interactions, to create vaccines, and to engineer peptides, antibodies, and other proteins as targeted diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. Recently, our group has developed a new class of internalizing phage (iPhage) for ligand-directed targeting of organelles and/or to identify molecular pathways within live cells. This unique technology is suitable for applications ranging from fundamental cell biology to drug development. Here we describe the method for generating and screening the iPhage display system, and explain how to select and validate candidate internalizing homing peptide. PMID:25640897

  6. The Amyloid Precursor Protein of Alzheimer’s Disease Clusters at the Organelle/Microtubule Interface on Organelles that Bind Microtubules in an ATP Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, James W.; Conaty, Eliza A.; Walsh, Rylie B.; Poidomani, Paul J.; Samoriski, Colin M.; Scollins, Brianne J.; DeGiorgis, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a causal agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and is a transmembrane protein that associates with membrane-limited organelles. APP has been shown to co-purify through immunoprecipitation with a kinesin light chain suggesting that APP may act as a trailer hitch linking kinesin to its intercellular cargo, however this hypothesis has been challenged. Previously, we identified an mRNA transcript that encodes a squid homolog of human APP770. The human and squid isoforms share 60% sequence identity and 76% sequence similarity within the cytoplasmic domain and share 15 of the final 19 amino acids at the C-terminus establishing this highly conserved domain as a functionally import segment of the APP molecule. Here, we study the distribution of squid APP in extruded axoplasm as well as in a well-characterized reconstituted organelle/microtubule preparation from the squid giant axon in which organelles bind microtubules and move towards the microtubule plus-ends. We find that APP associates with microtubules by confocal microscopy and co-purifies with KI-washed axoplasmic organelles by sucrose density gradient fractionation. By electron microscopy, APP clusters at a single focal point on the surfaces of organelles and localizes to the organelle/microtubule interface. In addition, the association of APP-organelles with microtubules is an ATP dependent process suggesting that the APP-organelles contain a microtubule-based motor protein. Although a direct kinesin/APP association remains controversial, the distribution of APP at the organelle/microtubule interface strongly suggests that APP-organelles have an orientation and that APP like the Alzheimer’s protein tau has a microtubule-based function. PMID:26814888

  7. The Amyloid Precursor Protein of Alzheimer's Disease Clusters at the Organelle/Microtubule Interface on Organelles that Bind Microtubules in an ATP Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, James W; Conaty, Eliza A; Walsh, Rylie B; Poidomani, Paul J; Samoriski, Colin M; Scollins, Brianne J; DeGiorgis, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a causal agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and is a transmembrane protein that associates with membrane-limited organelles. APP has been shown to co-purify through immunoprecipitation with a kinesin light chain suggesting that APP may act as a trailer hitch linking kinesin to its intercellular cargo, however this hypothesis has been challenged. Previously, we identified an mRNA transcript that encodes a squid homolog of human APP770. The human and squid isoforms share 60% sequence identity and 76% sequence similarity within the cytoplasmic domain and share 15 of the final 19 amino acids at the C-terminus establishing this highly conserved domain as a functionally import segment of the APP molecule. Here, we study the distribution of squid APP in extruded axoplasm as well as in a well-characterized reconstituted organelle/microtubule preparation from the squid giant axon in which organelles bind microtubules and move towards the microtubule plus-ends. We find that APP associates with microtubules by confocal microscopy and co-purifies with KI-washed axoplasmic organelles by sucrose density gradient fractionation. By electron microscopy, APP clusters at a single focal point on the surfaces of organelles and localizes to the organelle/microtubule interface. In addition, the association of APP-organelles with microtubules is an ATP dependent process suggesting that the APP-organelles contain a microtubule-based motor protein. Although a direct kinesin/APP association remains controversial, the distribution of APP at the organelle/microtubule interface strongly suggests that APP-organelles have an orientation and that APP like the Alzheimer's protein tau has a microtubule-based function.

  8. The effect of organelle discovery upon sub-cellular protein localisation.

    PubMed

    Breckels, L M; Gatto, L; Christoforou, A; Groen, A J; Lilley, K S; Trotter, M W B

    2013-08-02

    Prediction of protein sub-cellular localisation by employing quantitative mass spectrometry experiments is an expanding field. Several methods have led to the assignment of proteins to specific subcellular localisations by partial separation of organelles across a fractionation scheme coupled with computational analysis. Methods developed to analyse organelle data have largely employed supervised machine learning algorithms to map unannotated abundance profiles to known protein-organelle associations. Such approaches are likely to make association errors if organelle-related groupings present in experimental output are not included in data used to create a protein-organelle classifier. Currently, there is no automated way to detect organelle-specific clusters within such datasets. In order to address the above issues we adapted a phenotype discovery algorithm, originally created to filter image-based output for RNAi screens, to identify putative subcellular groupings in organelle proteomics experiments. We were able to mine datasets to a deeper level and extract interesting phenotype clusters for more comprehensive evaluation in an unbiased fashion upon application of this approach. Organelle-related protein clusters were identified beyond those sufficiently annotated for use as training data. Furthermore, we propose avenues for the incorporation of observations made into general practice for the classification of protein-organelle membership from quantitative MS experiments. Protein sub-cellular localisation plays an important role in molecular interactions, signalling and transport mechanisms. The prediction of protein localisation by quantitative mass-spectrometry (MS) proteomics is a growing field and an important endeavour in improving protein annotation. Several such approaches use gradient-based separation of cellular organelle content to measure relative protein abundance across distinct gradient fractions. The distribution profiles are commonly mapped in

  9. Visualization of lipid droplet composition by direct organelle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Ledbetter, Nicole R; James, Christopher N; Hoffman, William D; Case, Charlene R; Verbeck, Guido F; Chapman, Kent D

    2011-02-04

    An expanding appreciation for the varied functions of neutral lipids in cellular organisms relies on a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of lipid production and packaging into cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs). Conventional lipid profiling procedures involve the analysis of tissue extracts and consequently lack cellular or subcellular resolution. Here, we report an approach that combines the visualization of individual LDs, microphase extraction of lipid components from droplets, and the direct identification of lipid composition by nanospray mass spectrometry, even to the level of a single LD. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of LDs from several plant sources (mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) embryos, roots of cotton seedlings, and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and leaves) were examined by direct organelle mass spectrometry and revealed the heterogeneity of LDs derived from different plant tissue sources. The analysis of individual LDs makes possible organellar resolution of molecular compositions and will facilitate new studies of LD biogenesis and functions, especially in combination with analysis of morphological and metabolic mutants. Furthermore, direct organelle mass spectrometry could be applied to the molecular analysis of other subcellular compartments and macromolecules.

  10. Geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, the structure, function, stability, and dynamics of subcellular structures, organelles, and multi-protein complexes have emerged as a leading interest in structural biology. Geometric modeling not only provides visualizations of shapes for large biomolecular complexes but also fills the gap between structural information and theoretical modeling, and enables the understanding of function, stability, and dynamics. This paper introduces a suite of computational tools for volumetric data processing, information extraction, surface mesh rendering, geometric measurement, and curvature estimation of biomolecular complexes. Particular emphasis is given to the modeling of cryo-electron microscopy data. Lagrangian-triangle meshes are employed for the surface presentation. On the basis of this representation, algorithms are developed for surface area and surface-enclosed volume calculation, and curvature estimation. Methods for volumetric meshing have also been presented. Because the technological development in computer science and mathematics has led to multiple choices at each stage of the geometric modeling, we discuss the rationales in the design and selection of various algorithms. Analytical models are designed to test the computational accuracy and convergence of proposed algorithms. Finally, we select a set of six cryo-electron microscopy data representing typical subcellular complexes to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms in handling biomolecular surfaces and explore their capability of geometric characterization of binding targets. This paper offers a comprehensive protocol for the geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes. PMID:23212797

  11. Prokaryotic cells: structural organisation of the cytoskeleton and organelles.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderley de

    2012-05-01

    For many years, prokaryotic cells were distinguished from eukaryotic cells based on the simplicity of their cytoplasm, in which the presence of organelles and cytoskeletal structures had not been discovered. Based on current knowledge, this review describes the complex components of the prokaryotic cell cytoskeleton, including (i) tubulin homologues composed of FtsZ, BtuA, BtuB and several associated proteins, which play a fundamental role in cell division, (ii) actin-like homologues, such as MreB and Mb1, which are involved in controlling cell width and cell length, and (iii) intermediate filament homologues, including crescentin and CfpA, which localise on the concave side of a bacterium and along its inner curvature and associate with its membrane. Some prokaryotes exhibit specialised membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm, such as magnetosomes and acidocalcisomes, as well as protein complexes, such as carboxysomes. This review also examines recent data on the presence of nanotubes, which are structures that are well characterised in mammalian cells that allow direct contact and communication between cells.

  12. Anesthesia-Induced Developmental Neurodegeneration: The Role of Neuronal Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Boscolo, A.; Sanchez, V.; Lunardi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to general anesthetics (GAs) and antiepileptics during critical stages of brain development causes significant neurotoxicity to immature neurons. Many animal, and emerging human studies have shown long-term functional sequelae manifested as behavioral deficits and cognitive impairments. Since GAs and antiepileptic drugs are a necessity, current research is focused on deciphering the mechanisms responsible for anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity so that protective strategies can be devised. These agents promote massive and wide-spread neuroapoptosis that is caused by the impairment of integrity and function of neuronal organelles. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are particularly vulnerable. By promoting significant release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum, anesthetics cause an increase in mitochondrial calcium load resulting in the loss of their integrity, release of pro-apoptotic factors, functional impairment of ATP synthesis, and enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The possibility that GAs may have direct damaging effects on mitochondria, resulting in the impairment of their morphogenesis, also has been proposed. This review will present evidence that neuronal organelles are critical and early targets of anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:23087668

  13. Is Spontaneous Translocation of Polar Lipids Between Cellular Organelles Negligible?

    PubMed Central

    Somerharju, Pentti

    2015-01-01

    In most reviews addressing intracellular lipid trafficking, spontaneous diffusion of lipid monomers between the cellular organelles is considered biologically irrelevant because it is thought to be far too slow to significantly contribute to organelle biogenesis. This view is based on intervesicle transfer experiments carried out in vitro with few lipids as well as on the view that lipids are highly hydrophobic and thus cannot undergo spontaneous intermembrane diffusion at a significant rate. However, besides that single-chain lipids can translocate between vesicles in seconds, it has been demonstrated that the rate of spontaneous transfer of two-chain polar lipids can vary even 1000-fold, depending on the number of carbons and double bonds in the acyl chains. In addition, the rate of spontaneous lipid transfer can strongly depend on the experimental conditions such as vesicle composition and concentration. This review examines the studies suggesting that spontaneous lipid transfer is probably more relevant to intracellular trafficking of amphipathic lipids than commonly thought. PMID:27147824

  14. Selective Lysosomal Transporter Degradation by Organelle Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    McNally, Erin Kate; Karim, Mahmoud Abdul; Brett, Christopher Leonard

    2017-01-23

    Lysosomes rely on their resident transporter proteins to return products of catabolism to the cell for reuse and for cellular signaling, metal storage, and maintaining the lumenal environment. Despite their importance, little is known about the lifetime of these transporters or how they are regulated. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we discovered a new pathway intrinsic to homotypic lysosome membrane fusion that is responsible for their degradation. Transporter proteins are selectively sorted by the docking machinery into an area between apposing lysosome membranes, which is internalized and degraded by lumenal hydrolases upon organelle fusion. These proteins have diverse lifetimes that are regulated in response to protein misfolding, changing substrate levels, or TOR activation. Analogous to endocytosis for controlling surface protein levels, the "intralumenal fragment pathway" is critical for lysosome membrane remodeling required for organelle function in the context of cellular protein quality control, ion homeostasis, and metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autophagy, apoptosis and organelle features during cell exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vergilio, Cristiane dos Santos; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces several effects in different tissues, but our knowledge of the toxic effects on organelles is insufficient. To observe the progression of Cd effects on organelle structure and function, HuH-7 cells (human hepatic carcinoma cell line) were exposed to CdCl2 in increasing concentrations (1 microM - 20 microM) and exposure times (2 h - 24 h). During Cd treatment, the cells exhibited a progressive decrease in viability that was both time- and dose-dependent. Cd treated cells displayed progressive morphological changes that included cytoplasm retraction and nuclear condensation preceding a total loss of cell adhesion. Treatment with 10 microM for 12 h led to irreversible damages. Before these drastic and irreparable damages, treated cells (5 microM for 12 h) presented a progressive loss of mitochondrial function and cytoplasm acidification as well as dysfunction and disorganization of microfilaments and endoplasmic reticulum. These damages led to the induction of apoptotic events and an increase in autophagic bodies in the cytoplasm. These results revealed that Cd affects multiple intra-cellular targets that induce alterations in the mitochondria, cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and acidic compartments, ultimately culminating in cell death via apoptotic and autophagic pathways.

  16. The organelle of differentiation in embryos: the cell state splitter.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Natalie K; Gordon, Richard

    2016-03-10

    The cell state splitter is a membraneless organelle at the apical end of each epithelial cell in a developing embryo. It consists of a microfilament ring and an intermediate filament ring subtending a microtubule mat. The microtubules and microfilament ring are in mechanical opposition as in a tensegrity structure. The cell state splitter is bistable, perturbations causing it to contract or expand radially. The intermediate filament ring provides metastability against small perturbations. Once this snap-through organelle is triggered, it initiates signal transduction to the nucleus, which changes gene expression in one of two readied manners, causing its cell to undergo a step of determination and subsequent differentiation. The cell state splitter also triggers the cell state splitters of adjacent cells to respond, resulting in a differentiation wave. Embryogenesis may be represented then as a bifurcating differentiation tree, each edge representing one cell type. In combination with the differentiation waves they propagate, cell state splitters explain the spatiotemporal course of differentiation in the developing embryo. This review is excerpted from and elaborates on "Embryogenesis Explained" (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2016).

  17. Unraveling the complexity of lipid body organelles in human eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid-rich organelles are common in many cell types. In cells, such as adipocytes, these organelles are termed LDs, whereas in other cells, such as leukocytes, they are called LBs. The study of leukocyte LBs has attracted attention as a result of their association with human diseases. In leukocytes, such as eosinophils, LB accumulation has been documented extensively during inflammatory conditions. In these cells, LBs are linked to the regulation of immune responses by compartmentalization of several proteins and lipids involved in the control and biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). However, it has been unclear how diverse proteins, including membrane-associated enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs, especially if the internal content of LBs is assumed to consist solely of stores of neutral lipids, as present within adipocyte LDs. Studies of the formation, function, and ultrastructure of LBs in eosinophils have been providing insights pertinent to LBs in other leukocytes. Here, we review current knowledge of the composition and function of leukocyte LBs as provided by studies of human eosinophil LBs, including recognitions of the internal architecture of eosinophil LBs based on 3D electron tomographic analyses. PMID:25210147

  18. Geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the structure, function, stability, and dynamics of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes have emerged as a leading interest in structural biology. Geometric modeling not only provides visualizations of shapes for large biomolecular complexes but also fills the gap between structural information and theoretical modeling, and enables the understanding of function, stability, and dynamics. This paper introduces a suite of computational tools for volumetric data processing, information extraction, surface mesh rendering, geometric measurement, and curvature estimation of biomolecular complexes. Particular emphasis is given to the modeling of cryo-electron microscopy data. Lagrangian-triangle meshes are employed for the surface presentation. On the basis of this representation, algorithms are developed for surface area and surface-enclosed volume calculation, and curvature estimation. Methods for volumetric meshing have also been presented. Because the technological development in computer science and mathematics has led to multiple choices at each stage of the geometric modeling, we discuss the rationales in the design and selection of various algorithms. Analytical models are designed to test the computational accuracy and convergence of proposed algorithms. Finally, we select a set of six cryo-electron microscopy data representing typical subcellular complexes to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms in handling biomolecular surfaces and explore their capability of geometric characterization of binding targets. This paper offers a comprehensive protocol for the geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Organelles in developing neurons: essential regulators of neuronal morphogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Sayaka; Miura, Masayuki; Chihara, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain multiple intracellular organelles which are structurally and functionally distinct membrane-delimited compartments. Organelles play vital roles in many cellular events in essentially all eukaryotic cells. Although the canonical roles of organelles are well described by classical in vitro studies, little is known about the specific physiological roles of organelles in neurons, which possess extremely polarized cellular structures and have a massive cellular volume compared with most eukaryotic cells. Studies that make use of recently developed genetic and microscopic techniques are currently elucidating the unexpectedly specialized roles of intracellular, membrane-delimited organelles in neuronal morphogenesis and function, and in human disease. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of organelles (the ER-Golgi secretory pathway, endosomes and mitochondria) in developing neurons.

  20. Seeing is believing: on the use of image databases for visually exploring plant organelle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-12-01

    Organelle dynamics vary dramatically depending on cell type, developmental stage and environmental stimuli, so that various parameters, such as size, number and behavior, are required for the description of the dynamics of each organelle. Imaging techniques are superior to other techniques for describing organelle dynamics because these parameters are visually exhibited. Therefore, as the results can be seen immediately, investigators can more easily grasp organelle dynamics. At present, imaging techniques are emerging as fundamental tools in plant organelle research, and the development of new methodologies to visualize organelles and the improvement of analytical tools and equipment have allowed the large-scale generation of image and movie data. Accordingly, image databases that accumulate information on organelle dynamics are an increasingly indispensable part of modern plant organelle research. In addition, image databases are potentially rich data sources for computational analyses, as image and movie data reposited in the databases contain valuable and significant information, such as size, number, length and velocity. Computational analytical tools support image-based data mining, such as segmentation, quantification and statistical analyses, to extract biologically meaningful information from each database and combine them to construct models. In this review, we outline the image databases that are dedicated to plant organelle research and present their potential as resources for image-based computational analyses.

  1. Characteristics in Sliding Motions of Small Organelles in a Nitella Internodal Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Go; Nemoto, Tomomi; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    1995-12-01

    Steady velocities of small organelles smoothly moving on chloroplasts in a Nitella internodal cell have been investigated at various temperatures. It has been found that variance in the velocities of the organelles changes in proportion to their average velocity, which has been first elucidated from the temperature dependence of the organelle's velocity. This result suggests that the generation process of the force due to the actin-myosin is a Poisson like stochastic one. Thus, we have discussed a stochastic model for the motion of the organelle with many myosin-like molecules and estimated the force to be 4.2×10-12 N.

  2. Organelle DB: a cross-species database of protein localization and function.

    PubMed

    Wiwatwattana, Nuwee; Kumar, Anuj

    2005-01-01

    To efficiently utilize the growing body of available protein localization data, we have developed Organelle DB, a web-accessible database cataloging more than 25,000 proteins from nearly 60 organelles, subcellular structures and protein complexes in 154 organisms spanning the eukaryotic kingdom. Organelle DB is the first on-line resource devoted to the identification and presentation of eukaryotic proteins localized to organelles and subcellular structures. As such, Organelle DB is a strong resource of data from the human proteome as well as from the major model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus. In particular, Organelle DB is a central repository of yeast data, incorporating results--and actual fluorescent imagesfrom ongoing large-scale studies of protein localization in S.cerevisiae. Each protein in Organelle DB is presented with its sequence and, as available, a detailed description of its function; functions were extracted from relevant model organism databases, and links to these databases are provided within Organelle DB. To facilitate data interoperability, we have annotated all protein localizations using vocabulary from the Gene Ontology consortium. We also welcome new data for inclusion in Organelle DB, which may be freely accessed at http://organelledb.lsi.umich.edu.

  3. Structure and function of ER membrane contact sites with other organelles.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Melissa J; Voeltz, Gia K

    2016-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle in the cell, and its functions have been studied for decades. The past several years have provided novel insights into the existence of distinct domains between the ER and other organelles, known as membrane contact sites (MCSs). At these contact sites, organelle membranes are closely apposed and tethered, but do not fuse. Here, various protein complexes can work in concert to perform specialized functions such as binding, sensing and transferring molecules, as well as engaging in organelle biogenesis and dynamics. This Review describes the structure and functions of MCSs, primarily focusing on contacts of the ER with mitochondria and endosomes.

  4. Modeling transport of a pulse of radiolabeled organelles in a Drosophila unipolar motor neuron.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Based on published experimental evidence, this paper develops a model for the transport of a pulse of radiolabeled organelles in a unipolar Drosophila motor neuron. In particular, since published data indicate that no microtubules (MTs) travel from the primary neurite into the dendrite, it is investigated how organelles are transported into the dendrite. Analytical solutions describing concentrations of kinesin- and dynein-driven organelles in the primary neurite, axon, and dendrite are obtained. The effects of increasing the width of the pulse and increasing the rate of organelle transition rate from the kinesin-driven to the dynein-driven state are investigated.

  5. Mechanisms of organelle transport and capture along proplatelets during platelet production

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jennifer L.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Boers, Chad; Hartwig, John H.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    Megakaryocytes generate platelets by remodeling their cytoplasm into long proplatelet extensions, which serve as assembly lines for platelet production. Platelet packaging and release concludes at the tips of each proplatelet. Essential in this process is the distribution of organelles and platelet-specific granules into the nascent platelets. To investigate the mechanism of delivery of organelles into putative platelets, the distribution and dynamics of organelles/granules was monitored. Individual organelles are sent from the cell body to the proplatelets where they move bidirectionally until they are captured at proplatelet ends. Movement occurs at approximately 0.2 μm/min, but pauses and changes in direction are frequent. At any given time, approximately 30% of organelles/granules are in motion. Actin poisons do not diminish organelle motion, and vesicular structures are intimately associated with the microtubules. Therefore, movement appears to involve microtubule-based forces. Bidirectional organelle movement is conveyed by the bipolar organization of microtubules within the proplatelet, as kinesin-coated beads move bidirectionally on the microtubule arrays of permeabilized proplatelets. Movement of organelles along proplatelets involves 2 mechanisms: organelles travel along microtubules, and the linked microtubules move relative to each other. These studies demonstrate that the components that form platelets are delivered to and assembled de novo along proplatelets. PMID:16118320

  6. Structure and function of ER membrane contact sites with other organelles

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa J.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle in the cell, and its functions have been studied for decades. The past several years have provided novel insights into the existence of distinct domains between the ER and other organelles, known as membrane contact sites (MCSs). At these contact sites, organelle membranes are closely apposed and tethered, but do not fuse. Here, various protein complexes can work in concert to perform specialized functions such as binding, sensing and transferring molecules, as well as engaging in organelle biogenesis and dynamics. This Review describes the structure and functions of MCSs, primarily focusing on contacts of the ER with mitochondria and endosomes. PMID:26627931

  7. Artificial Organelles: Reactions inside Protein-Polymer Supramolecular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Garni, Martina; Einfalt, TomaŽ; Lomora, Mihai; Car, Anja; Meier, Wolfgang; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2016-01-01

    Reactions inside confined compartments at the nanoscale represent an essential step in the development of complex multifunctional systems to serve as molecular factories. In this respect, the biomimetic approach of combining biomolecules (proteins, enzymes, mimics) with synthetic membranes is an elegant way to create functional nanoreactors, or even simple artificial organelles, that function inside cells after uptake. Functionality is provided by the specificity of the biomolecule(s), whilst the synthetic compartment provides mechanical stability and robustness. The availability of a large variety of biomolecules and synthetic membranes allows the properties and functionality of these reaction spaces to be tailored and adjusted for building complex self-organized systems as the basis for molecular factories.

  8. Organelle targeting during bacterial infection: insights from Listeria.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Alice; Stavru, Fabrizia; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for severe foodborne infections, is now recognized as a multifaceted model in infection biology. Comprehensive studies of the molecular and cellular basis of the infection have unraveled how the bacterium crosses the intestinal and feto-placental barriers, invades several cell types in which it multiplies and moves, and spreads from cell to cell. Interestingly, although Listeria does not actively invade host cell organelles, it can interfere with their function. We discuss the effect of Listeria on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mechanisms leading to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and its consequences, and review the strategies used by Listeria to subvert nuclear functions, more precisely to control host gene expression at the chromatin level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Following mitochondria dynamism: confocal analysis of the organelle morphology.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Francesca R; Corrado, Mauro; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, whose morphology can vary from an elongated and interconnected network to fragmented units. In recent years, outstanding discoveries have linked mitochondrial morphology to the regulation of an increasing number of biological processes, such as biosynthetic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, calcium buffering, and cell death. Here we describe two of the main methods used to analyze the mitochondrial length in fixed cells and the mitochondrial fusion rate in live cells. Moreover, we focus one of the protocols on T cells, as an example of non-adherent cells, which present some particularities and difficulties in the analysis of mitochondrial shape. We also discuss the main mouse models carrying a mitochondrial targeted fluorescent protein, an invaluable tool to deeply investigate in vivo mitochondrial morphology.

  10. Cilia in the CNS: the Quiet Organelle Claims Center Stage

    PubMed Central

    Louvi, Angeliki; Grove, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The primary cilium is a cellular organelle that is almost ubiquitous in eukaryotes, yet its functions in vertebrates have been slow to emerge. The last fifteen years have been marked by accelerating insight into the biology of primary cilia, arising from the synergy of three major lines of research. These research programs describe a specialized mode of protein trafficking in cilia, reveal that genetic disruptions of primary cilia cause complex human disease syndromes, and establish that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction requires the primary cilium. New lines of research have branched off to investigate the role of primary cilia in neuronal signaling, adult neurogenesis, and brain tumor formation. We review a fast expanding literature to determine what we now know about the primary cilium in the developing and adult CNS, and what new directions should lead to further clarity. PMID:21435552

  11. Physiological role of taurine--from organism to organelle.

    PubMed

    Lambert, I H; Kristensen, D M; Holm, J B; Mortensen, O H

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift in the expression of the taurine transporters and/or the cellular taurine content. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Transport Selectivity of Nuclear Pores, Phase Separation, and Membraneless Organelles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H Broder; Görlich, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) provide a selective passageway for receptor-mediated active transport between nucleus and cytoplasm, while maintaining the distinct molecular compositions of both compartments at large. In this review we discuss how NPCs gain a remarkable sorting selectivity from non-globular FG domains and their phase separation into dense polymer meshworks. The resulting sieve-like FG hydrogels are effective barriers to normal macromolecules but are at the same time highly permeable to shuttling nuclear transport receptors, which bind to FG motifs as well as to their designated cargoes. Phase separation driven by disordered protein domains was recently also recognized as being pivotal to the formation of membraneless organelles, making it an important emerging principle in cell biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sizing Subcellular Organelles and Nanoparticles Confined within Aqueous Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Gadd, Jennifer C.; Kuyper, Christopher L.; Fujimoto, Bryant S.; Allen, Richard W.; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two complementary techniques, single-particle tracking and correlation spectroscopy, for accurately sizing nanoparticles confined within picoliter-volume aqueous droplets. Single-particle tracking works well with bright particles that can be continuously illuminated and imaged, and we demonstrated this approach for sizing single fluorescent beads. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy detects small intensity bursts from particles or molecules diffusing through the confocal probe volume, which works well with dim and rapidly diffusing particles or molecules; we demonstrated FCS for sizing synaptic vesicles confined in aqueous droplets. In combination with recent advances in droplet manipulations and analysis, we anticipate this capability to size single nanoparticles and molecules in free solution will complement existing tools for probing cellular systems, subcellular organelles, and nanoparticles. PMID:18363409

  14. Quantum dots targeted to the assigned organelle in living cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Oku, Taisuke; Nakamura, Shun; Suga, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yasuhara, Masato; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to be applied to bioimaging since QDs emit higher and far longer fluorescence than conventional organic probes. Here we show that QDs conjugated with signal peptide obey the order to transport the assigned organelle in living cells. We designed the supermolecule of luminescent QDs conjugated with nuclear- and mitochondria-targeting ligands. When QDs with nuclear-localizing signal peptides were added to the culture media, we can visualize the movements of the QDs being delivered into the nuclear compartment of the cells with 15 min incubation. In addition, mitochondrial signal peptide can also transport QDs to the mitochondria in living cells. In conclusion, these techniques have the possibility that QDs can reveal the transduction of proteins and peptides into specific subcellular compartments as a powerful tool for studying intracellular analysis in vitro and even in vivo.

  15. An intracellular nanotrap redirects proteins and organelles in live bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borg, Sarah; Popp, Felix; Hofmann, Julia; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Schüler, Dirk

    2015-01-13

    Owing to their small size and enhanced stability, nanobodies derived from camelids have previously been used for the construction of intracellular "nanotraps," which enable redirection and manipulation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged targets within living plant and animal cells. By taking advantage of intracellular compartmentalization in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, we demonstrate that proteins and even entire organelles can be retargeted also within prokaryotic cells by versatile nanotrap technology. Expression of multivalent GFP-binding nanobodies on magnetosomes ectopically recruited the chemotaxis protein CheW1-GFP from polar chemoreceptor clusters to the midcell, resulting in a gradual knockdown of aerotaxis. Conversely, entire magnetosome chains could be redirected from the midcell and tethered to one of the cell poles. Similar approaches could potentially be used for building synthetic cellular structures and targeted protein knockdowns in other bacteria. Intrabodies are commonly used in eukaryotic systems for intracellular analysis and manipulation of proteins within distinct subcellular compartments. In particular, so-called nanobodies have great potential for synthetic biology approaches because they can be expressed easily in heterologous hosts and actively interact with intracellular targets, for instance, by the construction of intracellular "nanotraps" in living animal and plant cells. Although prokaryotic cells also exhibit a considerable degree of intracellular organization, there are few tools available equivalent to the well-established methods used in eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate the ectopic retargeting and depletion of polar membrane proteins and entire organelles to distinct compartments in a magnetotactic bacterium, resulting in a gradual knockdown of magneto-aerotaxis. This intracellular nanotrap approach has the potential to be applied in other bacteria for building synthetic cellular structures

  16. Fluorogenic Substrates for Visualizing Acidic Organelle Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Harlan, Fiona Karen; Lusk, Jason Scott; Mohr, Breanna Michelle; Guzikowski, Anthony Peter; Batchelor, Robert Hardy; Jiang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic cytoplasmic organelles that are present in all nucleated mammalian cells and are involved in a variety of cellular processes including repair of the plasma membrane, defense against pathogens, cholesterol homeostasis, bone remodeling, metabolism, apoptosis and cell signaling. Defects in lysosomal enzyme activity have been associated with a variety of neurological diseases including Parkinson’s Disease, Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Fluorogenic lysosomal staining probes were synthesized for labeling lysosomes and other acidic organelles in a live-cell format and were shown to be capable of monitoring lysosomal metabolic activity. The new targeted substrates were prepared from fluorescent dyes having a low pKa value for optimum fluorescence at the lower physiological pH found in lysosomes. They were modified to contain targeting groups to direct their accumulation in lysosomes as well as enzyme-cleavable functions for monitoring specific enzyme activities using a live-cell staining format. Application to the staining of cells derived from blood and skin samples of patients with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Krabbe and Gaucher Diseases as well as healthy human fibroblast and leukocyte control cells exhibited localization to the lysosome when compared with known lysosomal stain LysoTracker® Red DND-99 as well as with anti-LAMP1 Antibody staining. When cell metabolism was inhibited with chloroquine, staining with an esterase substrate was reduced, demonstrating that the substrates can be used to measure cell metabolism. When applied to diseased cells, the intensity of staining was reflective of lysosomal enzyme levels found in diseased cells. Substrates specific to the enzyme deficiencies in Gaucher or Krabbe disease patient cell lines exhibited reduced staining compared to that in non-diseased cells. The new lysosome-targeted fluorogenic substrates should be useful for research, diagnostics and

  17. Describing autophagy via analysis of individual organelles by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Satori, Chad P; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2013-12-03

    Autophagy is a cellular process responsible for the degradation of intracellular cargo. Its dynamic nature and the multiple types of autophagy organelles present at a given time make current measurements, such as those done by Western blotting, insufficient to understand autophagy and its roles in aging and disease. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) has been used previously to count and determine properties of individual organelles, but has never been used on autophagy organelles or for determination of changes of such properties. Here we used autophagy organelles isolated from L6 cells expressing GFP-LC3, which is an autophagy marker, to develop a CE-LIF method for the determination of the number of autophagy organelles, their individual GFP-LC3 fluorescence intensities, and their individual electrophoretic mobilities. These properties were compared under basal and rapamycin-driven autophagy, which showed differences in the number of detected organelles and electrophoretic mobility distributions of autophagy organelles. Vinblastine treatment was also used to halt autophagy and further characterize changes and provide additional insight on the nature of autophagy organelles. This approach revealed dramatic and opposite directions in changes of organelle numbers, GFP-LC3 contents, and electrophoretic mobilities during the duration of the vinblastine treatment. These trends suggested the identity of organelle types being detected. These observations demonstrate that individual organelle analysis by CE-LIF is a powerful technology to investigate the complexity and nature of autophagy, a process that plays critical roles in response to drug treatments, aging, and disease.

  18. Describing Autophagy via Analysis of Individual Organelles by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Satori, Chad P.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular process responsible for the degradation of intracellular cargo. Its dynamic nature and the multiple types of autophagy organelles present at a given time make current measurements, such as those done by Western blotting, insufficient to understand autophagy and its roles in aging and disease. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) has been used previously to count and determine properties of individual organelles, but has never been used on autophagy organelles or for determination of changes of such properties. Here we used autophagy organelles isolated from L6 cells expressing GFP-LC3, which is an autophagy marker, to develop a CE-LIF method for the determination of the number of autophagy organelles, their individual GFP-LC3 fluorescence intensities, and their individual electrophoretic mobilities. These properties were compared under basal and rapamycin-driven autophagy, which showed differences in the number of detected organelles and electrophoretic mobility distributions of autophagy organelles. Vinblastine treatment was also used to halt autophagy and further characterize changes and provide additional insight on the nature of autophagy organelles. This approach revealed dramatic and opposite directions in changes of organelle numbers, GFP-LC3 contents, and electrophoretic mobilities during the duration of the vinblastine treatment. These trends suggested the identity of organelle types being detected. These observations demonstrate that individual organelle analysis by CE-LIF is a powerful technology to investigate the complexity and nature of autophagy, a process that plays critical roles in response to drug treatments, aging, and disease. PMID:24164243

  19. Pervasive, Genome-Wide Transcription in the Organelle Genomes of Diverse Plastid-Bearing Protists.

    PubMed

    Sanitá Lima, Matheus; Smith, David Roy

    2017-09-21

    Organelle genomes are among the most sequenced kinds of chromosome. This is largely because they are small and widely used in molecular studies, but also because next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies made sequencing easier, faster, and cheaper. However, studies of organelle RNA have not kept pace with those of DNA, despite huge amounts of freely available eukaryotic RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Little is known about organelle transcription in non-model species, and most of the available eukaryotic RNA-seq data have not been mined for organelle transcripts. Here, we use publicly available RNA-seq experiments to investigate organelle transcription in 30 diverse plastid-bearing protists with varying organelle genomic architectures. Mapping RNA-seq data to organelle genomes revealed pervasive, genome-wide transcription, regardless of the taxonomic grouping, gene organization, or non-coding content. For every species analyzed, transcripts covered at least 85% of the mitochondrial and/or plastid genomes (all of which were ≤ 105 kb), indicating that most of the organelle DNA-coding and non-coding-is transcriptionally active. These results follow earlier studies of model species showing that organellar transcription is coupled and ubiquitous across the genome, requiring significant downstream processing of polycistronic transcripts. Our findings suggest that non-coding organelle DNA can be transcriptionally active, raising questions about the underlying function of these transcripts and underscoring the utility of publicly available RNA-seq data for recovering complete genome sequences. If pervasive transcription is also found in bigger organelle genomes (>105 kb) across a broader range of eukaryotes, this could indicate that non-coding organelle RNAs are regulating fundamental processes within eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  20. Myosin IIA is critical for organelle distribution and F-actin organization in megakaryocytes and platelets.

    PubMed

    Pertuy, Fabien; Eckly, Anita; Weber, Josiane; Proamer, Fabienne; Rinckel, Jean-Yves; Lanza, François; Gachet, Christian; Léon, Catherine

    2014-02-20

    During proplatelet formation, a relatively homogeneous content of organelles is transported from the megakaryocyte (MK) to the nascent platelets along microtubule tracks. We found that platelets from Myh9(-/-) mice and a MYH9-RD patient were heterogeneous in their organelle content (granules and mitochondria). In addition, Myh9(-/-) MKs have an abnormal cytoplasmic clustering of organelles, suggesting that the platelet defect originates in the MKs. Myosin is not involved in the latest stage of organelle traffic along microtubular tracks in the proplatelet shafts as shown by confocal observations of proplatelet buds. By contrast, it is required for the earlier distribution of organelles within the large MK preplatelet fragments shed into the sinusoid circulation before terminal proplatelet remodeling. We show here that F-actin is abnormally clustered in the cytoplasm of Myh9(-/-) MKs and actin polymerization is impaired in platelets. Myosin IIA is required for normal granule motility and positioning within MKs, mechanisms that may be dependent on organelle traveling and tethering onto F-actin cytoskeleton tracks. Altogether, our results indicate that the distribution of organelles within platelets critically depends on a homogeneous organelle distribution within MKs and preplatelet fragments, which requires myosin IIA.

  1. Protein import into the photosynthetic organelles of Paulinella chromatophora and its implications for primary plastid endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Paweł; Bodył, Andrzej; Gagat, Przemysław

    2012-12-01

    The rhizarian amoeba Paulinella chromatophora harbors two photosynthetically active organelles of cyanobacterial origin that have been acquired independently of classic primary plastids. Because their acquisition did take place relatively recently, they are expected to provide new insight into the ancient cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis. During the process of Paulinella endosymbiont-to-organelle transformation, more than 30 genes have been transferred from the organelle to the host nuclear genome via endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). The article discusses step-by-step protein import of EGT-derived proteins into Paulinella photosynthetic organelles with the emphasis on the nature of their targeting signals and the final passage of proteins through the inner organelle membrane. The latter most probably involves a simplified Tic translocon composed of Tic21- and Tic32-like proteins as well as a Hsp70-based motor responsible for pulling of imported proteins into the organelle matrix. Our results indicate that although protein translocation across the inner membrane of Paulinella photosynthetic organelles seems to resemble the one in classic primary plastids, the transport through the outer membrane does not. The differences could result from distinct integration pathways of Paulinella photosynthetic organelles and primary plastids with their respective host cells.

  2. Bidirectional Ca2+ signaling occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and acidic organelles

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lianne C.; Wagner, Siegfried K.T.Y.; Lewis, Alexander M.; Parrington, John; Churchill, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and acidic organelles (endo-lysosomes) act as separate Ca2+ stores that release Ca2+ in response to the second messengers IP3 and cADPR (ER) or NAADP (acidic organelles). Typically, trigger Ca2+ released from acidic organelles by NAADP subsequently recruits IP3 or ryanodine receptors on the ER, an anterograde signal important for amplification and Ca2+ oscillations/waves. We therefore investigated whether the ER can signal back to acidic organelles, using organelle pH as a reporter of NAADP action. We show that Ca2+ released from the ER can activate the NAADP pathway in two ways: first, by stimulating Ca2+-dependent NAADP synthesis; second, by activating NAADP-regulated channels. Moreover, the differential effects of EGTA and BAPTA (slow and fast Ca2+ chelators, respectively) suggest that the acidic organelles are preferentially activated by local microdomains of high Ca2+ at junctions between the ER and acidic organelles. Bidirectional organelle communication may have wider implications for endo-lysosomal function as well as the generation of Ca2+ oscillations and waves. PMID:23479744

  3. Characteristics of weak base-induced vacuoles formed around individual acidic organelles.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Hiromi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that the weak base 4-aminopyridine induces Brownian motion of acidic organelles around which vacuoles are formed, causing organelle traffic disorder in neurons. Our present study investigated the characteristics of vacuoles induced by weak bases (NH(4)Cl, aminopyridines, and chloroquine) using mouse cells. Individual vacuoles included acidic organelles identified by fluorescent protein expression. Mitochondria and actin filaments were extruded outside the vacuoles, composing the vacuole rim. Staining with amine-reactive fluorescence showed no protein/amino acid content in vacuoles. Thus, serous vacuolar contents are probably partitioned by viscous cytosol, other organelles, and cytoskeletons, but not membrane. The weak base (chloroquine) was immunochemically detected in intravacuolar organelles, but not in vacuoles. Early vacuolization was reversible, but long-term vacuolization caused cell death. The vacuolization and cell death were blocked by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor and Cl--free medium. Staining with LysoTracker or LysoSensor indicated that intravacuolar organelles were strongly acidic and vacuoles were slightly acidic. This suggests that vacuolization is caused by accumulation of weak base and H(+) in acidic organelles, driven by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase associated with Cl(-) entering, and probably by subsequent extrusion of H(+) and water from organelles to the surrounding cytoplasm.

  4. Organelles in Blastocystis that blur the distinction between mitochondria and hydrogenosomes.

    PubMed

    Stechmann, Alexandra; Hamblin, Karleigh; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Gaston, Daniel; Richmond, Gregory S; van der Giezen, Mark; Clark, C Graham; Roger, Andrew J

    2008-04-22

    Blastocystis is a unicellular stramenopile of controversial pathogenicity in humans. Although it is a strict anaerobe, Blastocystis has mitochondrion-like organelles with cristae, a transmembrane potential and DNA. An apparent lack of several typical mitochondrial pathways has led some to suggest that these organelles might be hydrogenosomes, anaerobic organelles related to mitochondria. We generated 12,767 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Blastocystis and identified 115 clusters that encode putative mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal proteins. Among these is the canonical hydrogenosomal protein iron-only [FeFe] hydrogenase that we show localizes to the organelles. The organelles also have mitochondrial characteristics, including pathways for amino acid metabolism, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as a mitochondrial genome. Although complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC) are present, we found no evidence for complexes III and IV or F1Fo ATPases. The Blastocystis organelles have metabolic properties of aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria and of hydrogenosomes. They are convergently similar to organelles recently described in the unrelated ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis. These findings blur the boundaries between mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, and mitosomes, as currently defined, underscoring the disparate selective forces that shape these organelles in eukaryotes.

  5. Mitochondrial swelling impairs the transport of organelles in cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Kaasik, Allen; Safiulina, Dzhamilja; Choubey, Vinay; Kuum, Malle; Zharkovsky, Alexander; Veksler, Vladimir

    2007-11-09

    Organelle transport in neuronal processes is central to the organization, developmental fate, and functions of neurons. Organelles must be transported through the slender, highly branched neuronal processes, making the axonal transport vulnerable to any perturbation. However, some intracellular structures like mitochondria are able to considerably modify their volume. We therefore hypothesized that swollen mitochondria could impair the traffic of other organelles in neurite shafts. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the effects of mitochondrial swellers on the organelle traffic. Our data demonstrate that treatment of neurons with potassium ionophore valinomycin led to the fast time-dependent inhibition of organelle movement in cerebellar granule neurons. Similar inhibition was observed in neurons treated with the inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, sodium azide and antimycin, which also induced swelling. No decrease in the motility of organelles was observed in cultures treated with inhibitors of ATP production or transport, oligomycin or bongkrekic acid, suggesting that inhibition of the ATP-generating activity itself without swelling does not affect the motility of organelles. The effect of swellers on the traffic was more important in thin processes, thus indicating the role of steric hindrance of swollen mitochondria. We propose that the size and morphology of the transported cargo is also relevant for seamless axonal transport and speculate that mitochondrial swelling could be one of the reasons for impaired organelle transport in neuronal processes.

  6. Mouse oocytes differentiate through organelle enrichment from sister cyst germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C

    2016-04-01

    Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from sister germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors. Membrane breakdown within the cyst and an apoptosis-like process are associated with organelle transfer into the oocyte, events reminiscent of nurse cell dumping in Drosophila We propose that cytoplasmic and organelle transport plays an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important role in mammalian oocyte differentiation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Mechanisms for the Intracellular Manipulation of Organelles by Conventional Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Axel T.; Smith, Kyle C.; Gowrishankar, T.R.; Vasilkoski, Zlatko; Weaver, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Conventional electroporation (EP) changes both the conductance and molecular permeability of the plasma membrane (PM) of cells and is a standard method for delivering both biologically active and probe molecules of a wide range of sizes into cells. However, the underlying mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels remain controversial. Here we introduce a mathematical cell model that contains representative organelles (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria) and includes a dynamic EP model, which describes formation, expansion, contraction, and destruction for the plasma and all organelle membranes. We show that conventional EP provides transient electrical pathways into the cell, sufficient to create significant intracellular fields. This emerging intracellular electrical field is a secondary effect due to EP and can cause transmembrane voltages at the organelles, which are large enough and long enough to gate organelle channels, and even sufficient, at some field strengths, for the poration of organelle membranes. This suggests an alternative to nanosecond pulsed electric fields for intracellular manipulations. PMID:20513394

  8. Positioning of large organelles by a membrane- associated cytoskeleton in Plasmodium sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Lepper, Simone; Stanway, Rebecca; Bohn, Stefan; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Cyrklaff, Marek; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2010-03-01

    Cellular organelles are usually linked to the cytoskeleton, which often provides a scaffold for organelle function. In malaria parasites, no link between the cytoskeleton and the major organelles is known. Here we show that during fast, stop-and-go motion of Plasmodium sporozoites, all organelles stay largely fixed in respect to the moving parasite. Cryogenic electron tomography reveals that the nucleus, mitochondrion, apicoplast and the microtubules of Plasmodium sporozoites are linked to the parasite pellicle via long tethering proteins. These tethers originate from the inner membrane complex and are arranged in a periodic fashion following a 32 nm repeat. The tethers pass through a subpellicular structure that encompasses the entire parasite, probably as a network of membrane-associated filaments. While the spatial organization of the large parasite organelles appears dependent on their linkage to the cortex, the specialized secretory vesicles are mostly not linked to microtubules or other cellular structures that could provide support for movement.

  9. A Conceptual Mathematical Model of the Dynamic Self-Organisation of Distinct Cellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Bernd; Goede, Andrean; Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2009-01-01

    Formation, degradation and renewal of cellular organelles is a dynamic process based on permanent budding, fusion and inter-organelle traffic of vesicles. These processes include many regulatory proteins such as SNAREs, Rabs and coats. Given this complex machinery, a controversially debated issue is the definition of a minimal set of generic mechanisms necessary to enable the self-organization of organelles differing in number, size and chemical composition. We present a conceptual mathematical model of dynamic organelle formation based on interacting vesicles which carry different types of fusogenic proteins (FP) playing the role of characteristic marker proteins. Our simulations (ODEs) show that a de novo formation of non-identical organelles, each accumulating a different type of FP, requires a certain degree of disproportionation of FPs during budding. More importantly however, the fusion kinetics must indispensably exhibit positive cooperativity among these FPs, particularly for the formation of larger organelles. We compared different types of cooperativity: sequential alignment of corresponding FPs on opposite vesicle/organelles during fusion and pre-formation of FP-aggregates (equivalent, e.g., to SNARE clusters) prior to fusion described by Hill kinetics. This showed that the average organelle size in the system is much more sensitive to the disproportionation strength of FPs during budding if the vesicular transport system gets along with a fusion mechanism based on sequential alignments of FPs. Therefore, pre-formation of FP aggregates within the membranes prior to fusion introduce robustness with respect to organelle size. Our findings provide a plausible explanation for the evolution of a relatively large number of molecules to confer specificity on the fusion machinery compared to the relatively small number involved in the budding process. Moreover, we could speculate that a specific cooperativity which may be described by Hill kinetics (aggregates

  10. Applying systems-level spectral imaging and analysis to reveal the organelle interactome.

    PubMed

    Valm, Alex M; Cohen, Sarah; Legant, Wesley R; Melunis, Justin; Hershberg, Uri; Wait, Eric; Cohen, Andrew R; Davidson, Michael W; Betzig, Eric; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions. However, the spatial and temporal organization of organelles within the cell remains poorly characterized, as fluorescence imaging approaches are limited in the number of different labels that can be distinguished in a single image. Here we present a systems-level analysis of the organelle interactome using a multispectral image acquisition method that overcomes the challenge of spectral overlap in the fluorescent protein palette. We used confocal and lattice light sheet instrumentation and an imaging informatics pipeline of five steps to achieve mapping of organelle numbers, volumes, speeds, positions and dynamic inter-organelle contacts in live cells from a monkey fibroblast cell line. We describe the frequency and locality of two-, three-, four- and five-way interactions among six different membrane-bound organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosome, peroxisome, mitochondria and lipid droplet) and show how these relationships change over time. We demonstrate that each organelle has a characteristic distribution and dispersion pattern in three-dimensional space and that there is a reproducible pattern of contacts among the six organelles, that is affected by microtubule and cell nutrient status. These live-cell confocal and lattice light sheet spectral imaging approaches are applicable to any cell system expressing multiple fluorescent probes, whether in normal conditions or when cells are exposed to disturbances such as

  11. A conceptual mathematical model of the dynamic self-organisation of distinct cellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Binder, Bernd; Goede, Andrean; Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2009-12-30

    Formation, degradation and renewal of cellular organelles is a dynamic process based on permanent budding, fusion and inter-organelle traffic of vesicles. These processes include many regulatory proteins such as SNAREs, Rabs and coats. Given this complex machinery, a controversially debated issue is the definition of a minimal set of generic mechanisms necessary to enable the self-organization of organelles differing in number, size and chemical composition. We present a conceptual mathematical model of dynamic organelle formation based on interacting vesicles which carry different types of fusogenic proteins (FP) playing the role of characteristic marker proteins. Our simulations (ODEs) show that a de novo formation of non-identical organelles, each accumulating a different type of FP, requires a certain degree of disproportionation of FPs during budding. More importantly however, the fusion kinetics must indispensably exhibit positive cooperativity among these FPs, particularly for the formation of larger organelles. We compared different types of cooperativity: sequential alignment of corresponding FPs on opposite vesicle/organelles during fusion and pre-formation of FP-aggregates (equivalent, e.g., to SNARE clusters) prior to fusion described by Hill kinetics. This showed that the average organelle size in the system is much more sensitive to the disproportionation strength of FPs during budding if the vesicular transport system gets along with a fusion mechanism based on sequential alignments of FPs. Therefore, pre-formation of FP aggregates within the membranes prior to fusion introduce robustness with respect to organelle size. Our findings provide a plausible explanation for the evolution of a relatively large number of molecules to confer specificity on the fusion machinery compared to the relatively small number involved in the budding process. Moreover, we could speculate that a specific cooperativity which may be described by Hill kinetics (aggregates

  12. Cytonuclear interactions and relaxed selection accelerate sequence evolution in organelle ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Triant, Deborah A; Wu, Martin; Taylor, Douglas R

    2014-03-01

    Many mitochondrial and plastid protein complexes contain subunits that are encoded in different genomes. In animals, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins often exhibit rapid sequence evolution, which has been hypothesized to result from selection for mutations that compensate for changes in interacting subunits encoded in mutation-prone animal mitochondrial DNA. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and organelle ribosomal proteins in flowering plants. The model angiosperm genus Arabidopsis exhibits low organelle mutation rates, typical of most plants. Nevertheless, we found that (nuclear-encoded) subunits of organelle ribosomes in Arabidopsis have higher amino acid sequence polymorphism and divergence than their counterparts in cytosolic ribosomes, suggesting that organelle ribosomes experience relaxed functional constraint. However, the observed difference between organelle and cytosolic ribosomes was smaller than in animals and could be partially attributed to rapid evolution in N-terminal organelle-targeting peptides that are not involved in ribosome function. To test the role of organelle mutation more directly, we used transcriptomic data from an angiosperm genus (Silene) with highly variable rates of organelle genome evolution. We found that Silene species with unusually fast-evolving mitochondrial and plastid DNA exhibited increased amino acid sequence divergence in ribosomal proteins targeted to the organelles but not in those that function in cytosolic ribosomes. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that rapid organelle genome evolution has selected for compensatory mutations in nuclear-encoded proteins. We conclude that coevolution between interacting subunits encoded in different genomic compartments within the eukaryotic cell is an important determinant of variation in rates of protein sequence evolution.

  13. Modularity of a carbon-fixing protein organelle.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Walter; Teng, Poh K; Afonso, Bruno; Niederholtmeyer, Henrike; Grob, Patricia; Silver, Pamela A; Savage, David F

    2012-01-10

    Bacterial microcompartments are proteinaceous complexes that catalyze metabolic pathways in a manner reminiscent of organelles. Although microcompartment structure is well understood, much less is known about their assembly and function in vivo. We show here that carboxysomes, CO(2)-fixing microcompartments encoded by 10 genes, can be heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. Expression of carboxysomes in E. coli resulted in the production of icosahedral complexes similar to those from the native host. In vivo, the complexes were capable of both assembling with carboxysomal proteins and fixing CO(2). Characterization of purified synthetic carboxysomes indicated that they were well formed in structure, contained the expected molecular components, and were capable of fixing CO(2) in vitro. In addition, we verify association of the postulated pore-forming protein CsoS1D with the carboxysome and show how it may modulate function. We have developed a genetic system capable of producing modular carbon-fixing microcompartments in a heterologous host. In doing so, we lay the groundwork for understanding these elaborate protein complexes and for the synthetic biological engineering of self-assembling molecular structures.

  14. Nanopreparations for Organelle-Specific Delivery in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    To efficiently deliver therapeutics into cancer cells, a number of strategies have been recently investigated. The toxicity associated with the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs due to their random interactions throughout the body necessitates the development of drug-encapsulating nanopreparations that significantly mask, or reduce, the toxic side effects of the drugs. In addition to reduced side effects associated with drug encapsulation, nanocarriers preferentially accumulate in tumors as a result of its abnormally leaky vasculature via the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. However, simple passive nanocarrier delivery to the tumor site is unlikely to be enough to elicit a maximum therapeutic response as the drug-loaded carriers must reach the intracellular target sites. Therefore, efficient translocation of the nanocarrier through the cell membrane is necessary for cytosolic delivery of the cargo. However, Crossing the cell membrane barrier and reaching cytosol might still not be enough for achieving maximum therapeutic benefit, which necessitates the delivery of drugs directly to intracellular targets, such as bringing pro-apoptotic drugs to mitochondria, nucleic acid therapeutics to nuclei, and lysosomal enzymes to defective lysosomes. In this review, we discuss the strategies developed for tumor targeting, cytosolic delivery via cell membrane translocation, and finally organelle-specific targeting, which may be applied for developing highly efficacious, truly multifunctional, cancer-targeted nanopreparations. PMID:24270008

  15. Subcompartmentalized Nanoreactors as Artificial Organelle with Intracellular Activity.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Bo; Schattling, Philipp; Zhang, Yan; Städler, Brigitte

    2016-04-06

    Cell mimicry is an approach which aims at substituting missing or lost activity. In this context, the goal of artificial organelles is to provide intracellularly active nanoreactors to affect the cellular performance. So far, only a handful of reports discuss concepts addressing this challenge based on single-component reactors. Here, the assembly of nanoreactors equipped with glucose oxidase (GOx)-loaded liposomal subunits coated with a poly(dopamine) polymer layer and RGD targeting units is reported. When comparing different surface modifications, the uptake of the nanoreactors by endothelial cells and macrophages with applied shear stress is confirmed without inherent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the encapsulation and preserved activity of GOx within the nanoreactors is shown. The intracellular activity is demonstrated by exposing macrophages with internalized nanoreactors to glucose and assessment of the cell viability after 6 and 24 h. The macrophage viability is found to be reduced due to the intracellularly produced hydrogen peroxide by GOx. This report on the first intracellular active subcompartmentalized nanoreactors is a considerable step in therapeutic cell mimicry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Proteome analysis of human embryonic stem cells organelles.

    PubMed

    Shekari, Faezeh; Nezari, Hossein; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Han, Chia-Li; Baharvand, Hossein; Chen, Yu-Ju; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2017-06-06

    As the functions of proteins are associated with their cellular localization, the comprehensive sub-cellular proteome knowledge of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is indispensable for ensuring a therapeutic effect. Here, we have utilized a sub-cellular proteomics approach to analyze the localization of proteins in the nucleus, mitochondria, crude membrane, cytoplasm, heavy and light microsomes. Out of 2002 reproducibly identified proteins, we detected 762 proteins in a single organelle whereas 160 proteins were found in all sub-cellular fractions. We verified the localization of identified proteins through databases and discussed the consistency of the obtained results. With regards to the ambiguity in the definition of a membrane protein, we tried to clearly define the plasma membrane, peripheral membrane and membrane proteins by annotation of these proteins in databases, along with predictions of transmembrane helices. Among ten enriched signaling pathways highlighted in our results, non-canonical Wnt signaling were analyzed in greater detail. The functions of three novel hESC membrane proteins (ERBB4, GGT1 and ZDHHC13) have been assessed in terms of pluripotency. Our report is the most comprehensive for organellar proteomics of hESCs. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins using a TripleTOF 5600 from nucleus, mitochondria, crude membrane, cytoplasm, heavy and light microsomal fractions highlighted the significance of the non-canonical Wnt signaling in human embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The perennial organelle: assembly and disassembly of the primary cilium

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, E. Scott; Nachury, Maxence V.

    2010-01-01

    Primary cilia contain signaling receptors of diverse classes, and ciliary dysfunction results in a variety of developmental defects. Thus, primary cilia are thought to have an important role in sensing and transducing cellular signals. Although there is clear evidence demonstrating that these organelles are assembled and disassembled dynamically as cells progress through the cell cycle, the mechanisms by which the cell cycle controls the assembly and disassembly of the primary cilium remain poorly understood. In this Commentary, we review the basic cellular mechanisms that underlie the early stages of cilium assembly and discuss how the cell cycle communicates with the ciliation program. A commonly held view is that ciliation occurs exclusively in cells that have exited the cell cycle and entered quiescence or differentiation. However, this concept is at odds with the finding that, during development, many actively proliferating cells require cilia-mediated signaling pathways to instruct their developmental fate. Here, we reassess the quiescence-centric view of ciliation by reviewing historic and current literature. We discuss ample evidence that cilia are in fact present on many proliferating cells, and that a transient peak of ciliation before the G1-S transition might be tightly coupled to entry into the DNA replication phase. Finally, we touch on the relationship between the ciliation and cell-division cycles and the tissue distribution of primary cilia in order to highlight potential roles for the primary cilium in restraining cells from the hyperproliferative state that contributes to cancer. PMID:20144999

  18. Lipid Composition of Organelles from Germinating Castor Bean Endosperm 1

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Robert P.; Beevers, Harry

    1977-01-01

    Glyoxysome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and proplastid fractions were isolated from endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis) germinated for 5 days at 30 C. Samples from sucrose density gradients were diluted with 0.15 m KCI and the membranes pelleted. Lipid extracts of these membranes were analyzed for phosphoglyceride, acyl lipid, and sterol content. The endoplasmic reticulum contains 1.24 μmol of phosphoglyceride per mg of protein; the mitochondria, 0.65 μmol/mg; and the glyoxysome membranes, 0.55 μmol/mg. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine are the most abundant lipids in all membranes studied, accounting for 70% or more of the lipid phosphorus and 50% or more of the fatty acid. Glyoxysome membranes and endoplasmic reticulum also contain phosphatidyl inositol (respectively, 9 and 17% of the lipid phosphorus) and free fatty acids (13% of the total fatty acid in each). Compared with other organelles, mitochondrial membranes have more phosphatidyl ethanolamine relative to phosphatidyl choline and are characterized by the presence of cardiolipin, in which 80% of the fatty acid is linoleate. The relative amounts of linoleate, palmitate, oleate, stearate, and linolenate in each of the phosphotoglycerides are constant regardless of the membrane source. Stimasgasterol and β-sitosterol are present in the membranes (1-9 nmol each/mg protein). The data provide further evidence that glyoxysome membranes are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum but at the same time indicate some differentiation. PMID:16659829

  19. tRNA travels from the cytoplasm to organelles

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Hopper, Anita K.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) encoded by the nuclear genome are surprisingly dynamic. Although tRNAs function in protein synthesis occurring on cytoplasmic ribosomes, tRNAs can transit from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and then again return to the cytoplasm by a process known as the tRNA retrograde process. Subsets of the cytoplasmic tRNAs are also imported into mitochondria and function in mitochondrial protein synthesis. The numbers of tRNA species that are imported into mitchondria differ among organisms, ranging from just a few to the entire set needed to decode mitochondrially encoded mRNAs. For some tRNAs, import is dependent on the mitochondrial protein import machinery, whereas the majority of tRNA mitochondrial import is independent of this machinery. Although cytoplasmic proteins and proteins located on the mitochondrial surface participating in the tRNA import process have been described for several organisms, the identity of these proteins differ among organisms. Likewise, the tRNA determinants required for mitochondrial import differ among tRNA species and organisms. Here, we present an overview and discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms involved in the tRNA retrograde process and continue with an overview of tRNA import into mitochondria. Finally, we highlight areas of future research to understand the function and regulation of movement of tRNAs between the cytoplasm and organelles. PMID:21976284

  20. The Gas Vacuole - an Early Organelle of Prokaryote Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, James T.

    1980-06-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the gas vesicle may have been an early organelle of prokaryote motility. First, it is found in bacteria that are thought to be representatives of primitive groups. Second, it is a simple structure, and the structure alone imparts the function of motility. Thirdly, it is widely distributed amongst prokaryotes, having been found in the purple and green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, methanogenic bacteria, obligate and facultative anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria, as well as aerobic heterotrophic bacteria that divide by budding and binary transverse fission. Recent evidence suggests that in some bacteria the genes for gas vesicle synthesis occur on plasmids. Thus, the wide distribution of this characteristic could be due to recent evolution and rapid dispersal, though early evolution is not precluded. Though the gas vesicle structure itself appears to be highly conserved among the various groups of bacteria, it seems doubtful that the regulatory mechanism to control its synthesis could be the same for the diverse gas vacuolate bacterial groups.

  1. Organelle Redox of CF and CFTR-Corrected Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Christian; Illek, Beate; Suh, Jung H.; Remington, S. James; Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis reduced CFTR function may alter redox properties of airway epithelial cells. Redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP1) and imaging microscopy were used to measure redox potentials of cytosol, ER, mitochondria and cell surface of cystic fibrosis nasal epithelial cells and CFTR-corrected cells. We also measured glutathione and cysteine thiol redox states in cell lysates and apical fluids to provide coverage over a range of redox potentials and environments that might be affected by CFTR. As measured with roGFP1, redox potentials at the cell surface (~ -207 ±8 mV) and in the ER (~ -217 ±1 mV) and rates of regulation of the apical fluid and ER lumen following DTT treatment were similar for CF and CFTR-corrected cells. CF and CFTR-corrected cells had similar redox potentials in mitochondria (-344 ±9 mV) and cytosol (-322 ±7 mV). Oxidation of carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluoresceindiacetate and of apical Amplex Red occurred at equal rates in CF and CFTR-corrected cells. Glutathione and cysteine redox couples in cell lysates and apical fluid were equal in CF and CFTR-corrected cells. These quantitative estimates of organelle redox potentials combined with apical and cell measurements using small molecule couples confirmed there were no differences in redox properties of CF and CFTR-corrected cells. PMID:17603939

  2. Structure, Function, and Assembly of Adhesive Organelles by Uropathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chahales, Peter; Thanassi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assemble a wide range of adhesive proteins, termed adhesins, to mediate binding to receptors and colonization of surfaces. For pathogenic bacteria, adhesins are critical for early stages of infection, allowing the bacteria to initiate contact with host cells, colonize different tissues, and establish a foothold within the host. The adhesins expressed by a pathogen are also critical for bacterial-bacterial interactions and the formation of bacterial communities such as biofilms. The ability to adhere to host tissues is particularly important for bacteria that colonize sites such as the urinary tract, where the flow of urine functions to maintain sterility by washing away non-adherent pathogens. Adhesins vary from monomeric proteins that are directly anchored to the bacterial surface to polymeric, hairlike fibers that extend out from the cell surface. These latter fibers are termed pili or fimbriae, and were among the first identified virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Studies since then have identified a range of both pilus and non-pilus adhesins that contribute to bacterial colonization of the urinary tract, and have revealed molecular details of the structures, assembly pathways, and functions of these adhesive organelles. In this review, we describe the different types of adhesins expressed by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens, what is known about their structures, how they are assembled on the bacterial surface, and the functions of specific adhesins in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections. PMID:26542038

  3. Trans-Membrane Area Asymmetry Controls the Shape of Cellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Beznoussenko, Galina V.; Pilyugin, Sergei S.; Geerts, Willie J. C.; Kozlov, Michael M.; Burger, Koert N. J.; Luini, Alberto; Derganc, Jure; Mironov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane organelles often have complicated shapes and differ in their volume, surface area and membrane curvature. The ratio between the surface area of the cytosolic and luminal leaflets (trans-membrane area asymmetry (TAA)) determines the membrane curvature within different sites of the organelle. Thus, the shape of the organelle could be critically dependent on TAA. Here, using mathematical modeling and stereological measurements of TAA during fast transformation of organelle shapes, we present evidence that suggests that when organelle volume and surface area are constant, TAA can regulate transformation of the shape of the Golgi apparatus, endosomal multivesicular bodies, and microvilli of brush borders of kidney epithelial cells. Extraction of membrane curvature by small spheres, such as COPI-dependent vesicles within the Golgi (extraction of positive curvature), or by intraluminal vesicles within endosomes (extraction of negative curvature) controls the shape of these organelles. For instance, Golgi tubulation is critically dependent on the fusion of COPI vesicles with Golgi cisternae, and vice versa, for the extraction of membrane curvature into 50–60 nm vesicles, to induce transformation of Golgi tubules into cisternae. Also, formation of intraluminal ultra-small vesicles after fusion of endosomes allows equilibration of their TAA, volume and surface area. Finally, when microvilli of the brush border are broken into vesicles and microvilli fragments, TAA of these membranes remains the same as TAA of the microvilli. Thus, TAA has a significant role in transformation of organelle shape when other factors remain constant. PMID:25761238

  4. Velocity sedimentation of organelles at low centrifugal force in an isokinetic gradient.

    PubMed

    Pretlow, T G; Kreisberg, J I; Fine, W D; Zieman, G A; Brattain, M G; Pretlow, T P

    1978-07-15

    Mast-cell granules and polystyrene microspheres (0.600 and 1.011 micrometer in diameter) were sedimented in a previously described [Pretlow (1971) Anal. Biochem. 41, 248--255] isokinetic gradient in a low-speed centrifuge. For the analytical velocity sedimentation of organelles, this gradient offers several advantages over gradients that are commonly used for the sedimentation of organelles: (a) the density gradient (0.0008 g.ml-1.cm-1) is small, and the effective densities of organelles will change relatively little during sedimentation; (b) the densities at all points in the gradient (1.017--1.027 g/ml) are less than those in gradients commonly used for the sedimentation of organelles, the effective densities of sedimenting organelles are consequently relatively large, and the effect of density as a determinant of velocity of sedimentation is less limiting than in conventional gradients; (c) the small slope of the gradient is associated with a relatively slow increase in the viscosity encountered by the sedimenting organelle; (d) the iso-osmotic gradient is not significantly affected by the gradient medium (Ficoll), and the osmolarity can be adjusted to the desired value by the selection of an appropriate salt solution as the solvent for the Ficoll; (e) the gradient will be isokinetic for particles of densities similar to most organelles. An ultracentrifuge is not required for work with this gradient.

  5. Velocity sedimentation of organelles at low centrifugal force in an isokinetic gradient.

    PubMed Central

    Pretlow, T G; Kreisberg, J I; Fine, W D; Zieman, G A; Brattain, M G; Pretlow, T P

    1978-01-01

    Mast-cell granules and polystyrene microspheres (0.600 and 1.011 micrometer in diameter) were sedimented in a previously described [Pretlow (1971) Anal. Biochem. 41, 248--255] isokinetic gradient in a low-speed centrifuge. For the analytical velocity sedimentation of organelles, this gradient offers several advantages over gradients that are commonly used for the sedimentation of organelles: (a) the density gradient (0.0008 g.ml-1.cm-1) is small, and the effective densities of organelles will change relatively little during sedimentation; (b) the densities at all points in the gradient (1.017--1.027 g/ml) are less than those in gradients commonly used for the sedimentation of organelles, the effective densities of sedimenting organelles are consequently relatively large, and the effect of density as a determinant of velocity of sedimentation is less limiting than in conventional gradients; (c) the small slope of the gradient is associated with a relatively slow increase in the viscosity encountered by the sedimenting organelle; (d) the iso-osmotic gradient is not significantly affected by the gradient medium (Ficoll), and the osmolarity can be adjusted to the desired value by the selection of an appropriate salt solution as the solvent for the Ficoll; (e) the gradient will be isokinetic for particles of densities similar to most organelles. An ultracentrifuge is not required for work with this gradient. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:697757

  6. A method to rapidly induce organelle-specific molecular activities and membrane tethering.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Toru; Inoue, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a technique for rapid protein targeting to individual intracellular organelles. This method enables a real-time imaging-based study of cellular behavior in response to controlled induction of signaling events in a specifically targeted cellular compartment. We provide rationales and a step-by-step protocol for probe design and imaging of protein targeting along with two different applications of this technique. One application involves organelle-specific activation of small GTPases, while the other application involves membrane tethering of two different organelles. In the former case, we activate Rac1 and Ras at distinct intracellular locations in order to study compartmentalization of their signaling pathways, and in the latter example, we induce membrane tethering of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in order to study organelle-organelle communication. The described technique allows to rapidly perturb molecular activities and organelle-organelle communications at precise locations with specified timing and represents a powerful strategy to dissect spatiotemporally complex biological processes.

  7. High Speed Size Sorting of Subcellular Organelles by Flow Field-Flow Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon Seon; Lee, Ju Yong; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-06-16

    Separation/isolation of subcellular species, such as mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, Golgi apparatus, and others, from cells is important for gaining an understanding of the cellular functions performed by specific organelles. This study introduces a high speed, semipreparative scale, biocompatible size sorting method for the isolation of subcellular organelle species from homogenate mixtures of HEK 293T cells using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). Separation of organelles was achieved using asymmetrical FlFFF (AF4) channel system at the steric/hyperlayer mode in which nuclei, lysosomes, mitochondria, and peroxisomes were separated in a decreasing order of hydrodynamic diameter without complicated preprocessing steps. Fractions in which organelles were not clearly separated were reinjected to AF4 for a finer separation using the normal mode, in which smaller sized species can be well fractionated by an increasing order of diameter. The subcellular species contained in collected AF4 fractions were examined with scanning electron microscopy to evaluate their size and morphology, Western blot analysis using organelle specific markers was used for organelle confirmation, and proteomic analysis was performed with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Since FlFFF operates with biocompatible buffer solutions, it offers great flexibility in handling subcellular components without relying on a high concentration sucrose solution for centrifugation or affinity- or fluorescence tag-based sorting methods. Consequently, the current study provides an alternative, competitive method for the isolation/purification of subcellular organelle species in their intact states.

  8. The big and intricate dreams of little organelles: Embracing complexity in the study of membrane traffic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Allen P; Botelho, Roberto J; Antonescu, Costin N

    2017-09-01

    Compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells into dynamic organelles that exchange material through regulated membrane traffic governs virtually every aspect of cellular physiology including signal transduction, metabolism and transcription. Much has been revealed about the molecular mechanisms that control organelle dynamics and membrane traffic and how these processes are regulated by metabolic, physical and chemical cues. From this emerges the understanding of the integration of specific organellar phenomena within complex, multiscale and nonlinear regulatory networks. In this review, we discuss systematic approaches that revealed remarkable insight into the complexity of these phenomena, including the use of proximity-based proteomics, high-throughput imaging, transcriptomics and computational modeling. We discuss how these methods offer insights to further understand molecular versatility and organelle heterogeneity, phenomena that allow a single organelle population to serve a range of physiological functions. We also detail on how transcriptional circuits drive organelle adaptation, such that organelles may shift their function to better serve distinct differentiation and stress conditions. Thus, organelle dynamics and membrane traffic are functionally heterogeneous and adaptable processes that coordinate with higher-order system behavior to optimize cell function under a range of contexts. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of organellar phenomena will increasingly require combined use of reductionist and system-based approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ion Channels in Plant Bioenergetic Organelles, Chloroplasts and Mitochondria: From Molecular Identification to Function.

    PubMed

    Carraretto, Luca; Teardo, Enrico; Checchetto, Vanessa; Finazzi, Giovanni; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Szabo, Ildiko

    2016-03-07

    Recent technical advances in electrophysiological measurements, organelle-targeted fluorescence imaging, and organelle proteomics have pushed the research of ion transport a step forward in the case of the plant bioenergetic organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria, leading to the molecular identification and functional characterization of several ion transport systems in recent years. Here we focus on channels that mediate relatively high-rate ion and water flux and summarize the current knowledge in this field, focusing on targeting mechanisms, proteomics, electrophysiology, and physiological function. In addition, since chloroplasts evolved from a cyanobacterial ancestor, we give an overview of the information available about cyanobacterial ion channels and discuss the evolutionary origin of chloroplast channels. The recent molecular identification of some of these ion channels allowed their physiological functions to be studied using genetically modified Arabidopsis plants and cyanobacteria. The view is emerging that alteration of chloroplast and mitochondrial ion homeostasis leads to organelle dysfunction, which in turn significantly affects the energy metabolism of the whole organism. Clear-cut identification of genes encoding for channels in these organelles, however, remains a major challenge in this rapidly developing field. Multiple strategies including bioinformatics, cell biology, electrophysiology, use of organelle-targeted ion-sensitive probes, genetics, and identification of signals eliciting specific ion fluxes across organelle membranes should provide a better understanding of the physiological role of organellar channels and their contribution to signaling pathways in plants in the future.

  10. A dynamin is required for the biogenesis of secretory organelles in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Breinich, Manuela S; Ferguson, David J P; Foth, Bernardo J; van Dooren, Giel G; Lebrun, Maryse; Quon, Doris V; Striepen, Boris; Bradley, Peter J; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Carruthers, Vern B; Meissner, Markus

    2009-02-24

    Apicomplexans contain only a core set of factors involved in vesicular traffic. Yet these obligate intracellular parasites evolved a set of unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries, and dense granules) that are required for invasion and modulation of the host cell. Apicomplexa replicate by budding from or within a single mother cell, and secretory organelles are synthesized de novo at the final stage of division. To date, the molecular basis for their biogenesis is unknown. We demonstrate that the apicomplexan dynamin-related protein B (DrpB) belongs to an alveolate specific family of dynamins that is expanded in ciliates. DrpB accumulates in a cytoplasmic region close to the Golgi that breaks up during replication and reforms after assembly of the daughter cells. Conditional ablation of DrpB function results in mature daughter parasites that are devoid of micronemes and rhoptries. In the absence of these organelles, invasion-related secretory proteins are mistargeted to the constitutive secretory pathway. Mutant parasites are able to replicate but are unable to escape from or invade into host cells. DrpB is the essential mechanoenzyme for the biogenesis of secretory organelles in Apicomplexa. We suggest that DrpB is required during replication to generate vesicles for the regulated secretory pathway that form the unique secretory organelles. Our study supports a role of an alveolate-specific dynamin that was required for the evolution of novel, secretory organelles. In the case of Apicomplexa, these organelles further evolved to enable a parasitic lifestyle.

  11. Nuclearly encoded splicing factors implicated in RNA splicing in higher plant organelles.

    PubMed

    de Longevialle, Andéol Falcon; Small, Ian D; Lurin, Claire

    2010-07-01

    Plant organelles arose from two independent endosymbiosis events. Throughout evolutionary history, tight control of chloroplasts and mitochondria has been gained by the nucleus, which regulates most steps of organelle genome expression and metabolism. In particular, RNA maturation, including RNA splicing, is highly dependent on nuclearly encoded splicing factors. Most introns in organelles are group II introns, whose catalytic mechanism closely resembles that of the nuclear spliceosome. Plant group II introns have lost the ability to self-splice in vivo and require nuclearly encoded proteins as cofactors. Since the first splicing factor was identified in chloroplasts more than 10 years ago, many other proteins have been shown to be involved in splicing of one or more introns in chloroplasts or mitochondria. These new proteins belong to a variety of different families of RNA binding proteins and provide new insights into ribonucleo-protein complexes and RNA splicing machineries in organelles. In this review, we describe how splicing factors, encoded by the nucleus and targeted to the organelles, take part in post-transcriptional steps in higher plant organelle gene expression. We go on to discuss the potential for these factors to regulate organelle gene expression.

  12. An Organelle Gatekeeper Function for Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-16 (JIP3) at the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Stacey L.; Yu, Szi-chieh; Hoover, Christopher M.; Phillips, Barret C.; Richmond, Janet E.; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons must cope with extreme membrane trafficking demands to produce axons with organelle compositions that differ dramatically from those of the cell soma and dendrites; however, the mechanism by which they accomplish this is not understood. Here we use electron microscopy and quantitative imaging of tagged organelles to show that Caenorhabditis elegans axons lacking UNC-16 (JIP3/Sunday Driver) accumulate Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes at levels up to 10-fold higher than wild type, while ER membranes are largely unaffected. Time lapse microscopy of tagged lysosomes in living animals and an analysis of lysosome distributions in various regions of unc-16 mutant axons revealed that UNC-16 inhibits organelles from escaping the axon initial segment (AIS) and moving to the distal synaptic part of the axon. Immunostaining of native UNC-16 in C. elegans neurons revealed a localized concentration of UNC-16 at the initial segment, although UNC-16 is also sparsely distributed in distal regions of axons, including the synaptic region. Organelles that escape the AIS in unc-16 mutants show bidirectional active transport within the axon commissure that occasionally deposits them in the synaptic region, where their mobility decreases and they accumulate. These results argue against the long-standing, untested hypothesis that JIP3/Sunday Driver promotes anterograde organelle transport in axons and instead suggest an organelle gatekeeper model in which UNC-16 (JIP3/Sunday Driver) selectively inhibits the escape of Golgi and endosomal organelles from the AIS. This is the first evidence for an organelle gatekeeper function at the AIS, which could provide a regulatory node for controlling axon organelle composition. PMID:23633144

  13. An organelle gatekeeper function for Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-16 (JIP3) at the axon initial segment.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stacey L; Yu, Szi-chieh; Hoover, Christopher M; Phillips, Barret C; Richmond, Janet E; Miller, Kenneth G

    2013-05-01

    Neurons must cope with extreme membrane trafficking demands to produce axons with organelle compositions that differ dramatically from those of the cell soma and dendrites; however, the mechanism by which they accomplish this is not understood. Here we use electron microscopy and quantitative imaging of tagged organelles to show that Caenorhabditis elegans axons lacking UNC-16 (JIP3/Sunday Driver) accumulate Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes at levels up to 10-fold higher than wild type, while ER membranes are largely unaffected. Time lapse microscopy of tagged lysosomes in living animals and an analysis of lysosome distributions in various regions of unc-16 mutant axons revealed that UNC-16 inhibits organelles from escaping the axon initial segment (AIS) and moving to the distal synaptic part of the axon. Immunostaining of native UNC-16 in C. elegans neurons revealed a localized concentration of UNC-16 at the initial segment, although UNC-16 is also sparsely distributed in distal regions of axons, including the synaptic region. Organelles that escape the AIS in unc-16 mutants show bidirectional active transport within the axon commissure that occasionally deposits them in the synaptic region, where their mobility decreases and they accumulate. These results argue against the long-standing, untested hypothesis that JIP3/Sunday Driver promotes anterograde organelle transport in axons and instead suggest an organelle gatekeeper model in which UNC-16 (JIP3/Sunday Driver) selectively inhibits the escape of Golgi and endosomal organelles from the AIS. This is the first evidence for an organelle gatekeeper function at the AIS, which could provide a regulatory node for controlling axon organelle composition.

  14. Rapidly transported organelles containing membrane and cytoskeletal components: their relation to axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the movements, composition, and cellular origin of phase-dense varicosities in cultures of chick sympathetic and sensory neurons. These organelles are variable in diameter (typically between 0.2 and 2 microns) and undergo saltatory movements both towards and away from the neuronal cell body. Their mean velocities vary inversely with the size of the organelle and are greater in the retrograde than the anterograde direction. Organelles stain with the lipophilic dye 1, 1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine and with antibodies to cytoskeletal components. In cultures double-stained with antibodies to alpha-tubulin and 70-kD neurofilament protein (NF-L), approximately 40% of the organelles stain for tubulin, 30% stain for NF- L, 10% stain for both tubulin and NF-L, and 40% show no staining with either antibody. The association of cytoskeletal proteins with the organelles shows that these proteins are able to move by a form of rapid axonal transport. Under most culture conditions the predominant direction of movement is towards the cell body, suggesting that the organelles are produced at or near the growth cone. Retrograde movements continue in culture medium lacking protein or high molecular mass components and increase under conditions in which the advance of the growth cone is arrested. There is a fourfold increase in the number of organelles moving retrogradely in neurites that encounter a substratum-associated barrier to elongation; retrograde movements increase similarly in cultures exposed to cytochalasin at levels known to block growth cone advance. No previously described organelle shows behavior coordinated with axonal growth in this way. We propose that the organelles contain membrane and cytoskeletal components that have been delivered to the growth cone, by slow or fast anterograde transport, in excess of the amounts required to synthesize more axon. In view of their rapid mobility and variable contents, we suggest that they

  15. The CoRR hypothesis for genes in organelles.

    PubMed

    Allen, John F

    2017-04-11

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria perform energy transduction in photosynthesis and respiration. These processes can be described in physico-chemical terms with no obvious requirement for co-located genetic systems, separat from those of the rest of the cell. Accordingly, biochemists once tended to regard endosymbiosis as untestable evolutionary speculation. Lynn Sagan's seminal 1967 paper "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells" outlined the evolution of eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis of prokaryotes. The endosymbiont hypothesis is consistent with presence of DNA in chloroplasts and mitochondria, but does not assign it a function. Biochemistry and molecular biology now show that Sagan's proposal has an explanatory reach far beyond that originally envisaged. Prokaryotic origins of photosynthetic and respiratory mechanisms are apparent in protein structural insights into energy coupling. Genome sequencing confirms the underlying, prokaryotic architecture of chloroplasts and mitochondria and illustrates the profound influence of the original mergers of their ancestors' genes and proteins with those of their host cells. Peter Mitchell's 1961 chemiosmotic hypothesis applied the concept of vectorial catalysis that underlies biological energy transduction and cell structure, function, and origins. Continuity of electrical charge separation and membrane sidedness requires compartments within compartments, together with intricate mechanisms for transport within and between them. I suggest that the reason for the persistence of distinct genetic systems within bioenergetic organelles is the selective advantage of subcellular co-location of specific genes with their gene products. Co-location for Redox Regulation - CoRR - provides for a dialogue between chemical reduction-oxidation and the action of genes encoding its protein catalysts. These genes and their protein products are in intimate contact, and cannot be isolated from each other without loss of an essential mechanism of

  16. Chemokinesis and necrotaxis of human granulocytes: the important cellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Gruler, H; de Boisfleury Chevance, A

    1987-01-01

    The directed and non-directed locomotion of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes on a glass surface was compared to Brownian and drift motion. The average track velocity was measured under different conditions. The track velocity of colchicine treated cells was the same as control cells. However, cytochalasin B treated cells and cytokineplasts had a reduced track velocity compared with the control cells. The non-directed locomotion was investigated by measuring the mean square displacement as a function of time. The diffusion constant, D, which quantitates the random walk process, and the characteristic time, tau, which governs the migration of the cell, was calculated. The value of the diffusion constant depended on the cell treatment: For control cells 261 micron2/min, for colchicine treated cells 145 micron2/min, for cytochalasin B treated cells 55 micron2/min, and for cytokineplasts 47 micron2/min. The characteristic time was about 40 s. The measurement showed that the nondirected locomotion can be described by the Brownian motion. The directed locomotion was investigated by a necrotactic assay and quantitated by the McCutcheon index. This index was for control cells 0.85 +/- 0.07, for colchicine treated cells 0.8 +/- 0.07, and for cytokineplasts 0.75 +/- 0.1. The measurement showed that the directed locomotion can be described by a process which is called drift mode. From this method of analysis it was determined that the important organelles of the cell for the directed and the non-directed locomotion are: (i) A part of the plasma membrane, (ii) the microfilaments, and (iii) an unstructurated part of the cytoplasme. The microtubules of the cell are only of minor importance for the directed and the non-directed locomotion.

  17. Hypoxia signaling pathways: modulators of oxygen-related organelles

    PubMed Central

    Schönenberger, Miriam J.; Kovacs, Werner J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) is an essential substrate in cellular metabolism, bioenergetics, and signaling and as such linked to the survival and normal function of all metazoans. Low O2 tension (hypoxia) is a fundamental feature of physiological processes as well as pathophysiological conditions such as cancer and ischemic diseases. Central to the molecular mechanisms underlying O2 homeostasis are the hypoxia-inducible factors-1 and -2 alpha (HIF-1α and EPAS1/HIF-2α) that function as master regulators of the adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-induced genes promote characteristic tumor behaviors, including angiogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. The aim of this review is to critically explore current knowledge of how HIF-α signaling regulates the abundance and function of major O2-consuming organelles. Abundant evidence suggests key roles for HIF-1α in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. An essential adaptation to sustained hypoxia is repression of mitochondrial respiration and induction of glycolysis. HIF-1α activates several genes that trigger mitophagy and represses regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Several lines of evidence point to a strong relationship between hypoxia, the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and activation of the unfolded protein response. Surprisingly, although peroxisomes depend highly on molecular O2 for their function, there has been no evidence linking HIF signaling to peroxisomes. We discuss our recent findings that establish HIF-2α as a negative regulator of peroxisome abundance and suggest a mechanism by which cells attune peroxisomal function with O2 availability. HIF-2α activation augments peroxisome turnover by pexophagy and thereby changes lipid composition reminiscent of peroxisomal disorders. We discuss potential mechanisms by which HIF-2α might trigger pexophagy and place special emphasis on the potential pathological implications of HIF-2α-mediated pexophagy for human health. PMID:26258123

  18. Effects of organelle shape on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching.

    PubMed

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Mezzacasa, Anna; Helenius, Ari; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2005-09-01

    The determination of diffusion coefficients from fluorescence recovery data is often complicated by geometric constraints imposed by the complex shapes of intracellular compartments. To address this issue, diffusion of proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is studied using cell biological and computational methods. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments are performed in tissue culture cells expressing GFP-KDEL, a soluble, fluorescent protein, in the ER lumen. The three-dimensional (3D) shape of the ER is determined by confocal microscopy and computationally reconstructed. Within these ER geometries diffusion of solutes is simulated using the method of particle strength exchange. The simulations are compared to experimental FRAP curves of GFP-KDEL in the same ER region. Comparisons of simulations in the 3D ER shapes to simulations in open 3D space show that the constraints imposed by the spatial confinement result in two- to fourfold underestimation of the molecular diffusion constant in the ER if the geometry is not taken into account. Using the same molecular diffusion constant in different simulations, the observed speed of fluorescence recovery varies by a factor of 2.5, depending on the particular ER geometry and the location of the bleached area. Organelle shape considerably influences diffusive transport and must be taken into account when relating experimental photobleaching data to molecular diffusion coefficients. This novel methodology combines experimental FRAP curves with high accuracy computer simulations of diffusion in the same ER geometry to determine the molecular diffusion constant of the solute in the particular ER lumen.

  19. Effects of Organelle Shape on Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching

    PubMed Central

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Mezzacasa, Anna; Helenius, Ari; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2005-01-01

    The determination of diffusion coefficients from fluorescence recovery data is often complicated by geometric constraints imposed by the complex shapes of intracellular compartments. To address this issue, diffusion of proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is studied using cell biological and computational methods. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments are performed in tissue culture cells expressing GFP–KDEL, a soluble, fluorescent protein, in the ER lumen. The three-dimensional (3D) shape of the ER is determined by confocal microscopy and computationally reconstructed. Within these ER geometries diffusion of solutes is simulated using the method of particle strength exchange. The simulations are compared to experimental FRAP curves of GFP–KDEL in the same ER region. Comparisons of simulations in the 3D ER shapes to simulations in open 3D space show that the constraints imposed by the spatial confinement result in two- to fourfold underestimation of the molecular diffusion constant in the ER if the geometry is not taken into account. Using the same molecular diffusion constant in different simulations, the observed speed of fluorescence recovery varies by a factor of 2.5, depending on the particular ER geometry and the location of the bleached area. Organelle shape considerably influences diffusive transport and must be taken into account when relating experimental photobleaching data to molecular diffusion coefficients. This novel methodology combines experimental FRAP curves with high accuracy computer simulations of diffusion in the same ER geometry to determine the molecular diffusion constant of the solute in the particular ER lumen. PMID:15951382

  20. Bidirectional organelle transport can occur in cell processes that contain single microtubules

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Intracellular organelle transport was studied in a new model system, the giant freshwater ameba Reticulomyxa. The ameba extends a large reticulate network of cytoplasmic strands in which various phase-dense organelles can be seen to move at a rate of up to 25 microns/s. This combined light and high voltage electron microscopic study shows that organelles move bidirectionally in even the finest network strands that contain only a single microtubule. In terms of microtubule-associated intracellular transport, this observation defines a minimum set of conditions necessary for such movement. The implications of this finding for possible models of force generation are discussed. PMID:3965478

  1. Bidirectional organelle transport can occur in cell processes that contain single microtubules.

    PubMed

    Koonce, M P; Schliwa, M

    1985-01-01

    Intracellular organelle transport was studied in a new model system, the giant freshwater ameba Reticulomyxa. The ameba extends a large reticulate network of cytoplasmic strands in which various phase-dense organelles can be seen to move at a rate of up to 25 microns/s. This combined light and high voltage electron microscopic study shows that organelles move bidirectionally in even the finest network strands that contain only a single microtubule. In terms of microtubule-associated intracellular transport, this observation defines a minimum set of conditions necessary for such movement. The implications of this finding for possible models of force generation are discussed.

  2. Target Biological Structures: The Cell, Organelles, DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Holst, Marcelis; Grant, Maxine P.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice

    Living organisms are self replicating molecular factories of staggering complexity [1]. As a result, we are often overwhelmed when trying to identify potential targets for therapeutics. Water, inorganic ions and a large array of relatively small organic molecules (e.g., sugars, vitamins and fatty acids) account for approximately 80% of living matter, with water being the most abundant. Macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) constitute the rest. The majority of potential therapeutic targets are found within the cell. Small molecules which are vital for cellular function are imported into the cell by a variety of mechanisms but unlike smaller molecules, macromolecules are assembled within the cell itself. Drugs are usually designed to target cellular macromolecules, as they perform very specific roles in the metabolic processes.

  3. Organelle genome complexity scales positively with organism size in volvocine green algae.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Roy; Hamaji, Takashi; Olson, Bradley J S C; Durand, Pierre M; Ferris, Patrick; Michod, Richard E; Featherston, Jonathan; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Keeling, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    It has been argued that for certain lineages, noncoding DNA expansion is a consequence of the increased random genetic drift associated with long-term escalations in organism size. But a lack of data has prevented the investigation of this hypothesis in most plastid-bearing protists. Here, using newly sequenced mitochondrial and plastid genomes, we explore the relationship between organelle DNA noncoding content and organism size within volvocine green algae. By looking at unicellular, colonial, and differentiated multicellular algae, we show that organelle DNA complexity scales positively with species size and cell number across the volvocine lineage. Moreover, silent-site genetic diversity data suggest that the volvocine species with the largest cell numbers and most bloated organelle genomes have the smallest effective population sizes. Together, these findings support the view that nonadaptive processes, like random genetic drift, promote the expansion of noncoding regions in organelle genomes.

  4. Integrated regulation of motor-driven organelle transport by scaffolding proteins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Meng-meng; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2014-10-01

    Intracellular trafficking pathways, including endocytosis, autophagy, and secretion, rely on directed organelle transport driven by the opposing microtubule motor proteins kinesin and dynein. Precise spatial and temporal targeting of vesicles and organelles requires the integrated regulation of these opposing motors, which are often bound simultaneously to the same cargo. Recent progress demonstrates that organelle-associated scaffolding proteins, including Milton/TRAKs (trafficking kinesin-binding protein), JIP1, JIP3 (JNK-interacting proteins), huntingtin, and Hook1, interact with molecular motors to coordinate activity and sustain unidirectional transport. Scaffolding proteins also bind to upstream regulatory proteins, including kinases and GTPases, to modulate transport in the cell. This integration of regulatory control with motor activity allows for cargo-specific changes in the transport or targeting of organelles in response to cues from the complex cellular environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inter-organelle ER-endolysosomal contact sites in metabolism and disease across evolution.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Hanaa; Ugrankar, Rupali; Liu, Yang; Henne, W Mike

    2016-01-01

    Since their initial observation, contact sites formed between different organelles have transitioned from ignored curiosities to recognized centers for the exchange of metabolites and lipids. Contact formed between the ER and endomembrane system (eg. the plasma membrane, endosomes, and lysosomes) is of particular biomedical interest, as it governs aspects of lipid metabolism, organelle identity, and cell signaling. Here, we review the field of ER-endolysosomal communication from the perspective of three model systems: budding yeast, the fruit fly D. melanogaster, and mammals. From this broad perspective, inter-organelle communication displays a consistent role in metabolic regulation that was differentially tuned during the development of complex metazoan life. We also examine the current state of understanding of lipid exchange between organelles, and discuss molecular mechanisms by which this occurs.

  6. Purification of yeast membranes and organelles by sucrose density gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer; Ruiz, Victoria; Vancura, Ales

    2008-01-01

    Many experiments require isolation and purification of membranes and organelles from a cell-free lysate. A combination of differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation provides adequate separation of most yeast organelles in a single experiment. Yeast cells are converted to spheroplasts and gently lysed under conditions that preserve the integrity of organelles. The total lysate is subjected to differential centrifugation and the resulting membrane pellets are fractionated on density gradients. The method is based on the fact that different membranes contain different ratios of lipid to protein, and thus exhibit different density, allowing them to migrate through the gradient until they reach isopycnic position. The fractionated gradients are analyzed by Western blotting with antibodies that recognize marker proteins specific for individual organelles.

  7. Food Analysis Using Organelle DNA and the Effects of Processing on Assays.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane M

    2017-02-28

    Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens. Non-nuclear DNA is also used as an assay normalizer for detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods. This review describes these protocols plus the effects of processing on efficacy, with special emphasis on thermally produced DNA fragmentation. Future research may incorporate molecular techniques beyond detection, used instead as time-temperature indicators in thermal food processing or quality indicators in food fermentation or acidification.

  8. PAHs pass through the cell wall and partition into organelles of arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzheng; Cao, Xuezhang; Kang, Fuxing; Cheng, Zhaoxia

    2011-01-01

    The subcellular process and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arbuscular mycorrhizal plants remains to be elucidated. This work used a greenhouse experiment to show that, accompanied by the apoplastic and symplastic water movement through the root, acenaphthene (ACE) as a representative PAH passed through the cell-wall boundary, dissolved in the cell solution, and partition organelles in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The observed concentrations of ACE in organelles were 0.6 to 4.4 times higher than in the cell walls. The cell wall and organelles were the dominant storage domains for ACE in the root, and the distribution of ACE in cells of mycorrhizal ryegrass roots was, in descending order, cell organelles (40.8-70.8%) > cell wall (19.7-3.8%) cell solution (9.6-20.5%).

  9. Assessing light scattering of intracellular organelles in single intact living cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, Maxim; Choi, Wonshik; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Sung, Yongjin; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a model-independent method of assessing contributions to the light scattering from individual organelles in single intact cells. We first measure the 3D index map of a living cell, and then modify the map in such a way so as to eliminate contrast due to a particular intracellular organelle. By calculating and comparing the light scattering distributions calculated from the original and modified index maps using the Rytov approximation, we extract the light scattering contribution from the particular organelle of interest. The relative contributions of the nucleus and nucleolus to the scattering of the entire cell are thus determined, and the applicability of the homogeneous spherical model to non-spherical and heterogeneous organelles in forward scattering is evaluated. PMID:19997187

  10. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  11. FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles.

    PubMed

    Margolin, William

    2005-11-01

    Binary fission of many prokaryotes as well as some eukaryotic organelles depends on the FtsZ protein, which self-assembles into a membrane-associated ring structure early in the division process. FtsZ is homologous to tubulin, the building block of the microtubule cytoskeleton in eukaryotes. Recent advances in genomics and cell-imaging techniques have paved the way for the remarkable progress in our understanding of fission in bacteria and organelles.

  12. Limited Efficiency of Drug Delivery to Specific Intracellular Organelles Using Subcellularly "Targeted" Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2016-01-04

    Many drugs have been designed to act on intracellular targets and to affect intracellular processes inside target cells. For the desired effects to be exerted, these drugs should permeate target cells and reach specific intracellular organelles. This subcellular drug targeting approach has been proposed for enhancement of accumulation of these drugs in target organelles and improved efficiency. This approach is based on drug encapsulation in drug delivery systems (DDSs) and/or their decoration with specific targeting moieties that are intended to enhance the drug/DDS accumulation in the intracellular organelle of interest. During recent years, there has been a constant increase in interest in DDSs targeted to specific intracellular organelles, and many different approaches have been proposed for attaining efficient drug delivery to specific organelles of interest. However, it appears that in many studies insufficient efforts have been devoted to quantitative analysis of the major formulation parameters of the DDSs disposition (efficiency of DDS endocytosis and endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking, and efficiency of DDS delivery to the target organelle) and of the resulting pharmacological effects. Thus, in many cases, claims regarding efficient delivery of drug/DDS to a specific organelle and efficient subcellular targeting appear to be exaggerated. On the basis of the available experimental data, it appears that drugs/DDS decoration with specific targeting residues can affect their intracellular fate and result in preferential drug accumulation within an organelle of interest. However, it is not clear whether these approaches will be efficient in in vivo settings and be translated into preclinical and clinical applications. Studies that quantitatively assess the mechanisms, barriers, and efficiencies of subcellular drug delivery and of the associated toxic effects are required to determine the therapeutic potential of subcellular DDS targeting.

  13. Bioinformatics and functional analyses of coronavirus nonstructural proteins involved in the formation of replicative organelles.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Benjamin W

    2016-11-01

    Replication of eukaryotic positive-stranded RNA viruses is usually linked to the presence of membrane-associated replicative organelles. The purpose of this review is to discuss the function of proteins responsible for formation of the coronavirus replicative organelle. This will be done by identifying domains that are conserved across the order Nidovirales, and by summarizing what is known about function and structure at the level of protein domains.

  14. Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking of the endosome maturation trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Puchner, Elias M.; Walter, Jessica M.; Kasper, Robert; Huang, Bo; Lim, Wendell A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells tightly regulate trafficking of intracellular organelles, but a deeper understanding of this process is technically limited by our inability to track the molecular composition of individual organelles below the diffraction limit in size. Here we develop a technique for intracellularly calibrated superresolution microscopy that can measure the size of individual organelles as well as accurately count absolute numbers of molecules, by correcting for undercounting owing to immature fluorescent proteins and overcounting owing to fluorophore blinking. Using this technique, we characterized the size of individual vesicles in the yeast endocytic pathway and the number of accessible phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding sites they contain. This analysis reveals a characteristic vesicle maturation trajectory of composition and size with both stochastic and regulated components. The trajectory displays some cell-to-cell variability, with smaller variation between organelles within the same cell. This approach also reveals mechanistic information on the order of events in this trajectory: Colocalization analysis with known markers of different vesicle maturation stages shows that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate production precedes fusion into larger endosomes. This single-organelle analysis can potentially be applied to a range of small organelles to shed light on their precise composition/structure relationships, the dynamics of their regulation, and the noise in these processes. PMID:24043832

  15. Novel mitochondrion-related organelles in the anaerobic amoeba Mastigamoeba balamuthi.

    PubMed

    Gill, Erin E; Diaz-Triviño, Sara; Barberà, Maria José; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Stechmann, Alexandra; Gaston, Daniel; Tamas, Ivica; Roger, Andrew J

    2007-12-01

    Unicellular eukaryotes that lack mitochondria typically contain related organelles such as hydrogenosomes or mitosomes. To characterize the evolutionary diversity of these organelles, we conducted an expressed sequence tag (EST) survey on the free-living amoeba Mastigamoeba balamuthi, a relative of the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica. From 19 182 ESTs, we identified 21 putative mitochondrial proteins implicated in protein import, amino acid interconversion and carbohydrate metabolism, two components of the iron-sulphur cluster (Fe-S) assembly apparatus as well as two enzymes characteristic of hydrogenosomes. By immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we show that mitochondrial chaperonin 60 is targeted to small abundant organelles within Mastigamoeba. In transmission electron micrographs, we identified double-membraned compartments that likely correspond to these mitochondrion-derived organelles, The predicted organellar proteome of the Mastigamoeba organelle indicates a unique spectrum of functions that collectively have never been observed in mitochondrion-related organelles. However, like Entamoeba, the Fe-S cluster assembly proteins in Mastigamoeba were acquired by lateral gene transfer from epsilon-proteobacteria and do not possess obvious organellar targeting peptides. These data indicate that the loss of classical aerobic mitochondrial functions and acquisition of anaerobic enzymes and Fe-S cluster assembly proteins occurred in a free-living member of the eukaryote super-kingdom Amoebozoa.

  16. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  17. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  18. Correlative organelle fluorescence microscopy and synchrotron X-ray chemical element imaging in single cells.

    PubMed

    Roudeau, Stéphane; Carmona, Asuncion; Perrin, Laura; Ortega, Richard

    2014-11-01

    X-ray chemical element imaging has the potential to enable fundamental breakthroughs in the understanding of biological systems because chemical element interactions with organelles can be studied at the sub-cellular level. What is the distribution of trace metals in cells? Do some elements accumulate within sub-cellular organelles? What are the chemical species of the elements in these organelles? These are some of the fundamental questions that can be addressed by use of X-ray chemical element imaging with synchrotron radiation beams. For precise location of the distribution of the elements, identification of cellular organelles is required; this can be achieved, after appropriate labelling, by use of fluorescence microscopy. As will be discussed, this approach imposes some limitations on sample preparation. For example, standard immunolabelling procedures strongly modify the distribution of the elements in cells as a result of the chemical fixation and permeabilization steps. Organelle location can, however, be performed, by use of a variety of specific fluorescent dyes or fluorescent proteins, on living cells before cryogenic fixation, enabling preservation of element distribution. This article reviews the methods used for fluorescent organelle labelling and X-ray chemical element imaging and speciation of single cells. Selected cases from our work and from other research groups are presented to illustrate the potential of the combination of the two techniques.

  19. Mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 maintains oocyte quality via dynamic rearrangement of multiple organelles.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Osamu; Ishihara, Takaya; Maeda, Maki; Matsunaga, Yui; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yokota, Sadaki; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Mizushima, Noboru; Ishihara, Naotada

    2014-10-20

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that change their morphology by active fusion and fission in response to cellular signaling and differentiation. The in vivo role of mitochondrial fission in mammals has been examined by using tissue-specific knockout (KO) mice of the mitochondria fission-regulating GTPase Drp1, as well as analyzing a human patient harboring a point mutation in Drp1, showing that Drp1 is essential for embryonic and neonatal development and neuronal function. During oocyte maturation and aging, structures of various membrane organelles including mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are changed dynamically, and their organelle aggregation is related to germ cell formation and epigenetic regulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of organelle dynamics during the development and aging of oocytes have not been well understood. Here, we analyzed oocyte-specific mitochondrial fission factor Drp1-deficient mice and found that mitochondrial fission is essential for follicular maturation and ovulation in an age-dependent manner. Mitochondria were highly aggregated with other organelles, such as the ER and secretory vesicles, in KO oocyte, which resulted in impaired Ca(2+) signaling, intercellular communication via secretion, and meiotic resumption. We further found that oocytes from aged mice displayed reduced Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission and defective organelle morphogenesis, similar to Drp1 KO oocytes. On the basis of these findings, it appears that mitochondrial fission maintains the competency of oocytes via multiorganelle rearrangement.

  20. Mechanical properties of organelles driven by microtubule-dependent molecular motors in living cells.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Luciana; Salierno, Marcelo; Wetzler, Diana E; Despósito, Marcelo A; Levi, Valeria

    2011-04-01

    The organization of the cytoplasm is regulated by molecular motors which transport organelles and other cargoes along cytoskeleton tracks. Melanophores have pigment organelles or melanosomes that move along microtubules toward their minus and plus end by the action of cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2, respectively. In this work, we used single particle tracking to characterize the mechanical properties of motor-driven organelles during transport along microtubules. We tracked organelles with high temporal and spatial resolutions and characterized their dynamics perpendicular to the cytoskeleton track. The quantitative analysis of these data showed that the dynamics is due to a spring-like interaction between melanosomes and microtubules in a viscoelastic microenvironment. A model based on a generalized Langevin equation explained these observations and predicted that the stiffness measured for the motor complex acting as a linker between organelles and microtubules is ∼ one order smaller than that determined for motor proteins in vitro. This result suggests that other biomolecules involved in the interaction between motors and organelles contribute to the mechanical properties of the motor complex. We hypothesise that the high flexibility observed for the motor linker may be required to improve the efficiency of the transport driven by multiple copies of motor molecules.

  1. Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking of the endosome maturation trajectory.

    PubMed

    Puchner, Elias M; Walter, Jessica M; Kasper, Robert; Huang, Bo; Lim, Wendell A

    2013-10-01

    Cells tightly regulate trafficking of intracellular organelles, but a deeper understanding of this process is technically limited by our inability to track the molecular composition of individual organelles below the diffraction limit in size. Here we develop a technique for intracellularly calibrated superresolution microscopy that can measure the size of individual organelles as well as accurately count absolute numbers of molecules, by correcting for undercounting owing to immature fluorescent proteins and overcounting owing to fluorophore blinking. Using this technique, we characterized the size of individual vesicles in the yeast endocytic pathway and the number of accessible phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding sites they contain. This analysis reveals a characteristic vesicle maturation trajectory of composition and size with both stochastic and regulated components. The trajectory displays some cell-to-cell variability, with smaller variation between organelles within the same cell. This approach also reveals mechanistic information on the order of events in this trajectory: Colocalization analysis with known markers of different vesicle maturation stages shows that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate production precedes fusion into larger endosomes. This single-organelle analysis can potentially be applied to a range of small organelles to shed light on their precise composition/structure relationships, the dynamics of their regulation, and the noise in these processes.

  2. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Mandy S; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Mandy S.; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern.

  4. Quantitative analysis of organelle distribution and dynamics in Physcomitrella patens protonemal cells.

    PubMed

    Furt, Fabienne; Lemoi, Kyle; Tüzel, Erkan; Vidali, Luis

    2012-05-17

    In the last decade, the moss Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a powerful plant model system, amenable for genetic manipulations not possible in any other plant. This moss is particularly well suited for plant polarized cell growth studies, as in its protonemal phase, expansion is restricted to the tip of its cells. Based on pollen tube and root hair studies, it is well known that tip growth requires active secretion and high polarization of the cellular components. However, such information is still missing in Physcomitrella patens. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the participation of organelle organization in tip growth, it is essential to determine the distribution and the dynamics of the organelles in moss cells. We used fluorescent protein fusions to visualize and track Golgi dictyosomes, mitochondria, and peroxisomes in live protonemal cells. We also visualized and tracked chloroplasts based on chlorophyll auto-fluorescence. We showed that in protonemata all four organelles are distributed in a gradient from the tip of the apical cell to the base of the sub-apical cell. For example, the density of Golgi dictyosomes is 4.7 and 3.4 times higher at the tip than at the base in caulonemata and chloronemata respectively. While Golgi stacks are concentrated at the extreme tip of the caulonemata, chloroplasts and peroxisomes are totally excluded. Interestingly, caulonemata, which grow faster than chloronemata, also contain significantly more Golgi dictyosomes and fewer chloroplasts than chloronemata. Moreover, the motility analysis revealed that organelles in protonemata move with low persistency and average instantaneous speeds ranging from 29 to 75 nm/s, which are at least three orders of magnitude slower than those of pollen tube or root hair organelles. To our knowledge, this study reports the first quantitative analysis of organelles in Physcomitrella patens and will make possible comparisons of the distribution and dynamics of organelles

  5. ChloroMitoCU: Codon patterns across organelle genomes for functional genomics and evolutionary applications.

    PubMed

    Sablok, Gaurav; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Yang, Chi; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Porta, Nicola L; Nayak, Kinshuk C; Huang, Po-Jung; Varotto, Claudio; Tang, Petrus

    2017-06-01

    Organelle genomes are widely thought to have arisen from reduction events involving cyanobacterial and archaeal genomes, in the case of chloroplasts, or α-proteobacterial genomes, in the case of mitochondria. Heterogeneity in base composition and codon preference has long been the subject of investigation of topics ranging from phylogenetic distortion to the design of overexpression cassettes for transgenic expression. From the overexpression point of view, it is critical to systematically analyze the codon usage patterns of the organelle genomes. In light of the importance of codon usage patterns in the development of hyper-expression organelle transgenics, we present ChloroMitoCU, the first-ever curated, web-based reference catalog of the codon usage patterns in organelle genomes. ChloroMitoCU contains the pre-compiled codon usage patterns of 328 chloroplast genomes (29,960 CDS) and 3,502 mitochondrial genomes (49,066 CDS), enabling genome-wide exploration and comparative analysis of codon usage patterns across species. ChloroMitoCU allows the phylogenetic comparison of codon usage patterns across organelle genomes, the prediction of codon usage patterns based on user-submitted transcripts or assembled organelle genes, and comparative analysis with the pre-compiled patterns across species of interest. ChloroMitoCU can increase our understanding of the biased patterns of codon usage in organelle genomes across multiple clades. ChloroMitoCU can be accessed at: http://chloromitocu.cgu.edu.tw/. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  6. Intracellular organelles mediate cytoplasmic pulling force for centrosome centration in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Akatsuki

    2010-01-01

    The centrosome is generally maintained at the center of the cell. In animal cells, centrosome centration is powered by the pulling force of microtubules, which is dependent on cytoplasmic dynein. However, it is unclear how dynein brings the centrosome to the cell center, i.e., which structure inside the cell functions as a substrate to anchor dynein. Here, we provide evidence that a population of dynein, which is located on intracellular organelles and is responsible for organelle transport toward the centrosome, generates the force required for centrosome centration in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. By using the database of full-genome RNAi in C. elegans, we identified dyrb-1, a dynein light chain subunit, as a potential subunit involved in dynein anchoring for centrosome centration. DYRB-1 is required for organelle movement toward the minus end of the microtubules. The temporal correlation between centrosome centration and the net movement of organelle transport was found to be significant. Centrosome centration was impaired when Rab7 and RILP, which mediate the association between organelles and dynein in mammalian cells, were knocked down. These results indicate that minus end-directed transport of intracellular organelles along the microtubules is required for centrosome centration in C. elegans embryos. On the basis of this finding, we propose a model in which the reaction forces of organelle transport generated along microtubules act as a driving force that pulls the centrosomes toward the cell center. This is the first model, to our knowledge, providing a mechanical basis for cytoplasmic pulling force for centrosome centration. PMID:21173218

  7. The cytoskeleton maintains organelle partitioning required for single-cell C4 photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Simon D X; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2006-09-01

    Recently, three Chenopodiaceae species, Bienertia cycloptera, Bienertia sinuspersici, and Suaeda aralocaspica, were shown to possess novel C(4) photosynthesis mechanisms through the compartmentalization of organelles and photosynthetic enzymes into two distinct regions within a single chlorenchyma cell. Bienertia has peripheral and central compartments, whereas S. aralocaspica has distal and proximal compartments. This compartmentalization achieves the equivalent of spatial separation of Kranz anatomy, including dimorphic chloroplasts, but within a single cell. To characterize the mechanisms of organelle compartmentalization, the distribution of the major organelles relative to the cytoskeleton was examined. Examination of the distribution of the cytoskeleton using immunofluorescence studies and transient expression of green fluorescent protein-tagged cytoskeleton markers revealed a highly organized network of actin filaments and microtubules associating with the chloroplasts and showed that the two compartments in each cell had different cytoskeletal arrangements. Experiments using cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs showed in Bienertia and S. aralocaspica that microtubules are critical for the polarized positioning of chloroplasts and other organelles. Compartmentalization of the organelles in these species represents a unique system in higher plants and illustrates the degree of control the plant cell has over the organization and integration of multiorganellar processes within its cytoplasm.

  8. Intracellular Microreactors as Artificial Organelles to Conduct Multiple Enzymatic Reactions Simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gallardo, María; Labay, Cédric; Jansman, Michelle M T; Ek, Pramod K; Hosta-Rigau, Leticia

    2017-02-01

    The creation of artificial organelles is a new paradigm in medical therapy that aims to substitute for missing cellular function by replenishing a specific cellular task. Artificial organelles tackle the challenge of mimicking metabolism, which is the set of chemical reactions that occur within a cell, mainly catalyzed by enzymes. So far, the few reported carriers able to conduct enzymatic reactions intracellularly are based on single-compartment carriers. However, cell organelles outperform by conducting multiple reactions simultaneously within confined sub-compartments. Here, the field of artificial organelles is advanced by reporting the assembly of a microreactor consisting of polymer capsules entrapping gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and liposomes as sub-compartments. The fluorescence properties of AuNCs are employed to monitor the microreactors uptake by macrophages. Encapsulation is demonstrated and functionality of microreactors with trypsin (TRP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded liposomes is preserved. Multiple enzymatic reactions taking place simultaneously is demonstrated by exposing macrophages with the internalized microreactors to bis-(benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Pro-Arg)-Rho-110 and Amplex Red substrates, which are specific for TRP and HRP, respectively. Conversion of the substrates into the respective fluorescent products is observed. This report on the first microreactor conducting multiple enzymatic reactions simultaneously inside a cell is a considerable step in the field of artificial organelles.

  9. Organelle Transport in Cultured Drosophila Cells: S2 Cell Line and Primary Neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  10. New organelles by gene duplication in a biophysical model of eukaryote endomembrane evolution.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, Rohini; Thattai, Mukund

    2013-06-04

    Extant eukaryotic cells have a dynamic traffic network that consists of diverse membrane-bound organelles exchanging matter via vesicles. This endomembrane system arose and diversified during a period characterized by massive expansions of gene families involved in trafficking after the acquisition of a mitochondrial endosymbiont by a prokaryotic host cell >1.8 billion years ago. Here we investigate the mechanistic link between gene duplication and the emergence of new nonendosymbiotic organelles, using a minimal biophysical model of traffic. Our model incorporates membrane-bound compartments, coat proteins and adaptors that drive vesicles to bud and segregate cargo from source compartments, and SNARE proteins and associated factors that cause vesicles to fuse into specific destination compartments. In simulations, arbitrary numbers of compartments with heterogeneous initial compositions segregate into a few compositionally distinct subsets that we term organelles. The global structure of the traffic system (i.e., the number, composition, and connectivity of organelles) is determined completely by local molecular interactions. On evolutionary timescales, duplication of the budding and fusion machinery followed by loss of cross-interactions leads to the emergence of new organelles, with increased molecular specificity being necessary to maintain larger organellar repertoires. These results clarify potential modes of early eukaryotic evolution as well as more recent eukaryotic diversification.

  11. Systematic study of subcellular localization of Arabidopsis PPR proteins confirms a massive targeting to organelles

    PubMed Central

    Colcombet, Jean; Lopez-Obando, Mauricio; Heurtevin, Laure; Bernard, Clément; Martin, Karine; Berthomé, Richard; Lurin, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and fifty-eight genes coding for PentatricoPeptide Repeat (PPR) proteins are annotated in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Over the past 10 years, numerous reports have shown that many of these proteins function in organelles to target specific transcripts and are involved in post-transcriptional regulation. Therefore, they are thought to be important players in the coordination between nuclear and organelle genome expression. Only four of these proteins have been described to be addressed outside organelles, indicating that some PPRs could function in post-transcriptional regulations of nuclear genes. In this work, we updated and improved our current knowledge on the localization of PPR proteins of Arabidopsis within the plant cell. We particularly investigated the subcellular localization of 166 PPR proteins whose targeting predictions were ambiguous, using a combination of high-throughput cloning and microscopy. Through systematic localization experiments and data integration, we confirmed that PPR proteins are largely targeted to organelles and showed that dual targeting to both the mitochondria and plastid occurs more frequently than expected. These results allow us to speculate that dual-targeted PPR proteins could be important for the fine coordination of gene expressions in both organelles. PMID:24037373

  12. Widespread occurrence of organelle genome-encoded 5S rRNAs including permuted molecules

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Burger, Gertraud; Gray, Michael W.; Lang, B. Franz

    2014-01-01

    5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a universal component of ribosomes, and the corresponding gene is easily identified in archaeal, bacterial and nuclear genome sequences. However, organelle gene homologs (rrn5) appear to be absent from most mitochondrial and several chloroplast genomes. Here, we re-examine the distribution of organelle rrn5 by building mitochondrion- and plastid-specific covariance models (CMs) with which we screened organelle genome sequences. We not only recover all organelle rrn5 genes annotated in GenBank records, but also identify more than 50 previously unrecognized homologs in mitochondrial genomes of various stramenopiles, red algae, cryptomonads, malawimonads and apusozoans, and surprisingly, in the apicoplast (highly derived plastid) genomes of the coccidian pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella. Comparative modeling of RNA secondary structure reveals that mitochondrial 5S rRNAs from brown algae adopt a permuted triskelion shape that has not been seen elsewhere. Expression of the newly predicted rrn5 genes is confirmed experimentally in 10 instances, based on our own and published RNA-Seq data. This study establishes that particularly mitochondrial 5S rRNA has a much broader taxonomic distribution and a much larger structural variability than previously thought. The newly developed CMs will be made available via the Rfam database and the MFannot organelle genome annotator. PMID:25429974

  13. Role of centrins 2 and 3 in organelle segregation and cytokinesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Kumar, Praveen; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Wang, Ching C; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2012-01-01

    Centrins are calcium binding proteins involved in cell division in eukaryotes. Previously, we have shown that depletion of centrin1 in Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) displayed arrested organelle segregation resulting in loss of cytokinesis. In this study we analyzed the role of T. brucei centrin2 (TbCen2) and T. brucei 3 (TbCen3) in the early events of T. brucei procyclic cell cycle. Both the immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy showed that TbCen2 and 3-deficient cells were enlarged in size with duplicated basal bodies, multinuclei and new flagella that are detached along the length of the cell body. In both TbCen2 and TbCen3 depleted cells segregation of the organelles i.e. basal bodies, kinetoplast and nucleus was disrupted. Further analysis of the cells with defective organelle segregation identified three different sub configurations of organelle mis-segregations (Type 1-3). In addition, in majority of the TbCen2 depleted cells and in nearly half of the TbCen3 depleted cells, the kinetoplasts were enlarged and undivided. The abnormal segregations ultimately led to aborted cytokinesis and hence affected growth in these cells. Therefore, both centrin2 and 3 are involved in organelle segregation similar to centrin1 as was previously observed. In addition, we identified their role in kinetoplast division which may be also linked to overall mis-segregation.

  14. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-06-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies.

  15. Robust organelle size extractions from elastic scattering measurements of single cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannaday, Ashley E.; Draham, Robert; Berger, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate non-nuclear organelle size distributions in single cells by measuring angular scattering patterns and fitting them with Mie theory. Simulations have indicated that the large relative size distribution of organelles (mean:width≈2) leads to unstable Mie fits unless scattering is collected at polar angles less than 20 degrees. Our optical system has therefore been modified to collect angles down to 10 degrees. Initial validations will be performed on polystyrene bead populations whose size distributions resemble those of cell organelles. Unlike with the narrow bead distributions that are often used for calibration, we expect to see an order-of-magnitude improvement in the stability of the size estimates as the minimum angle decreases from 20 to 10 degrees. Scattering patterns will then be acquired and analyzed from single cells (EMT6 mouse cancer cells), both fixed and live, at multiple time points. Fixed cells, with no changes in organelle sizes over time, will be measured to determine the fluctuation level in estimated size distribution due to measurement imperfections alone. Subsequent measurements on live cells will determine whether there is a higher level of fluctuation that could be attributed to dynamic changes in organelle size. Studies on unperturbed cells are precursors to ones in which the effects of exogenous agents are monitored over time.

  16. Organelles - understanding noise and heterogeneity in cell biology at an intermediate scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Amy Y; Marshall, Wallace F

    2017-03-01

    Many studies over the years have shown that non-genetic mechanisms for producing cell-to-cell variation can lead to highly variable behaviors across genetically identical populations of cells. Most work to date has focused on gene expression noise as the primary source of phenotypic heterogeneity, yet other sources may also contribute. In this Commentary, we explore organelle-level heterogeneity as a potential secondary source of cellular 'noise' that contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity. We explore mechanisms for generating organelle heterogeneity and present evidence of functional links between organelle morphology and cellular behavior. Given the many instances in which molecular-level heterogeneity has been linked to phenotypic heterogeneity, we posit that organelle heterogeneity may similarly contribute to overall phenotypic heterogeneity and underline the importance of studying organelle heterogeneity to develop a more comprehensive understanding of phenotypic heterogeneity. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the medical challenges associated with phenotypic heterogeneity and outline how improved methods for characterizing and controlling this heterogeneity may lead to improved therapeutic strategies and outcomes for patients. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Organelle transport in cultured Drosophila cells: S2 cell line and primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Del Castillo, Urko; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2013-11-20

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport.

  18. Widespread occurrence of organelle genome-encoded 5S rRNAs including permuted molecules.

    PubMed

    Valach, Matus; Burger, Gertraud; Gray, Michael W; Lang, B Franz

    2014-12-16

    5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a universal component of ribosomes, and the corresponding gene is easily identified in archaeal, bacterial and nuclear genome sequences. However, organelle gene homologs (rrn5) appear to be absent from most mitochondrial and several chloroplast genomes. Here, we re-examine the distribution of organelle rrn5 by building mitochondrion- and plastid-specific covariance models (CMs) with which we screened organelle genome sequences. We not only recover all organelle rrn5 genes annotated in GenBank records, but also identify more than 50 previously unrecognized homologs in mitochondrial genomes of various stramenopiles, red algae, cryptomonads, malawimonads and apusozoans, and surprisingly, in the apicoplast (highly derived plastid) genomes of the coccidian pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella. Comparative modeling of RNA secondary structure reveals that mitochondrial 5S rRNAs from brown algae adopt a permuted triskelion shape that has not been seen elsewhere. Expression of the newly predicted rrn5 genes is confirmed experimentally in 10 instances, based on our own and published RNA-Seq data. This study establishes that particularly mitochondrial 5S rRNA has a much broader taxonomic distribution and a much larger structural variability than previously thought. The newly developed CMs will be made available via the Rfam database and the MFannot organelle genome annotator. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. The exception proves the rule? Dual targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins into endosymbiotic organelles.

    PubMed

    Baudisch, Bianca; Langner, Uwe; Garz, Ingo; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells harbor two types of endosymbiotic organelle: mitochondria and chloroplasts. As a consequence of endosymbiotic gene transfer, the majority of their proteins are encoded in the nucleus and post-translationally 're'-imported into the respective target organelle. The corresponding transport signals are usually selective for a single organelle, but several proteins are transported into both the mitochondria and chloroplasts. To estimate the number of proteins with such dual targeting properties in Arabidopsis, we classified the proteins encoded by nuclear genes of endosymbiotic origin according to the respective targeting specificity of their N-terminal transport signals as predicted by the TargetP software package. Selected examples of the resulting protein classes were subsequently analyzed by transient transformation assays as well as by in organello protein transport experiments. It was found that most proteins with high prediction values for both organelles show dual targeting with both experimental approaches. Unexpectedly, however, dual targeting was even found among those proteins that are predicted to be localized solely in one of the two endosymbiotic organelles. In total, among the 16 candidate proteins analyzed, we identified 10 proteins with dual targeting properties. This unexpectedly high proportion suggests that such transport properties are much more abundant than anticipated.

  20. New Organelles by Gene Duplication in a Biophysical Model of Eukaryote Endomembrane Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ramadas, Rohini; Thattai, Mukund

    2013-01-01

    Extant eukaryotic cells have a dynamic traffic network that consists of diverse membrane-bound organelles exchanging matter via vesicles. This endomembrane system arose and diversified during a period characterized by massive expansions of gene families involved in trafficking after the acquisition of a mitochondrial endosymbiont by a prokaryotic host cell >1.8 billion years ago. Here we investigate the mechanistic link between gene duplication and the emergence of new nonendosymbiotic organelles, using a minimal biophysical model of traffic. Our model incorporates membrane-bound compartments, coat proteins and adaptors that drive vesicles to bud and segregate cargo from source compartments, and SNARE proteins and associated factors that cause vesicles to fuse into specific destination compartments. In simulations, arbitrary numbers of compartments with heterogeneous initial compositions segregate into a few compositionally distinct subsets that we term organelles. The global structure of the traffic system (i.e., the number, composition, and connectivity of organelles) is determined completely by local molecular interactions. On evolutionary timescales, duplication of the budding and fusion machinery followed by loss of cross-interactions leads to the emergence of new organelles, with increased molecular specificity being necessary to maintain larger organellar repertoires. These results clarify potential modes of early eukaryotic evolution as well as more recent eukaryotic diversification. PMID:23746528

  1. Functional diversity of Arabidopsis organelle-localized RNA-recognition motif-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowen; Hanson, Maureen R; Bentolila, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Binding Proteins (RBPs) play key roles in plant gene expression and regulation. RBPs contain a variety of RNA-binding motifs, the most abundant and most widespread one in eukaryotes is the RNA recognition motif (RRM). Many nucleus-encoded RRM-containing proteins are transported into chloroplasts and/or mitochondria, and participate in various RNA-related processes in plant organelles. Loss of these proteins can have a detrimental effect on some critical processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, sometimes leading to lethality. Progress has been made in the last few years in understanding the function of particular organelle-localized RRM-containing proteins. Members of the Organelle RRM protein (ORRM, some also characterized as Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Proteins) family and the Chloroplast RiboNucleoProtein (cpRNP) family, are involved in various types of RNA metabolism, including RNA editing, RNA stability and RNA processing. Organelle-localized RRM proteins also function in plant development and stress responses, in some conditions acting as protein or RNA chaperones. There has been recent progress in characterizing the function of organelle-localized RRM proteins in RNA-related processes and how RRM proteins contribute to the normal growth and development of plants. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1420. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1420 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Can polymeric vesicles that confine enzymatic reactions act as simplified organelles?

    PubMed

    Tanner, Pascal; Egli, Stefan; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Onaca, Ozana; Palivan, Cornelia G; Meier, Wolfgang

    2011-06-06

    In various pathological conditions an advantage may be gained by reinforcing an intrinsic organismal response. This can be achieved, for example, by enzyme replacement therapy, which can amplify specific, intrinsic activities of the organelles. In this respect, polymeric nanoreactors composed of vesicles that encapsulate an enzyme or a combination of enzymes in their cavities represent a novel approach in therapeutic applications because they behave like simplified organelles. As compartments, polymeric vesicles possess a membrane that is more stable than the corresponding lipid membrane of liposomes, with the dual role of protecting enzymes and simultaneously allowing them to act in situ. A complex scenario of requirements must be fulfilled by enzyme-containing polymeric nanoreactors if they are to function under biological conditions and serve to model organelles. Nanoreactors are described here in terms of the existing models and the challenges faced in developing artificial organelles for therapeutic applications. We will focus on describing how polymeric vesicles can be used to provide a protected compartment for enzymatic reactions, and serve as simplified organelles inside cells. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic study of subcellular localization of Arabidopsis PPR proteins confirms a massive targeting to organelles.

    PubMed

    Colcombet, Jean; Lopez-Obando, Mauricio; Heurtevin, Laure; Bernard, Clément; Martin, Karine; Berthomé, Richard; Lurin, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and fifty-eight genes coding for PentatricoPeptide Repeat (PPR) proteins are annotated in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Over the past 10 years, numerous reports have shown that many of these proteins function in organelles to target specific transcripts and are involved in post-transcriptional regulation. Therefore, they are thought to be important players in the coordination between nuclear and organelle genome expression. Only four of these proteins have been described to be addressed outside organelles, indicating that some PPRs could function in post-transcriptional regulations of nuclear genes. In this work, we updated and improved our current knowledge on the localization of PPR proteins of Arabidopsis within the plant cell. We particularly investigated the subcellular localization of 166 PPR proteins whose targeting predictions were ambiguous, using a combination of high-throughput cloning and microscopy. Through systematic localization experiments and data integration, we confirmed that PPR proteins are largely targeted to organelles and showed that dual targeting to both the mitochondria and plastid occurs more frequently than expected. These results allow us to speculate that dual-targeted PPR proteins could be important for the fine coordination of gene expressions in both organelles.

  4. Mitochondria and hydrogenosomes are two forms of the same fundamental organelle.

    PubMed Central

    Embley, T Martin; van der Giezen, Mark; Horner, David S; Dyal, Patricia L; Foster, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Published data suggest that hydrogenosomes, organelles found in diverse anaerobic eukaryotes that make energy and hydrogen, were once mitochondria. As hydrogenosomes generally lack a genome, the conversion is probably one way. The sources of the key hydrogenosomal enzymes, pyruvate : ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) and hydrogenase, are not resolved by current phylogenetic analyses, but it is likely that both were present at an early stage of eukaryotic evolution. Once thought to be restricted to a few unusual anaerobic eukaryotes, the proteins are intimately integrated into the fabric of diverse eukaryotic cells, where they are targeted to different cell compartments, and not just hydrogenosomes. There is no evidence supporting the view that PFO and hydrogenase originated from the mitochondrial endosymbiont, as posited by the hydrogen hypothesis for eukaryogenesis. Other organelles derived from mitochondria have now been described in anaerobic and parasitic microbial eukaryotes, including species that were once thought to have diverged before the mitochondrial symbiosis. It thus seems possible that all eukaryotes may eventually be shown to contain an organelle of mitochondrial ancestry, to which different types of biochemistry can be targeted. It remains to be seen if, despite their obvious differences, this family of organelles shares a common function of importance for the eukaryotic cell, other than energy production, that might provide the underlying selection pressure for organelle retention. PMID:12594927

  5. Nucleotide specificity for the bidirectional transport of membrane-bounded organelles in isolated axoplasm.

    PubMed

    Leopold, P L; Snyder, R; Bloom, G S; Brady, S T

    1990-01-01

    Video microscopy of isolated axoplasm from the squid giant axon permits correlated quantitative analyses of membrane-bounded organelle transport both in the intact axoplasm and along individual microtubules. As a result, the effects of experimental manipulations on both anterograde and retrograde movements of membrane-bounded organelles can be evaluated under nearly physiological conditions. Since anterograde and retrograde fast axonal transport are similar but distinct cellular processes, a systematic biochemical analysis is important for a further understanding of the molecular mechanisms for each. In this series of experiments, we employed isolated axoplasm of the squid to define the nucleoside triphosphate specificity for bidirectional organelle motility in the axon. Perfusion of axoplasm with 2-20 mM ATP preserved optimal vesicle velocities in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. Organelle velocities decreased to less than 50% of optimal values when the axoplasm was perfused with 10-20 mM UTP, GTP, ITP, or CTP with simultaneous depletion of endogenous ATP with hexokinase. Under the same conditions, TTP and ATP-gamma-S were unable to support significant levels of transport. None of the NTPs tested had a differential effect on anterograde vs. retrograde movement of vesicles. Surprisingly, several inconsistencies were revealed when a comparison was made between these results and nucleoside triphosphate specificities that have been reported for putative organelle motors by using in vitro assays. These data may be used in conjunction with data from well-defined in vitro assays to develop models for the molecular mechanisms of axonal transport.

  6. Autophagy and lysosomal related protein expression patterns in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Mitrakas, Achileas; Kalamida, Dimitra; Zois, Christos E; Haider, Syed; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Pappa, Aglaia; Gatter, Kevin C; Harris, Adrian L; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells are resistant to apoptotic stimuli with autophagic death prevailing under cytotoxic stress. Autophagy interfering agents may represent a new strategy to test in combination with chemo-radiation. We investigated the patterns of expression of autophagy related proteins (LC3A, LC3B, p62, Beclin 1, ULK1 and ULK2) in a series of patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy. Experiments with glioblastoma cell lines (T98 and U87) were also performed to assess autophagic response under conditions simulating the adverse intratumoral environment. Glioblastomas showed cytoplasmic overexpression of autophagic proteins in a varying extent, so that cases could be grouped into low and high expression groups. 10/23, 5/23, 13/23, 5/23, 8/23 and 9/23 cases examined showed extensive expression of LC3A, LC3B, Beclin 1, Ulk 1, Ulk 2 and p62, respectively. Lysosomal markers Cathepsin D and LAMP2a, as well as the lyososomal biogenesis transcription factor TFEB were frequently overexpressed in glioblastomas (10/23, 11/23, and 10/23 cases, respectively). TFEB was directly linked with PTEN, Cathepsin D, HIF1α, LC3B, Beclin 1 and p62 expression. PTEN was also significantly related with LC3B but not LC3A expression, in both immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Confocal microscopy in T98 and U87 cell lines showed distinct identity of LC3A and LC3B autophagosomes. The previously reported stone-like structure (SLS) pattern of LC3 expression was related with prognosis. SLS were inducible in glioblastoma cell lines under exposure to acidic conditions and 2DG mediated glucose antagonism. The present study provides the basis for autophagic characterization of human glioblastoma for further translational studies and targeted therapy trials.

  7. A nanobuffer reporter library for fine-scale imaging and perturbation of endocytic organelles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Endosomes, lysosomes and related catabolic organelles are a dynamic continuum of vacuolar structures that impact a number of cell physiological processes such as protein/lipid metabolism, nutrient sensing and cell survival. Here we develop a library of ultra-pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles with chemical properties that allow fine-scale, multiplexed, spatio-temporal perturbation and quantification of catabolic organelle maturation at single organelle resolution to support quantitative investigation of these processes in living cells.

  8. GAP, an aequorin-based fluorescent indicator for imaging Ca2+ in organelles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Arancha; Rojo-Ruiz, Jonathan; Navas-Navarro, Paloma; Aulestia, Francisco Javier; Gallego-Sandin, Sonia; Garcia-Sancho, Javier; Alonso, Maria Teresa

    2014-02-18

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators allow monitoring subcellular Ca(2+) signals inside organelles. Most genetically encoded calcium indicators are fusions of endogenous calcium-binding proteins whose functionality in vivo may be perturbed by competition with cellular partners. We describe here a novel family of fluorescent Ca(2+) sensors based on the fusion of two Aequorea victoria proteins, GFP and apo-aequorin (GAP). GAP exhibited a unique combination of features: dual-excitation ratiometric imaging, high dynamic range, good signal-to-noise ratio, insensitivity to pH and Mg(2+), tunable Ca(2+) affinity, uncomplicated calibration, and targetability to five distinct organelles. Moreover, transgenic mice for endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GAP exhibited a robust long-term expression that correlated well with its reproducible performance in various neural tissues. This biosensor fills a gap in the actual repertoire of Ca(2+) indicators for organelles and becomes a valuable tool for in vivo Ca(2+) imaging applications.

  9. Ca2+/H+ exchange by acidic organelles regulates cell migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Melchionda, Manuela; Pittman, Jon K.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates Ca2+ in the control of cell migration. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Acidic Ca2+ stores are fast emerging as signaling centers. But how Ca2+ is taken up by these organelles in metazoans and the physiological relevance for migration is unclear. Here, we identify a vertebrate Ca2+/H+ exchanger (CAX) as part of a widespread family of homologues in animals. CAX is expressed in neural crest cells and required for their migration in vivo. It localizes to acidic organelles, tempers evoked Ca2+ signals, and regulates cell-matrix adhesion during migration. Our data provide new molecular insight into how Ca2+ is handled by acidic organelles and link this to migration, thereby underscoring the role of noncanonical Ca2+ stores in the control of Ca2+-dependent function. PMID:27002171

  10. Organelle DNA variation and systematic relationships in the genus Zea: Teosinte

    PubMed Central

    Timothy, D. H.; Levings, C. S.; Pring, D. R.; Conde, M. F.; Kermicle, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs from six races of annual teosinte (Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Balsas, Central Plateau, Chalco, and Nobogame), perennial teosinte, and maize were compared and grouped by restriction endonuclease fragment analyses. Three groups of chloroplast DNAs were detected: (i) perennial teosinte and Guatemala; (ii) Balsas and Huehuetenango; and (iii) all other teosintes. Four groups of mitochondrial DNAs were separated: (i) perennial teosinte; (ii) Guatemala; (iii) Nobogame; and (iv) all other teosintes. Separation of the teosinte and maize organelle DNAs into five groups (Guatemala; perennial teosinte; Balsas and Huehuetenango; Central Plateau and Chalco; Nobogame and maize) approximated the biosystematic relationships of the taxa. It was suggested that the evolutions of the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs may be independent of each other, that variation of organelle DNA within a species complex of an organism may be the common condition, and that the DNAs of the organelle and nuclear systems evolve in reasonable harmony. Images PMID:16592708

  11. Organelle DNA variation and systematic relationships in the genus Zea: Teosinte.

    PubMed

    Timothy, D H; Levings, C S; Pring, D R; Conde, M F; Kermicle, J L

    1979-09-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs from six races of annual teosinte (Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Balsas, Central Plateau, Chalco, and Nobogame), perennial teosinte, and maize were compared and grouped by restriction endonuclease fragment analyses. Three groups of chloroplast DNAs were detected: (i) perennial teosinte and Guatemala; (ii) Balsas and Huehuetenango; and (iii) all other teosintes. Four groups of mitochondrial DNAs were separated: (i) perennial teosinte; (ii) Guatemala; (iii) Nobogame; and (iv) all other teosintes. Separation of the teosinte and maize organelle DNAs into five groups (Guatemala; perennial teosinte; Balsas and Huehuetenango; Central Plateau and Chalco; Nobogame and maize) approximated the biosystematic relationships of the taxa. It was suggested that the evolutions of the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs may be independent of each other, that variation of organelle DNA within a species complex of an organism may be the common condition, and that the DNAs of the organelle and nuclear systems evolve in reasonable harmony.

  12. Fat(al) attraction: Picornaviruses Usurp Lipid Transfer at Membrane Contact Sites to Create Replication Organelles.

    PubMed

    van der Schaar, Hilde M; Dorobantu, Cristina M; Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-07-01

    All viruses that carry a positive-sense RNA genome (+RNA), such as picornaviruses, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, and SARS- and MERS-coronavirus, confiscate intracellular membranes of the host cell to generate new compartments (i.e., replication organelles) for amplification of their genome. Replication organelles (ROs) are membranous structures that not only harbor viral proteins but also contain a specific array of hijacked host factors that create a unique lipid microenvironment optimal for genome replication. While some lipids may be locally synthesized de novo, other lipids are shuttled towards ROs. In picornavirus-infected cells, lipids are exchanged at membrane contact sites between ROs and other organelles. In this paper, we review recent advances in our understanding of how picornaviruses exploit host membrane contact site machinery to generate ROs, a mechanism that is used by some other +RNA viruses as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein kinase Darkener of apricot and its substrate EF1γ regulate organelle transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Serpinskaya, Anna S; Tuphile, Karine; Rabinow, Leonard; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of organelle transport along microtubules is important for proper distribution of membrane organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm. RNAi-mediated knockdown in cultured Drosophila S2 cells demonstrates that two microtubule-binding proteins, a unique isoform of Darkener of apricot (DOA) protein kinase, and its substrate, translational elongation factor EF1γ, negatively regulate transport of several classes of membrane organelles along microtubules. Inhibition of transport by EF1γ requires its phosphorylation by DOA on serine 294. Together, our results indicate a new role for two proteins that have not previously been implicated in regulation of the cytoskeleton. These results further suggest that the biological role of some of the proteins binding to the microtubule track is to regulate cargo transport along these tracks.

  14. Artificially-induced organelles are optimal targets for optical trapping experiments in living cells

    PubMed Central

    López-Quesada, C.; Fontaine, A.-S.; Farré, A.; Joseph, M.; Selva, J.; Egea, G.; Ludevid, M. D.; Martín-Badosa, E.; Montes-Usategui, M.

    2014-01-01

    Optical trapping supplies information on the structural, kinetic or rheological properties of inner constituents of the cell. However, the application of significant forces to intracellular objects is notoriously difficult due to a combination of factors, such as the small difference between the refractive indices of the target structures and the cytoplasm. Here we discuss the possibility of artificially inducing the formation of spherical organelles in the endoplasmic reticulum, which would contain densely packed engineered proteins, to be used as optimized targets for optical trapping experiments. The high index of refraction and large size of our organelles provide a firm grip for optical trapping and thereby allow us to exert large forces easily within safe irradiation limits. This has clear advantages over alternative probes, such as subcellular organelles or internalized synthetic beads. PMID:25071944

  15. Artificially-induced organelles are optimal targets for optical trapping experiments in living cells.

    PubMed

    López-Quesada, C; Fontaine, A-S; Farré, A; Joseph, M; Selva, J; Egea, G; Ludevid, M D; Martín-Badosa, E; Montes-Usategui, M

    2014-07-01

    Optical trapping supplies information on the structural, kinetic or rheological properties of inner constituents of the cell. However, the application of significant forces to intracellular objects is notoriously difficult due to a combination of factors, such as the small difference between the refractive indices of the target structures and the cytoplasm. Here we discuss the possibility of artificially inducing the formation of spherical organelles in the endoplasmic reticulum, which would contain densely packed engineered proteins, to be used as optimized targets for optical trapping experiments. The high index of refraction and large size of our organelles provide a firm grip for optical trapping and thereby allow us to exert large forces easily within safe irradiation limits. This has clear advantages over alternative probes, such as subcellular organelles or internalized synthetic beads.

  16. Healthspan and longevity in mammals: a family game for cellular organelles?

    PubMed

    Nisoli, Enzo; Valerio, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Healthy mitochondria are essential generators of cellular energy, while senescent or damaged mitochondria are bioenergetically inefficient and are sources of reactive oxygen species. The mitochondrial life cycle, comprising biogenesis, fusion/fission events and mitophagic elimination, is carefully orchestrated, and age-related decay of the lifecycle contributes to chronic degenerative diseases. Mitochondria make contacts with other cellular organelles in the endomembrane system (endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes and lysosomes) whose dynamics are co-regulated and interactions finely tuned to meet the cell requirements and maintain the health of the organism. This review will consider the evidence that mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control, as well as the complex interplay among cellular organelles, may be affected by the aging process(es), with negative consequences for the well being of elderly individuals. Moreover, we propose that nutrients or drugs able to maintain organelle homeostasis may represent novel preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for chronic age-related diseases.

  17. Ca2+/H+ exchange by acidic organelles regulates cell migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Melchionda, Manuela; Pittman, Jon K; Mayor, Roberto; Patel, Sandip

    2016-03-28

    Increasing evidence implicates Ca(2+) in the control of cell migration. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Acidic Ca(2+) stores are fast emerging as signaling centers. But how Ca(2+) is taken up by these organelles in metazoans and the physiological relevance for migration is unclear. Here, we identify a vertebrate Ca(2+)/H(+)exchanger (CAX) as part of a widespread family of homologues in animals. CAX is expressed in neural crest cells and required for their migration in vivo. It localizes to acidic organelles, tempers evoked Ca(2+) signals, and regulates cell-matrix adhesion during migration. Our data provide new molecular insight into how Ca(2+) is handled by acidic organelles and link this to migration, thereby underscoring the role of noncanonical Ca(2+) stores in the control of Ca(2+)-dependent function. © 2016 Melchionda et al.

  18. GAP, an aequorin-based fluorescent indicator for imaging Ca2+ in organelles

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Arancha; Rojo-Ruiz, Jonathan; Navas-Navarro, Paloma; Aulestia, Francisco Javier; Gallego-Sandin, Sonia; Garcia-Sancho, Javier; Alonso, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators allow monitoring subcellular Ca2+ signals inside organelles. Most genetically encoded calcium indicators are fusions of endogenous calcium-binding proteins whose functionality in vivo may be perturbed by competition with cellular partners. We describe here a novel family of fluorescent Ca2+ sensors based on the fusion of two Aequorea victoria proteins, GFP and apo-aequorin (GAP). GAP exhibited a unique combination of features: dual-excitation ratiometric imaging, high dynamic range, good signal-to-noise ratio, insensitivity to pH and Mg2+, tunable Ca2+ affinity, uncomplicated calibration, and targetability to five distinct organelles. Moreover, transgenic mice for endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GAP exhibited a robust long-term expression that correlated well with its reproducible performance in various neural tissues. This biosensor fills a gap in the actual repertoire of Ca2+ indicators for organelles and becomes a valuable tool for in vivo Ca2+ imaging applications. PMID:24501126

  19. Phosphorylation-mediated RNA/peptide complex coacervation as a model for intracellular liquid organelles.

    PubMed

    Aumiller, William M; Keating, Christine D

    2016-02-01

    Biological cells are highly organized, with numerous subcellular compartments. Phosphorylation has been hypothesized as a means to control the assembly/disassembly of liquid-like RNA- and protein-rich intracellular bodies, or liquid organelles, that lack delimiting membranes. Here, we demonstrate that charge-mediated phase separation, or complex coacervation, of RNAs with cationic peptides can generate simple model liquid organelles capable of reversibly compartmentalizing biomolecules. Formation and dissolution of these liquid bodies was controlled by changes in peptide phosphorylation state using a kinase/phosphatase enzyme pair. The droplet-generating phase transition responded to modification of even a single serine residue. Electrostatic interactions between the short cationic peptides and the much longer polyanionic RNAs drove phase separation. Coacervates were also formed on silica beads, a primitive model for localization at specific intracellular sites. This work supports phosphoregulation of complex coacervation as a viable mechanism for dynamic intracellular compartmentalization in membraneless organelles.

  20. Membrane contact sites between pathogen-containing compartments and host organelles.

    PubMed

    Dumoux, Maud; Hayward, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular pathogens survive and replicate within specialised membrane-bound compartments that can be considered as pseudo-organelles. Using the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia as an illustrative example, we consider the modes of lipid transport between pathogen-containing compartments and host organelles, including the formation of static membrane contact sites. We discuss how lipid scavenging can be mediated via the reprogramming of cellular transporters at these interfaces and describe recent data suggesting that pathogen effectors modulate the formation of specific membrane contacts. Further study of these emerging mechanisms is likely to yield new insights into the cell biology of lipid transport and organelle communication, which highlights potential new targets and strategies for future therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryptic organelle homology in Apicomplexan parasites: Insights from evolutionary cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Christen M.; Nisbet, R. Ellen; Ouologuem, Dinkorma T.; Roos, David S.; Dacks, Joel B.

    2013-01-01

    The economic and clinical significance of apicomplexan parasites drives interest in their many evolutionary novelties. Distinctive intracellular organelles play key roles in parasite motility, invasion, metabolism, and replication, and understanding their relationship with the organelles of better-studied eukaryotic systems suggests potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Recent work has demonstrated divergent aspects of canonical eukaryotic components in the apicomplexa, including Golgi bodies and mitochondria. The apicoplast is a relict plastid of secondary endosymbiotic origin, harboring metabolic pathways distinct from those of host species. The inner membrane complex is derived from the cortical alveoli defining the superphylum Alveolata, but in apicomplexans functions in parasite motility and replication. Micronemes and rhoptries are associated with establishment of the intracellular niche, and define the apical complex for which the phylum is named. Morphological, cell biological and molecular evidence strongly suggest that these organelles are derived from the endocytic pathway. PMID:23932202

  2. Phosphorylation-mediated RNA/peptide complex coacervation as a model for intracellular liquid organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumiller, William M.; Keating, Christine D.

    2016-02-01

    Biological cells are highly organized, with numerous subcellular compartments. Phosphorylation has been hypothesized as a means to control the assembly/disassembly of liquid-like RNA- and protein-rich intracellular bodies, or liquid organelles, that lack delimiting membranes. Here, we demonstrate that charge-mediated phase separation, or complex coacervation, of RNAs with cationic peptides can generate simple model liquid organelles capable of reversibly compartmentalizing biomolecules. Formation and dissolution of these liquid bodies was controlled by changes in peptide phosphorylation state using a kinase/phosphatase enzyme pair. The droplet-generating phase transition responded to modification of even a single serine residue. Electrostatic interactions between the short cationic peptides and the much longer polyanionic RNAs drove phase separation. Coacervates were also formed on silica beads, a primitive model for localization at specific intracellular sites. This work supports phosphoregulation of complex coacervation as a viable mechanism for dynamic intracellular compartmentalization in membraneless organelles.

  3. A workflow for the automatic segmentation of organelles in electron microscopy image stacks

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Alex J.; Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Bushong, Eric A.; Panda, Satchidananda; Tasdizen, Tolga; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) facilitates analysis of the form, distribution, and functional status of key organelle systems in various pathological processes, including those associated with neurodegenerative disease. Such EM data often provide important new insights into the underlying disease mechanisms. The development of more accurate and efficient methods to quantify changes in subcellular microanatomy has already proven key to understanding the pathogenesis of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, as well as glaucoma. While our ability to acquire large volumes of 3D EM data is progressing rapidly, more advanced analysis tools are needed to assist in measuring precise three-dimensional morphologies of organelles within data sets that can include hundreds to thousands of whole cells. Although new imaging instrument throughputs can exceed teravoxels of data per day, image segmentation and analysis remain significant bottlenecks to achieving quantitative descriptions of whole cell structural organellomes. Here, we present a novel method for the automatic segmentation of organelles in 3D EM image stacks. Segmentations are generated using only 2D image information, making the method suitable for anisotropic imaging techniques such as serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM). Additionally, no assumptions about 3D organelle morphology are made, ensuring the method can be easily expanded to any number of structurally and functionally diverse organelles. Following the presentation of our algorithm, we validate its performance by assessing the segmentation accuracy of different organelle targets in an example SBEM dataset and demonstrate that it can be efficiently parallelized on supercomputing resources, resulting in a dramatic reduction in runtime. PMID:25426032

  4. Reduction of organelle motility by removal of potassium and other solutes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, David; Wolkoff, Allan W.

    2017-01-01

    There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells. Upon exposure to potassium free medium, organelle motility declined steadily through 90 min and then persisted at a low level. Reduced motility was confirmed in 5 independent cell lines and for organelles of the endocytic pathway (FL-EGF and Lysotracker), autophagosomes (LC3-GFP), and mitochondria (TMRE). As has been previously established, potassium free medium also inhibited endocytosis. We expected that diminished cellular metabolism would precede loss of organelle motility. However, extracellular flux analysis showed near normal mitochondrial oxygen consumption and only a small decrease in extracellular acidification, the latter suggesting decreased glycolysis or proton efflux. Other energy dependent activities such as the accumulation of Lysotracker, TMRE, DiBAC4(3), and the exclusion of propidium iodide remained intact, as did the microtubule cytoskeleton. We took advantage of cell free in vitro motility assays and found that removal of potassium or sodium from the reconstituted cytosolic medium decreased the movement of endosomes on purified microtubules. The results indicate that although changes in proton homeostasis and cell energetics under solute depletion are not fully understood, potassium as well as sodium appear to be directly required by the motile machinery of organelles for optimal trafficking. PMID:28922372

  5. The mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix pyriformis contains the complete glycine cleavage system.

    PubMed

    Zubáčová, Zuzana; Novák, Lukáš; Bublíková, Jitka; Vacek, Vojtěch; Fousek, Jan; Rídl, Jakub; Tachezy, Jan; Doležal, Pavel; Vlček, Cestmír; Hampl, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms contain mitochondria or organelles that evolved from the same endosymbiotic event like classical mitochondria. Organisms inhabiting low oxygen environments often contain mitochondrial derivates known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes or neutrally as mitochondrion-like organelles. The detailed investigation has shown unexpected evolutionary plasticity in the biochemistry and protein composition of these organelles in various protists. We investigated the mitochondrion-like organelle in Trimastix pyriformis, a free-living member of one of the three lineages of anaerobic group Metamonada. Using 454 sequencing we have obtained 7 037 contigs from its transcriptome and on the basis of sequence homology and presence of N-terminal extensions we have selected contigs coding for proteins that putatively function in the organelle. Together with the results of a previous transcriptome survey, the list now consists of 23 proteins - mostly enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, transporters and maturases of proteins and transporters of metabolites. We have no evidence of the production of ATP in the mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix but we have obtained experimental evidence for the presence of enzymes of the glycine cleavage system (GCS), which is part of amino acid metabolism. Using homologous antibody we have shown that H-protein of GCS localizes into vesicles in the cell of Trimastix. When overexpressed in yeast, H- and P-protein of GCS and cpn60 were transported into mitochondrion. In case of H-protein we have demonstrated that the first 16 amino acids are necessary for this transport. Glycine cleavage system is at the moment the only experimentally localized pathway in the mitochondrial derivate of Trimastix pyriformis.

  6. The effect of elevated intraocular oxygen on organelle degradation in the embryonic chicken lens.

    PubMed

    Bassnett, Steven; McNulty, Richard

    2003-12-01

    In the vertebrate lens, nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles are degraded in fiber cells situated in the center of the tissue. This is believed to ensure the transparency of the tissue. The mechanism that triggers this process is unknown. We hypothesized that standing gradients of oxygen generated within the tissue may serve as a spatial cue for organelle degradation. To examine this possibility, we incubated fertilized chicken eggs under hyperoxic (50% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) conditions. Hyperoxic treatment was initiated on the seventh day of embryonic development (E7), five days before organelle degradation normally commences in the lens core. Hyperoxia was maintained until E17. Under normoxic conditions, the partial pressure of oxygen (P(O)) within the vitreous compartment was low. Direct measurement of P(O) using an optode oxygen sensor indicated values of 1.3 kPa and 0.4 kPa for the mid- and anterior vitreous, respectively. Similarly, treatment with pimonidazole, a bio-reductive hypoxia marker, led to the formation of immuno-positive protein adducts within the lens, suggesting that the embryonic lens is chronically hypoxic in situ. Following hyperoxic treatment, vitreous P(O) significantly increased, although pimonidazole staining in the lens was not markedly affected. Confocal microscopy of slices prepared from hyperoxic lenses revealed a significant increase in the size of the lens relative to age-matched normoxic controls. By E13, an organelle-free zone (OFZ) was present in the center of normoxic and hyperoxic lenses. However, in hyperoxic lenses, the OFZ was consistently smaller, and the distance from the lens surface to the border of the OFZ significantly larger, than in normoxic controls. These observations suggest that hyperoxia delays organelle breakdown and are consistent with a model in which hypoxia in the deep cortical layers of the normal lens serves as a trigger for the organelle loss process.

  7. The Influence of Reserpine and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) on Serotonin Storage Organelles of Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Jonathan M.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; White, James G.

    1977-01-01

    The present investigation has evaluated the influence of reserpine on the serotonin-rich organelles bodies) in platelets from dogs, rabbits, and humans. Reserpine markedly depresses the levels of stored serotonin in human and animal platelets, accompanied by a small decrease in platelet ATP but no change in platelet ADP content. Thin sections of human platelets showed no change in the number or morphology of serotonin storage organelles during reserpine therapy, whereas a profound decrease in the size and number of dense bodies occurred in platelets from rabbits treated with reserpine. Dog platelets also showed a decrease in the number and density of serotonin storage organelles after reserpine therapy. The basis for the difference between rabbit and human platelets was explored by fixing platelets in glutaraldehyde and osmium in the presence or absence of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Most of the dense bodies in fixed human platelets were removed by EDTA while rabbit platelet dense bodies remained essentially intact. The results suggested that the opacity of rabbit platelet dense bodies following fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium relate primarily to their serotonin content, while the electron density of human serotonin storage organelles in fixed cells is due primarily to their calcium content. Further confirmation of this concept came from studies of platelets using the whole mount technique. Rabbit platelet serotonin storage organelles were found to lack the inherent opacity of the human dense bodies, a finding consistent with the lower concentration of calcium in the rabbit organelles. ImagesFigures 1A-DFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5 and 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:405872

  8. Transcriptional changes of mouse splenocyte organelle components following acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Li, Fa-Cai; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally spread zoonosis. The pathogen Toxoplasma gondii can hijack cellular organelles of host for replication. Although a number of important cellular life events are controlled by cell organelles, very little is known of the transcriptional changes of host cellular organelles after infection with T. gondii. Herein, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatics analyses to study the global organelle component changes. It was found that many transcripts of the mouse spleen cellular organelle components were altered by acute T. gondii infection with the RH strain (Type I). Most differentially expressed transcripts of mitochondrial components were downregulated, especially those involved in biosynthetic and metabolic processes. Moreover, mitochondria based apoptosis process was downregulated. In terms of cytoskeleton, most differentially expressed transcript of cytoskeleton components were also downregulated, including septin cytoskeleton, cytoskeleton organization, centrosome and myosin. For endolysosomal system, ion transporters were downregulated at mRNA level, whereas the cytolytic components were increased, such as granzymes, Rab27a and perforin1 (Prf1). The main transcripts of Golgi apparatus components involved in sialylation or vesicle-mediated transportation were downregulated, while immune related components were upregulated. For endoplasmic reticulum (ER), posttranslational modification, drug metabolism and material transportation related transcripts were downregulated. In addition, T. gondii antigen cross-presentation by MHC-I complex could be downregulated by the downregulation of CD76 and ubiquitination related transcripts. The present study, for the first time, described the transcriptional changes of the mouse spleen cellular organelles following acute T. gondii infection, which provides a foundation to study the interaction between T. gondii and host cells at the sub-cellular level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  9. The acquisition of phototrophy: adaptive strategies of hosting endosymbionts and organelles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Many non-photosynthetic species of protists and metazoans are capable of hosting viable algal endosymbionts or their organelles through adaptations of phagocytic pathways. A form of mixotrophy combining phototrophy and heterotrophy, acquired phototrophy (AcPh) encompasses a suite of endosymbiotic and organelle retention interactions, that range from facultative to obligate. AcPh is a common phenomenon in aquatic ecosystems, with endosymbiotic associations generally more prevalent in nutrient poor environments, and organelle retention typically associated with more productive ones. All AcPhs benefit from enhanced growth due to access to photosynthetic products; however, the degree of metabolic integration and dependency in the host varies widely. AcPh is found in at least four of the major eukaryotic supergroups, and is the driving force in the evolution of secondary and tertiary plastid acquisitions. Mutualistic resource partitioning characterizes most algal endosymbiotic interactions, while organelle retention is a form of predation, characterized by nutrient flow (i.e., growth) in one direction. AcPh involves adaptations to recognize specific prey or endosymbionts and to house organelles or endosymbionts within the endomembrane system but free from digestion. In many cases, hosts depend upon AcPh for the production of essential nutrients, many of which remain obscure. The practice of AcPh has led to multiple independent secondary and tertiary plastid acquisition events among several eukaryote lineages, giving rise to the diverse array of algae found in modern aquatic ecosystems. This article highlights those AcPhs that are model research organisms for both metazoans and protists. Much of the basic biology of AcPhs remains enigmatic, particularly (1) which essential nutrients or factors make certain forms of AcPh obligatory, (2) how hosts regulate and manipulate endosymbionts or sequestered organelles, and (3) what genomic imprint, if any, AcPh leaves on non

  10. Nanofiber scaffolds influence organelle structure and function in bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tutak, Wojtek; Jyotsnendu, Giri; Bajcsy, Peter; Simon, Carl G

    2017-07-01

    Recent work demonstrates that osteoprogenitor cell culture on nanofiber scaffolds can promote differentiation. This response may be driven by changes in cell morphology caused by the three-dimensional (3D) structure of nanofibers. We hypothesized that nanofiber effects on cell behavior may be mediated by changes in organelle structure and function. To test this hypothesis, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers scaffolds and on PCL flat spuncoat films. After 1 day-culture, hBMSCs were stained for actin, nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes, and then imaged using 3D confocal microscopy. Imaging revealed that the hBMSC cell body (actin) and peroxisomal volume were reduced during culture on nanofibers. In addition, the nucleus and peroxisomes occupied a larger fraction of cell volume during culture on nanofibers than on films, suggesting enhancement of the nuclear and peroxisomal functional capacity. Organelles adopted morphologies with greater 3D-character on nanofibers, where the Z-Depth (a measure of cell thickness) was increased. Comparisons of organelle positions indicated that the nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes were closer to the cell center (actin) for nanofibers, suggesting that nanofiber culture induced active organelle positioning. The smaller cell volume and more centralized organelle positioning would reduce the energy cost of inter-organelle vesicular transport during culture on nanofibers. Finally, hBMSC bioassay measurements (DNA, peroxidase, bioreductive potential, lactate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) indicated that peroxidase activity may be enhanced during nanofiber culture. These results demonstrate that culture of hBMSCs on nanofibers caused changes in organelle structure and positioning, which may affect organelle functional capacity and transport. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl

  11. RNase P branches out from RNP to protein: organelle-triggered diversification?

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Borah, Sumit; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    RNase P is the enzyme that removes 5′ leader sequences from precursor tRNAs. Remarkably, in most organisms, RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein particle where the RNA component is responsible for catalysis. In this issue of Genes & Development, Gutmann and colleagues (pp. 1022–1027) report the first organism, Arabidopsis thaliana, to employ protein-only RNase P in both its nucleus and organelles. An intriguing possibility is that replacement of RNase P ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) by proteins may have been triggered by the acquisition of organelles. PMID:22588715

  12. Targeting of host organelles by pathogenic bacteria: a sophisticated subversion strategy.

    PubMed

    Escoll, Pedro; Mondino, Sonia; Rolando, Monica; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have evolved the ability to subvert and exploit host functions in order to enter and replicate in eukaryotic cells. For example, bacteria have developed specific mechanisms to target eukaryotic organelles such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In this Review, we highlight the most recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bacterial pathogens use to target these organelles. We also discuss how these strategies allow bacteria to manipulate host functions and to ultimately enable bacterial infection.

  13. Labor inhibits placental mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lager, S; Aye, I L M H; Gaccioli, F; Ramirez, V I; Jansson, T; Powell, T L

    2014-12-01

    Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n = 15 no-labor; n = 12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFĸB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFĸB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  15. In Vitro Assays Demonstrate That Pollen Tube Organelles Use Kinesin-Related Motor Proteins to Move along MicrotubulesW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Silvia; Cai, Giampiero; Cresti, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    The movement of pollen tube organelles relies on cytoskeletal elements. Although the movement of organelles along actin filaments in the pollen tube has been studied widely and is becoming progressively clear, it remains unclear what role microtubules play. Many uncertainties about the role of microtubules in the active transport of pollen tube organelles and/or in the control of this process remain to be resolved. In an effort to determine if organelles are capable of moving along microtubules in the absence of actin, we extracted organelles from tobacco pollen tubes and analyzed their ability to move along in vitro–polymerized microtubules under different experimental conditions. Regardless of their size, the organelles moved at different rates along microtubules in the presence of ATP. Cytochalasin D did not inhibit organelle movement, indicating that actin filaments are not required for organelle transport in our assay. The movement of organelles was cytosol independent, which suggests that soluble factors are not necessary for the organelle movement to occur and that microtubule-based motor proteins are present on the organelle surface. By washing organelles with KI, it was possible to release proteins capable of gliding carboxylated beads along microtubules. Several membrane fractions, which were separated by Suc density gradient centrifugation, showed microtubule-based movement. Proteins were extracted by KI treatment from the most active organelle fraction and then analyzed with an ATP-sensitive microtubule binding assay. Proteins isolated by the selective binding to microtubules were tested for the ability to glide microtubules in the in vitro motility assay, for the presence of microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity, and for cross-reactivity with anti-kinesin antibodies. We identified and characterized a 105-kD organelle-associated motor protein that is functionally, biochemically, and immunologically related to kinesin. This work provides clear

  16. Divide and Conquer: the Application of Organelle Proteomics to Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Agnetti, Giulio; Husberg, Cathrine; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is a worldwide cause of mortality and morbidity and is the final outcome of a number of different etiologies. This reflects both the complexity of the disease and our incomplete understanding of its underlying molecular mechanisms. One experimental approach to address this is to study subcellular organelles and how their functions are activated and synchronized under physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss the application of proteomic technologies to organelles and how this has deepened our perception of the cellular proteome and its alterations with heart failure. The use of proteomics to monitor protein quantity and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has revealed a highly intricate and sophisticated level of protein regulation. PTMs have the potential to regulate organelle function and interplay most likely by targeting both structural and signaling proteins throughout the cell, ultimately coordinating their responses. The potentials and limitations of current proteomic technologies are also discussed emphasizing that the development of novel methods will enhance our ability to further investigate organelles and decode intracellular communication. PMID:21335433

  17. An organelle-specific protein landscape identifies novel diseases and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Boldt, Karsten; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Lu, Qianhao; Koutroumpas, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Thanh-Minh T.; Texier, Yves; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Horn, Nicola; Willer, Jason R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Dougherty, Gerard; Lamers, Ideke J. C.; Coene, Karlien L. M.; Arts, Heleen H.; Betts, Matthew J.; Beyer, Tina; Bolat, Emine; Gloeckner, Christian Johannes; Haidari, Khatera; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Iaconis, Daniela; Jenkins, Dagan; Klose, Franziska; Knapp, Barbara; Latour, Brooke; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Mitic, Dragana; Morleo, Manuela; Oud, Machteld M.; Riemersma, Moniek; Rix, Susan; Terhal, Paulien A.; Toedt, Grischa; van Dam, Teunis J. P.; de Vrieze, Erik; Wissinger, Yasmin; Wu, Ka Man; Apic, Gordana; Beales, Philip L.; Blacque, Oliver E.; Gibson, Toby J.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kremer, Hannie; Omran, Heymut; van Wijk, Erwin; Wolfrum, Uwe; Kepes, François; Davis, Erica E.; Franco, Brunella; Giles, Rachel H.; Ueffing, Marius; Russell, Robert B.; Roepman, Ronald; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Antony, Dinu; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Cirak, Sebahattin; Cosgrove, Catherine; Danecek, Petr; Durbin, Richard; Fitzpatrick, David; Floyd, Jamie; Reghan Foley, A.; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Joyce, Chris; McCarthy, Shane; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Payne, Felicity; Plagnol, Vincent; Raymond, Lucy; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert; Serra, Eva; Stalker, Jim; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Walter, Klaudia; Whittall, Ros; Williamson, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cellular organelles provide opportunities to relate biological mechanisms to disease. Here we use affinity proteomics, genetics and cell biology to interrogate cilia: poorly understood organelles, where defects cause genetic diseases. Two hundred and seventeen tagged human ciliary proteins create a final landscape of 1,319 proteins, 4,905 interactions and 52 complexes. Reverse tagging, repetition of purifications and statistical analyses, produce a high-resolution network that reveals organelle-specific interactions and complexes not apparent in larger studies, and links vesicle transport, the cytoskeleton, signalling and ubiquitination to ciliary signalling and proteostasis. We observe sub-complexes in exocyst and intraflagellar transport complexes, which we validate biochemically, and by probing structurally predicted, disruptive, genetic variants from ciliary disease patients. The landscape suggests other genetic diseases could be ciliary including 3M syndrome. We show that 3M genes are involved in ciliogenesis, and that patient fibroblasts lack cilia. Overall, this organelle-specific targeting strategy shows considerable promise for Systems Medicine. PMID:27173435

  18. Phase Transition of a Disordered Nuage Protein Generates Environmentally Responsive Membraneless Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Nott, Timothy J.; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Farber, Patrick; Jervis, Dylan; Fussner, Eden; Plochowietz, Anne; Craggs, Timothy D.; Bazett-Jones, David P.; Pawson, Tony; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Baldwin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cells chemically isolate molecules in compartments to both facilitate and regulate their interactions. In addition to membrane-encapsulated compartments, cells can form proteinaceous and membraneless organelles, including nucleoli, Cajal and PML bodies, and stress granules. The principles that determine when and why these structures form have remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the disordered tails of Ddx4, a primary constituent of nuage or germ granules, form phase-separated organelles both in live cells and in vitro. These bodies are stabilized by patterned electrostatic interactions that are highly sensitive to temperature, ionic strength, arginine methylation, and splicing. Sequence determinants are used to identify proteins found in both membraneless organelles and cell adhesion. Moreover, the bodies provide an alternative solvent environment that can concentrate single-stranded DNA but largely exclude double-stranded DNA. We propose that phase separation of disordered proteins containing weakly interacting blocks is a general mechanism for forming regulated, membraneless organelles. PMID:25747659

  19. Biochemical characterization of a mitochondrial-like organelle from Blastocystis sp. subtype 7.

    PubMed

    Lantsman, Yelena; Tan, Kevin S W; Morada, Mary; Yarlett, Nigel

    2008-09-01

    A mitochondrion-like organelle (MLO) was isolated from isotonic homogenates of Blastocystis. The organelle sedimented at 5000 g for 10 min, and had an isopycnic density in sucrose of 1.2 g ml(-1). Biochemical characterization enabled the demonstration of several key enzymes that allowed the construction of a metabolic pathway consisting of an incomplete Krebs cycle linked to the oxygen-sensitive enzymes pyruvate : NADP(+) oxidoreductase (PNO), acetate : succinate CoA transferase (ASCT) and succinate thiokinase (STK), which cumulatively are responsible for recycling CoA and generating ATP. The organelle differs from typical aerobic mitochondria in possessing an oxygen-sensitive PNO that can use FAD(+) or FMN(+) as electron acceptor but is inactive with NAD(+), Spinacia oleracea ferredoxin or Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin. A gene with 77 % sequence similarity to the PNO mitochondrion precursor cluster from Euglena gracilis sp[Q941N5] was identified in the Blastocystis genome database. A second cluster with 56 % sequence similarity to the pyruvate : ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) from Trichomonas vaginalis was also identified, which is in agreement with the concept that the PNO gene arose through the fusion of a eubacterial gene for PFOR with the gene for NADPH : cytochrome p450 reductase. Hydrogenase activity was not detected under the conditions used in this study. The Blastocystis oranelle therefore demonstrates significant biochemical differences from traditional mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, but possesses features of both. Based upon the results of this study, the Blastocystis organelle falls into the category of a MLO.

  20. Cold-induced organelle relocation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yuka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Kodama, Yutaka

    2013-08-01

    Organelles change their subcellular positions in response to various environmental conditions. Recently, we reported that cold treatments alter the intracellular position of chloroplasts and nuclei (cold positioning) in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris; chloroplasts and nuclei localized to the periclinal cell wall relocated to anticlinal cell wall after cold treatments. To further understand organelle positioning under cold conditions, we studied cold-induced organelle relocation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. When sporelings and gemmmalings were treated under low temperature (5 °C), chloroplast cold positioning response was successfully induced both in the sporelings and the gemmmalings of M. polymorpha. Using a genetic transformation, nuclei, mitochondria or peroxisomes were visualized with a fluorescent protein, and the transgenic gemmmalings were incubated under the cold condition. Nuclei and peroxisomes, but not mitochondria, clearly relocated from the periclinal cell wall to the anticlinal cell wall after cold treatments. Our findings suggest that several organelles concurrently change their positions in the liverwort cell to cope with cold temperature. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phosphorylation of αSNAP is Required for Secretory Organelle Biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Rebecca J; Ferguson, David J P; Whitehead, Lachlan; Bradin, Clare H; Wu, Hong J; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Upon infection, apicomplexan parasites quickly invade host cells and begin a replicative cycle rapidly increasing in number over a short period of time, leading to tissue lysis and disease. The secretory pathway of these highly polarized protozoan parasites tightly controls, in time and space, the biogenesis of specialized structures and organelles required for invasion and intracellular survival. In other systems, regulation of protein trafficking can occur by phosphorylation of vesicle fusion machinery. Previously, we have shown that Toxoplasma gondii αSNAP - a protein that controls the disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes--is phosphorylated. Here, we show that this post-translational modification is required for the correct function of αSNAP in controlling secretory traffic. We demonstrate that during intracellular development conditional expression of a non-phosphorylatable form of αSNAP results in Golgi fragmentation and vesiculation of all downstream secretory organelles. In addition, we show that the vestigial plastid (termed apicoplast), although reported not to be reliant on Golgi trafficking for biogenesis, is also affected upon overexpression of αSNAP and is much more sensitive to the levels of this protein than targeting to other organelles. This work highlights the importance of αSNAP and its phosphorylation in Toxoplasma organelle biogenesis and exposes a hereto fore-unexplored mechanism of regulation of vesicle fusion during secretory pathway trafficking in apicomplexan parasites. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Calcium signaling in plant cell organelles delimited by a double membrane.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tou-Cheu; Bourque, Stéphane; Lecourieux, David; Amelot, Nicolas; Grat, Sabine; Brière, Christian; Mazars, Christian; Pugin, Alain; Ranjeva, Raoul

    2006-11-01

    Increases in the concentration of free calcium in the cytosol are one of the general events that relay an external stimulus to the internal cellular machinery and allow eukaryotic organisms, including plants, to mount a specific biological response. Different lines of evidence have shown that other intracellular organelles contribute to the regulation of free calcium homeostasis in the cytosol. The vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum and the cell wall constitute storage compartments for mobilizable calcium. In contrast, the role of organelles surrounded by a double membrane (e.g. mitochondria, chloroplasts and nuclei) is more complex. Here, we review experimental data showing that these organelles harbor calcium-dependent biological processes. Mitochondria, chloroplasts as well as nuclei are equipped to generate calcium signal on their own. Changes in free calcium in a given organelle may also favor the relocalization of proteins and regulatory components and therefore have a profound influence on the integrated functioning of the cell. Studying, in time and space, the dynamics of different components of calcium signaling pathway will certainly give clues to understand the extraordinary flexibility of plants to respond to stimuli and mount adaptive responses. The availability of technical and biological resources should allow breaking new grounds by unveiling the contribution of signaling networks in integrative plant biology.

  3. Nucleotide specificities of anterograde and retrograde organelle transport in Reticulomyxa are indistinguishable.

    PubMed

    Schliwa, M; Shimizu, T; Vale, R D; Euteneuer, U

    1991-03-01

    Membrane-bound organelles move bidirectionally along microtubules in the freshwater ameba, Reticulomyxa. We have examined the nucleotide requirements for transport in a lysed cell model and compared them with kinesin and dynein-driven motility in other systems. Both anterograde and retrograde transport in Reticulomyxa show features characteristic of dynein but not of kinesin-powered movements: organelle transport is reactivated only by ATP and no other nucleoside triphosphates; the Km and Vmax of the ATP-driven movements are similar to values obtained for dynein rather than kinesin-driven movement; and of 15 ATP analogues tested for their ability to promote organelle transport, only 4 of them did. This narrow specificity resembles that of dynein-mediated in vitro transport and is dissimilar to the broad specificity of the kinesin motor (Shimizu, T., K. Furusawa, S. Ohashi, Y. Y. Toyoshima, M. Okuno, F. Malik, and R. D. Vale. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 112: 1189-1197). Remarkably, anterograde and retrograde organelle transport cannot be distinguished at all with respect to nucleotide specificity, kinetics of movement, and the ability to use the ATP analogues. Since the "kinetic fingerprints" of the motors driving transport in opposite directions are indistinguishable, the same type of motor(s) may be involved in the two directions of movement.

  4. Mitochondrial remnant organelles of Giardia function in iron-sulphur protein maturation.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Jorge; León-Avila, Gloria; Sánchez, Lidya B; Sutak, Robert; Tachezy, Jan; van der Giezen, Mark; Hernández, Manuel; Müller, Miklós; Lucocq, John M

    2003-11-13

    Giardia intestinalis (syn. lamblia) is one of the most widespread intestinal protozoan pathogens worldwide, causing hundreds of thousands of cases of diarrhoea each year. Giardia is a member of the diplomonads, often described as an ancient protist group whose primitive nature is suggested by the lack of typical eukaryotic organelles (for example, mitochondria, peroxisomes), the presence of a poorly developed endomembrane system and by their early branching in a number of gene phylogenies. The discovery of nuclear genes of putative mitochondrial ancestry in Giardia and the recent identification of mitochondrial remnant organelles in amitochondrial protists such as Entamoeba histolytica and Trachipleistophora hominis suggest that the eukaryotic amitochondrial state is not a primitive condition but is rather the result of reductive evolution. Using an in vitro protein reconstitution assay and specific antibodies against IscS and IscU--two mitochondrial marker proteins involved in iron-sulphur cluster biosynthesis--here we demonstrate that Giardia contains mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes) bounded by double membranes that function in iron-sulphur protein maturation. Our results indicate that Giardia is not primitively amitochondrial and that it has retained a functional organelle derived from the original mitochondrial endosymbiont.

  5. Role of plant myosins in motile organelles: is a direct interaction required?

    PubMed

    Buchnik, Limor; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Sadot, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Plant organelles are highly motile, with speed values of 3-7 µm/s in cells of land plants and about 20-60 µm/s in characean algal cells. This movement is believed to be important for rapid distribution of materials around the cell, for the plant's ability to respond to environmental biotic and abiotic signals and for proper growth. The main machinery that propels motility of organelles within plant cells is based on the actin cytoskeleton and its motor proteins the myosins. Most plants express multiple members of two main classes: myosin VIII and myosin XI. While myosin VIII has been characterized as a slow motor protein, myosins from class XI were found to be the fastest motor proteins known in all kingdoms. Paradoxically, while it was found that myosins from class XI regulate most organelle movement, it is not quite clear how or even if these motor proteins attach to the organelles whose movement they regulate. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Phase transition of a disordered nuage protein generates environmentally responsive membraneless organelles.

    PubMed

    Nott, Timothy J; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Farber, Patrick; Jervis, Dylan; Fussner, Eden; Plochowietz, Anne; Craggs, Timothy D; Bazett-Jones, David P; Pawson, Tony; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Baldwin, Andrew J

    2015-03-05

    Cells chemically isolate molecules in compartments to both facilitate and regulate their interactions. In addition to membrane-encapsulated compartments, cells can form proteinaceous and membraneless organelles, including nucleoli, Cajal and PML bodies, and stress granules. The principles that determine when and why these structures form have remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the disordered tails of Ddx4, a primary constituent of nuage or germ granules, form phase-separated organelles both in live cells and in vitro. These bodies are stabilized by patterned electrostatic interactions that are highly sensitive to temperature, ionic strength, arginine methylation, and splicing. Sequence determinants are used to identify proteins found in both membraneless organelles and cell adhesion. Moreover, the bodies provide an alternative solvent environment that can concentrate single-stranded DNA but largely exclude double-stranded DNA. We propose that phase separation of disordered proteins containing weakly interacting blocks is a general mechanism for forming regulated, membraneless organelles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in architecture of the Golgi complex and other subcellular organelles during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Myogenesis involves changes in both gene expression and cellular architecture. Little is known of the organization, in muscle in vivo, of the subcellular organelles involved in protein synthesis despite the potential importance of targeted protein synthesis for formation and maintenance of functional domains such as the neuromuscular junction. A panel of antibodies to markers of the ER, the Golgi complex, and the centrosome were used to localize these organelles by immunofluorescence in myoblasts and myotubes of the mouse muscle cell line C2 in vitro, and in intact single muscle fibers from the rat flexor digitorum brevis. Antibodies to the ER stained structures throughout the cytoplasm of both C2 myoblasts and myotubes. In contrast, the spatial relationship between nucleus, centrosome, and Golgi complex was dramatically altered. These changes could also be observed in a low- calcium medium that allowed differentiation while preventing myoblast fusion. Muscle fibers in vivo resembled myotubes except that the ER occupied a smaller volume of cytoplasm and no staining was found for one of the Golgi complex markers, the enzyme alpha-mannosidase II. Electron microscopy, however, clearly showed the presence of stacks of Golgi cisternae in both junctional and extrajunctional regions of muscle fibers. The perinuclear distribution of the Golgi complex was also observed in live muscle fibers stained with a fluorescent lipid. Thus, the distribution of subcellular organelles of the secretory pathway was found to be similar in myotubes and muscle fibers, and all organelles were found in both junctional and extrajunctional areas of muscle. PMID:7678420

  8. Biogenesis of the crystalloid organelle in Plasmodium involves microtubule-dependent vesicle transport and assembly

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sadia; Tremp, Annie Z.; Dessens, Johannes T.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites possess unique subcellular structures and organelles. One of these is the crystalloid, a multivesicular organelle that forms during the parasite’s development in vector mosquitoes. The formation and function of these organelles remain poorly understood. A family of six conserved and modular proteins named LCCL-lectin adhesive-like proteins (LAPs), which have essential roles in sporozoite transmission, localise to the crystalloids. In this study we analyse crystalloid formation using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing GFP-tagged LAP3. We show that deletion of the LCCL domain from LAP3 causes retarded crystalloid development, while knockout of LAP3 prevents formation of the organelle. Our data reveal that the process of crystalloid formation involves active relocation of endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles to common assembly points via microtubule-dependent transport. Inhibition of microtubule-dependent cargo transport disrupts this process and replicates the LCCL domain deletion mutant phenotype in wildtype parasites. These findings provide the first clear insight into crystalloid biogenesis, demonstrating a fundamental role for the LAP family in this process, and identifying the crystalloid and its formation as potential targets for malaria transmission control. PMID:25900212

  9. Cell cycle regulation of dynein association with membranes modulates microtubule-based organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Niclas, J; Allan, V J; Vale, R D

    1996-05-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus end-directed microtubule motor that performs distinct functions in interphase and mitosis. In interphase, dynein transports organelles along microtubules, whereas in metaphase this motor has been implicated in mitotic spindle formation and orientation as well as chromosome segregation. The manner in which dynein activity is regulated during the cell cycle, however, has not been resolved. In this study, we have examined the mechanism by which organelle transport is controlled by the cell cycle in extracts of Xenopus laevis eggs. Here, we show that photocleavage of the dynein heavy chain dramatically inhibits minus end-directed organelle transport and that purified dynein restores this motility, indicating that dynein is the predominant minus end-directed membrane motor in Xenopus egg extracts. By measuring the amount of dynein associated with isolated membranes, we find that cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin detach from the membrane surface in metaphase extracts. The sevenfold decrease in membrane-associated dynein correlated well with the eightfold reduction in minus end-directed membrane transport observed in metaphase versus interphase extracts. Although dynein heavy or intermediate chain phosphorylation did not change in a cell cycle-dependent manner, the dynein light intermediate chain incorporated approximately 12-fold more radiolabeled phosphate in metaphase than in interphase extracts. These studies suggest that cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic dynein may regulate organelle transport by modulating the association of this motor with membranes.

  10. Lens fibre cell differentiation and organelle loss: many paths lead to clarity

    PubMed Central

    Wride, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The programmed removal of organelles from differentiating lens fibre cells contributes towards lens transparency through formation of an organelle-free zone (OFZ). Disruptions in OFZ formation are accompanied by the persistence of organelles in lens fibre cells and can contribute towards cataract. A great deal of work has gone into elucidating the nature of the mechanisms and signalling pathways involved. It is apparent that multiple, parallel and redundant pathways are involved in this process and that these pathways form interacting networks. Furthermore, it is possible that the pathways can functionally compensate for each other, for example in mouse knockout studies. This makes sense given the importance of lens clarity in an evolutionary context. Apoptosis signalling and proteolytic pathways have been implicated in both lens fibre cell differentiation and organelle loss, including the Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis families, tumour necrosis factors, p53 and its regulators (such as Mdm2) and proteolytic enzymes, including caspases, cathepsins, calpains and the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Ongoing approaches being used to dissect the molecular pathways involved, such as transgenics, lens-specific gene deletion and zebrafish mutants, are discussed here. Finally, some of the remaining unresolved issues and potential areas for future studies are highlighted. PMID:21402582

  11. Organelle-Specific Sensors for Monitoring Ca2+ Dynamics in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Hirabayashi, Yusuke; Polleux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays innumerable critical functions in neurons ranging from regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity to activity-dependent transcription. Therefore, more than any other cell types, neurons are critically dependent on spatially and temporally controlled Ca2+ dynamics. This is achieved through an exquisite level of compartmentalization of Ca2+ storage and release from various organelles. The function of these organelles in the regulation of Ca2+ dynamics has been studied for decades using electrophysiological and optical methods combined with pharmacological and genetic alterations. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are among the organelles playing the most critical roles in Ca2+ dynamics in neurons. At presynaptic boutons, Ca2+ triggers neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity, and postsynaptically, Ca2+ mobilization mediates long-term synaptic plasticity. To explore Ca2+ dynamics in live cells and intact animals, various synthetic and genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ sensors were developed, and recently, many groups actively increased the sensitivity and diversity of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs). Following conjugation with various signal peptides, these improved GECIs can be targeted to specific subcellular compartments, allowing monitoring of organelle-specific Ca2+ dynamics. Here, we review recent findings unraveling novel roles for mitochondria- and ER-dependent Ca2+ dynamics in neurons and at synapses. PMID:27695411

  12. Nucleotide specificities of anterograde and retrograde organelle transport in Reticulomyxa are indistinguishable

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Membrane-bound organelles move bidirectionally along microtubules in the freshwater ameba, Reticulomyxa. We have examined the nucleotide requirements for transport in a lysed cell model and compared them with kinesin and dynein-driven motility in other systems. Both anterograde and retrograde transport in Reticulomyxa show features characteristic of dynein but not of kinesin-powered movements: organelle transport is reactivated only by ATP and no other nucleoside triphosphates; the Km and Vmax of the ATP-driven movements are similar to values obtained for dynein rather than kinesin-driven movement; and of 15 ATP analogues tested for their ability to promote organelle transport, only 4 of them did. This narrow specificity resembles that of dynein-mediated in vitro transport and is dissimilar to the broad specificity of the kinesin motor (Shimizu, T., K. Furusawa, S. Ohashi, Y. Y. Toyoshima, M. Okuno, F. Malik, and R. D. Vale. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 112: 1189-1197). Remarkably, anterograde and retrograde organelle transport cannot be distinguished at all with respect to nucleotide specificity, kinetics of movement, and the ability to use the ATP analogues. Since the "kinetic fingerprints" of the motors driving transport in opposite directions are indistinguishable, the same type of motor(s) may be involved in the two directions of movement. PMID:1825662

  13. Quantitative analysis of organelle distribution and dynamics in Physcomitrella patens protonemal cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the moss Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a powerful plant model system, amenable for genetic manipulations not possible in any other plant. This moss is particularly well suited for plant polarized cell growth studies, as in its protonemal phase, expansion is restricted to the tip of its cells. Based on pollen tube and root hair studies, it is well known that tip growth requires active secretion and high polarization of the cellular components. However, such information is still missing in Physcomitrella patens. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the participation of organelle organization in tip growth, it is essential to determine the distribution and the dynamics of the organelles in moss cells. Results We used fluorescent protein fusions to visualize and track Golgi dictyosomes, mitochondria, and peroxisomes in live protonemal cells. We also visualized and tracked chloroplasts based on chlorophyll auto-fluorescence. We showed that in protonemata all four organelles are distributed in a gradient from the tip of the apical cell to the base of the sub-apical cell. For example, the density of Golgi dictyosomes is 4.7 and 3.4 times higher at the tip than at the base in caulonemata and chloronemata respectively. While Golgi stacks are concentrated at the extreme tip of the caulonemata, chloroplasts and peroxisomes are totally excluded. Interestingly, caulonemata, which grow faster than chloronemata, also contain significantly more Golgi dictyosomes and fewer chloroplasts than chloronemata. Moreover, the motility analysis revealed that organelles in protonemata move with low persistency and average instantaneous speeds ranging from 29 to 75 nm/s, which are at least three orders of magnitude slower than those of pollen tube or root hair organelles. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study reports the first quantitative analysis of organelles in Physcomitrella patens and will make possible comparisons of the distribution

  14. Organelle Communication at Membrane Contact Sites (MCS): From Curiosity to Center Stage in Cell Biology and Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Simmen, Thomas; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Cell biology has long recognized that organelles can communicate with each other. Initially, such communication was thought to occur primarily via vesicular trafficking between biochemically distinct organelles. However, studies starting in the 1970s on lipid metabolism have unearthed another way how organelles can communicate and have spawned the field of membrane contact sites (MCS). While, initially, MCS had been recognized as fluid entities that mediate lipid and ion transport in an ad hoc manner, more recently MCS have been found to depend on protein-protein interactions that control themselves a variety of MCS functions. As a result, the cell biological definition of an intracellular organelle as an isolated membrane compartment is now being revised. Accordingly, the organelle definition now describes organelles as dynamic membrane compartments that function in a milieu of coordinated contacts with other organelles. Through these mercurial functions, MCS dictate the function of organelles to a large extent but also play important roles in a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, and cancer. This book assembles reviews that describe our quickly evolving knowledge about organellar communication on MCS and the significance of MCS for disease.

  15. Continuous de novo generation of spatially segregated hepatitis C virus replication organelles revealed by pulse-chase imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongliang; Tai, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Like all positive-sense RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces host membrane alterations for its replication. In chronically infected cells, it is not known whether these viral replication organelles are being continually resupplied by newly synthesized viral proteins in situ, or whether they are generated de novo. Here we aimed to study temporal events in replication organelles formation and maturation. Here we use pulse-chase labeling in combination with confocal microscopy, correlative light electron microscopy and biochemical methods to identify temporally distinct populations of replication organelles in living cells and study the formation, morphogenesis as well as compositional and functional changes of replication organelles over time. We found that HCV replication organelles are continuously generated de novo at spatially distinct sites from preformed ones. This process is accompanied by accumulated intracellular membrane alteration, increased cholesterol delivery, NS5A phosphorylation, and positive-strand RNA content, and by eventual association with HCV core protein around lipid droplets. Generation of spatially segregated foci requires viral NS5A and the host factors phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and oxysterol-binding protein, while association of foci with lipid droplets requires cholesterol. Our results reveal that HCV replication organelles are not static structures, but instead are continuously generated and dynamically change in composition and possibly also in function. Hepatitis C virus replication membrane structures are continuously generated at spatially distinct sites. New replication organelles are different in composition, and possibly also in function, compared to old replication organelles. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Phylogeny of endocytic components yields insight into the process of nonendosymbiotic organelle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Joel B.; Poon, Pak P.; Field, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    The process by which some eukaryotic organelles, for example the endomembrane system, evolved without endosymbiotic input remains poorly understood. This problem largely arises because many major cellular systems predate the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA) and thus do not provide examples of organellogenesis in progress. A model is emerging whereby gene duplication and divergence of multiple “specificity-” or “identity-” encoding proteins for the various endomembranous organelles produced the diversity of nonendosymbiotically derived cellular compartments present in modern eukaryotes. To address this possibility, we analyzed three molecular components of the endocytic membrane-trafficking machinery. Phylogenetic analyses of the endocytic syntaxins, Rab 5, and the β-adaptins each reveal a pattern of ancestral, undifferentiated endocytic homologues in the LCEA. Subsequently, these undifferentiated progenitors independently duplicated in widely divergent lineages, convergently producing components with similar endocytic roles, e.g., β1 and β2-adaptin. In contrast, β3, β4, and all other adaptin complex subunits, as well as paralogues of the syntaxins and Rabs specific for the other membrane-trafficking organelles, all evolved before the LCEA. Thus, the process giving rise to the differentiated organelles of the endocytic system appears to have been interrupted by the major speciation event that produced the extant eukaryotic lineages. These results suggest that although many endocytic components evolved before the LCEA, other major features evolved independently and convergently after diversification into the primary eukaryotic supergroups. This finding provides an example of a basic cellular system that was simpler in the LCEA than in many extant eukaryotes and yields insight into nonendosymbiotic organelle evolution. PMID:18182495

  17. Analysis of Organelle Targeting by DIL Domains of the Arabidopsis Myosin XI Family.

    PubMed

    Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hanson, Maureen R

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 myosin XI motor proteins. Previous insertional mutant analysis has implicated substantial redundancy of function of plant myosin XIs in transport of intracellular organelles. Considerable information is available about the interaction of cargo with the myosin XI-homologous yeast myosin V protein myo2p. We identified a region in each of 12 myosin XI sequences that correspond to the yeast myo2p secretory-vesicle binding domain (the "DIL" domain). Structural modeling of the myosin DIL domain region of plant myosin XIs revealed significant similarity to the yeast myo2p and myo4p DIL domains. Transient expression of YFP fusions with the Arabidopsis myosin XI DIL domain resulted in fluorescent labeling of a variety of organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, Golgi, and nuclear envelope. With the exception of the YFP::MYA1 DIL fusion, expression of the DIL-YFP fusions resulted in loss of motility of labeled organelles, consistent with a dominant-negative effect. Certain fusions resulted in localization to the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, or to unidentified vesicles. The same YFP-domain fusion sometimes labeled more than one organelle. Expression of a YFP fusion to a yeast myo2p DIL domain resulted in labeling of plant peroxisomes. Fusions with some of the myosin XI domains resulted in labeling of known cargoes of the particular myosin XI; however, certain myosin XI YFP fusions labeled organelles that had not previously been found to be detectably affected by mutations nor by expression of dominant-negative constructs.

  18. ATP-dependent uptake of anti-neoplastic agents by acidic organelles.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Y; Manabe, T; Yoshimori, T; Tashiro, Y; Futai, M

    1994-02-01

    Daunomycin, an anti-neoplastic agent, is known to be sequestered by acidic organelles in normal and multidrug-resistant cells [Willingham, M.C., Cornwell, M.M., Cardarelli, C.O., Gottesman, M.M., & Pastan, I. (1986) Cancer Res. 46, 5941-5946]. We studied the mechanism of accumulation of daunomycin into acidic organelles using chromaffin granule vesicles and proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified F-type H(+)-ATPase as model systems. Radiolabeled daunomycin was taken up by chromaffin vesicles upon addition of ATP. Its ATP-dependent uptake was stimulated about 1.4- to 1.8-fold by valinomycin plus K+, but was inhibited by ammonium chloride (10 mM) and nigericin plus K+. Quinidine (5 microM), verapamil (5 microM), or vanadate (0.5 mM), inhibitors of P-glycoprotein, had no effect on its uptake. Daunomycin was also taken up by liposomes reconstituted with F-type H(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, doxorubicin and vinblastine were taken up by these vesicles, whereas colchicine and rhodamine 123 were not. The accumulations of daunomycin and doxorubicin in acidic organelles of cultured cells were decreased by inhibiting vacuolar ATPase by addition of bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A, or by increasing the internal pH by addition of nigericin. Melittin and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide dissipated the delta pH and inhibited accumulation of daunomycin in the membrane vesicles and acidic organelles in cultured cells. These results indicate that the delta pH established by vacuolar-type ATPase drives the uptake of daunomycin, doxorubicin or vinblastine into acidic organelles, and that no specific transporters are involved in their uptakes.

  19. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole by Relative Growth and Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yee-Hung M; Reyes, Lorena; Sohail, Saba M; Tran, Nancy K; Marshall, Wallace F

    2016-05-09

    It has long been noted that larger animals have larger organs compared to smaller animals of the same species, a phenomenon termed scaling [1]. Julian Huxley proposed an appealingly simple model of "relative growth"-in which an organ and the whole body grow with their own intrinsic rates [2]-that was invoked to explain scaling in organs from fiddler crab claws to human brains. Because organ size is regulated by complex, unpredictable pathways [3], it remains unclear whether scaling requires feedback mechanisms to regulate organ growth in response to organ or body size. The molecular pathways governing organelle biogenesis are simpler than organogenesis, and therefore organelle size scaling in the cell provides a more tractable case for testing Huxley's model. We ask the question: is it possible for organelle size scaling to arise if organelle growth is independent of organelle or cell size? Using the yeast vacuole as a model, we tested whether mutants defective in vacuole inheritance, vac8Δ and vac17Δ, tune vacuole biogenesis in response to perturbations in vacuole size. In vac8Δ/vac17Δ, vacuole scaling increases with the replicative age of the cell. Furthermore, vac8Δ/vac17Δ cells continued generating vacuole at roughly constant rates even when they had significantly larger vacuoles compared to wild-type. With support from computational modeling, these results suggest there is no feedback between vacuole biogenesis rates and vacuole or cell size. Rather, size scaling is determined by the relative growth rates of the vacuole and the cell, thus representing a cellular version of Huxley's model.

  20. Analysis of Organelle Targeting by DIL Domains of the Arabidopsis Myosin XI Family

    PubMed Central

    Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 myosin XI motor proteins. Previous insertional mutant analysis has implicated substantial redundancy of function of plant myosin XIs in transport of intracellular organelles. Considerable information is available about the interaction of cargo with the myosin XI-homologous yeast myosin V protein myo2p. We identified a region in each of 12 myosin XI sequences that correspond to the yeast myo2p secretory-vesicle binding domain (the “DIL” domain). Structural modeling of the myosin DIL domain region of plant myosin XIs revealed significant similarity to the yeast myo2p and myo4p DIL domains. Transient expression of YFP fusions with the Arabidopsis myosin XI DIL domain resulted in fluorescent labeling of a variety of organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, Golgi, and nuclear envelope. With the exception of the YFP::MYA1 DIL fusion, expression of the DIL–YFP fusions resulted in loss of motility of labeled organelles, consistent with a dominant-negative effect. Certain fusions resulted in localization to the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, or to unidentified vesicles. The same YFP-domain fusion sometimes labeled more than one organelle. Expression of a YFP fusion to a yeast myo2p DIL domain resulted in labeling of plant peroxisomes. Fusions with some of the myosin XI domains resulted in labeling of known cargoes of the particular myosin XI; however, certain myosin XI YFP fusions labeled organelles that had not previously been found to be detectably affected by mutations nor by expression of dominant-negative constructs. PMID:22645548

  1. Mitochondria-derived organelles in the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Millet, Coralie O M; Williams, Catrin F; Hayes, Anthony J; Hann, Anthony C; Cable, Joanne; Lloyd, David

    2013-10-01

    In some eukaryotes, mitochondria have become modified during evolution to yield derived organelles (MDOs) of a similar size (hydrogenosomes), or extremely reduced to produce tiny cellular vesicles (mitosomes). The current study provides evidence for the presence of MDOs in the highly infectious fish pathogen Spironucleus vortens, an organism that produces H₂ and is shown here to have no detectable cytochromes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that S. vortens trophozoites contain electron-dense, membranous structures sometimes with an electron-dense core (200 nm-1 μm), resembling the hydrogenosomes previously described in other protists from habitats deficient in O₂. Confocal microscopy establishes that these organelles exhibit autofluorescence emission spectra similar to flavoprotein constituents previously described for mitochondria and also present in hydrogenosomes. These organelles possess a membrane potential and are labelled by a fluorescently labeled antibody against Fe-hydrogenase from Blastocystis hominis. Heterologous antibodies raised to mitochondrial proteins frataxin and Isu1, also exhibit a discrete punctate pattern of localization in S. vortens; however these labelled structures are distinctly smaller (90-150 nm) than hydrogenosomes as observed previously in other organisms. TEM confirms the presence of double-membrane bounded organelles of this smaller size. In addition, strong background immunostaining occurs in the cytosol for frataxin and Isu1, and labelling by anti-ferredoxin antibody is generally distributed and not specifically localized except for at the anterior polar region. This suggests that some of the functions traditionally attributed to such MDOs may also occur elsewhere. The specialized parasitic life-style of S. vortens may necessitate more complex intracellular compartmentation of redox reactions than previously recognized. Control of infection requires biochemical characterization of redox-related organelles.

  2. Phylogeny of endocytic components yields insight into the process of nonendosymbiotic organelle evolution.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Joel B; Poon, Pak P; Field, Mark C

    2008-01-15

    The process by which some eukaryotic organelles, for example the endomembrane system, evolved without endosymbiotic input remains poorly understood. This problem largely arises because many major cellular systems predate the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA) and thus do not provide examples of organellogenesis in progress. A model is emerging whereby gene duplication and divergence of multiple "specificity-" or "identity-" encoding proteins for the various endomembranous organelles produced the diversity of nonendosymbiotically derived cellular compartments present in modern eukaryotes. To address this possibility, we analyzed three molecular components of the endocytic membrane-trafficking machinery. Phylogenetic analyses of the endocytic syntaxins, Rab 5, and the beta-adaptins each reveal a pattern of ancestral, undifferentiated endocytic homologues in the LCEA. Subsequently, these undifferentiated progenitors independently duplicated in widely divergent lineages, convergently producing components with similar endocytic roles, e.g., beta1 and beta2-adaptin. In contrast, beta3, beta4, and all other adaptin complex subunits, as well as paralogues of the syntaxins and Rabs specific for the other membrane-trafficking organelles, all evolved before the LCEA. Thus, the process giving rise to the differentiated organelles of the endocytic system appears to have been interrupted by the major speciation event that produced the extant eukaryotic lineages. These results suggest that although many endocytic components evolved before the LCEA, other major features evolved independently and convergently after diversification into the primary eukaryotic supergroups. This finding provides an example of a basic cellular system that was simpler in the LCEA than in many extant eukaryotes and yields insight into nonendosymbiotic organelle evolution.

  3. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  4. Effects of Cisplatin in Neuroblastoma Rat Cells: Damage to Cellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Giada; Scietti, Luigi; Veneroni, Paola; Barni, Sergio; Bernocchi, Graziella; Bottone, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin (cisPt) is a chemotherapy agent used as a treatment for several types of cancer. The main cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is generally accepted to be DNA damage. Recently, the mechanism by which cisPt generates the cascade of events involved in the apoptotic process has been demonstrated. In particular it has been shown that some organelles are cisPt target and are involved in cell death. This paper aims to describe the morphological and functional changes of the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during apoptosis induced in neuronal rat cells (B50) by cisplatin. The results obtained show that the cellular organelles are the target of cisPt, so their damage can induce cell death. PMID:22505928

  5. Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-06-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions.

  6. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: degradation of paternal mitochondria by allogeneic organelle autophagy, allophagy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy.

  7. Multiple vacuoles in impaired tonoplast trafficking3 mutants are independent organelles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiameng; Won Han, Sang; Munnik, Teun; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2014-08-13

    Plant vacuoles are essential and dynamic organelles, and mechanisms of vacuole biogenesis and fusion are not well characterized. We recently demonstrated that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K), induces the fusion of plant vacuoles both in roots of itt3/vti11 mutant alleles and in guard cells of wild type Arabidopsis and Fava bean. Here we used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to demonstrate that the vacuoles in itt3/vti11 are independent organelles. Furthermore, we used fluorescent protein reporters that bind specifically to Phosphatidylinositol-3-Phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) or PtdIns(4)P to show that Wortmannin treatments that induce the fusion of vti11 vacuoles result in the loss of PtdIns(3)P from cellular membranes. These results provided supporting evidence for a critical role of PtdIns(3)P in vacuole fusion in roots and guard cells.

  8. Multiple vacuoles in impaired tonoplast trafficking3 mutants are independent organelles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiameng; Han, Sang Won; Munnik, Teun; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential and dynamic organelles, and mechanisms of vacuole biogenesis and fusion are not well characterized. We recently demonstrated that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), induces the fusion of plant vacuoles both in roots of itt3/vti11 mutant alleles and in guard cells of wild type Arabidopsis and Fava bean. Here we used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to demonstrate that the vacuoles in itt3/vti11 are independent organelles. Furthermore, we used fluorescent protein reporters that bind specifically to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) or PtdIns(4)P to show that Wortmannin treatments that induce the fusion of vti11 vacuoles result in the loss of PtdIns(3)P from cellular membranes. These results provided supporting evidence for a critical role of PtdIns(3)P in vacuole fusion in roots and guard cells.

  9. Diversity and origins of anaerobic metabolism in mitochondria and related organelles

    PubMed Central

    Stairs, Courtney W.; Leger, Michelle M.; Roger, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the diversity of life, organisms have evolved different strategies to thrive in hypoxic environments, and microbial eukaryotes (protists) are no exception. Protists that experience hypoxia often possess metabolically distinct mitochondria called mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). While there are some common metabolic features shared between the MROs of distantly related protists, these organelles have evolved independently multiple times across the breadth of eukaryotic diversity. Until recently, much of our knowledge regarding the metabolic potential of different MROs was limited to studies in parasitic lineages. Over the past decade, deep-sequencing studies of free-living anaerobic protists have revealed novel configurations of metabolic pathways that have been co-opted for life in low oxygen environments. Here, we provide recent examples of anaerobic metabolism in the MROs of free-living protists and their parasitic relatives. Additionally, we outline evolutionary scenarios to explain the origins of these anaerobic pathways in eukaryotes. PMID:26323757

  10. Effects of the uncoupling agents FCCP and CCCP on the saltatory movements of cytoplasmic organelles.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, P J; Bray, D; Adams, R J

    1985-02-01

    Two potent uncoupling agents, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibit the movement of organelles in neurites of chick sensory neurones in culture. FCCP applied for 30 minutes at 10 microM reduces the number of moving organelles by 78% and a similar treatment with CCCP causes a reduction of 47%. At 100 microM either compound abolishes all directed movements both in neurites and in cultured 3T3 cells. These effects are probably not due to the discharge of proton gradients since 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), at concentrations shown to uncouple mitochondria by the discharge of the permeant cationic fluorescent probe rhodamine 123, fails to inhibit cytoplasmic movements. The inhibition of cytoplasmic movements by FCCP and CCCP is likely to be a consequence of their inhibitory action on a variety of enzymes, including dynein and myosin ATPases, through a reaction with sulfhydryl groups.

  11. Plant peroxisomes: recent discoveries in functional complexity, organelle homeostasis, and morphological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Sigrun; Bartel, Bonnie

    2016-12-01

    Peroxisomes are essential for life in plants. These organelles house a variety of metabolic processes that generate and inactivate reactive oxygen species. Our knowledge of pathways and mechanisms that depend on peroxisomes and their constituent enzymes continues to grow, and in this review we highlight recent advances in understanding the identity and biological functions of peroxisomal enzymes and metabolic processes. We also review how peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins enter the organelle from their sites of synthesis. Peroxisome homeostasis is regulated by specific degradation mechanisms, and we discuss the contributions of specialized autophagy and a peroxisomal protease to the degradation of entire peroxisomes and peroxisomal enzymes that are damaged or superfluous. Finally, we review how peroxisomes can flexibly change their morphology to facilitate inter-organellar contacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative imaging of Candida utilis and its organelles by soft X-ray Nano-CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Li, F; Chen, L; Guan, Y; Tian, L; Xiong, Y; Liu, G; Tian, Y

    2017-09-28

    Soft X-ray microscopy has excellent characteristics for imaging cells and subcellular structures. In this paper, the yeast strain, Candida utilis, was imaged by soft X-ray microscopy and three-dimensional volumes were reconstructed with the SART-TV method. We performed segmentation on the reconstruction in three dimensions and identified several types of subcellular architecture within the specimen cells based on their linear absorption coefficient (LAC) values. Organelles can be identified by the correlation between the soft X-ray LAC values and the subcellular architectures. Quantitative analyses of the volume ratio of organelles to whole cell in different phases were also carried out according to the three-dimensional datasets. With such excellent features, soft X-ray imaging has a great influence in the field of biological cellular and subcellular research. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-06-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ~95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes.

  14. Microbial arms race: Ballistic "nematocysts" in dinoflagellates represent a new extreme in organelle complexity.

    PubMed

    Gavelis, Gregory S; Wakeman, Kevin C; Tillmann, Urban; Ripken, Christina; Mitarai, Satoshi; Herranz, Maria; Özbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas; Keeling, Patrick J; Leander, Brian S

    2017-03-01

    We examine the origin of harpoon-like secretory organelles (nematocysts) in dinoflagellate protists. These ballistic organelles have been hypothesized to be homologous to similarly complex structures in animals (cnidarians); but we show, using structural, functional, and phylogenomic data, that nematocysts evolved independently in both lineages. We also recorded the first high-resolution videos of nematocyst discharge in dinoflagellates. Unexpectedly, our data suggest that different types of dinoflagellate nematocysts use two fundamentally different types of ballistic mechanisms: one type relies on a single pressurized capsule for propulsion, whereas the other type launches 11 to 15 projectiles from an arrangement similar to a Gatling gun. Despite their radical structural differences, these nematocysts share a single origin within dinoflagellates and both potentially use a contraction-based mechanism to generate ballistic force. The diversity of traits in dinoflagellate nematocysts demonstrates a stepwise route by which simple secretory structures diversified to yield elaborate subcellular weaponry.

  15. Resonance Raman Probes for Organelle-Specific Labeling in Live Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Andrey N.; Pliss, Artem; Lim, Chang-Keun; Heo, Jeongyun; Kim, Sehoon; Rzhevskii, Alexander; Gu, Bobo; Yong, Ken-Tye; Wen, Shangchun; Prasad, Paras N.

    2016-06-01

    Raman microspectroscopy provides for high-resolution non-invasive molecular analysis of biological samples and has a breakthrough potential for dissection of cellular molecular composition at a single organelle level. However, the potential of Raman microspectroscopy can be fully realized only when novel types of molecular probes distinguishable in the Raman spectroscopy modality are developed for labeling of specific cellular domains to guide spectrochemical spatial imaging. Here we report on the design of a next generation Raman probe, based on BlackBerry Quencher 650 compound, which provides unprecedentedly high signal intensity through the Resonance Raman (RR) enhancement mechanism. Remarkably, RR enhancement occurs with low-toxic red light, which is close to maximum transparency in the biological optical window. The utility of proposed RR probes was validated for targeting lysosomes in live cultured cells, which enabled identification and subsequent monitoring of dynamic changes in this organelle by Raman imaging.

  16. Spying on organelle Ca²⁺ in living cells: the mitochondrial point of view.

    PubMed

    Pendin, D; Greotti, E; Filadi, R; Pozzan, T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, the use of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs), derived from aequorin and green fluorescent protein, has profoundly transformed the study of Ca(2+) homeostasis in living cells leading to novel insights into functional aspects of Ca(2+) signalling. Particularly relevant for a deeper understanding of these key aspects of cell pathophysiology has been the possibility of imaging changes in Ca(2+) concentration not only in the cytoplasm, but also inside organelles. In this review, we will provide an overview of the ongoing developments in the use of GECIs, with particular focus on mitochondrially targeted probes. Indeed, due to recent advances in organelle Ca(2+) imaging with GECIs, mitochondria are now at the centre of renewed interest: they play key roles both in the physiology of the cell and in multiple pathological conditions relevant to human health.

  17. Organelle-Specific Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Living Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Chrisler, William B.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-02-06

    A multimodal acidic organelle targeting activity-based probe was developed for analysis of subcellular native enzymatic activity of cells by fluorescent microscopy and mass spectrometry. A cathepsin reactive warhead was conjugated to an acidotropic amine, and a clickable alkyne for appendage of AlexaFluor 488 or biotin reporter tags. This probe accumulated in punctate vesicles surrounded by LAMP1, a lysosome marker, as observed by Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) in J774 mouse macrophage cells. Biotin conjugation, affinity purification, and analysis of in vivo labeled J774 by mass spectrometry showed that the probe was very selective for Cathepsins B and Z, two lysosomal cysteine proteases. Analysis of starvation induced autophagy, which is an increase in cell component catabolism involving lysosomes, showed a large increase in tagged protein number and an increase in cathepsin activity. Organelle targeting activity-based probes and subsequent analysis of resident proteins by mass spectrometry is enabled by tuning the physicochemical properties of the probe.

  18. Resonance Raman Probes for Organelle-Specific Labeling in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Andrey N.; Pliss, Artem; Lim, Chang-Keun; Heo, Jeongyun; Kim, Sehoon; Rzhevskii, Alexander; Gu, Bobo; Yong, Ken-Tye; Wen, Shangchun; Prasad, Paras N.

    2016-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy provides for high-resolution non-invasive molecular analysis of biological samples and has a breakthrough potential for dissection of cellular molecular composition at a single organelle level. However, the potential of Raman microspectroscopy can be fully realized only when novel types of molecular probes distinguishable in the Raman spectroscopy modality are developed for labeling of specific cellular domains to guide spectrochemical spatial imaging. Here we report on the design of a next generation Raman probe, based on BlackBerry Quencher 650 compound, which provides unprecedentedly high signal intensity through the Resonance Raman (RR) enhancement mechanism. Remarkably, RR enhancement occurs with low-toxic red light, which is close to maximum transparency in the biological optical window. The utility of proposed RR probes was validated for targeting lysosomes in live cultured cells, which enabled identification and subsequent monitoring of dynamic changes in this organelle by Raman imaging. PMID:27339882

  19. Identification and staining of distinct populations of secretory organelles in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bezzi, Paola; Volterra, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, respond to an elevation in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by releasing chemical transmitters (also called gliotransmitters) via regulated exocytosis of heterogeneous classes of organelles. By this process, astrocytes exert modulatory influences on neighboring cells and are thought to participate in the control of synaptic circuits and cerebral blood flow. Studying the properties of exocytosis in astrocytes is a challenge, because the cell biological basis of this process is incompletely defined. Astrocytic exocytosis involves multiple populations of secretory vesicles, including synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs), dense-core granules (DCGs), and lysosomes. Here we summarize the available information for identifying individual populations of secretory organelles in astrocytes, including DCGs, SLMVs, and lysosomes, and present experimental procedures for specifically staining such populations.

  20. Multiple vacuoles in impaired tonoplast trafficking3 mutants are independent organelles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiameng; Han, Sang Won; Munnik, Teun; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential and dynamic organelles, and mechanisms of vacuole biogenesis and fusion are not well characterized. We recently demonstrated that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), induces the fusion of plant vacuoles both in roots of itt3/vti11 mutant alleles and in guard cells of wild type Arabidopsis and Fava bean. Here we used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to demonstrate that the vacuoles in itt3/vti11 are independent organelles. Furthermore, we used fluorescent protein reporters that bind specifically to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) or PtdIns(4)P to show that Wortmannin treatments that induce the fusion of vti11 vacuoles result in the loss of PtdIns(3)P from cellular membranes. These results provided supporting evidence for a critical role of PtdIns(3)P in vacuole fusion in roots and guard cells. PMID:25482812

  1. Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and geographic origins of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James

    2007-10-25

    Comparative sequencing of cannabis individuals across 12 chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA loci revealed 7 polymorphic sites, including 5 length variable regions and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Simple PCR assays were developed to assay these polymorphisms, and organelle DNA haplotypes were obtained for 188 cannabis individuals from 76 separate populations, including drug-type, fibre-type and wild populations. The haplotype data were analysed using parsimony, UPGMA and neighbour joining methods. Three haplotype groups were recovered by each analysis method, and these groups are suggestive of the crop-use characteristics and geographical origin of the populations, although not strictly diagnostic. We discuss the relationship between our haplotype data and taxonomic opinions of cannabis, and the implications of organelle DNA haplotyping to forensic investigations of cannabis.

  2. Diversity and origins of anaerobic metabolism in mitochondria and related organelles.

    PubMed

    Stairs, Courtney W; Leger, Michelle M; Roger, Andrew J

    2015-09-26

    Across the diversity of life, organisms have evolved different strategies to thrive in hypoxic environments, and microbial eukaryotes (protists) are no exception. Protists that experience hypoxia often possess metabolically distinct mitochondria called mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). While there are some common metabolic features shared between the MROs of distantly related protists, these organelles have evolved independently multiple times across the breadth of eukaryotic diversity. Until recently, much of our knowledge regarding the metabolic potential of different MROs was limited to studies in parasitic lineages. Over the past decade, deep-sequencing studies of free-living anaerobic protists have revealed novel configurations of metabolic pathways that have been co-opted for life in low oxygen environments. Here, we provide recent examples of anaerobic metabolism in the MROs of free-living protists and their parasitic relatives. Additionally, we outline evolutionary scenarios to explain the origins of these anaerobic pathways in eukaryotes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Cell organelles from crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) plants : I. Enzymes in isolated peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1978-01-01

    Cell organelles were isolated from the CAM plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose gradients. The inclusion of 2.5% Ficoll in the grinding medium proved to be essential for a satisfactory separation of cell organelles during the subsequent centrifugation. Peroxisomes, mitochondria, and whole and broken chloroplasts were at least partially resolved as judged by marker-enzyme-activity profiles. The isolated peroxisomes contained activities of glycollate oxidase, catalase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, glycine aminotransferase, serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, comparable to activities found in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf peroxisomes. In contrast to spinach, however, only little, if any, particulate malate dehydrogenase activity could be attributed to isolated peroxisomes of the three CAM plants.

  4. Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-01-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions. PMID:24957323

  5. Quantitatively mapping cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information via a designed PET fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-06-24

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions.

  6. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  7. The giant organelles in beige and Chediak-Higashi fibroblasts are derived from late endosomes and mature lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting secretory granules and lysosomes-like organelles. In CHS fibroblasts, acidic organelles are abnormally large and clustered in the perinuclear area. We have analyzed fibroblast cell lines from a CHS patient and from the murine model for CHS, the beige mouse, to determine which lysosome-like compartments are affected. Uptake of neutral red showed that in both beige and CHS cell lines, the acidic organelles were markedly clustered in the perinuclear region of the cells. Giant organelles (> 4 microns) were observed in a fraction of the cells, and these were more dramatic in the beige fibroblasts than in the CHS fibroblasts. The total dye uptake of both mutant cell lines was similar to their respective wild type fibroblasts, suggesting that the overall volume of acidic compartments is unaffected by the disorder. Histochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the giant organelles in both beige and CHS fibroblasts were positive for cathepsin D, lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1, LAMP 2, and a 120-kD lysosomal glycoprotein, all marker proteins for late endosomes and lysosomes. The giant organelles were also negative for transferrin receptor and mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and most of them were also negative for rab 7. This distribution of marker proteins shows that the giant organelles in both beige and CHS are derived from late compartments of the endocytic pathway. This conclusion was confirmed using endocytic tracers. BSA was transported to the giant organelles, but only after long incubation times, and only at 37 degrees C. alpha 2- Macroglobulin was taken up and degraded at similar rates by CHS or beige cells and their respective wild type control cells. Taken together, our results indicate that the mutation in CHS specifically affects late endosomes and lysosomes, with little or no effect on early endosomes. Although the mutation clearly causes mislocalization of these

  8. Massive Protein Import into the Early-Evolutionary-Stage Photosynthetic Organelle of the Amoeba Paulinella chromatophora.

    PubMed

    Singer, Anna; Poschmann, Gereon; Mühlich, Cornelia; Valadez-Cano, Cecilio; Hänsch, Sebastian; Hüren, Vanessa; Rensing, Stefan A; Stühler, Kai; Nowack, Eva C M

    2017-09-25

    The endosymbiotic acquisition of mitochondria and plastids more than 1 Ga ago profoundly impacted eukaryote evolution. At the heart of understanding organelle evolution is the re-arrangement of the endosymbiont proteome into a host-controlled organellar proteome. However, early stages in this process as well as the timing of events that underlie organelle integration remain poorly understood. The amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains cyanobacterium-derived photosynthetic organelles, termed "chromatophores," that were acquired more recently (around 100 Ma ago). To explore the re-arrangement of an organellar proteome during its integration into a eukaryotic host cell, here we characterized the chromatophore proteome by protein mass spectrometry. Apparently, genetic control over the chromatophore has shifted substantially to the nucleus. Two classes of nuclear-encoded proteins-which differ in protein length-are imported into the chromatophore, most likely through independent pathways. Long imported proteins carry a putative, conserved N-terminal targeting signal, and many specifically fill gaps in chromatophore-encoded metabolic pathways or processes. Surprisingly, upon heterologous expression in a plant cell, the putative chromatophore targeting signal conferred chloroplast localization. This finding suggests common features in the protein import pathways of chromatophores and plastids, two organelles that evolved independently and more than 1 Ga apart from each other. By combining experimental data with in silico predictions, we provide a comprehensive catalog of almost 450 nuclear-encoded, chromatophore-targeted proteins. Interestingly, most imported proteins seem to derive from ancestral host genes, suggesting that the re-targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins that resulted from endosymbiotic gene transfers plays only a minor role at the onset of chromatophore integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An NMR probe for the study of aerobic suspensions of cells and organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Balaban, R.S.; Gadian, D.G.; Radda, G.K.; Wong, G.G.

    1981-09-15

    The construction of an NMR probe and cell chamber with good mixing, pH buffering, and oxygenation characteristics, which can be used for relatively dilute cell and organelle suspension is described. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of acceptable signal-to-noise ratios are obtained from approximately 200 mg (protein) of tissues, and kinetic studies of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are demonstrated. Representative spectra from rabbit kidney cortical tubules and rabbit kidney cortical mitochondria are presented.

  10. A photoinduced electron transfer-based nanoprobe as a marker of acidic organelles in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Marín, María J; Galindo, Francisco; Thomas, Paul; Wileman, Tom; Russell, David A

    2013-07-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (PET)-based molecular probes have been successfully used for the intracellular imaging of the pH of acidic organelles. In this study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel PET-based pH nanoprobe and its biological application for the signaling of acidic organelles in mammalian cells. A fluorescent ligand sensitive to pH via the PET mechanism that incorporates a thiolated moiety was synthesized and used to stabilize gold nanoparticles (2.4 ± 0.6 nm), yielding a PET-based nanoprobe. The PET nanoprobe was unambiguously characterized by transmission electron microscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and steady-state/time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies which confirmed the functionalization of the gold nanoparticles with the PET-based ligand. Following a classic PET behavior, the fluorescence emission of the PET-based nanoprobe was quenched in alkaline conditions and enhanced in an acidic environment. The PET-based nanoprobe was used for the intracellular imaging of acidic environments within Chinese hamster ovary cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The internalization of the nanoparticles by the cells was confirmed by confocal fluorescence images and also by recording the fluorescence emission spectra of the intracellular PET-based nanoprobe from within the cells. Co-localization experiments using a marker of acidic organelles, LysoTracker Red DND-99, and a marker of autophagosomes, GFP-LC3, confirm that the PET-based nanoprobe acts as marker of acidic organelles and autophagosomes within mammalian cells.

  11. A stereological study on organelle distribution in human oocytes at prophase I.

    PubMed

    Pires-Luís, Ana Sílvia; Rocha, Eduardo; Bartosch, Carla; Oliveira, Elsa; Silva, Joaquina; Barros, Alberto; Sá, Rosália; Sousa, Mário

    2016-06-01

    The ultrastructural analysis of human oocytes at different maturation stages has only been descriptive. The aim of this study was to use a stereological approach to quantify the distribution of organelles in oocytes at prophase I (GV). Seven immature GV oocytes were processed for transmission electron microscopy and a classical manual stereological technique based on point-counting with an adequate stereological grid was used. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used to compare the means of the relative volumes occupied by organelles in oocyte regions: cortex (C), subcortex (SC) and inner cytoplasm (IC). Here we first describe in GV oocytes very large vesicles of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), vesicles containing zona pellucida-like materials and coated vesicles. The most abundant organelles were the very large vesicles of the SER (6.9%), mitochondria (6.3%) and other SER vesicles (6.1%). Significant differences in organelle distribution were observed between ooplasm regions: cortical vesicles (C: 1.3% versus SC: 0.1%, IC: 0.1%, P = 0.001) and medium-sized vesicles containing zona pellucida-like materials (C: 0.2% versus SC: 0.02%, IC: 0%, P = 0.004) were mostly observed at the oocyte cortex, whereas mitochondria (C: 3.6% versus SC: 6.0%, IC: 7.2%, P = 0.005) were preferentially located in the subcortex and inner cytoplasm, and SER very large vesicles (IC: 10.1% versus C: 0.9%, SC: 1.67%, P = 0.001) in the oocyte inner cytoplasm. Further quantitative studies are needed in immature metaphase-I and mature metaphase-II oocytes, as well as analysis of correlations between ultrastructural and molecular data, to better understand human oocyte in vitro maturation.

  12. Distinct External Signals Trigger Sequential Release of Apical Organelles during Erythrocyte Invasion by Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailja; Alam, M. Mahmood; Pal-Bhowmick, Ipsita; Brzostowski, Joseph A.; Chitnis, Chetan E.

    2010-01-01

    The invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands. Parasite proteins that bind erythrocyte receptors during invasion are localized in apical organelles called micronemes and rhoptries. The regulated secretion of microneme and rhoptry proteins to the merozoite surface to enable receptor binding is a critical step in the invasion process. The sequence of these secretion events and the external signals that trigger release are not known. We have used time-lapse video microscopy to study changes in intracellular calcium levels in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites during erythrocyte invasion. In addition, we have developed flow cytometry based methods to measure relative levels of cytosolic calcium and study surface expression of apical organelle proteins in P. falciparum merozoites in response to different external signals. We demonstrate that exposure of P. falciparum merozoites to low potassium ion concentrations as found in blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic calcium levels through a phospholipase C mediated pathway. Rise in cytosolic calcium triggers secretion of microneme proteins such as the 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) to the merozoite surface. Subsequently, interaction of EBA175 with glycophorin A (glyA), its receptor on erythrocytes, restores basal cytosolic calcium levels and triggers release of rhoptry proteins. Our results identify for the first time the external signals responsible for the sequential release of microneme and rhoptry proteins during erythrocyte invasion and provide a starting point for the dissection of signal transduction pathways involved in regulated exocytosis of these key apical organelles. Signaling pathway components involved in apical organelle discharge may serve as novel targets for drug development since inhibition of microneme and rhoptry secretion can block invasion and limit blood

  13. Dual roles for ubiquitination in the processing of sperm organelles after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Connie; Sampuda, Katherine M; Boyd, Lynn

    2014-02-15

    The process of fertilization involves a cell fusion event between the sperm and oocyte. Although sperm contain mitochondria when they fuse with the oocyte, paternal mitochondrial genomes do not persist in offspring and, thus, mitochondrial inheritance is maternal in most animals. Recent evidence suggests that paternal mitochondria may be eliminated via autophagy after fertilization. In C. elegans, sperm-specific organelles called membraneous organelles (MO) cluster together with paternal mitochondria immediately after fertilization. These MOs but not the mitochondria become polyubiquitinated and associated with proteasomes. The current model for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans is that ubiquitination of the MOs induces the formation of autophagosomes which also capture the mitochondria and cause their degradation. Sperm-derived mitochondria and MOs show a sharp decrease in number during the time between sperm-oocyte fusion and the onset of mitosis. During this time, paternal mitochondria remain closely clustered with the MOs. Two types of polyubiquitin chains are observed on the MOs: K48-linked ubiquitin chains which are known to lead to proteasomal degradation and K63-linked ubiquitin chains which have been linked to autophagy. K48-linked ubiquitin chains and proteasomes show up on MOs very soon after sperm-oocyte fusion. These are present on MOs for only a short period of time. Maternal proteasomes localize to MOs and sperm proteasomes localize to structures that are at the periphery of the MO cluster suggesting that these two proteasome populations may have different roles in degrading paternal material. K63-linked ubiquitin chains appear on MOs early and remain throughout the first several cell divisions. Since there are two different types of polyubiquitin chains associated with sperm organelles and their timing differs, it suggests that ubiquitin has two or more roles in the processing of sperm components after fertilization. The K63

  14. It's Raining Liquids: RNA Tunes Viscoelasticity and Dynamics of Membraneless Organelles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Shorter, James

    2015-10-15

    Paradigm-shifting advances have revealed that diverse membraneless organelles originate via liquid-liquid phase separation, but how their distinct structural and functional milieux are specified is not understood. Recent work elucidates that RNA governs the biophysical characteristics of liquid droplets formed by RNA-binding proteins with low-complexity domains and can decelerate pathogenic fibrillogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanohole Array-directed Trapping of Mammalian Mitochondria Enabling Single Organelle Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailabh; Wolken, Gregory G.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We present periodic nanohole arrays fabricated in free-standing metal-coated nitride films as a platform for trapping and analyzing single organelles. When a microliter-scale droplet containing mitochondria is dispensed above the nanohole array, the combination of evaporation and capillary flow directs individual mitochondria to the nanoholes. Mammalian mitochondria arrays were rapidly formed on chip using this technique without any surface modification steps, microfluidic interconnects or external power sources. The trapped mitochondria were depolarized on chip using an ionophore with results showing that the organelle viability and behavior were preserved during the on-chip assembly process. Fluorescence signal related to mitochondrial membrane potential was obtained from single mitochondria trapped in individual nanoholes revealing statistical differences between the behavior of polarized vs. depolarized mammalian mitochondria. This technique provides a fast and stable route for droplet-based directed localization of organelles-on-a-chip with minimal limitations and complexity, as well as promotes integration with other optical or electrochemical detection techniques. PMID:26593329

  16. Organelle sedimentation in gravitropic roots of Limnobium is restricted to the elongation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Kim, D.; Stein, B.

    1994-01-01

    Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, no sedimentation of any organelle, including amyloplasts, was found. In contrast, both amyloplasts and nuclei sediment consistently and completely in cells of the elongation zone. Sedimentation occurs in one cell layer of the cortex just outside the endodermis. Sedimentation of both amyloplasts and nuclei begins in cells that are in their initial stages of elongation and persists at least to the level of the root where root hairs emerge. This is the first modern report of the presence of sedimentation away from, but not in, the rootcap. It shows that sedimentation in the rootcap is not necessary for gravitropic sensing in at least one angiosperm. If amyloplast sedimentation is responsible for gravitropic sensing, then the site of sensing in Limnobium roots is the elongation zone and not the rootcap. These data do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that sensing occurs in the cap in other roots, since Limnobium roots are exceptional in rootcap origin and structure, as well as in the distribution of organelle sedimentation. Similarly, if nuclear sedimentation is involved in gravitropic sensing, then nuclear mass would function in addition to, not instead of, that of amyloplasts.

  17. DNA-Mediated Self-Organization of Polymeric Nanocompartments Leads to Interconnected Artificial Organelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Postupalenko, Viktoriia; Lörcher, Samuel; Wu, Dalin; Chami, Mohamed; Meier, Wolfgang; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2016-11-09

    Self-organization of nanocomponents was mainly focused on solid nanoparticles, quantum dots, or liposomes to generate complex architectures with specific properties, but intrinsically limited or not developed enough, to mimic sophisticated structures with biological functions in cells. Here, we present a biomimetic strategy to self-organize synthetic nanocompartments (polymersomes) into clusters with controlled properties and topology by exploiting DNA hybridization to interconnect polymersomes. Molecular and external factors affecting the self-organization served to design clusters mimicking the connection of natural organelles: fine-tune of the distance between tethered polymersomes, different topologies, no fusion of clustered polymersomes, and no aggregation. Unexpected, extended DNA bridges that result from migration of the DNA strands inside the thick polymer membrane (about 12 nm) represent a key stability and control factor, not yet exploited for other synthetic nano-object networks. The replacement of the empty polymersomes with artificial organelles, already reported for single polymersome architecture, will provide an excellent platform for the development of artificial systems mimicking natural organelles or cells and represents a fundamental step in the engineering of molecular factories.

  18. Metabolic Capacity of Mitochondrion-related Organelles in the Free-living Anaerobic Stramenopile Cantina marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Fumiya; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nakayama, Takuro; Yazaki, Euki; Yabuki, Akinori; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji; Fujikura, Katsunori; Takishita, Kiyotaka

    2015-11-01

    Functionally and morphologically degenerate mitochondria, so-called mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), are frequently found in eukaryotes inhabiting hypoxic or anoxic environments. In the last decade, MROs have been discovered from a phylogenetically broad range of eukaryotic lineages and these organelles have been revealed to possess diverse metabolic capacities. In this study, the biochemical characteristics of an MRO in the free-living anaerobic protist Cantina marsupialis, which represents an independent lineage in stramenopiles, were inferred based on RNA-seq data. We found transcripts for proteins known to function in one form of MROs, the hydrogenosome, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, iron-hydrogenase, acetate:succinate CoA-transferase, and succinyl-CoA synthase, along with transcripts for acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming). These proteins possess putative mitochondrial targeting signals at their N-termini, suggesting dual ATP generation systems through anaerobic pyruvate metabolism in Cantina MROs. In addition, MROs in Cantina were also shown to share several features with canonical mitochondria, including amino acid metabolism and an "incomplete" tricarboxylic acid cycle. Transcripts for all four subunits of complex II (CII) of the electron transport chain were detected, while there was no evidence for the presence of complexes I, III, IV, or F1Fo ATPase. Cantina MRO biochemistry challenges the categories of mitochondrial organelles recently proposed.

  19. A simple, straightforward correlative live-cell-imaging-structured-illumination-microscopy approach for studying organelle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Shachar; Nachmias, Dikla; Elia, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    Most cellular organelles are highly dynamic and continuously undergo membrane fission and fusion to mediate their function. Documenting organelle dynamics under physiological conditions, therefore, requires high temporal resolution of the recording system. Concurrently, these structures are relatively small and determining their substructural organization is often impossible using conventional microscopy. Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) is a super resolution technique providing a two-fold increase in resolution. Importantly, SIM is versatile because it allows the use of any fluorescent dye or protein and, hence, is highly applicable for cell biology. However, similar to other SR techniques, the applicability of SIM to high-speed live cell imaging is limited. Here we present an easy, straightforward methodology for coupling of high-speed live cell recordings, using spinning disk (SD) microscopy, with SIM. Using this simple methodology, we are able to track individual mitochondrial membrane fission and fusion events in real time and to determine the network connectivity and substructural organization of the membrane at high resolution. Applying this methodology to other cellular organelles such as, ER, golgi, and cilia will no doubt contribute to our understanding of membrane dynamics in cells.

  20. Molecular characterization of a trafficking organelle: dissecting the axonal paths of calsyntenin-1 transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Steuble, Martin; Gerrits, Bertran; Ludwig, Alexander; Mateos, José María; Diep, Tu-My; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Stephan, Alexander; Schätzle, Philipp; Kunz, Beat; Streit, Peter; Sonderegger, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Kinesin motors play crucial roles in the delivery of membranous cargo to its destination and thus for the establishment and maintenance of cellular polarization. Recently, calsyntenin-1 was identified as a cargo-docking protein for Kinesin-1-mediated axonal transport of tubulovesicular organelles along axons of central nervous system neurons. To further define the function of calsyntenin-1, we immunoisolated calsyntenin-1 organelles from murine brain homogenates and determined their proteome by MS. We found that calsyntenin-1 organelles are endowed with components of the endosomal trafficking machinery and contained the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Detailed biochemical analyses of calsyntenin-1 immunoisolates in conjunction with immunocytochemical colocalization studies with cultured hippocampal neurons, using endosomal marker proteins for distinct subcompartments of the endosomal pathways, indicated that neuronal axons contain at least two distinct, nonoverlapping calsyntenin-1-containing transport packages: one characterized as early-endosomal, APP positive, the other as recycling-endosomal, APP negative. We postulate that calsyntenin-1 acts as a general mediator of anterograde axonal transportation of endosomal vesicles. In this role, calsyntenin-1 may actively contribute to axonal growth and pathfinding in the developing as well as to the maintenance of neuronal polarity in the adult nervous system; further, it may actively contribute to the stabilization of APP during its anterograde axonal trajectory.

  1. Crystal Structures of DNA-Whirly Complexes and Their Role in Arabidopsis Organelle Genome Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Maréchal, Alexandre; Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Lepage, Étienne; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

    2010-09-07

    DNA double-strand breaks are highly detrimental to all organisms and need to be quickly and accurately repaired. Although several proteins are known to maintain plastid and mitochondrial genome stability in plants, little is known about the mechanisms of DNA repair in these organelles and the roles of specific proteins. Here, using ciprofloxacin as a DNA damaging agent specific to the organelles, we show that plastids and mitochondria can repair DNA double-strand breaks through an error-prone pathway similar to the microhomology-mediated break-induced replication observed in humans, yeast, and bacteria. This pathway is negatively regulated by the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins from the Whirly family, thus indicating that these proteins could contribute to the accurate repair of plant organelle genomes. To understand the role of Whirly proteins in this process, we solved the crystal structures of several Whirly-DNA complexes. These reveal a nonsequence-specific ssDNA binding mechanism in which DNA is stabilized between domains of adjacent subunits and rendered unavailable for duplex formation and/or protein interactions. Our results suggest a model in which the binding of Whirly proteins to ssDNA would favor accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks over an error-prone microhomology-mediated break-induced replication repair pathway.

  2. Plasma membrane-associated superstructure: Have we overlooked a new type of organelle in eukaryotic cells?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis; de Lacoba, Mario García

    2015-09-07

    A variety of intriguing plasma membrane-associated regions, including focal adhesions, adherens junctions, tight junctions, immunological synapses, neuromuscular junctions and the primary cilia, among many others, have been described in eukaryotic cells. Emphasizing their importance, alteration in their molecular structures induces or correlates with different pathologies. These regions display surface proteins connected to intracellular molecules, including cytoskeletal component, which maintain their cytoarchitecture, and signalling proteins, which regulate their organization and functions. Based on the molecular similarities and other common features observed, we suggest that, despite differences in external appearances, all these regions are just the same superstructure that appears in different locations and cells. We hypothesize that this superstructure represents an overlooked new type of organelle that we call plasma membrane-associated superstructure (PMAS). Therefore, we suggest that eukaryotic cells include classical organelles (e.g. mitochondria, Golgi and others) and also PMAS. We speculate that this new type of organelle might be an innovation associated to the emergence of eukaryotes. Finally we discuss the implications of the hypothesis proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organization of organelles and VAMP-associated vesicular transport systems in differentiating skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular transport plays an important role in the regulation of cellular function and differentiation of the cell, and intracellular vesicles play a role in the delivery of membrane components and in sorting membrane proteins to appropriate domains in organelles and the plasma membrane. Research on vesicular transport in differentiating cells has mostly focused on neurons and epithelial cells, and few such studies have been carried out on skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells have specialized organelles and plasma membrane domains, including T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, neuromuscular junctions, and myotendinous junctions. The differentiation of skeletal muscle cells is achieved by multiple steps, i.e., proliferation of myoblasts, formation of myotubes by cell-cell fusion, and maturation of myotubes into myofibers. Systematic vesicular transport is expected to play a role in the maintenance and development of skeletal muscle cells. Here, we review a map of the vesicular transport system during the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. The characteristics of organelle arrangement in myotubes are described according to morphological studies. Vesicular transport in myotubes is explained by the expression profiles of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins.

  4. DNA transfer from organelles to the nucleus: the idiosyncratic genetics of endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Tatjana; Maier, Uwe G; Leister, Dario

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA is exchanged between endosymbiosis-derived compartments (mitochondria and chloroplasts) and the nucleus. Organelle-to-nucleus DNA transfer involves repair of double-stranded breaks by nonhomologous end-joining, and resulted during early organelle evolution in massive relocation of organelle genes to the nucleus. A large fraction of the products of the nuclear genes so acquired are retargeted to their ancestral compartment; many others now function in new subcellular locations. Almost all present-day nuclear transfers of mitochondrial or plastid DNA give rise to noncoding sequences, dubbed nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs) and nuclear plastid DNAs (NUPTs). Some of these sequences were recruited as exons, thus introducing new coding sequences into preexisting nuclear genes by a novel mechanism. In organisms derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis, serial gene transfers involving nucleus-to-nucleus migration of DNA have also occurred. Intercompartmental DNA transfer therefore represents a significant driving force for gene and genome evolution, relocating and refashioning genes and contributing to genetic diversity.

  5. A nanobuffer reporter library for fine-scale imaging and perturbation of endocytic organelles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chensu; Wang, Yiguang; Li, Yang; Bodemann, Brian; Zhao, Tian; Ma, Xinpeng; Huang, Gang; Hu, Zeping; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; White, Michael A.; Gao, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Endosomes, lysosomes and related catabolic organelles are a dynamic continuum of vacuolar structures that impact a number of cell physiological processes such as protein/lipid metabolism, nutrient sensing and cell survival. Here we develop a library of ultra-pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles with chemical properties that allow fine-scale, multiplexed, spatio-temporal perturbation and quantification of catabolic organelle maturation at single organelle resolution to support quantitative investigation of these processes in living cells. Deployment in cells allows quantification of the proton accumulation rate in endosomes; illumination of previously unrecognized regulatory mechanisms coupling pH transitions to endosomal coat protein exchange; discovery of distinct pH thresholds required for mTORC1 activation by free amino acids versus proteins; broad-scale characterization of the consequence of endosomal pH transitions on cellular metabolomic profiles; and functionalization of a context-specific metabolic vulnerability in lung cancer cells. Together, these biological applications indicate the robustness and adaptability of this nanotechnology-enabled ‘detection and perturbation' strategy. PMID:26437053

  6. The conserved AAA-ATPase Msp1 confers organelle specificity to tail-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Okreglak, Voytek; Walter, Peter

    2014-06-03

    The accuracy of tail-anchored (TA) protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depends on the Guided Entry of Tail-Anchored (Get) protein targeting machinery. The fate of TA proteins that become inappropriately inserted into other organelles, such as mitochondria, is unknown. Here, we identify Msp1, a conserved, membrane-anchored AAA-ATPase (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) that localizes to mitochondria and peroxisomes, as a critical factor in a quality control pathway that senses and degrades TA proteins mistargeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Pex15 is normally targeted by the Get pathway to the ER, from where it travels to peroxisomes. Loss of Msp1 or loss of the Get pathway results in the redistribution of Pex15 to mitochondria. Cells lacking both a functional Get pathway and Msp1 accumulate increased amounts of Pex15 on the OMM and display severely dysfunctional mitochondrial morphology. In addition, Msp1 binds and promotes the turnover of a Pex15 mutant that is misdirected to the OMM. Our data suggest that Msp1 functions in local organelle surveillance by extracting mistargeted proteins, ensuring the fidelity of organelle specific-localization of TA proteins.

  7. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  8. Surface Organelles Assembled by Secretion Systems of Gram-Negative Bacteria: Diversity in Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Thanassi, David G.; Bliska, James B.; Christie, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria express a wide variety of organelles on their cell surface. These surface structures may be the end products of secretion systems, such as the hair-like fibers assembled by the chaperone/usher and type IV pilus pathways, which generally function in adhesion to surfaces and bacterial-bacterial and bacterial-host interactions. Alternatively, the surface organelles may be integral components of the secretion machinery itself, such as the needle complex and pilus extensions formed by the type III and type IV secretion systems, which function in the delivery of bacterial effectors inside host cells. Bacterial surface structures perform functions critical for pathogenesis and have evolved to withstand forces exerted by the external environment and cope with defenses mounted by the host immune system. Given their essential roles in pathogenesis and exposed nature, bacterial surface structures also make attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will describe the structure and function of surface organelles assembled by four different Gram-negative bacterial secretion systems: the chaperone/usher pathway, the type IV pilus pathway, and the type III and type IV secretion systems. PMID:22545799

  9. Bacterial microcompartments: widespread prokaryotic organelles for isolation and optimization of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bobik, Thomas A.; Lehman, Brent P.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Prokaryotes use subcellular compartments for a variety of purposes. An intriguing example is a family of complex subcellular organelles known as bacterial microcompartments (MCPs). MCPs are widely distributed among bacteria and impact processes ranging global carbon fixation and enteric pathogenesis. Overall, MCPs consist of metabolic enzymes encased within a protein shell, and their function is to optimize biochemical pathways by confining toxic or volatile metabolic intermediates. MCPs are fundamentally different from other organelles in having a complex protein shell rather than a lipid-based membrane as an outer barrier. This unusual feature raises basic questions about organelle assembly, protein targeting and metabolite transport. In this review, we discuss the three best-studied MCPs highlighting atomic-level models for shell assembly, targeting sequences that direct enzyme encapsulation, multivalent proteins that organize the lumen enzymes, the principles of metabolite movement across the shell, internal cofactor recycling, a potential system of allosteric regulation of metabolite transport and the mechanism and rationale behind the functional diversification of the proteins that form the shell. We also touch on some potential biotechnology applications an unusual compartment designed by nature to optimize metabolic processes within a cellular context. PMID:26148529

  10. AQUATIC PLANT SPECIATION AFFECTED BY DIVERSIFYING SELECTION OF ORGANELLE DNA REGIONS(1).

    PubMed

    Kato, Syou; Misawa, Kazuharu; Takahashi, Fumio; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Sano, Satomi; Kosuge, Keiko; Kasai, Fumie; Watanabe, Makoto M; Tanaka, Jiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2011-10-01

    Many of the genes that control photosynthesis are carried in the chloroplast. These genes differ among species. However, evidence has yet to be reported revealing the involvement of organelle genes in the initial stages of plant speciation. To elucidate the molecular basis of aquatic plant speciation, we focused on the unique plant species Chara braunii C. C. Gmel. that inhabits both shallow and deep freshwater habitats and exhibits habitat-based dimorphism of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). Here, we examined the "shallow" and "deep" subpopulations of C. braunii using two nuclear DNA (nDNA) markers and cpDNA. Genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations was measured in both nDNA and cpDNA regions, although phylogenetic analyses suggested nuclear gene flow between subpopulations. Neutrality tests based on Tajima's D demonstrated diversifying selection acting on organelle DNA regions. Furthermore, both "shallow" and "deep" haplotypes of cpDNA detected in cultures originating from bottom soils of three deep environments suggested that migration of oospores (dormant zygotes) between the two habitats occurs irrespective of the complete habitat-based dimorphism of cpDNA from field-collected vegetative thalli. Therefore, the two subpopulations are highly selected by their different aquatic habitats and show prezygotic isolation, which represents an initial process of speciation affected by ecologically based divergent selection of organelle genes.

  11. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  12. The evidence of Tobacco rattle virus impact on host plant organelles ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Otulak, Katarzyna; Chouda, Marcin; Bujarski, Józef; Garbaczewska, Grażyna

    2015-03-01

    Tobraviruses, like other (+) stranded RNA viruses of plants, replicate their genome in cytoplasm and use such usual membranous structures like endoplasmic reticulum. Based on the ultrastructural examination of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-infected potato and tobacco leaf tissues, in this work we provide evidence of the participation of not only the membranous and vesicular ER structures but also other cell organelles during the viral infection cycle. Non-capsidated TRV PSG particles (potato isolate from the Netherlands) (long and short forms) were observed inside the nucleus while the presence of TRV capsid protein (CP) was detected in the nucleus caryolymph and within the nucleolus area. Both capsidated and non-capsidated viral particles were localized inside the strongly disorganized chloroplasts and mitochondria. The electron-dense TRV particles were connected with vesicular structures of mitochondria as well as with chloroplasts in both potato and tobacco tissues. At 15-30 days after infection, vesicles filled with TRV short particles were visible in mitochondria revealing the expanded cristae structures. Immunodetection analysis revealed the TRV PSG CP epitope inside chloroplast with disorganized thylakoids structure as well as in mitochondria of different tobacco and potato tissues. The ultrastructural analysis demonstrated high dynamics of the main cell organelles during the TRV PSG-Solanaceous plants interactions. Moreover, our results suggest a relationship between organelle changes and different stages of virus infection cycle and/or particle formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface organelles assembled by secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria: diversity in structure and function.

    PubMed

    Thanassi, David G; Bliska, James B; Christie, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria express a wide variety of organelles on their cell surface. These surface structures may be the end products of secretion systems, such as the hair-like fibers assembled by the chaperone/usher (CU) and type IV pilus pathways, which generally function in adhesion to surfaces and bacterial-bacterial and bacterial-host interactions. Alternatively, the surface organelles may be integral components of the secretion machinery itself, such as the needle complex and pilus extensions formed by the type III and type IV secretion systems, which function in the delivery of bacterial effectors inside host cells. Bacterial surface structures perform functions critical for pathogenesis and have evolved to withstand forces exerted by the external environment and cope with defenses mounted by the host immune system. Given their essential roles in pathogenesis and exposed nature, bacterial surface structures also make attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will describe the structure and function of surface organelles assembled by four different Gram-negative bacterial secretion systems: the CU pathway, the type IV pilus pathway, and the type III and type IV secretion systems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organelle sedimentation in gravitropic roots of Limnobium is restricted to the elongation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Kim, D.; Stein, B.

    1994-01-01

    Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, no sedimentation of any organelle, including amyloplasts, was found. In contrast, both amyloplasts and nuclei sediment consistently and completely in cells of the elongation zone. Sedimentation occurs in one cell layer of the cortex just outside the endodermis. Sedimentation of both amyloplasts and nuclei begins in cells that are in their initial stages of elongation and persists at least to the level of the root where root hairs emerge. This is the first modern report of the presence of sedimentation away from, but not in, the rootcap. It shows that sedimentation in the rootcap is not necessary for gravitropic sensing in at least one angiosperm. If amyloplast sedimentation is responsible for gravitropic sensing, then the site of sensing in Limnobium roots is the elongation zone and not the rootcap. These data do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that sensing occurs in the cap in other roots, since Limnobium roots are exceptional in rootcap origin and structure, as well as in the distribution of organelle sedimentation. Similarly, if nuclear sedimentation is involved in gravitropic sensing, then nuclear mass would function in addition to, not instead of, that of amyloplasts.

  15. The sigma-1 receptor chaperone as an inter-organelle signaling modulator

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Hayashi, Teruo; Maurice, Tangui; Buch, Shilpa; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2010-01-01

    Inter-organelle signaling plays important roles in many physiological functions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion signaling affects intra-mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. ER-nucleus signaling attenuates ER stress. ER-plasma membrane signaling regulates cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis, and ER-mitochondrion-plasma membrane signaling regulates hippocampal dendritic spine formation. Here we propose that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an ER chaperone protein, acts as an inter-organelle signaling modulator. Sig-1Rs normally reside at the ER-mitochondrion contact called the MAM (mitochondrion-associated ER membrane), where Sig-1Rs regulate ER-mitochondrion signaling and the ER-nucleus cross-talk. When cells are stimulated by ligands or undergo prolonged stress, Sig-1Rs translocate from the MAM to the ER reticular network and plasmalemma/plasma membrane to regulate a variety of functional proteins, including ion channels, receptors, and kinases. Thus, the Sig-1R serves as an inter-organelle signaling modulator locally at the MAM and remotely at the plasmalemma/plasma membrane. Many pharmacological/physiological effects of Sig-1Rs may relate to this unique action of Sig-1Rs. PMID:20869780

  16. CYTOCHEMICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN MICROBODIES (GLYOXYSOMES) AND RELATED ORGANELLES OF CASTOR BEAN ENDOSPERM

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Eugene L.

    1970-01-01

    Structural changes in endosperm cells of germinating castor beans were examined and complemented with a cytochemical analysis of staining with diaminobenzidine (DAB). Deposition of oxidized DAB occurred only in microbodies due to the presence of catalase, and in cell walls associated with peroxidase activity. Seedling development paralleled the disappearance of spherosomes (lipid bodies) and matrix of aleurone grains in endosperm cells. 6 to 7 days after germination, a cross-section through the endosperm contained cells in all stages of development and senescence beginning at the seed coat and progressing inward to the cotyledons. Part of this aging process involved vacuole formation by fusion of aleurone grain membranes. This coincided with an increase in microbodies (glyoxsomes), mitochondria, plastids with an elaborate tubular network, and the formation of a new protein body referred to as a dilated cisterna, which is structurally and biochemically distinct from microbodies although both apparently develop from rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vacuolate cells microbodies are the most numerous organelle and are intimately associated with spherosomes and dilated cisternae. This phenomenon is discussed in relation to the biochemical activities of these organelles. Turnover of microbodies involves sequestration into autophagic vacuoles as intact organelles which still retain catalase activity. Crystalloids present in microbodies develop by condensation of matrix protein and are the principal site of catalase formerly in the matrix. PMID:4121486

  17. Curvature of Double-Membrane Organelles Generated by Changes in Membrane Size and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Knorr, Roland L.; Dimova, Rumiana; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Transient double-membrane organelles are key players in cellular processes such as autophagy, reproduction, and viral infection. These organelles are formed by the bending and closure of flat, double-membrane sheets. Proteins are believed to be important in these morphological transitions but the underlying mechanism of curvature generation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for this curvature generation which depends primarily on three membrane properties: the lateral size of the double-membrane sheets, the molecular composition of their highly curved rims, and a possible asymmetry between the two flat faces of the sheets. This mechanism is evolutionary advantageous since it does not require active processes and is readily available even when resources within the cell are restricted as during starvation, which can induce autophagy and sporulation. We identify pathways for protein-assisted regulation of curvature generation, organelle size, direction of bending, and morphology. Our theory also provides a mechanism for the stabilization of large double-membrane sheet-like structures found in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the Golgi cisternae. PMID:22427874

  18. A close look at axonal transport: Cargos slow down when crossing stationary organelles.

    PubMed

    Che, Daphne L; Chowdary, Praveen D; Cui, Bianxiao

    2016-01-01

    The bidirectional transport of cargos along the thin axon is fundamental for the structure, function and survival of neurons. Defective axonal transport has been linked to the mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we study the effect of the local axonal environment to cargo transport behavior in neurons. Using dual-color fluorescence imaging in microfluidic neuronal devices, we quantify the transport dynamics of cargos when crossing stationary organelles such as non-moving endosomes and stationary mitochondria in the axon. We show that the axonal cargos tend to slow down, or pause transiently within the vicinity of stationary organelles. The slow-down effect is observed in both retrograde and anterograde transport directions of three different cargos (TrkA, lysosomes and TrkB). Our results agree with the hypothesis that bulky axonal structures can pose as steric hindrance for axonal transport. However, the results do not rule out the possibility that cellular mechanisms causing stationary organelles are also responsible for the delay in moving cargos at the same locations.

  19. Novel quantitative autophagy analysis by organelle flow cytometry after cell sonication.

    PubMed

    Degtyarev, Michael; Reichelt, Mike; Lin, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a dynamic process of bulk degradation of cellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Current methods of autophagy measurement include microscopy-based counting of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in cells. We have developed a novel method to quantitatively analyze individual AVs using flow cytometry. This method, OFACS (organelle flow after cell sonication), takes advantage of efficient cell disruption with a brief sonication, generating cell homogenates with fluorescently labeled AVs that retain their integrity as confirmed with light and electron microscopy analysis. These AVs could be detected directly in the sonicated cell homogenates on a flow cytometer as a distinct population of expected organelle size on a cytometry plot. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of autophagic flux, such as chloroquine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, increased the number of particles in this population under autophagy inducing conditions, while inhibition of autophagy induction with 3-methyladenine or knockdown of ATG proteins prevented this accumulation. This assay can be easily performed in a high-throughput format and opens up previously unexplored avenues for autophagy analysis.

  20. Bacterial microcompartments: widespread prokaryotic organelles for isolation and optimization of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bobik, Thomas A; Lehman, Brent P; Yeates, Todd O

    2015-10-01

    Prokaryotes use subcellular compartments for a variety of purposes. An intriguing example is a family of complex subcellular organelles known as bacterial microcompartments (MCPs). MCPs are widely distributed among bacteria and impact processes ranging from global carbon fixation to enteric pathogenesis. Overall, MCPs consist of metabolic enzymes encased within a protein shell, and their function is to optimize biochemical pathways by confining toxic or volatile metabolic intermediates. MCPs are fundamentally different from other organelles in having a complex protein shell rather than a lipid-based membrane as an outer barrier. This unusual feature raises basic questions about organelle assembly, protein targeting and metabolite transport. In this review, we discuss the three best-studied MCPs highlighting atomic-level models for shell assembly, targeting sequences that direct enzyme encapsulation, multivalent proteins that organize the lumen enzymes, the principles of metabolite movement across the shell, internal cofactor recycling, a potential system of allosteric regulation of metabolite transport and the mechanism and rationale behind the functional diversification of the proteins that form the shell. We also touch on some potential biotechnology applications of an unusual compartment designed by nature to optimize metabolic processes within a cellular context.

  1. Characterization of the reflective materials and organelles in the bright irides of North American blackbirds (Icterinae).

    PubMed

    Hudon, J; Muir, A D

    1996-04-01

    The reflective materials in the iris stroma of bright-irised American blackbirds (Icterinae, Emberizidae) and the red-eyed vireo (vireo olivaceus) (Vireonidae) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode-array detection. Two purines, guanine and hypoxanthine, and two pteridines, leucopterin and xanthopterin, were detected in large amounts in all bright irides. The brown iris of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) by comparison contained only small amounts of these and additional unidentified compounds. The absolute and relative amounts of light-absorbing compounds in the iris varied somewhat among species of blackbirds with bright irides, and markedly within one species (brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus) between sexes and age classes that very in eye color. Differences in the types, numbers, and sizes of pigment organelles in the irides appeared to underlie the differences in amounts of light-absorbing compounds. Guanine was the most abundant light-absorbing compound in all bright irides, accounting for about 90% of the total absorption at 250 nm. A wide range of concentrations of guanine, from 96 to 9 micrograms per iris, produced bright irides. The primary pigment organelles of pigment cells in bright irides were reflecting platelets, which typically appeared as open spaces on electron micrographs. In the red-eyed vireo there were in addition red pterinosome-like pigment organelles in the pigment cells on the anterior surface of the iris stroma. Guanine was present even in irides with no overt reflecting platelets.

  2. Visualization and structural analysis of the bacterial magnetic organelle magnetosome using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Taoka, Azuma; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ando, Toshio; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    The unique ability of magnetotactic bacteria to navigate along a geomagnetic field is accomplished with the help of prokaryotic organelles, magnetosomes. The magnetosomes have well-ordered chain-like structures, comprising membrane-enveloped, nano-sized magnetic crystals, and various types of specifically associated proteins. In this study, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the spatial configuration of isolated magnetosomes from Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 in near-native buffer conditions. AFM observation revealed organic material with a ∼7-nm thickness surrounding a magnetite crystal. Small globular proteins, identified as magnetosome-associated protein MamA, were distributed on the mica surface around the magnetosome. Immuno-labeling with AFM showed that MamA is located on the magnetosome surface. In vitro experiments showed that MamA proteins interact with each other and form a high molecular mass complex. These findings suggest that magnetosomes are covered with MamA oligomers in near-native environments. Furthermore, nanodissection revealed that magnetosomes are built with heterogeneous structures that comprise the organic layer. This study provides important clues to the supramolecular architecture of the bacterial organelle, the magnetosome, and insight into the function of the proteins localized in the organelle. PMID:20439702

  3. F-actin cytoskeleton and the fate of organelles in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, José; Gimenez-Molina, Yolanda; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M

    2016-06-01

    In addition to playing a fundamental structural role, the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells has a prominent influence on governing the molecular mechanism and regulating the secretory process. Performing such roles, the F-actin network might be essential to first transport, and later locate the cellular organelles participating in the secretory cycle. Chromaffin granules are transported from the internal cytosolic regions to the cell periphery along microtubular and F-actin structures. Once in the cortical region, they are embedded in the F-actin network where these vesicles experience restrictions in motility. Similarly, mitochondria transport is affected by both microtubule and F-actin inhibitors and suffers increasing motion restrictions when they are located in the cortical region. Therefore, the F-actin cortex is a key factor in defining the existence of two populations of cortical and perinuclear granules and mitochondria which could be distinguished by their different location and mobility. Interestingly, other important organelles for controlling intracellular calcium levels, such as the endoplasmic reticulum network, present clear differences in distribution and much lower mobility than chromaffin vesicles and mitochondria. Nevertheless, both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum appear to distribute in the proximity of secretory sites to fulfill a pivotal role, forming triads with calcium channels ensuring the fine tuning of the secretory response. This review presents the contributions that provide the basis for our current view regarding the influence that F-actin has on the distribution of organelles participating in the release of catecholamines in chromaffin cells, and summarizes this knowledge in simple models. In chromaffin cells, organelles such as granules and mitochondria distribute forming cortical and perinuclear populations whereas others like the ER present homogenous distributions. In the present review we discuss

  4. A Critical Role for Toxoplasma gondii Vacuolar Protein Sorting VPS9 in Secretory Organelle Biogenesis and Host Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakura, Takaya; Sindikubwabo, Fabien; Oesterlin, Lena K.; Bousquet, Hugo; Slomianny, Christian; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Langsley, Gordon; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate sorting of proteins to the three types of parasite-specific secretory organelles namely rhoptry, microneme and dense granule in Toxoplasma gondii is crucial for successful host cell invasion by this obligate intracellular parasite. Despite its tiny body architecture and limited trafficking machinery, T. gondii relies heavily on transport of vesicles containing proteins, lipids and important virulence-like factors that are delivered to these secretory organelles. However, our understanding on how trafficking of vesicles operates in the parasite is still limited. Here, we show that the T. gondii vacuolar protein sorting 9 (TgVps9), has guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity towards Rab5a and is crucial for sorting of proteins destined to secretory organelles. Our results illuminate features of TgVps9 protein as a key trafficking facilitator that regulates protein maturation, secretory organelle formation and secretion, thereby ensuring a primary role in host infection by T. gondii. PMID:27966671

  5. P110 and P140 cytadherence-related proteins are negative effectors of terminal organelle duplication in Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Burgos, Raul; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2009-10-14

    The terminal organelle is a complex structure involved in many aspects of the biology of mycoplasmas such as cell adherence, motility or cell division. Mycoplasma genitalium cells display a single terminal organelle and duplicate this structure prior to cytokinesis in a coordinated manner with the cell division process. Despite the significance of the terminal organelle in mycoplasma virulence, little is known about the mechanisms governing its duplication. In this study we describe the isolation of a mutant, named T192, with a transposon insertion close to the 3' end of the mg192 gene encoding for P110 adhesin. This mutant shows a truncated P110, low levels of P140 and P110 adhesins, a large number of non-motile cells and a high frequency of new terminal organelle formation. Further analyses revealed that the high rates of new terminal organelle formation in T192 cells are a direct consequence of the reduced levels of P110 and P140 rather than to the expression of a truncated P110. Consistently, the phenotype of the T192 mutant was successfully complemented by the reintroduction of the mg192 WT allele which restored the levels of P110 and P140 to those of the WT strain. Quantification of DAPI-stained DNA also showed that the increase in the number of terminal organelles in T192 cells is not accompanied by a higher DNA content, indicating that terminal organelle duplication does not trigger DNA replication in mycoplasmas. Our results demonstrate the existence of a mechanism regulating terminal organelle duplication in M. genitalium and strongly suggest the implication of P110 and P140 adhesins in this mechanism.

  6. Effect of Microtubule Disruption on Dynamics of Acidic Organelles in the Axons of Primary Cultured Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Seiji; Takihara, Yuji; Yokota, Satoshi; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Masaru

    2017-09-22

    Axonal transport is fundamental to autophagy in neuronal cells. To understand its biological significance in various conditions, it is necessary to monitor the process of autophagy. However, monitoring methods are often limited to static analyses, such as protein expression and histological observations. Autophagy has multistep process and is highly dynamic; therefore, additional techniques are necessary to study autophagy. In this study, we quantified the dynamics of autophagy-related organelle transport under conditions of dynamic instability and catastrophic disruption of microtubules using in vitro live imaging. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were isolated from postnatal day 3 Sprague-Dawley rats by immunopanning. After 7 days of culture, acidic organelles were stained by LysoTracker. Dynamics of acidic organelles was quantified using kymographs. Colchicine was used to induce microtubule disruption. Movement of acidic organelles was observed at five time points: before, and at 6, 24, 72, and 120 h after colchicine stimulation. Ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) was used to determine cell viability. The status of axonal transport of acidic organelles (n = 363) from 27 RGCs was classified into four categories: anterograde (1.4%), retrograde (90%), stationary (8.0%), and fluttering (0.28%). Six hours after the induction of microtubule disruption in 14 of 27 RGCs, almost all acidic organelles (n = 236) were stationary. All acidic components had completely stopped moving 24 h later. At 72 h after stimulation, axonal fragmentation, and shrinking and disappearance of soma were observed in 71% of RGCs. Finally, the remaining RGCs became positive for EthD-1. In the control (13 of 27 RGCs), axonal transport was maintained for 120 h and EthD-1-positive RGCs were not observed. Almost all acidic organelles were transported retrogradely along the axon, which was inhibited by colchicine. Understanding the dynamics of acidic organelles may provide useful parameters for

  7. Characterization of a novel organelle in Toxoplasma gondii with similar composition and function to the plant vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Kildare; Pace, Douglas A.; Cintron, Roxana; Rodrigues, Juliany C.F.; Fang, Jianmin; Smith, Alyssa; Rohloff, Peter; Coelho, Elvis; de Haas, Felix; de Souza, Wanderley; Coppens, Isabelle; Sibley, L. David; Moreno, Silvia N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa and is an important cause of congenital disease and infection in immunocompromised patients. Like most apicomplexans, Toxoplasma gondii possesses several plant-like features, such as the chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast. We describe and characterize a novel organelle in T. gondii tachyzoites, which is visible by light microscopy, and possesses a broad similarity to the plant vacuole. Electron tomography shows the interaction of this vacuole with other organelles. The presence of a plant-like vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase (TgVP1), a vacuolar proton ATPase, a cathepsin L-like protease (TgCPL), an aquaporin (TgAQP1), as well as Ca2+/H+ and Na+/H+ exchange activities, supports similarity to the plant vacuole. Biochemical characterization of TgVP1 in enriched fractions shows a functional similarity to the respective plant enzyme. The organelle is a Ca2+ store and appears to have protective effects against salt stress potentially linked to its sodium transport activity. In intracellular parasites, the organelle fragments, with some markers co-localizing with the late endosomal marker, Rab7, suggesting its involvement with the endocytic pathway. Studies on the characterization of this novel organelle will be relevant to the identification of novel targets for chemotherapy against T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites as well. PMID:20398214

  8. Novel synthetic compounds with endoperoxide structure damage juvenile stage of Schistosoma mansoni by targeting lysosome-like organelles.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Masafumi; Kumagai, Takashi; Shimogawara, Rieko; Blay, Emmanuel Awusah; Hino, Akina; Ichimura, Koichiro; Sato, Akira; Kim, Hye-Sook; Ohta, Nobuo

    2017-02-01

    The new synthetic compound 1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro[7.11]nonadecan (N-89), a novel anti-malaria drug candidate, is also a promising drug candidate against schistosomiasis with killing effects against juvenile stage of S. mansoni. In order to investigate how N-89 kills schistosomes, we used a derivative of N-89, 6-(1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro[7.11] nonadec-4-yl)hexan-1-ol (N-251), which enables us to conjugate with fluorescent reagents. Firstly, N-251 showed strong killing effects to larvae of S. mansoni in vitro. Ultrastructural analysis showed the disruptions of the lysosome-like organelles or the acetabular glands, followed by cytoplasmic lysis inside the worm body in N-251-treated group under electron microscopy. For rhodamine-conjugated N-251 and organelle markers, we observed that N-251 accumulated in acidic organelle. In addition, LysoTracker signals in these acidic organelles disappeared in N-251-treated group over time. Finally, we observed that the activity of cathepsin B, a lysosome-specific enzyme, was also decreased together with alternation of acidic organelle marker signal by N-251-treated group. These results suggested that our synthesized compounds induced the dysfunction or the disruption of acidic lysosome-like organelles and finally led to worm death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organelle_PBA, a pipeline for assembling chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from PacBio DNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Soorni, Aboozar; Haak, David; Zaitlin, David; Bombarely, Aureliano

    2017-01-07

    The development of long-read sequencing technologies, such as single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing by PacBio, has produced a revolution in the sequencing of small genomes. Sequencing organelle genomes using PacBio long-read data is a cost effective, straightforward approach. Nevertheless, the availability of simple-to-use software to perform the assembly from raw reads is limited at present. We present Organelle-PBA, a Perl program designed specifically for the assembly of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. For chloroplast genomes, the program selects the chloroplast reads from a whole genome sequencing pool, maps the reads to a reference sequence from a closely related species, and then performs read correction and de novo assembly using Sprai. Organelle-PBA completes the assembly process with the additional step of scaffolding by SSPACE-LongRead. The program then detects the chloroplast inverted repeats and reassembles and re-orients the assembly based on the organelle origin of the reference. We have evaluated the performance of the software using PacBio reads from different species, read coverage, and reference genomes. Finally, we present the assembly of two novel chloroplast genomes from the species Picea glauca (Pinaceae) and Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae). Organelle-PBA is an easy-to-use Perl-based software pipeline that was written specifically to assemble mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes from whole genome PacBio reads. The program is available at https://github.com/aubombarely/Organelle_PBA .

  10. A multicolored set of in vivo organelle markers for co-localization studies in Arabidopsis and other plants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brook K; Cai, Xue; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Genome sequencing has resulted in the identification of a large number of uncharacterized genes with unknown functions. It is widely recognized that determination of the intracellular localization of the encoded proteins may aid in identifying their functions. To facilitate these localization experiments, we have generated a series of fluorescent organelle markers based on well-established targeting sequences that can be used for co-localization studies. In particular, this organelle marker set contains indicators for the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the tonoplast, peroxisomes, mitochondria, plastids and the plasma membrane. All markers were generated with four different fluorescent proteins (FP) (green, cyan, yellow or red FPs) in two different binary plasmids for kanamycin or glufosinate selection, respectively, to allow for flexible combinations. The labeled organelles displayed characteristic morphologies consistent with previous descriptions that could be used for their positive identification. Determination of the intracellular distribution of three previously uncharacterized proteins demonstrated the usefulness of the markers in testing predicted subcellular localizations. This organelle marker set should be a valuable resource for the plant community for such co-localization studies. In addition, the Arabidopsis organelle marker lines can also be employed in plant cell biology teaching labs to demonstrate the distribution and dynamics of these organelles.

  11. Myosin-Va and dynamic actin oppose microtubules to drive long-range organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard D; Robinson, Christopher; Briggs, Deborah A; Tooth, David J; Ramalho, Jose S; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluis; Patel, Shyamal; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Hume, Alistair N

    2014-08-04

    In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 μm). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the "highways and local roads" model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks. The "cooperative capture" model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning.

  12. Modular electron-transport chains from eukaryotic organelles function to support nitrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianguo; Xie, Xiaqing; Yang, Mingxuan; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2017-03-21

    A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the "core" nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively. Among these modules, the ETC is important for the supply of reducing power. In this work, we have used Escherichia coli as a chassis to study the compatibility between molybdenum and the iron-only nitrogenases with ETC modules from target plant organelles, including chloroplasts, root plastids, and mitochondria. We have replaced an ETC module present in diazotrophic bacteria with genes encoding ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductases (FNRs) and their cognate ferredoxin counterparts from plant organelles. We observe that the FNR-ferredoxin module from chloroplasts and root plastids can support the activities of both types of nitrogenase. In contrast, an analogous ETC module from mitochondria could not function in electron transfer to nitrogenase. However, this incompatibility could be overcome with hybrid modules comprising mitochondrial NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin oxidoreductase and the Anabaena ferredoxins FdxH or FdxB. We pinpoint endogenous ETCs from plant organelles as power supplies to support nitrogenase for future engineering of diazotrophy in cereal crops.

  13. Modular electron-transport chains from eukaryotic organelles function to support nitrogenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianguo; Xie, Xiaqing; Yang, Mingxuan; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the “core” nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively. Among these modules, the ETC is important for the supply of reducing power. In this work, we have used Escherichia coli as a chassis to study the compatibility between molybdenum and the iron-only nitrogenases with ETC modules from target plant organelles, including chloroplasts, root plastids, and mitochondria. We have replaced an ETC module present in diazotrophic bacteria with genes encoding ferredoxin–NADPH oxidoreductases (FNRs) and their cognate ferredoxin counterparts from plant organelles. We observe that the FNR–ferredoxin module from chloroplasts and root plastids can support the activities of both types of nitrogenase. In contrast, an analogous ETC module from mitochondria could not function in electron transfer to nitrogenase. However, this incompatibility could be overcome with hybrid modules comprising mitochondrial NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin oxidoreductase and the Anabaena ferredoxins FdxH or FdxB. We pinpoint endogenous ETCs from plant organelles as power supplies to support nitrogenase for future engineering of diazotrophy in cereal crops. PMID:28193863

  14. Lucifer Yellow as a live cell fluorescent probe for imaging water transport in subcellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Chaurra, Adriana; Gutzman, Brittany M; Taylor, Emily; Ackroyd, P Christine; Christensen, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    While the water permeability of the plasma membranes of mammalian cells has been studied extensively, water transport across membranes of subcellular compartments (e.g., lysosomes, macropinosomes) has been difficult to study. Here we demonstrate a new method for measuring water flux in late endosomes and lysosomes of intact living cells using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Cells were loaded by fluid-phase uptake with a mixture of the Lucifer Yellow dextran (LY-dex), a D(2)O sensitive dye, and a D(2)O insensitive control dye, Alexa fluor 546 dextran (AF546-dex). LY-dex responded linearly to changes in D(2)O concentration and the LY-dex D(2)O sensitivity was not affected by changes in pH, physiological salt, and protein concentrations. The co-loaded control dye, AF546-dex, showed no signal changes as a function of D(2)O concentration. To measure membrane water flux, the LY-dex fluorescence in labeled organelles was recorded during rapid superfusion of cells with isotonic buffers prepared in D(2)O. The time constant of water exchange across the lysosomal membrane of intact cells was determined by fitting the data to a single exponential function. From these data, together with the measured area of the organelles, observed water permeability for intracellular CHO-K1 lysosomes was calculated to be 5.3 × 10(-3) ± 0.3 × 10(-3) cm/s. This work demonstrates the feasibility of measuring water flux into subcellular organelles in live cells using LY-dex.

  15. Off to the Organelles - Killing Cancer Cells with Targeted Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kodiha, Mohamed; Wang, Yi Meng; Hutter, Eliza; Maysinger, Dusica; Stochaj, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent tools for cancer cell imaging and basic research. However, they have yet to reach their full potential in the clinic. At present, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the biological effects of AuNPs, including the structural and functional changes of cancer cells. This knowledge is critical for two aspects of nanomedicine. First, it will define the AuNP-induced events at the subcellular and molecular level, thereby possibly identifying new targets for cancer treatment. Second, it could provide new strategies to improve AuNP-dependent cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our review summarizes the impact of AuNPs on selected subcellular organelles that are relevant to cancer therapy. We focus on the nucleus, its subcompartments, and mitochondria, because they are intimately linked to cancer cell survival, growth, proliferation and death. While non-targeted AuNPs can damage tumor cells, concentrating AuNPs in particular subcellular locations will likely improve tumor cell killing. Thus, it will increase cancer cell damage by photothermal ablation, mechanical injury or localized drug delivery. This concept is promising, but AuNPs have to overcome multiple hurdles to perform these tasks. AuNP size, morphology and surface modification are critical parameters for their delivery to organelles. Recent strategies explored all of these variables, and surface functionalization has become crucial to concentrate AuNPs in subcellular compartments. Here, we highlight the use of AuNPs to damage cancer cells and their organelles. We discuss current limitations of AuNP-based cancer research and conclude with future directions for AuNP-dependent cancer treatment. PMID:25699096

  16. Optical tweezers for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Axner, Ove; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Fällman, Erik

    2006-08-01

    Instrumentation and methodologies for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles by the use of force measuring optical tweezers have been developed. A thorough study of the biomechanical properties of fimbrial adhesion organelles expressed by uropathogenic E. coli, so-called pili, is presented. Steady-state as well as dynamic force measurements on P pili, expressed by E. coli causing pyelonephritis, have revealed, among other things, various unfolding and refolding properties of the helical structure of P pili, the PapA rod. Based on these properties an energy landscape model has been constructed by which specific biophysical properties of the PapA rod have been extracted, e.g. the number of subunits, the length of a single pilus, bond lengths and activation energies for bond opening and closure. Moreover, long time repetitive measurements have shown that the rod can be unfolded and refolded repetitive times without losing its intrinsic properties. These properties are believed to be of importance for the bacteria's ability to maintain close contact with host cells during initial infections. The results presented are considered to be of importance for the field of biopolymers in general and the development of new pharmaceuticals towards urinary tract infections in particular. The results show furthermore that the methodology can be used to gain knowledge of the intrinsic biomechanical function of adhesion organelles. The instrumentation is currently used for characterization of type 1 pili, expressed by E. coli causing cystitis, i.e. infections in the bladder. The first force spectrometry investigations of these pili will be presented.

  17. Evidence for Proteolytic Processing and Stimulated Organelle Redistribution of iPLA2β

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haowei; Bao, Shunzhong; Lei, Xiaoyong; Jin, Chun; Zhang, Sheng; Turk, John; Ramanadham, Sasanka

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, important roles for the 84–88 kDa Group VIA Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) in various organs have been described. We demonstrated that iPLA2β participates in insulin secretion, insulinoma cells and native pancreatic islets express full-length and truncated isoforms of iPLA2β, and certain stimuli promote perinuclear localization of iPLA2β. To gain a better understanding of its mobilization, iPLA2β was expressed in INS-1 cells as a fusion protein with EGFP, enabling detection of subcellular localization of iPLA2β by monitoring EGFP fluorescence. Cells stably-transfected with fusion protein expressed nearly 5-fold higher catalytic iPLA2β activity than control cells transfected with EGFP cDNA alone, indicating that co-expression of EGFP does not interfere with manifestation of iPLA2β activity. Dual fluorescence monitoring of EGFP and organelle Trackers combined with immunoblotting analyses revealed expression of truncated iPLA2β isoforms in separate subcellular organelles. Exposure to secretagogues and induction of ER stress are known to activate iPLA2β in β-cells and we find here that these stimuli promote differential localization of iPLA2β in subcellular organelles. Further, mass spectrometric analyses identified iPLA2β variants from which N-terminal residues were removed. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for endogenous proteolytic processing of iPLA2β and redistribution of iPLA2β variants in subcellular compartments. It might be proposed that in vivo processing of iPLA2β facilitates its participation in multiple biological processes. PMID:20132906

  18. Neospora caninum Recruits Host Cell Structures to Its Parasitophorous Vacuole and Salvages Lipids from Organelles.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Sabrina J; Romano, Julia D; Luechtefeld, Thomas; Coppens, Isabelle

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, which cause the diseases toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, respectively, are two closely related apicomplexan parasites. They have similar heteroxenous life cycles and conserved genomes and share many metabolic features. Despite these similarities, T. gondii and N. caninum differ in their transmission strategies and zoonotic potential. Comparative analyses of the two parasites are important to identify the unique biological features that underlie the basis of host preference and pathogenicity. T. gondii and N. caninum are obligate intravacuolar parasites; in contrast to T. gondii, events that occur during N. caninum infection remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the capability of N. caninum (Liverpool isolate) to interact with host organelles and scavenge nutrients in comparison to that of T. gondii (RH strain). N. caninum reorganizes the host microtubular cytoskeleton and attracts endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi vesicles to its vacuole though with some notable differences from T. gondii. For example, the host ER gathers around the N. caninum parasitophorous vacuole (PV) but does not physically associate with the vacuolar membrane; the host Golgi apparatus surrounds the N. caninum PV but does not fragment into ministacks. N. caninum relies on plasma lipoproteins and scavenges cholesterol from NPC1-containing endocytic organelles. This parasite salvages sphingolipids from host Golgi Rab14 vesicles that it sequesters into its vacuole. Our data highlight a remarkable degree of conservation in the intracellular infection program of N. caninum and T. gondii. The minor differences between the two parasites related to the recruitment and rearrangement of host organelles around their vacuoles likely reflect divergent evolutionary paths.

  19. Differential phosphorylation in vivo of cytoplasmic dynein associated with anterogradely moving organelles

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Two microtubule-stimulated ATPases, cytoplasmic dynein, and kinesin, are believed to be responsible for the intracellular movement of membrane-bound organelles in opposite directions along microtubules. An unresolved component of this model is the mechanism by which cells regulate these two motors to direct various membrane-bound organelles to their proper locations. To determine if phosphorylation may play a role in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein, the in vivo phosphorylation state of cytoplasmic dynein from two cellular pools was examined. The entire cellular pool of brain cytoplasmic dynein was metabolically labeled by the infusion of [32P]orthophosphate into the cerebrospinal fluid of rat brain ventricles. To characterize the phosphorylation of dynein associated with anterograde membrane-bound organelles, the optic nerve fast axonal transport system was used. Using a monoclonal antibody to the 74-kD polypeptide of brain cytoplasmic dynein, the native dynein complex was immunoprecipitated from the radiolabled tissue extracts. Autoradiographs of one and two dimensional gels showed labeling of nearly all of the polypeptide isoforms of cytoplasmic dynein from rat brain. These polypeptides are phosphorylated on serine residues. Comparison of the amount of 32P incorporated into the dynein polypeptides revealed differences in the phosphorylation of dynein polypeptides from the anterograde and the cellular pools. Most interestingly, the 530-kD heavy chain of dynein appears to be phosphorylated to a lesser extent in the anterograde pool than in the cellular pool. Since the anterograde pool contains inactive dynein, while the entire cellular pool contains both inactive and active dynein, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that phosphorylation regulates the functional activity of cytoplasmic dynein. PMID:7528220

  20. Off to the organelles - killing cancer cells with targeted gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kodiha, Mohamed; Wang, Yi Meng; Hutter, Eliza; Maysinger, Dusica; Stochaj, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent tools for cancer cell imaging and basic research. However, they have yet to reach their full potential in the clinic. At present, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the biological effects of AuNPs, including the structural and functional changes of cancer cells. This knowledge is critical for two aspects of nanomedicine. First, it will define the AuNP-induced events at the subcellular and molecular level, thereby possibly identifying new targets for cancer treatment. Second, it could provide new strategies to improve AuNP-dependent cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our review summarizes the impact of AuNPs on selected subcellular organelles that are relevant to cancer therapy. We focus on the nucleus, its subcompartments, and mitochondria, because they are intimately linked to cancer cell survival, growth, proliferation and death. While non-targeted AuNPs can damage tumor cells, concentrating AuNPs in particular subcellular locations will likely improve tumor cell killing. Thus, it will increase cancer cell damage by photothermal ablation, mechanical injury or localized drug delivery. This concept is promising, but AuNPs have to overcome multiple hurdles to perform these tasks. AuNP size, morphology and surface modification are critical parameters for their delivery to organelles. Recent strategies explored all of these variables, and surface functionalization has become crucial to concentrate AuNPs in subcellular compartments. Here, we highlight the use of AuNPs to damage cancer cells and their organelles. We discuss current limitations of AuNP-based cancer research and conclude with future directions for AuNP-dependent cancer treatment.

  1. Neospora caninum Recruits Host Cell Structures to Its Parasitophorous Vacuole and Salvages Lipids from Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Sabrina J.; Luechtefeld, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, which cause the diseases toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, respectively, are two closely related apicomplexan parasites. They have similar heteroxenous life cycles and conserved genomes and share many metabolic features. Despite these similarities, T. gondii and N. caninum differ in their transmission strategies and zoonotic potential. Comparative analyses of the two parasites are important to identify the unique biological features that underlie the basis of host preference and pathogenicity. T. gondii and N. caninum are obligate intravacuolar parasites; in contrast to T. gondii, events that occur during N. caninum infection remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the capability of N. caninum (Liverpool isolate) to interact with host organelles and scavenge nutrients in comparison to that of T. gondii (RH strain). N. caninum reorganizes the host microtubular cytoskeleton and attracts endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi vesicles to its vacuole though with some notable differences from T. gondii. For example, the host ER gathers around the N. caninum parasitophorous vacuole (PV) but does not physically associate with the vacuolar membrane; the host Golgi apparatus surrounds the N. caninum PV but does not fragment into ministacks. N. caninum relies on plasma lipoproteins and scavenges cholesterol from NPC1-containing endocytic organelles. This parasite salvages sphingolipids from host Golgi Rab14 vesicles that it sequesters into its vacuole. Our data highlight a remarkable degree of conservation in the intracellular infection program of N. caninum and T. gondii. The minor differences between the two parasites related to the recruitment and rearrangement of host organelles around their vacuoles likely reflect divergent evolutionary paths. PMID:25750213

  2. The internal architecture of leukocyte lipid body organelles captured by three-dimensional electron microscopy tomography.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rossana C N; Paganoti, Guillherme F; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bodies (LBs), also known as lipid droplets, are complex organelles of all eukaryotic cells linked to a variety of biological functions as well as to the development of human diseases. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages, LBs are rapidly formed in the cytoplasm in response to inflammatory and infectious diseases and are sites of synthesis of eicosanoid lipid mediators. However, little is known about the structural organization of these organelles. It is unclear whether leukocyte LBs contain a hydrophobic core of neutral lipids as found in lipid droplets from adipocytes and how diverse proteins, including enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs. Here, leukocyte LB ultrastructure was studied in detail by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunogold EM and electron tomography. By careful analysis of the two-dimensional ultrastructure of LBs from human blood eosinophils under different conditions, we identified membranous structures within LBs in both resting and activated cells. Cyclooxygenase, a membrane inserted protein that catalyzes the first step in prostaglandin synthesis, was localized throughout the internum of LBs. We used fully automated dual-axis electron tomography to study the three-dimensional architecture of LBs in high resolution. By tracking 4 nm-thick serial digital sections we found that leukocyte LBs enclose an intricate system of membranes within their "cores". After computational reconstruction, we showed that these membranes are organized as a network of tubules which resemble the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our findings explain how membrane-bound proteins interact and are spatially arranged within LB "cores" and support a model for LB formation by incorporating cytoplasmic membranes of the ER, instead of the conventional view that LBs emerge from the ER leaflets. This is important to understand the functional capabilities of leukocyte LBs in health and

  3. The Internal Architecture of Leukocyte Lipid Body Organelles Captured by Three-Dimensional Electron Microscopy Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Rossana C. N.; Paganoti, Guillherme F.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bodies (LBs), also known as lipid droplets, are complex organelles of all eukaryotic cells linked to a variety of biological functions as well as to the development of human diseases. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages, LBs are rapidly formed in the cytoplasm in response to inflammatory and infectious diseases and are sites of synthesis of eicosanoid lipid mediators. However, little is known about the structural organization of these organelles. It is unclear whether leukocyte LBs contain a hydrophobic core of neutral lipids as found in lipid droplets from adipocytes and how diverse proteins, including enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs. Here, leukocyte LB ultrastructure was studied in detail by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunogold EM and electron tomography. By careful analysis of the two-dimensional ultrastructure of LBs from human blood eosinophils under different conditions, we identified membranous structures within LBs in both resting and activated cells. Cyclooxygenase, a membrane inserted protein that catalyzes the first step in prostaglandin synthesis, was localized throughout the internum of LBs. We used fully automated dual-axis electron tomography to study the three-dimensional architecture of LBs in high resolution. By tracking 4 nm-thick serial digital sections we found that leukocyte LBs enclose an intricate system of membranes within their “cores”. After computational reconstruction, we showed that these membranes are organized as a network of tubules which resemble the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our findings explain how membrane-bound proteins interact and are spatially arranged within LB “cores” and support a model for LB formation by incorporating cytoplasmic membranes of the ER, instead of the conventional view that LBs emerge from the ER leaflets. This is important to understand the functional capabilities of leukocyte LBs in

  4. Myosin-Va and Dynamic Actin Oppose Microtubules to Drive Long-Range Organelle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard D.; Robinson, Christopher; Briggs, Deborah A.; Tooth, David J.; Ramalho, Jose S.; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluis; Patel, Shyamal; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Hume, Alistair N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively [1–8]. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 μm). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the “highways and local roads” model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks [2]. The “cooperative capture” model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering [5, 9]. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning [10, 11]. PMID:25065759

  5. Time-lapse recording of centrosomes and other organelles in Drosophila neuroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pampalona, Judit; Januschke, Jens; Sampaio, Paula; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila larval neuroblasts (NBs) are an excellent model for asymmetric division and cell cycle studies in general. For decades, visualizing relevant structures like centrosomes, chromosomes, or the mitotic spindle relied exclusively on immunofluorescence on fix samples. More recently, improvements on sensitivity and acquisition speed of different confocal systems have made it possible to acquire time-resolved images of combined fluorescent reporters from single larval NBs. Here, we provide protocols to visualize centrosomes and other organelles from both primary cultures of isolated single NBs and ex vivo, whole-mounted larval brains.

  6. Using targeted variants of aequorin to measure Ca2+ levels in intracellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Granatiero, Veronica; Patron, Maria; Tosatto, Anna; Merli, Giulia; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Aequorin is a Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. It is an ideal probe for measuring Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) in intracellular organelles because it can be modified to include specific targeting sequences. On the binding of Ca(2+) to three high-affinity sites in aequorin, an irreversible reaction occurs in which the prosthetic group coelenterazine is released and a photon is emitted. This protocol presents procedures for expressing, targeting, and reconstituting aequorin in intact and permeabilized mammalian cells and describes how to use this photoprotein to measure intracellular [Ca(2+)] in various subcellular compartments.

  7. Analysis of Exocyst-Positive Organelle (EXPO)-Mediated Unconventional Protein Secretion (UPS) in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) together with conventional protein secretion (CPS) is responsible for protein secretion in plants. We have previously identified a novel UPS pathway in plants, which is mediated by exocyst-positive organelle-EXPO. Here, we describe detailed protocols to study UPS in plants by using Arabidopsis protoplasts or transgenic suspension cells, expressing the EXPO marker Exo70E2-XFP, as materials. Via drug and osmotic treatment plus secretion assay, we illustrate several major methods to analyze EXPO-mediated UPS in plant cells, which also supplys mining tools for similar study.

  8. Effects of centrifugal force and centrifugation time on the sedimentation of plant organelles.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, J; Hiraike, K

    1982-02-01

    The effect of centrifugal force and length of centrifugation time on the sedimentation of plant organelles was determined for corn (Zea mays L.) root homogenates. A centrifugal force of 6000g for at least 20 minutes was necessary to pellet 90% of the mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c oxidase). This initial centrifugation step is optimal for separating mitochondria from microsomes, since cross-contamination of endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane vesicles with mitochondria is minimized. Centrifugal forces of 8000g or 10,000g for 20 minutes and 13,000g for 15 minutes pellet 90% of the mitochondrial marker; however, these centrifugation conditions also sediment more plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Mitochondria on the move: emerging paradigms of organelle trafficking in tumour plasticity and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Dario C

    2017-01-01

    There is now a resurgent interest in the role of mitochondria in cancer. Long considered controversial or outright unimportant, mitochondrial biology is now increasingly recognised as an important tumour driver. The underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. But recent studies have uncovered a complex landscape where reprogramming of mitochondrial homoeostasis, including organelle dynamics, metabolic output, apoptosis control and redox status converge to promote tumour adaptation to an unfavourable microenvironment and inject new traits of aggressive disease. In particular, mechanisms of subcellular mitochondrial trafficking have unexpectedly emerged as central regulators of metastatic competence in disparate tumours. Some of these pathways are druggable, opening fresh therapeutic opportunities for advanced and disseminated disease. PMID:28677688

  10. [Porosome: a new organelle and the universal secretion machine in cells].

    PubMed

    Lazrishvili, I L; Zhvaniia, M G

    2010-01-01

    A new cell organelle, porosome, discovered in the mid 1990's and its demonstration as the universal secretory machinery in cells is described. In contrast to the generally accepted belief that the secretory vesicle membrane is totally incorporated into the plasma membrane during cell secretion, it has been shown that secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse with the porosome base via SNARE proteins to expel vesicular contents under intravesicular pressure which is generated by active transport of water through water channels located at the secretory vesicle membrane.

  11. Observation of organelle by a laser plasma x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Masataka; Kishimoto, Maki; Ishino, Masahiko; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Shinohara, Kunio

    2012-07-01

    Contact x-ray microscopy has a potential to image wet biological specimens in natural condition. It is very important to identify obtained features in the x-ray images, since x-ray microscopes have potential to image features that have not been visualized yet. We have proposed to compare the x-ray images of the biological specimens with the fluorescence images and to identify the features found in the x-ray images. We have succeeded to observe fine structures of the cellular organelles such as mitochondria by the soft x-ray microscope.

  12. The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton.

  13. Dual roles for ubiquitination in the processing of sperm organelles after fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The process of fertilization involves a cell fusion event between the sperm and oocyte. Although sperm contain mitochondria when they fuse with the oocyte, paternal mitochondrial genomes do not persist in offspring and, thus, mitochondrial inheritance is maternal in most animals. Recent evidence suggests that paternal mitochondria may be eliminated via autophagy after fertilization. In C. elegans, sperm-specific organelles called membraneous organelles (MO) cluster together with paternal mitochondria immediately after fertilization. These MOs but not the mitochondria become polyubiquitinated and associated with proteasomes. The current model for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans is that ubiquitination of the MOs induces the formation of autophagosomes which also capture the mitochondria and cause their degradation. Results Sperm-derived mitochondria and MOs show a sharp decrease in number during the time between sperm-oocyte fusion and the onset of mitosis. During this time, paternal mitochondria remain closely clustered with the MOs. Two types of polyubiquitin chains are observed on the MOs: K48-linked ubiquitin chains which are known to lead to proteasomal degradation and K63-linked ubiquitin chains which have been linked to autophagy. K48-linked ubiquitin chains and proteasomes show up on MOs very soon after sperm-oocyte fusion. These are present on MOs for only a short period of time. Maternal proteasomes localize to MOs and sperm proteasomes localize to structures that are at the periphery of the MO cluster suggesting that these two proteasome populations may have different roles in degrading paternal material. K63-linked ubiquitin chains appear on MOs early and remain throughout the first several cell divisions. Conclusions Since there are two different types of polyubiquitin chains associated with sperm organelles and their timing differs, it suggests that ubiquitin has two or more roles in the processing of sperm components

  14. The Membrane Marker mCLING Reveals the Molecular Composition of Trafficking Organelles.

    PubMed

    Revelo, Natalia H; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2016-01-04

    mCLING is a fixable endocytosis marker that can be combined with immunolabeling techniques to study the molecular composition of trafficking organelles. mCLING can be used both in cultured cells and in tissue if critical sample preparation steps, such as fixation, are correctly performed. This unit describes protocols for the application of mCLING and for the subsequent sample processing. We include immunostaining protocols and embedding procedures for confocal and high-resolution microscopy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Clonidine promotes the accumulation of /sup 45/Ca in pancreatic beta-cell organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, T.; Nygren, P.

    1983-12-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets of ob/ob-mice was inhibited by 10(-9) M of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine. This inhibitory effect was abolished by 10(-7) M of the antagonist yohimbine. Loading the islets with /sup 45/Ca during the clonidine exposure followed by isolation of subcellular fractions under conditions known to minimize the /sup 45/Ca redistribution resulted in increased accumulation of the isotope in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions. It is suggested that clonidine inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release by increasing the organelle sequestration of Ca2+.

  16. Inheritance of organelle DNA sequences in a citrus-poncirus intergeneric cross.

    PubMed

    Moreira, C D; Gmitter, F G; Grosser, J W; Huang, S; Ortega, V M; Chase, C D

    2002-01-01

    Many land plants deviate from the maternal pattern of organelle inheritance. In this study, heterologous mitochondrial and chloroplast probes were used to investigate the inheritance of organelle genomes in the progeny of an intergeneric cross. The seed parent was LB 1-18 (a hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Clementine x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan) and the pollen parent was the cross-compatible species Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. All 26 progeny examined exhibited maternal inheritance of plastid petA and petD loci. However, 17 of the 26 progeny exhibited an apparent biparental inheritance of mitochondrial atpA, cob, coxII, and coxIII restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and maternal inheritance of mitochondrial rrn26 and coxI RFLPs. The remaining nine progeny inherited only maternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) configurations. Investigations of plant mitochondrial genome inheritance are complicated by the multipartite structure of this genome, nuclear gene control over mitochondrial genome organization, and transfer of mitochondrial sequences to the nucleus. In this study, paternal mtDNA configurations were not detected in purified mtDNA of progeny plants, but were present in progeny DNA preparations enriched for nuclear genome sequences. MtDNA sequences in the nuclear genome therefore produced an inheritance pattern that mimics biparental inheritance of mtDNA.

  17. Oxidative Stress in the Healthy and Wounded Hepatocyte: A Cellular Organelles Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Tommaso; Zanieri, Francesca; Ceni, Elisabetta; Galli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Accurate control of the cell redox state is mandatory for maintaining the structural integrity and physiological functions. This control is achieved both by a fine-tuned balance between prooxidant and anti-oxidant molecules and by spatial and temporal confinement of the oxidative species. The diverse cellular compartments each, although structurally and functionally related, actively maintain their own redox balance, which is necessary to fulfill specialized tasks. Many fundamental cellular processes such as insulin signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation and cell migration and adhesion, rely on localized changes in the redox state of signal transducers, which is mainly mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Therefore, oxidative stress can also occur long before direct structural damage to cellular components, by disruption of the redox circuits that regulate the cellular organelles homeostasis. The hepatocyte is a systemic hub integrating the whole body metabolic demand, iron homeostasis and detoxification processes, all of which are redox-regulated processes. Imbalance of the hepatocyte's organelles redox homeostasis underlies virtually any liver disease and is a field of intense research activity. This review recapitulates the evolving concept of oxidative stress in the diverse cellular compartments, highlighting the principle mechanisms of oxidative stress occurring in the healthy and wounded hepatocyte. PMID:26788252

  18. Membraneless organelles can melt nucleic acid duplexes and act as biomolecular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Timothy J.; Craggs, Timothy D.; Baldwin, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Membraneless organelles are cellular compartments made from drops of liquid protein inside a cell. These compartments assemble via the phase separation of disordered regions of proteins in response to changes in the cellular environment and the cell cycle. Here we demonstrate that the solvent environment within the interior of these cellular bodies behaves more like an organic solvent than like water. One of the most-stable biological structures known, the DNA double helix, can be melted once inside the liquid droplet, and simultaneously structures formed from regulatory single-stranded nucleic acids are stabilized. Moreover, proteins are shown to have a wide range of absorption or exclusion from these bodies, and can act as importers for otherwise-excluded nucleic acids, which suggests the existence of a protein-mediated trafficking system. A common strategy in organic chemistry is to utilize different solvents to influence the behaviour of molecules and reactions. These results reveal that cells have also evolved this capability by exploiting the interiors of membraneless organelles.

  19. Cadmium Stress Disrupts the Endomembrane Organelles and Endocytosis during Picea wilsonii Pollen Germination and Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Li, Xue; Wei, Qian; Sheng, Xianyong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most severe pollutants, cadmium has been reported to be harmful to plant cells, but the effects of cadmium on gymnosperm pollen germination and tube growth and the mechanism of this involvement are still unclear. Here, we report that cadmium not only strongly inhibited P. wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, but also significantly altered tube morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Time-lapse images obtained with a laser scanning confocal microscope revealed that endocytosis was dramatically inhibited by cadmium stress. Further investigation with ER-Tracker dye indicated that cadmium stress reduced the number of the Golgi apparatus, and induced dilation of ER. Additionally, Lyso-Tracker staining showed that cadmium distinctly promoted the formation of acidic organelles in pollen tubes, likely derived from the dilated ER. Taken together, our studies indicated that P. wilsonii pollens were highly susceptible to cadmium stress, and that cadmium stress strongly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth by disrupting the endomembrane organelles, inhibiting endo/exocytosis, and forming acidic vacuoles, resulting in swollen tube tips and irregularly broadened tube diameters. These findings provide a new insight into the effects of cadmium toxicity on the tip growth of pollen tubes. PMID:24722362

  20. Organelle-Bound Malate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes Are Synthesized as Higher Molecular Weight Precursors 1

    PubMed Central

    Gietl, Christine; Hock, Bertold

    1982-01-01

    Biosynthesis of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes was studied in cotyledons of watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad., var. Stone Mountain). The glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzymes are synthesized as higher molecular weight precursors which can be immunoprecipitated by mono-specific antibodies from the products of in vitro translation in reticulocyte lysates programed with cotyledonary mRNA and with the same size from enzyme extracts of pulse-labeled cotyledons. During translocation from the cytosol into the organelles, processing takes place. An 8 kilodalton extra sequence is cleaved from the glyoxysomal precursor and a 3.3 kilodalton extra sequence from the mitochondrial precursor producing the native subunits of 33 and 38 kilodaltons, respectively. The data support a post-translational translocation of the organelle-destined malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. The in vitro translation of the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase I yields a product which has the same molecular weight as the subunit of the native isoenzyme (39.5 kilodaltons). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16662520

  1. Interrelations between the Parasitophorous Vacuole of Toxoplasma gondii and Host Cell Organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Magno, Rodrigo; Cobra Straker, Lorian; de Souza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is capable of actively penetrating and multiplying in any nucleated cell of warm-blooded animals. Its survival strategies include escape from fusion of the parasitophorous vacuole with host cell lysosomes and rearrangement of host cell organelles in relation to the parasitophorous vacuole. In this article we report the rearrangement of host cell organelles and elements of the cytoskeleton of LLCMK2 cells, a lineage derived from green monkey kidney epithelial cells, in response to infection by T. gondii tachyzoites. Transmission electron microscopy made on flat embedded monolayers cut horizontally to the apical side of the cells or field emission scanning electron microscopy of monolayers scraped with scotch tape before sputtering showed that association of mitochondria to the vacuole is much less frequent than previously described. On the other hand, all parasitophorous vacuoles were surrounded by elements of the endoplasmic reticulum. These data were complemented by observations by laser scanning microscopy using fluorescent probes from mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and reinforced by three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections observed by transmission electron microscopy and labeling of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum by fluorescent probes.

  2. Manipulation and Motion of Organelles and Single Molecules in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Norregaard, Kamilla; Metzler, Ralf; Ritter, Christine M; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene B

    2017-03-08

    The biomolecule is among the most important building blocks of biological systems, and a full understanding of its function forms the scaffold for describing the mechanisms of higher order structures as organelles and cells. Force is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of biomolecular interactions driving many cellular processes. The forces on a molecular scale are exactly in the range that can be manipulated and probed with single molecule force spectroscopy. The natural environment of a biomolecule is inside a living cell, hence, this is the most relevant environment for probing their function. In vivo studies are, however, challenged by the complexity of the cell. In this review, we start with presenting relevant theoretical tools for analyzing single molecule data obtained in intracellular environments followed by a description of state-of-the art visualization techniques. The most commonly used force spectroscopy techniques, namely optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy, are described in detail, and their strength and limitations related to in vivo experiments are discussed. Finally, recent exciting discoveries within the field of in vivo manipulation and dynamics of single molecule and organelles are reviewed.

  3. An organelle-exclusion envelope assists mitosis and underlies distinct molecular crowding in the spindle region.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Nina; Pawar, Nisha; Weiss, Matthias; Maiato, Helder

    2015-08-31

    The mitotic spindle is a microtubular assembly required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Additionally, a spindle matrix has long been proposed to assist this process, but its nature has remained elusive. By combining live-cell imaging with laser microsurgery, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we uncovered a microtubule-independent mechanism that underlies the accumulation of molecules in the spindle region. This mechanism relies on a membranous system surrounding the mitotic spindle that defines an organelle-exclusion zone that is conserved in human cells. Supported by mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that organelle exclusion by a membrane system causes spatio-temporal differences in molecular crowding states that are sufficient to drive accumulation of mitotic regulators, such as Mad2 and Megator/Tpr, as well as soluble tubulin, in the spindle region. This membranous "spindle envelope" confined spindle assembly, and its mechanical disruption compromised faithful chromosome segregation. Thus, cytoplasmic compartmentalization persists during early mitosis to promote spindle assembly and function. © 2015 Schweizer et al.

  4. The human peroxisome in health and disease: the story of an oddity becoming a vital organelle.

    PubMed

    Vamecq, Joseph; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Andreoletti, Pierre; Latruffe, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    Since the first report by Rhodin in 1954, our knowledge on mammalian microbodies/peroxisomes has known several periods. An initial two decades period (1954-1973) has contributed to the biochemical individualisation of peroxisomes as a new class of subcellular organelles (de Duve, 1965). The corresponding research period failed to define a clear role of mammalian peroxisomes in vital functions and intermediary metabolism, explaining why feeling that peroxisomes might be in the human cell oddities has prevailed during several decades. The period standing from 1973 to nowadays has progressively removed this cell oddity view of peroxisomes by highlighting vital function and metabolic role of peroxisomes in health and disease along with genetic and metabolic regulation of peroxisomal protein content, organelle envelope formation and protein signal targeting mechanisms. Research on peroxisomes and their response to various drugs and metabolites, dietary and physiological conditions has also played a key role in the discovery of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and for which impact in science and medicine goes now by far beyond that of the peroxisomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Class XIII myosins from the green alga Acetabularia: driving force in organelle transport and tip growth?

    PubMed

    Vugrek, Oliver; Sawitzky, Heiko; Menzel, Diedrik

    2003-01-01

    The green alga Acetabularia cliftonii (Dasycladales) contains at least two myosin genes, which already have been assigned class XIII of the myosin superfamily (Cope et al., 1996, Structure 4: 969-987). Here we report a complete analysis of their gene structure and their corresponding transcripts Aclmyo1 and Aclmyo2. Despite promising Northern blot data no evidence for alternative splicing could be found. Dissecting the primary structure at complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) level we found a myosin typical organization in head, neck and variable tail region. Most striking is the extremely short tail region of Aclmyo1 with only 18 residues and the maximum number of 7 IQ motifs in Aclmyo2. Probing Acetabularia protein extracts with an antibody raised to a synthetic peptide derived from the amino terminal region in Alcmyo1 showed cross-reactivity to a polypeptide with a molecular mass of approximately 100 kD. This corresponds to the predicted molecular weight of Aclmyo1, which is 106 kD as deduced from the amino acid sequence. Additionally, the same cross-reactive protein is capable of binding F-actin as indicated by a co-sedimentation assay. Confocal laser scanning microscopy with raised antibody revealed co-localization with organelles, the budding region of lateral whorls and the cell apex suggesting involvement of putative Acetabularia myosin in organelle transport and tip growth.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a prokaryotic cell organelle from the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Sarah; Wessels, Hans J C T; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S M; van Niftrik, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite to nitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen. These microorganisms form a significant sink for fixed nitrogen in the oceans and the anammox process is applied as a cost-effective and environment-friendly nitrogen removal system from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have a compartmentalized cell plan that consists of three separate compartments. Here we report the fractionation of the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis in order to isolate and analyze the innermost cell compartment called the anammoxosome. The subcellular fractions were microscopically characterized and all membranes in the anammox cell were shown to contain ladderane lipids which are unique for anammox bacteria. Proteome analyses and activity assays with the isolated anammoxosomes showed that these organelles harbor the energy metabolism in anammox cells. Together the experimental data provide the first thorough characterization of a respiratory cell organelle from a bacterium and demonstrate the essential role of the anammoxosome in the production of a major portion of the nitrogen gas in our atmosphere.

  7. Myelin peroxisomes - essential organelles for the maintenance of white matter in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kassmann, Celia M

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are cellular compartments primarily associated with lipid metabolism. Most cell types, including nervous system cells, harbor several hundred of these organelles. The importance of peroxisomes for central nervous system white matter is evidenced by a variety of human peroxisomal disorders with neurological impairment frequently involving the white matter. Moreover, the most frequent childhood white matter disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, is a peroxisomal disorder. During the past decade advances in imaging techniques have enabled the identification of peroxisomes within the myelin sheath, especially close to nodes of Ranvier. Although the function of myelin peroxisomes is not solved yet on molecular level, recently acquired knowledge suggests a central role for these organelles in axo-glial metabolism. This review focuses on the biology of myelin peroxisomes as well as on the pathology of myelin and myelinated axons that is observed as a consequence of partial or complete peroxisomal dysfunction in the brain. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Apical Organelle Secretion by Toxoplasma Controls Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Mediates Long-Term Protection.

    PubMed

    Sloves, Pierre-Julien; Mouveaux, Thomas; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Vorng, Han; Everaere, Laetitia; Sangare, Lamba Omar; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2015-11-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have unique apical rhoptry and microneme secretory organelles that are crucial for host infection, although their role in protection against Toxoplasma gondii infection is not thoroughly understood. Here, we report a novel function of the endolysosomal T. gondii sortilin-like receptor (TgSORTLR), which mediates trafficking to functional apical organelles and their subsequent secretion of virulence factors that are critical to the induction of sterile immunity against parasite reinfection. We further demonstrate that the T. gondii armadillo repeats-only protein (TgARO) mutant, which is deficient only in apical secretion of rhoptries, is also critical in mounting protective immunity. The lack of TgSORTLR and TgARO proteins completely inhibited T-helper 1-dependent adaptive immunity and compromised the function of natural killer T-cell-mediated innate immunity. Our findings reveal an essential role for apical secretion in promoting sterile protection against T. gondii and provide strong evidence for rhoptry-regulated discharge of antigens as a key effector for inducing protective immunity.

  9. Cadmium stress disrupts the endomembrane organelles and endocytosis during Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Yu; Li, Xue; Wei, Qian; Sheng, Xianyong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most severe pollutants, cadmium has been reported to be harmful to plant cells, but the effects of cadmium on gymnosperm pollen germination and tube growth and the mechanism of this involvement are still unclear. Here, we report that cadmium not only strongly inhibited P. wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, but also significantly altered tube morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Time-lapse images obtained with a laser scanning confocal microscope revealed that endocytosis was dramatically inhibited by cadmium stress. Further investigation with ER-Tracker dye indicated that cadmium stress reduced the number of the Golgi apparatus, and induced dilation of ER. Additionally, Lyso-Tracker staining showed that cadmium distinctly promoted the formation of acidic organelles in pollen tubes, likely derived from the dilated ER. Taken together, our studies indicated that P. wilsonii pollens were highly susceptible to cadmium stress, and that cadmium stress strongly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth by disrupting the endomembrane organelles, inhibiting endo/exocytosis, and forming acidic vacuoles, resulting in swollen tube tips and irregularly broadened tube diameters. These findings provide a new insight into the effects of cadmium toxicity on the tip growth of pollen tubes.

  10. Extension of the concept of an anomalous water component to images of T-cell organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.

    2014-12-01

    Microscopic images of a living cell are the main source of information on its functional state. Modern interference microscopy techniques allow the numerical parameters of cell images to be obtained with an accuracy not available with other methods. Quantitative analysis of phase images of T lymphocytes (TCs) in different functional states demonstrated that variations of the properties of intracellular water should be taken into account. This conclusion agrees with the current view that the physical parameters of water, including the refractive index (RI) of a water layer, depend on the hydrophilicity and other characteristics of the adjacent surface. Application of this concept to phase images of TCs showed that the contribution of the fourth phase of water (4-water) or the structured water component, which has an increased RI, should be considered. The proportion of 4-water depends on the functional state of the cell determined by the culture medium composition. Normally, the proportion of 4-water in organelles is as high as 30% it is considerably lower in organelles of cells with inhibited metabolism.

  11. Detection, imaging, and kinetics of sub-micron organelles of chondrocytes by multiple beam interference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Medina, Honorio; Barboza, J. M.; Colantuoni, Gladys; Quintero, Maritza

    2004-07-01

    Chondrocytes, obtained from testosterone treated human articular cartilage, were examined by a recently developed Multiple Beam Interference Microscopy (MBIM) attached to a confocal set up, Video-enhanced differential interference microphotography and also by cinematography. In the MBIM, the intensity of the transmitted pattern is given by the Airy function which increases the contrast dramatically as the coefficient of the reflectance of the parallel plates increases. Moreover, in this configuration, the beam passes several times through a specific organelle and increases its optical path difference both because of the increase in the trajectory and refractive index (high density) of the organelle. The improved contrast enhances the resolving power of the system and makes visible several structural details of sub micron dimensions like nucleolus, retraction fibers, podia, etc. which are not possible to reveal with such a clarity by conventional techniques such as bright field, phase contrast or DIC. This technique permits to detect the oscillatory and rotational motions of unstained cilia for the first time. The frequency of oscillations was found to be 0.8 Hz.

  12. A novel organelle map framework for high-content cell morphology analysis in high throughput.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Kristine; Grossier, Jean-Philippe; Duong, Tarn; Chapuis, Violaine; Degot, Sébastien; Lescure, Aurianne; Del Nery, Elaine; Goud, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    A screening procedure was developed that takes advantage of the cellular normalization by micropatterning and a novel quantitative organelle mapping approach that allows unbiased and automated cell morphology comparison using black-box statistical testing. Micropatterns of extracellular matrix proteins force cells to adopt a reproducible shape and distribution of intracellular compartments avoiding strong cell-to-cell variation that is a major limitation of classical culture conditions. To detect changes in cell morphology induced by compound treatment, fluorescently labeled intracellular structures from several tens of micropatterned cells were transformed into probabilistic density maps. Then, the similarity or difference between two given density maps was quantified using statistical testing that evaluates differences directly from the data without additional analysis or any subjective decision. The versatility of this organelle mapping approach for different magnifications and its performance for different cell shapes has been assessed. Density-based analysis detected changes in cell morphology due to compound treatment in a small-scale proof-of-principle screen demonstrating its compatibility with high-throughput screening. This novel tool for high-content and high-throughput cellular phenotyping can potentially be used for a wide range of applications from drug screening to careful characterization of cellular processes.

  13. From endosymbiont to host-controlled organelle: the hijacking of mitochondrial protein synthesis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gabaldón, Toni; Huynen, Martijn A

    2007-11-01

    Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles that originated from the endosymbiosis of an alpha-proteobacterium. To gain insight into the evolution of the mitochondrial proteome as it proceeded through the transition from a free-living cell to a specialized organelle, we compared a reconstructed ancestral proteome of the mitochondrion with the proteomes of alpha-proteobacteria as well as with the mitochondrial proteomes in yeast and man. Overall, there has been a large turnover of the mitochondrial proteome during the evolution of mitochondria. Early in the evolution of the mitochondrion, proteins involved in cell envelope synthesis have virtually disappeared, whereas proteins involved in replication, transcription, cell division, transport, regulation, and signal transduction have been replaced by eukaryotic proteins. More than half of what remains from the mitochondrial ancestor in modern mitochondria corresponds to translation, including post-translational modifications, and to metabolic pathways that are directly, or indirectly, involved in energy conversion. Altogether, the results indicate that the eukaryotic host has hijacked the proto-mitochondrion, taking control of its protein synthesis and metabolism.

  14. A parafusin-related Toxoplasma protein in Ca2+-regulated secretory organelles.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, S H; Shenoy, S M; Kim, K; Singer, R H; Satir, B H

    2001-12-01

    We cloned a gene, PRPI, of Toxoplasma gondii encoding a 637-amino-acids protein having a calculated mass of 70 kDa. The sequence showed high homology to parafusin, a protein that in Paramecium tetraurelia participates in Ca2+-regulated exocytosis and is a paralog of phosphoglucomutase. We show that Toxoplasma gondii homogenate and an expressed recombinant PRP1 fusion protein cross-react with a specific peptide-derived antibody to parafusin in Western blots. Antibodies to the recombinant PRP1 showed cross-reaction with parafusin and recognized PRP1, as bands at M, 63 x 10(3) and 68 x 10(3), respectively. PRP1 is labeled when Toxoplasma gondii cells are incubated with inorganic 32P and appears as the major band on autoradiograms of SDS-PAGE gels. The localization of PRP1 was examined in secretory organelles of Toxoplasma gondii by deconvolution light microscopy followed by three dimensional reconstruction using pairwise combinations of specific antibodies. PRP1 localized to the apical third of the cell. It co-localized with micronemes, the only secretory organelle the secretion of which is Ca2+ dependent. Quantification of the co-localized stain suggests that only mature micronemes ready for exocytosis have PRP1. These findings suggest that PRP1, parafusin and other members of the phosphoglucomutase superfamily have a conserved role in Ca2+-regulated exocytic processes.

  15. Massive and Widespread Organelle Genomic Expansion in the Green Algal Genus Dunaliella

    PubMed Central

    Del Vasto, Michael; Figueroa-Martinez, Francisco; Featherston, Jonathan; González, Mariela A.; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Durand, Pierre M.; Smith, David Roy

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of chlamydomonadalean green algae are renowned for their highly reduced and conserved gene repertoires, which are almost fixed at 12 genes across the entire lineage. The sizes of these genomes, however, are much more variable, with some species having small, compact mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) and others having expanded ones. Earlier work demonstrated that the halophilic genus Dunaliella contains extremely inflated organelle genomes, but to date the mtDNA of only one isolate has been explored. Here, by surveying mtDNA architecture across the Chlamydomonadales, we show that various Dunaliella species have undergone massive levels of mitochondrial genomic expansion, harboring the most inflated, intron-dense mtDNAs available from chlorophyte green algae. The same also appears to be true for their plastid genomes, which are potentially among the largest of all plastid-containing eukaryotes. Genetic divergence data are used to investigate the underlying causes of such extreme organelle genomic architectures, and ultimately reveal order-of-magnitude differences in mitochondrial versus plastid mutation rates within Dunaliella. PMID:25663488

  16. Propeptides of eukaryotic proteases encode histidines to exploit organelle pH for regulation.

    PubMed

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M; Krishnamoorthy, Bala; Shinde, Ujwal

    2013-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells maintain strict control over protein secretion, in part by using the pH gradient maintained within their secretory pathway. How eukaryotic proteins evolved from prokaryotic orthologs to exploit the pH gradient for biological functions remains a fundamental question in cell biology. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that protein domains located within precursor proteins, propeptides, encode histidine-driven pH sensors to regulate organelle-specific activation of the eukaryotic proteases furin and proprotein convertase-1/3. Similar findings have been reported in other unrelated protease families. By analyzing >10,000 unique proteases within evolutionarily unrelated families, we show that eukaryotic propeptides are enriched in histidines compared with prokaryotic orthologs. On this basis, we hypothesize that eukaryotic proteins evolved to enrich histidines within their propeptides to exploit the tightly controlled pH gradient of the secretory pathway, thereby regulating activation within specific organelles. Enrichment of histidines in propeptides may therefore be used to predict the presence of pH sensors in other proteases or even protease substrates.

  17. The presence of gonadotropin binding sites in the intracellular organelles of human ovaries.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V; Mitra, S; Sanfilippo, J; Carman, F R

    1981-03-15

    The nuclei (N), plasma membranes (PM), mitochondria-lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and combined (light, medium, and heavy) Golgi (G) fractions were isolated from human ovaries. The purities of these fractions were evaluated by assays of appropriate marker enzymes, which revealed that some fractions were very pure but that others had minor contamination. When tested, all of the fractions exhibited 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin (125I-hCG)-specific binding. This intracellular 125I-hCG binding was not due to PM contamination because: (1) N, which had no detectable 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NE) activity, a marker for PM, exhibited 125I-hCG-specific binding; (2) the G, which had only a fraction of the 5'-NE activity of PM, exhibited as much binding as PM; and (3) the ratios between specific 125I-hCG binding and 5'-NE activity in other fractions were not the same as for PM. They should have been the same if PM contamination was responsible for the 125I-hCG binding observed in other organelles. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gonadotropin-binding sites are present in various intracellular organelles as well as in PM of human ovaries.

  18. The Neurospora organelle motor: a distant relative of conventional kinesin with unconventional properties.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, G; Schliwa, M

    1995-01-01

    The "conventional" kinesins comprise a conserved family of molecular motors for organelle transport that have been identified in various animal species. Organelle motors from other phyla have not yet been analyzed at the molecular level. Here we report the identification, biochemical and immunological characterization, and molecular cloning of a cytoplasmic motor in a "lower" eukaryote, the Ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa. This motor, termed Nkin (for Neurospora kinesin), exhibits several unique structural and functional features, including a high rate of microtubule transport, a lack of copurifying light chains, a second P-loop motif, and an overall sequence organization reminiscent of a kinesin-like protein. However, a greater than average sequence homology in the motor domain and the presence of a highly conserved region in the C-terminus identify Nkin as a distant relative of the family of conventional kinesins. A molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests Nkin to have diverged early in the evolution of this family of motors. The discovery of Nkin may help identify domains important for specific biological functions in conventional kinesins. Images PMID:8589459

  19. Multiclassifier combinatorial proteomics of organelle shadows at the example of mitochondria in chromatin data.

    PubMed

    Kustatscher, Georg; Grabowski, Piotr; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-02-01

    Subcellular localization is an important aspect of protein function, but the protein composition of many intracellular compartments is poorly characterized. For example, many nuclear bodies are challenging to isolate biochemically and thus remain inaccessible to proteomics. Here, we explore covariation in proteomics data as an alternative route to subcellular proteomes. Rather than targeting a structure of interest biochemically, we target it by machine learning. This becomes possible by taking data obtained for one organelle and searching it for traces of another organelle. As an extreme example and proof-of-concept we predict mitochondrial proteins based on their covariation in published interphase chromatin data. We detect about ⅓ of the known mitochondrial proteins in our chromatin data, presumably most as contaminants. However, these proteins are not present at random. We show covariation of mitochondrial proteins in chromatin proteomics data. We then exploit this covariation by multiclassifier combinatorial proteomics to define a list of mitochondrial proteins. This list agrees well with different databases on mitochondrial composition. This benchmark test raises the possibility that, in principle, covariation proteomics may also be applicable to structures for which no biochemical isolation procedures are available.

  20. Mitochondrial dynamics controlled by mitofusins define organelle positioning and movement during mouse oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Takuya; Harada, Yuichirou; Miyado, Kenji; Kono, Tomohiro

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are abundant in fully grown mammalian oocytes with a unique spherical morphology, but the mechanisms controlling mitochondria behavior are not well understood. Here we describe for the first time the control of mitochondrial behavior in mouse oocytes by a fusion/fission mechanism. Mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and OPA1 proteins are required for outer and inner mitochondrial membrane fusion, respectively, whereas Drp1 is the key regulator of mitochondrial fission. We show that mouse oocytes express the Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Drp1 proteins, both in immature and mature oocytes at similar levels. Overexpression of Mfn1 or Mfn2 causes marked mitochondrial aggregation, particularly in the perinuclear region during meiotic progression. Tracking of mitochondria with chromosomes or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) throughout oocyte maturation demonstrates that Mfn1 and Mfn2-promoted mitochondrial aggregation disturbs the spatiotemporal dynamic of the chromosomes and ER, respectively. Our findings suggest that organelle dynamics are co-ordinately controlled during meiotic division, and an imbalance of mitochondrial fusion/fission leads to disorganization of the organelle compartments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.